WorldWideScience

Sample records for grb nerr meteorological

  1. Water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data collected by the the National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP), 1994 - 2005 (NODC Accession 0019215)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) collected water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data in 25...

  2. Water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data collected by the the National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) from January 1, 1995 to August 1, 2011 (NODC Accession 0052765)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) collected water quality, meteorological, and nutrient data in 26...

  3. 2017 NOAA/OCM Unmanned Aerial System Lidar: Grand Bay NERR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial (QSI) and PrecisionHawk (PH) collected lidar for test sites within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) using an unmanned aerial...

  4. 2017 NOAA/OCM Unmanned Aerial System Lidar DEM: Grand Bay NERR

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Quantum Spatial (QSI) and PrecisionHawk (PH) collected lidar for test sites within the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) using an unmanned aerial...

  5. GRB 051008

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volnova, A. A.; Pozanenko, A. S.; Gorosabel, J.

    2014-01-01

    due to the presence of a clear, strong Lyman-break feature. The host galaxy is a small starburst galaxy with moderate intrinsic extinction (AV = 0.3) and has a star formation rate of ∼60 M⊙ yr−1 typical for LBGs. It is one of the few cases where a GRB host has been found to be a classical LBG. Using...

  6. Water quality data collected by the the National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP), 1996 - 1998 (NODC Accession 0000789)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Estuarine Research Reserve System's System-wide Monitoring Program (NERRS SWMP) collected water quality data in 22 reserves in the United States and...

  7. Molecular Approach to Microbiological Examination of Water Quality in the Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) in Mississippi, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kishinhi, Stephen S; Tchounwou, Paul B; Farah, Ibrahim O

    2013-01-01

    Grand Bay National Estuarine Research Reserve (NERR) is an important ecosystem in the Mississippi Gulf Coast. It serves as important nursery areas for juveniles of many species of fish. The bay is also used for fishing, crabbing, oyster togging, boating as well as recreation. Like in other aquatic environments, this bay may be contaminated by microorganisms including pathogenic bacteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of water in the Grand Bay NERR and determine the levels and potential source(s) of human fecal pollution. To achieve this goal, water samples were collected aseptically every month in Bayou Heron, Bayou Cumbest, Point Aux Chenes Bay and Bangs Lake. Enterococci were concentrated from water samples by membrane filtration according to the methodology outlined in USEPA Method 1600. After incubation, DNA was extracted from bacteria colonies on the membrane filters by using QIAamp DNA extraction kit. Water samples were also tested for the presence of traditional indicator bacteria including: heterotrophic plate count, total coliforms, fecal coliforms, and Enterococcus bacteria. The marker esp gene was detected in one site of Bayou Cumbest, an area where human populations reside. Data from this study indicates higher concentrations of indicator bacteria compared to the recommended acceptable levels. Presence of esp marker and high numbers of indicator bacteria suggest a public health concern for shellfish and water contact activities. Hence, control strategies should be developed and implemented to prevent further contamination of the Grand bay NERR waters.

  8. GRB 170817A: a short GRB seen off-axis

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Xin-Bo; Tam, Pak-Hin Thomas; Shen, Rong-Feng

    2018-04-01

    The angular distribution of gamma-ray burst (GRB) jets is not yet clear. The observed luminosity of GRB 170817A is the lowest among all known short GRBs, which is best explained by the fact that our line of sight is outside of the jet opening angle, θ obs > θ j , where θ obs is the angle between our line of sight and the jet axis. As inferred by gravitational wave observations, as well as radio and X-ray afterglow modeling of GRB 170817A, it is likely that θ obs ∼ 20° – 28°. In this work, we quantitatively consider two scenarios of angular energy distribution of GRB ejecta: a top-hat jet and a structured jet with a power law index s. For the top-hat jet model, we get a large θ j (e.g., θ j > 10°), a rather high local (i.e., z 7.5 × 104, keV (∼500, keV for a typical short GRB). For the structured jet model, we use θ obs to give limits on s and θj for typical on-axis luminosity of a short GRB (e.g., 1049 erg s‑1 ∼ 1051 erg s‑1), and a low on-axis luminosity case (e.g., 1049 erg s‑1) gives more reasonable values of s. The structured jet model is more feasible for GRB 170817A than the top-hat jet model due to the rather high local short GRB rate, and the extremely high on-axis E peak,0 almost rules out the top-hat jet model. GRB 170817A is likely a low on-axis luminosity GRB (1049 erg s‑1) with a structured jet.

  9. How Special Is GRB 170817A?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Chuan; Hu, Qian; Zhang, Fu-Wen; Liang, Yun-Feng; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2018-01-01

    GRB 170817A is the first short gamma-ray burst (GRB) with direct detection of the gravitational-wave radiation and also the spectroscopically identified macronova emission (i.e., AT 2017gfo). The prompt emission of this burst, however, is underluminous in comparison with the other short GRBs with known redshift. In this work, we examine whether GRB 170817A is indeed unique. We first show that GRB 130603B/macronova may be the on-axis “analogs” of GRB 170817A/AT 2017gfo, and the extremely dim but long-lasting afterglow emission of GRB 170817A may suggest a low number density (∼ {10}-5 {{cm}}-3) of its circumburst medium and a structured outflow. We then discuss whether GRB 070923, GRB 080121, GRB 090417A, GRB 111005A, and GRB 170817A form a new group of very nearby underluminous GRBs originated from neutron star mergers. If the short events GRB 070923, GRB 080121, and GRB 090417A are indeed at a redshift of ∼ 0.076, 0.046, 0.088, respectively, their isotropic energies of the prompt emission are ∼ {10}47 erg and thus comparable to the other two events. The non-detection of optical counterparts of GRB 070923, GRB 080121, GRB 090417A, and GRB 111005A, however, strongly suggests that the macronovae from neutron star mergers are significantly diverse in luminosities or, alternatively, there is another origin channel (for instance, the white dwarf and black hole mergers). We finally suggest that GW170817/GRB 170817A are likely not alone and similar events will be detected by the upgraded/upcoming gravitational-wave detectors and the electromagnetic monitors.

  10. The latest two GRB detected by Hete-2: GRB 051022 and GRB 051028

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Jelinek, M.; Pandey, S. B.; Ugarte Postigo, A. de; Gorosabel, J.; McBreen, S.; Bremer, M.; Guziy, S.; Bihain, G.; Caballero, J. A.; Ferrero, P.; Jong, J de; Misra, K.; Sahu, D. K.

    2006-01-01

    We present multiwavelength observations of the latest two GRB detected by Hete-2 in 2005. For GRB 051022, no optical/nIR afterglow has been detected, in spite of the strong gamma-ray emission and the reported X-ray afterglow discovered by Swift. A mm afterglow was discovered at PdB confirming the association of this event with a luminous (MV = - 21.5) galaxy within the X-ray error box. Spectroscopy of this galaxy shows strong a strong [O II] emission line at z = 0.807, besides weaker [O III] emission. The X-ray spectrum showed evidence of considerable absorption by neutral gas with NH,X-ray = 4.5 x 1022 cm2 (at rest frame). ISM absorption by dust in the host galaxy at z = 0.807 cannot certainly account for the non-detection of the optical afterglow, unless the dust-to-gas ratio is quite different than that seen in our Galaxy. It is possible then that GRB 051022 was produced in an obscured, stellar forming region in its parent host galaxy.For GRB 051028, the data can be interpreted by collimated emission (a jet model with p = 2.4) moving in an homogeneous ISM and with a cooling frequency vc still above the X-rays at 0.5 days after the burst onset. GRB 051028 can be classified as a 'gray' or 'potentially dark' GRB. The Swift/XRT data are consistent with the interpretation that the reason for the optical dimness is not extra absorption in the host galaxy, but rather the GRB taking place at high-redshift

  11. GRB 030227: The first multiwavelength afterglow of an INTEGRAL GRB

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.; Guziy, S.

    2003-01-01

    We present multiwavelength observations of a gamma-ray burst detected by INTEGRAL (GRB 030227) between 5.3 hours and similar to1.7 days after the event. Here we report the discovery of a dim optical afterglow (OA) that would not have been detected by many previous searches due to its faintess (R ...

  12. Grb7 binds to Hax-1 and undergoes an intramolecular domain association that offers a model for Grb7 regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Siamakpour-Reihani, Sharareh; Peterson, Tabitha A.; Bradford, Andrew M.; Argiros, Haroula J.; Haas, Laura Lowell; Lor, Siamee N.; Haulsee, Zachary M.; Spuches, Anne M.; Johnson, Dennis L.; Rohrschneider, Larry R.; Shuster, Charles Brad; Lyons, Barbara A.

    2011-01-01

    Adaptor proteins mediate signal transduction from cell surface receptors to downstream signaling pathways. The Grb7 protein family of adaptor proteins is constituted by Grb7, Grb10, and Grb14. This protein family has been shown to be overexpressed in certain cancers and cancer cell lines. Grb7-mediated cell migration has been shown to proceed through a focal adhesion kinase (FAK)/Grb7 pathway, although the specific participants downstream of Grb7 in cell migration signaling have not been full...

  13. Motivational Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin, Lee

    1993-01-01

    Describes an introductory meteorology course for nonacademic high school students. The course is made hands-on by the use of an educational software program offered by Accu-Weather. The program contains a meteorology database and instructional modules. (PR)

  14. Study of WATCH GRB error boxes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Lund, Niels

    1995-01-01

    We have studied the first WATCH GRB Catalogue ofγ-ray Bursts in order to find correlations between WATCH GRB error boxes and a great variety of celestial objects present in 33 different catalogues. No particular class of objects has been found to be significantly correlated with the WATCH GRBs....

  15. The ultraluminous GRB 110918A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frederiks, D. D.; Svinkin, D. S.; Pal'shin, V. D.; Aptekar, R. L.; Golenetskii, S. V.; Mazets, E. P.; Oleynik, Ph. P.; Tsvetkova, A. E.; Ulanov, M. V.; Kokomov, A. A.; Hurley, K.; Mangano, V.; Burrows, D. N.; Sbarufatti, B.; Siegel, M. H.; Oates, S.; Cline, T. L.; Krimm, H. A.; Pagani, C.; Mitrofanov, I. G.

    2013-01-01

    GRB 110918A is the brightest long gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Konus-WIND during its almost 19 yr of continuous observations and the most luminous GRB ever observed since the beginning of the cosmological era in 1997. We report on the final Interplanetary Network localization of this event and its detailed multiwavelength study with a number of space-based instruments. The prompt emission is characterized by a typical duration, a moderate peak energy of the time-integrated spectrum, and strong hard-to-soft evolution. The high observed energy fluence yields, at z = 0.984, a huge isotropic-equivalent energy release E iso = (2.1 ± 0.1) × 10 54 erg. The record-breaking energy flux observed at the peak of the short, bright, hard initial pulse results in an unprecedented isotropic-equivalent luminosity L iso = (4.7 ± 0.2) × 10 54 erg s –1 . A tail of the soft γ-ray emission was detected with temporal and spectral behavior typical of that predicted by the synchrotron forward-shock model. The Swift/X-Ray Telescope and the Swift/Ultraviolet Optical Telescope observed the bright afterglow from 1.2 to 48 days after the burst and revealed no evidence of a jet break. The post-break scenario for the afterglow is preferred from our analysis, with a hard underlying electron spectrum and interstellar-medium-like circumburst environment implied. We conclude that, among the multiple reasons investigated, the tight collimation of the jet must have been a key ingredient to produce this unusually bright burst. The inferred jet opening angle of 1.°7-3.°4 results in reasonable values of the collimation-corrected radiated energy and the peak luminosity, which, however, are still at the top of their distributions for such tightly collimated events. We estimate a detection horizon for a similar ultraluminous GRB of z ∼ 7.5 for Konus-WIND and z ∼ 12 for the Swift/Burst Alert Telescope, which stresses the importance of GRBs as probes of the early Universe.

  16. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb14 by Tie2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dumont Daniel J

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Growth factor receptor bound (Grb proteins 7, 10 and 14 are a family of structurally related multi-domain adaptor proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. Grb7, 10 and 14 are known to become serine and/or threonine phosphorylated in response to growth factor (GF stimulation. Grb7 and 10 have also been shown to become tyrosine phosphorylated under certain conditions. Under experimental conditions Grb7 is tyrosine phosphorylated by the Tie2/Tie-2/Tek angiogenic receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK. Furthermore, Grb14 has also been shown to interact with Tie2, however tyrosine phosphorylation of this Grb family member has yet to be reported. Results Here we report for the first time tyrosine phosphorylation of Grb14. This phosphorylation requires a kinase competent Tie2 as well as intact tyrosines 1100 and 1106 (Y1100 and Y1106 on the receptor. Furthermore, a complete SH2 domain on Grb14 is required for Grb14 tyrosine phosphorylation by Tie2. Grb14 was also able to become tyrosine phosphorylated in primary endothelial cells when treated with a soluble and potent variant of the Tie2 ligand, cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP Ang1. Conclusion Our results show that Grb14, like its family members Grb7 and Grb10, is able to be tyrosine phosphorylated. Furthermore, our data indicate a role for Grb14 in endothelial signaling downstream of the Tie2 receptor.

  17. Meteorological Summaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Multi-year summaries of one or more meteorological elements at a station or in a state. Primarily includes Form 1078, a United States Weather Bureau form designed...

  18. Meteorology Online.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan D. W.

    2001-01-01

    Describes an activity to learn about meteorology and weather using the internet. Discusses the National Weather Service (NWS) internet site www.weather.gov. Students examine maximum and minimum daily temperatures, wind speed, and direction. (SAH)

  19. GRB 111005A at z = 0.0133 and the Prospect of Establishing Long-Short GRB/GW Association

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Huang, Yong-Jia; Liang, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiang; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Zhang, Fu-Wen; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2017-12-01

    GRB 111005A, a long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) that occurred within a metal-rich environment that lacks massive stars with {M}{ZAMS}≥slant 15 {M}⊙ , is not coincident with supernova emission down to a stringent limit and thus should be classified as a “long-short” GRB (lsGRB; also known as an SN-less long GRB or hybrid GRB), like GRB 060505 and GRB 060614. In this work, we show that in the neutron star merger model the non-detection of the optical/infrared emission of GRB 111005A requires sub-relativistic neutron-rich ejecta with a mass of ≤slant 0.01 {M}⊙ , which is (significantly) less massive than that of GRB 130603B, GRB 060614, GRB 050709, and GRB 170817A. The lsGRBs are found to have a high rate density and the neutron star merger origin model can be unambiguously tested by the joint observations of the second-generation gravitational-wave (GW) detectors and the full-sky gamma-ray monitors such as Fermi-GBM and the proposed GECAM. If no lsGRB/GW association is observed in the 2020s, alternative scenarios have to be systematically investigated. With the detailed environmental information achievable for the nearby events, a novel kind of merger or explosion origin may be identified.

  20. GRB 070610: A Curious Galactic Transient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Cameron, P. B.; Nakar, E.; Ofek, E. O.; Rau, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Campana, S.; Bloom, J. S.; Perley, D. A.; Pollack, L. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.; Krimm, H. A.; Markwardt, C. B.; Sato, G.; Chandra, P.; Frail, D.; Fox, D. B.; Price, P. A.; Berger, E.; Grebenev, S. A.; Krivonos, R. A.; Sunyaev, R. A.

    2008-05-01

    GRB 070610 is a typical high-energy event with a duration of 5 s. Yet within the burst localization we detect a highly unusual X-ray and optical transient, Swift J195509.6+261406. We see high-amplitude X-ray and optical variability on very short timescales even at late times. Using near-infrared imaging assisted by a laser guide star and adaptive optics, we identified the counterpart of Swift J195509.6+261406. Late-time optical and near-infrared imaging constrain the spectral type of the counterpart to be fainter than a K-dwarf, assuming it is of Galactic origin. It is possible that GRB 070610 and Swift J195509.6+261406 are unrelated sources. However, the absence of a typical X-ray afterglow from GRB 070610 in conjunction with the spatial and temporal coincidence of the two motivate us to suggest that the sources are related. The closest (imperfect) analog to Swift J195509.6+261406 is V4641 Sgr, an unusual black hole binary. We suggest that Swift J195509.6+261406 along with V4641 Sgr define a subclass of stellar black hole binaries—the fast X-ray novae. We further suggest that fast X-ray novae are associated with bursts of gamma rays. If so, GRB 070610 defines a new class of celestial gamma-ray bursts and these bursts dominate the long-duration GRB demographics.

  1. GRB 080913 at redshift 6.7

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greiner, J.; Krühler, T.; Fynbo, J. P. U.

    2009-01-01

    We report on the detection by Swift of GRB 080913, and subsequent optical/near-infrared follow-up observations by GROND, which led to the discovery of its optical/NIR afterglow and the recognition of its high-z nature via the detection of a spectral break between the i' and z' bands. Spectroscopy...... obtained at the ESO-VLT revealed a continuum extending down to ¿ = 9400 Å, and zero flux for 7500 Åinterpret as the onset of a Gunn-Peterson trough at z = 6.695± 0.025 (95.5% confidence level), making GRB 080913 the highest-redshift gamma-ray burst (GRB) to date, and more distant than...

  2. GRB 110731A within the IGC paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Primorac Daria

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bright gamma-ray burst (GRB 110731A was simultaneously observed by Fermi and Swift observatories, with a follow up optical observation which inferred the redshift of z = 2.83. Thus, available data are spanning from optical to high energy (GeV emission. We analyze these data within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC paradigm, recently introduced to explain temporal coincidence of some long GRBs with type Ic supernovae. The case of binary-driven hypcrnova (BdHN assumes a close system, which starts as an evolved core - neutron star binary. After the core-collapse event, the new NS - black hole system is formed, emitting the GRB in the process. We performed the time-resolved and time-integrated analysis of the Fermi data. Preliminary results gave isotropic energy Eiso = 6.05 × 1053 erg and the total P-GRB energy of Ep–GRB = 3.7 × 1052 erg. At transparency point we found a Lorentz factor Γ ~ 2.17 × 103 laboratory radius of 8.33 x 1013 cm, P-GRB observed temperature of 168 keV and a baryon load B = 4.35 × 10-4. Simulated light-curve and prompt emission spectra showed the average circum burst medium density to be n ~ 0.03 particles per cm3. We reproduced the X-ray light-curve within the rest-frame of the source, finding the common late power-law behavior, with α = –1.22. Considering these results, we interpret GRB 110731A as a member of a BdHNe group.

  3. GRB 110731A within the IGC paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primorac, Daria; Ruffini, Remo; Pisani, Giovanni Battista; Aimuratov, Yerlan; Biancol, Carlo Luciano; Karlica, Mile; Melon Fuksman, Julio David; Moradi, Rahim; Muccino, Marco; Penacchioni, Ana Virginia; Rueda, Jorge Armando; Wang, Yu

    2018-01-01

    Bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 110731A was simultaneously observed by Fermi and Swift observatories, with a follow up optical observation which inferred the redshift of z = 2.83. Thus, available data are spanning from optical to high energy (GeV) emission. We analyze these data within the induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm, recently introduced to explain temporal coincidence of some long GRBs with type Ic supernovae. The case of binary-driven hypcrnova (BdHN) assumes a close system, which starts as an evolved core - neutron star binary. After the core-collapse event, the new NS - black hole system is formed, emitting the GRB in the process. We performed the time-resolved and time-integrated analysis of the Fermi data. Preliminary results gave isotropic energy Eiso = 6.05 × 1053 erg and the total P-GRB energy of Ep-GRB = 3.7 × 1052 erg. At transparency point we found a Lorentz factor Γ 2.17 × 103 laboratory radius of 8.33 x 1013 cm, P-GRB observed temperature of 168 keV and a baryon load B = 4.35 × 10-4. Simulated light-curve and prompt emission spectra showed the average circum burst medium density to be n 0.03 particles per cm3. We reproduced the X-ray light-curve within the rest-frame of the source, finding the common late power-law behavior, with α = -1.22. Considering these results, we interpret GRB 110731A as a member of a BdHNe group.

  4. Dimerization in the Grb7 Protein

    OpenAIRE

    Peterson, Tabitha A.; Benallie, Renee L.; Bradford, Andrew M.; Pias, Sally C.; Yazzie, Jaron.; Lor, Siamee N.; Haulsee, Zachary M.; Park, Chad K.; Johnson, Dennis L.; Rohrschneider, Larry R.; Spuches, Anne.; Lyons, Barbara A.

    2012-01-01

    In previous studies, we showed that the tyrosine phosphorylation state of growth factor receptor–bound protein 7 (Grb7) affects its ability to bind to the transcription regulator FHL2 and the cortactin-interacting protein, human HS-1-associated protein-1. Here, we present results describing the importance of dimerization in the Grb7–Src homology 2 (SH2) domain in terms of its structural integrity and the ability to bind phosphorylated tyrosine peptide ligands. A tyrosine phosphorylation-mimic...

  5. Short GRB afterglows observed with GROND

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nicuesa Guelbenzu, A.; Klose, S.; Rossi, A.

    2013-01-01

    We report on follow-up observations of 20 short-duration gamma-ray bursts (T90 < 2s) performed in g′r′i′z′JHK s with the Gamma-Ray Burst Optical Near-Infrared Detector (GROND) between mid-2007 and the end of 2010. This is the most homogeneous and comprehensive data set on GRB afterglow observatio...

  6. Gas Kinematics in GRB Host Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam

    towards a relation between gas kinematics and mass. This also provides information on how the metallicities measured from absorption and emission methods differ from each other. Finally, in a direct study I show that gas velocity widths in both phases can be used as a proxy of stellar mass...... that their interstellar media imprint on the GRBs’ spectra. Hence they are invaluable tools to probe the star formation history of the Universe back to the earliest cosmic epochs. To this end, it is essential to achieve a comprehensive picture of the interplay between star formation and its fuel, neutral gas, in GRB...... simultaneously with a high velocity resolution. For the large GRB sample, I find the spatially averaged velocity to correlate with metallicity in both gas phases. This is an indicator of a mass-metallicity relation. Moreover, the velocity widths in the two gas phases correlate with each other which too points...

  7. Possible GRB Observation with the MAGIC Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastieri, D.; Bigongiari, C.; Mariotti, M.; Peruzzo, L.; Saggion, A.

    2001-08-01

    The MAGIC Telescope, with its reflecting parabolic dish of 17 m of diameter and its careful design of a robust, lightweight, alto-azimuthal mount, is an ideal detector for GRB phenomena. The telescope is an air Cherenkov telescope that, even in the first phase, equipped with standard PMTs, can reach an energy threshold below 30 GeV. The threshold is going to drop well below 10 GeV in the envisaged second phase, when chamber PMTs will be substituted by high quantum efficiency APDs. The telescope can promptly respond to GRB alerts coming, for instance, from GCN, and can reposition itself in less than 30 seconds, 20 seconds being the time to turn half a round for the azimuth bearing. In this report, the effective area of the detector as a function of energy and zenith angle is taken into account, in order to evaluate the expected yearly occurrence and the response to different kinds of GRBs.

  8. Meteorological instrumentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-06-01

    RFS or ''Regles Fondamentales de Surete'' (Basic Safety Rules) applicable to certain types of nuclear facilities lay down requirements with which compliance, for the type of facilities and within the scope of application covered by the RFS, is considered to be equivalent to compliance with technical French regulatory practice. The object of the RFS is to take advantage of standardization in the field of safety , while allowing for technical progress in that field. They are designed to enable the operating utility and contractors to know the rules pertaining to various subjects which are considered to be acceptable by the ''Service Central de Surete des Installations Nucleaires'' or the SCSIN (Central Department for the Safety of Nuclear Facilities). These RFS should make safety analysis easier and lead to better understanding between experts and individuals concerned with the problems of nuclear safety. The SCSIN reserves the right to modify, when considered necessary any RFS and specify, if need be, the terms under which a modification is deemed retroactive. The purpose of this RFS is to specify the meteorological instrumentation required at the site of each nuclear power plant equipped with at least one pressurized water reactor

  9. Airline meteorological requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandler, C. L.; Pappas, J.

    1985-01-01

    A brief review of airline meteorological/flight planning is presented. The effects of variations in meteorological parameters upon flight and operational costs are reviewed. Flight path planning through the use of meteorological information is briefly discussed.

  10. GRB 030329: 3 years of radio afterglow monitoring

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Horst, A.J.; Kamble, A.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Resmi, L.; Bhattacharya, D.; Rol, E.; Strom, R.; Kouveliotou, C.; Oosterloo, T.; Ishwara-Chandra, C.H.

    2007-01-01

    Radio observations of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows are essential for our understanding of the physics of relativistic blast waves, as they enable us to follow the evolution of GRB explosions much longer than the afterglows in any other wave band. We have performed a three-year monitoring

  11. The sub-energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 031203 as a cosmic analogue to the nearby GRB 980425.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderberg, A M; Kulkarni, S R; Berger, E; Fox, D W; Sako, M; Frail, D A; Gal-Yam, A; Moon, D S; Cenko, S B; Yost, S A; Phillips, M M; Persson, S E; Freedman, W L; Wyatt, P; Jayawardhana, R; Paulson, D

    2004-08-05

    Over the six years since the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980425, which was associated with the nearby (distance approximately 40 Mpc) supernova 1998bw, astronomers have debated fiercely the nature of this event. Relative to bursts located at cosmological distance (redshift z approximately 1), GRB 980425 was under-luminous in gamma-rays by three orders of magnitude. Radio calorimetry showed that the explosion was sub-energetic by a factor of 10. Here we report observations of the radio and X-ray afterglow of the recent GRB 031203 (refs 5-7), which has a redshift of z = 0.105. We demonstrate that it too is sub-energetic which, when taken together with the low gamma-ray luminosity, suggests that GRB 031203 is the first cosmic analogue to GRB 980425. We find no evidence that this event was a highly collimated explosion viewed off-axis. Like GRB 980425, GRB 031203 appears to be an intrinsically sub-energetic gamma-ray burst. Such sub-energetic events have faint afterglows. We expect intensive follow-up of faint bursts with smooth gamma-ray light curves (common to both GRB 031203 and 980425) to reveal a large population of such events.

  12. The Structure and Dynamics of GRB Jets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granot, Jonathan; /KIPAC, Menlo Park

    2006-10-25

    There are several lines of evidence which suggest that the relativistic outflows in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are collimated into narrow jets. The jet structure has important implications for the true energy release and the event rate of GRBs, and can constrain the mechanism responsible for the acceleration and collimation of the jet. Nevertheless, the jet structure and its dynamics as it sweeps up the external medium and decelerates, are not well understood. In this review I discuss our current understanding of GRB jets, stressing their structure and dynamics.

  13. GRB 070610: a curious galactic transient

    OpenAIRE

    Kasliwal, M. M.; Cenko, S. B.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Cameron, P. B.; Nakar, E.; Ofek, E. O.; Rau, A.; Soderberg, A. M.; Campana, S.; Bloom, J. S.; Perley, D. A.; Pollack, L. K.; Barthelmy, S.; Cummings, J.; Gehrels, N.

    2008-01-01

    GRB 070610 is a typical high-energy event with a duration of 5 s. Yet within the burst localization we detect a highly unusual X-ray and optical transient, Swift J195509.6+261406. We see high-amplitude X-ray and optical variability on very short timescales even at late times. Using near-infrared imaging assisted by a laser guide star and adaptive optics, we identified the counterpart of Swift J195509.6+261406. Late-time optical and near-infrared imaging constrain the spectral type of the coun...

  14. A binary neutron star GRB model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Salmonson, J.D.; Wilson, J.R.; Mathews, G.J.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present the preliminary results of a model for the production of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) through the compressional heating of binary neutron stars near their last stable orbit prior to merger. Recent numerical studies of the general relativistic (GR) hydrodynamics in three spatial dimensions of close neutron star binaries (NSBs) have uncovered evidence for the compression and heating of the individual neutron stars (NSs) prior to merger 12. This effect will have significant effect on the production of gravitational waves, neutrinos and, ultimately, energetic photons. The study of the production of these photons in close NSBs and, in particular, its correspondence to observed GRBs is the subject of this paper. The gamma-rays arise as follows. Compressional heating causes the neutron stars to emit neutrino pairs which, in turn, annihilate to produce a hot electron-positron pair plasma. This pair-photon plasma expands rapidly until it becomes optically thin, at which point the photons are released. We show that this process can indeed satisfy three basic requirements of a model for cosmological gamma-ray bursts: (1) sufficient gamma-ray energy release (>10 51 ergs) to produce observed fluxes, (2) a time-scale of the primary burst duration consistent with that of a 'classical' GRB (∼10 seconds), and (3) the peak of the photon number spectrum matches that of 'classical' GRB (∼300 keV). copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics

  15. The host galaxy of GRB 990712

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, L.; Hjorth, J.; Gorosabel, J.

    2004-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the z = 0.43 host galaxy of GRB 990712, involving ground-based photometry, spectroscopy, and HST imaging. The broad-band UBVRIJHKs photometry is used to determine the global spectral energy distribution (SED) of the host galaxy. Comparison with that of known...... galaxy types shows that the host is similar to a moderately kreddened starburst galaxy with a young stellar population. The estimated internal extinction in the host is A(V) = 0.15 +/- 0.1 and the star-formation rate (SFR) from the UV continuum is 1.3 +/- 0.3 M-circle dot yr(-1) (not corrected...... for the effects of extinction). Other galaxy template spectra than starbursts failed to reproduce the observed SED. We also present VLT spectra leading to the detection of Halpha from the GRB host galaxy. A SFR of 2.8 +/- 0.7 M-circle dot yr(-1) is inferred from the Halpha line flux, and the presence of a young...

  16. The Macronova in GRB 050709 and the GRB-macronova connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Zhi-Ping; Hotokezaka, Kenta; Li, Xiang; Tanaka, Masaomi; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Covino, Stefano; Wei, Da-Ming; Piran, Tsvi

    2016-01-01

    GRB 050709 was the first short Gamma-ray Burst (sGRB) with an identified optical counterpart. Here we report a reanalysis of the publicly available data of this event and the discovery of a Li-Paczynski macronova/kilonova that dominates the optical/infrared signal at t>2.5 days. Such a signal would arise from 0.05 r-process material launched by a compact binary merger. The implied mass ejection supports the suggestion that compact binary mergers are significant and possibly main sites of heavy r-process nucleosynthesis. Furthermore, we have reanalysed all afterglow data from nearby short and hybrid GRBs (shGRBs). A statistical study of shGRB/macronova connection reveals that macronova may have taken place in all these GRBs, although the fraction as low as 0.18 cannot be ruled out. The identification of two of the three macronova candidates in the I-band implies a more promising detection prospect for ground-based surveys. PMID:27659791

  17. Fermi Observation of GRB 080916C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piron, F.

    2009-01-01

    We present the observations of the long-duration Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 080916C by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT). This event was observed from 8 keV to a photon with an energy of 13.2 GeV. It develops over a 1400 s interval during which the highest number of photons with energy above 100 MeV are detected from a burst. The onset of the high-energy (>100 MeV) emission is delayed by ∼4.5 s with respect to the low-energy (<1 MeV) emission, which is not detected past 200 s. The broad-band spectrum of the burst is consistent with a single spectral form.

  18. The Accuracy of GBM GRB Localizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Michael Stephen; Connaughton, V.; Meegan, C.; Hurley, K.

    2010-03-01

    We report an study of the accuracy of GBM GRB localizations, analyzing three types of localizations: those produced automatically by the GBM Flight Software on board GBM, those produced automatically with ground software in near real time, and localizations produced with human guidance. The two types of automatic locations are distributed in near real-time via GCN Notices; the human-guided locations are distributed on timescale of many minutes or hours using GCN Circulars. This work uses a Bayesian analysis that models the distribution of the GBM total location error by comparing GBM locations to more accurate locations obtained with other instruments. Reference locations are obtained from Swift, Super-AGILE, the LAT, and with the IPN. We model the GBM total location errors as having systematic errors in addition to the statistical errors and use the Bayesian analysis to constrain the systematic errors.

  19. a new approach of Analysing GRB light curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varga, B.; Horvath, I.

    2005-01-01

    We estimated the T xx quantiles of the cumulative GRB light curves using our recalculated background. The basic information of the light curves was extracted by multivariate statistical methods. The possible classes of the light curves are also briefly discussed

  20. CONSTRAINTS ON VERY HIGH ENERGY EMISSION FROM GRB 130427A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aliu, E.; Errando, M.; Aune, T.; Barnacka, A.; Beilicke, M.; Buckley, J. H.; Bugaev, V.; Benbow, W.; Cerruti, M.; Berger, K.; Biteau, J.; Byrum, K.; Cardenzana, J. V; Dickinson, H. J.; Eisch, J. D.; Chen, X.; Ciupik, L.; Connaughton, V.; Cui, W.; Falcone, A.

    2014-01-01

    Prompt emission from the very fluent and nearby (z = 0.34) gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A was detected by several orbiting telescopes and by ground-based, wide-field-of-view optical transient monitors. Apart from the intensity and proximity of this GRB, it is exceptional due to the extremely long-lived high-energy (100 MeV to 100 GeV) gamma-ray emission, which was detected by the Large Area Telescope on the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope for ∼70 ks after the initial burst. The persistent, hard-spectrum, high-energy emission suggests that the highest-energy gamma rays may have been produced via synchrotron self-Compton processes though there is also evidence that the high-energy emission may instead be an extension of the synchrotron spectrum. VERITAS, a ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescope array, began follow-up observations of GRB 130427A ∼71 ks (∼20 hr) after the onset of the burst. The GRB was not detected with VERITAS; however, the high elevation of the observations, coupled with the low redshift of the GRB, make VERITAS a very sensitive probe of the emission from GRB 130427A for E > 100 GeV. The non-detection and consequent upper limit derived place constraints on the synchrotron self-Compton model of high-energy gamma-ray emission from this burst

  1. Two Early Gamma-ray Bursts Optical Afterglow Detections with TAOS Telescopes--GRB 071010B and GRB 071112C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, K. Y.; Wang, S. Y.; Urata, Y.

    2009-01-01

    We present on two early detections of GRB afterglows with the Taiwanese-American Occltation Sruvey (TAOS) telescopes. The robotic TAOS system has been devised so that the routine Kuiper Belt Object (KBO) survey is interrupted when a GRB alert is triggered. Our first detection, GRB 071010B was detected by TAOS 62 s after the burst and showed a weak early brightening during the observations. No significant correction with the prompt gamma-ray emission indicated that our optical emission detected is afterglow emission. The second detection of TAOS, GRB 071112C was detected 96 s after the burst, also showed a possible initial raising then followed a steep decay in the R-band light curve.

  2. UVES/VLT high resolution spectroscopy of GRB 050730 afterglow: probing the features of the GRB environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elia, V.; Fiore, F.; Piranomonte, S.; Sbordone, L.; Stella, L.; Antonelli, L.A.; Fontana, A.; Giannini, T.; Guetta, D.; Israel, G.; Testa, V.; Meurs, E.J.A.; Vergani, S.D.; Ward, P.; Chincarini, G.; Tagliaferri, G.; Campana, S.; Fugazza, D.; Molinari, E.; Moretti, A.; Chincarini, G.; Melandri, A.; Norci, L.; Vergani, S.D.; Pellizza, L.; Filliatre, P.; Perna, R.; Lazzati, D.

    2007-01-01

    Aims. The aim of this paper is to study the Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) environment through the analysis of the optical absorption features due to the gas surrounding the GRB. Methods. To this purpose we analyze high resolution spectroscopic observations (R = 20000-45000, corresponding to 14 kms -1 at 4200 Angstroms and 6.6 kms -1 at 9000 Angstroms of the optical afterglow of GRB050730, obtained with UVES-VLT ∼ 4 h after the GRB trigger. Results. The spectrum shows that the ISM of the GRB host galaxy at z = 3.967 is complex, with at least five components contributing to the main absorption system. We detect strong CII*, SiII*, OI* and FeII* fine structure absorption lines associated to the second and third component. Conclusions. For the first three components we derive information on the relative distance from the site of the GRB explosion. Component 1, which has the longest wavelength, highest positive velocity shift, does not present any fine structure nor low ionization lines; it only shows very high ionization features, such as C IV and O VI, suggesting that this component is very close to the GRB site. From the analysis of low and high ionization lines and fine structure lines, we find evidences that the distance of component 2 from the site of the GRB explosion is 10-100 times smaller than that of component 3. We evaluated the mean metallicity of the z = 3.967 system obtaining values approximate to 10 -2 of the solar metallicity or less. However, this should not be taken as representative of the circum-burst medium, since the main contribution to the hydrogen column density comes from the outer regions of the galaxy while that of the other elements presumably comes from the ISM closer to the GRB site. Furthermore, difficulties in evaluating dust depletion correction can modify significantly these values. The mean [C/Fe] ratio agrees well with that expected by single star-formation event models. Interestingly the [C/Fe] of component 2 is smaller than that of

  3. Molecular cloning of the mouse grb2 gene: differential interaction of the Grb2 adaptor protein with epidermal growth factor and nerve growth factor receptors.

    OpenAIRE

    Suen, K L; Bustelo, X R; Pawson, T; Barbacid, M

    1993-01-01

    We report the isolation and molecular characterization of the mouse grb2 gene. The product of this gene, the Grb2 protein, is highly related to the Caenorhabditis elegans sem-5 gene product and the human GRB2 protein and displays the same SH3-SH2-SH3 structural motifs. In situ hybridization studies revealed that the mouse grb2 gene is widely expressed throughout embryonic development (E9.5 to P0). However, grb2 transcripts are not uniformly distributed, and in certain tissues (e.g., thymus) t...

  4. A Fe K Line in GRB 970508

    Science.gov (United States)

    Protassov, R.; van Dyk, D.; Connors, A.; Kashyap, V.; Siemiginowska, A.

    2000-12-01

    We examine the x-ray spectrum of the afterglow of GRB 970508, analyzed for Fe line emission by Piro et al (1999, ApJL, 514, L73). This is a difficult and extremely important measurement: the detection of x-ray afterglows from γ -ray bursts is at best a tricky business, relying on near-real satellite time response to unpredictable events; and a great deal of luck in catching a burst bright enough for a useful spectral analysis. Detecting a clear atomic (or cyclotron) line in the generally smooth and featureless afterglow (or burst) emission not only gives one of the few very specific keys to the physics local to the emission region, but also provides clues or confirmation of its distance (via redshift). Unfortunately, neither the likelihood ratio test or the related F-statistic commonly used to detect spectral lines adhere to their nominal Chi square and F-distributions. Thus we begin by calibrating the F-statistic used in Piro et al (1999, ApJL, 514, L73) via a simulation study. The simulation study relies on a completely specified source model, i.e. we do Monte Carlo simulations with all model parameters fixed (so--called ``parametric bootstrapping''). Second, we employ the method of posterior predictive p-values to calibrate a LRT statistic while accounting for the uncertainty in the parameters of the source model. Our analysis reveals evidence for the Fe K line.

  5. Hyper-Eddington accretion in GRB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janiuk, A.; Czerny, B.; Perna, R.; Di Matteo, T.

    2005-01-01

    Popular models of the GRB origin associate this event with a cosmic explosion, birth of a stellar mass black ho le and jet ejection. Due to the shock collisions that happen in the jet, the gamma rays are produced and we detect a burst of duration up to several tens of seconds. This burst duration is determined by the lifetime of the central engine, which may be different in various scenarios. Characteristically, the observed bursts have a bimodal distribution and constitute the two classes: short (t < 2 s) and long bursts. Theoretical models invoke the mergers of two neutron stars or a neutron star with a black hole, or, on the other hand, a massive star explosion (collapsar). In any of these models we have a phase of disc accretion onto a newly born black hole: the di se is formed from the disrupted neutron star or fed by the material fallback from the ejected collapsar envelope. The disc is extremely hot and dense, and the accretion rate is orders of magnitude higher than the Eddington rate. In such physical conditions the main cooling mechanism is neutrino emission, and one of possible ways of energy extraction from the accretion disc is the neutrino-antineutrino annihilation

  6. A Spatially Resolved Study of the GRB 020903 Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorp, Mallory D.; Levesque, Emily M.

    2018-03-01

    GRB 020903 is a long-duration gamma-ray burst with a host galaxy close enough and extended enough for spatially resolved observations, making it one of less than a dozen GRBs where such host studies are possible. GRB 020903 lies in a galaxy host complex that appears to consist of four interacting components. Here we present the results of spatially resolved spectroscopic observations of the GRB 020903 host. By taking observations at two different position angles, we were able to obtain optical spectra (3600–9000 Å) of multiple regions in the galaxy. We confirm redshifts for three regions of the host galaxy that match that of GRB 020903. We measure the metallicity of these regions, and find that the explosion site and the nearby star-forming regions both have comparable subsolar metallicities. We conclude that, in agreement with past spatially resolved studies of GRBs, the GRB explosion site is representative of the host galaxy as a whole rather than localized in a metal-poor region of the galaxy.

  7. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program

  8. Meteorological Monitoring Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hancock, H.A. Jr. [ed.; Parker, M.J.; Addis, R.P.

    1994-09-01

    The purpose of this technical report is to provide a comprehensive, detailed overview of the meteorological monitoring program at the Savannah River Site (SRS) near Aiken, South Carolina. The principle function of the program is to provide current, accurate meteorological data as input for calculating the transport and diffusion of any unplanned release of an atmospheric pollutant. The report is recommended for meteorologists, technicians, or any personnel who require an in-depth understanding of the meteorological monitoring program.

  9. The adapter protein, Grb10, is a positive regulator of vascular endothelial growth factor signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giorgetti-Peraldi, S; Murdaca, J; Mas, J C; Van Obberghen, E

    2001-07-05

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important regulator of vasculogenesis and angiogenesis. Activation of VEGF receptors leads to the recruitment of SH2 containing proteins which link the receptors to the activation of signaling pathways. Here we report that Grb10, an adapter protein of which the biological role remains unknown, is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to VEGF in endothelial cells (HUVEC) and in 293 cells expressing the VEGF receptor KDR. An intact SH2 domain is required for Grb10 tyrosine phosphorylation in response to VEGF, and this phosphorylation is mediated in part through the activation of Src. In HUVEC, VEGF increases Grb10 mRNA level. Expression of Grb10 in HUVEC or in KDR expressing 293 cells results in an increase in the amount and in the tyrosine phosphorylation of KDR. In 293 cells, this is correlated with the activation of signaling molecules, such as MAP kinase. By expressing mutants of Grb10, we found that the positive action of Grb10 is independent of its SH2 domain. Moreover, these Grb10 effects on KDR seem to be specific since Grb10 has no effect on the insulin receptor, and Grb2, another adapter protein, does not mimic the effect of Grb10 on KDR. In conclusion, we propose that VEGF up-regulates Grb10 level, which in turn increases KDR molecules, suggesting that Grb10 could be involved in a positive feedback loop in VEGF signaling.

  10. Calibration and Simulation of the GRB trigger detector of the Ultra Fast Flash Observatory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, M.-H.A.; Ahmad, S.; Barrillon, P.

    2013-01-01

    The UFFO (Ultra-Fast Flash Observatory) is a GRB detector on board the Lomonosov satellite, to be launched in 2013. The GRB trigger is provided by an X-ray detector, called UBAT (UFFO Burst Alarm & Trigger Telescope), which detects X-rays from the GRB and then triggers to determine the direction ...

  11. Lectures in Micro Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Søren Ejling

    This report contains the notes from my lectures on Micro scale meteorology at the Geophysics Department of the Niels Bohr Institute of Copenhagen University. In the period 1993-2012, I was responsible for this course at the University. At the start of the course, I decided that the text books...... available in meteorology at that time did not include enough of the special flavor of micro meteorology that characterized the work of the meteorology group at Risø (presently of the Institute of wind energy of the Danish Technical University). This work was focused on Boundary layer flows and turbulence...

  12. Firework Model: Time Dependent Spectral Evolution of GRB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbiellini, Guido; Longo, Francesco; Ghirlanda, G.; Celotti, A.; Bosnjak, Z.

    2004-09-01

    The energetics of the long duration GRB phenomenon is compared with models of a rotating BH in a strong magnetic field generated by an accreting torus. The GRB energy emission is attributed to magnetic field vacuum breakdown that gives origin to a e +/- fireball. Its subsequent evolution is hypothesized in analogy with the in-flight decay of an elementary particle. An anisotropy in the fireball propagation is thus naturally produced. The recent discovery in some GRB of an initial phase characterized by a thermal spectrum could be interpreted as the photon emission of the fireball photosphere when it becomes transparent. In particular, the temporal evolution of the emission can be explained as the effect of a radiative deceleration of the out-moving ejecta.

  13. GRB 090902B: AFTERGLOW OBSERVATIONS AND IMPLICATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S. B.; Akerlof, C.; McKay, T. A.; Swenson, C. A.; Perley, D. A.; Kleiser, I. K. W.; Guidorzi, C.; Wiersema, K.; Malesani, D.; Ashley, M. C. B.; Bersier, D.; Cano, Z.; Kobayashi, S.; Melandri, A.; Mottram, C. J.; Gomboc, A.; Ilyin, I.; Jakobsson, P.; Kouveliotou, C.; Levan, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The optical-infrared afterglow of the Large Area Telescope (LAT)-detected long-duration burst, GRB 090902B, has been observed by several instruments. The earliest detection by ROTSE-IIIa occurred 80 minutes after detection by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor instrument on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, revealing a bright afterglow and a decay slope suggestive of a reverse shock origin. Subsequent optical-IR observations followed the light curve for 6.5 days. The temporal and spectral behavior at optical-infrared frequencies is consistent with synchrotron fireball model predictions; the cooling break lies between optical and XRT frequencies ∼1.9 days after the burst. The inferred electron energy index is p = 1.8 ± 0.2, which would however imply an X-ray decay slope flatter than observed. The XRT and LAT data have similar spectral indices and the observed steeper value of the LAT temporal index is marginally consistent with the predicted temporal decay in the radiative regime of the forward shock model. Absence of a jet break during the first 6 days implies a collimation-corrected γ-ray energy E γ > 2.2 x 10 52 erg, one of the highest ever seen in a long-duration gamma-ray bursts. More events combining GeV photon emission with multiwavelength observations will be required to constrain the nature of the central engine powering these energetic explosions and to explore the correlations between energetic quanta and afterglow emission.

  14. Fire and forest meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    SA Ferguson; T.J. Brown; M. Flannigan

    2005-01-01

    The American Meteorological Society symposia series on Fire and Forest Meteorology provides biennial forums for atmospheric and fire scientists to introduce and discuss the latest and most relevant research on weather, climate and fire. This special issue highlights significant work that was presented at the Fifth Symposium in Orlando, Florida during 16-20 November...

  15. METRODOS: Meteorological preprocessor chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, P.; Mikkelsen, T.; Deme, S.

    2001-01-01

    The METRODOS meteorological preprocessor chain combines measured tower data and coarse grid numerical weather prediction (NWP) data with local scale flow models and similarity scaling to give high resolution approximations of the meteorological situation. Based on available wind velocity and dire...

  16. Meteorological satellite systems

    CERN Document Server

    Tan, Su-Yin

    2014-01-01

    Meteorological Satellite Systems” is a primer on weather satellites and their Earth applications. This book reviews historic developments and recent technological advancements in GEO and polar orbiting meteorological satellites. It explores the evolution of these remote sensing technologies and their capabilities to monitor short- and long-term changes in weather patterns in response to climate change. Satellites developed by various countries, such as U.S. meteorological satellites, EUMETSAT, and Russian, Chinese, Japanese and Indian satellite platforms are reviewed. This book also discusses international efforts to coordinate meteorological remote sensing data collection and sharing. This title provides a ready and quick reference for information about meteorological satellites. It serves as a useful tool for a broad audience that includes students, academics, private consultants, engineers, scientists, and teachers.

  17. Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtang Petersen, Erik; Mortensen, Niels Gylling; Landberg, Lars

    Wind power meteorology has evolved as an applied science, firmly founded on boundary-layer meteorology, but with strong links to climatology and geography. It concerns itself with three main areas: siting of wind turbines, regional wind resource assessment, and short-term prediction of the wind...... resource. The history, status and perspectives of wind power meteorology are presented, with emphasis on physical considerations and on its practical application. Following a global view of the wind resource, the elements of boundary layer meteorology which are most important for wind energy are reviewed......: wind profiles and shear, turbulence and gust, and extreme winds. The data used in wind power meteorology stem mainly from three sources: onsite wind measurements, the synoptic networks, and the re-analysis projects. Wind climate analysis, wind resource estimation and siting further require a detailed...

  18. Time resolved spectroscopy of GRB 030501 using INTEGRAL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beckmann, V.; Borkowski, J.; Courvoisier, T.J.L.

    2003-01-01

    The gamma-ray instruments on-board INTEGRAL offer an unique opportunity to perform time resolved analysis on GRBs. The imager IBIS allows accurate positioning of GRBs and broad band spectral analysis, while SPI provides high resolution spectroscopy. GRB 030501 was discovered by the INTEGRAL Burst...... the Ulysses and RHESSI experiments....

  19. ENERGETIC FERMI/LAT GRB 100414A: ENERGETIC AND CORRELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Yuji; Tsai, Patrick P.; Huang, Kuiyun; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Tashiro, Makoto S.

    2012-01-01

    This study presents multi-wavelength observational results for energetic GRB 100414A with GeV photons. The prompt spectral fitting using Suzaku/WAM data yielded spectral peak energies of E src peak of 1458.7 +132.6 –106.6 keV and E iso of 34.5 +2.0 –1.8 × 10 52 erg with z = 1.368. The optical afterglow light curves between 3 and 7 days were effectively fitted according to a simple power law with a temporal index of α = –2.6 ± 0.1. The joint light curve with earlier Swift/UVOT observations yields a temporal break at 2.3 ± 0.2 days. This was the first Fermi/LAT detected event that demonstrated the clear temporal break in the optical afterglow. The jet opening angle derived from this temporal break was 5. 0 8, consistent with those of other well-observed long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The multi-wavelength analyses in this study showed that GRB 100414A follows E src peak -E iso and E src peak -E γ correlations. The late afterglow revealed a flatter evolution with significant excesses at 27.2 days. The most straightforward explanation for the excess is that GRB 100414A was accompanied by a contemporaneous supernova. The model light curve based on other GRB-SN events is marginally consistent with that of the observed light curve.

  20. The Supercritical Pile GRB Model: The Prompt to Afterglow Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastichiadis, A.; Kazanas, D.

    2009-01-01

    The "Supercritical Pile" is a very economical GRB model that provides for the efficient conversion of the energy stored in the protons of a Relativistic Blast Wave (RBW) into radiation and at the same time produces - in the prompt GRB phase, even in the absence of any particle acceleration - a spectral peak at energy approx. 1 MeV. We extend this model to include the evolution of the RBW Lorentz factor Gamma and thus follow its spectral and temporal features into the early GRB afterglow stage. One of the novel features of the present treatment is the inclusion of the feedback of the GRB produced radiation on the evolution of Gamma with radius. This feedback and the presence of kinematic and dynamic thresholds in the model can be the sources of rich time evolution which we have began to explore. In particular. one can this may obtain afterglow light curves with steep decays followed by the more conventional flatter afterglow slopes, while at the same time preserving the desirable features of the model, i.e. the well defined relativistic electron source and radiative processes that produce the proper peak in the (nu)F(sub nu), spectra. In this note we present the results of a specific set of parameters of this model with emphasis on the multiwavelength prompt emission and transition to the early afterglow.

  1. Early danish GRB experiments - And some for the future?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Niels

    2013-01-01

    by a japanese report of a balloon instrument for GRB studies based on a Rotation Modulation Collimator we at the Danish Space Research Institute started the development of an RMC detector for GRBs, the WATCH wide field monitor. Four WATCH units were flown on the Soviet Granat satellites, and one on ESA's EURECA...

  2. The 1.4 GHZ light curve of GRB 970508

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galama, TJ; Wijers, RAMJ; Groot, PJ; Strom, RG; De Bruyn, AG; Kouveliotou, C; Robinson, CR; van Paradus, J

    1998-01-01

    We report on Westerbork 1.4 GHz radio observations of the radio counterpart to gamma-ray burst GRB 970508, between 0.80 and 138 days after this event. The 1.4 GHz light curve shows a transition from optically thick to thin emission between 39 and 54 days after the event. We derive the slope p of the

  3. US Marine Meteorological Journals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This series consists of volumes entitled 'Meteorological Journal' (a regulation Navy-issue publication) which were to be completed by masters of merchant vessels...

  4. Meteorology and atomic energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    The science of meteorology is useful in providing information that will be of assistance in the choice of favorable plant locations and in the evaluation of significant relations between meteorology and the design, construction, and operation of plant and facilities, especially those from which radioactive or toxic products could be released to the atmosphere. Under a continuing contract with the Atomic Energy Commission, the Weather Bureau has carried out this study. Some of the meteorological techniques that are available are summarized, and their applications to the possible atmospheric pollution deriving from the use of atomic energy are described. Methods and suggestions for the collection, analysis, and use of meteorological data are presented. Separate abstracts are included of 12 chapters in this publication for inclusion in the Energy Data Base

  5. Wave Meteorology and Soaring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiley, Scott

    2008-01-01

    This viewgraph document reviews some mountain wave turbulence and operational hazards while soaring. Maps, photographs, and satellite images of the meteorological phenomena are included. Additionally, photographs of aircraft that sustained mountain wave damage are provided.

  6. Climate and meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations

  7. Climate and meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoitink, D.J.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the significant activities conducted in 1994 to monitor the meteorology and climatology of the site. Meteorological measurements are taken to support Hanford Site emergency preparedness and response, Hanford Site operations, and atmospheric dispersion calculations. Climatological data are collected to help plan weather-dependent activities and are used as a resource to assess the environmental effects of Hanford Site operations.

  8. Deletion of the Imprinted Gene Grb10 Promotes Hematopoietic Stem Cell Self-Renewal and Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Xiao; Himburg, Heather A; Pohl, Katherine; Quarmyne, Mamle; Tran, Evelyn; Zhang, Yurun; Fang, Tiancheng; Kan, Jenny; Chao, Nelson J; Zhao, Liman; Doan, Phuong L; Chute, John P

    2016-11-01

    Imprinted genes are differentially expressed by adult stem cells, but their functions in regulating adult stem cell fate are incompletely understood. Here we show that growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (Grb10), an imprinted gene, regulates hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) self-renewal and regeneration. Deletion of the maternal allele of Grb10 in mice (Grb10 m/+ mice) substantially increased HSC long-term repopulating capacity, as compared to that of Grb10 +/+ mice. After total body irradiation (TBI), Grb10 m/+ mice demonstrated accelerated HSC regeneration and hematopoietic reconstitution, as compared to Grb10 +/+ mice. Grb10-deficient HSCs displayed increased proliferation after competitive transplantation or TBI, commensurate with upregulation of CDK4 and Cyclin E. Furthermore, the enhanced HSC regeneration observed in Grb10-deficient mice was dependent on activation of the Akt/mTORC1 pathway. This study reveals a function for the imprinted gene Grb10 in regulating HSC self-renewal and regeneration and suggests that the inhibition of Grb10 can promote hematopoietic regeneration in vivo. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The VLT/X-shooter GRB afterglow legacy survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaper, Lex; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Pugliese, Vanna; van Rest, Daan

    2017-11-01

    The Swift satellite allows us to use gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to peer through the hearts of star forming galaxies through cosmic time. Our open collaboration, representing most of the active European researchers in this field, builds a public legacy sample of GRB X-shooter spectroscopy while Swift continues to fly. To date, our spectroscopy of more than 100 GRB afterglows covers a redshift range from 0.059 to about 8 (Tanvir et al. 2009, Nature 461, 1254), with more than 20 robust afterglow-based metallicity measurements (over a redshift range from 1.7 to 5.9). With afterglow spectroscopy (throughout the electromagnetic spectrum from X-rays to the sub-mm) we can hence characterize the properties of star-forming galaxies over cosmic history in terms of redshift, metallicity, molecular content, ISM temperature, UV-flux density, etc.. These observations provide key information on the final evolution of the most massive stars collapsing into black holes, with the potential of probing the epoch of the formation of the first (very massive) stars. VLT/X-shooter (Vernet et al. 2011, A&A 536, A105) is in many ways the ideal GRB follow-up instrument and indeed GRB follow-up was one of the primary science cases behind the instrument design and implementation. Due to the wide wavelength coverage of X-shooter, in the same observation one can detect molecular H2 absorption near the atmospheric cut-off and many strong emission lines from the host galaxy in the near-infrared (e.g., Friis et al. 2015, MNRAS 451, 167). For example, we have measured a metallicity of 0.1 Z ⊙ for GRB 100219A at z = 4.67 (Thöne et al. 2013, MNRAS 428, 3590), 0.02 Z ⊙ for GRB 111008A at z = 4.99 (Sparre et al. 2014, ApJ 785, 150) and 0.05 Z ⊙ for GRB 130606A at z = 5.91 (Hartoog et al. 2015, A&A 580, 139). In the latter, the very high value of [Al/Fe]=2.40 +/- 0.78 might be due to a proton capture process and may be a signature of a previous generation of massive (perhaps even the first) stars

  10. Study on corrosion resistance of A106Gr.B and A672Gr.B60 in dynamic water loop with high temperature and pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tian Jue; Wang Hui; Li Xinmin

    2014-01-01

    Due to the low carbon and low alloy Cr content, flow accelerates corrosion prone to have a serious impact on safety. AP1000 is the most advanced nuclear power technology in recent years. The plant used A672Gr.B60 as an alternative feed pipe to reduce the impact of flow accelerated corrosion. The impact of different flow rates, alkaline agent type and material property on A672Gr.B60 and A106Gr.B were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray photoelectronic spectroscopy (XPS). After 336 h experiments were conducted, results show that the corrosion rate of A672Gr.B60 is much lower than that of A106Gr.B, and the density of oxidation film on A672Gr.B60 is superior to A106Gr.B. Ethanolamine (ETA) as an alkaline agent is better to reduce FAC to A106Gr.B, and it also can make the oxidation film become denser. Changes in flow rate will affect the size, shape and distribution of the oxide particles, and will also affect the thickness of the oxide film. Both of two materials were composed by Fe 3 O 4 . (authors)

  11. Meteorology Products - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC › Meteorology Products FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info Meteorology Products Global

  12. LFlGRB: Luminosity function of long gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Debdutta

    2018-04-01

    LFlGRB models the luminosity function (LF) of long Gamma Ray Bursts (lGRBs) by using a sample of Swift and Fermi lGRBs to re-derive the parameters of the Yonetoku correlation and self-consistently estimate pseudo-redshifts of all the bursts with unknown redshifts. The GRB formation rate is modeled as the product of the cosmic star formation rate and a GRB formation efficiency for a given stellar mass.

  13. f (T ) gravity after GW170817 and GRB170817A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Yi-Fu; Li, Chunlong; Saridakis, Emmanuel N.; Xue, Ling-Qin

    2018-05-01

    The combined observation of GW170817 and its electromagnetic counterpart GRB170817A reveals that gravitational waves propagate at the speed of light in high precision. We apply the standard analysis of cosmological perturbations, as well as the effective field theory approach, to investigate the experimental consequences for the theory of f (T ) gravity. Our analysis verifies for the first time that the speed of gravitational waves within f (T ) gravity is equal to the light speed, and hence, the constraints from GW170817 and GRB170817A are trivially satisfied. Nevertheless, by examining the dispersion relation and the frequency of cosmological gravitational waves, we observe a deviation from the results of general relativity, quantified by a new parameter. Although its value is relatively small in viable f (T ) models, its possible future measurement in advancing gravitational-wave astronomy would be the smoking gun of testing this type of modified gravity.

  14. OBSERVATION OF CORRELATED OPTICAL AND GAMMA EMISSIONS FROM GRB 081126

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Gendre, B.; Atteia, J. L.; Coward, D. M.; Imerito, A. C.

    2009-01-01

    We present an analysis of time-resolved optical emissions observed from the gamma-ray burst GRB 081126 during the prompt phase. The analysis employed time-resolved photometry using optical data obtained by the TAROT telescope, using BAT data from the Swift spacecraft, and time-resolved spectroscopy at high energies from the GBM instrument onboard the Fermi spacecraft. The optical emission of GRB 081126 is found to be compatible with the second gamma emission pulse shifted by a positive time lag of 8.4 ± 3.9 s. This is the first well-resolved observation of a time lag between optical and gamma emissions during a gamma-ray burst. Our observations could potentially provide new constraints on the fireball model for gamma-ray burst early emissions. Furthermore, observations of time lags between optical and gamma ray photons provides an exciting opportunity to constrain quantum gravity theories.

  15. A Correlated Optical and Gamma Emission from GRB 081126A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendre, B.; Klotz, A.; Atteia, J. L.; Boeer, M.; Coward, D. M.; Imerito, A. C.

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of time-resolved optical emissions observed from the gamma-ray burst GRB 081126 during the prompt phase. The analysis employed time-resolved photometry using optical data obtained by the TAROT telescope, BAT data from the Swift spacecraft and time-resolved spectroscopy at high energies from the GBM instrument onboard the Fermi spacecraft. The optical emission of GRB 081126 is found to be compatible with the second gamma emission pulse shifted by a positive time-lag of 8.4±3.9 sec. This is the first well resolved observation of a time lag between optical and gamma emissions during a gamma-ray burst. Our observations could potentially provide new constraints on the fireball model for gamma ray burst early emissions. Furthermore, observations of time-lags between optical and gamma ray photons provides an exciting opportunity to constrain quantum gravity theories.

  16. Jesuits' Contribution to Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udías, Agustín

    1996-10-01

    Starting in the middle of the nineteenth century, as part of their scientific tradition, Jesuits founded a considerable number of meteorological observatories throughout the world. In many countries, Jesuits established and maintained the first meteorological stations during the period from 1860 to 1950. The Jesuits' most important contribution to atmospheric science was their pioneer work related to the study and forecast of tropical hurricanes. That research was carried out at observatories of Belén (Cuba), Manila (Philippines), and Zikawei (China). B. Viñes, M. Decheyrens, J. Aigué, and C.E. Deppermann stood out in this movement.

  17. Meteorology in site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1986-01-01

    During the site selection and design phases of a plant, meteorological assistance must be based on past records, usually accumulated at stations not actually on the site. These preliminary atadvices will be averages and extremes that might be expected. After a location has been chosen and work has begun, current and forecast weather conditions become of immediate concern. On-site meteorological observations and forecasts have many applications to the operating program of an atomic energy site. Requirements may range from observations of the daily minimum temperatures to forecasts of radiation dosages from airborne clouds

  18. Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William; Crawford, Winifred; Barrett, Joe; Watson, Leela; Wheeler, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This report summarizes the Applied Meteorology Unit (AMU) activities for the first quarter of Fiscal Year 2010 (October - December 2009). A detailed project schedule is included in the Appendix. Included tasks are: (1) Peak Wind Tool for User Launch Commit Criteria (LCC), (2) Objective Lightning Probability Tool, Phase III, (3) Peak Wind Tool for General Forecasting, Phase II, (4) Upgrade Summer Severe Weather Tool in Meteorological Interactive Data Display System (MIDDS), (5) Advanced Regional Prediction System (ARPS) Data Analysis System (ADAS) Update and Maintainability, (5) Verify 12-km resolution North American Model (MesoNAM) Performance, and (5) Hybrid Single-Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) Graphical User Interface.

  19. ENERGETIC FERMI/LAT GRB 100414A: ENERGETIC AND CORRELATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Yuji; Tsai, Patrick P. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuiyun [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Yamaoka, Kazutaka [Department of Physics and Mathematics, Aoyama Gakuin University, 5-10-1, Fuchinobe, Sayamihara 229-8558 (Japan); Tashiro, Makoto S., E-mail: urata@astro.ncu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan)

    2012-03-20

    This study presents multi-wavelength observational results for energetic GRB 100414A with GeV photons. The prompt spectral fitting using Suzaku/WAM data yielded spectral peak energies of E{sup src}{sub peak} of 1458.7{sup +132.6}{sub -106.6} keV and E{sub iso} of 34.5{sup +2.0}{sub -1.8} Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 52} erg with z = 1.368. The optical afterglow light curves between 3 and 7 days were effectively fitted according to a simple power law with a temporal index of {alpha} = -2.6 {+-} 0.1. The joint light curve with earlier Swift/UVOT observations yields a temporal break at 2.3 {+-} 0.2 days. This was the first Fermi/LAT detected event that demonstrated the clear temporal break in the optical afterglow. The jet opening angle derived from this temporal break was 5.{sup 0}8, consistent with those of other well-observed long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). The multi-wavelength analyses in this study showed that GRB 100414A follows E{sup src}{sub peak}-E{sub iso} and E{sup src}{sub peak}-E{sub {gamma}} correlations. The late afterglow revealed a flatter evolution with significant excesses at 27.2 days. The most straightforward explanation for the excess is that GRB 100414A was accompanied by a contemporaneous supernova. The model light curve based on other GRB-SN events is marginally consistent with that of the observed light curve.

  20. THE LATE PEAKING AFTERGLOW OF GRB 100418A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, F. E.; Holland, S. T.; Sakamoto, T.; Antonelli, L. A.; Burrows, D. N.; Siegel, M. H.; Covino, S.; Fugazza, D.; De Pasquale, M.; Oates, S. R.; Evans, P. A.; O'Brien, P. T.; Osborne, J. P.; Pagani, C.; Liang, E. W.; Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B.

    2011-01-01

    GRB 100418A is a long gamma-ray burst (GRB) at redshift z = 0.6235 discovered with the Swift Gamma-ray Burst Explorer with unusual optical and X-ray light curves. After an initial short-lived, rapid decline in X-rays, the optical and X-ray light curves observed with Swift are approximately flat or rising slightly out to at least ∼7 x 10 3 s after the trigger, peak at ∼5 x 10 4 s, and then follow an approximately power-law decay. Such a long optical plateau and late peaking is rarely seen in GRB afterglows. Observations with Rapid Eye Mount during a gap in the Swift coverage indicate a bright optical flare at ∼2.5 x 10 4 s. The long plateau phase of the afterglow is interpreted using either a model with continuous injection of energy into the forward shock of the burst or a model in which the jet of the burst is viewed off-axis. In both models the isotropic kinetic energy in the late afterglow after the plateau phase is ≥10 2 times the 10 51 erg of the prompt isotropic gamma-ray energy release. The energy injection model is favored because the off-axis jet model would require the intrinsic T 90 for the GRB jet viewed on-axis to be very short, ∼10 ms, and the intrinsic isotropic gamma-ray energy release and the true jet energy to be much higher than the typical values of known short GRBs. The non-detection of a jet break up to t ∼ 2 x 10 6 s indicates a jet half-opening angle of at least ∼14 0 , and a relatively high-collimation-corrected jet energy of E jet ≥ 10 52 erg.

  1. Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; hide

    2013-01-01

    The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest gamma-ray duration (20 hours), and one of the largest isotropic energy releases ever observed from a GRB. Temporal and spectral analyses of GRB 130427A challenge the widely accepted model that the nonthermal high-energy emission in the afterglow phase of GRBs is synchrotron emission radiated by electrons accelerated at an external shock.

  2. Spitzer Observations of GRB Hosts: A Legacy Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perley, Daniel; Tanvir, Nial; Hjorth, Jens; Berger, Edo; Laskar, Tanmoy; Michalowski, Michal; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Fynbo, Johan; Levan, Andrew

    2012-09-01

    The host galaxies of long-duration GRBs are drawn from uniquely broad range of luminosities and redshifts. Thus they offer the possibility of studying the evolution of star-forming galaxies without the limitations of other luminosity-selected samples, which typically are increasingly biased towards the most massive systems at higher redshift. However, reaping the full benefits of this potential requires careful attention to the selection biases affecting host identification. To this end, we propose observations of a Legacy sample of 70 GRB host galaxies (an additional 70 have already been observed by Spitzer), in order to constrain the mass and luminosity function in GRB-selected galaxies at high redshift, including its dependence on redshift and on properties of the afterglow. Crucially, and unlike previous Spitzer surveys, this sample is carefully designed to be uniform and free of optical selection biases that have caused previous surveys to systematically under-represent the role of luminous, massive hosts. We also propose to extend to larger, more powerfully constraining samples the study of two science areas where Spitzer observations have recently shown spectacular success: the hosts of dust-obscured GRBs (which promise to further our understanding of the connection between GRBs and star-formation in the most luminous galaxies), and the evolution of the mass-metallicity relation at z>2 (for which GRB host observations provide particularly powerful constraints on high-z chemical evolution).

  3. Computer Exercises in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapasso, L. Michael; Conner, Glen; Stallins, Keith

    Beginning with Western Kentucky University's (Bowling Green) fall 1999 semester, exercises required for the geography and meteorology course used computers for learning. This course enrolls about 250 students per year, most of whom choose it to fulfill a general education requirement. Of the 185 geography majors, it is required for those who…

  4. The GRB 060218/SN 2006aj event in the context of other gamma-ray burst supernovae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrero, P.; Kann, D. A.; Zeh, A.

    2006-01-01

    Gamma rays: bursts: X-rays: individuals: GRB 060218, supernovae: individual: SN 2006aj Udgivelsesdato: Oct.......Gamma rays: bursts: X-rays: individuals: GRB 060218, supernovae: individual: SN 2006aj Udgivelsesdato: Oct....

  5. Short-hairpin RNA-mediated stable silencing of Grb2 impairs cell growth and DNA synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Fulvio, Mauricio; Henkels, Karen M.; Gomez-Cambronero, Julian

    2007-01-01

    Grb2 is an SH2-SH3 protein adaptor responsible for linking growth factor receptors with intracellular signaling cascades. To study the role of Grb2 in cell growth, we have generated a new COS7 cell line (COS7 shGrb2 ), based on RNAi technology, as null mutations in mammalian Grb2 genes are lethal in early development. This novel cell line continuously expresses a short hairpin RNA that targets endogenous Grb2. Stable COS7 shGrb2 cells had the shGrb2 integrated into the genomic DNA and carried on SiL construct (made refractory to the shRNA-mediated interference), but not with an SH2-deficient mutant (R86K). Thus, a viable knock-down and rescue protocol has demonstrated that Grb2 is crucial for cell proliferation

  6. Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Surface Meteorology and Solar Energy data - over 200 satellite-derived meteorology and solar energy parameters, monthly averaged from 22 years of data, global solar...

  7. GRB 161219B / SN 2016jca: A low-redshift gamma-ray burst supernova powered by radioactive heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cano, Z.; Izzo, L.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.

    2017-01-01

    Since the first discovery of a broad-lined type Ic supernova (SN) with a long-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) in 1998, fewer than fifty gamma-ray burst supernovae (GRB-SNe) have been discovered. The intermediate-luminosity Swift GRB 161219B and its associated supernova SN 2016jca, which occurred a...

  8. Virtual Meteorological Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Brinzila

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available A virtual meteorological center, computer based with Internet possibility transmission of the information is presented. Circumstance data is collected with logging field meteorological station. The station collects and automatically save data about the temperature in the air, relative humidity, pressure, wind speed and wind direction, rain gauge, solar radiation and air quality. Also can perform sensors test, analyze historical data and evaluate statistical information. The novelty of the system is that it can publish data over the Internet using LabVIEW Web Server capabilities and deliver a video signal to the School TV network. Also the system performs redundant measurement of temperature and humidity and was improved using new sensors and an original signal conditioning module.

  9. Fermi-LAT Observations of the Gamma-Ray Burst GRB 130427A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ackermann, M.; et al., [Unknown; van der Horst, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    The observations of the exceptionally bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A by the Large Area Telescope aboard the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope provide constraints on the nature of these unique astrophysical sources. GRB 130427A had the largest fluence, highest-energy photon (95 GeV), longest

  10. Spatially-resolved dust properties of the GRB 980425 host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michałowski, Michał J.; Hunt, L. K.; Palazzi, E.

    2014-01-01

    ), located 800 pc away from the GRB position. The host is characterised by low dust content and high fraction of UV-visible star-formation, similar to other dwarf galaxies. Such galaxies are abundant in the local universe, so it is not surprising to find a GRB in one of them, assuming the correspondence...

  11. A metal-rich molecular cloud surrounds GRB 050904 at redshift 6.3

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Campana, S.; Lazzati, D.; Ripamonti, Emanuele; Perna, R.; Covino, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Moretti, A.; Romano, P.; Cusumano, G.; Chincarini, G.

    2007-01-01

    GRB 050904 is the gamma-ray burst with the highest measured redshift. We performed time-resolved X-ray spectroscopy of the late GRB and early afterglow emission. We find robust evidence for a decrease with time of the soft X-ray-absorbing column. We model the evolution of the column density due to

  12. Multiwavelength analysis of the intriguing GRB 061126: The reverse shock scenario and magnetization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.; Mangano, V.; Sbarufatti, B.; Mundell, C.G.; Schady, P.; Smith, R.J.; Updike, A.C.; Kann, D.A.; Misra, K.; Rol, E.; Pozanenko, A.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Anupama, G.C.; Bersier, D.; Bode, M.F.; Carter, D.; Curran, P.; Fruchter, A.; Graham, J.; Hartmann, D.H.; Ibrahimov, M.; Levan, A.; Monfardini, A.; Mottram, C.J.; O'Brien, P.T.; Prema, P.; Sahu, D.K.; Steele, I.A.; Tanvir, N.R.; Wiersema, K.

    2008-01-01

    We present a detailed study of the prompt and afterglow emission from Swift GRB 061126 using BAT, XRT, UVOT data and multicolor optical imaging from 10 ground-based telescopes. GRB 061126 was a long burst (T90 = 191 s) with four overlapping peaks in its γ-ray light curve. The X-ray afterglow,

  13. The prompt to late-time multiwavelength analysis of GRB 060210

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, P.A.; van der Horst, A.J.; Beardmore, A.P.; Page, K.L.; Rol, E.; Melandri, A.; Steele, I.A.; Mundell, C.G.; Gomboc, A.; O'Brien, P.T.; Bersier, D.F.; Bode, M.F.; Carter, D.; Guidorzi, C.; Hill, J.E.; Hurkett, C.P.; Kobayashi, S.; Monfardini, A.; Mottram, C.J.; Smith, R.J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Willingale, R.

    2007-01-01

    Aims.We present our analysis of the multiwavelength photometric & spectroscopic observations of GRB 060210 and discuss the results in the overall context of current GRB models. Methods: All available optical data underwent a simultaneous temporal fit, while X-ray and gamma-ray observations were

  14. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. An analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station is presented. (Author) [pt

  15. Meteorological instrumentation for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costa, A.C.L. da.

    1983-01-01

    The main requirements of regulatory agencies, concerning the meteorological instrumentation needed for the licensing of nuclear facilities are discussed. A description is made of the operational principles of sensors for the various meteorological parameters and associated electronic systems. Finally, it is presented an analysis of the problems associated with grounding of a typical meteorological station. (Author) [pt

  16. Pantex Plant meteorological monitoring program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snyder, S.F.

    1993-07-01

    The current meteorological monitoring program of the US Department of Energy's Pantex Plant, Amarillo, Texas, is described in detail. Instrumentation, meteorological data collection and management, and program management are reviewed. In addition, primary contacts are noted for instrumentation, calibration, data processing, and alternative databases. The quality assurance steps implemented during each portion of the meteorological monitoring program are also indicated

  17. Extreme meteorological conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Altinger de Schwarzkopf, M.L.

    1983-01-01

    Different meteorological variables which may reach significant extreme values, such as the windspeed and, in particular, its occurrence through tornadoes and hurricanes that necesarily incide and wich must be taken into account at the time of nuclear power plants' installation, are analyzed. For this kind of study, it is necessary to determine the basic phenomenum of design. Two criteria are applied to define the basic values of design for extreme meteorological variables. The first one determines the expected extreme value: it is obtained from analyzing the recurence of the phenomenum in a convened period of time, wich may be generally of 50 years. The second one determines the extreme value of low probability, taking into account the nuclear power plant's operating life -f.ex. 25 years- and considering, during said lapse, the occurrence probabilities of extreme meteorological phenomena. The values may be determined either by the deterministic method, which is based on the acknowledgement of the fundamental physical characteristics of the phenomena or by the probabilistic method, that aims to the analysis of historical statistical data. Brief comments are made on the subject in relation to the Argentine Republic area. (R.J.S.) [es

  18. Broadband Study of GRB 091127: A Sub-energetic Burst at Higher Redshift?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troja, E.; Sakamoto, T.; Guidorzi, C.; Norris, J. P.; Panaitescu, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Omodei, N.; Brown, J. C.; Burrows, D. N.; Evans, P. A.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Mawson, N.; Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Oates, S. R.; Pal'shin, V.; Preece, R. D.; Racusin, J. L.; Steele, I. A.; Tanvir, N. R.; Vasileiou, V.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Yamaoka, K.

    2012-12-01

    GRB 091127 is a bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift at a redshift z = 0.49 and associated with SN 2009nz. We present the broadband analysis of the GRB prompt and afterglow emission and study its high-energy properties in the context of the GRB/SN association. While the high luminosity of the prompt emission and standard afterglow behavior are typical of cosmological long GRBs, its low-energy release (E γ < 3 × 1049 erg), soft spectrum, and unusual spectral lag connect this GRB to the class of sub-energetic bursts. We discuss the suppression of high-energy emission in this burst, and investigate whether this behavior could be connected with the sub-energetic nature of the explosion.

  19. BROADBAND STUDY OF GRB 091127: A SUB-ENERGETIC BURST AT HIGHER REDSHIFT?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troja, E.; Sakamoto, T.; Brown, J. C.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L. [NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Guidorzi, C. [Physics Department, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122, Ferrara (Italy); Norris, J. P. [Physics Department, Boise State University, 1910 University Drive, Boise, ID 83725 (United States); Panaitescu, A. [Space Science and Applications, MS D466, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kobayashi, S.; Mawson, N.; Melandri, A.; Mundell, C. G.; Steele, I. A. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, Twelve Quays House, Egerton Wharf, CH41 1LD Birkenhead (United Kingdom); Omodei, N. [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Burrows, D. N. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Evans, P. A. [X-ray and Observational Astronomy Group, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Oates, S. R. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Pal' shin, V. [Ioffe Physico-Technical Institute, Laboratory for Experimental Astrophysics, 26 Polytekhnicheskaya, St Petersburg 194021 (Russian Federation); Preece, R. D. [Department of Physics, University of Alabama in Huntsville, NSSTC, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); and others

    2012-12-10

    GRB 091127 is a bright gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift at a redshift z = 0.49 and associated with SN 2009nz. We present the broadband analysis of the GRB prompt and afterglow emission and study its high-energy properties in the context of the GRB/SN association. While the high luminosity of the prompt emission and standard afterglow behavior are typical of cosmological long GRBs, its low-energy release (E{sub {gamma}} < 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg), soft spectrum, and unusual spectral lag connect this GRB to the class of sub-energetic bursts. We discuss the suppression of high-energy emission in this burst, and investigate whether this behavior could be connected with the sub-energetic nature of the explosion.

  20. Solution structure of the Grb2 SH2 domain complexed with a high-affinity inhibitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kenji; Shiga, Takanori; Yokochi, Masashi; Yuzawa, Satoru; Burke, Terrence R.; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The solution structure of the growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) SH2 domain complexed with a high-affinity inhibitor containing a non-phosphorus phosphate mimetic within a macrocyclic platform was determined by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. Unambiguous assignments of the bound inhibitor and intermolecular NOEs between the Grb2 SH2 domain and the inhibitor was accomplished using perdeuterated Grb2 SH2 protein. The well-defined solution structure of the complex was obtained and compared to those by X-ray crystallography. Since the crystal structure of the Grb2 SH2 domain formed a domain-swapped dimer and several inhibitors were bound to a hinge region, there were appreciable differences between the solution and crystal structures. Based on the binding interactions between the inhibitor and the Grb2 SH2 domain in solution, we proposed a design of second-generation inhibitors that could be expected to have higher affinity

  1. Women in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemone, Margaret A.; Waukau, Patricia L.

    1982-11-01

    The names of 927 women who are or have been active in meteorology or closely related fields have been obtained from various sources. Of these women, at least 500 are presently active. An estimated 4-5% of the total number of Ph.D.s in meteorology are awarded to women. About 10% of those receiving B.S. and M.S. degrees are women.The work patterns, accomplishments, and salaries of employed women meteorologists have been summarized from 330 responses to questionnaires, as functions of age, family status, part- or full-time working status, and employing institutions. It was found that women meteorologists holding Ph.D.s are more likely than their male counterparts to be employed by universities. As increasing number of women were employed in operational meteorology, although few of them were married and fewer still responsible for children. Several women were employed by private industry and some had advanced into managerial positions, although at the present time, such positions remain out of the reach of most women.The subjective and objective effects of several gender-related factors have been summarized from the comments and responses to the questionnaires. The primary obstacles to advancement were found to be part-time work and the responsibility for children. Part-time work was found to have a clearly negative effect on salary increase as a function of age. prejudicated discrimination and rules negatively affecting women remain important, especially to the older women, and affirmative action programs are generally seen as beneficial.Surprisingly, in contrast to the experience of women in other fields of science, women Ph.D.s in meteorology earn salaries comparable of their employment in government or large corporations and universities where there are strong affirmative action programs and above-average salaries. Based on the responses to the questionnaire, the small size of the meteorological community is also a factor, enabling women to become recognized

  2. THE OPTICALLY UNBIASED GRB HOST (TOUGH) SURVEY. III. REDSHIFT DISTRIBUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakobsson, P.; Chapman, R.; Vreeswijk, P. M. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Milvang-Jensen, B. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, 2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Tanvir, N. R.; Starling, R. L. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Letawe, G. [Departement d' Astrophysique, Geophysique et Oceanographie, ULg, Allee du 6 aout, 17-Bat. B5c B-4000 Liege (Sart-Tilman) (Belgium)

    2012-06-10

    We present 10 new gamma-ray burst (GRB) redshifts and another five redshift limits based on host galaxy spectroscopy obtained as part of a large program conducted at the Very Large Telescope (VLT). The redshifts span the range 0.345 {<=} z {approx}< 2.54. Three of our measurements revise incorrect values from the literature. The homogeneous host sample researched here consists of 69 hosts that originally had a redshift completeness of 55% (with 38 out of 69 hosts having redshifts considered secure). Our project, including VLT/X-shooter observations reported elsewhere, increases this fraction to 77% (53/69), making the survey the most comprehensive in terms of redshift completeness of any sample to the full Swift depth, analyzed to date. We present the cumulative redshift distribution and derive a conservative, yet small, associated uncertainty. We constrain the fraction of Swift GRBs at high redshift to a maximum of 14% (5%) for z > 6 (z > 7). The mean redshift of the host sample is assessed to be (z) {approx}> 2.2, with the 10 new redshifts reducing it significantly. Using this more complete sample, we confirm previous findings that the GRB rate at high redshift (z {approx}> 3) appears to be in excess of predictions based on assumptions that it should follow conventional determinations of the star formation history of the universe, combined with an estimate of its likely metallicity dependence. This suggests that either star formation at high redshifts has been significantly underestimated, for example, due to a dominant contribution from faint, undetected galaxies, or that GRB production is enhanced in the conditions of early star formation, beyond that usually ascribed to lower metallicity.

  3. Swift captures the spectrally evolving prompt emission of GRB070616

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starling, R. L. C.; O'Brien, P. T.; Willingale, R.; Page, K. L.; Osborne, J. P.; de Pasquale, M.; Nakagawa, Y. E.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Onda, K.; Norris, J. P.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Kodaka, N.; Burrows, D. N.; Kennea, J. A.; Page, M. J.; Perri, M.; Markwardt, C. B.

    2008-02-01

    The origins of gamma-ray burst (GRB) prompt emission are currently not well understood and in this context long, well-observed events are particularly important to study. We present the case of GRB070616, analysing the exceptionally long-duration multipeaked prompt emission, and later afterglow, captured by all the instruments on-board Swift and by Suzaku Wide-Band All-Sky Monitor (WAM). The high-energy light curve remained generally flat for several hundred seconds before going into a steep decline. Spectral evolution from hard to soft is clearly taking place throughout the prompt emission, beginning at 285s after the trigger and extending to 1200s. We track the movement of the spectral peak energy, whilst observing a softening of the low-energy spectral slope. The steep decline in flux may be caused by a combination of this strong spectral evolution and the curvature effect. We investigate origins for the spectral evolution, ruling out a superposition of two power laws and considering instead an additional component dominant during the late prompt emission. We also discuss origins for the early optical emission and the physics of the afterglow. The case of GRB070616 clearly demonstrates that both broad-band coverage and good time resolution are crucial to pin down the origins of the complex prompt emission in GRBs. This paper is dedicated to the memory of Dr Francesca Tamburelli who died during its production. Francesca played a fundamental role within the team which is in charge of the development of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) data analysis software at the Italian Space Agency's Science Data Centre in Frascati. She is sadly missed. E-mail: rlcs1@star.le.ac.uk

  4. The bright optical afterglow of the long GRB 001007

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ceron, J.M.C.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.

    2002-01-01

    We present optical follow up observations of the long GRB 001007 between 6.14 hours and similar to468 days after the event. An unusually bright optical afterglow (OA) was seen to decline following a steep power law decay with index alpha = -2.03 +/- 0.11, possibly indicating a break in the light...... curve at t - t(0) hours after the gamma ray event provide tentative (1.2σ) evidence for a break in the optical light curve. The spectral index β of the OA yields -1.24 +/- 0.57. These values may be explained both...

  5. Light speed variation from gamma ray burst GRB 160509A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haowei Xu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available It is postulated in Einstein's relativity that the speed of light in vacuum is a constant for all observers. However, the effect of quantum gravity could bring an energy dependence of light speed. Even a tiny speed variation, when amplified by the cosmological distance, may be revealed by the observed time lags between photons with different energies from astrophysical sources. From the newly detected long gamma ray burst GRB 160509A, we find evidence to support the prediction for a linear form modification of light speed in cosmological space.

  6. Light speed variation from gamma ray burst GRB 160509A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Haowei [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ma, Bo-Qiang, E-mail: mabq@pku.edu.cn [School of Physics, State Key Laboratory of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Collaborative Innovation Center of Quantum Matter, Beijing (China); Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Center for History and Philosophy of Science, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)

    2016-09-10

    It is postulated in Einstein's relativity that the speed of light in vacuum is a constant for all observers. However, the effect of quantum gravity could bring an energy dependence of light speed. Even a tiny speed variation, when amplified by the cosmological distance, may be revealed by the observed time lags between photons with different energies from astrophysical sources. From the newly detected long gamma ray burst GRB 160509A, we find evidence to support the prediction for a linear form modification of light speed in cosmological space.

  7. The blue host galaxy of the red GRB 000418

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Klose, S.; Christensen, L.

    2003-01-01

    We report on multi-band (UBVRIZJ(s)K(s)) observations of the host galaxy of the April 18, 2000 gamma-ray burst. The Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) is analysed by fitting empirical and synthetic spectral templates. We find that: (i) the best SED fit is obtained with a starburst template, (ii) ...... structures (like dust lanes, spiral arms or disks). A natural scenario which accounts of all the above results is a nuclear starburst that harbours a young population of stars from which the GRB originated....

  8. Four Years of Observations of GRB Localizations with TAROT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeer, M.; Thiebaud, C.; Atteia, J.-L.; Malina, R.; Freitas Pacheco, J. de; Pedersen, H.; Klotz, A.

    2004-01-01

    We present a summary of the observations performed with the Telescope a Action Rapide pour les Objets Transitoires (TAROT - Rapid Action Telescope for Transient Objects) performed over the period 1999 - 2003. Seventeen GRB localization observations where performed shortly after the burst (10s - 90min.), and in at least one case, even while the source was still active in gamma-rays. During this period CGRO. HETE-2 and INTEGRAL were in operation. Though no alert was missed, no source was detected, to a magnitude limit between R = 15 and R = 20. Future plans are also presented, featuring the duplication of TAROT at ESO - La Silla

  9. THE PROPERTIES OF THE 2175 Å EXTINCTION FEATURE DISCOVERED IN GRB AFTERGLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, Tayyaba; Watson, Darach; Elíasdóttir, Árdís; Fynbo, Johan P. U.; Krühler, Thomas; Leloudas, Giorgos; Schady, Patricia; Greiner, Jochen; Jakobsson, Páll; Thöne, Christina C.; Perley, Daniel A.; Morgan, Adam N.; Bloom, Joshua

    2012-01-01

    The unequivocal, spectroscopic detection of the 2175 Å bump in extinction curves outside the Local Group is rare. To date, the properties of the bump have been examined in only two gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows (GRB 070802 and GRB 080607). In this work, we analyze in detail the detections of the 2175 Å extinction bump in the optical spectra of two further GRB afterglows: GRB 080605 and 080805. We gather all available optical/near-infrared photometric, spectroscopic, and X-ray data to construct multi-epoch spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for both GRB afterglows. We fit the SEDs with the Fitzpatrick and Massa model with a single or broken power law. We also fit a sample of 38 GRB afterglows, known to prefer a Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC)-type extinction curve, with the same model. We find that the SEDs of GRB 080605 and GRB 080805 at two epochs are fit well with a single power law with a derived extinction of A V = 0.52 +0.13 –0.16 and 0.50 +0.13 –0.10 , and 2.1 +0.7 –0.6 and 1.5 ± 0.2, respectively. While the slope of the extinction curve of GRB 080805 is not well constrained, the extinction curve of GRB 080605 has an unusual very steep far-UV rise together with the 2175 Å bump. Such an extinction curve has previously been found in only a small handful of sightlines in the Milky Way. One possible explanation of such an extinction curve may be dust arising from two different regions with two separate grain populations, however we cannot distinguish the origin of the curve. We finally compare the four 2175 Å bump sightlines to the larger GRB afterglow sample and to Local Group sightlines. We find that while the width and central positions of the bumps are consistent with what is observed in the Local Group, the relative strength of the detected bump (A bump ) for GRB afterglows is weaker for a given A V than for almost any Local Group sightline. Such dilution of the bump strength may offer tentative support to a dual dust-population scenario.

  10. Mapping the Martian Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, M.; Ross, J. D.; Solomon, N.

    1999-01-01

    The Mars-adapted version of the NASA/GISS general circulation model (GCM) has been applied to the hourly/daily simulation of the planet's meteorology over several seasonal orbits. The current running version of the model includes a diurnal solar cycle, CO2 sublimation, and a mature parameterization of upper level wave drag with a vertical domain extending from the surface up to the 6microb level. The benchmark simulations provide a four-dimensional archive for the comparative evaluation of various schemes for the retrieval of winds from anticipated polar orbiter measurements of temperatures by the Pressure Modulator Infrared Radiometer. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  11. Association between receptor protein-tyrosine phosphatase RPTPalpha and the Grb2 adaptor. Dual Src homology (SH) 2/SH3 domain requirement and functional consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Yang, L T; Sap, J

    1996-01-01

    domain in Grb2 (, ). We show here that association of Grb2 with RPTPalpha also involves a critical function for the C-terminal SH3 domain of Grb2. Furthermore, Grb2 SH3 binding peptides interfere with RPTPalpha-Grb2 association in vitro, and the RPTPalpha protein can dissociate the Grb2-Sos complex...... in vivo. These observations constitute a novel mode of Grb2 association and suggest a model in which association with a tyrosine-phosphorylated protein restricts the repertoire of SH3 binding proteins with which Grb2 can simultaneously interact. The function of the Tyr798 tyrosine phosphorylation/Grb2...... binding site in RPTPalpha was studied further by expression of wild type or mutant RPTPalpha proteins in PC12 cells. In these cells, wild type RPTPalpha interferes with acidic fibroblast growth factor-induced neurite outgrowth; this effect requires both the catalytic activity and the Grb2 binding Tyr798...

  12. IceCube and GRB neutrinos propagating in quantum spacetime

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Amelino-Camelia

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Two recent publications have reported intriguing analyses, tentatively suggesting that some aspects of IceCube data might be manifestations of quantum-gravity-modified laws of propagation for neutrinos. We here propose a strategy of data analysis which has the advantage of being applicable to several alternative possibilities for the laws of propagation of neutrinos in a quantum spacetime. In all scenarios here of interest one should find a correlation between the energy of an observed neutrino and the difference between the time of observation of that neutrino and the trigger time of a GRB. We select accordingly some GRB-neutrino candidates among IceCube events, and our data analysis finds a rather strong such correlation. This sort of study naturally lends itself to the introduction of a “false alarm probability”, which for our analysis we estimate conservatively to be of 1%. We therefore argue that our findings should motivate a vigorous program of investigation following the strategy here advocated.

  13. The GRB coordinates network (GCN): A status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barthelmy, S. D.; Takeshima, T.; Butterworth, P.; Cline, T. L.; Gehrels, N.; Marshall, F.; Connaughton, V.; Kippen, R. M.; Kouveliotou, C.; Robinson, C. R.

    1998-01-01

    A review of the GRB Coordinates Network (GCN) will be given. The GCN has recently replaced the BATSE Coordinates Distribution Network (BACODINE), maintaining all of BACODINE's original capabilities and services, but also providing new sources of GRB location information. These are: (1) source locations using the MSFC LOCBURST algorithm, (2) the Rossi-XTE detections (PCA and ASM), (3) the Interplanetary Network (IPN) locations, and (4) CGRO-COMPTEL locations. These new sources of locations are available for distribution in the minutes-to-hours-to-days time delay ranges, and they also have increasingly and significantly reduced error boxes, thus providing a broad range of time delays and error box sizes to fit within the observing capabilities of a broad range of follow-up instruments in the radio, optical, and TeV gamma-ray bands. Extreme-UV transients from ALEXIS are also now distributed. For all sources of location information, all the distribution methods are available (Internet Socket, E-mail, Alpha-numeric and Numeric Pagers, and Phone/modem) and several filters. Sites can choose which sources to receive and what filters to be applied. The GCN web site has been expanded to include a globally inclusive table of locations, light-curves, and fluence information which is automatically updated in real-time

  14. Relativistic hydrodynamic simulation of jet deceleration in GRB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meliani, Z.; Keppens, R.; Casse, F.

    2008-01-01

    Using the novel adaptive mesh refinement code, AMRVAC, we investigate the interaction between collimated ejecta (jetlike fireball models with various opening angle) with its surrounding cold Interstellar Medium (ISM). This is relevant for Gamma Ray Bursts, and we demonstrate that, thanks to the AMR strategy, we resolve the internal structure of the shocked shell-ISM matter. We determine the deceleration from an initial Lorentz factor γ = 100 up to the almost Newtonian γ∼O(3) phase of the flow. We discuss the effect of varying the opening angle on the deceleration, and pay attention to differences with their 1D isotropic GRB equivalents. These are due to thermally induced sideways expansions of both shocked shell and shocked ISM regions. The propagating 2D ultrarelativistic shell does not accrete all the surrounding medium located within its initial opening angle. The difference with isotropic GRB models is quite pronounced for shells with small opening angle. In the most collimated ejecta (open angle of 1 deg.), the deceleration phase (once the reverse shock has traversed the shell structure) shows distinct modulation, attributed to repeated rarefactions traversing the shell. These may have a clear impact on the emitted afterglow radiation

  15. ON THE NEUTRINO NON-DETECTION OF GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Shan; Kashiyama, Kazumi; Meszaros, Peter, E-mail: sxg324@psu.edu, E-mail: kzk15@psu.edu, E-mail: pmeszaros@astro.psu.edu [Department of Physics, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Center for Particle Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    The recent gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A has an isotropic electromagnetic energy E{sup iso} {approx} 10{sup 54} erg, suggesting an ample supply of target photons for photo-hadronic interactions, which at its low redshift of z {approx} 0.34 would appear to make it a promising candidate for neutrino detection. However, the IceCube collaboration has reported a null result based on a search during the prompt emission phase. We show that this neutrino non-detection can provide valuable information about this gamma-ray burst's (GRB's) key physical parameters such as the emission radius R{sub d} , the bulk Lorentz factor {Gamma}, and the energy fraction converted into cosmic rays {epsilon}{sub p}. The results are discussed both in a model-independent way and in the specific scenarios of an internal shock (IS) model, a baryonic photospheric (BPH) model, and a magnetic photospheric (MPH) model. We find that the constraints are most stringent for the MPH model considered, but the constraints on the IS and the BPH models are fairly modest.

  16. Air pollution meteorology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shirvaikar, V V; Daoo, V J [Environmental Assessment Div., Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    2002-06-01

    This report is intended as a training cum reference document for scientists posted at the Environmental Laboratories at the Nuclear Power Station Sites and other sites of the Department of Atomic Energy with installations emitting air pollutants, radioactive or otherwise. Since a manual already exists for the computation of doses from radioactive air pollutants, a general approach is take here i.e. air pollutants in general are considered. The first chapter presents a brief introduction to the need and scope of air pollution dispersion modelling. The second chapter is a very important chapter discussing the aspects of meteorology relevant to air pollution and dispersion modelling. This chapter is important because without this information one really does not understand the phenomena affecting dispersion, the scope and applicability of various models or their limitations under various weather and site conditions. The third chapter discusses the air pollution models in detail. These models are applicable to distances of a few tens of kilometres. The fourth chapter discusses the various aspects of meteorological measurements relevant to air pollution. The chapters are followed by two appendices. Apendix A discusses the reliability of air pollution estimates. Apendix B gives some practical examples relevant to general air pollution. It is hoped that the document will prove very useful to the users. (author)

  17. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GRB prompt emission fitted with the DREAM model (Ahlgren+, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlgren, B.; Larsson, J.; Nymark, T.; Ryde, F.; Pe'Er, A.

    2018-01-01

    We illustrate the application of the DREAM model by fitting it to two different, bright Fermi GRBs; GRB 090618 and GRB 100724B. While GRB 090618 is well fitted by a Band function, GRB 100724B was the first example of a burst with a significant additional BB component (Guiriec et al. 2011ApJ...727L..33G). GRB 090618 is analysed using Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) data (Meegan et al. 2009ApJ...702..791M) from the NaI and BGO detectors. For GRB 100724B, we used GBM data from the NaI and BGO detectors as well as Large Area Telescope Low Energy (LAT-LLE) data. For both bursts we selected NaI detectors seeing the GRB at an off-axis angle lower than 60° and the BGO detector as being the best aligned of the two BGO detectors. The spectra were fitted in the energy ranges 8-1000 keV (NaI), 200-40000 keV (BGO) and 30-1000 MeV (LAT-LLE). (2 data files).

  18. Deep Ly alpha imaging of two z=2.04 GRB host galaxy fields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fynbo, J.P.U.; Møller, Per; Thomsen, Bente

    2002-01-01

    We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest-frame equ......We report on the results of deep narrow-band Lyalpha and broad-band U and I imaging of the fields of two Gamma-Ray bursts at redshift z = 2.04 (GRB 000301C and GRB 000926). We find that the host galaxy of GRB 000926 is an extended (more than 2 arcsec), strong Lyalpha emitter with a rest...... - I colour than the eastern component, suggesting the presence of at least some dust. We do not detect the host galaxy of GRB 000301C in neither Lyalpha emission nor in U and I broad-band images. The strongest limit comes from combining the narrow and U-band imaging where we infer a limit of U...

  19. A tale of two GRB-SNe at a common redshift of ζ = 0.54

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cano, Z.; Bersier, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Clay, N.; Mottram, C.; Mundell, C.G.; Small, E.; Smith, R.J.; Steele, I.; Guidorzi, C.; Curran, P.A.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope optical observations of the optical transients (OTs) of long-duration Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) 060729 and 090618, both at a redshift of z=0.54. For GRB 060729, bumps are seen in the optical light curves (LCs), and the late-time broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the OT resemble those of local Type Ic supernovae (SNe). For GRB 090618, the dense sampling of our optical observations has allowed us to detect well-defined bumps in the optical LCs, as well as a change in colour, that are indicative of light coming from a core-collapse SN. The accompanying SNe for both events are individually compared with SN1998bw, a known GRB supernova, and SN1994I, a typical Type Ic supernova without a known GRB counterpart, and in both cases the brightness and temporal evolution more closely resemble SN1998bw. We also exploit our extensive optical and radio data for GRB 090618, as well as the publicly available Swift-XRT data, and discuss the properties of the afterglow at early times. In the context of a simple jet-like model, the afterglow of GRB 090618 is best explained by the presence of a jet-break at t - t 0 ≥ 0.5 d. We then compare the rest-frame, peak V-band absolute magnitudes of all of the GRB and X-Ray Flash (XRF)-associated SNe with a large sample of local Type Ibc SNe, concluding that, when host extinction is considered, the peak magnitudes of the GRB/XRF-SNe cannot be distinguished from the peak magnitudes of non-GRB/XRF SNe. (authors)

  20. Modeling and simulation of aggregation of membrane protein LAT with molecular variability in the number of binding sites for cytosolic Grb2-SOS1-Grb2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambarish Nag

    Full Text Available The linker for activation of T cells (LAT, the linker for activation of B cells (LAB, and the linker for activation of X cells (LAX form a family of transmembrane adaptor proteins widely expressed in lymphocytes. These scaffolding proteins have multiple binding motifs that, when phosphorylated, bind the SH2 domain of the cytosolic adaptor Grb2. Thus, the valence of LAT, LAB and LAX for Grb2 is variable, depending on the strength of receptor activation that initiates phosphorylation. During signaling, the LAT population will exhibit a time-varying distribution of Grb2 valences from zero to three. In the cytosol, Grb2 forms 1:1 and 2:1 complexes with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor SOS1. The 2:1 complex can bridge two LAT molecules when each Grb2, through their SH2 domains, binds to a phosphorylated site on a separate LAT. In T cells and mast cells, after receptor engagement, receptor phosphoyrlation is rapidly followed by LAT phosphorylation and aggregation. In mast cells, aggregates containing more than one hundred LAT molecules have been detected. Previously we considered a homogeneous population of trivalent LAT molecules and showed that for a range of Grb2, SOS1 and LAT concentrations, an equilibrium theory for LAT aggregation predicts the formation of a gel-like phase comprising a very large aggregate (superaggregate. We now extend this theory to investigate the effects of a distribution of Grb2 valence in the LAT population on the formation of LAT aggregates and superaggregate and use stochastic simulations to calculate the fraction of the total LAT population in the superaggregate.

  1. SWIFT GRB GRB071010B: OUTLIER OF THE E srcpeak - E γ AND E iso - E srcpeak - t srcjet CORRELATIONS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Yuji; Lee, Induk; Ip, Wing Huen; Huang, Kuiyun; Im, Myungshin; Deng Jinsong; Liping Xin; Qiu Yulei; Wei Jianyan; Zheng Weikang; Krimm, Hans; Ohno, Masanori; Sugita, Satoshi; Tashiro, Makoto; Yamaoka, Kazutaka

    2009-01-01

    We present multi-band results for GRB071010B based on Swift, Suzaku, and ground-based optical observations. This burst is an ideal target to evaluate the robustness of the E src peak - E iso and E src peak - E γ relations, whose studies have been in stagnation due to the lack of the combined estimation of E src peak and long-term optical monitoring. The joint prompt spectral fitting using Swift/Burst Alert Telescope and Suzaku/Wide-band All-sky Monitor data yielded the spectral peak energy as E src peak of 86.5 +6.4 -6.3 keV and E iso of 2.25 +0.19 -0.16 x 10 52 erg with z = 0.947. The optical afterglow light curve is well fitted by a simple power law with temporal index α = -0.60 ± 0.02. The lower limit of temporal break in the optical light curve is 9.8 days. Our multi-wavelength analysis reveals that GRB071010B follows E src peak - E iso but violates the E src peak - E γ and E iso - E src peak - t src jet at more than the 3σ level.

  2. Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory conducts research to understand the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics and processes of the...

  3. Relativistic Hydrodynamics and Spectral Evolution of GRB Jets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta-Martínez, C.

    2017-09-01

    In this thesis we study the progenitor systems of long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using numerical models of their dynamics and the electromagnetic emission. Of all the possible classes of events, we focus on those showing a prominent component of thermal emission, which might be generated due to the interaction of a relativistic jet with the medium into which it is propagating. The main part of the thesis is devoted to modelling GRBs from two different clases of progenitors: ultra-long GRBs dominated by blackbody emission and GRBs associated with core-collapse supernovae (SNe). The study of GRB jets and their radiative emission has been basically divided into two steps. First, the dynamical evolution of relativistic jets can be simulated by means of multidimensional special relativistic hydrodynamic simulations which have been performed with the MRGENESIS code. Second, the synthetic emission from such jets is computed with the relativistic radiative transfer code SPEV in a post-processing stage assuming different radiative processes in which we follow the temporal and spectral evolution of the emitted radiation. An instrumental part of this project consisted in extending SPEV to include thermal processes, such as thermal bremsstrahlung, in order to account for the thermal signal that may arise in some GRBs. In the first part of this thesis, we extend an existing theoretical model to explain the class of blackbody-dominated GRBs (BBD-GRBs), i.e., long lasting events characterized by the presence of a notable thermal component trailing the GRB prompt emission, and a rather weak traditional afterglow. GRB 101225A, the "Christmas burst", is the most prominent member of this class. It has been suggested that BBD-GRBs could result from the merger of a binary system formed by a neutron star and the Helium core of an evolved, massive star. We model in 2D the propagation of ultrarelativistic jets through the environments created by such mergers. We outline the most relevant

  4. Meteorology ans solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Oliver

    When in the second half of the 19th century both solar physics and astrophysics came into existence, various solar phenomena were described by analogies encountered in the terrestrial atmosphere. For a certain time, meteorology played a central role in research on solar processes. At first glance, this may appear as a curious and old-fashioned specialty. However, solar physics owes its first insights into solar structure to various analogies in terrestrial atmospheric studies. The present investigation intends to elucidate this fact, to present details of the historical development, and to demonstrate how our present knowledge in certain fields is based on considerations which were originally taken from the description of the terrestrial atmosphere.

  5. Meteorology as an infratechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, G. A.; Smith, L. A.

    2003-04-01

    From an economists perspective, meteorology is an underpinning or infratechnology in the sense that in general it does not of its own accord lead to actual products. Its value added comes from the application of its results to the activities of other forms of economic and technological activity. This contribution discusses both the potential applications of meteorology as an ininfratechnology, and quantifying its socio-economic impact. Large economic and social benefits are both likely in theory and can be identified in practice. Case studies of particular weather dependent industries or particular episodes are suggested, based on the methodology developed by NIST to analyze the social impact of technological innovation in US industries (see www.nist.gov/director/planning/strategicplanning.htm ). Infratechnologies can provide economic benefits in the support of markets. Incomplete information is a major cause of market failure because it inhibits the proper design of contracts. The performance of markets in general can be influenced by strategies adopted by different firms within a market to regulate the performance of others especially suppliers or purchasers. This contribution will focus on benefits to society from mechanisms which enhance and enforce mitigating actions. When the market mechanism fails, who might social benefits be gained, for example, by widening the scope of authorities to ensure that those who could have taken mitigating action, given prior warning, cover the costs. This goes beyond the design and implementation of civil responses to severe weather warnings to include the design of legislative recourse in the event of negligence given prior knowledge, or the modification of insurance contracts. The aim here, for example, would be to avoid the loss of an oil tanker in heavy seas at a location where a high probability of heavy seas had been forecast for some time.

  6. Solution structure of the human Grb7-SH2 domain/erbB2 peptide complex and structural basis for Grb7 binding to ErbB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivancic, Monika; Daly, Roger J.; Lyons, Barbara A.

    2003-01-01

    The solution structure of the hGrb7-SH2 domain in complex with a ten amino acid phosphorylated peptide ligand representative of the erbB2 receptor tyrosine kinase (pY1139) is presented as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance methods. The hGrb7-SH2 domain structure reveals the Src homology 2 domain topology consisting of a central β-sheet capped at each end by an α-helix. The presence of a four residue insertion in the region between β-strand E and the EF loop and resulting influences on the SH2 domain/peptide complex structure are discussed. The binding conformation of the erbB2 peptide is in a β-turn similar to that found in phosphorylated tyrosine peptides bound to the Grb2-SH2 domain. To our knowledge this is only the second example of an SH2 domain binding its naturally occurring ligands in a turn, instead of extended, conformation. Close contacts between residues responsible for binding specificity in hGrb7-SH2 and the erbB2 peptide are characterized and the potential effect of mutation of these residues on the hGrb7-SH2 domain structure is discussed

  7. Modeling the Multiband Afterglows of GRB 060614 and GRB 060908: Further Evidence for a Double Power-law Hard Electron Energy Spectrum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Q.; Xiong, S. L.; Song, L. M.

    2018-04-01

    Electrons accelerated in relativistic collisionless shocks are usually assumed to follow a power-law energy distribution with an index of p. Observationally, although most gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) have afterglows that are consistent with p > 2, there are still a few GRBs suggestive of a hard (p law hard electron energy (DPLH) spectrum with 1 2 and an “injection break” assumed as γ b ∝ γ q in the highly relativistic regime, where γ is the bulk Lorentz factor of the jet. In this paper, we show that GRB 060614 and GRB 060908 provide further evidence for such a DPLH spectrum. We interpret the multiband afterglow of GRB 060614 with the DPLH model in a homogeneous interstellar medium by taking into account a continuous energy injection process, while, for GRB 060908, a wind-like circumburst density profile is used. The two bursts, along with GRB 091127, suggest a similar behavior in the evolution of the injection break, with q ∼ 0.5. Whether this represents a universal law of the injection break remains uncertain and more afterglow observations such as these are needed to test this conjecture.

  8. REM observations of GRB060418 and GRB060607A: the onset of the afterglow and the initial fireball Lorentz factor determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molinari, E.; Covino, S.; D' Avanzo, P.; Chincarini, G.; Zerbi, F.M.; Conconi, P.; Malaspina, G.; Campana, S.; Rizzuto, D.; Tagliaferri, G. [Osserv Astron Brera, INAF, I-23807 Merate, LC, (Italy); Vergani, S.D.; Meurs, E.J.A.; Ward, P.A. [DIAS, Dunsink Observ, Dublin 15, (Ireland); Vergani, S.D.; Norci, L. [Dublin City Univ, Sch Phys Sci, NCPST, Dublin 9, (Ireland); Malesani, D. [SISSA, ISAS, I-34014 Trieste, (Italy); Malesani, D. [Univ Copenhagen, Niels Bohr Inst, Dark Cosmol Ctr, DK-2100 Copenhagen, (Denmark); D' Avanzo, P. [Univ Insubria, Dipartimento Matemat and Fis, I-22100 Como, (Italy); Chincarini, G.; Rizzuto, D. [Univ Milan, I-20126 Milan, (Italy); Antonelli, L.A.; Testa, V.; Vitali, F.; D' Alessio, F.; Guetta, D.; Piranomonte, S.; Stella, L. [Osserv Astron Roma, INAF, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone, (Italy); Tosti, G. [Univ Perugia, Dipartimento Fis, Osservatorio Astron, I-06123 Perugia, (Italy); Nicastro, L.; Palazzi, E.; Masetti, N. [IASF Bologna, INAF, I-40129 Bologna, (Italy); Goldoni, P. [APC, Lab Astroparticule and Cosmol, UMR 7164, F-75231 Paris 05, (France); Goldoni, P. [CEA Saclay, DSM, DAPNIA, Serv Astrophys, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)] (and others)

    2007-07-01

    Context. Gamma-ray burst (GRB) emission is believed to originate in highly relativistic fireballs. Aims. Currently, only lower limits were securely set to the initial fireball Lorentz factor {gamma}{sub 0}. We aim to provide a direct measure of {gamma}{sub 0}. Methods. The early-time afterglow light curve carries information about {gamma}{sub 0}, which determines the time of the afterglow peak. We have obtained early observations of the near-infrared afterglows of GRB060418 and GRB060607A with the REM robotic telescope. Results. For both events, the afterglow peak could be clearly singled out, allowing a firm determination of the fireball Lorentz of {gamma}{sub 0} similar to 400, fully confirming the highly relativistic nature of GRB fireballs. The deceleration radius was inferred to be R-dec approximate to 10{sup 17} cm. This is much larger than the internal shocks radius (believed to power the prompt emission), thus providing further evidence for a different origin of the prompt and afterglow stages of the GRB. (authors)

  9. Spectro-photometric study of the GRB 030329 host galaxy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorosabel, J.; Ramirez, D. Perez

    2005-01-01

    In this study we present optical/near-infrared (NIR) broad band photometry and optical spectroscopic observations of the GRB 030329 host galaxy. The Spectral Energy Distribution (SED) of the host is consistent with a starburst galaxy template with a dominant stellar population age of ∼ 150 Myr and an extinction A ν ∼ 0.6. Analysis of the spectral emission lines shows that the host is likely a low metallicity galaxy. Two independent diagnostics, based on the restframe UV continuum and the [OII] line flux, provide a consistent unextincted star formation rate of SFRN ∼ 0.6 Myr -1 . The low absolute magnitude of the host (M B ∼ -16.5) implies a high specific star formation rate value, SSFR ≅ 34 Myr -1 (L/L) -1

  10. Ten per cent polarized optical emission from GRB 090102.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, I A; Mundell, C G; Smith, R J; Kobayashi, S; Guidorzi, C

    2009-12-10

    The nature of the jets and the role of magnetic fields in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) remains unclear. In a baryon-dominated jet only weak, tangled fields generated in situ through shocks would be present. In an alternative model, jets are threaded with large-scale magnetic fields that originate at the central engine and that accelerate and collimate the material. To distinguish between the models the degree of polarization in early-time emission must be measured; however, previous claims of gamma-ray polarization have been controversial. Here we report that the early optical emission from GRB 090102 was polarized at 10 +/- 1 per cent, indicating the presence of large-scale fields originating in the expanding fireball. If the degree of polarization and its position angle were variable on timescales shorter than our 60-second exposure, then the peak polarization may have been larger than ten per cent.

  11. Spectroscopy of the short-hard GRB 130603B

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postigo, A. de Ugarte; Thoene, C. C.; Rowlinson, A.

    2014-01-01

    with the Galactic ratio, indicating that the explosion site differs from those found in LGRBs. The merger is not associated with the most star-forming region of the galaxy; however, it did occur in a dense region, implying a rapid merger or a low natal kick velocity for the compact object binary........3565+/-0.0002, measure rich dynamics both in absorption and emission, and a substantial line of sight extinction of A_V = 0.86+/-0.15 mag. The GRB was located at the edge of a disrupted arm of a moderately star forming galaxy with near-solar metallicity. Unlike for most long GRBs (LGRBs), N_HX / A_V is consistent...

  12. A central role for GRB10 in regulation of islet function in man.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inga Prokopenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Variants in the growth factor receptor-bound protein 10 (GRB10 gene were in a GWAS meta-analysis associated with reduced glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D if inherited from the father, but inexplicably reduced fasting glucose when inherited from the mother. GRB10 is a negative regulator of insulin signaling and imprinted in a parent-of-origin fashion in different tissues. GRB10 knock-down in human pancreatic islets showed reduced insulin and glucagon secretion, which together with changes in insulin sensitivity may explain the paradoxical reduction of glucose despite a decrease in insulin secretion. Together, these findings suggest that tissue-specific methylation and possibly imprinting of GRB10 can influence glucose metabolism and contribute to T2D pathogenesis. The data also emphasize the need in genetic studies to consider whether risk alleles are inherited from the mother or the father.

  13. Radioactive decay of the late-time light curves of GRB-SNe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misra, Kuntal; Fruchte, Andrew Steven

    2018-04-01

    We present the late-time Hubble Space Telescope observations of two GRB associated supernovae, GRB 030329/SN 2003dh and XRF 060218/SN 2006aj. Using the multi-color data upto ˜ 320 days after the burst, we constrain the late-time decay nature of these supernovae. The decay rates of SN 2003dh are steeper than SN 2006aj. A comparison with two other GRB supernovae, GRB 980425/SN 1998bw and the supernova associated with XRF 020903, shows that the decay rates of SN 2003dh are similar to XRF 020903 and those of SN 2006aj are similar to SN 1998bw. The late-time decay rates are steeper than the 56Co?56Fe radioactive decay rate (0.0098 mag day-1) indicating that there is some leakage of gamma-rays.

  14. VLT/X-shooter spectroscopy of the GRB 120327A afterglow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    D'Elia, V.; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall; Goldoni, P.

    2014-01-01

    we used to derive information on the distance between the host absorbing gas and the site of the GRB explosion. The variability of the FeI\\lambda2396 excited line between the two epochs proves that these features are excited by the GRB UV flux. Moreover, the distance of component I is found to be d......I=200+100-60 pc, while component II is located closer to the GRB, at dII=100+40-30 pc. These values are among the lowest found in GRBs. Component III does not show excited transitions, so it should be located farther away from the GRB. The presence of H2 molecules is firmly established, with a molecular...

  15. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 080825C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Ackermann, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Bloom, E. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Ballet, J.; Band, D. L.; Barbiellini, G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.

    2009-01-01

    The Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has opened a new high-energy window in the study of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Here we present a thorough analysis of GRB 080825C, which triggered the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), and was the first firm detection of a GRB by the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT). We discuss the LAT event selections, background estimation, significance calculations, and localization for Fermi GRBs in general and GRB 080825C in particular. We show the results of temporal and time-resolved spectral analysis of the GBM and LAT data. We also present some theoretical interpretation of GRB 080825C observations as well as some common features observed in other LAT GRBs.

  16. Insight into the Selectivity of the G7-18NATE Inhibitor Peptide for the Grb7-SH2 Domain Target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gabrielle M; Lucas, William A H; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2017-01-01

    Growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (Grb7) is an adaptor protein with established roles in the progression of both breast and pancreatic cancers. Through its C-terminal SH2 domain, Grb7 binds to phosphorylated tyrosine kinases to promote proliferative and migratory signaling. Here, we investigated the molecular basis for the specificity of a Grb7 SH2-domain targeted peptide inhibitor. We identified that arginine 462 in the BC loop is unique to Grb7 compared to Grb2, another SH2 domain bearing protein that shares the same consensus binding motif as Grb7. Using surface plasmon resonance we demonstrated that Grb7-SH2 binding to G7-18NATE is reduced 3.3-fold when the arginine is mutated to the corresponding Grb2 amino acid. The reverse mutation in Grb2-SH2 (serine to arginine), however, was insufficient to restore binding of G7-18NATE to Grb2-SH2. Further, using a microarray, we confirmed that G7-18NATE is specific for Grb7 over a panel of 79 SH2 domains, and identified that leucine at the βD6 position may also be a requirement for Grb7-SH2 binding. This study provides insight into the specificity defining features of Grb7 for the inhibitor molecule G7-18NATE, that will assist in the development of improved Grb7 targeted inhibitors.

  17. Insight into the Selectivity of the G7-18NATE Inhibitor Peptide for the Grb7-SH2 Domain Target

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabrielle M. Watson

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (Grb7 is an adaptor protein with established roles in the progression of both breast and pancreatic cancers. Through its C-terminal SH2 domain, Grb7 binds to phosphorylated tyrosine kinases to promote proliferative and migratory signaling. Here, we investigated the molecular basis for the specificity of a Grb7 SH2-domain targeted peptide inhibitor. We identified that arginine 462 in the BC loop is unique to Grb7 compared to Grb2, another SH2 domain bearing protein that shares the same consensus binding motif as Grb7. Using surface plasmon resonance we demonstrated that Grb7-SH2 binding to G7-18NATE is reduced 3.3-fold when the arginine is mutated to the corresponding Grb2 amino acid. The reverse mutation in Grb2-SH2 (serine to arginine, however, was insufficient to restore binding of G7-18NATE to Grb2-SH2. Further, using a microarray, we confirmed that G7-18NATE is specific for Grb7 over a panel of 79 SH2 domains, and identified that leucine at the βD6 position may also be a requirement for Grb7-SH2 binding. This study provides insight into the specificity defining features of Grb7 for the inhibitor molecule G7-18NATE, that will assist in the development of improved Grb7 targeted inhibitors.

  18. Insight into the Selectivity of the G7-18NATE Inhibitor Peptide for the Grb7-SH2 Domain Target

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Gabrielle M.; Lucas, William A. H.; Gunzburg, Menachem J.; Wilce, Jacqueline A.

    2017-01-01

    Growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (Grb7) is an adaptor protein with established roles in the progression of both breast and pancreatic cancers. Through its C-terminal SH2 domain, Grb7 binds to phosphorylated tyrosine kinases to promote proliferative and migratory signaling. Here, we investigated the molecular basis for the specificity of a Grb7 SH2-domain targeted peptide inhibitor. We identified that arginine 462 in the BC loop is unique to Grb7 compared to Grb2, another SH2 domain bearing protein that shares the same consensus binding motif as Grb7. Using surface plasmon resonance we demonstrated that Grb7-SH2 binding to G7-18NATE is reduced 3.3-fold when the arginine is mutated to the corresponding Grb2 amino acid. The reverse mutation in Grb2-SH2 (serine to arginine), however, was insufficient to restore binding of G7-18NATE to Grb2-SH2. Further, using a microarray, we confirmed that G7-18NATE is specific for Grb7 over a panel of 79 SH2 domains, and identified that leucine at the βD6 position may also be a requirement for Grb7-SH2 binding. This study provides insight into the specificity defining features of Grb7 for the inhibitor molecule G7-18NATE, that will assist in the development of improved Grb7 targeted inhibitors. PMID:29018805

  19. A Decade of GRB Follow-Up by BOOTES in Spain (2003–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jelínek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This article covers ten years of GRB follow-ups by the Spanish BOOTES stations: 71 follow-ups providing 23 detections. Follow-ups by BOOTES-1B from 2005 to 2008 were given in a previous article and are here reviewed and updated, and additional detection data points are included as the former article merely stated their existence. The all-sky cameras CASSANDRA have not yet detected any GRB optical afterglows, but limits are reported where available.

  20. Structural basis for the interaction of the adaptor protein grb14 with activated ras.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohini Qamra

    Full Text Available Grb14, a member of the Grb7-10-14 family of cytoplasmic adaptor proteins, is a tissue-specific negative regulator of insulin signaling. Grb7-10-14 contain several signaling modules, including a Ras-associating (RA domain, a pleckstrin-homology (PH domain, a family-specific BPS (between PH and SH2 region, and a C-terminal Src-homology-2 (SH2 domain. We showed previously that the RA and PH domains, along with the BPS region and SH2 domain, are necessary for downregulation of insulin signaling. Here, we report the crystal structure at 2.4-Å resolution of the Grb14 RA and PH domains in complex with GTP-loaded H-Ras (G12V. The structure reveals that the Grb14 RA and PH domains form an integrated structural unit capable of binding simultaneously to small GTPases and phosphoinositide lipids. The overall mode of binding of the Grb14 RA domain to activated H-Ras is similar to that of the RA domains of RalGDS and Raf1 but with important distinctions. The integrated RA-PH structural unit in Grb7-10-14 is also found in a second adaptor family that includes Rap1-interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM and lamellipodin, proteins involved in actin-cytoskeleton rearrangement. The structure of Grb14 RA-PH in complex with H-Ras represents the first detailed molecular characterization of tandem RA-PH domains bound to a small GTPase and provides insights into the molecular basis for specificity.

  1. A PHOTOMETRIC REDSHIFT OF z ∼ 9.4 FOR GRB 090429B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cucchiara, A.; Fox, D. B.; Wu, X. F.; Toma, K.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Rowlinson, A.; Ukwatta, T. N.; Berger, E.; Kruehler, T.; Greiner, J.; Olivares, F. E.; Yoldas, A. Kuepcue; Amati, L.; Sakamoto, T.; Roth, K.; Stephens, A.; Fritz, Alexander; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Hjorth, J.

    2011-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) serve as powerful probes of the early universe, with their luminous afterglows revealing the locations and physical properties of star-forming galaxies at the highest redshifts, and potentially locating first-generation (Population III) stars. Since GRB afterglows have intrinsically very simple spectra, they allow robust redshifts from low signal-to-noise spectroscopy, or photometry. Here we present a photometric redshift of z ∼ 9.4 for the Swift detected GRB 090429B based on deep observations with Gemini-North, the Very Large Telescope, and the GRB Optical and Near-infrared Detector. Assuming a Small Magellanic Cloud dust law (which has been found in a majority of GRB sight lines), the 90% likelihood range for the redshift is 9.06 7. The non-detection of the host galaxy to deep limits (Y(AB) ∼ 28, which would correspond roughly to 0.001L* at z = 1) in our late-time optical and infrared observations with the Hubble Space Telescope strongly supports the extreme-redshift origin of GRB 090429B, since we would expect to have detected any low-z galaxy, even if it were highly dusty. Finally, the energetics of GRB 090429B are comparable to those of other GRBs and suggest that its progenitor is not greatly different from those of lower redshift bursts.

  2. Fusion protein based on Grb2-SH2 domain for cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, Yuriko; Furukawa, Takako; Arano, Yasushi; Fujibayashi, Yasuhisa; Saga, Tsuneo

    2010-01-01

    Research highlights: → Grb2 mediates EGFR signaling through binding to phosphorylate EGFR with SH2 domain. → We generated fusion proteins containing 1 or 2 SH2 domains of Grb2 added with TAT. → The one with 2 SH2 domains (TSSF) interfered ERK phosphorylation. → TSSF significantly delayed the growth of EGFR overexpressing tumor in a mouse model. -- Abstract: Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is one of the very attractive targets for cancer therapy. In this study, we generated fusion proteins containing one or two Src-homology 2 (SH2) domains of growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2), which bind to phosphorylated EGFR, added with HIV-1 transactivating transcription for cell membrane penetration (termed TSF and TSSF, respectively). We examined if they can interfere Grb2-mediated signaling pathway and suppress tumor growth as expected from the lack of SH3 domain, which is necessary to intermediate EGFR-Grb2 cell signaling, in the fusion proteins. The transduction efficiency of TSSF was similar to that of TSF, but the binding activity of TSSF to EGFR was higher than that of TSF. Treatment of EGFR-overexpressing cells showed that TSSF decreased p42-ERK phosphorylation, while TSF did not. Both the proteins delayed cell growth but did not induce cell death in culture. TSSF also significantly suppressed tumor growth in vivo under consecutive administration. In conclusion, TSSF showed an ability to inhibit EGFR-Grb2 signaling and could have a potential to treat EGFR-activated cancer.

  3. A MISSING-LINK IN THE SUPERNOVA–GRB CONNECTION: THE CASE OF SN 2012ap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Soderberg, Alicia; Kamble, Atish; Margutti, Raffaella; Milisavljevic, Dan; Dittmann, Jason [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chomiuk, Laura [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak [Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Hurley, Kevin [Space Sciences Laboratory, University of California, 7 Gauss Way, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Bietenholz, Michael [Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, 4700 Keele St., M3J 1P3 Ontario (Canada); Brunthaler, Andreas [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Pignata, Giuliano [Departamento de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Andres Bello, Avda. Republica 252, Santiago (Chile); Pian, Elena [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza Dei Cavalieri 7—I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Mazzali, Paolo [Liverpool John Moores University, IC2, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Fransson, Claes [Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bartel, Norbert [Hartebeesthoek Radio Astronomy Observatory, PO Box 443, Krugersdrop, 1740 (South Africa); Hamuy, Mario [Departamento de Astronoma, Universidad de Chile (Chile); Levesque, Emily [University of Colorado, C327A, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); MacFadyen, Andrew, E-mail: schakraborti@fas.harvard.edu [New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); and others

    2015-06-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are characterized by ultra-relativistic outflows, while supernovae are generally characterized by non-relativistic ejecta. GRB afterglows decelerate rapidly, usually within days, because their low-mass ejecta rapidly sweep up a comparatively larger mass of circumstellar material. However, supernovae with heavy ejecta can be in nearly free expansion for centuries. Supernovae were thought to have non-relativistic outflows except for a few relativistic ones accompanied by GRBs. This clear division was blurred by SN 2009bb, the first supernova with a relativistic outflow without an observed GRB. However, the ejecta from SN 2009bb was baryon loaded and in nearly free expansion for a year, unlike GRBs. We report the first supernova discovered without a GRB but with rapidly decelerating mildly relativistic ejecta, SN 2012ap. We discovered a bright and rapidly evolving radio counterpart driven by the circumstellar interaction of the relativistic ejecta. However, we did not find any coincident GRB with an isotropic fluence of more than one-sixth of the fluence from GRB 980425. This shows for the first time that central engines in SNe Ic, even without an observed GRB, can produce both relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflows like GRBs.

  4. A MISSING-LINK IN THE SUPERNOVA–GRB CONNECTION: THE CASE OF SN 2012ap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Soderberg, Alicia; Kamble, Atish; Margutti, Raffaella; Milisavljevic, Dan; Dittmann, Jason; Chomiuk, Laura; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak; Hurley, Kevin; Bietenholz, Michael; Brunthaler, Andreas; Pignata, Giuliano; Pian, Elena; Mazzali, Paolo; Fransson, Claes; Bartel, Norbert; Hamuy, Mario; Levesque, Emily; MacFadyen, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are characterized by ultra-relativistic outflows, while supernovae are generally characterized by non-relativistic ejecta. GRB afterglows decelerate rapidly, usually within days, because their low-mass ejecta rapidly sweep up a comparatively larger mass of circumstellar material. However, supernovae with heavy ejecta can be in nearly free expansion for centuries. Supernovae were thought to have non-relativistic outflows except for a few relativistic ones accompanied by GRBs. This clear division was blurred by SN 2009bb, the first supernova with a relativistic outflow without an observed GRB. However, the ejecta from SN 2009bb was baryon loaded and in nearly free expansion for a year, unlike GRBs. We report the first supernova discovered without a GRB but with rapidly decelerating mildly relativistic ejecta, SN 2012ap. We discovered a bright and rapidly evolving radio counterpart driven by the circumstellar interaction of the relativistic ejecta. However, we did not find any coincident GRB with an isotropic fluence of more than one-sixth of the fluence from GRB 980425. This shows for the first time that central engines in SNe Ic, even without an observed GRB, can produce both relativistic and rapidly decelerating outflows like GRBs

  5. Chromosome locations of genes encoding human signal transduction adapter proteins, Nck (NCK), Shc (SHC1), and Grb2 (GRB2)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huebner, K; Kastury, K; Druck, T

    1994-01-01

    "adapter" proteins, which are involved in transducing signals from receptor tyrosine kinases to downstream signal recipients such as ras, because adaptor protein genes could also, logically, serve as targets of mutation, rearrangement, or other aberration in disease. Therefore, DNAs from panels of rodent-human......Abnormalities due to chromosomal aberration or point mutation in gene products of growth factor receptors or in ras gene products, which lie on the same signaling pathway, can cause disease in animals and humans. Thus, it can be important to determine chromosomal map positions of genes encoding...... hybrids carrying defined complements of human chromosomes were assayed for the presence of the cognate genes for NCK, SHC, and GRB2, three SH2 or SH2/SH3 (Src homology 2 and 3) domain-containing adapter proteins. Additionally, NCK and SHC genes were more narrowly localized by chromosomal in situ...

  6. Instruments for meteorological measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-08-01

    The Fundamental Safety Rules applicable to certain types of nuclear installation are intended to clarify the conditions of which observance, for the type of installation concerned and for the subject that they deal with, is considered as equivalent to compliance with regulatory French technical practice. These Rules should facilitate safety analysises and the clear understanding between persons interested in matters related to nuclear safety. They in no way reduce the operator's liability and pose no obstacle to statutory provisions in force. For any installation to which a Fundamental Safety Rule applies according to the foregoing paragraph, the operator may be relieved from application of the Rule if he shows proof that the safety objectives set by the Rule are attained by other means that he proposes within the framework of statutory procedures. Furthermore, the Central Service for the Safety of Nuclear Installations reserves the right at all times to alter any Fundamental Safety Rule, as required, should it deem this necessary, while specifying the applicability conditions. This present rule has for objective to determine the means for meteorological measurement near a site of nuclear facility in which there is not a PWR power plant [fr

  7. Molecular targeting of growth factor receptor-bound 2 (Grb2) as an anti-cancer strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dharmawardana, Pathirage G; Peruzzi, Benedetta; Giubellino, Alessio; Burke, Terrence R; Bottaro, Donald P

    2006-01-01

    Growth factor receptor-bound 2 (Grb2) is a ubiquitously expressed adapter protein that provides a critical link between cell surface growth factor receptors and the Ras signaling pathway. As such, it has been implicated in the oncogenesis of several important human malignancies. In addition to this function, research over the last decade has revealed other fundamental roles for Grb2 in cell motility and angiogenesis--processes that also contribute to tumor growth, invasiveness and metastasis. This functional profile makes Grb2 a high priority target for anti-cancer drug development. Knowledge of Grb2 protein structure, its component Src homology domains and their respective structure-function relationships has facilitated the rapid development of sophisticated drug candidates that can penetrate cells, bind Grb2 with high affinity and potently antagonize Grb2 signaling. These novel compounds offer considerable promise in our growing arsenal of rationally designed anti-cancer therapeutics.

  8. The meteorological data acquisition system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouharrour, S.; Thomas, P.

    1975-07-01

    The 200 m meteorological tower of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center has been equipped with 45 instruments measuring the meteorological parameters near the ground level. Frequent inquiry of the instruments implies data acquisition with on-line data reduction. This task is fulfilled by some peripheral units controlled by a PDP-8/I. This report presents details of the hardware configuration and a short description of the software configuration of the meteorological data acquisition system. The report also serves as an instruction for maintenance and repair work to be carried out at the system. (orig.) [de

  9. VLT identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB000131 at z=4.50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.; Jesen, B.L.

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 and its optical afterglow. The optical identification was made with the VLT 84 hours after the burst following a BATSE detection and an Inter Planetary Network localization. GRB 000131 was a bright, long-duration GRB, with an apparent...... Angstrom. This places GRB 000131 at a redshift of 4.500 +/- 0.015. The inferred isotropic energy release in gamma rays alone was similar to 10(54) erg (depending on the assumed cosmology). The rapid power-law decay of the afterglow (index alpha = 2.25, similar to bursts with a prior break in the lightcurve...

  10. VLT identification of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 at z=4.50

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.; Pedersen, H.

    2000-01-01

    We report the discovery of the gamma-ray burst GRB 000131 and its optical afterglow. The optical identification was made with the VLT 84 hours after the burst following a BATSE detection and an Inter Planetary Network localization. GRB 000131 was a bright, long-duration GRB, with an apparent...... Angstrom. This places GRB 000131 at a redshift of 4.500 +/- 0.015. The inferred isotropic energy release in gamma rays alone was similar to 10(54) erg (depending on the assumed cosmology). The rapid power-law decay of the afterglow (index alpha = 2.25, similar to bursts with a prior break in the lightcurve...

  11. Direct association between the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase and the Src homology 2-containing adapter protein Grb7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, A; Liu, X; Dixon, J E; Di Fiore, P P; Dixit, V M

    1996-05-03

    Adapter proteins containing Src homology 2 (SH2) domains link transmembrane receptor protein-tyrosine kinases to downstream signal transducing molecules. A family of SH2 containing adapter proteins including Grb7 and Grb10 has been recently identified. We had previously shown that Grb10 associates with Ret via its SH2 domain in an activation-dependent manner (Pandey, A., Duan, H., Di Fiore, P.P., and Dixit, V.M. (1995) J. Biol, Chem. 270, 21461-21463). We now demonstrate that the related adapter molecule Grb7 also associates with Ret in vitro and in vivo, and that the binding of the SH2 domain of Grb7 to Ret is direct. This binding is dependent upon Ret autophosphorylation since Grb7 is incapable of binding a kinase-defective mutant of Ret. Thus two members of the Grb family, Grb7 and Grb10, likely relay signals emanating from Ret to other, as yet, unidentified targets within the cell.

  12. Mathematical problems in meteorological modelling

    CERN Document Server

    Csomós, Petra; Faragó, István; Horányi, András; Szépszó, Gabriella

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with mathematical problems arising in the context of meteorological modelling. It gathers and presents some of the most interesting and important issues from the interaction of mathematics and meteorology. It is unique in that it features contributions on topics like data assimilation, ensemble prediction, numerical methods, and transport modelling, from both mathematical and meteorological perspectives. The derivation and solution of all kinds of numerical prediction models require the application of results from various mathematical fields. The present volume is divided into three parts, moving from mathematical and numerical problems through air quality modelling, to advanced applications in data assimilation and probabilistic forecasting. The book arose from the workshop “Mathematical Problems in Meteorological Modelling” held in Budapest in May 2014 and organized by the ECMI Special Interest Group on Numerical Weather Prediction. Its main objective is to highlight the beauty of the de...

  13. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) satellites collect visible and infrared cloud imagery as well as monitoring the atmospheric, oceanographic,...

  14. THE PROMPT, HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPIC VIEW OF THE 'NAKED-EYE' GRB080319B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Elia, V.; Fiore, F.; Nicastro, F.; Antonelli, L. A.; Guetta, D.; Perna, R.; Lazzati, D.; Krongold, Y.; Covino, S.; Fugazza, D.; Campana, S.; Chincarini, G.; D'Avanzo, P.; Guidorzi, C.; Molinari, E.; Valle, M. Della; Goldoni, P.; Meurs, E. J. A.; Mirabel, F.; Norci, L.

    2009-01-01

    GRB080319B reached fifth optical magnitude during the burst prompt emission. Thanks to the Very Large Telescope (VLT)/Ultraviolet and Visual Echelle Spectrograph (UVES) rapid response mode, we observed its afterglow just 8m:30s after the gamma-ray burst (GRB) onset when the magnitude was R ∼ 12. This allowed us to obtain the best signal-to-noise (S/N), high-resolution spectrum of a GRB afterglow ever (S/N per resolution element ∼50). The spectrum is rich of absorption features belonging to the main system at z = 0.937, divided in at least six components spanning a total velocity range of 100 km s -1 . The VLT/UVES observations caught the absorbing gas in a highly excited state, producing the strongest Fe II fine structure lines ever observed in a GRB. A few hours later, the optical depth of these lines was reduced by a factor of 4-20, and the optical/UV flux by a factor of ∼60. This proves that the excitation of the observed fine structure lines is due to 'pumping' by the GRB UV photons. A comparison of the observed ratio between the number of photons absorbed by the excited state and those in the Fe II ground state suggests that the six absorbers are ∼2-6 kpc from the GRB site, with component I ∼ 3 times closer to the GRB site than components III-VI. Component I is characterized also by the lack of Mg I absorption, unlike all other components. This may be both due to a closer distance and a lower density, suggesting a structured interstellar matter in this galaxy complex.

  15. CONSTRAINING THE GRB-MAGNETAR MODEL BY MEANS OF THE GALACTIC PULSAR POPULATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rea, N. [Anton Pannekoek Institute for Astronomy, University of Amsterdam, Postbus 94249, NL-1090 GE Amsterdam (Netherlands); Gullón, M.; Pons, J. A.; Miralles, J. A. [Departament de Fisica Aplicada, Universitat d’Alacant, Ap. Correus 99, E-03080 Alacant (Spain); Perna, R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Stony Brook University, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States); Dainotti, M. G. [Physics Department, Stanford University, Via Pueblo Mall 382, Stanford, CA (United States); Torres, D. F. [Instituto de Ciencias de l’Espacio (ICE, CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Carrer Can Magrans s/n, E-08193 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-11-10

    A large fraction of Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) displays an X-ray plateau phase within <10{sup 5} s from the prompt emission, proposed to be powered by the spin-down energy of a rapidly spinning newly born magnetar. In this work we use the properties of the Galactic neutron star population to constrain the GRB-magnetar scenario. We re-analyze the X-ray plateaus of all Swift GRBs with known redshift, between 2005 January and 2014 August. From the derived initial magnetic field distribution for the possible magnetars left behind by the GRBs, we study the evolution and properties of a simulated GRB-magnetar population using numerical simulations of magnetic field evolution, coupled with Monte Carlo simulations of Pulsar Population Synthesis in our Galaxy. We find that if the GRB X-ray plateaus are powered by the rotational energy of a newly formed magnetar, the current observational properties of the Galactic magnetar population are not compatible with being formed within the GRB scenario (regardless of the GRB type or rate at z = 0). Direct consequences would be that we should allow the existence of magnetars and “super-magnetars” having different progenitors, and that Type Ib/c SNe related to Long GRBs form systematically neutron stars with higher initial magnetic fields. We put an upper limit of ≤16 “super-magnetars” formed by a GRB in our Galaxy in the past Myr (at 99% c.l.). This limit is somewhat smaller than what is roughly expected from Long GRB rates, although the very large uncertainties do not allow us to draw strong conclusion in this respect.

  16. Colour variations in the GRB 120327A afterglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melandri, A.; Covino, S.; Zaninoni, E.; Campana, S.; Bolmer, J.; Cobb, B. E.; Gorosabel, J.; Kim, J.-W.; Kuin, P.; Kuroda, D.; Malesani, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Nappo, F.; Sbarufatti, B.; Smith, R. J.; Steele, I. A.; Topinka, M.; Trotter, A. S.; Virgili, F. J.; Bernardini, M. G.; D'Avanzo, P.; D'Elia, V.; Fugazza, D.; Ghirlanda, G.; Gomboc, A.; Greiner, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Haislip, J. B.; Hanayama, H.; Hanlon, L.; Im, M.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Japelj, J.; Jelínek, M.; Kawai, N.; Kobayashi, S.; Kopac, D.; LaCluyzé, A. P.; Martin-Carrillo, A.; Murphy, D.; Reichart, D. E.; Salvaterra, R.; Salafia, O. S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S. D.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: We present a comprehensive temporal and spectral analysis of the long Swift GRB 120327A afterglow data to investigate possible causes of the observed early-time colour variations. Methods: We collected data from various instruments and telescopes in X-ray, ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared bands, and determined the shapes of the afterglow early-time light curves. We studied the overall temporal behaviour and the spectral energy distributions from early to late times. Results: The ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared light curves can be modelled with a single power-law component between 200 and 2 × 104 s after the burst event. The X-ray light curve shows a canonical steep-shallow-steep behaviour that is typical of long gamma-ray bursts. At early times a colour variation is observed in the ultraviolet/optical bands, while at very late times a hint of a re-brightening is visible. The observed early-time colour change can be explained as a variation in the intrinsic optical spectral index, rather than an evolution of the optical extinction. Table 2 is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (http://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/607/A29

  17. AN EXTERNAL SHOCK ORIGIN OF GRB 141028A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgess, J. Michael; Bégué, Damien; Ryde, Felix [The Oskar Klein Centre for Cosmoparticle Physics, AlbaNova, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Omodei, Nicola [W. W. Hansen Experimental Physics Laboratory, Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Pe’er, Asaf [Physics Department, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Racusin, J. L.; Cucchiara, A., E-mail: jamesb@kth.se, E-mail: damienb@kth.se [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2016-05-10

    The prompt emission of the long, smooth, and single-pulsed gamma-ray burst, GRB 141028A, is analyzed under the guise of an external shock model. First, we fit the γ -ray spectrum with a two-component photon model, namely, synchrotron+blackbody, and then fit the recovered evolution of the synchrotron νF{sub ν} peak to an analytic model derived considering the emission of a relativistic blast wave expanding into an external medium. The prediction of the model for the νF{sub ν} peak evolution matches well with the observations. We observe the blast wave transitioning into the deceleration phase. Furthermore, we assume the expansion of the blast wave to be nearly adiabatic, motivated by the low magnetic field deduced from the observations. This allows us to recover within an order of magnitude the flux density at the νF{sub ν} peak, which is remarkable considering the simplicity of the analytic model. Under this scenario we argue that the distinction between prompt and afterglow emission is superfluous as both early-time emission and late-time emission emanate from the same source. While the external shock model is clearly not a universal solution, this analysis opens the possibility that at least some fraction of GRBs can be explained with an external shock origin of their prompt phase.

  18. Enhanced cosmological GRB rates and implications for cosmogenic neutrinos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yueksel, Hasan; Kistler, Matthew D.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts, which are among the most violent events in the Universe, are one of the few viable candidates to produce ultra high-energy cosmic rays. Recently, observations have revealed that GRBs generally originate from metal-poor, low-luminosity galaxies and do not directly trace cosmic star formation, as might have been assumed from their association with core-collapse supernovae. Several implications follow from these findings. The redshift distribution of observed GRBs is expected to peak at higher redshift (compared to cosmic star formation), which is supported by the mean redshift of the Swift GRB sample, ∼3. If GRBs are, in fact, the source of the observed UHECR, then cosmic-ray production would evolve with redshift in a stronger fashion than has been previously suggested. This necessarily leads, through the GZK process, to an enhancement in the flux of cosmogenic neutrinos, providing a near-term approach for testing the gamma-ray burst-cosmic-ray connection with ongoing and proposed UHE neutrino experiments

  19. GRB physics and cosmology with peak energy-intensity correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sawant, Disha, E-mail: sawant@fe.infn.it [University of Ferrara, Via Saragat-1, Block C, Ferrara 44122 (Italy); University of Nice, 28 Avenue Valrose, Nice 06103 (France); IRAP Erasmus PhD Program, European Union and INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); Amati, Lorenzo, E-mail: amati@iasfbo.inaf.it [INAF - IASF Bologna, Via P. Gobetti 101, Bologna 41125 (Italy); ICRANet, Piazzale Aldo Moro-5, Rome 00185 (Italy)

    2015-12-17

    Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) are immensely energetic explosions radiating up to 10{sup 54} erg of energy isotropically (E{sub iso}) and they are observed within a wide range of redshift (from ∼ 0.01 up to ∼ 9). Such enormous power and high redshift point at these phenomena being highly favorable to investigate the history and evolution of our universe. The major obstacle in their application as cosmological study-tools is to find a way to standardize the GRBs, for instance similar to SNe Ia. With respect to this goal, the correlation between spectral peak energy (E{sub p,i}) and the “intensity” is a positively useful and investigated criterion. Moreover, it has been demonstrated that, through the E{sub p,i} – E{sub iso} correlation, the current data set of GRBs can already contribute to the independent evidence of the matter density Ω{sub M} being ∼ 0.3 for a flat universe scenario. We try to inspect and compare the correlations of E{sub p,i} with different intensity indicators (e.g., radiated energy, average and peak luminosity, bolometric vs. monochromatic quantities, etc.) both in terms of intrinsic dispersion and precise estimation of Ω{sub M}. The outcome of such studies are further analyzed in verifying the reliability of the correlations for both GRB physics and their standardization for cosmology.

  20. MODELING THE EARLY MULTIWAVELENGTH EMISSION IN GRB 130427A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraija, N.; Lee, W.; Veres, P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the most powerful gamma-ray bursts, GRB 130427A was swiftly detected from GeV γ-rays to optical wavelengths. In the GeV band, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope observed the highest-energy photon ever recorded of 95 GeV and a bright peak in the early phase followed by emission temporally extended for more than 20 hr. In the optical band, a bright flash with a magnitude of 7.03 ± 0.03 in the time interval from 9.31 to 19.31 s after the trigger was reported by RAPTOR in r band. We study the origin of the GeV γ-ray emission, using the multiwavelength observation detected in X-ray and optical bands. The origin of the temporally extended LAT, X-ray, and optical flux is naturally interpreted as synchrotron radiation, and the 95 GeV photon and the integral flux upper limits placed by the high-altitude water Cerenkov observatory are consistent with synchrotron self-Compton from an adiabatic forward shock propagating into the stellar wind of its progenitor. The extreme LAT peak and the bright optical flash are explained through synchrotron self-Compton and synchrotron emission from the reverse shock, respectively, when the ejecta evolves in the thick-shell regime and carries a significant magnetic field

  1. Selection effects on GRB spectral-energy correlations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nava, Lara; Ghirlanda, Giancarlo; Ghisellini, Gabriele

    2009-01-01

    Instrumental selection effects can act upon the estimates of the peak energy E peak obs , the fluence F and the peak flux P of GRBs. If this were the case, then the correlations involving the corresponding rest frame quantities (i.e. E peak , E obs and the peak luminosity L iso ) would be questioned. We estimated, as a function of E peak obs , the minimum peak flux necessary to trigger a GRB and the minimum fluence a burst must have to determine the value of E peak obs by considering different instruments (BATSE, Swift, BeppoSAX). We find that the latter dominates over the former. We then study the E peak obs -fluence (and flux) correlation in the observer plane. GRBs with redshift show well defined E peak obs -F and E peak obs -P correlations: in this planes the selection effects are present, but do not determine the found correlations. This is not true for Swift GRBs with redshift, for which the spectral analysis threshold does affect their distribution in the observer planes. Extending the sample to GRBs without z, we still find a significant E peak obs -F correlation, although with a larger scatter than that defined by GRBs with redshift. We find that 6% are outliers of the Amati correlation. The E peak obs -P correlation of GRBs with or without redshift is the same and no outlier is found among bursts without redshift.

  2. The LAGO Collaboration: Searching for high energy GRB emissions in Latin America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, H.; Lago Collaboration

    2012-02-01

    During more than a decade Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB a cosmological phenomena of tremendous power) have been extensively studied in the keV - MeV energy range. However, the higher energy emission still remains a mystery. The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (L.A.G.O.) is an international collaboration started in 2005 aiming at a better understanding of the GRB by studying their emission at high energies (> 1 GeV), where the fluxes are low and measurements by satellites are difficult. This is done using the Single Particle Technique, by means of ground-based Water Cherenkov Detectors (WCD) at sites of high altitude. At those altitudes it is possible to detect air showers produced by high energy photons from the GRB, i. e. a higher rate of events on a short time scale, of the order of the second. The Pierre Auger Observatory could detect such GRB given its large number of detectors, but at 1400 m.a.s.l. the expected signal is quite small. At higher altitudes, similar performance is expected with only a very small number of WCD. As of 2011, high altitude WCD are in operation at Sierra Negra (Mexico, 4650 m.a.s.l.), Chacaltaya (Bolivia, 5200 m.a.s.l.), Maracapomacocha (Peru, 4200 m.a.s.l.), and new WCDs are being installed in Venezuela (Pico Espejo, 4750 m.a.s.l.), Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia and Guatemala. Most of the new WCDs will not be at high enough altitude to detect GRB, never the less it will allow obtaining valuable measurements of secondaries at ground level, which are relevant for solar physics. The LAGO sensitivity to GRB is determined from simulations (under a sudden increase of 1 GeV - 1 TeV photons from a GRB) of the gamma initiated particle shower in the atmosphere and the WCD response to secondaries. We report on WDC calibration and operation at high altitude, GRB detectability, background rates, search for bursts in several months of preliminary data, as well as search for signals at ground level when satellite burst is reported, all these show the

  3. Five Years of Multi-frequency Monitoring of GRB030329 Afterglow Using the GMRT and WSRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamble, Atish; Wijers, Ralph; Rol, Evert; Horst, A. J. van der; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Bhattacharya, D.; Chandra, C. H. Ishwara; Resmi, L.; Strom, R.

    2009-01-01

    GRB 030329 displayed one of the brightest optical afterglows ever. We have followed the radio afterglow of GRB 030329 for over 5 years using the GMRT and WSRT at low radio frequencies. This is the longest as well as the lowest frequency follow up of any GRB afterglow ever.Radio observations of a GRB afterglow provide a unique probe of the physics of the blast wave at late times, when the expansion of the fireball slows down to non-relativistic speeds. Our GMRT-WSRT observations suggest that the afterglow of GRB030329 entered the non-relativistic phase around 60 days after the burst. The estimate of the fireball energy content, ∼10 51 erg, in this near-isotropic phase is much less susceptible to the collimation-related uncertainties arising in the relativistic phase. We have also been closely monitoring the evolution of the afterglow to look for possible signatures of emission from a counter jet, but no conclusive evidence has so far been found.

  4. ON THE HOST GALAXY OF GRB 150101B AND THE ASSOCIATED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Chen [Department of Physics, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China); Fang, Taotao; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tong; Jiang, Xiaochuan, E-mail: fangt@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen (China)

    2016-06-20

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the host galaxy of short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) 150101B. Follow-up optical and X-ray observations suggested that the host galaxy, 2MASX J12320498-1056010, likely harbors low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our modeling of the spectral energy distribution has confirmed the nature of the AGN, making it the first reported GRB host that contains an AGN. We have also found the host galaxy is a massive elliptical galaxy with stellar population of ∼5.7 Gyr, one of the oldest among the short-duration GRB hosts. Our analysis suggests that the host galaxy can be classified as an X-ray bright, optically normal galaxy, and the central AGN is likely dominated by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. Our work explores an interesting connection that may exist between GRB and AGN activities of the host galaxy, which can help in understanding the host environment of the GRB events and the roles of AGN feedback.

  5. GRB 170817A as a jet counterpart to gravitational wave trigger GW 170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Gavin P.; Kobayashi, Shiho

    2018-05-01

    Fermi/GBM (Gamma-ray Burst Monitor) and INTEGRAL (the International Gamma-ray Astrophysics Laboratory) reported the detection of the γ-ray counterpart, GRB 170817A, to the LIGO (Light Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory)/Virgo gravitational wave detected binary neutron star merger, GW 170817. GRB 170817A is likely to have an internal jet or another origin such as cocoon emission, shock-breakout, or a flare from a viscous disc. In this paper we assume that the γ-ray emission is caused by energy dissipation within a relativistic jet and we model the afterglow synchrotron emission from a reverse- and forward-shock in the outflow. We show the afterglow for a low-luminosity γ-ray burst (GRB) jet with a high Lorentz-factor (Γ); a low-Γ and low-kinetic energy jet; a low-Γ, high kinetic energy jet; structured jets viewed at an inclination within the jet-half-opening angle; and an off-axis `typical' GRB jet. All jet models will produce observable afterglows on various timescales. The late-time afterglow from 10-110 days can be fit by a Gaussian structured jet viewed at a moderate inclination, however the GRB is not directly reproduced by this model. These jet afterglow models can be used for future GW detected NS merger counterparts with a jet afterglow origin.

  6. Revealing Physical Activity of GRB Central Engine with Macronova/Kilonova Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Zhao-Qiang; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Liang, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiang; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming, E-mail: yzfan@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2017-02-01

    The modeling of Li-Paczyński macronova/kilonova signals gives a reasonable estimate on the neutron-rich material ejected during the neutron star mergers. Usually the accretion disk is more massive than the macronova ejecta, with which the efficiencies of converting the disk mass into prompt emission of three merger-driven GRBs can hence be directly constrained. Supposing the macronovae/kilonovae associated with GRB 050709, GRB 060614, and GRB 130603B arose from radioactive decay of the r -process material, the upper limit on energy conversion efficiencies are found to be as low as ∼10{sup −6}–10{sup −4}. Moreover, for all three events, neutrino annihilation is likely powerful enough to account for the brief gamma-ray flashes. Neutrino annihilation can also explain the “extended” emission lasting ∼100 s in GRB 050709, but does not work for the one in GRB 060614. These progresses demonstrate that the macronova can serve as a novel probe of the central engine activity.

  7. Using GRB 080723B to cross-calibrate Fermi/GBM and INTEGRAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kienlin, A. von; Briggs, M. S.; Connoughton, V.; Preece, R. D.; McBreen, S.; Sazonov, Sergey; Tsygankov, Sergey; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.

    2009-01-01

    On July 23, 2008 GRB 080723B, a bright GRB lasting about 105 s was detected by the INTEGRAL burst alert system. This burst was also detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray burst monitor. At this time no Fermi/GBM GCN notices were distributed to the public because Fermi was still in commissioning phase. The simultaneous detection of a bright GRB by both satellites gives us the opportunity to cross-calibrate the GBM with the already well-calibrated instruments on-board INTEGRAL, the Spectrometer SPI and the Imager IBIS. Time-resolved spectroscopy of this long and structured GRB is of special importance because Fermi was slewing during the GRB was still ongoing. In this paper we present a first and still preliminary analysis of the GBM spectra and compare them to those obtained by SPI for the same selection of time intervals. A more accurate cross-calibration will be forthcoming when the improved in-flight calibration of GBM is available and the corresponding data and responses can be reprocessed.

  8. The MUSE view of the host galaxy of GRB 100316D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izzo, L.; Thöne, C. C.; Schulze, S.; Mehner, A.; Flores, H.; Cano, Z.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Kann, D. A.; Amorín, R.; Anderson, J. P.; Bauer, F. E.; Bensch, K.; Christensen, L.; Covino, S.; Della Valle, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Jakobsson, P.; Klose, S.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Leloudas, G.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Møller, P.; Puech, M.; Rossi, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Vergani, S. D.

    2017-12-01

    The low distance, z = 0.0591, of GRB 100316D and its association with SN 2010bh represent two important motivations for studying this host galaxy and the GRB's immediate environment with the integral field spectrographs like Very Large Telescope/Multi-Unit Spectroscopic Explorer. Its large field of view allows us to create 2D maps of gas metallicity, ionization level and the star formation rate (SFR) distribution maps, as well as to investigate the presence of possible host companions. The host is a late-type dwarf irregular galaxy with multiple star-forming regions and an extended central region with signatures of on-going shock interactions. The gamma-ray burst (GRB) site is characterized by the lowest metallicity, the highest SFR and the youngest (∼20-30 Myr) stellar population in the galaxy, which suggest a GRB progenitor stellar population with masses up to 20-40 M⊙. We note that the GRB site has an offset of ∼660 pc from the most luminous SF region in the host. The observed SF activity in this galaxy may have been triggered by a relatively recent gravitational encounter between the host and a small undetected (LH α ≤ 1036 erg s-1) companion.

  9. ON THE HOST GALAXY OF GRB 150101B AND THE ASSOCIATED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie, Chen; Fang, Taotao; Wang, Junfeng; Liu, Tong; Jiang, Xiaochuan

    2016-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of the host galaxy of short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB) 150101B. Follow-up optical and X-ray observations suggested that the host galaxy, 2MASX J12320498-1056010, likely harbors low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our modeling of the spectral energy distribution has confirmed the nature of the AGN, making it the first reported GRB host that contains an AGN. We have also found the host galaxy is a massive elliptical galaxy with stellar population of ∼5.7 Gyr, one of the oldest among the short-duration GRB hosts. Our analysis suggests that the host galaxy can be classified as an X-ray bright, optically normal galaxy, and the central AGN is likely dominated by a radiatively inefficient accretion flow. Our work explores an interesting connection that may exist between GRB and AGN activities of the host galaxy, which can help in understanding the host environment of the GRB events and the roles of AGN feedback.

  10. Meteorology/Oceanography Help - Naval Oceanography Portal

    Science.gov (United States)

    section Advanced Search... Sections Home Time Earth Orientation Astronomy Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › Help › Meteorology/Oceanography Help USNO Logo USNO Info Meteorology/Oceanography Help Send an e-mail regarding meteorology or oceanography products. Privacy Advisory Your E-Mail

  11. NuSTARobservations of grb 130427a establish a single component synchrotron afterglow origin for the late optical to multi-gev emission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouveliotou, C.; Granot, J.; Racusin, J. L.

    2013-01-01

    GRB 130427A occurred in a relatively nearby galaxy; its prompt emission had the largest GRB fluence ever recorded. The afterglow of GRB 130427A was bright enough for the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) to observe it in the 3-79 keV energy range long after its prompt emission (simil...

  12. The very red afterglow of GRB 000418: Further evidence for dust extinction in a gamma-ray burst host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klose, S.; Stecklum, B.; Masetti, N.

    2000-01-01

    We report near-infrared and optical follow-up observations of the afterglow of the GRB 000418 starting 2.5 days after the occurrence of the burst and extending over nearly 7 weeks. GRB 000418 represents the second case for which the afterglow was initially identified by observations in the near......) bursts are associated with events in star-forming regions....

  13. Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.

    2017-01-01

    On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International Gam...

  14. Gravitational Waves and Gamma-Rays from a Binary Neutron Star Merger: GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Addesso, P.; Adhikari, R. X.; Adya, V. B.; Affeldt, C.; Afrough, M.; Agarwal, B.; Agathos, M.; Agatsuma, K.; Aggarwal, N.; Aguiar, O. D.; Aiello, L.; Ain, A.; Ajith, P.; Allen, B.; Allen, G.; Allocca, A.; Aloy, M. A.; Altin, P. A.; Amato, A.; Ananyeva, A.; Anderson, S. B.; Anderson, W. G.; Angelova, S. V.; Antier, S.; Appert, S.; Arai, K.; Araya, M. C.; Areeda, J. S.; Arnaud, N.; Arun, K. G.; Ascenzi, S.; Ashton, G.; Ast, M.; Aston, S. M.; Astone, P.; Atallah, D. V.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; AultONeal, K.; Austin, C.; Avila-Alvarez, A.; Babak, S.; Bacon, P.; Bader, M. K. M.; Bae, S.; Baker, P. T.; Baldaccini, F.; Ballardin, G.; Ballmer, S. W.; Banagiri, S.; Barayoga, J. C.; Barclay, S. E.; Barish, B. C.; Barker, D.; Barkett, K.; Barone, F.; Barr, B.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Barta, D.; Bartlett, J.; Bartos, I.; Bassiri, R.; Basti, A.; Batch, J. C.; Bawaj, M.; Bayley, J. C.; Bazzan, M.; Becsy, B.; Beer, C.; Bejger, M.; Belahcene, I.; Bell, A. S.; Berger, B. K.; Bergmann, G.; Bero, J. J.; Berry, C. P. L.; Bersanetti, D.; Bertolini, A.; Betzwieser, J.; Bhagwat, S.; Bhandare, R.; Bilenko, I. A.; Billingsley, G.; Billman, C. R.; Birch, J.; Birney, R.; Birnholtz, O.; Biscans, S.; Biscoveanu, S.; Bisht, A.; Bitossi, M.; Biwer, C.; Bizouard, M. A.; Blackburn, J. K.; Blackman, J.; Blair, C. D.; Blair, D. G.; Blair, R. M.; Bloemen, S.; Bock, O.; Bode, N.; Boer, M.; Bogaert, G.; Bohe, A.; Bondu, F.; Bonilla, E.; Bonnand, R.; Boom, B. A.; Bork, R.; Boschi, V.; Bose, S.; Bossie, K.; Bouffanais, Y.; Bozzi, A.; Bradaschia, C.; Brady, P. R.; Branchesi, M.; Brau, J. E.; Briant, T.; Brillet, A.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Brockill, P.; Broida, J. E.; Brooks, A. F.; Brown, D. A.; Brown, D. D.; Brunett, S.; Buchanan, C. C.; Buikema, A.; Bulik, T.; Bulten, H. J.; Buonanno, A.; Buskulic, D.; Buy, C.; Byer, R. L.; Cabero, M.; Cadonati, L.; Cagnoli, G.; Cahillane, C.; Bustillo, J. Calderon; Callister, T. A.; Calloni, E.; Camp, J. B.; Canepa, M.; Canizares, P.; Cannon, K. C.; Cao, H.; Cao, J.; Capano, C. D.; Capocasa, E.; Carbognani, F.; Caride, S.; Carney, M. F.; Diaz, J. Casanueva; Casentini, C.; Caudill, S.; Cavaglia, M.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cepeda, C. B.; Cerda-Duran, P.; Cerretani, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chamberlin, S. J.; Chan, M.; Chao, S.; Charlton, P.; Chase, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Chatterjee, D.; Chatziioannou, K.; Cheeseboro, B. D.; Chen, H. Y.; Chen, X.; Chen, Y.; Cheng, H. -P.; Chia, H.; Chincarini, A.; Chiummo, A.; Chmiel, T.; Cho, H. S.; Cho, M.; Chow, J. H.; Christensen, N.; Chu, Q.; Chua, A. J. K.; Chua, S.; Chung, A. K. W.; Chung, S.; Ciani, G.; Ciolfi, R.; Cirelli, C. E.; Cirone, A.; Clara, F.; Clark, J. A.; Clearwater, P.; Cleva, F.; Cocchieri, C.; Coccia, E.; Cohadon, P. -F.; Cohen, D.; Colla, A.; Collette, C. G.; Cominsky, L. R.; Constancio, M., Jr.; Conti, L.; Cooper, S. J.; Corban, P.; Corbitt, T. R.; Cordero-Carrion, I.; Corley, K. R.; Cornish, N.; Corsi, A.; Cortese, S.; Costa, C. A.; Coughlin, M. W.; Coughlin, S. B.; Coulon, J. -P.; Countryman, S. T.; Couvares, P.; Covas, P. B.; Cowan, E. E.; Coward, D. M.; Cowart, M. J.; Coyne, D. C.; Coyne, R.; Creighton, J. D. E.; Creighton, T. D.; Cripe, J.; Crowder, S. G.; Cullen, T. J.; Cumming, A.; Cunningham, L.; Cuoco, E.; Dal Canton, T.; Dalya, G.; Danilishin, S. L.; D'Antonio, S.; Danzmann, K.; Dasgupta, A.; Costa, C. F. Da Silva; Dattilo, V.; Dave, I.; Davier, M.; Davis, D.; Daw, E. J.; Day, B.; De, S.; Debra, D.; Degallaix, J.; De laurentis, M.; Deleglise, S.; Del Pozzo, W.; Demos, N.; Denker, T.; Dent, T.; De Pietri, R.; Dergachev, V.; De Rosa, R.; DeRosa, R. T.; De Rossi, C.; DeSalvo, R.; de Varona, O.; Devenson, J.; Dhurandhar, S.; Diaz, M. C.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Giovanni, M.; Di Girolamo, T.; Di Lieto, A.; Di Pace, S.; Di Palma, I.; Di Renzo, F.; Doctor, Z.; Dolique, V.; Donovan, F.; Dooley, K. L.; Doravari, S.; Dorrington, I.; Douglas, R.; Alvarez, M. Dovale; Downes, T. P.; Drago, M.; Dreissigacker, C.; Driggers, J. C.; Du, Z.; Ducrot, M.; Dupej, P.; Dwyer, S. E.; Edo, T. B.; Edwards, M. C.; Effler, A.; Eggenstein, H. -B.; Ehrens, P.; Eichholz, J.; Eikenberry, S. S.; Eisenstein, R. A.; Essick, R. C.; Estevez, D.; Etienne, Z. B.; Etzel, T.; Evans, M.; Evans, T. M.; Factourovich, M.; Fafone, V.; Fair, H.; Fairhurst, S.; Fan, X.; Farinon, S.; Farr, B.; Farr, W. M.; Fauchon-Jones, E. J.; Favata, M.; Fays, M.; Fee, C.; Fehrmann, H.; Feicht, J.; Fejer, M. M.; Fernandez-Galiana, A.; Ferrante, I.; Ferreira, E. C.; Ferrini, F.; Fidecaro, F.; Finstad, D.; Fiori, I.; Fiorucci, D.; Fishbach, M.; Fisher, R. P.; Fitz-Axen, M.; Flaminio, R.; Fletcher, M.; Fong, H.; Font, J. A.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Forsyth, S. S.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Frei, Z.; Freise, A.; Frey, R.; Frey, V.; Fries, E. M.; Fritschel, P.; Frolov, V. V.; Fulda, P.; Fyffe, M.; Gabbard, H.; Gadre, B. U.; Gaebel, S. M.; Gair, J. R.; Gammaitoni, L.; Ganija, M. R.; Gaonkar, S. G.; Garcia-Quiros, C.; Garufi, F.; Gateley, B.; Gaudio, S.; Gaur, G.; Gayathri, V.; Gehrels, N.; Gemme, G.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; George, D.; George, J.; Gergely, L.; Germain, V.; Ghonge, S.; Ghosh, Abhirup; Ghosh, Archisman; Ghosh, S.; Giaime, J. A.; Giardina, K. D.; Giazotto, A.; Gill, K.; Glover, L.; Goetz, E.; Goetz, R.; Gomes, S.; Goncharov, B.; Gonzalez, G.; Castro, J. M. Gonzalez; Gopakumar, A.; Gorodetsky, M. L.; Gossan, S. E.; Gosselin, M.; Gouaty, R.; Grado, A.; Graef, C.; Granata, M.; Grant, A.; Gras, S.; Gray, C.; Greco, G.; Green, A. C.; Gretarsson, E. M.; Groot, P.; Grote, H.; Grunewald, S.; Gruning, P.; Guidi, G. M.; Guo, X.; Gupta, A.; Gupta, M. K.; Gushwa, K. E.; Gustafson, E. K.; Gustafson, R.; Halim, O.; Hall, B. R.; Hall, E. D.; Hamilton, E. Z.; Hammond, G.; Haney, M.; Hanke, M. M.; Hanks, J.; Hanna, C.; Hannam, M. D.; Hannuksela, O. A.; Hanson, J.; Hardwick, T.; Harms, J.; Harry, G. M.; Harry, I. W.; Hart, M. J.; Haster, C. -J.; Haughian, K.; Healy, J.; Heidmann, A.; Heintze, M. C.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Hemming, G.; Hendry, M.; Heng, I. S.; Hennig, J.; Heptonstall, A. W.; Heurs, M.; Hild, S.; Hinderer, T.; Hoak, D.; Hofman, D.; Holt, K.; Holz, D. E.; Hopkins, P.; Horst, C.; Hough, J.; Houston, E. A.; Howell, E. J.; Hreibi, A.; Hu, Y. M.; Huerta, E. A.; Huet, D.; Hughey, B.; Husa, S.; Huttner, S. H.; Huynh-Dinh, T.; Indik, N.; Inta, R.; Intini, G.; Isa, H. N.; Isac, J. -M.; Isi, M.; Iyer, B. R.; Izumi, K.; Jacqmin, T.; Jani, K.; Jaranowski, P.; Jawahar, S.; Jimenez-Forteza, F.; Johnson, W. W.; Johnson-McDaniel, N. K.; Jones, D. I.; Jones, R.; Jonker, R. J. G.; Ju, L.; Junker, J.; Kalaghatgi, C. V.; Kalogera, V.; Kamai, B.; Kandhasamy, S.; Kang, G.; Kanner, J. B.; Kapadia, S. J.; Karki, S.; Karvinen, K. S.; Kasprzack, M.; Kastaun, W.; Katolik, M.; Katsavounidis, E.; Katzman, W.; Kaufer, S.; Kawabe, K.; Kefelian, F.; Keitel, D.; Kemball, A. J.; Kennedy, R.; Kent, C.; Key, J. S.; Khalili, F. Y.; Khan, I.; Khan, S.; Khan, Z.; Khazanov, E. A.; Kijbunchoo, N.; Kim, Chunglee; Kim, J. C.; Kim, K.; Kim, W.; Kim, W. S.; Kim, Y. -M.; Kimbrell, S. J.; King, E. J.; King, P. J.; Kinley-Hanlon, M.; Kirchhoff, R.; Kissel, J. S.; Kleybolte, L.; Klimenko, S.; Knowles, T. D.; Koch, P.; Koehlenbeck, S. M.; Koley, S.; Kondrashov, V.; Kontos, A.; Korobko, M.; Korth, W. Z.; Kowalska, I.; Kozak, D. B.; Kraemer, C.; Kringel, V.; Krishnan, B.; Krolak, A.; Kuehn, G.; Kumar, P.; Kumar, R.; Kumar, S.; Kuo, L.; Kutynia, A.; Kwang, S.; Lackey, B. D.; Lai, K. H.; Landry, M.; Lang, R. N.; Lange, J.; Lantz, B.; Lanza, R. K.; Lartaux-Vollard, A.; Lasky, P. D.; Laxen, M.; Lazzarini, A.; Lazzaro, C.; Leaci, P.; Leavey, S.; Lee, C. H.; Lee, H. K.; Lee, H. M.; Lee, H. W.; Lee, K.; Lehmann, J.; Lenon, A.; Leonardi, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Levin, Y.; Li, T. G. F.; Linker, S. D.; Littenberg, T. B.; Liu, J.; Lo, R. K. L.; Lockerbie, N. A.; London, L. T.; Lord, J. E.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Lormand, M.; Losurdo, G.; Lough, J. D.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Lueck, H.; Lumaca, D.; Lundgren, A. P.; Lynch, R.; Ma, Y.; Macas, R.; Macfoy, S.; Machenschalk, B.; MacInnis, M.; Macleod, D. M.; Hernandez, I. Magana; Magana-Sandoval, F.; Zertuche, L. Magana; Magee, R. M.; Majorana, E.; Maksimovic, I.; Man, N.; Mandic, V.; Mangano, V.; Mansell, G. L.; Manske, M.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marka, S.; Marka, Z.; Markakis, C.; Markosyan, A. S.; Markowitz, A.; Maros, E.; Marquina, A.; Martelli, F.; Martellini, L.; Martin, I. W.; Martin, R. M.; Martynov, D. V.; Mason, K.; Massera, E.; Masserot, A.; Massinger, T. J.; Masso-Reid, M.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Matas, A.; Matichard, F.; Matone, L.; Mavalvala, N.; Mazumder, N.; McCarthy, R.; McClelland, D. E.; McCormick, S.; McCuller, L.; McGuire, S. C.; McIntyre, G.; McIver, J.; McManus, D. J.; McNeill, L.; Mcrae, T.; McWilliams, S. T.; Meacher, D.; Meadors, G. D.; Mehmet, M.; Meidam, J.; Mejuto-Villa, E.; Melatos, A.; Mendell, G.; Mercer, R. A.; Merilh, E. L.; Merzougui, M.; Meshkov, S.; Messenger, C.; Messick, C.; Metzdorff, R.; Meyers, P. M.; Miao, H.; Michel, C.; Middleton, H.; Mikhailov, E. E.; Milano, L.; Miller, A. L.; Miller, B. B.; Miller, J.; Millhouse, M.; Milovich-Goff, M. C.; Minazzoli, O.; Minenkov, Y.; Ming, J.; Mishra, C.; Mitra, S.; Mitrofanov, V. P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Mittleman, R.; Moffa, D.; Moggi, A.; Mogushi, K.; Mohan, M.; Mohapatra, S. R. P.; Montani, M.; Moore, C. J.; Moraru, D.; Moreno, G.; Morriss, S. R.; Mours, B.; Mow-Lowry, C. M.; Mueller, G.; Muir, A. W.; Mukherjee, Arunava; Mukherjee, D.; Mukherjee, S.; Mukund, N.; Mullavey, A.; Munch, J.; Muniz, E. A.; Muratore, M.; Murray, P. G.; Napier, K.; Nardecchia, I.; Naticchioni, L.; Nayak, R. K.; Neilson, J.; Nelemans, G.; Nelson, T. J. N.; Nery, M.; Neunzert, A.; Nevin, L.; Newport, J. M.; Newton, G.; Ng, K. K. Y.; Nguyen, T. T.; Nichols, D.; Nielsen, A. B.; Nissanke, S.; Nitz, A.; Noack, A.; Nocera, F.; Nolting, D.; North, C.; Nuttall, L. K.; Oberling, J.; O'Dea, G. D.; Ogin, G. H.; Oh, J. J.; Oh, S. H.; Ohme, F.; Okada, M. A.; Oliver, M.; Oppermann, P.; Oram, Richard J.; O'Reilly, B.; Ormiston, R.; Ortega, L. F.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Ossokine, S.; Ottaway, D. J.; Overmier, H.; Owen, B. J.; Pace, A. E.; Page, J.; Page, M. A.; Pai, A.; Pai, S. A.; Palamos, J. R.; Palashov, O.; Palomba, C.; Pal-Singh, A.; Pan, Howard; Pan, Huang-Wei; Pang, B.; Pang, P. T. H.; Pankow, C.; Pannarale, F.; Pant, B. C.; Paoletti, F.; Paoli, A.; Papa, M. A.; Parida, A.; Parker, W.; Pascucci, D.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Patil, M.; Patricelli, B.; Pearlstone, B. L.; Pedraza, M.; Pedurand, R.; Pekowsky, L.; Pele, A.; Penn, S.; Perez, C. J.; Perreca, A.; Perri, L. M.; Pfeiffer, H. P.; Phelps, M.; Piccinni, O. J.; Pichot, M.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pierro, V.; Pillant, G.; Pinard, L.; Pinto, I. M.; Pirello, M.; Pitkin, M.; Poe, M.; Poggiani, R.; Popolizio, P.; Porter, E. K.; Post, A.; Powell, J.; Prasad, J.; Pratt, J. W. W.; Pratten, G.; Predoi, V.; Prestegard, T.; Prijatelj, M.; Principe, M.; Privitera, S.; Prodi, G. A.; Prokhorov, L. G.; Puncken, O.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Puerrer, M.; Qi, H.; Quetschke, V.; Quintero, E. A.; Quitzow-James, R.; Raab, F. J.; Rabeling, D. S.; Radkins, H.; Raffai, P.; Raja, S.; Rajan, C.; Rajbhandari, B.; Rakhmanov, M.; Ramirez, K. E.; Ramos-Buades, A.; Rapagnani, P.; Raymond, V.; Razzano, M.; Read, J.; Regimbau, T.; Rei, L.; Reid, S.; Reitze, D. H.; Ren, W.; Reyes, S. D.; Ricci, F.; Ricker, P. M.; Rieger, S.; Riles, K.; Rizzo, M.; Robertson, N. A.; Robie, R.; Robinet, F.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Rollins, J. G.; Roma, V. J.; Romano, R.; Romel, C. L.; Romie, J. H.; Rosinska, D.; Ross, M. P.; Rowan, S.; Ruediger, A.; Ruggi, P.; Rutins, G.; Ryan, K.; Sachdev, S.; Sadecki, T.; Sadeghian, L.; Sakellariadou, M.; Salconi, L.; Saleem, M.; Salemi, F.; Samajdar, A.; Sammut, L.; Sampson, L. M.; Sanchez, E. J.; Sanchez, L. E.; Sanchis-Gual, N.; Sandberg, V.; Sanders, J. R.; Sassolas, B.; Sathyaprakash, B. S.; Saulson, P. R.; Sauter, O.; Savage, R. L.; Sawadsky, A.; Schale, P.; Scheel, M.; Scheuer, J.; Schmidt, J.; Schmidt, P.; Schnabel, R.; Schofield, R. M. S.; Schoenbeck, A.; Schreiber, E.; Schuette, D.; Schulte, B. W.; Schutz, B. F.; Schwalbe, S. G.; Scott, J.; Scott, S. M.; Seidel, E.; Sellers, D.; Sengupta, A. S.; Sentenac, D.; Sequino, V.; Sergeev, A.; Shaddock, D. A.; Shaffer, T. J.; Shah, A. A.; Shahriar, M. S.; Shaner, M. B.; Shao, L.; Shapiro, B.; Shawhan, P.; Sheperd, A.; Shoemaker, D. H.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Siellez, K.; Siemens, X.; Sieniawska, M.; Sigg, D.; Silva, A. D.; Singer, L. P.; Singh, A.; Singhal, A.; Sintes, A. M.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.; Smith, B.; Smith, R. J. E.; Smith, R. J. E.; Somala, S.; Son, E. J.; Sonnenberg, J. A.; Sorazu, B.; Sorrentino, F.; Souradeep, T.; Spencer, A. P.; Srivastava, A. K.; Staats, K.; Staley, A.; Steinke, M.; Steinlechner, J.; Steinlechner, S.; Steinmeyer, D.; Stevenson, S. P.; Stone, R.; Stops, D. J.; Strain, K. A.; Stratta, G.; Strigin, S. E.; Strunk, A.; Sturani, R.; Stuver, A. L.; Summerscales, T. Z.; Sun, L.; Sunil, S.; Suresh, J.; Sutton, P. J.; Swinkels, B. L.; Szczepanczyk, M. J.; Tacca, M.; Tait, S. C.; Talbot, C.; Talukder, D.; Tanner, D. B.; Tapai, M.; Taracchini, A.; Tasson, J. D.; Taylor, J. A.; Taylor, R.; Tewari, S. V.; Theeg, T.; Thies, F.; Thomas, E. G.; Thomas, M.; Thomas, P.; Thorne, K. A.; Thorne, K. S.; Thrane, E.; Tiwari, S.; Tiwari, V.; Tokmakov, K. V.; Toland, K.; Tonelli, M.; Tornasi, Z.; Torres-Forne, A.; Torrie, C. I.; Toyra, D.; Travasso, F.; Traylor, G.; Trinastic, J.; Tringali, M. C.; Trozzo, L.; Tsang, K. W.; Tse, M.; Tso, R.; Tsukada, L.; Tsuna, D.; Tuyenbayev, D.; Ueno, K.; Ugolini, D.; Unnikrishnan, C. S.; Urban, A. L.; Usman, S. A.; Vahlbruch, H.; Vajente, G.; Valdes, G.; van Bakel, N.; van Beuzekom, M.; Van den Brand, J. F. J.; Van den Broeck, C.; Vander-Hyde, D. C.; Van der Schaaf, L.; van Heijningen, J. V.; van Veggel, A. A.; Vardaro, M.; Varma, V.; Vass, S.; Vasuth, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vedovato, G.; Veitch, J.; Veitch, P. J.; Venkateswara, K.; Venugopalan, G.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Viets, A. D.; Vinciguerra, S.; Vine, D. J.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vitale, S.; Vo, T.; Vocca, H.; Vorvick, C.; Vyatchanin, S. P.; Wade, A. R.; Wade, L. E.; Wade, M.; Walet, R.; Walker, M.; Wallace, L.; Walsh, S.; Wang, G.; Wang, H.; Wang, J. Z.; Wang, W. H.; Wang, Y. F.; Ward, R. L.; Warner, J.; Was, M.; Watchi, J.; Weaver, B.; Wei, L. -W.; Weinert, M.; Weinstein, A. J.; Weiss, R.; Wen, L.; Wessel, E. K.; Wessels, P.; Westerweck, J.; Westphal, T.; Wette, K.; Whelan, J. T.; Whitcomb, S. E.; Whiting, B. F.; Whittle, C.; Wilken, D.; Williams, D.; Williams, R. D.; Williamson, A. R.; Willis, J. L.; Willke, B.; Wimmer, M. H.; Winkler, W.; Wipf, C. C.; Wittel, H.; Woan, G.; Woehler, J.; Wofford, J.; Wong, K. W. K.; Worden, J.; Wright, J. L.; Wu, D. S.; Wysocki, D. M.; Xiao, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Yancey, C. C.; Yang, L.; Yap, M. J.; Yazback, M.; Yu, Hang; Yu, Haocun; Yvert, M.; Zadrozny, A.; Zanolin, M.; Zelenova, T.; Zendri, J. -P.; Zevin, M.; Zhang, L.; Zhang, M.; Zhang, T.; Zhang, Y. -H.; Zhao, C.; Zhou, M.; Zhou, Z.; Zhu, S. J.; Zhu, X. J.; Zimmerman, A. B.; Zucker, M. E.; Zweizig, J.; Burns, E.; Veres, P.; Kocevski, D.; Racusin, J.; Goldstein, A.; Connaughton, V.; Briggs, M. S.; Blackburn, L.; Hamburg, R.; Hui, C. M.; von Kienlin, A.; McEnery, J.; Preece, R. D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Bissaldi, E.; Cleveland, W. H.; Gibby, M. H.; Giles, M. M.; Kippen, R. M.; McBreen, S.; Meegan, C. A.; Paciesas, W. S.; Poolakkil, S.; Roberts, O. J.; Stanbro, M.; Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.; Kuulkers, E.; Bazzano, A.; Bozzo, E.; Brandt, S.; Chenevez, J.; Courvoisier, T. J. -L.; Diehl, R.; Domingo, A.; Hanlon, L.; Jourdain, E.; Laurent, P.; Lebrun, F.; Lutovinov, A.; Mereghetti, S.; Natalucci, L.; Rodi, J.; Roques, J. -P.; Sunyaev, R.; Ubertini, P.

    2017-01-01

    On 2017 August 17, the gravitational-wave event GW170817 was observed by the Advanced LIGO and Virgo detectors, and the gamma-ray burst (GRB) GRB 170817A was observed independently by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor, and the Anti-Coincidence Shield for the Spectrometer for the International

  15. Deletion of the calmodulin-binding domain of Grb7 impairs cell attachment to the extracellular matrix and migration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    García-Palmero, Irene; Villalobo, Antonio, E-mail: antonio.villalobo@iib.uam.es

    2013-06-28

    Highlights: •Grb7 is a calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein. •Deleting the CaM-binding site impairs cell attachment and migration. •CaM antagonists inhibit Grb7-mediated cell migration. •We conclude that CaM controls Grb7-mediated cell migration. -- Abstract: The adaptor Grb7 is a calmodulin (CaM)-binding protein that participates in signaling pathways involved in cell migration, proliferation and the control of angiogenesis, and plays a significant role in tumor growth, its metastatic spread and tumor-associated neo-vasculature formation. In this report we show that deletion of the CaM-binding site of Grb7, located in the proximal region of its pleckstrin homology (PH) domain, impairs cell migration, cell attachment to the extracellular matrix, and the reorganization of the actin cytoskeleton occurring during this process. Moreover, we show that the cell-permeable CaM antagonists N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7) and N-(4-aminobutyl)-5-chloro-2-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-13) both retard the migration of cells expressing wild type Grb7, but not the migration of cells expressing the mutant protein lacking the CaM-binding site (Grb7Δ), underscoring the proactive role of CaM binding to Grb7 during this process.

  16. The optical afterglow of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050709.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjorth, Jens; Watson, Darach; Fynbo, Johan P U; Price, Paul A; Jensen, Brian L; Jørgensen, Uffe G; Kubas, Daniel; Gorosabel, Javier; Jakobsson, Páll; Sollerman, Jesper; Pedersen, Kristian; Kouveliotou, Chryssa

    2005-10-06

    It has long been known that there are two classes of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), mainly distinguished by their durations. The breakthrough in our understanding of long-duration GRBs (those lasting more than approximately 2 s), which ultimately linked them with energetic type Ic supernovae, came from the discovery of their long-lived X-ray and optical 'afterglows', when precise and rapid localizations of the sources could finally be obtained. X-ray localizations have recently become available for short (duration burst: GRB 050709. The optical afterglow was localized with subarcsecond accuracy, and lies in the outskirts of a blue dwarf galaxy. The optical and X-ray afterglow properties 34 h after the GRB are reminiscent of the afterglows of long GRBs, which are attributable to synchrotron emission from ultrarelativistic ejecta. We did not, however, detect a supernova, as found in most nearby long GRB afterglows, which suggests a different origin for the short GRBs.

  17. Early GRB optical and infrared afterglow observations with the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomboc, A.; Ljubljana Univ., Ljubljana; Mundell, C.G.; Guidorzi, C.

    2005-01-01

    We present the first optical observations of a Gamma Ray Burst IGRB) afterglow using the 2-m robotic Liverpool Telescope (LT), which is owned and operated by Liverpool John Moores University and situated on La Palma. We briefly discuss the capabilities of LT and its suitability for rapid follow-up observations of early optical and infrared GRB light curves. In particular, the combination of aperture, site, instrumentation and rapid response (robotic over-ride mode aided by telescope's rapid slew and fully-opening enclosure) makes the LT ideal for investigating the nature of short bursts, optically-dark bursts, and GRB blast-wave physics in general. We briefly describe the LT's key position in the RoboNet-1.0 network of robotic telescopes. We present the LT observations of GRB041006 and use its gamma-ray properties to predict the time of the break in optical light curve, a prediction consistent with the observations

  18. DUST PROPERTIES IN THE AFTERGLOW OF GRB 071025 AT z {approx} 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Minsung; Im, Myungshin [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Shillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Induk; Urata, Yuji [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuiyun; Hirashita, Hiroyuki [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, P.O. Box 23-141, Taipei 10617, Taiwan (China); Fan Xiaohui; Jiang Linhua, E-mail: msjang.astro@gmail.com, E-mail: mim@astro.snu.ac.kr [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)

    2011-11-15

    At high redshift, the universe is so young that core-collapse supernovae (SNe) are suspected to be the dominant source of dust production. However, some observations indicate that the dust production by SNe is an inefficient process, casting doubts on the existence of abundant SNe-dust in the early universe. Recently, Perley et al. reported that the afterglow of GRB 071025-an unusually red gamma-ray burst (GRB) at z {approx} 5-shows evidence for SNe-produced dust. Since this is perhaps the only high-redshift GRB exhibiting compelling evidence for SNe-dust but the result could easily be affected by small systematics in photometry, we re-examined the extinction properties of GRB 071025 using our own optical/near-infrared data at a different epoch. In addition, we tested SNe-dust models with different progenitor masses and dust destruction efficiencies to constrain the dust formation mechanisms. By searching for the best-fit model of the afterglow spectral energy distribution, we confirm the previous claim that the dust in GRB 071025 is most likely to originate from SNe. We also find that the SNe-dust model of 13 or 25 M{sub Sun} without dust destruction fits the extinction property of GRB 071025 best, while pair-instability SNe models with a 170 M{sub Sun} progenitor poorly fit the data. Our results indicate that, at least in some systems at high redshift, SNe with intermediate initial masses within 10-30 M{sub Sun} were the main contributors for the dust enrichment, and the dust destruction effect due to reverse shock was negligible.

  19. The Supercritical Pile Gamma-Ray Burst Model: The GRB Afterglow Steep Decline and Plateau Phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Joseph; Kazanas, D.; Mastichiadis, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a process that accounts for the steep decline and plateau phase of the Swift X-Ray Telescope (XRT) light curves, vexing features of gamma-ray burst (GRB) phenomenology. This process is an integral part of the "supercritical pile" GRB model, proposed a few years ago to account for the conversion of the GRB kinetic energy into radiation with a spectral peak at E(sub pk) is approx. m(sub e)C(exp 2). We compute the evolution of the relativistic blast wave (RBW) Lorentz factor Gamma to show that the radiation-reaction force due to the GRB emission can produce an abrupt, small (approx. 25%) decrease in Gamma at a radius that is smaller (depending on conditions) than the deceleration radius R(sub D). Because of this reduction, the kinematic criticality criterion of the "supercritical pile" is no longer fulfilled. Transfer of the proton energy into electrons ceases and the GRB enters abruptly the afterglow phase at a luminosity smaller by approx. m(sub p)/m(sub e) than that of the prompt emission. If the radius at which this slow-down occurs is significantly smaller than R(sub D), the RBW internal energy continues to drive the RBW expansion at a constant (new) Gamma and its X-ray luminosity remains constant until R(sub D) is reached, at which point it resumes its more conventional decay, thereby completing the "unexpected" XRT light curve phase. If this transition occurs at R is approx. equal to R(sub D), the steep decline is followed by a flux decrease instead of a "plateau," consistent with the conventional afterglow declines. Besides providing an account of these peculiarities, the model suggests that the afterglow phase may in fact begin before the RBW reaches R is approx. equal to R(sub D), thus providing novel insights into GRB phenomenology.

  20. GRB 080503 LATE AFTERGLOW RE-BRIGHTENING: SIGNATURE OF A MAGNETAR-POWERED MERGER-NOVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, He; Ding, Xuan; Wu, Xue-Feng; Dai, Zi-Gao; Zhang, Bing

    2015-01-01

    GRB 080503 is a short gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by Swift and has been classified as a GRB originating from a compact star merger. The soft extended emission and the simultaneous late re-brightening in both the X-ray and optical afterglow light curves raise interesting questions regarding its physical origin. We show that the broadband data of GRB 080503 can be well explained within the framework of the double neutron star merger model, provided that the merger remnant is a rapidly rotating massive neutron star with an extremely high magnetic field (i.e., a millisecond magnetar). We show that the late optical re-brightening is consistent with the emission from a magnetar-powered “merger-nova.” This adds one more case to the growing sample of merger-novae associated with short GRBs. The soft extended emission and the late X-ray excess emission are well connected through a magnetar dipole spin-down luminosity evolution function, suggesting that direct magnetic dissipation is the mechanism to produce these X-rays. The X-ray emission initially leaks from a hole in the merger ejecta pierced by the short GRB jet. The hole subsequently closes after the magnetar spins down and the magnetic pressure drops below ram pressure. The X-ray photons are then trapped behind the merger-nova ejecta until the ejecta becomes optically thin at a later time. This explains the essentially simultaneous re-brightening in both the optical and X-ray light curves. Within this model, future gravitational-wave sources could be associated with a bright X-ray counterpart along with the merger-nova, even if the short GRB jet beams away from Earth

  1. DDC and COBL, flanking the imprinted GRB10 gene on 7p12, are biallelically expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitchins, Megan P; Bentley, Louise; Monk, David; Beechey, Colin; Peters, Jo; Kelsey, Gavin; Ishino, Fumitoshi; Preece, Michael A; Stanier, Philip; Moore, Gudrun E

    2002-12-01

    Maternal duplication of human 7p11.2-p13 has been associated with Silver-Russell syndrome (SRS) in two familial cases. GRB10 is the only imprinted gene identified within this region to date. GRB10 demonstrates an intricate tissue- and isoform-specific imprinting profile in humans, with paternal expression in fetal brain and maternal expression of one isoform in skeletal muscle. The mouse homolog is maternally transcribed. The GRB10 protein is a potent growth inhibitor and represents a candidate for SRS, which is characterized by pre- and postnatal growth retardation and a spectrum of additional dysmorphic features. Since imprinted genes tend to be grouped in clusters, we investigated the imprinting status of the dopa-decarboxylase gene (DDC) and the Cordon-bleu gene (COBL) which flank GRB10 within the 7p11.2-p13 SRS duplicated region. Although both genes were found to replicate asynchronously, suggestive of imprinting, SNP expression analyses showed that neither gene was imprinted in multiple human fetal tissues. The mouse homologues, Ddc and Cobl, which map to the homologous imprinted region on proximal Chr 11, were also biallelically expressed in mice with uniparental maternal or paternal inheritance of this region. With the intent of using mouse Grb10 as an imprinted control, biallelic expression was consistently observed in fetal, postnatal, and adult brain of these mice, in contrast to the maternal-specific transcription previously demonstrated in brain in inter-specific F1 progeny. This may be a further example of over-expression of maternally derived transcripts in inter-specific mouse crosses. GRB10 remains the only imprinted gene identified within 7p11.2-p13.

  2. Meteorological tracers in regional planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, K.H.

    1974-11-01

    Atmospheric tracers can be used as indicators to study both the ventilation of an urban region and its dispersion meteorology for air pollutants. A correlation analysis applied to the space-time dependent tracer concentrations is able to give transfer functions, the structure and characteristic parameters of which describe the meteorological and topographical situation of the urban region and its surroundings in an integral manner. To reduce the number of persons usually involved in a tracer experiment an automatic air sampling system had to be developed

  3. The two-component afterglow of Swift GRB 050802

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, S. R.; de Pasquale, M.; Page, M. J.; Blustin, A. J.; Zane, S.; McGowan, K.; Mason, K. O.; Poole, T. S.; Schady, P.; Roming, P. W. A.; Page, K. L.; Falcone, A.; Gehrels, N.

    2007-09-01

    This paper investigates GRB 050802, one of the best examples of a Swift gamma-ray burst afterglow that shows a break in the X-ray light curve, while the optical counterpart decays as a single power law. This burst has an optically bright afterglow of 16.5 mag, detected throughout the 170-650nm spectral range of the Ultraviolet and Optical Telescope (UVOT) onboard Swift. Observations began with the X-ray Telescope and UVOT telescopes 286s after the initial trigger and continued for 1.2 ×106s. The X-ray light curve consists of three power-law segments: a rise until 420s, followed by a slow decay with α =0.63 +/-0.03 until 5000s, after which, the light curve decays faster with a slope of α3 =1.59 +/-0.03. The optical light curve decays as a single power law with αO =0.82 +/-0.03 throughout the observation. The X-ray data on their own are consistent with the break at 5000s being due to the end of energy injection. Modelling the optical to X-ray spectral energy distribution, we find that the optical afterglow cannot be produced by the same component as the X-ray emission at late times, ruling out a single-component afterglow. We therefore considered two-component jet models and find that the X-ray and optical emission is best reproduced by a model in which both components are energy injected for the duration of the observed afterglow and the X-ray break at 5000s is due to a jet break in the narrow component. This bright, well-observed burst is likely a guide for interpreting the surprising finding of Swift that bursts seldom display achromatic jet breaks.

  4. A serendipitous observation of the gamma-ray burst GRB 921013b field with EUVE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.; Bowyer, S.

    1999-01-01

    hours after the burst is 1.8 x10(-16) erg s(-1) cm(-2) after correction for absorption by the Galactic interstellar medium. Even if we exclude an intrinsic absorption, this is well below the detection limit of the EUVE measurement. Although it is widely accepted that gamma-ray bursts are at cosmological......We report a serendipitous extreme ultraviolet observation by EUVE of the field containing GRB 921013b, similar to 11 hours after its occurrence. This burst was detected on 1992 October 13 by the WATCH and PHEBUS on Granat, and by the GRB experiment on Ulysses. The lack of any transient (or...

  5. Discovery of the optical counterpart and early optical observations of GRB 990712

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahu, K.C.; Vreesvijk, P.; Bakos, G.

    2000-01-01

    We present the discovery observations of the optical counterpart of the gamma-ray burst GRB 990712 taken 4.16 hr after the outburst and discuss its light curve observed in the V, R, and I bands during the first similar to 35 days after the outburst. The observed light curves were fitted with a po......We present the discovery observations of the optical counterpart of the gamma-ray burst GRB 990712 taken 4.16 hr after the outburst and discuss its light curve observed in the V, R, and I bands during the first similar to 35 days after the outburst. The observed light curves were fitted...

  6. Four Years of Real-Time GRB Followup by BOOTES-1B (2005–2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Jelínek

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Four years of BOOTES-1B GRB follow-up history are summarised for the first time in the form of a table. The successfully followed events are described case by case. Further, the data are used to show the GRB trigger rate in Spain on a per-year basis, resulting in an estimate of 18 triggers and about 51 hours of telescope time per year for real-time triggers. These numbers grow to about 22 triggers and 77 hours per year if we include also the GRBs observable within 2 hours after the trigger.

  7. Observation of the prompt and early afterglow of GRB 050904 by TAROT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeer, M.; Damerdji, Y.; Atteia, J. L.; Stratta, G.; Gendre, B.; Klotz, A.

    2006-01-01

    We present the recent observation of the very high redshift burst source GRB 050904 made by the TAROT robotized telescope. We have compared our data with the SWIFT XRT light curve to analyze the broad ban spectrum. We show that the luminosity and the behavior of this event is comparable with that of GRB 990123, suggesting the existence of very bright events. They can be detected at very high redshifts, even with small or moderate aperture telescopes, and they may constitute a powerful means for the exploration of the young universe. An update of the last TAROT observations performed as a response from SWIFT alerts is made

  8. Optically selected GRB afterglows, a real time analysis system at the CFHT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malacrino, F.; Atteia, J.-L.; Klotz, A.; Boer, M.; Kavelaars, J.J.; Cuillandre, J.-C.

    2005-01-01

    We attempt to detect optical GRB afterglows on images taken by the Canada France Hawaii Telescope for the Very Wide survey, component of the Legacy Survey. To do so, a Real Time Analysis System called Optically Selected GRB Afterglows has been installed on a dedicated computer in Hawaii. This pipeline automatically and quickly analyzes Mega cam images and extracts from them a list of variable objects which is displayed on a web page far validation by a member of the collaboration. The Very Wide survey covers 1200 square degrees down to i 1 = 23.5. This paper briefly explain the RTAS process

  9. Surface meteorology and Solar Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackhouse, Paul W. (Principal Investigator)

    The Release 5.1 Surface meteorology and Solar Energy (SSE) data contains parameters formulated for assessing and designing renewable energy systems. Parameters fall under 11 categories including: Solar cooking, solar thermal applications, solar geometry, tilted solar panels, energy storage systems, surplus product storage systems, cloud information, temperature, wind, other meteorological factors, and supporting information. This latest release contains new parameters based on recommendations by the renewable energy industry and it is more accurate than previous releases. On-line plotting capabilities allow quick evaluation of potential renewable energy projects for any region of the world. The SSE data set is formulated from NASA satellite- and reanalysis-derived insolation and meteorological data for the 10-year period July 1983 through June 1993. Results are provided for 1 degree latitude by 1 degree longitude grid cells over the globe. Average daily and monthly measurements for 1195 World Radiation Data Centre ground sites are also available. [Mission Objectives] The SSE project contains insolation and meteorology data intended to aid in the development of renewable energy systems. Collaboration between SSE and technology industries such as the Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables ( HOMER ) may aid in designing electric power systems that employ some combination of wind turbines, photovoltaic panels, or diesel generators to produce electricity. [Temporal_Coverage: Start_Date=1983-07-01; Stop_Date=1993-06-30] [Spatial_Coverage: Southernmost_Latitude=-90; Northernmost_Latitude=90; Westernmost_Longitude=-180; Easternmost_Longitude=180].

  10. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the

  11. Growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (Grb10) as a partner of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in metabolic insulin action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Youping; Bhattacharya, Sujoy; Swamy, O Rama; Tandon, Ruchi; Wang, Yong; Janda, Robert; Riedel, Heimo

    2003-10-10

    The regulation of the metabolic insulin response by mouse growth factor receptor-binding protein 10 (Grb10) has been addressed in this report. We find mouse Grb10 to be a critical component of the insulin receptor (IR) signaling complex that provides a functional link between IR and p85 phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase and regulates PI 3-kinase activity. This regulatory mechanism parallels the established link between IR and p85 via insulin receptor substrate (IRS) proteins. A direct association was demonstrated between Grb10 and p85 but was not observed between Grb10 and IRS proteins. In addition, no effect of mouse Grb10 was observed on the association between IRS-1 and p85, on IRS-1-associated PI 3-kinase activity, or on insulin-mediated activation of IR or IRS proteins. A critical role of mouse Grb10 was observed in the regulation of PI 3-kinase activity and the resulting metabolic insulin response. Dominant-negative Grb10 domains, in particular the SH2 domain, eliminated the metabolic response to insulin in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. This was consistently observed for glycogen synthesis, glucose and amino acid transport, and lipogenesis. In parallel, the same metabolic responses were substantially elevated by increased levels of Grb10. A similar role of Grb10 was confirmed in mouse L6 cells. In addition to the SH2 domain, the Pro-rich amino-terminal region of Grb10 was implicated in the regulation of PI 3-kinase catalytic activity. These regulatory roles of Grb10 were extended to specific insulin mediators downstream of PI 3-kinase including PKB/Akt, glycogen synthase kinase, and glycogen synthase. In contrast, a regulatory role of Grb10 in parallel insulin response pathways including p70 S6 kinase, ubiquitin ligase Cbl, or mitogen-activated protein kinase p38 was not observed. The dissection of the interaction of mouse Grb10 with p85 and the resulting regulation of PI 3-kinase activity should help elucidate the complexity of the IR signaling

  12. Grb7 SH2 domain structure and interactions with a cyclic peptide inhibitor of cancer cell migration and proliferation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pero Stephanie C

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (Grb7 is an adapter protein that mediates the coupling of tyrosine kinases with their downstream signaling pathways. Grb7 is frequently overexpressed in invasive and metastatic human cancers and is implicated in cancer progression via its interaction with the ErbB2 receptor and focal adhesion kinase (FAK that play critical roles in cell proliferation and migration. It is thus a prime target for the development of novel anti-cancer therapies. Recently, an inhibitory peptide (G7-18NATE has been developed which binds specifically to the Grb7 SH2 domain and is able to attenuate cancer cell proliferation and migration in various cancer cell lines. Results As a first step towards understanding how Grb7 may be inhibited by G7-18NATE, we solved the crystal structure of the Grb7 SH2 domain to 2.1 Å resolution. We describe the details of the peptide binding site underlying target specificity, as well as the dimer interface of Grb 7 SH2. Dimer formation of Grb7 was determined to be in the μM range using analytical ultracentrifugation for both full-length Grb7 and the SH2 domain alone, suggesting the SH2 domain forms the basis of a physiological dimer. ITC measurements of the interaction of the G7-18NATE peptide with the Grb7 SH2 domain revealed that it binds with a binding affinity of Kd = ~35.7 μM and NMR spectroscopy titration experiments revealed that peptide binding causes perturbations to both the ligand binding surface of the Grb7 SH2 domain as well as to the dimer interface, suggesting that dimerisation of Grb7 is impacted on by peptide binding. Conclusion Together the data allow us to propose a model of the Grb7 SH2 domain/G7-18NATE interaction and to rationalize the basis for the observed binding specificity and affinity. We propose that the current study will assist with the development of second generation Grb7 SH2 domain inhibitors, potentially leading to novel inhibitors of

  13. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations of the weak gamma-ray burst GRB 030227

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereghetti, S.; Gotz, D.; Tiengo, A.

    2003-01-01

    We present International Gamma-Ray Astrophysical Laboratory ( INTEGRAL) and XMM-Newton observations of the prompt gamma-ray emission and the X-ray afterglow of GRB 030227, the first gamma-ray burst for which the quick localization obtained with the INTEGRAL Burst Alert System has led...

  14. A novel explosive process is required for the gamma-ray burst GRB 060614.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gal-Yam, A; Fox, D B; Price, P A; Ofek, E O; Davis, M R; Leonard, D C; Soderberg, A M; Schmidt, B P; Lewis, K M; Peterson, B A; Kulkarni, S R; Berger, E; Cenko, S B; Sari, R; Sharon, K; Frail, D; Moon, D-S; Brown, P J; Cucchiara, A; Harrison, F; Piran, T; Persson, S E; McCarthy, P J; Penprase, B E; Chevalier, R A; MacFadyen, A I

    2006-12-21

    Over the past decade, our physical understanding of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has progressed rapidly, thanks to the discovery and observation of their long-lived afterglow emission. Long-duration (> 2 s) GRBs are associated with the explosive deaths of massive stars ('collapsars', ref. 1), which produce accompanying supernovae; the short-duration (< or = 2 s) GRBs have a different origin, which has been argued to be the merger of two compact objects. Here we report optical observations of GRB 060614 (duration approximately 100 s, ref. 10) that rule out the presence of an associated supernova. This would seem to require a new explosive process: either a massive collapsar that powers a GRB without any associated supernova, or a new type of 'engine', as long-lived as the collapsar but without a massive star. We also show that the properties of the host galaxy (redshift z = 0.125) distinguish it from other long-duration GRB hosts and suggest that an entirely new type of GRB progenitor may be required.

  15. Photospheric Emission in the Joint GBM and Konus Prompt Spectra of GRB 120323A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guiriec, S.; Kouveliotou, C. [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st Street NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States); Gehrels, N.; McEnery, J. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Hartmann, D. H., E-mail: sylvain.guiriec@nasa.gov [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Clemson University, Kinard Lab of Physics (United States)

    2017-09-10

    GRB 120323A is a very intense short gamma -ray burst (GRB) detected simultaneously during its prompt γ -ray emission phase with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and the Konus experiment on board the Wind satellite. GBM and Konus operate in the keV–MeV regime; however, the GBM range is broader toward both the low and the high parts of the γ -ray spectrum. Analyses of such bright events provide a unique opportunity to check the consistency of the data analysis as well as cross-calibrate the two instruments. We performed time-integrated and coarse time-resolved spectral analysis of GRB 120323A prompt emission. We conclude that the analyses of GBM and Konus data are only consistent when using a double-hump spectral shape for both data sets; in contrast, the single hump of the empirical Band function, traditionally used to fit GRB prompt emission spectra, leads to significant discrepancies between GBM and Konus analysis results. Our two-hump model is a combination of a thermal-like and a non-thermal component. We interpret the first component as a natural manifestation of the jet photospheric emission.

  16. A tale of two GRB-SNe at a common redshift of z=0.54

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cano, Z.; Bersier, D.; Guidorzi, C.; Margutti, R.; Svensson, K.M.; Kobayashi, S.; Melandri, A.; Wiersema, K.; Pozanenko, A.; van der Horst, A.J.; Pooley, G.G.; Fernandez-Soto, A.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Im, M.; Kamble, A.P.; Sahu, D.; Alonso-Lorite, J.; Anupama, G.; Bibby, J.L.; Burgdorf, M.J.; Clay, N.; Curran, P.A.; Fatkhullin, T.A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Garnavich, P.; Gomboc, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Graham, J.F.; Gurugubelli, U.; Haislip, J.; Huang, K.; Huxor, A.; Ibrahimov, M.; Jeon, Y.; Jeon, Y.B.; Ivarsen, K.; Kasen, D.; Klunko, E.; Kouveliotou, C.; Lacluyze, A.; Levan, A.J.; Loznikov, V.; Mazzali, P.A.; Moskvitin, A.S.; Mottram, C.; Mundell, C.G.; Nugent, P.E.; Nysewander, M.; O'Brien, P.T.; Park, W.K.; Peris, V.; Pian, E.; Reichart, D.; Rhoads, J.E.; Rol, E.; Rumyantsev, V.; Scowcroft, V.; Shakhovskoy, D.; Small, E.; Smith, R.J.; Sokolov, V.V.; Starling, R.L.C.; Steele, I.; Strom, R.G.; Tanvir, N.R.; Tsapras, Y.; Urata, Y.; Vaduvescu, O.; Volnova, A.; Volvach, A.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Woosley, S.E.; Young, D.R.

    2011-01-01

    We present ground-based and Hubble Space Telescope optical observations of the optical transients (OTs) of long-duration Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) 060729 and 090618, both at a redshift of z= 0.54. For GRB 060729, bumps are seen in the optical light curves (LCs), and the late-time broad-band spectral

  17. The rapidly flaring afterglow of the very bright and energetic GRB 070125

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Updike, A.C.; Haislip, J.B.; Nysewander, M.C.; Fruchter, A.S.; Kann, D.A.; Klose, S.; Milne, P.A.; Williams, G.G.; Zheng, W.; Hergenrother, C.W.; Prochaska, J.X.; Halpern, J.P.; Mirabal, N.; Thorstensen, J.R.; van der Horst, A.J.; Starling, R.L.C.; Racusin, J.L.; Burrows, D.N.; Kuin, N.P.M.; Roming, P.W.A.; Bellm, E.; Hurley, K.; Li, W.; Filippenko, A.V.; Blake, C.; Starr, D.; Falco, E.E.; Brown, W.R.; Dai, X.; Deng, J.; Xin, L.; Qiu, Y.; Wei, J.; Urata, Y.; Nanni, D.; Maiorano, E.; Palazzi, E.; Greco, G.; Bartolini, C.; Guarnieri, A.; Piccioni, A.; Pizzichini, G.; Terra, F.; Misra, K.; Bhatt, B.C.; Anupama, G.C.; Fan, X.; Jiang, L.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Reichart, D.E.; Eid, H.A.; Bryngelson, G.; Puls, J.; Goldthwaite, R.C.; Hartmann, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    We report on multiwavelength observations, ranging from X-ray to radio wave bands, of the IPN-localized gamma-ray burst GRB 070125. Spectroscopic observations reveal the presence of absorption lines due to O I, Si II, and C IV, implying a likely redshift of z = 1.547. The well-sampled light curves,

  18. Gamma-ray Burst Formation Environment: Comparison of Redshift Distributions of GRB Afterglows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Eun Kim

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Since gamma-ray bursts(GRBs have been first known to science societites in 1973, many scientists are involved in their studies. Observations of GRB afterglows provide us with much information on the environment in which the observed GRBs are born. Study of GRB afterglows deals with longer timescale emissions in lower energy bands (e.g., months or even up to years than prompt emissions in gamma-rays. Not all the bursts accompany afterglows in whole ranges of wavelengths. It has been suggested as a reason for that, for instance, that radio and/or X-ray afterglows are not recorded mainly due to lower sensitivity of detectors, and optical afterglows due to extinctions in intergalactic media or self-extinctions within a host galaxy itself. Based on the idea that these facts may also provide information on the GRB environment, we analyze statistical properties of GRB afterglows. We first select samples of the redshift-known GRBs according to the wavelength of afterglow they accompanied. We then compare their distributions as a function of redshift, using statistical methods. As a results, we find that the distribution of the GRBs with X-ray afterglows is consistent with that of the GRBs with optical afterglows. We, therefore, conclude that the lower detection rate of optical afterglows is not due to extinctions in intergalactic media.

  19. Constraints on the optical afterglow emission of the short/hard burst GRB 010119

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Andersen, M.I.; Hjorth, J.

    2002-01-01

    We report optical observations of the short/hard burst GRB 010119 error box, one of the smallest error boxes reported to date for short/hard GRBs. Limits of R >22.3 and I >21.2 are imposed by observations carried out 20.31 and 20.58 hours after the gamma-ray event, respectively. They represent th...

  20. Deep Photometry of GRB 041006 Afterglow: Hypernova Bump at Redshift z = 0.716

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanek, K. Z.; Garnavich, P. M.; Nutzman, P. A.; Hartman, J. D.; Garg, A.; Adelberger, K.; Berlind, P.; Bonanos, A. Z.; Calkins, M. L.; Challis, P.; Gaudi, B. S.; Holman, M. J.; Kirshner, R. P.; McLeod, B. A.; Osip, D.; Pimenova, T.; Reiprich, T. H.; Romanishin, W.; Spahr, T.; Tegler, S. C.; Zhao, X.

    2005-06-01

    We present deep optical photometry of the afterglow of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 041006 and its associated hypernova obtained over 65 days after detection (55 R-band epochs on 10 different nights). Our early data (tVatican Advanced Technology Telescope, the Magellan 6.5 m Baade and Clay telescopes, and the Keck II 10 m telescope.

  1. Limits on optical polarization duringt the prompt phase of GRB 140430a

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopač, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Japelj, J.; Arnold, D. M.; Steele, I.A.; Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Kobayashi, S.; Gomboc, A.; Harrison, R. M.; Lamb, G. P.; Melandri, A.; Smith, R. J.; Virgili, F. J.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gorosabel, J.; Järvinen, A.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Oates, S.R.; Jelínek, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 813, č. 1 (2015), 1/1-1/14 ISSN 0004-637X Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gamma-ray burst * GRB 140430A * polarimeters Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.909, year: 2015

  2. Very high column density and small reddening toward GRB 020124 at z=3.20

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, J.; Møller, Per; Gorosabel, J.

    2003-01-01

    We present optical and near-infrared observations of the dim afterglow of GRB 020124, obtained between 2 and 68 hr after the gamma-ray burst. The burst occurred in a very faint (Rgreater than or similar to29.5) damped Lyalpha absorber (DLA) at a redshift of z=3.198+/-0.004. The derived column...

  3. The redshift and afterglow of the extremely energetic gamma-ray burst GRB 080916C

    CERN Document Server

    Greiner, J.; Kruehler, T.; Kienlin, A.v.; Rau, A.; Sari, R.; Fox, Derek B.; Kawai, N.; Afonso, P.; Ajello, M.; Berger, E.; Cenko, S.B.; Cucchiara, A.; Filgas, R.; Klose, S.; Yoldas, A.Kuepue; Lichti, G.G.; Loew, S.; McBreen, S.; Nagayama, T.; Rossi, A.; Sato, S.; Szokoly, G.; Yoldas, A.; Zhang, X.-L.

    2009-01-01

    The detection of GeV photons from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) has important consequences for the interpretation and modelling of these most-energetic cosmological explosions. The full exploitation of the high-energy measurements relies, however, on the accurate knowledge of the distance to the events. Here we report on the discovery of the afterglow and subsequent redshift determination of GRB 080916C, the first GRB detected by the Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope with high significance detection of photons at >0.1 GeV. Observations were done with 7-channel imager GROND at the 2.2m MPI/ESO telescope, the SIRIUS instrument at the Nagoya-SAAO 1.4m telescope in South Africa, and the GMOS instrument at Gemini-S. The afterglow photometric redshift of z=4.35+-0.15, based on simultaneous 7-filter observations with the Gamma-Ray Optical and Near-infrared Detector (GROND), places GRB 080916C among the top 5% most distant GRBs, and makes it the most energetic GRB known to date. The detection of GeV photons from such a dista...

  4. FERMI OBSERVATIONS OF HIGH-ENERGY GAMMA-RAY EMISSION FROM GRB 090217A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ackermann, M.; Ajello, M.; Bechtol, K.; Berenji, B.; Blandford, R. D.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Baldini, L.; Bellazzini, R.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bhat, P. N.; Briggs, M. S.; Bissaldi, E.; Bonamente, E.; Brigida, M.

    2010-01-01

    The Fermi observatory is advancing our knowledge of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) through pioneering observations at high energies, covering more than seven decades in energy with the two on-board detectors, the Large Area Telescope (LAT) and the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). Here, we report on the observation of the long GRB 090217A which triggered the GBM and has been detected by the LAT with a significance greater than 9σ. We present the GBM and LAT observations and on-ground analyses, including the time-resolved spectra and the study of the temporal profile from 8 keV up to ∼1 GeV. All spectra are well reproduced by a Band model. We compare these observations to the first two LAT-detected, long bursts GRB 080825C and GRB 080916C. These bursts were found to have time-dependent spectra and exhibited a delayed onset of the high-energy emission, which are not observed in the case of GRB 090217A. We discuss some theoretical implications for the high-energy emission of GRBs.

  5. Preliminary Results on VLT K-band Imaging Observations of GRB ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    E. Le Floc'h, I. F. Mirabel & P.-A. Duc Service d'Astrophysique, CEA-Saclay, ... internal extinction by dust in several GRB hosts has probably led to under- .... We acknowledge our referee for his/her comments which improved the quality of the.

  6. GRB060206 and the quandary of achromatic breaks in afterglow light curves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Curran, P.A.; van der Horst, A.J.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Starling, R.L.C.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Gorosabel, J.; Järvinen, A.S.; Malesani, D.; Rol, E.; Tanvir, N.R.; Wiersema, K.; Burleigh, M.R.; Casewell, S.L.; Dobbie, P.D.; Guziy, S.; Jakobsson, P.; Jelínek, M.; Laursen, P.; Levan, A.J.; Mundell, C.G.; Näränen, J.; Piranomonte, S.

    2007-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst afterglow observations in the Swift era have a perceived lack of achromatic jet breaks compared with the BeppoSAX era. We present our multi-wavelength analysis of GRB060206 as an illustrative example of how inferences of jet breaks from optical and X-ray data might differ. The

  7. The origin of the early-time optical emission of Swift GRB 080310

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Littlejohns, O.M.; Willingale, R.; O'Brien, P.T.; Beardmore, A.P.; Covino, S.; Perley, D.A.; Tanvir, N.R.; Rol, E.; Yuan, F.; Akerlof, C.; D'Avanzo, P.; Bersier, D.F.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Christian, P.; Cobb, B.E.; Evans, P.A.; Filippenko, A.V.; Flewelling, H.; Fugazza, D.; Hoversten, E.A.; Kamble, A.P.; Kobayashi, S.; Li, W.; Morgan, A.N.; Mundell, C.G.; Page, K.; Palazzi, E.; Quimby, R.M.; Schulze, S.; Steele, I.A.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.

    2012-01-01

    We present broad-band multiwavelength observations of GRB 080310 at redshift z= 2.43. This burst was bright and long-lived, and unusual in having extensive optical and near-infrared (IR) follow-up during the prompt phase. Using these data we attempt to simultaneously model the gamma-ray, X-ray,

  8. SPECTROSCOPIC EVIDENCE FOR SN 2010ma ASSOCIATED WITH GRB 101219B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sparre, M.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Malesani, D.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Hjorth, J.; Leloudas, G.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Watson, D. J.; Sollerman, J.; Goldoni, P.; Covino, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; D'Elia, V.; Flores, H.; Hammer, F.; Jakobsson, P.; Schulze, S.; Kaper, L.; Levan, A. J.; Tanvir, N. R.

    2011-01-01

    We report on the spectroscopic detection of supernova SN 2010ma associated with the long gamma-ray burst GRB 101219B. We observed the optical counterpart of the GRB on three nights with the X-shooter spectrograph at the Very Large Telescope. From weak absorption lines, we measure a redshift of z = 0.55. The first-epoch UV-near-infrared afterglow spectrum, taken 11.6 hr after the burst, is well fit by a power law consistent with the slope of the X-ray spectrum. The second- and third-epoch spectra (obtained 16.4 and 36.7 days after the burst), however, display clear bumps closely resembling those of the broad-lined type-Ic SN 1998bw if placed at z = 0.55. Apart from demonstrating that spectroscopic SN signatures can be observed for GRBs at these large distances, our discovery makes a step forward in establishing a general connection between GRBs and SNe. In fact, unlike most previous unambiguous GRB-associated SNe, GRB 101219B has a large gamma-ray energy (E iso = 4.2 x 10 51 erg), a bright afterglow, and obeys the 'Amati' relation, thus being fully consistent with the cosmological population of GRBs.

  9. METALLICITY IN THE GRB 100316D/SN 2010bh HOST COMPLEX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levesque, Emily M.; Berger, Edo; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Chornock, Ryan

    2011-01-01

    The recent long-duration GRB 100316D, associated with supernova SN 2010bh and detected by Swift, is one of the nearest gamma-ray burst (GRB)-supernovae (SNe) ever observed (z = 0.059). This provides us with a unique opportunity to study the explosion environment on ∼kpc scale in relation to the host galaxy complex. Here we present spatially resolved spectrophotometry of the host galaxy, focusing on both the explosion site and the brightest star-forming regions. Using these data, we extract the spatial profiles of the relevant emission features (Hα, Hβ, [O III]λ5007, and [N II]λ6584) and use these profiles to examine variations in metallicity and star formation rate (SFR) as a function of position in the host galaxy. We conclude that GRB 100316D/SN2010bh occurred in a low-metallicity host galaxy, and that the GRB-SN explosion site corresponds to the region with the lowest metallicity and highest SFR sampled by our observations.

  10. Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Film

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The United States Air Force Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) Operational Linescan System (OLS) is a polar orbiting meteorological sensor with two...

  11. Meteorological data fields 'in perspective'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, A. F.; Pierce, H.; Morris, K. R.; Dodge, J.

    1985-01-01

    Perspective display techniques can be applied to meteorological data sets to aid in their interpretation. Examples of a perspective display procedure applied to satellite and aircraft visible and infrared image pairs and to stereo cloud-top height analyses are presented. The procedure uses a sophisticated shading algorithm that produces perspective images with greatly improved comprehensibility when compared with the wire-frame perspective displays that have been used in the past. By changing the 'eye-point' and 'view-point' inputs to the program in a systematic way, movie loops that give the impression of flying over or through the data field have been made. This paper gives examples that show how several kinds of meteorological data fields are more effectively illustrated using the perspective technique.

  12. Modeling The GRB Host Galaxy Mass Distribution: Are GRBs Unbiased Tracers of Star Formation?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Daniel; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; West, Andrew A.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /MIT, MKI; Modjaz, Maryam; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept.

    2009-08-03

    We model the mass distribution of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies given recent results suggesting that GRBs occur in low metallicity environments. By utilizing measurements of the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relationship for galaxies, along with a sharp host metallicity cut-off suggested by Modjaz and collaborators, we estimate an upper limit on the stellar mass of a galaxy that can efficiently produce a GRB as a function of redshift. By employing consistent abundance indicators, we find that sub-solar metallicity cut-offs effectively limit GRBs to low stellar mass spirals and dwarf galaxies at low redshift. At higher redshifts, as the average metallicity of galaxies in the Universe falls, the mass range of galaxies capable of hosting a GRB broadens, with an upper bound approaching the mass of even the largest spiral galaxies. We compare these predicted limits to the growing number of published GRB host masses and find that extremely low metallicity cut-offs of 0.1 to 0.5 Z{sub {circle_dot}} are effectively ruled out by a large number of intermediate mass galaxies at low redshift. A mass function that includes a smooth decrease in the efficiency of producing GRBs in galaxies of metallicity above 12+log(O/H){sub KK04} = 8.7 can, however, accommodate a majority of the measured host galaxy masses. We find that at z {approx} 1, the peak in the observed GRB host mass distribution is inconsistent with the expected peak in the mass of galaxies harboring most of the star formation. This suggests that GRBs are metallicity biased tracers of star formation at low and intermediate redshifts, although our model predicts that this bias should disappear at higher redshifts due to the evolving metallicity content of the universe.

  13. MODELING THE GRB HOST GALAXY MASS DISTRIBUTION: ARE GRBs UNBIASED TRACERS OF STAR FORMATION?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocevski, Daniel; West, Andrew A.; Modjaz, Maryam

    2009-01-01

    We model the mass distribution of long gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies given recent results suggesting that GRBs occur in low-metallicity environments. By utilizing measurements of the redshift evolution of the mass-metallicity relationship for galaxies, along with a sharp host metallicity cutoff suggested by Modjaz and collaborators, we estimate an upper limit on the stellar mass of a galaxy that can efficiently produce a GRB as a function of redshift. By employing consistent abundance indicators, we find that subsolar metallicity cutoffs effectively limit GRBs to low-stellar mass spirals and dwarf galaxies at low redshift. At higher redshifts, as the average metallicity of galaxies in the Universe falls, the mass range of galaxies capable of hosting a GRB broadens, with an upper bound approaching the mass of even the largest spiral galaxies. We compare these predicted limits to the growing number of published GRB host masses and find that extremely low-metallicity cutoffs of 0.1 to 0.5 Z sun are effectively ruled out by a large number of intermediate mass galaxies at low redshift. A mass function that includes a smooth decrease in the efficiency of producing GRBs in galaxies of metallicity above 12+log(O/H) KK04 = 8.7 can, however, accommodate a majority of the measured host galaxy masses. We find that at z ∼ 1, the peak in the observed GRB host mass distribution is inconsistent with the expected peak in the mass of galaxies harboring most of the star formation. This suggests that GRBs are metallicity-biased tracers of star formation at low and intermediate redshifts, although our model predicts that this bias should disappear at higher redshifts due to the evolving metallicity content of the universe.

  14. HIGH-ENERGY EMISSION OF GRB 130427A: EVIDENCE FOR INVERSE COMPTON RADIATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yi-Zhong; Zhang, Fu-Wen; He, Hao-Ning; Zhou, Bei; Yang, Rui-Zhi; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Wei, Da-Ming; Tam, P. H. T.; Liang, Yun-Feng

    2013-01-01

    A nearby superluminous burst GRB 130427A was simultaneously detected by six γ-ray space telescopes (Swift, the Fermi GLAST Burst Monitor (GBM)/Large Area Telescope, Konus-Wind, SPI-ACS/INTEGRAL, AGILE, and RHESSI) and by three RAPTOR full-sky persistent monitors. The isotropic γ-ray energy release is ∼10 54 erg, rendering it the most powerful explosion among gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a redshift z ≤ 0.5. The emission above 100 MeV lasted about one day, and four photons are at energies greater than 40 GeV. We show that the count rate of 100 MeV-100 GeV emission may be mainly accounted for by the forward shock synchrotron radiation and the inverse Compton radiation likely dominates at GeV-TeV energies. In particular, an inverse Compton radiation origin is favored for the ∼(95.3, 47.3, 41.4, 38.5, 32) GeV photons arriving at t ∼ (243, 256.3, 610.6, 3409.8, 34366.2) s after the trigger of Fermi-GBM. Interestingly, the external inverse Compton scattering of the prompt emission (the second episode, i.e., t ∼ 120-260 s) by the forward-shock-accelerated electrons is expected to produce a few γ-rays at energies above 10 GeV, while five were detected in the same time interval. A possible unified model for the prompt soft γ-ray, optical, and GeV emission of GRB 130427A, GRB 080319B, and GRB 090902B is outlined. Implications of the null detection of >1 TeV neutrinos from GRB 130427A by IceCube are discussed

  15. A molecular gas-rich GRB host galaxy at the peak of cosmic star formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsalmani, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Dannerbauer, H.; Feruglio, C.; Daddi, E.; Ciesla, L.; Charmandaris, V.; Japelj, J.; Vergani, S. D.; Duc, P.-A.; Basa, S.; Bournaud, F.; Elbaz, D.

    2018-05-01

    We report the detection of the CO(3-2) emission line from the host galaxy of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 080207 at z = 2.086. This is the first detection of molecular gas in emission from a GRB host galaxy beyond redshift 1. We find this galaxy to be rich in molecular gas with a mass of 1.1 × 10^{11} M_{{\\odot }} assuming αCO = 4.36 M_{{\\odot }} (K km s^{-1} pc^2)^{-1}. The molecular gas mass fraction of the galaxy is ˜0.5, typical of star-forming galaxies (SFGs) with similar stellar masses and redshifts. With an SFR_{FIR} of 260 M_{{\\odot }} yr^{-1}, we measure a molecular gas depletion time-scale of 0.43 Gyr, near the peak of the depletion time-scale distribution of SFGs at similar redshifts. Our findings are therefore in contradiction with the proposed molecular gas deficiency in GRB host galaxies. We argue that the reported molecular gas deficiency for GRB hosts could be the artefact of improper comparisons or neglecting the effect of the typical low metallicities of GRB hosts on the CO-to-molecular-gas conversion factor. We also compare the kinematics of the CO(3-2) emission line to that of the H α emission line from the host galaxy. We find the H α emission to have contributions from two separate components, a narrow and a broad one. The narrow component matches the CO emission well in velocity space. The broad component, with a full width at half-maximum of ˜1100 km s^{-1}, is separated by +390 km s^{-1} in velocity space from the narrow component. We speculate this broad component to be associated with a powerful outflow in the host galaxy or in an interacting system.

  16. HOST GALAXY PROPERTIES OF THE SUBLUMINOUS GRB 120422A/SN 2012bz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Emily M. [CASA, Department of Astrophysical and Planetary Sciences, University of Colorado 389-UCB, Boulder, CO 80309 (United States); Chornock, Ryan; Soderberg, Alicia M.; Berger, Edo; Lunnan, Ragnhild, E-mail: Emily.Levesque@colorado.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2012-10-20

    GRB 120422A is a nearby (z = 0.283) long-duration gamma-ray burst (LGRB) detected by Swift with E {sub {gamma},iso} {approx} 4.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 49} erg. It is also associated with the spectroscopically confirmed broad-lined Type Ic SN 2012bz. These properties establish GRB 120422A/SN 2012bz as the sixth and newest member of the class of subluminous GRBs supernovae (SNe). Observations also show that GRB 120422A/SN 2012bz occurred at an unusually large offset ({approx}8 kpc) from the host galaxy nucleus, setting it apart from other nearby LGRBs and leading to speculation that the host environment may have undergone prior interaction activity. Here, we present spectroscopic observations using the 6.5 m Magellan telescope at Las Campanas. We extract spectra at three specific locations within the GRB/SN host galaxy, including the host nucleus, the explosion site, and the 'bridge' of diffuse emission connecting these two regions. We measure a metallicity of log(O/H) + 12 = 8.3 {+-} 0.1 and a star formation rate (SFR) per unit area of 0.08 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2} at the host nucleus. At the GRB/SN explosion site we measure a comparable metallicity of log(O/H) + 12 = 8.2 {+-} 0.1 but find a much lower SFR per unit area of 0.01 M {sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}. We also compare the host galaxy of this event to the hosts of other LGRBs, including samples of subluminous LGRBs and cosmological LGRBs, and find no systematic metallicity difference between the environments of these different subtypes.

  17. Technology and Meteorology. An Action Research Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taggart, Raymond F.

    Meteorology, the science of weather and weather conditions, has traditionally been taught via textbook and rote demonstration. This study was intended to determine to what degree utilizing technology in the study of meteorology improves students' attitudes towards science and to measure to what extent technology in meteorology increases…

  18. Syllabi for Instruction in Agricultural Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Villiers, G. D. B.; And Others

    A working group of the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology has prepared this report to fill a need for detailed syllabi for instruction in agricultural meteorology required by different levels of personnel. Agrometeorological personnel are classified in three categories: (1) professional meteorological personnel (graduates with basic training…

  19. Epicurean Meteorology: Sources, method, scope and organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, F.A.

    2016-01-01

    In Epicurean Meteorology Frederik Bakker discusses the meteorology as laid out by Epicurus (341-270 BCE) and Lucretius (1st century BCE). Although in scope and organization their ideas are clearly rooted in the Peripatetic tradition, their meteorology sets itself apart from this tradition by its

  20. Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Journal of Meteorology and Climate Science publishes rigorous theoretical reasoning and advanced empirical research in all areas of Meteorology and Climate Sciences. We welcome articles or proposals from all perspectives and on all subjects pertaining to Meteorology, Agriculture, Humanity, Physics, Geography, ...

  1. Evaporation in hydrology and meteorology

    OpenAIRE

    Brandsma, T.

    1990-01-01

    In this paper the role of evaporation in hydrology and meteorology is discussed, with the emphasis on hydrology. The basic theory of evaporation is given and methods to determine evaporation are presented. Some applications of evaporation studies in literature are given in order to illustrate the theory. Further, special conditions in evaporation are considered, followed by a fotmulation of the difficulties in determining evaporation, The last part of the paper gives a short discussion about ...

  2. Afterglow Imaging and Polarization of Misaligned Structured GRB Jets and Cocoons: Breaking the Degeneracy in GRB 170817A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ramandeep; Granot, Jonathan

    2018-05-01

    The X-ray to radio afterglow emission of GRB 170817A / GW 170817 so far scales as Fν∝ν-0.6t0.8 with observed frequency and time, consistent with a single power-law segment of the synchrotron spectrum from the external shock going into the ambient medium. This requires the effective isotropic equivalent afterglow shock energy in the visible region to increase as ˜t1.7. The two main channels for such an energy increase are (i) radial: more energy carried by slower material (in the visible region) gradually catches up with the afterglow shock and energizes it, and (ii) angular: more energy in relativistic outflow moving at different angles to our line of sight, whose radiation is initially beamed away from us but its beaming cone gradually reaches our line of sight as it decelerates. One cannot distinguish between these explanations (or combinations of them) using only the X-ray to radio Fν(t). Here we demonstrate that the most promising way to break this degeneracy is through afterglow imaging and polarization, by calculating the predicted evolution of the afterglow image (its size, shape and flux centroid) and linear polarization Π(t) for different angular and/or radial outflow structures that fit Fν(t). We consider two angular profiles - a Gaussian and a narrow core with power-law wings in energy per solid angle, as well as a (cocoon motivated) (quasi-) spherical flow with radial velocity profile. For a jet viewed off-axis (and a magnetic field produced in the afterglow shock) Π(t) peaks when the jet's core becomes visible, at ≈2tp where the lightcurve peaks at tp, and the image can be elongated with aspect ratios ≳ 2. A quasi-spherical flow has an almost circular image and a much lower Π(t) (peaking at ≈tp) and flux centroid displacement θfc (a spherical flow has Π(t) = θfc = 0 and a perfectly circular image).

  3. IDENTIFYING THE LOCATION IN THE HOST GALAXY OF THE SHORT GRB 111117A WITH THE CHANDRA SUBARCSECOND POSITION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, T.; Troja, E. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Aoki, K. [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North A' ohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States); Guiriec, S.; Barthelmy, S. D. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Im, M.; Jeon, Y. [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe (CEOU), Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul, 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Leloudas, G.; Malesani, D.; De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Andersen, M. I. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Melandri, A.; D' Avanzo, P. [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Urata, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Xu, D. [Department of Particle Physics and Astronomy, The Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot 76100 (Israel); Gorosabel, J.; Sanchez-Ramirez, R. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Bai, J. [Yunnan Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Kunming, Yunnan Province, 650011 (China); Briggs, M. S. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Foley, S. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); and others

    2013-03-20

    We present our successful Chandra program designed to identify, with subarcsecond accuracy, the X-ray afterglow of the short GRB 111117A, which was discovered by Swift and Fermi. Thanks to our rapid target of opportunity request, Chandra clearly detected the X-ray afterglow, though no optical afterglow was found in deep optical observations. The host galaxy was clearly detected in the optical and near-infrared band, with the best photometric redshift of z=1.31{sub -0.23}{sup +0.46} (90% confidence), making it one of the highest known short gamma-ray burst (GRB) redshifts. Furthermore, we see an offset of 1.0 {+-} 0.2 arcsec, which corresponds to 8.4 {+-} 1.7 kpc, between the host and the afterglow position. We discuss the importance of using Chandra for obtaining subarcsecond X-ray localizations of short GRB afterglows to study GRB environments.

  4. An Ordinary Short Gamma-Ray Burst with Extraordinary Implications: Fermi -GBM Detection of GRB 170817A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, A.; Roberts, O. J.; Connaughton, V. [Science and Technology Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Veres, P.; Briggs, M. S.; Hamburg, R.; Preece, R. D.; Poolakkil, S. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Burns, E.; Racusin, J.; Canton, T. Dal [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kocevski, D.; Wilson-Hodge, C. A.; Hui, C. M.; Littenberg, T. [Astrophysics Office, ST12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Kienlin, A. von [Max-Planck-Institut für extraterrestrische Physik, Giessenbachstrasse 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Christensen, N.; Broida, J. [Physics and Astronomy, Carleton College, MN 55057 (United States); Siellez, K. [Center for Relativistic Astrophysics and School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA 30332 (United States); Blackburn, L., E-mail: Adam.M.Goldstein@nasa.gov [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); and others

    2017-10-20

    On 2017 August 17 at 12:41:06 UTC the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) detected and triggered on the short gamma-ray burst (GRB) 170817A. Approximately 1.7 s prior to this GRB, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory triggered on a binary compact merger candidate associated with the GRB. This is the first unambiguous coincident observation of gravitational waves and electromagnetic radiation from a single astrophysical source and marks the start of gravitational-wave multi-messenger astronomy. We report the GBM observations and analysis of this ordinary short GRB, which extraordinarily confirms that at least some short GRBs are produced by binary compact mergers.

  5. An optical study of the GRB 970111 field beginning 19 hours after the gamma-ray burst

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorosabel, J.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Wolf, Christian

    1998-01-01

    to estimate photometric redshifts in the range 0.2 4 for several galaxies in this field and we did not find any conspicuous unusual object. We note that GRB 970111 and GRB 980329 could belong to the same class of GRBs, which may be related to nearby sources (2 similar to 1) in which high intrinsic...... with B galaxy with redshift z = 0.657, which we propose as the optical counterpart of the X-ray source. Further observations allowed to perform...... multicolour photometry for objects in the GRB 970111 error box. The colour-colour diagrams do not show any object with unusual colours. We applied a photometric classification method to the objects inside the GRB error box, that can distinguish stars from galaxies and estimate redshifts. We were able...

  6. Receptor tyrosine phosphatase R-PTP-alpha is tyrosine-phosphorylated and associated with the adaptor protein Grb2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Su, J; Batzer, A; Sap, J

    1994-01-01

    Receptor tyrosine phosphatases (R-PTPases) have generated interest because of their suspected involvement in cellular signal transduction. The adaptor protein Grb2 has been implicated in coupling receptor tyrosine kinases to Ras. We report that a ubiquitous R-PTPase, R-PTP-alpha, is tyrosine......-phosphorylated and associated in vivo with the Grb2 protein. This association can be reproduced in stably and transiently transfected cells, as well as in vitro using recombinant Grb2 protein. Association requires the presence of an intact SH2 domain in Grb2, as well as tyrosine phosphorylation of R-PTP-alpha. This observation...... links a receptor tyrosine phosphatase with a key component of a central cellular signalling pathway and provides a basis for addressing R-PTP-alpha function....

  7. Adaptor protein GRB2 promotes Src tyrosine kinase activation and podosomal organization by protein-tyrosine phosphatase ϵ in osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy-Apter, Einat; Finkelshtein, Eynat; Vemulapalli, Vidyasiri; Li, Shawn S-C; Bedford, Mark T; Elson, Ari

    2014-12-26

    The non-receptor isoform of protein-tyrosine phosphatase ϵ (cyt-PTPe) supports adhesion of bone-resorbing osteoclasts by activating Src downstream of integrins. Loss of cyt-PTPe reduces Src activity in osteoclasts, reduces resorption of mineralized matrix both in vivo and in cell culture, and induces mild osteopetrosis in young female PTPe KO mice. Activation of Src by cyt-PTPe is dependent upon this phosphatase undergoing phosphorylation at its C-terminal Tyr-638 by partially active Src. To understand how cyt-PTPe activates Src, we screened 73 Src homology 2 (SH2) domains for binding to Tyr(P)-638 of cyt-PTPe. The SH2 domain of GRB2 bound Tyr(P)-638 of cyt-PTPe most prominently, whereas the Src SH2 domain did not bind at all, suggesting that GRB2 may link PTPe with downstream molecules. Further studies indicated that GRB2 is required for activation of Src by cyt-PTPe in osteoclast-like cells (OCLs) in culture. Overexpression of GRB2 in OCLs increased activating phosphorylation of Src at Tyr-416 and of cyt-PTPe at Tyr-638; opposite results were obtained when GRB2 expression was reduced by shRNA or by gene inactivation. Phosphorylation of cyt-PTPe at Tyr-683 and its association with GRB2 are integrin-driven processes in OCLs, and cyt-PTPe undergoes autodephosphorylation at Tyr-683, thus limiting Src activation by integrins. Reduced GRB2 expression also reduced the ability of bone marrow precursors to differentiate into OCLs and reduced the fraction of OCLs in which podosomal adhesion structures assume organization typical of active, resorbing cells. We conclude that GRB2 physically links cyt-PTPe with Src and enables cyt-PTPe to activate Src downstream of activated integrins in OCLs. © 2014 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  8. Search algorithm for a gravitational wave signal in association with gamma ray burst GRB030329 using the LIGO detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohanty, S D; Marka, Sz; Rahkola, R; Mukherjee, S; Leonor, I; Frey, R; Cannizzo, J; Camp, J

    2004-01-01

    One of the brightest gamma ray bursts ever recorded, GRB030329, occurred during the second science run of the LIGO detectors. At that time, both interferometers at the Hanford, WA LIGO site were in lock and were acquiring data. The data collected from the two Hanford detectors were analysed for the presence of a gravitational wave signal associated with this GRB. This paper presents a detailed description of the search algorithm implemented in the current analysis

  9. Search for GRB related prompt optical emission and other fast varying objects with ``Pi of the Sky'' detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Małek, K.; Mankiewicz, L.; Mrowca-Ciułacz, J.; Nawrocki, K.; Piotrowski, L. W.; Sitek, P.; Sokołowski, M.; Wrochna, G.; Żarnecki, A. F.

    2007-06-01

    Experiment “Pi of the Sky” is designed to search for prompt optical emission from GRB sources. 32 CCD cameras covering 2 steradians will monitor the sky continuously. The data will be analysed on-line in search for optical flashes. The prototype with 2 cameras operated at Las Campanas (Chile) since 2004 has recognised several outbursts of flaring stars and has given limits for a few GRB.

  10. miR-411-5p inhibits proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cell via targeting GRB2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yunda; Xu, Guoxing; Liu, Gang; Ye, Yongzhi; Zhang, Chuankai; Fan, Chuannan; Wang, Haibin; Cai, Huali; Xiao, Rui; Huang, Zhengjie; Luo, Qi

    2016-01-01

    miR-411-5p (previously called miR-411) is severely involved in human diseases, however, the relationship between miR-411-5p and breast cancer has not been investigated thoroughly. Here, we found that the expression of miR-411-5p was downregulated in breast cancer tissues compared with their matched adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. In addition, the expression of miR-411-5p was also lower in breast cancer cell lines in contrast with MCF-10A. Moreover, we investigated the target and mechanism of miR-411-5p in breast cancer using mimic and inhibitor, and demonstrated the involvement of GRB2 and Ras activation. Ectopic expression of miR-411-5p suppressed the breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion while low expression of miR-411-5p exhibited the opposite effect. Furthermore, GRB2 was demonstrated to be significantly overexpressed in breast cancer tissues compared with normal tissues, and low expression of GRB2 had a longer overall survival compared with high expression of GRB2 in breast cancer. In general, our study shed light on the miR-411-5p related mechanism in the progression of breast cancer and, miR-411-5p/GRB2/Ras axis is potential to be molecular target for breast cancer therapy. - Highlights: • miR-411-5p is downregulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. • miR-411-5p inhibits breast cancer cells growth, migration and invasion in vitro. • GRB2 is a direct target of miR-411-5p in breast cancer. • GRB2 is overexpressed in breast cancer and associates with disease outcome. • miR-411-5p suppresses breast cancer progression though GRB2-SOS-Ras pathway.

  11. miR-411-5p inhibits proliferation and metastasis of breast cancer cell via targeting GRB2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yunda [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Xu, Guoxing [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Liu, Gang; Ye, Yongzhi [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Zhang, Chuankai [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Fan, Chuannan [State Key Laboratory of Cellular Stress Biology, Innovation Center for Cell Signaling Network, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361102 (China); Wang, Haibin; Cai, Huali; Xiao, Rui [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Huang, Zhengjie, E-mail: huangzhengjie@xmu.edu.cn [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005 (China); Luo, Qi, E-mail: luoqixmzsh@126.com [Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Affiliated Hospital of Xiamen University, Xiamen 361003 (China); Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery, First Clinical Medical College of Fujian Medical University, Fuzhou 350005 (China)

    2016-08-05

    miR-411-5p (previously called miR-411) is severely involved in human diseases, however, the relationship between miR-411-5p and breast cancer has not been investigated thoroughly. Here, we found that the expression of miR-411-5p was downregulated in breast cancer tissues compared with their matched adjacent non-neoplastic tissues. In addition, the expression of miR-411-5p was also lower in breast cancer cell lines in contrast with MCF-10A. Moreover, we investigated the target and mechanism of miR-411-5p in breast cancer using mimic and inhibitor, and demonstrated the involvement of GRB2 and Ras activation. Ectopic expression of miR-411-5p suppressed the breast cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion while low expression of miR-411-5p exhibited the opposite effect. Furthermore, GRB2 was demonstrated to be significantly overexpressed in breast cancer tissues compared with normal tissues, and low expression of GRB2 had a longer overall survival compared with high expression of GRB2 in breast cancer. In general, our study shed light on the miR-411-5p related mechanism in the progression of breast cancer and, miR-411-5p/GRB2/Ras axis is potential to be molecular target for breast cancer therapy. - Highlights: • miR-411-5p is downregulated in breast cancer tissues and cell lines. • miR-411-5p inhibits breast cancer cells growth, migration and invasion in vitro. • GRB2 is a direct target of miR-411-5p in breast cancer. • GRB2 is overexpressed in breast cancer and associates with disease outcome. • miR-411-5p suppresses breast cancer progression though GRB2-SOS-Ras pathway.

  12. Wide-Field Gamma-Spectrometer BDRG: GRB Monitor On-Board the Lomonosov Mission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svertilov, S. I.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Bogomolov, V. V.; Amelushkin, A. M.; Barinova, V. O.; Galkin, V. I.; Iyudin, A. F.; Kuznetsova, E. A.; Prokhorov, A. V.; Petrov, V. L.; Rozhkov, G. V.; Yashin, I. V.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Lipunov, V. M.; Park, I. H.; Jeong, S.; Kim, M. B.

    2018-02-01

    The study of GRB prompt emissions (PE) is one of the main goals of the Lomonosov space mission. The payloads of the GRB monitor (BDRG) with the wide-field optical cameras (SHOK) and the ultra-fast flash observatory (UFFO) onboard the Lomonosov satellite are intended for the observation of GRBs, and in particular, their prompt emissions. The BDRG gamma-ray spectrometer is designed to obtain the temporal and spectral information of GRBs in the energy range of 10-3000 keV as well as to provide GRB triggers on several time scales (10 ms, 1 s and 20 s) for ground and space telescopes, including the UFFO and SHOK. The BDRG instrument consists of three identical detector boxes with axes shifted by 90° from each other. This configuration allows us to localize a GRB source in the sky with an accuracy of ˜ 2°. Each BDRG box contains a phoswich NaI(Tl)/CsI(Tl) scintillator detector. A thick CsI(Tl) crystal in size of \\varnothing 130 × 17 mm is placed underneath the NaI(Tl) as an active shield in the soft energy range and as the main detector in the hard energy range. The ratio of the CsI(Tl) to NaI(Tl) event rates at varying energies can be employed as an independent metric to distinguish legitimate GRB signals from false positives originating from electrons in near-Earth vicinities. The data from three detectors are collected in a BA BDRG information unit, which generates a GRB trigger and a set of data frames in output format. The scientific data output is ˜ 500 Mb per day, including ˜ 180 Mb of continuous data for events with durations in excess of 100 ms for 16 channels in each detector, detailed energy spectra, and sets of frames with ˜ 5 Mb of detailed information for each burst-like event. A number of pre-flight tests including those for the trigger algorithm and calibration were carried out to confirm the reliability of the BDRG for operation in space.

  13. GRB 090227B: THE MISSING LINK BETWEEN THE GENUINE SHORT AND LONG GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muccino, M.; Ruffini, R.; Bianco, C. L.; Izzo, L.; Penacchioni, A. V. [Dip. di Fisica and ICRA, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy)

    2013-02-15

    The time-resolved spectral analysis of GRB 090227B, made possible by the Fermi-GBM data, allows us to identify in this source the missing link between the genuine short and long gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Within the Fireshell model of the GRBs we predict genuine short GRBs: bursts with the same inner engine of the long bursts but endowed with a severely low value of the baryon load, B {approx}< 5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}. A first energetically predominant emission occurs at the transparency of the e {sup +} e {sup -} plasma, the Proper-GRB (P-GRB), followed by a softer emission, the extended afterglow. The typical separation between the two emissions is expected to be of the order of 10{sup -3}-10{sup -2} s. We identify the P-GRB of GRB 090227B in the first 96 ms of emission, where a thermal component with the temperature kT = (517 {+-} 28) keV and a flux comparable with the non-thermal part of the spectrum is observed. This non-thermal component as well as the subsequent emission, where there is no evidence for a thermal spectrum, is identified with the extended afterglow. We deduce a theoretical cosmological redshift z = 1.61 {+-} 0.14. We then derive the total energy E{sup tot}{sub e{sup +}e{sup -}}= (2.83{+-}0.15) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 53} erg, the baryon load B = (4.13 {+-} 0.05) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5}, the Lorentz {Gamma} factor at transparency {Gamma}{sub tr} = (1.44 {+-} 0.01) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 4}, and the intrinsic duration {Delta}t' {approx} 0.35 s. We also determine the average density of the circumburst medium (CBM), (n {sub CBM}) = (1.90 {+-} 0.20) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -5} particles cm{sup -3}. There is no evidence of beaming in the system. In view of the energetics and of the baryon load of the source, as well as of the low interstellar medium and of the intrinsic timescale of the signal, we identify the GRB progenitor as a binary neutron star. From the recent progress in the theory of neutron stars, we obtain

  14. Automated emergency meteorological response system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pepper, D.W.

    1980-01-01

    A sophisticated emergency response system was developed to aid in the evaluation of accidental releases of hazardous materials from the Savannah River Plant to the environment. A minicomputer system collects and archives data from both onsite meteorological towers and the National Weather Service. In the event of an accidental release, the computer rapidly calculates the trajectory and dispersion of pollutants in the atmosphere. Computer codes have been developed which provide a graphic display of predicted concentration profiles downwind from the source, as functions of time and distance

  15. MODELING THE EARLY AFTERGLOW IN THE SHORT AND HARD GRB 090510

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraija, N.; Lee, W. H. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apdo. Postal 70-264, Cd. Universitaria, 04510 Ciudad de México, DF (Mexico); Veres, P. [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Duran, R. Barniol, E-mail: nifraija@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: wlee@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: pv0004@uah.edu, E-mail: rbarniol@purdue.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    The bright, short, and hard GRB 090510 was detected by all instruments aboard the Fermi and Swift satellites. The multiwavelength observations of this burst presented similar features to the Fermi -LAT-detected gamma-ray bursts. In the framework of the external shock model of early afterglow, a leptonic scenario that evolves in a homogeneous medium is proposed to revisit GRB 090510 and explain the multiwavelength light curve observations presented in this burst. These observations are consistent with the evolution of a jet before and after the jet break. The long-lasting LAT, X-ray, and optical fluxes are explained in the synchrotron emission from the adiabatic forward shock. Synchrotron self-Compton emission from the reverse shock is consistent with the bright LAT peak provided that the progenitor environment is entrained with strong magnetic fields. It could provide compelling evidence of magnetic field amplification in the neutron star merger.

  16. Fermi observations of high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080916C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdo, A A; Ackermann, M; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, G; Baring, M G; Bastieri, D; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, E D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, T H; Burrows, D; Busetto, G; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, A; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C C; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Cominsky, L R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; Deklotz, M; Dermer, C D; de Angelis, A; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto E Silva, E; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, J; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, T; Godfrey, G; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M-H; Grove, J E; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, A K; Hayashida, M; Hays, E; Hernando Morat, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Jóhannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, T; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knödlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, F; Kuss, M; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S-H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, P; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, S; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Mészáros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, I V; Murgia, S; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, T; Okumura, A; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, V; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, T A; Preece, R; Rainò, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, S; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, T; Reyes, L C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Saz Parkinson, P M; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgrò, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, J-L; Stecker, F W; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, D J; Tagliaferri, G; Tajima, H; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, D F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-03-27

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  17. The bright optical flash and afterglow from the gamma-ray burst GRB 130427A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Panaitescu, A; Wozniak, P R; Davis, H; Palmer, D M; Vianello, G; Omodei, N; Xiong, S; Briggs, M S; Elphick, M; Paciesas, W; Rosing, W

    2014-01-03

    The optical light generated simultaneously with x-rays and gamma rays during a gamma-ray burst (GRB) provides clues about the nature of the explosions that occur as massive stars collapse. We report on the bright optical flash and fading afterglow from powerful burst GRB 130427A. The optical and >100-megaelectron volt (MeV) gamma-ray flux show a close correlation during the first 7000 seconds, which is best explained by reverse shock emission cogenerated in the relativistic burst ejecta as it collides with surrounding material. At later times, optical observations show the emergence of emission generated by a forward shock traversing the circumburst environment. The link between optical afterglow and >100-MeV emission suggests that nearby early peaked afterglows will be the best candidates for studying gamma-ray emission at energies ranging from gigaelectron volts to teraelectron volts.

  18. The extraordinarily bright optical afterglow of GRB 991208 and its host galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Sokolov, V.V.; Gorosabel, J.

    2001-01-01

    that GRB 991208 is at 3.7 Gpc (for H-0 = 60 km s(-1) Mpc(-1), Omega (0) = 1 and Lambda (0) = 0), implying an isotropic energy release of 1.15 10(53) erg which may. be relaxed by beaming by a factor >10(2). Precise astrometry indicates that the GRB coincides within 0.2" with the host galaxy, thus supporting...... a massive star origin. The absolute magnitude of the galaxy is M-B = -18.2, well below the knee of the galaxy luminosity function and we derive a star-forming rate of (11.5 +/- 7.1) M-circle dot yr(-1), which is much larger than the present-day rate in our Galaxy. The quasi simultaneous broad...

  19. Concluding Remarks: The Current Status and Future Prospects for GRB Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, Neil

    2009-01-01

    We are in a remarkable period of discovery in GRB astronomy. The current satellites including Swift, Fermi. AGILE and INTEGRAL are detecting and observing bursts of all varieties. Increasing capabilities for follow-up observations on the ground and in space are leading to rapid and deep coverage across the electromagnetic spectrum, The future will see continued operation of the current experiments and with future missions like SVOM plus possible rni_Ssions like JANUS and EXIST. An exciting expansion of capabilities is occurring in areas of gravitational waves and neutrinos that could open new windows on the GRB phenomenon. Increased IR capabilities on the ground and with missions like JWST will enable further exploration of high redshift bursts. The future is bright.

  20. A magnetically driven origin for the low luminosity GRB 170817A associated with GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Hao; Yu, Cong; Huang, Lei

    2018-06-01

    The gamma-ray burst GR170817A associated with GW170817 is subluminous and subenergetic compared with other typical short gamma-ray bursts. It may be due to a relativistic jet viewed off-axis, or a structured jet or cocoon emission. Giant flares from magnetars may possibly be ruled out. However, the luminosity and energetics of GRB 170817A are coincident with those of magnetar giant flares. After the coalescence of a binary neutron star, a hypermassive neutron star may be formed. The hypermassive neutron star may have a magnetar-strength magnetic field. During the collapse of this hypermassive neutron star, magnetic field energy will also be released. This giant-flare-like event may explain the luminosity and energetics of GRB 170817A. Bursts with similar luminosity and energetics are expected in future neutron star-neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers.

  1. Fermi Observations of high-energy gamma-ray emissions from GRB 080916C

    CERN Document Server

    Abdo, A A; Arimoto, M; Asano, K; Atwood, W B; Axelsson, M; Baldini, L; Ballet, J; Band, D L; Barbiellini, Guido; Baring, Matthew G; Bastieri, Denis; Battelino, M; Baughman, B M; Bechtol, K; Bellardi, F; Bellazzini, R; Berenji, B; Bhat, P N; Bissaldi, E; Blandford, R D; Bloom, Elliott D; Bogaert, G; Bogart, J R; Bonamente, E; Bonnell, J; Borgland, A W; Bouvier, A; Bregeon, J; Brez, A; Briggs, M S; Brigida, M; Bruel, P; Burnett, Thompson H; Burrows, David N; Busetto, Giovanni; Caliandro, G A; Cameron, R A; Caraveo, P A; Casandjian, J M; Ceccanti, M; Cecchi, C; Celotti, Annalisa; Charles, E; Chekhtman, A; Cheung, C.C.Teddy; Chiang, J; Ciprini, S; Claus, R; Cohen-Tanugi, Johann; Cominsky, Lynn R; Connaughton, V; Conrad, J; Costamante, L; Cutini, S; DeKlotz, M; Dermer, C D; De Angelis, Alessandro; de Palma, F; Digel, S W; Dingus, B L; do Couto e Silva, Eduardo; Drell, P S; Dubois, R; Dumora, D; Edmonds, Y; Evans, P A; Fabiani, D; Farnier, C; Favuzzi, C; Finke, Justin D; Fishman, G; Focke, W B; Frailis, M; Fukazawa, Y; Funk, S; Fusco, P; Gargano, F; Gasparrini, D; Gehrels, N; Germani, S; Giebels, B; Giglietto, N; Giommi, P; Giordano, F; Glanzman, Thomas Lynn; Godfrey, Gary L; Goldstein, A; Granot, J; Greiner, J; Grenier, I A; Grondin, M H; Grove, J.Eric; Guillemot, L; Guiriec, S; Haller, G; Hanabata, Y; Harding, Alice K; Hayashida, M; Hays, Elizabeth A; Hernando Morata, J A; Hoover, A; Hughes, R E; Johannesson, G; Johnson, A S; Johnson, R P; Johnson, T J; Johnson, W N; Kamae, Tsuneyoshi; Katagiri, H; Kataoka, J; Kavelaars, A; Kawai, N; Kelly, H; Kennea, J; Kerr, M; Kippen, R M; Knodlseder, J; Kocevski, D; Kocian, M L; Komin, N; Kouveliotou, C; Kuehn, Frederick Gabriel Ivar; Kuss, Michael; Lande, J; Landriu, D; Larsson, S; Latronico, L; Lavalley, C; Lee, B; Lee, S H; Lemoine-Goumard, M; Lichti, G G; Longo, F; Loparco, F; Lott, B; Lovellette, M N; Lubrano, Pasquale; Madejski, G M; Makeev, A; Marangelli, B; Mazziotta, M N; McBreen, Sheila; McEnery, J E; McGlynn, S; Meegan, C; Miszaros, P; Meurer, C; Michelson, P F; Minuti, M; Mirizzi, N; Mitthumsiri, W; Mizuno, T; Moiseev, A A; Monte, C; Monzani, M E; Moretti, E; Morselli, A; Moskalenko, Igor Vladimirovich; Murgia, Simona; Nakamori, T; Nelson, D; Nolan, P L; Norris, J P; Nuss, E; Ohno, M; Ohsugi, Takashi; Okumura, Akira; Omodei, N; Orlando, E; Ormes, J F; Ozaki, M; Paciesas, W S; Paneque, D; Panetta, J H; Parent, D; Pelassa, V; Pepe, M; Perri, M; Pesce-Rollins, M; Petrosian, Vahe; Pinchera, M; Piron, F; Porter, Troy A; Preece, R; Rainr, S; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Rando, R; Rapposelli, E; Razzano, M; Razzaque, Soebur; Rea, N; Reimer, A; Reimer, O; Reposeur, Thierry; Reyes, Luis C; Ritz, S; Rochester, L S; Rodriguez, A Y; Roth, M; Ryde, F; Sadrozinski, H F W; Sanchez, D; Sander, A; Parkinson, P.M.Saz; Scargle, J D; Schalk, T L; Segal, K N; Sgro, C; Shimokawabe, T; Siskind, E J; Smith, D A; Smith, P D; Spandre, G; Spinelli, P; Stamatikos, M; Starck, Jean-Luc; Stecker, Floyd William; Steinle, H; Stephens, T E; Strickman, M S; Suson, Daniel J; Tagliaferri, G.; Tajima, Hiroyasu; Takahashi, H; Takahashi, T; Tanaka, T; Tenze, A; Thayer, J B; Thayer, J G; Thompson, D J; Tibaldo, L; Torres, Diego F; Tosti, G; Tramacere, A; Turri, M; Tuvi, S; Usher, T L; van der Horst, A J; Vigiani, L; Vilchez, N; Vitale, V; von Kienlin, A; Waite, A P; Williams, D A; Wilson-Hodge, C; Winer, B L; Wood, K S; Wu, X F; Yamazaki, R; Ylinen, T; Ziegler, M

    2009-01-01

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are highly energetic explosions signaling the death of massive stars in distant galaxies. The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope onboard the Fermi Observatory together record GRBs over a broad energy range spanning about 7 decades of gammaray energy. In September 2008, Fermi observed the exceptionally luminous GRB 080916C, with the largest apparent energy release yet measured. The high-energy gamma rays are observed to start later and persist longer than the lower energy photons. A simple spectral form fits the entire GRB spectrum, providing strong constraints on emission models. The known distance of the burst enables placing lower limits on the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow and on the quantum gravity mass.

  2. A Strong Limit on the Very-high-energy Emission from GRB 150323A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abeysekara, A. U.; Archer, A.; Benbow, W.; Bird, R.; Brose, R.; Buchovecky, M.; Bugaev, V.; Connolly, M. P.; Cui, W.; Errando, M.; Falcone, A.; Feng, Q.; Finley, J. P.; Flinders, A.; Fortson, L.; Furniss, A.; Gillanders, G. H.; Hütten, M.; Hanna, D.; Hervet, O.; Holder, J.; Hughes, G.; Humensky, T. B.; Johnson, C. A.; Kaaret, P.; Kar, P.; Kelley-Hoskins, N.; Kertzman, M.; Kieda, D.; Krause, M.; Krennrich, F.; Lang, M. J.; Lin, T. T. Y.; Maier, G.; McArthur, S.; Moriarty, P.; Mukherjee, R.; O’Brien, S.; Ong, R. A.; Park, N.; Perkins, J. S.; Petrashyk, A.; Pohl, M.; Popkow, A.; Pueschel, E.; Quinn, J.; Ragan, K.; Reynolds, P. T.; Richards, G. T.; Roache, E.; Rulten, C.; Sadeh, I.; Santander, M.; Sembroski, G. H.; Shahinyan, K.; Tyler, J.; Wakely, S. P.; Weiner, O. M.; Weinstein, A.; Wells, R. M.; Wilcox, P.; Wilhelm, A.; Williams, D. A.; Zitzer, B.; VERITAS Collaboration; Vurm, Indrek; Beloborodov, Andrei

    2018-04-01

    On 2015 March 23, the Very Energetic Radiation Imaging Telescope Array System (VERITAS) responded to a Swift-Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) detection of a gamma-ray burst, with observations beginning 270 s after the onset of BAT emission, and only 135 s after the main BAT emission peak. No statistically significant signal is detected above 140 GeV. The VERITAS upper limit on the fluence in a 40-minute integration corresponds to about 1% of the prompt fluence. Our limit is particularly significant because the very-high-energy (VHE) observation started only ∼2 minutes after the prompt emission peaked, and Fermi-Large Area Telescope observations of numerous other bursts have revealed that the high-energy emission is typically delayed relative to the prompt radiation and lasts significantly longer. Also, the proximity of GRB 150323A (z = 0.593) limits the attenuation by the extragalactic background light to ∼50% at 100–200 GeV. We conclude that GRB 150323A had an intrinsically very weak high-energy afterglow, or that the GeV spectrum had a turnover below ∼100 GeV. If the GRB exploded into the stellar wind of a massive progenitor, the VHE non-detection constrains the wind density parameter to be A ≳ 3 × 1011 g cm‑1, consistent with a standard Wolf–Rayet progenitor. Alternatively, the VHE emission from the blast wave would be weak in a very tenuous medium such as the interstellar medium, which therefore cannot be ruled out as the environment of GRB 150323A.

  3. ASTROSAT CZT IMAGER OBSERVATIONS OF GRB 151006A: TIMING, SPECTROSCOPY, AND POLARIZATION STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, A. R.; Chand, Vikas; Hingar, M. K.; Iyyani, S.; Khanna, Rakesh; Kutty, A. P. K.; Malkar, J. P.; Paul, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai (India); Bhalerao, V. B.; Bhattacharya, D.; Dewangan, G. C.; Pawar, Pramod; Vibhute, A. M. [Inter University Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pune (India); Chattopadhyay, T.; Mithun, N. P. S.; Vadawale, S. V.; Vagshette, N. [Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad (India); Basak, R. [Nicolaus Copernicus Astronomical Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw (Poland); Pradeep, P.; Samuel, Essy, E-mail: arrao@tifr.res.in [Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre, Thiruvananthapuram (India); and others

    2016-12-10

    AstroSat is a multi-wavelength satellite launched on 2015 September 28. The CZT Imager of AstroSat on its very first day of operation detected a long duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), namely GRB 151006A. Using the off-axis imaging and spectral response of the instrument, we demonstrate that the CZT Imager can localize this GRB correctly to about a few degrees, and it can provide, in conjunction with Swift , spectral parameters similar to those obtained from Fermi /GBM. Hence, the CZT Imager would be a useful addition to the currently operating GRB instruments ( Swift and Fermi ). Specifically, we argue that the CZT Imager will be most useful for the short hard GRBs by providing localization for those detected by Fermi and spectral information for those detected only by Swift . We also provide preliminary results on a new exciting capability of this instrument: the CZT Imager is able to identify Compton scattered events thereby providing polarization information for bright GRBs. GRB 151006A, in spite of being relatively faint, shows hints of a polarization signal at 100–300 keV (though at a low significance level). We point out that the CZT Imager should provide significant time resolved polarization measurements for GRBs that have fluence three times higher than that of GRB 151006A. We estimate that the number of such bright GRBs detectable by the CZT Imager is five to six per year. The CZT Imager can also act as a good hard X-ray monitoring device for possible electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave events.

  4. A MATURE DUSTY STAR-FORMING GALAXY HOSTING GRB 080607 AT z = 3.036

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Perley, Daniel A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Bloom, Joshua S.; Wilson, Christine D.; Levan, Andrew J.; Prochaska, Jason X.; Tanvir, Nial R.; Dessauges-Zavadsky, Miroslava; Pettini, Max

    2010-01-01

    We report the discovery of the host galaxy of Swift dark burst GRB 080607 at z GRB = 3.036. GRB 080607 is a unique case of a highly extinguished (A V ∼ 3 mag) afterglow that was yet sufficiently bright for high-quality absorption-line spectroscopy. The host galaxy is clearly resolved in deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WF3/IR F160W images and well detected in the Spitzer IRAC 3.5 μm and 4.5 μm channels, while displaying little/no fluxes in deep optical images from Keck and Magellan. The extremely red optical-infrared colors are consistent with the large extinction seen in the afterglow light, suggesting that the large amount of dust and gas surface mass density seen along the afterglow sight line is not merely local but likely reflects the global dust content across the entire host galaxy. Adopting the dust properties and metallicity of the host interstellar medium derived from studies of early-time afterglow light and absorption-line spectroscopy, we perform a stellar population synthesis analysis of the observed spectral energy distribution to constrain the intrinsic luminosity and stellar population of this dark burst host. The host galaxy is best described by an exponentially declining star formation rate of e-folding time τ = 2 Gyr and an age of ∼2 Gyr. We also derive an extinction-corrected star formation rate of SFR ∼ 125 h -2 M sun yr -1 and a total stellar mass of M * ∼ 4 x 10 11 h -2 M sun . Our study provides an example of massive, dusty star-forming galaxies contributing to the γ-ray burst (GRB) host galaxy population, supporting the notion that long-duration GRBs trace the bulk of cosmic star formation.

  5. Grb2 mediates semaphorin-4D-dependent RhoA inactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tianliang; Krishnan, Rameshkumar; Swiercz, Jakub M

    2012-08-01

    Signaling through the semaphorin 4D (Sema4D) receptor plexin-B1 is modulated by its interaction with tyrosine kinases ErbB-2 and Met. In cells expressing the plexin-B1-ErbB-2 receptor complex, ligand stimulation results in the activation of small GTPase RhoA and stimulation of cellular migration. By contrast, in cells expressing plexin-B1 and Met, ligand stimulation results in an association with the RhoGTPase-activating protein p190 RhoGAP and subsequent RhoA inactivation--a process that involves the tyrosine phosphorylation of plexin-B1 by Met. Inactivation of RhoA is necessary for Sema4D-mediated inhibition of cellular migration. It is, however, unknown how plexin-B1 phosphorylation regulates RhoGAP interaction and activity. Here we show that the activation of plexin-B1 by Sema4D and its subsequent tyrosine phosphorylation by Met creates a docking site for the SH2 domain of growth factor receptor bound-2 (Grb2). Grb2 is thereby recruited into the plexin-B1 receptor complex and, through its SH3 domain, interacts with p190 RhoGAP and mediates RhoA deactivation. Phosphorylation of plexin-B1 by Met and the recruitment of Grb2 have no effect on the R-RasGAP activity of plexin-B1, but are required for Sema4D-induced, RhoA-dependent antimigratory effects of Sema4D on breast cancer cells. These data show Grb2 as a direct link between plexin and p190-RhoGAP-mediated downstream signaling.

  6. Surprise in simplicity: an unusual spectral evolution of a single pulse GRB 151006A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, R.; Iyyani, S.; Chand, V.; Chattopadhyay, T.; Bhattacharya, D.; Rao, A. R.; Vadawale, S. V.

    2017-11-01

    We present a detailed analysis of GRB 151006A, the first gamma-ray burst (GRB) detected by AstroSat Cadmium-Zinc-Telluride Imager (CZTI). We study the long-term spectral evolution by exploiting the capabilities of Fermi and Swift satellites at different phases, which is complemented by the polarization measurement with the CZTI. While the light curve of the GRB in different energy bands shows a simple pulse profile, the spectrum shows an unusual evolution. The first phase exhibits a hard-to-soft evolution until ∼16-20 s, followed by a sudden increase in the spectral peak reaching a few MeV. Such a dramatic change in the spectral evolution in the case of a single pulse burst is reported for the first time. This is captured by all models we used namely, Band function, blackbody+Band and two blackbodies+power law. Interestingly, the Fermi Large Area Telescope also detects its first photon (>100 MeV) during this time. This new injection of energy may be associated with either the beginning of afterglow phase, or a second hard pulse of the prompt emission itself that, however, is not seen in the otherwise smooth pulse profile. By constructing Bayesian blocks and studying the hardness evolution we find a good evidence for a second hard pulse. The Swift data at late epochs (>T90 of the GRB) also show a significant spectral evolution consistent with the early second phase. The CZTI data (100-350 keV), though having low significance (1σ), show high values of polarization in the two epochs (77-94 per cent), in agreement with our interpretation.

  7. Four Years of Real-Time GRB Followup by BOOTES-1B (2005-2008)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jelínek, M.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Kubánek, P.; Guziy, S.; Gorosabel, J.; Cunniffe, R.; Vítek, S.; Hudec, René; Reglero, V.; Sabau-Graziati, L.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 2010, č. 1 (2010), 432172/1-432172/10 ISSN 1687-7969 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/08/1207 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA102/09/0997; ESA(XE) PECS project No. 98023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : observing * GRB * Spain Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science)

  8. Prompt gamma-ray emission of GRB 170817A associated to GW 170817: A consistent picture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziaeepour, Houri

    2018-05-01

    The short GRB 170817A associated to the first detection of gravitation waves from a Binary Neutron Star (BNS) merger was in many ways unusual. Possible explanations are emission from a cocoon or cocoon break out, off-axis view of a structured or uniform jet, and on-axis ultra-relativistic jet with reduced density and Lorentz factor. Here we use a phenomenological model of shock evolution and synchrotron/self-Compton emission to simulate the prompt emission of GRB 170817A and to test above proposals. We find that synchrotron emission from a mildly relativistic cocoon with a Lorentz factor of 2-3, as considered in the literature, generates a too soft, too long, and too bright prompt emission. Off-axis view of an structured jet with a Lorentz factor of about 10 can reproduce observations, but needs a very efficient transfer of kinetic energy to electrons in internal shocks, which is disfavored by particle in cell simulations. We also comment on cocoon breakout as a mechanism for generation of the prompt gamma-ray. A relativistic jet with a Lorentz factor of about 100 and a density lower than typical short GRBs seems to be the most plausible model and we conclude that GRB 170817A was intrinsically faint. Based on this result and findings of relativistic magnetohydrodynamics simulations of BNS merger in the literature we discuss physical and astronomical conditions, which may lead to such faint short GRBs. We identify small mass difference of progenitor neutron stars, their old age and reduced magnetic field, and anti-alignment of spin-orbit angular momentum induced by environmental gravitational disturbances during the lifetime of the BNS as causes for the faintness of GRB 170817A. We predict that BNS mergers at lower redshifts generate on average fainter GRBs.

  9. Modified gravity (MOG), the speed of gravitational radiation and the event GW170817/GRB170817A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M. A.; Moffat, J. W.; Toth, V. T.

    2018-05-01

    Modified gravity (MOG) is a covariant, relativistic, alternative gravitational theory whose field equations are derived from an action that supplements the spacetime metric tensor with vector and scalar fields. Both gravitational (spin 2) and electromagnetic waves travel on null geodesics of the theory's one metric. MOG satisfies the weak equivalence principle and is consistent with observations of the neutron star merger and gamma ray burster event GW170817/GRB170817A.

  10. GRB 090727 AND GAMMA-RAY BURSTS WITH EARLY-TIME OPTICAL EMISSION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopač, D.; Gomboc, A.; Japelj, J.; Kobayashi, S.; Mundell, C. G.; Bersier, D.; Cano, Z.; Smith, R. J.; Steele, I. A.; Virgili, F. J.; Guidorzi, C.; Melandri, A.

    2013-01-01

    We present a multi-wavelength analysis of Swift gamma-ray burst GRB 090727, for which optical emission was detected during the prompt gamma-ray emission by the 2 m autonomous robotic Liverpool Telescope and subsequently monitored for a further two days with the Liverpool and Faulkes Telescopes. Within the context of the standard fireball model, we rule out a reverse shock origin for the early-time optical emission in GRB 090727 and instead conclude that the early-time optical flash likely corresponds to emission from an internal dissipation process. Putting GRB 090727 into a broader observational and theoretical context, we build a sample of 36 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with contemporaneous early-time optical and gamma-ray detections. From these GRBs, we extract a sub-sample of 18 GRBs, which show optical peaks during prompt gamma-ray emission, and perform detailed temporal and spectral analysis in gamma-ray, X-ray, and optical bands. We find that in most cases early-time optical emission shows sharp and steep behavior, and notice a rich diversity of spectral properties. Using a simple internal shock dissipation model, we show that the emission during prompt GRB phase can occur at very different frequencies via synchrotron radiation. Based on the results obtained from observations and simulation, we conclude that the standard external shock interpretation for early-time optical emission is disfavored in most cases due to sharp peaks (Δt/t < 1) and steep rise/decay indices, and that internal dissipation can explain the properties of GRBs with optical peaks during gamma-ray emission

  11. The ultra-long GRB 111209A. II. Prompt to afterglow and afterglow properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stratta, G. [Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma (OAR/INAF), via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Gendre, B.; Boër, M. [ARTEMIS, UMR 7250 (CNRS/OCA/UNS), boulevard de l' Observatoire, BP 4229, F-06304 Nice Cedex (France); Atteia, J. L. [Université de Toulouse, UPS-OMP, IRAP, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Coward, D. M.; Howell, E. [School of Physics, University of Western Australia (UWA), Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); De Pasquale, M.; Oates, S. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory (MSSL), University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Klotz, A. [IRAP, 14, avenue Edouard Belin, F-31400 Toulouse (France); Piro, L. [Istituto di Astrofisica e Planetologia Spaziali di Roma (IAPS/INAF), via fosso del cavaliere 100, I-00133 Roma (Italy)

    2013-12-10

    The 'ultra-long' gamma-ray burst GRB 111209A at redshift z = 0.677 is the longest GRB ever observed thus far, with a rest frame prompt emission duration of ∼4 hr. In order to explain the burst exceptional longevity, a low-metallicity blue supergiant progenitor was invoked. In this article we further constrain the phenomenology and progenitor properties of this peculiar GRB by performing a multiband temporal and spectral analysis of both the prompt and the afterglow emission. We use proprietary and publicly available data from Swift, Konus WIND, XMM-Newton, and TAROT, as well as from other ground-based optical and radio telescopes. We find some peculiar properties that are possibly connected to the exceptional nature of this burst, namely: (1) an unprecedented large optical delay of 410 ± 50 s between the peak time in gamma-rays and the peak time in the optical of a marked multiwavelength flare; (2) multiwavelength prompt emission spectral modeling requires a certain amount of dust in the circumburst environment. The dust produces a rest frame visual extinction of A{sub V} = 0.3-1.5 mag, and may undergo destruction at late times; and (3) we detect the presence of a hard spectral extra power-law component at the end of the X-ray steep steep decay phase and before the start of the X-ray afterglow, which has never been revealed thus far in past GRBs. The optical afterglow shows more usual properties; it has a flux power-law decay with an index of 1.6 ± 0.1 and a late rebrightening feature observed at ∼1.1 the day after the first Burst Alert Telescope trigger. We discuss our findings in the context of several possible interpretations that have been given thus far of the complex multiband GRB phenomenology and propose a binary channel formation for the blue supergiant progenitor.

  12. The ultra-long GRB 111209A. II. Prompt to afterglow and afterglow properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stratta, G.; Gendre, B.; Boër, M.; Atteia, J. L.; Coward, D. M.; Howell, E.; De Pasquale, M.; Oates, S.; Klotz, A.; Piro, L.

    2013-01-01

    The 'ultra-long' gamma-ray burst GRB 111209A at redshift z = 0.677 is the longest GRB ever observed thus far, with a rest frame prompt emission duration of ∼4 hr. In order to explain the burst exceptional longevity, a low-metallicity blue supergiant progenitor was invoked. In this article we further constrain the phenomenology and progenitor properties of this peculiar GRB by performing a multiband temporal and spectral analysis of both the prompt and the afterglow emission. We use proprietary and publicly available data from Swift, Konus WIND, XMM-Newton, and TAROT, as well as from other ground-based optical and radio telescopes. We find some peculiar properties that are possibly connected to the exceptional nature of this burst, namely: (1) an unprecedented large optical delay of 410 ± 50 s between the peak time in gamma-rays and the peak time in the optical of a marked multiwavelength flare; (2) multiwavelength prompt emission spectral modeling requires a certain amount of dust in the circumburst environment. The dust produces a rest frame visual extinction of A V = 0.3-1.5 mag, and may undergo destruction at late times; and (3) we detect the presence of a hard spectral extra power-law component at the end of the X-ray steep steep decay phase and before the start of the X-ray afterglow, which has never been revealed thus far in past GRBs. The optical afterglow shows more usual properties; it has a flux power-law decay with an index of 1.6 ± 0.1 and a late rebrightening feature observed at ∼1.1 the day after the first Burst Alert Telescope trigger. We discuss our findings in the context of several possible interpretations that have been given thus far of the complex multiband GRB phenomenology and propose a binary channel formation for the blue supergiant progenitor.

  13. The Ultra-long GRB 111209A. II. Prompt to Afterglow and Afterglow Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratta, G.; Gendre, B.; Atteia, J. L.; Boër, M.; Coward, D. M.; De Pasquale, M.; Howell, E.; Klotz, A.; Oates, S.; Piro, L.

    2013-12-01

    The "ultra-long" gamma-ray burst GRB 111209A at redshift z = 0.677 is the longest GRB ever observed thus far, with a rest frame prompt emission duration of ~4 hr. In order to explain the burst exceptional longevity, a low-metallicity blue supergiant progenitor was invoked. In this article we further constrain the phenomenology and progenitor properties of this peculiar GRB by performing a multiband temporal and spectral analysis of both the prompt and the afterglow emission. We use proprietary and publicly available data from Swift, Konus WIND, XMM-Newton, and TAROT, as well as from other ground-based optical and radio telescopes. We find some peculiar properties that are possibly connected to the exceptional nature of this burst, namely: (1) an unprecedented large optical delay of 410 ± 50 s between the peak time in gamma-rays and the peak time in the optical of a marked multiwavelength flare; (2) multiwavelength prompt emission spectral modeling requires a certain amount of dust in the circumburst environment. The dust produces a rest frame visual extinction of AV = 0.3-1.5 mag, and may undergo destruction at late times; and (3) we detect the presence of a hard spectral extra power-law component at the end of the X-ray steep steep decay phase and before the start of the X-ray afterglow, which has never been revealed thus far in past GRBs. The optical afterglow shows more usual properties; it has a flux power-law decay with an index of 1.6 ± 0.1 and a late rebrightening feature observed at ~1.1 the day after the first Burst Alert Telescope trigger. We discuss our findings in the context of several possible interpretations that have been given thus far of the complex multiband GRB phenomenology and propose a binary channel formation for the blue supergiant progenitor.

  14. CONSTRAINTS ON THE EMISSION MODEL OF THE 'NAKED-EYE BURST' GRB 080319B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdo, A. A.; Abeysekara, A. U.; Linnemann, J. T.; Allen, B. T.; Chen, C.; Aune, T.; Berley, D.; Goodman, J. A.; Christopher, G. E.; Kolterman, B. E.; Mincer, A. I.; DeYoung, T.; Dingus, B. L.; Hoffman, C. M.; Ellsworth, R. W.; Gonzalez, M. M.; Granot, J.; Hays, E.; McEnery, J. E.; Hüntemeyer, P. H.

    2012-01-01

    On 2008 March 19, one of the brightest gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) ever recorded was detected by several ground- and space-based instruments spanning the electromagnetic spectrum from radio to gamma rays. With a peak visual magnitude of 5.3, GRB 080319B was dubbed the 'naked-eye' GRB, as an observer under dark skies could have seen the burst without the aid of an instrument. Presented here are results from observations of the prompt phase of GRB 080319B taken with the Milagro TeV observatory. The burst was observed at an elevation angle of 47°. Analysis of the data is performed using both the standard air shower method and the scaler or single-particle technique, which results in a sensitive energy range that extends from ∼5 GeV to >20 TeV. These observations provide the only direct constraints on the properties of the high-energy gamma-ray emission from GRB 080319B at these energies. No evidence for emission is found in the Milagro data, and upper limits on the gamma-ray flux above 10 GeV are derived. The limits on emission between ∼25 and 200 GeV are incompatible with the synchrotron self-Compton model of gamma-ray production and disfavor a corresponding range (2 eV-16 eV) of assumed synchrotron peak energies. This indicates that the optical photons and soft (∼650 keV) gamma rays may not be produced by the same electron population.

  15. Preparation of crystals for characterizing the Grb7 SH2 domain before and after complex formation with a bicyclic peptide antagonist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambaye, Nigus D; Gunzburg, Menachem J; Traore, Daouda A K; Del Borgo, Mark P; Perlmutter, Patrick; Wilce, Matthew C J; Wilce, Jacqueline A

    2014-02-01

    Human growth factor receptor-bound protein 7 (Grb7) is an adapter protein involved in cell growth, migration and proliferation. It is now recognized that Grb7 is an emerging therapeutic target in specific cancer subtypes. Recently, the discovery of a bicyclic peptide inhibitor that targets the Grb7 SH2 domain, named G7-B1, was reported. In an attempt to probe the foundation of its interaction with Grb7, the crystallization and preliminary data collection of both the apo and G7-B1-bound forms of the Grb7 SH2 domain are reported here. Diffraction-quality crystals were obtained using the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method. After several rounds of microseeding, crystals of the apo Grb7 SH2 domain were obtained that diffracted to 1.8 Å resolution, while those of the G7-B1-Grb7 SH2 domain complex diffracted to 2.2 Å resolution. The apo Grb7 SH2 domain crystallized in the trigonal space group P63, whereas the G7-B1-Grb7 SH2 domain complex crystallized in the monoclinic space group P21. The experimental aspects of crystallization, crystal optimization and data collection and the preliminary data are reported.

  16. GRB 120422A: a Low-Luminosity Gamma-Ray Burst Driven by a Central Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin-Bin; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Shen, Rong-Feng; Xu, Dong; Zhang, Fu-Wen; Wei, Da-Ming; Burrows, David N.; Zhang, Bing; Gehrels, Neil

    2012-01-01

    GRB 120422A is a low-luminosity gamma-ray burst (GRB) associated with a bright supernova, which distinguishesitself by its relatively short T(sub 90) (approximately 5 s) and an energetic and steep-decaying X-ray tail. We analyze the Swift BurstAlert Telescope and X-ray Telescope data and discuss the physical implications. We show that the steep declineearly in the X-ray light curve can be interpreted as the curvature tail of a late emission episode around 58-86 s,with a curved instantaneous spectrum at the end of the emission episode. Together with the main activity in thefirst 20 s and the weak emission from 40 s to 60 s, the prompt emission is variable, which points to a centralengine origin in contrast to a shock-breakout origin, which is used to interpret some other nearby low-luminosity supernova GRBs. Both the curvature effect model and interpreting the early shallow decay as the coasting externalforward shock emission in a wind medium provide a constraint on the bulk Lorentz factor to be around several.Comparing the properties ofGRB 120422A and other supernova GRBs,we find that themain criterion to distinguish engine-driven GRBs from shock-breakout GRBs is the time-averaged -ray luminosity. Engine-driven GRBs likelyhave a luminosity above approximately 10(sup 48) erg s(sup -1).

  17. GRB 110205A: ANATOMY OF A LONG GAMMA-RAY BURST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gendre, B.; Stratta, G.; Atteia, J. L.; Klotz, A.; Boër, M.; Colas, F.; Vachier, F.; Kugel, F.; Rinner, C.; Laas-Bourez, M.; Strajnic, J.

    2012-01-01

    The Swift burst GRB 110205A was a very bright burst visible in the Northern Hemisphere. GRB 110205A was intrinsically long and very energetic and it occurred in a low-density interstellar medium environment, leading to delayed afterglow emission and a clear temporal separation of the main emitting components: prompt emission, reverse shock, and forward shock. Our observations show several remarkable features of GRB 110205A: the detection of prompt optical emission strongly correlated with the Burst Alert Telescope light curve, with no temporal lag between the two; the absence of correlation of the X-ray emission compared to the optical and high-energy gamma-ray ones during the prompt phase; and a large optical re-brightening after the end of the prompt phase, that we interpret as a signature of the reverse shock. Beyond the pedagogical value offered by the excellent multi-wavelength coverage of a gamma-ray burst with temporally separated radiating components, we discuss several questions raised by our observations: the nature of the prompt optical emission and the spectral evolution of the prompt emission at high energies (from 0.5 keV to 150 keV); the origin of an X-ray flare at the beginning of the forward shock; and the modeling of the afterglow, including the reverse shock, in the framework of the classical fireball model.

  18. Evolution of the polarization of the optical afterglow of the gamma-ray burst GRB030329.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, Jochen; Klose, Sylvio; Reinsch, Klaus; Schmid, Hans Martin; Sari, Re'em; Hartmann, Dieter H; Kouveliotou, Chryssa; Rau, Arne; Palazzi, Eliana; Straubmeier, Christian; Stecklum, Bringfried; Zharikov, Sergej; Tovmassian, Gaghik; Bärnbantner, Otto; Ries, Christoph; Jehin, Emmanuel; Henden, Arne; Kaas, Anlaug A; Grav, Tommy; Hjorth, Jens; Pedersen, Holger; Wijers, Ralph A M J; Kaufer, Andreas; Park, Hye-Sook; Williams, Grant; Reimer, Olaf

    2003-11-13

    The association of a supernova with GRB030329 strongly supports the 'collapsar' model of gamma-ray bursts, where a relativistic jet forms after the progenitor star collapses. Such jets cannot be spatially resolved because gamma-ray bursts lie at cosmological distances; their existence is instead inferred from 'breaks' in the light curves of the afterglows, and from the theoretical desire to reduce the estimated total energy of the burst by proposing that most of it comes out in narrow beams. Temporal evolution of the polarization of the afterglows may provide independent evidence for the jet structure of the relativistic outflow. Small-level polarization ( approximately 1-3 per cent) has been reported for a few bursts, but its temporal evolution has yet to be established. Here we report polarimetric observations of the afterglow of GRB030329. We establish the polarization light curve, detect sustained polarization at the per cent level, and find significant variability. The data imply that the afterglow magnetic field has a small coherence length and is mostly random, probably generated by turbulence, in contrast with the picture arising from the high polarization detected in the prompt gamma-rays from GRB021206 (ref. 18).

  19. A new gamma-ray burst classification scheme from GRB 060614.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrels, N; Norris, J P; Barthelmy, S D; Granot, J; Kaneko, Y; Kouveliotou, C; Markwardt, C B; Mészáros, P; Nakar, E; Nousek, J A; O'Brien, P T; Page, M; Palmer, D M; Parsons, A M; Roming, P W A; Sakamoto, T; Sarazin, C L; Schady, P; Stamatikos, M; Woosley, S E

    2006-12-21

    Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are known to come in two duration classes, separated at approximately 2 s. Long-duration bursts originate from star-forming regions in galaxies, have accompanying supernovae when these are near enough to observe and are probably caused by massive-star collapsars. Recent observations show that short-duration bursts originate in regions within their host galaxies that have lower star-formation rates, consistent with binary neutron star or neutron star-black hole mergers. Moreover, although their hosts are predominantly nearby galaxies, no supernovae have been so far associated with short-duration GRBs. Here we report that the bright, nearby GRB 060614 does not fit into either class. Its approximately 102-s duration groups it with long-duration GRBs, while its temporal lag and peak luminosity fall entirely within the short-duration GRB subclass. Moreover, very deep optical observations exclude an accompanying supernova, similar to short-duration GRBs. This combination of a long-duration event without an accompanying supernova poses a challenge to both the collapsar and the merging-neutron-star interpretations and opens the door to a new GRB classification scheme that straddles both long- and short-duration bursts.

  20. Extremely Bright GRB 160625B with Multiple Emission Episodes: Evidence for Long-term Ejecta Evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Hou-Jun; Lü, Jing; Zhong, Shu-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Hai-Ming; Lan, Lin; Lu, Rui-Jing; Liang, En-Wei [Guangxi Key Laboratory for Relativistic Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Xie, Wei, E-mail: lhj@gxu.edu.edu, E-mail: lew@gxu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2017-11-01

    GRB 160625B is an extremely bright GRB with three distinct emission episodes. By analyzing its data observed with the Gamma-Ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi mission, we find that a multicolor blackbody (mBB) model can be used to fit very well the spectra of the initial short episode (Episode I) within the hypothesis of photosphere emission of a fireball model. The time-resolved spectra of its main episode (Episode II), which was detected with both GBM and LAT after a long quiescent stage (∼180 s) following the initial episode, can be fitted with a model comprising an mBB component plus a cutoff power-law (CPL) component. This GRB was detected again in the GBM and LAT bands with a long extended emission (Episode III) after a quiescent period of ∼300 s. The spectrum of Episode III is adequately fitted with CPL plus single power-law models, and no mBB component is required. These features may imply that the emission of the three episodes are dominated by distinct physics processes, i.e., Episode I is possible from the cocoon emission surrounding the relativistic jet, Episode II may be from photosphere emission and internal shock of the relativistic jet, and Episode III is contributed by internal and external shocks of the relativistic jet. On the other hand, both X-ray and optical afterglows are consistent with the standard external shocks model.

  1. Beam On Target (BOT) Produces Gamma Ray Burst (GRB) Fireballs and Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greyber, H. D.

    1997-12-01

    Unlike the myriads of ad hoc models that have been offered to explain GRB, the BOT process is simply the very common process used worldwide in accelerator laboratories to produce gamma rays. The Strong Magnetic Field (SMF) model postulates an extremely intense, highly relativistic current ring formed during the original gravitational collapse of a distant galaxy when the plasma cloud was permeated by a primordial magnetic field. GRB occur when solid matter (asteroid, white dwarf, neutron star, planet) falls rapidly through the Storage Ring beam producing a very strongly collimated electromagnetic shower, and a huge amount of matter from the target, in the form of a giant, hot, expanding plasma cloud, or ``Fireball,'' is blown off. BOT satisfies all the ``severe constraints imposed on the source of this burst --'' concluded by the CGRO team (Sommer et al, Astrophys. J. 422 L63 (1994)) for the huge intense burst GRB930131, whereas neutron star merger models are ``difficult to reconcile.'' BOT expects the lowest energy gamma photons to arrive very slightly later than higher energy photons due to the time for the shower to penetrate the target. The millisecond spikes in bursts are due to the slender filaments of current that make up the Storage Ring beam. Delayed photons can be explained by a broken target ``rock.'' See H. Greyber in the book ``Compton Gamma Ray Observatory,'' AIP Conf. Proc. 280, 569 (1993).

  2. Multicolour modelling of SN 2013dx associated with GRB 130702A★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Volnova, A. A.; Pruzhinskaya, M. V.; Pozanenko, A. S.; Blinnikov, S. I.; Minaev, P. Yu.; Burkhonov, O. A.; Chernenko, A. M.; Ehgamberdiev, Sh. A.; Inasaridze, R.; Jelinek, M.; Khorunzhev, G. A.; Klunko, E. V.; Krugly, Yu. N.; Mazaeva, E. D.; Rumyantsev, V. V.; Volvach, A. E.

    2017-05-01

    We present optical observations of SN 2013dx, related to the Fermi burst GRB 130702A, which occurred at red shift z = 0.145. It is the second-best sampled gamma-ray burst (GRB)/supernova (SN) after SN 1998bw. The observational light curves contain more than 280 data points in the uBgrRiz filters until 88 d after the burst, and the data were collected from our observational collaboration (Maidanak Observatory, Abastumani Observatory, Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Mondy Observatory, National Observatory of Turkey and Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos) and from the literature. We model numerically the multicolour light curves using the one-dimensional radiation hydrodynamical code stella, previously widely implemented for modelling typical non-GRB SNe. The best-fitting model has the following parameters: pre-SN star mass M = 25 M⊙; mass of the compact remnant MCR = 6 M⊙; total energy of the outburst Eoburst = 3.5 × 1052 erg; pre-supernova star radius R = 100 R⊙; M_^{56Ni} = 0.2 M_{⊙}, which is totally mixed through the ejecta; MO = 16.6 M⊙; MSi = 1.2 M⊙ and MFe = 1.2 M⊙, and the radiative efficiency of the SN is 0.1 per cent.

  3. Long-term continuous energy injection in the afterglow of GRB 060729

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Ming; Huang Yongfeng; Lu Tan

    2009-01-01

    A long plateau phase and an amazing level of brightness have been observed in the X-ray afterglow of GRB 060729. This peculiar light curve is likely due to long-term energy injection in external shock. Here, we present a detailed numerical study of the energy injection process of magnetic dipole radiation from a strongly magnetized millisecond pulsar and model the multi-band afterglow observations. It is found that this model can successfully explain the long plateaus in the observed X-ray and optical afterglow light curves. The sharp break following the plateaus could be due to the rapid decline of the emission power of the central pulsar. At an even later time (∼ 5 x 10 6 s), an obvious jet break appears, which implies a relatively large half opening angle of θ ∼ 0.3 for the GRB ejecta. Due to the energy injection, the Lorentz factor of the outflow is still larger than two even at 10 7 s after the GRB trigger, making the X-ray afterglow of this burst detectable by Chandra even 642 d after the burst.

  4. The Signature of the Central Engine in the Weakest Relativistic Explosions: GRB 100316D

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Wieringa, M. H.; Edwards, P. G.; Chevalier, R. A.; Morsony, B. J.; Barniol Duran, R.; Sironi, L.; Zauderer, B. A.; Milisavljevic, D.; Kamble, A.; Pian, E.

    2013-11-01

    We present late-time radio and X-ray observations of the nearby sub-energetic gamma-ray burst (GRB)100316D associated with supernova (SN) 2010bh. Our broad-band analysis constrains the explosion properties of GRB 100316D to be intermediate between highly relativistic, collimated GRBs and the spherical, ordinary hydrogen-stripped SNe. We find that ~1049 erg is coupled to mildly relativistic (Γ = 1.5-2), quasi-spherical ejecta, expanding into a medium previously shaped by the progenitor mass-loss with a rate of \\dot{M}\\, {\\sim }\\, 10^{-5}\\,M_{\\odot }\\,yr^{-1} (for an assumed wind density profile and wind velocity vw = 1000 km s-1). The kinetic energy profile of the ejecta argues for the presence of a central engine and identifies GRB 100316D as one of the weakest central-engine-driven explosions detected to date. Emission from the central engine is responsible for an excess of soft X-ray radiation that dominates over the standard afterglow at late times (t > 10 days). We connect this phenomenology with the birth of the most rapidly rotating magnetars. Alternatively, accretion onto a newly formed black hole might explain the excess of radiation. However, significant departure from the standard fall-back scenario is required.

  5. The signature of the central engine in the weakest relativistic explosions: GRB 100316D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Margutti, R.; Soderberg, A. M.; Sironi, L.; Zauderer, B. A.; Milisavljevic, D.; Kamble, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Edwards, P. G.; Chevalier, R. A.; Morsony, B. J.; Duran, R. Barniol; Pian, E.

    2013-01-01

    We present late-time radio and X-ray observations of the nearby sub-energetic gamma-ray burst (GRB)100316D associated with supernova (SN) 2010bh. Our broad-band analysis constrains the explosion properties of GRB 100316D to be intermediate between highly relativistic, collimated GRBs and the spherical, ordinary hydrogen-stripped SNe. We find that ∼10 49 erg is coupled to mildly relativistic (Γ = 1.5-2), quasi-spherical ejecta, expanding into a medium previously shaped by the progenitor mass-loss with a rate of M-dot ∼ 10 −5 M ⊙ yr −1 (for an assumed wind density profile and wind velocity v w = 1000 km s –1 ). The kinetic energy profile of the ejecta argues for the presence of a central engine and identifies GRB 100316D as one of the weakest central-engine-driven explosions detected to date. Emission from the central engine is responsible for an excess of soft X-ray radiation that dominates over the standard afterglow at late times (t > 10 days). We connect this phenomenology with the birth of the most rapidly rotating magnetars. Alternatively, accretion onto a newly formed black hole might explain the excess of radiation. However, significant departure from the standard fall-back scenario is required.

  6. BOOTES-IR: near IR follow-up GRB observations by a robotic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Postrigo, A. de Ugarte; Jelinek, M.

    2005-01-01

    BOOTES-IR is the extension of the BOOTES experiment, which operates in Southern Spain since 1998, to the near IR (NIR). The goal is to follow up the early stage of the gamma ray burst (GRB) afterglow emission in the NIR, alike BOOTES does already at optical wavelengths. The scientific case that drives the BOOTES-IR performance is the study of GRBs with the support of spacecraft like INTEGRAL, SWIFT and GLAST. Given that the afterglow emission in both, the NIR and the optical, in the instances immediately following a GRB, is extremely bright (reached V = 8.9 in one case), it should be possible to detect this prompt emission at NIR wavelengths too. The combined observations by BOOTES-IR and BOOTES-1 and BOOTES-2 will allow for real time identification of trustworthy candidates to have a high redshift (z > 5). It is expected that, few minutes after a GRB, the IR magnitudes be H ∼ 7-10, hence very high quality spectra can be obtained for objects as far as z = 10 by larger instruments

  7. GRB 091024A and the nature of ultra-long gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virgili, F. J.; Mundell, C. G.; Harrison, R.; Kobayashi, S.; Steele, I. A.; Mottram, C. J.; Clay, N. R.; Pal'shin, V.; Guidorzi, C.; Margutti, R.; Chornock, R.; Melandri, A.; Henden, A.; Updike, A. C.; Cenko, S. B.; Tanvir, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Gomboc, A.; Levan, A.; Cano, Z.

    2013-01-01

    We present a broadband study of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 091024A within the context of other ultra-long-duration GRBs. An unusually long burst detected by Konus-Wind (KW), Swift, and Fermi, GRB 091024A has prompt emission episodes covering ∼1300 s, accompanied by bright and highly structured optical emission captured by various rapid-response facilities, including the 2 m autonomous robotic Faulkes North and Liverpool Telescopes, KAIT, S-LOTIS, and the Sonoita Research Observatory. We also observed the burst with 8 and 10 m class telescopes and determine the redshift to be z = 1.0924 ± 0.0004. We find no correlation between the optical and γ-ray peaks and interpret the optical light curve as being of external origin, caused by the reverse and forward shock of a highly magnetized jet (R B ≈ 100-200). Low-level emission is detected throughout the near-background quiescent period between the first two emission episodes of the KW data, suggesting continued central-engine activity; we discuss the implications of this ongoing emission and its impact on the afterglow evolution and predictions. We summarize the varied sample of historical GRBs with exceptionally long durations in gamma-rays (≳1000 s) and discuss the likelihood of these events being from a separate population; we suggest ultra-long GRBs represent the tail of the duration distribution of the long GRB population.

  8. Some directions in laser meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derr, V.E.

    1977-01-01

    Applications of lidar systems in studies of pollution meteorology are discussed. It is pointed out that lidar can contribute to the determination of characteristics of particulate pollutants and also the study of the dynamics of dispersion. Agricultural and energy related problems require both short and longer term forecasting. It is as yet not completely clear whether lidar will be significant in longer term forecasts, of benefit to agriculture and conservation, or whether its usefulness will be primarily in the study of basic atmospheric processes involving the effect of clouds and aerosols on radiation balance. However, recent studies indicate that lidar will be important, in the future, in global wind sensing from satellites. Lidar and radar systems for cloud observations are compared

  9. Relationship Between Quantitative GRB7 RNA Expression and Recurrence after Adjuvant Anthracycline Chemotherapy in Triple Negative Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparano, Joseph A.; Goldstein, Lori J.; Childs, Barrett H.; Shak, Steven; Brassard, Diana; Badve, Sunil; Baehner, Frederick L.; Bugarini, Roberto; Rowley, Steve; Perez, Edith; Shulman, Lawrence N.; Martino, Silvana; Davidson, Nancy E.; Kenny, Paraic A.; Sledge, George W.; Gray, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To perform an exploratory analysis of the relationship between gene expression and recurrence in patients with operable triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy. Experimental design RNA was extracted from archived tumor samples derived from 246 patients with stage I-III TNBC treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy, and was analyzed by quantitative RT-PCR for a panel of 374 genes. The relationship between gene expression and recurrence was evaluated using weighted Cox proportional hazards model score tests. Results GRB7 was the only gene for which higher expression was significantly associated with increased recurrence in TNBC (Korn’s adjusted p value=0.04). In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for clinicopathologic features, higher GRB7 expression was associated with an increased recurrence risk (HR 2.31, p=0.04 using the median as the split). The 5-year recurrence rates were 10.5% (95% confidence intervals [CI] 7.8%, 14.1%) in the low and 20.4% (95% CI 16.5%, 25.0%) in the high GRB7 groups. External validation in other datasets indicated that GRB7 expression was not prognostic in two adjuvant trials including variable systemic therapy, but in two other trials showed that high GBR7 expression was associated with resistance to neoadjuvant doxorubicin and taxane therapy. Conclusions GRB7 was associated with an increased risk of recurrence in TNBC, suggesting that GRB7 or GRB7-dependent pathways may serve as potential biomarkers for therapeutic targets. Therapeutic targeting of one or more factors identified which function as interaction nodes or effectors should also be considered. PMID:21933890

  10. Relationship between quantitative GRB7 RNA expression and recurrence after adjuvant anthracycline chemotherapy in triple-negative breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparano, Joseph A; Goldstein, Lori J; Childs, Barrett H; Shak, Steven; Brassard, Diana; Badve, Sunil; Baehner, Frederick L; Bugarini, Roberto; Rowley, Steve; Perez, Edith A; Shulman, Lawrence N; Martino, Silvana; Davidson, Nancy E; Kenny, Paraic A; Sledge, George W; Gray, Robert

    2011-11-15

    To conduct an exploratory analysis of the relationship between gene expression and recurrence in patients with operable triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy. RNA was extracted from archived tumor samples derived from 246 patients with stage I-III TNBC treated with adjuvant doxorubicin-containing chemotherapy, and was analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase PCR for a panel of 374 genes. The relationship between gene expression and recurrence was evaluated using weighted Cox proportional hazards model score tests. Growth factor receptor bound protein 7 (GRB7) was the only gene for which higher expression was significantly associated with increased recurrence in TNBC (Korn's adjusted P value = 0.04). In a Cox proportional hazards model adjusted for clinicopathologic features, higher GRB7 expression was associated with an increased recurrence risk (HR = 2.31; P = 0.04 using the median as the split). The 5-year recurrence rates were 10.5% [95% confidence intervals (CI), 7.8-14.1] in the low and 20.4% (95% CI, 16.5-25.0) in the high GRB7 groups. External validation in other datasets indicated that GRB7 expression was not prognostic in two adjuvant trials including variable systemic therapy, but in two other trials showed that high GBR7 expression was associated with resistance to neoadjuvant doxorubicin and taxane therapy. GRB7 was associated with an increased risk of recurrence in TNBC, suggesting that GRB7 or GRB7-dependent pathways may serve as potential biomarkers for therapeutic targets. Therapeutic targeting of one or more factors identified which function as interaction nodes or effectors should also be considered.

  11. Lloyd Berkner: Catalyst for Meteorology's Fabulous Fifties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J. M.

    2002-05-01

    In the long sweep of meteorological history - from Aristotle's Meteorologica to the threshold of the third millennium - the 1950s will surely be recognized as a defining decade. The contributions of many individuals were responsible for the combination of vision and institution building that marked this decade and set the stage for explosive development during the subsequent forty years. In the minds of many individuals who were active during those early years, however, one name stands out as a prime mover par excellence: Lloyd Viel Berkner. On May 1, 1957, Berkner addressed the National Press Club. The address was entitled, "Horizons of Meteorology". It reveals Berkner's insights into meteorology from his position as Chairman of the Committee on Meteorology of the National Academy of Sciences, soon to release the path-breaking report, Research and Education in Meteorology (1958). The address also reflects the viewpoint of an individual deeply involved in the International Geophysical Year (IGY). It is an important footnote to meteorological history. We welcome this opportunity to profile Berkner and to discuss "Horizons of Meteorology" in light of meteorology's state-of-affairs in the 1950s and the possible relevance to Berkner's ideas to contemporary issues.

  12. DESCARTES AND THE METEOROLOGY OF THE WORLD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick BRISSEY

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Descartes claimed that he thought he could deduce the assumptions of his Meteorology by the contents of the Discourse. He actually began the Meteorology with assumptions. The content of the Discourse, moreover, does not indicate how he deduced the assumptions of the Meteorology. We seem to be left in a precarious position. We can examine the text as it was published, independent of Descartes’ claims, which suggests that he incorporated a presumptive or hypothetical method. On the other hand, we can take Descartes’ claims as our guide and search for the epistemic foundations of the Meteorology independent of the Discourse. In this paper, I will pursue the latter route. My aim is to explain why, and how, Descartes thought that he had deduced the assumptions of the Meteorology. My interest, in this case, is solely Descartes’ physical foundation for the Meteorology, in the physics and physiology that resulted in Descartes’ explanation. With this aim, I provide an interpretation of Descartes’ World where many of its conclusions serve as evidence for the assumptions of the Meteorology. I provisionally conclude that Descartes thought that his World was the epistemic foundation for his Meteorology.

  13. Meteorological Factors Affecting Evaporation Duct Height Climatologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-07-01

    Italy Maritime Meteorology Division Japan Meteorological Agency Ote-Machi 1-3-4 Chiyoda-Ku Tokyo, Japan Instituto De Geofisica U.N.A.M. Biblioteca ...Torre De Ciencias, 3ER Piso Ciudad Universitaria Mexico 20, D.F. Koninklijk Nederlands Meteorologisch Instituu. Postbus 201 3730 AE Debilt Netherlands

  14. Integrin-mediated signal transduction linked to Ras pathway by GRB2 binding to focal adhesion kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hanks, S K; Hunter, T; van der Geer, P

    The cytoplasmic focal adhesion protein-tyrosine kinase (FAK) localizes with surface integrin receptors at sites where cells attach to the extracellular matrix. Increased FAK tyrosine phosphorylation occurs upon integrin engagement with fibronectin. Here we show that adhesion of murine NIH3T3 fibroblasts to fibronectin promotes SH2-domain-mediated association of the GRB2 adaptor protein and the c-Src protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) with FAK in vivo, and also results in activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). In v-Src-transformed NIH3T3, the association of v-Src, GRB2 and Sos with FAK is independent of cell adhesion to fibronectin. The GRB2 SH2 domain binds directly to tyrosine-phosphorylated FAK. Mutation of tyrosine residue 925 of FAK (YENV motif) to phenylalanine blocks GRB2 SH2-domain binding to FAK in vitro. Our results show that fibronectin binding to integrins on NIH3T3 fibroblasts promotes c-Src and FAK association and formation of an integrin-activated signalling complex. Phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr 925 upon fibronectin stimulation creates an SH2-binding site for GRB2 which may link integrin engagement to the activation of the Ras/MAPK signal transduction pathway.

  15. Formation of Shc-Grb2 complexes is necessary to induce neoplastic transformation by overexpression of Shc proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salcini, A E; McGlade, J; Pelicci, G

    1994-01-01

    The mammalian SHC gene encodes three overlapping proteins which all contain a carboxy-terminal SH2 domain. Shc proteins are phosphorylated on tyrosine by a variety of receptor and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases. Phosphorylated Shc proteins form a complex with the SH2-SH3 containing Grb2 protein which...... of Grb2 to Shc proteins requires phosphorylation of Shc at Tyr317, which lies within the high affinity binding motif for the Grb2 SH2 domain, pYVNV, where Asn at the +2 position is crucial for complex formation. In vivo, Tyr317 is the major, but not the only, site for Shc phosphorylation, and is the sole...... aminoterminal deletion, but retain the Tyr317 site and the SH2 domain conserve the capacity to be phosphorylated, to bind to Grb2 and to induce cell transformation. These data indicate that the formation of the Shc-Grb2 complex is a crucial event in the transformation induced by overexpression of Shc...

  16. First measurement of H I 21 cm emission from a GRB host galaxy indicates a post-merger system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Roychowdhury, Sambit; Zwaan, Martin A.; Kanekar, Nissim; Michałowski, Michał J.

    2015-11-01

    We report the detection and mapping of atomic hydrogen in H I 21 cm emission from ESO 184-G82, the host galaxy of the gamma-ray burst 980425. This is the first instance where H I in emission has been detected from a galaxy hosting a gamma-ray burst (GRB). ESO 184-G82 is an isolated galaxy and contains a Wolf-Rayet region close to the location of the GRB and the associated supernova, SN 1998bw. This is one of the most luminous H II regions identified in the local Universe, with a very high inferred density of star formation. The H I 21 cm observations reveal a high H I mass for the galaxy, twice as large as the stellar mass. The spatial and velocity distribution of the H I 21 cm emission reveals a disturbed rotating gas disc, which suggests that the galaxy has undergone a recent minor merger that disrupted its rotation. We find that the Wolf-Rayet region and the GRB are both located in the highest H I column density region of the galaxy. We speculate that the merger event has resulted in shock compression of the gas, triggering extreme star formation activity, and resulting in the formation of both the Wolf-Rayet region and the GRB. The high H I column density environment of the GRB is consistent with the high H I column densities seen in absorption in the host galaxies of high-redshift GRBs.

  17. Detection of GRB 060927 at z = 5.47: Implications for the Use of Gamma-Ray Bursts as Probes of the End of the Dark Ages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruiz-Velasco, A.E.; Swan, H.; Troja, E.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Starling, R.L.C.; Xu, D.; Aharonian, F.; Akerlof, C.; Andersen, M.I.; Ashley, M.C.B.; Barthelmy, S.D.; Bersier, D.F.; Cerón, J.M.; Castro-Tirado, A.J.; Gehrels, N.; Gögüs, E.; Gorosabel, J.; Guidorzi, C.; Güver, T.; Hjorth, J.; Horns, D.; Huang, K.Y.; Jakobsson, P.; Jensen, B.L.; Kiziloglu, Ü.; Kouveliotou, C.; Krimm, H.A.; Ledoux, C.; Levan, A.J.; Marsh, T.; McKay, T.; Melandri, A.; Milvang-Jensen, B.; Mundell, C.G.; O'Brien, P.T.; Özel, M.; Phillips, A.; Quimby, R.; Rowell, G.; Rujopakarn, W.; Rykoff, E.S.; Schaefer, B.E.; Sollerman, J.; Tanvir, N.R.; Thöne, C.C.; Urata, Y.; Vestrand, W.T.; Vreeswijk, P.M.; Watson, D.; Wheeler, J.C.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Wren, J.; Yost, S.A.; Yuan, F.; Zhai, M.; Zheng, W.K.

    2007-01-01

    We report on follow-up observations of the gamma-ray burst GRB 060927 using the robotic ROTSE-IIIa telescope and a suite of larger aperture ground-based telescopes. An optical afterglow was detected 20 s after the burst, the earliest rest-frame detection of optical emission from any GRB.

  18. The afterglow of the short/intermediate-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 000301C: A jet at z=2.04

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, B.L.; Fynbo, J.U.; Gorosabel, J.

    2001-01-01

    We present Ulysses and NEAR data from the detection of the short or intermediate duration (2 s) gamma-ray burst GRB 000301C (2000 March 1.41 UT). The gamma-ray burst (GRB) was localised by the Inter Planetary Network (IPN) and RXTE to an area of similar to 50 arcmin(2). A fading optical counterpa...

  19. The GRB-SLSN connection: misaligned magnetars, weak jet emergence, and observational signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margalit, Ben; Metzger, Brian D.; Thompson, Todd A.; Nicholl, Matt; Sukhbold, Tuguldur

    2018-04-01

    Multiple lines of evidence support a connection between hydrogen-poor superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) and long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Both classes of events require a powerful central energy source, usually attributed to a millisecond magnetar or an accreting black hole. The GRB-SLSN link raises several theoretical questions: What distinguishes the engines responsible for these different phenomena? Can a single engine power both a GRB and a luminous SN in the same event? We propose a unifying model for magnetar thermalization and jet formation: misalignment between the rotation (Ω) and magnetic dipole (μ) axes dissipates a fraction of the spin-down power by reconnection in the striped equatorial wind, providing a guaranteed source of `thermal' emission to power the supernova. The remaining unthermalized power energizes a relativistic jet. We show that even weak relativistic jets of luminosity ˜1046 erg s-1 can escape the expanding SN ejecta implying that escaping relativistic jets may accompany many SLSNe. We calculate the observational signature of these jets. We show that they may produce transient ultraviolet (UV) cocoon emission lasting a few hours when the jet breaks out of the ejecta surface. A longer lived optical/UV signal may originate from a mildly relativistic wind driven from the interface between the jet and the ejecta walls, which could explain the secondary early-time maximum observed in some SLSNe light curves, such as LSQ14bdq. Our scenario predicts a population of GRB from on-axis jets with extremely long durations, potentially similar to the population of `jetted-tidal disruption events', in coincidence with a small subset of SLSNe.

  20. PANCHROMATIC OBSERVATIONS OF THE TEXTBOOK GRB 110205A: CONSTRAINING PHYSICAL MECHANISMS OF PROMPT EMISSION AND AFTERGLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, W. [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Shen, R. F. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario M5S 3H4 (Canada); Sakamoto, T. [Center for Research and Exploration in Space Science and Technology (CRESST), NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Beardmore, A. P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); De Pasquale, M. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury Road, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Wu, X. F.; Zhang, B. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Gorosabel, J. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), 18008 Granada (Spain); Urata, Y. [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Sugita, S. [EcoTopia Science Institute, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, chikusa, Nagoya 464-8603 (Japan); Pozanenko, A. [Space Research Institute (IKI), 84/32 Profsoyuznaya St., Moscow 117997 (Russian Federation); Nissinen, M. [Taurus Hill Observatory, Haerkaemaeentie 88, 79480 Kangaslampi (Finland); Sahu, D. K. [CREST, Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560034 (India); Im, M. [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, San 56-1, Kwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ukwatta, T. N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Andreev, M. [Terskol Branch of Institute of Astronomy of RAS, Kabardino-Balkaria Republic 361605 (Russian Federation); Klunko, E., E-mail: zwk@umich.edu, E-mail: rfshen@astro.utoronto.ca, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Institute of Solar-Terrestrial Physics, Lermontov St., 126a, Irkutsk 664033 (Russian Federation); and others

    2012-06-01

    We present a comprehensive analysis of a bright, long-duration (T{sub 90} {approx} 257 s) GRB 110205A at redshift z = 2.22. The optical prompt emission was detected by Swift/UVOT, ROTSE-IIIb, and BOOTES telescopes when the gamma-ray burst (GRB) was still radiating in the {gamma}-ray band, with optical light curve showing correlation with {gamma}-ray data. Nearly 200 s of observations were obtained simultaneously from optical, X-ray, to {gamma}-ray (1 eV to 5 MeV), which makes it one of the exceptional cases to study the broadband spectral energy distribution during the prompt emission phase. In particular, we clearly identify, for the first time, an interesting two-break energy spectrum, roughly consistent with the standard synchrotron emission model in the fast cooling regime. Shortly after prompt emission ({approx}1100 s), a bright (R = 14.0) optical emission hump with very steep rise ({alpha} {approx} 5.5) was observed, which we interpret as the reverse shock (RS) emission. It is the first time that the rising phase of an RS component has been closely observed. The full optical and X-ray afterglow light curves can be interpreted within the standard reverse shock (RS) + forward shock (FS) model. In general, the high-quality prompt and afterglow data allow us to apply the standard fireball model to extract valuable information, including the radiation mechanism (synchrotron), radius of prompt emission (R{sub GRB} {approx} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 13} cm), initial Lorentz factor of the outflow ({Gamma}{sub 0} {approx} 250), the composition of the ejecta (mildly magnetized), the collimation angle, and the total energy budget.

  1. Measuring the beaming angle of GRB 030329 by fitting the rebrightenings in its multiband afterglow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Wei; Huang Yongfeng; Kong Siwei

    2010-01-01

    Multiple rebrightenings have been observed in the multiband afterglow of GRB 030329. In particular, a marked and quick rebrightening occurred at about t ∼ 1.2 x 10 5 s. Energy injection from late and slow shells seems to be the best interpretation for these rebrightenings. Usually it is assumed that the energy is injected into the whole external shock. However, in the case of GRB 030329, the rebrightenings are so quick that the usual consideration fails to give a satisfactory fit to the observed light curves. Actually, since these late/slow shells freely coast in the wake of the external shock, they should be cold and may not expand laterally. The energy injection then should only occur at the central region of the external shock. Considering this effect, we numerically re-fit the quick rebrightenings observed in GRB 030329. By doing this, we were able to derive the beaming angle of the energy injection process. Our result, with a relative residual of only 5% - 10% during the major rebrightening, is better than any previous modeling. The derived energy injection angle is about 0.035. We assume that these late shells are ejected by the central engine via the same mechanism as those early shells that produce the prompt gamma-ray burst. The main difference is that their velocities are much slower, so that they catch up with the external shock relatively late and are manifested as the observed quick rebrightenings. If this were true, then the derived energy injection angle can give a good measure of the beaming angle of the prompt γ-ray emission. Our study may hopefully provide a novel method to measure the beaming angle of gamma-ray bursts. (research papers)

  2. Meteorological Data Analysis Using MapReduce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the atmospheric science, the scale of meteorological data is massive and growing rapidly. K-means is a fast and available cluster algorithm which has been used in many fields. However, for the large-scale meteorological data, the traditional K-means algorithm is not capable enough to satisfy the actual application needs efficiently. This paper proposes an improved MK-means algorithm (MK-means based on MapReduce according to characteristics of large meteorological datasets. The experimental results show that MK-means has more computing ability and scalability.

  3. Communicating meteorology through popular music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Sally; Aplin, Karen; Jenkins, Katie; Mander, Sarah; Walsh, Claire; Williams, Paul

    2015-04-01

    Previous studies of weather-inspired classical music showed that all forms of music (as well as visual arts and literature) reflect the significance of the environment in society. Here we quantify the extent to which weather has inspired popular musicians, and how weather is represented in English-language pop music. Our work is in press at Weather. Over 750 songs have been identified which were found to refer to meteorological phenomena, mainly in their lyrics, but also in the title of the song, name of the band or songwriter and occasionally in the song's music or sound effects. Over one third of the songs analysed referred to either sun or rain, out of a possible 20 weather categories. It was found that artists use weather to describe emotion, for example, to mirror the changes in a relationship. In this context, rain was broadly seen negatively, and might be used to signify the end of a relationship. Rain could also be perceived in a positive way, such as in songs from more agricultural communities. Wind was the next most common weather phenomenon, but did not represent emotions as much as sun or rain. However, it was the most frequently represented weather type in the music itself, such as in instrumental effects, or non-verbally in choruses. From the limited evidence available, we found that artists were often inspired by a single weather event in writing lyrics, whereas the outcomes were less clearly identifiable from longer periods of good or bad weather. Some artists were influenced more by their environment than others, but they were often inspired to write many songs about their surroundings as part of every-day life, rather than weather in particular. Popular singers and songwriters can therefore emotionally connect their listeners to the environment; this could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broad audience.

  4. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  5. Inversion of GPS meteorology data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hocke

    Full Text Available The GPS meteorology (GPS/MET experiment, led by the Universities Corporation for Atmospheric Research (UCAR, consists of a GPS receiver aboard a low earth orbit (LEO satellite which was launched on 3 April 1995. During a radio occultation the LEO satellite rises or sets relative to one of the 24 GPS satellites at the Earth's horizon. Thereby the atmospheric layers are successively sounded by radio waves which propagate from the GPS satellite to the LEO satellite. From the observed phase path increases, which are due to refraction of the radio waves by the ionosphere and the neutral atmosphere, the atmospheric parameter refractivity, density, pressure and temperature are calculated with high accuracy and resolution (0.5–1.5 km. In the present study, practical aspects of the GPS/MET data analysis are discussed. The retrieval is based on the Abelian integral inversion of the atmospheric bending angle profile into the refractivity index profile. The problem of the upper boundary condition of the Abelian integral is described by examples. The statistical optimization approach which is applied to the data above 40 km and the use of topside bending angle profiles from model atmospheres stabilize the inversion. The retrieved temperature profiles are compared with corresponding profiles which have already been calculated by scientists of UCAR and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL, using Abelian integral inversion too. The comparison shows that in some cases large differences occur (5 K and more. This is probably due to different treatment of the upper boundary condition, data runaways and noise. Several temperature profiles with wavelike structures at tropospheric and stratospheric heights are shown. While the periodic structures at upper stratospheric heights could be caused by residual errors of the ionospheric correction method, the periodic temperature fluctuations at heights below 30 km are most likely caused by atmospheric waves (vertically

  6. On the mass-metallicity relation, velocity dispersion and gravitational well depth of GRB host galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arabsalmani, Maryam; Møller, Palle; Fynbo, Johan P. U.

    2015-01-01

    -DLA samples and compare the measured stellar masses for the four hosts where stellar masses have been determined from SED fits. We find excellent agreement and conclude that, on basis of all available data and tests, long duration GRB-DLA hosts and intervening QSO-DLAs are consistent with being drawn from...... away from the metallicity in the centre of the galaxy, second the path of the sightline through different parts of the potential well of the dark matter halo will cause different velocity fields to be sampled. We report evidence suggesting that this second effect may have been detected....

  7. THE AFTERGLOW AND ULIRG HOST GALAXY OF THE DARK SHORT GRB 120804A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Margutti, R.; Laskar, T.; Fong, W.; Chornock, R.; Dupuy, T. J.; Levan, A.; Tunnicliffe, R. L.; Mangano, V.; Fox, D. B.; Tanvir, N. R.; Menten, K. M.; Hjorth, J.; Roth, K.

    2013-01-01

    We present the optical discovery and subarcsecond optical and X-ray localization of the afterglow of the short GRB 120804A, as well as optical, near-IR, and radio detections of its host galaxy. X-ray observations with Swift/XRT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton extending to δt ≈ 19 days reveal a single power-law decline. The optical afterglow is faint, and comparison to the X-ray flux indicates that GRB 120804A is ''dark'', with a rest-frame extinction of A host V ≈ 2.5 mag (at z = 1.3). The intrinsic neutral hydrogen column density inferred from the X-ray spectrum, N H, i nt (z = 1.3) ≈ 2 × 10 22 cm –2 , is commensurate with the large extinction. The host galaxy exhibits red optical/near-IR colors. Equally important, JVLA observations at ≈0.9-11 days reveal a constant flux density of F ν (5.8 GHz) = 35 ± 4 μJy and an optically thin spectrum, unprecedented for GRB afterglows, but suggestive instead of emission from the host galaxy. The optical/near-IR and radio fluxes are well fit with the scaled spectral energy distribution of the local ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 at z ≈ 1.3, with a resulting star formation rate of x ≈ 300 M ☉ yr –1 . The inferred extinction and small projected offset (2.2 ± 1.2 kpc) are also consistent with the ULIRG scenario, as is the presence of a companion galaxy at the same redshift and with a separation of about 11 kpc. The limits on radio afterglow emission, in conjunction with the observed X-ray and optical emission, require a circumburst density of n ∼ 10 –3 cm –3 , an isotropic-equivalent energy scale of E γ, i so ≈ E K, i so ≈ 7 × 10 51 erg, and a jet opening angle of θ j ∼> 11°. The expected fraction of luminous infrared galaxies in the short GRB host sample is ∼0.01 and ∼0.25 (for pure stellar mass and star formation weighting, respectively). Thus, the observed fraction of two events in about 25 hosts (GRBs 120804A and 100206A) appears to support our previous conclusion that short

  8. X-ray spectral components observed in the afterglow of GRB 130925A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bellm, Eric C.; Barrière, Nicolas M.; Bhalerao, Varun

    2014-01-01

    We have identified spectral features in the late-time X-ray afterglow of the unusually long, slow-decaying GRB 130925A using NuSTAR, Swift/X-Ray Telescope, and Chandra. A spectral component in addition to an absorbed power law is required at >4σ significance, and its spectral shape varies between...... two observation epochs at 2 × 105 and 106 s after the burst. Several models can fit this additional component, each with very different physical implications. A broad, resolved Gaussian absorption feature of several keV width improves the fit, but it is poorly constrained in the second epoch...

  9. Strong Constraints on Cosmological Gravity from GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, T.; Bellini, E.; Ferreira, P. G.; Lagos, M.; Noller, J.; Sawicki, I.

    2017-12-01

    The detection of an electromagnetic counterpart (GRB 170817A) to the gravitational-wave signal (GW170817) from the merger of two neutron stars opens a completely new arena for testing theories of gravity. We show that this measurement allows us to place stringent constraints on general scalar-tensor and vector-tensor theories, while allowing us to place an independent bound on the graviton mass in bimetric theories of gravity. These constraints severely reduce the viable range of cosmological models that have been proposed as alternatives to general relativistic cosmology.

  10. VizieR Online Data Catalog: GRB 160509A VLA monitoring campain results (Laskar+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskar, T.; Alexander, K. D.; Berger, E.; Fong, W.-F.; Margutti, R.; Shivvers, I.; Williams, P. K. G.; Kopac, D.; Kobayashi, S.; Mundell, C.; Gomboc, A.; Zheng, W.; Menten, K. M.; Graham, M. L.; Filippenko, A. V.

    2017-04-01

    GRB 160509A was discovered by the Fermi LAT on 2016 May 09 at 08:59:04.36 UTC (Longo+ 2016GCN..19403...1L). We observed the afterglow with the VLA starting at 0.36 days. We tracked the flux density of the afterglow over multiple epochs spanning 1.2-33.5GHz, using 3C48, 3C286, and 3C147 as flux and bandpass calibrators, and J2005+7752 as the gain calibrator. Our VLA observations spanning 0.36-20 days after the burst clearly reveal the presence of multiple spectral components in the radio afterglow. (1 data file).

  11. Use of water-Cherenkov detectors to detect Gamma Ray Bursts at the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, D.; Allekotte, I.; Alvarez, C.; Asorey, H.; Barros, H.; Bertou, X.; Burgoa, O.; Gomez Berisso, M.; Martinez, O.; Miranda Loza, P.; Murrieta, T.; Perez, G.; Rivera, H.; Rovero, A.; Saavedra, O.; Salazar, H.; Tello, J.C.; Ticona Peralda, R.; Velarde, A.; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) project aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique in ground-based water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on detector calibration and operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 4 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst

  12. Use of water-Cherenkov detectors to detect Gamma Ray Bursts at the Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allard, D. [APC, CNRS et Universite Paris 7 (France); Allekotte, I. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Alvarez, C. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Asorey, H. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Barros, H. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Bertou, X. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina)], E-mail: bertou@cab.cnea.gov.ar; Burgoa, O. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Gomez Berisso, M. [Centro Atomico Bariloche, Instituto Balseiro (Argentina); Martinez, O. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Miranda Loza, P. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Murrieta, T.; Perez, G. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Rivera, H. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Rovero, A. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (Argentina); Saavedra, O. [Dipartimento di Fisica Generale and INFN, Torino (Italy); Salazar, H. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Tello, J.C. [Laboratorio de Fisica Nuclear, Universidad Simon Bolivar, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Ticona Peralda, R.; Velarde, A. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas, UMSA (Bolivia); Villasenor, L. [Facultad de Ciencias Fisico-Matematicas de la BUAP (Mexico); Instituto de Fisica y Matematicas, Universidad de Michoacan (Mexico)

    2008-09-21

    The Large Aperture GRB Observatory (LAGO) project aims at the detection of high energy photons from Gamma Ray Bursts (GRB) using the single particle technique in ground-based water-Cherenkov detectors (WCD). To reach a reasonable sensitivity, high altitude mountain sites have been selected in Mexico (Sierra Negra, 4550 m a.s.l.), Bolivia (Chacaltaya, 5300 m a.s.l.) and Venezuela (Merida, 4765 m a.s.l.). We report on detector calibration and operation at high altitude, search for bursts in 4 months of preliminary data, as well as search for signal at ground level when satellites report a burst.

  13. Modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-07-01

    This book deals with modern history of meteorological services with pictures for a century. It is divided into twelve chapters, which mention meteorological services before the Joseon Dynasty period, meteorological observation about surface weather observation, aero logical observation, meteorological satellite, seismometry, observation on yellow dust, and observation on the falling of thunderbolt, weather forecast, meteorological telecommunication, education for weather, research for weather, promotion on weather, international cooperation, main events, special aid on meteorological services, meteorological disaster and the list of the offices for meteorological services.

  14. Interim report on the meteorological database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stage, S.A.; Ramsdell, J.V.; Simonen, C.A.; Burk, K.W.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Environmental Dose Reconstruction (HEDR) Project is estimating radiation doses that individuals may have received from operations at Hanford from 1944 to the present. An independent Technical Steering Panel (TSP) directs the project, which is being conducted by the Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories in Richland, Washington. The goals of HEDR, as approved by the TSP, include dose estimates and determination of confidence ranges for these estimates. This letter report describes the current status of the meteorological database. The report defines the meteorological data available for use in climate model calculations, describes the data collection procedures and the preparation and control of the meteorological database. This report also provides an initial assessment of the data quality. The available meteorological data are adequate for atmospheric calculations. Initial checks of the data indicate the data entry accuracy meets the data quality objectives

  15. Index of Meteorological Observations Publication (Before 1890)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Index of meteorological observations in the United States made prior to January 1, 1890, organized by state. Includes station name, coordinates, elevation, period of...

  16. A marine meteorological data acquisition system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Desai, R.G.P.; Desa, E.; Vithayathil, G.

    A marine meteorological data acquisition system has been developed for long term unattended measurements at remote coastal sites, ocean surface platforms and for use on board research vessels. The system has an open and modular configuration...

  17. NDBC Standard Meteorological Buoy Data, 1970-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Data Buoy Center (NDBC) distributes meteorological data from moored buoys maintained by NDBC and others. Moored buoys are the weather sentinels of the...

  18. Ionospheric irregularities in periods of meteorological disturbances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchevkina, O. P.; Karpov, I. V.

    2017-09-01

    The results of observations of the total electron content (TEC) in periods of storm disturbances of meteorological situation are presented in the paper. The observational results have shown that a passage of a meteorological storm is accompanied by a substantial decrease in values of TEC and critical frequencies of the ionospheric F2 region. The decreases in values of these ionospheric parameters reach 50% and up to 30% in TEC and critical frequency of the F2 layer, respectively, as compared to meteorologically quiet days. Based on qualitative analysis, it is found that the processes related to formation of local regions of thermospheric heating due to a dissipation of AGW coming into the upper atmosphere from the region of the meteorological disturbance in the lower atmosphere are a possible cause of these ionospheric disturbances.

  19. Meteorological interpretation of transient LOD changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masaki, Y.

    2008-04-01

    The Earth’s spin rate is mainly changed by zonal winds. For example, seasonal changes in global atmospheric circulation and episodic changes accompanied with El Nĩ os are clearly detected n in the Length-of-day (LOD). Sub-global to regional meteorological phenomena can also change the wind field, however, their effects on the LOD are uncertain because such LOD signals are expected to be subtle and transient. In our previous study (Masaki, 2006), we introduced atmospheric pressure gradients in the upper atmosphere in order to obtain a rough picture of the meteorological features that can change the LOD. In this presentation, we compare one-year LOD data with meteorological elements (winds, temperature, pressure, etc.) and make an attempt to link transient LOD changes with sub-global meteorological phenomena.

  20. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to

  1. The 1989 progress report: dynamic meteorology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sadourny, R.

    1989-01-01

    The 1989 progress report of the laboratory of Dynamic Meteorology of the Polytechnic School (France) is presented. The aim of the research programs is the dynamic study of climate and environment in relationship with the global athmospheric behavior. The investigations reported were performed in the fields of: climate modelling, dynamic study of Turbulence, analysis of atmospheric radiation and nebulosity, tropical meteorology and climate, Earth radioactive balance, lidar measurements, middle atmosphere studies. The published papers, the conferences and Laboratory staff are listed [fr

  2. Meteorological circumstances during the 'Chernobyl-period'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivens, R.; Lablans, W.N.; Wessels, H.R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The progress of the meteorological circumstances and air flows in Europe from 26th April up to 8th May 1986, which caused the spread of contaminated air originating from Chernobyl is outlined and mapped out. Furthermore a global survey is presented of the precipitation in the Netherlands during the period 2nd May to 10th May based on observations of various observation stations of the Royal Dutch Meteorologic Institute (KNMI). 11 figs.; 1 table (H.W.)

  3. Meteorological measurements at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    On-site meteorological measurements are necessary for evaluating atmospheric dispersion of gaseous effluents. Radiation doses in a plant's vicinity due to these effluents are calculated from the results of dispersion evaluations. The guide addresses the requirements for on-site meteorological measurement systems. Guide YVL 7.3 addresses atmospheric dispersion evaluations and calculation methods, Guide YVL 7.2 radiation dose calculations and Guide YVL 7.8 environmental data reporting. (5 refs.)

  4. ESTIMATING LONG GRB JET OPENING ANGLES AND REST-FRAME ENERGETICS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, Adam [Space Science Office, VP62, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Connaughton, Valerie [Science and Technology Institute, Universities Space Research Association, Huntsville, AL 35805 (United States); Briggs, Michael S.; Burns, Eric, E-mail: adam.m.goldstein@nasa.gov [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research, University of Alabama in Huntsville, 320 Sparkman Drive, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States)

    2016-02-10

    We present a method to estimate the jet opening angles of long duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using the prompt gamma-ray energetics and an inversion of the Ghirlanda relation, which is a correlation between the time-integrated peak energy of the GRB prompt spectrum and the collimation-corrected energy in gamma-rays. The derived jet opening angles using this method and detailed assumptions match well with the corresponding inferred jet opening angles obtained when a break in the afterglow is observed. Furthermore, using a model of the predicted long GRB redshift probability distribution observable by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), we estimate the probability distributions for the jet opening angle and rest-frame energetics for a large sample of GBM GRBs for which the redshifts have not been observed. Previous studies have only used a handful of GRBs to estimate these properties due to the paucity of observed afterglow jet breaks, spectroscopic redshifts, and comprehensive prompt gamma-ray observations, and we potentially expand the number of GRBs that can be used in this analysis by more than an order of magnitude. In this analysis, we also present an inferred distribution of jet breaks which indicates that a large fraction of jet breaks are not observable with current instrumentation and observing strategies. We present simple parameterizations for the jet angle, energetics, and jet break distributions so that they may be used in future studies.

  5. Infrared Emission from Kilonovae: The Case of the Nearby Short Hard Burst GRB 160821B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Lau, Ryan M. [Division of Physics, Mathematics and Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Korobkin, Oleg; Wollaeger, Ryan; Fryer, Christopher L. [Computational Methods Group (CCS-2), Los Alamos National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1663, Los Alamos, NM, 87545 (United States)

    2017-07-10

    We present constraints on Ks-band emission from one of the nearest short hard gamma-ray bursts, GRB 160821B, at z = 0.16, at three epochs. We detect a red relativistic afterglow from the jetted emission in the first epoch but do not detect any excess kilonova emission in the second two epochs. We compare upper limits obtained with Keck I/MOSFIRE to multi-dimensional radiative transfer models of kilonovae, that employ composition-dependent nuclear heating and LTE opacities of heavy elements. We discuss eight models that combine toroidal dynamical ejecta and two types of wind and one model with dynamical ejecta only. We also discuss simple, empirical scaling laws of predicted emission as a function of ejecta mass and ejecta velocity. Our limits for GRB 160821B constrain the ejecta mass to be lower than 0.03 M {sub ⊙} for velocities greater than 0.1 c. At the distance sensitivity range of advanced LIGO, similar ground-based observations would be sufficiently sensitive to the full range of predicted model emission including models with only dynamical ejecta. The color evolution of these models shows that I – K color spans 7–16 mag, which suggests that even relatively shallow infrared searches for kilonovae could be as constraining as optical searches.

  6. DETECTION OF GAMMA-RAY POLARIZATION IN PROMPT EMISSION OF GRB 100826A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yonetoku, Daisuke; Murakami, Toshio; Sakashita, Tomonori; Morihara, Yoshiyuki; Takahashi, Takuya; Fujimoto, Hirofumi; Kodama, Yoshiki [College of Science and Engineering, School of Mathematics and Physics, Kanazawa University, Kakuma, Kanazawa, Ishikawa 920-1192 (Japan); Gunji, Shuichi; Toukairin, Noriyuki [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Yamagata University, 1-4-12, Koshirakawa, Yamagata, Yamagata 990-8560 (Japan); Mihara, Tatehiro [Cosmic Radiation Laboratory, RIKEN, 2-1, Hirosawa, Wako City, Saitama 351-0198 (Japan); Toma, Kenji [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Toyonaka 560-0043 (Japan); Kubo, Shin, E-mail: yonetoku@astro.s.kanazawa-u.ac.jp [Clear Pulse Co. Ltd., 6-25-17, Chuo, Ohta-ku, Tokyo 143-0024 (Japan); Institute of Space and Astronautical Science (ISAS), Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA), 3-1-1, Yoshinodai, Sagamihara, Kanagawa 229-8510 (Japan)

    2011-12-20

    We report the polarization measurement in prompt {gamma}-ray emission of GRB 100826A with the Gamma-Ray Burst Polarimeter on board the small solar-power-sail demonstrator IKAROS. We detected the firm change of polarization angle (PA) during the prompt emission with 99.9% (3.5{sigma}) confidence level, and the average polarization degree ({Pi}) of 27% {+-} 11% with 99.4% (2.9{sigma}) confidence level. Here the quoted errors are given at 1{sigma} confidence level for the two parameters of interest. The systematic errors have been carefully included in this analysis, unlike other previous reports. Such a high {Pi} can be obtained in several emission models of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), including synchrotron and photospheric models. However, it is difficult to explain the observed significant change of PA within the framework of axisymmetric jet as considered in many theoretical works. The non-axisymmetric (e.g., patchy) structures of the magnetic fields and/or brightness inside the relativistic jet are therefore required within the observable angular scale of {approx}{Gamma}{sup -1}. Our observation strongly indicates that the polarization measurement is a powerful tool to constrain the GRB production mechanism, and more theoretical works are needed to discuss the data in more detail.

  7. GIANT X-RAY BUMP IN GRB 121027A: EVIDENCE FOR FALL-BACK DISK ACCRETION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Xuefeng [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Hou Shujin [Department of Astronomy and Institute of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Xiamen University, Xiamen, Fujian 361005 (China); Lei Weihua, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: leiwh@hust.edu.cn [School of Physics, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2013-04-20

    A particularly interesting discovery in observations of GRB 121027A is that of a giant X-ray bump detected by the Swift/X-Ray Telescope. The X-ray afterglow re-brightens sharply at {approx}10{sup 3} s after the trigger by more than two orders of magnitude in less than 200 s. This X-ray bump lasts for more than 10{sup 4} s. It is quite different from typical X-ray flares. In this Letter we propose a fall-back accretion model to interpret this X-ray bump within the context of the collapse of a massive star for a long-duration gamma-ray burst. The required fall-back radius of {approx}3.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} cm and mass of {approx}0.9-2.6 M{sub Sun} imply that a significant part of the helium envelope should survive through the mass loss during the last stage of the massive progenitor of GRB 121027A.

  8. Constraining Anisotropic Lorentz Violation via the Spectral-lag Transition of GRB 160625B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Shao, Lang [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Zhang, Bin-Bin [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucá (IAA-CSIC), P.O. Box 03004, E-18080 Granada (Spain); Mészáros, Peter [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Kostelecký, V. Alan, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: kostelec@indiana.edu [Physics Department, Indiana University, Bloomington, IN 47405 (United States)

    2017-06-20

    Violations of Lorentz invariance can lead to an energy-dependent vacuum dispersion of light, which results in arrival-time differences of photons with different energies arising from a given transient source. In this work, direction-dependent dispersion constraints are obtained on nonbirefringent Lorentz-violating effects using the observed spectral lags of the gamma-ray burst GRB 160625B. This burst has unusually large high-energy photon statistics, so we can obtain constraints from the true spectral time lags of bunches of high-energy photons rather than from the rough time lag of a single highest-energy photon. Also, GRB 160625B is the only burst to date having a well-defined transition from positive lags to negative lags, providing a unique opportunity to distinguish Lorentz-violating effects from any source-intrinsic time lag in the emission of photons of different energy bands. Our results place comparatively robust two-sided constraints on a variety of isotropic and anisotropic coefficients for Lorentz violation, including the first bounds on Lorentz-violating effects from operators of mass dimension 10 in the photon sector.

  9. LIMITS ON OPTICAL POLARIZATION DURING THE PROMPT PHASE OF GRB 140430A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kopac, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Arnold, D. M.; Steele, I. A.; Kobayashi, S.; Lamb, G. P.; Smith, R. J.; Virgili, F. J. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool, L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, University of Ljubljana, Jadranska 19, 1000 Ljubljana (Slovenia); Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S. [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, University of Ferrara, via Saragat 1, I-44122, Ferrara (Italy); Harrison, R. M. [Department of Astrophysics, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel Aviv University, 69978 Tel Aviv (Israel); Melandri, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, via E. Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Oates, S. R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Järvinen, A. [AIP—Leibniz-Institut für Astrophysik Potsdam, An der Sternwarte 16, D-14482 Potsdam (Germany); Jelínek, M., E-mail: drejc.kopac@fmf.uni-lj.si [ASU-CAS—Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Fričova 298, 251 65 Ondřejov (Czech Republic)

    2015-11-01

    Gamma-ray burst GRB 140430A was detected by the Swift satellite and observed promptly with the imaging polarimeter RINGO3 mounted on the Liverpool Telescope, with observations beginning while the prompt γ-ray emission was still ongoing. In this paper, we present densely sampled (10-s temporal resolution) early optical light curves (LCs) in 3 optical bands and limits to the degree of optical polarization. We compare optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray properties and present an analysis of the optical emission during a period of high-energy flaring. The complex optical LC cannot be explained merely with a combination of forward and reverse shock emission from a standard external shock, implying additional contribution of emission from internal shock dissipation. We estimate an upper limit for time averaged optical polarization during the prompt phase to be as low as P < 12% (1σ). This suggests that the optical flares and early afterglow emission in this GRB are not highly polarized. Alternatively, time averaging could mask the presence of otherwise polarized components of distinct origin at different polarization position angles.

  10. Exploring short-GRB afterglow parameter space for observations in coincidence with gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, M.; Resmi, L.; Misra, Kuntal; Pai, Archana; Arun, K. G.

    2018-03-01

    Short duration Gamma Ray Bursts (SGRB) and their afterglows are among the most promising electromagnetic (EM) counterparts of Neutron Star (NS) mergers. The afterglow emission is broad-band, visible across the entire electromagnetic window from γ-ray to radio frequencies. The flux evolution in these frequencies is sensitive to the multidimensional afterglow physical parameter space. Observations of gravitational wave (GW) from BNS mergers in spatial and temporal coincidence with SGRB and associated afterglows can provide valuable constraints on afterglow physics. We run simulations of GW-detected BNS events and assuming that all of them are associated with a GRB jet which also produces an afterglow, investigate how detections or non-detections in X-ray, optical and radio frequencies can be influenced by the parameter space. We narrow down the regions of afterglow parameter space for a uniform top-hat jet model, which would result in different detection scenarios. We list inferences which can be drawn on the physics of GRB afterglows from multimessenger astronomy with coincident GW-EM observations.

  11. Search for gravitational waves associated with the gamma ray burst GRB030329 using the LIGO detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbott, B.; Anderson, S.B.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Asiri, F.; Barish, B.C.; Barnes, M.; Barton, M.A.; Bhawal, B.; Billingsley, G.; Black, E.; Blackburn, K.; Bogue, L.; Bork, R.; Busby, D.; Cardenas, L.; Chandler, A.; Chapsky, J.; Charlton, P.; Coyne, D.

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a search for bursts of gravitational waves associated with the very bright gamma ray burst GRB030329, using the two detectors at the LIGO Hanford Observatory. Our search covered the most sensitive frequency range of the LIGO detectors (approximately 80--2048 Hz), and we specifically targeted signals shorter than ≅150 ms. Our search algorithm looks for excess correlated power between the two interferometers and thus makes minimal assumptions about the gravitational waveform. We observed no candidates with gravitational-wave signal strength larger than a predetermined threshold. We report frequency-dependent upper limits on the strength of the gravitational waves associated with GRB030329. Near the most sensitive frequency region, around ≅250 Hz, our root-sum-square (RSS) gravitational-wave strain sensitivity for optimally polarized bursts was better than h RSS ≅6x10 -21 Hz -1/2 . Our result is comparable to the best published results searching for association between gravitational waves and gamma ray bursts

  12. A Neutron Star Binary Merger Model for GW170817/GRB 170817A/SSS17a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murguia-Berthier, A.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Kilpatrick, C. D.; Foley, R. J.; Coulter, D. A.; Pan, Y.-C.; Prochaska, J. X.; Rojas-Bravo, C.; Siebert, M. R. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Kasen, D. [Nuclear Science Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Lee, W. H. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Circuito Exterior, C.U., A. Postal 70-264, 04510 Cd. de México, México (Mexico); Piro, A. L.; Drout, M. R.; Madore, B. F.; Shappee, B. J.; Simon, J. D. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Rest, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-10-20

    The merging neutron star gravitational-wave event GW170817 has been observed throughout the entire electromagnetic spectrum from radio waves to γ -rays. The resulting energetics, variability, and light curves are shown to be consistent with GW170817 originating from the merger of two neutron stars, in all likelihood followed by the prompt gravitational collapse of the massive remnant. The available γ -ray, X-ray, and radio data provide a clear probe for the nature of the relativistic ejecta and the non-thermal processes occurring within, while the ultraviolet, optical, and infrared emission are shown to probe material torn during the merger and subsequently heated by the decay of freshly synthesized r -process material. The simplest hypothesis, that the non-thermal emission is due to a low-luminosity short γ -ray burst (sGRB), seems to agree with the present data. While low-luminosity sGRBs might be common, we show here that the collective prompt and multi-wavelength observations are also consistent with a typical, powerful sGRB seen off-axis. Detailed follow-up observations are thus essential before we can place stringent constraints on the nature of the relativistic ejecta in GW170817.

  13. LIMITS ON OPTICAL POLARIZATION DURING THE PROMPT PHASE OF GRB 140430A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopac, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Arnold, D. M.; Steele, I. A.; Kobayashi, S.; Lamb, G. P.; Smith, R. J.; Virgili, F. J.; Japelj, J.; Gomboc, A.; Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Harrison, R. M.; Melandri, A.; Castro-Tirado, A. J.; Gorosabel, J.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Oates, S. R.; Järvinen, A.; Jelínek, M.

    2015-01-01

    Gamma-ray burst GRB 140430A was detected by the Swift satellite and observed promptly with the imaging polarimeter RINGO3 mounted on the Liverpool Telescope, with observations beginning while the prompt γ-ray emission was still ongoing. In this paper, we present densely sampled (10-s temporal resolution) early optical light curves (LCs) in 3 optical bands and limits to the degree of optical polarization. We compare optical, X-ray, and gamma-ray properties and present an analysis of the optical emission during a period of high-energy flaring. The complex optical LC cannot be explained merely with a combination of forward and reverse shock emission from a standard external shock, implying additional contribution of emission from internal shock dissipation. We estimate an upper limit for time averaged optical polarization during the prompt phase to be as low as P < 12% (1σ). This suggests that the optical flares and early afterglow emission in this GRB are not highly polarized. Alternatively, time averaging could mask the presence of otherwise polarized components of distinct origin at different polarization position angles

  14. A Reverse Shock and Unusual Radio Properties in GRB 160625B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, K. D.; Laskar, T.; Berger, E.; Guidorzi, C.; Dichiara, S.; Fong, W.; Gomboc, A.; Kobayashi, S.; Kopac, D.; Mundell, C. G.; Tanvir, N. R.; Williams, P. K. G.

    2017-10-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations and modeling of the exceptionally bright long γ-ray burst GRB 160625B. The optical and X-ray data are well fit by synchrotron emission from a collimated blastwave with an opening angle of {θ }j≈ 3\\buildrel{\\circ}\\over{.} 6 and kinetic energy of {E}K≈ 2× {10}51 erg, propagating into a low-density (n≈ 5× {10}-5 cm-3) medium with a uniform profile. The forward shock is sub-dominant in the radio band; instead, the radio emission is dominated by two additional components. The first component is consistent with emission from a reverse shock, indicating an initial Lorentz factor of {{{Γ }}}0≳ 100 and an ejecta magnetization of {R}B≈ 1{--}100. The second component exhibits peculiar spectral and temporal evolution and is most likely the result of scattering of the radio emission by the turbulent Milky Way interstellar medium (ISM). Such scattering is expected in any sufficiently compact extragalactic source and has been seen in GRBs before, but the large amplitude and long duration of the variability seen here are qualitatively more similar to extreme scattering events previously observed in quasars, rather than normal interstellar scintillation effects. High-cadence, broadband radio observations of future GRBs are needed to fully characterize such effects, which can sensitively probe the properties of the ISM and must be taken into account before variability intrinsic to the GRB can be interpreted correctly.

  15. GRB follow-up observations in the East-Asian region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamagawa, T.; Urata, Y.; Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo; Huang, K. Y.; Ip, W.H.; Qiu, Y.; Hu, J.Y.; Zhou, Xn.; Onda, K.; Tokyo Univ. of Sciences, Tokyo; Makishima, K.; Tokyo Univ., Tokyo

    2005-01-01

    In 2004, we established a Japan-Taiwan-China collaboration for GBR study in the East-Asian region. This serves as a valuable addiction to the world-wide optical and infrared follow-up network, because the East-Asia region would otherwise be blank. We have been carrying out imaging and spectroscopy follow-up observations at Lulin (Taiwan), Kiso (Japan), WIDGET (Japan) and Xinglong (China). From Xinglong and Kiso, we can locate candidates and obtain early time spectra for afterglows. While WIDGET provides early time observations before the bursts, the high-time resolution for multi-band light curves can be obtained at Lulin. With the data from these sites, we can obtain detailed information about the light curve and redshift of GRBs, which are important to understand the mechanism of the afterglows. Up to March 2005, ten follow-up observations have been provided by this East-Asia cooperation. Two optical afterglows were detected, GRB 040924 and GRB 041006. The results of the two detected afterglows are reported in this paper

  16. GRB follow-up observations in the East-Asian region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamagawa, T. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Urata, Y. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Physics; Huang, K. Y.; Ip, W.H. [National Centre University, Tokyo (Japan). Institute of Astronomy; Qiu, Y.; Hu, J.Y.; Zhou, Xn. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). National Astronomical Observatoires; Onda, K. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Univ. of Sciences, Tokyo (Japan). Department of Physics; Makishima, K. [RIKEN, Saitama (Japan); Tokyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Department of Physics

    2005-07-15

    In 2004, we established a Japan-Taiwan-China collaboration for GBR study in the East-Asian region. This serves as a valuable addiction to the world-wide optical and infrared follow-up network, because the East-Asia region would otherwise be blank. We have been carrying out imaging and spectroscopy follow-up observations at Lulin (Taiwan), Kiso (Japan), WIDGET (Japan) and Xinglong (China). From Xinglong and Kiso, we can locate candidates and obtain early time spectra for afterglows. While WIDGET provides early time observations before the bursts, the high-time resolution for multi-band light curves can be obtained at Lulin. With the data from these sites, we can obtain detailed information about the light curve and redshift of GRBs, which are important to understand the mechanism of the afterglows. Up to March 2005, ten follow-up observations have been provided by this East-Asia cooperation. Two optical afterglows were detected, GRB 040924 and GRB 041006. The results of the two detected afterglows are reported in this paper.

  17. Novel nonphosphorylated peptides with conserved sequences selectively bind to Grb7 SH2 domain with affinity comparable to its phosphorylated ligand.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Zhang

    Full Text Available The Grb7 (growth factor receptor-bound 7 protein, a member of the Grb7 protein family, is found to be highly expressed in such metastatic tumors as breast cancer, esophageal cancer, liver cancer, etc. The src-homology 2 (SH2 domain in the C-terminus is reported to be mainly involved in Grb7 signaling pathways. Using the random peptide library, we identified a series of Grb7 SH2 domain-binding nonphosphorylated peptides in the yeast two-hybrid system. These peptides have a conserved GIPT/K/N sequence at the N-terminus and G/WD/IP at the C-terminus, and the region between the N-and C-terminus contains fifteen amino acids enriched with serines, threonines and prolines. The association between the nonphosphorylated peptides and the Grb7 SH2 domain occurred in vitro and ex vivo. When competing for binding to the Grb7 SH2 domain in a complex, one synthesized nonphosphorylated ligand, containing the twenty-two amino acid-motif sequence, showed at least comparable affinity to the phosphorylated ligand of ErbB3 in vitro, and its overexpression inhibited the proliferation of SK-BR-3 cells. Such nonphosphorylated peptides may be useful for rational design of drugs targeted against cancers that express high levels of Grb7 protein.

  18. Cyclic phosphopeptides for interference with Grb2 SH2 domain signal transduction prepared by ring-closing metathesis and phosphorylation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank J; de Mol, Nico J; Fischer, Marcel J E; Kemmink, Johan; Liskamp, Rob M J; Dekker, Frank

    2003-01-01

    Cyclic phosphopeptides were prepared using ring-closing metathesis followed by phosphorylation. These cyclic phosphopeptides were designed to interact with the SH2 domain of Grb2, which is a signal transduction protein of importance as a target for antiproliferative drug development. Binding of

  19. INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton observations of the low-luminosity and X-ray-rich burst GRB 040223

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGlynn, S.; Hanlon, L.; Foley, S. [College Univ., Dublin (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Department of Experimental Physics; McBreen, S. [ESTEC, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Astrophysics Mission Division, RSSD of ESA; Moran, L. [Southampton Univ., Southampton (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Preece, R. [Alabama Univ., Huntsville (United States); Kienlin, A. von [Max-Planck-Institut fur extraterrestrische Physik, Garching (Germany); Williams, O.R. [SCI-SDG, Noordwijk (Netherlands). Science Operation and Data Systems Division of ESA-ESTEC

    2005-07-15

    GRB 040223 was observed by INTEGRAL and XMM-Newton. GRB 040223 has a peak flux of (1.6{+-}0.13) x 10{sup -8} ergs cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, a fluence of (4.4{+-}0.4) x 10{sup -7} ergs cm{sup -2} and a steep photon power law index of -2.3{+-}0.2, in the energy range 20-200 keV. The steep spectrum implies it is an X-ray-rich GRB with emission up to 200 keV and E{sub peak} < 20 keV. If E{sub peak} is < 10 keV, it would qualify as an X-ray flash with high-energy emission. The X-ray data has a spectral index {beta}{sub x} = -1.7{+-}0.2, a temporal decay of t{sup -0.75{+-}}{sup 0.25} and a large column density of 1.8 x 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}. The luminosity-lag relationship was used to obtain a redshift z 0.1{sub -0.02}{sup +0.04}. The isotropic energy radiated in {gamma}-rays and X-ray luminosity after 10 hours are factors of 1000 and 100 less than classical GRBs. GRB 040223 is consistent with the extrapolation of the Amati relation into the region that includes XRF 030723 and XRF 020903.

  20. Preliminary crystallographic characterization of the Grb2 SH2 domain in complex with a FAK-derived phosphotyrosyl peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hsiao-Hsin; Chen, Cuei-Wen; Chang, Yu-Yung; Shen, Tang-Long; Hsu, Chun-Hua

    2010-01-01

    Crystals of the Grb2 SH2 domain in complex with a phosphotyrosyl peptide corresponding to residues 921–930 of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) have been obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique. Data have been collected to 2.49 Å resolution. Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) is an adaptor protein with a single SH2 domain that specifically binds to focal adhesion kinase (FAK) when residue Tyr925 of FAK is phosphorylated. The Grb2–FAK interaction is associated with cellular integrin-activated signal transduction events leading to the activation of the Ras-MAPK pathway. Crystals of the Grb2 SH2 domain in complex with a phosphopeptide corresponding to residues 921–930 of FAK have been obtained using the sitting-drop vapour-diffusion technique. The crystals belonged to space group P3 1 21, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 102.7, c = 127.6 Å, α = β = 90.0, γ = 120.0°. A diffraction data set was collected from a flash-cooled crystal at 100 K to 2.49 Å resolution using synchrotron radiation. Structure determination by molecular replacement and analysis of the detailed structure of the complex are currently in progress

  1. GRB 080517: a local, low-luminosity gamma-ray burst in a dusty galaxy at z = 0.09

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stanway, E.R.; Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N.; Wiersema, K.; van der Horst, A.; Mundell, C.G.; Guidorzi, C.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the photometry and spectroscopy of the host galaxy of Swift-detected GRB 080517. From our optical spectroscopy, we identify a redshift of z = 0.089 ± 0.003, based on strong emission lines, making this a rare example of a very local, low-luminosity, long gamma-ray burst. The

  2. High resolution crystal structure of the Grb2 SH2 domain with a phosphopeptide derived from CD28.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunitake Higo

    Full Text Available Src homology 2 (SH2 domains play a critical role in cellular signal transduction. They bind to peptides containing phosphotyrosine (pY with various specificities that depend on the flanking amino-acid residues. The SH2 domain of growth-factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2 specifically recognizes pY-X-N-X, whereas the SH2 domains in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K recognize pY-X-X-M. Binding of the pY site in CD28 (pY-M-N-M by PI3K and Grb2 through their SH2 domains is a key step that triggers the CD28 signal transduction for T cell activation and differentiation. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the Grb2 SH2 domain in complex with a pY-containing peptide derived from CD28 at 1.35 Å resolution. The peptide was found to adopt a twisted U-type conformation, similar to, but distinct from type-I β-turn. In all previously reported crystal structures, the peptide bound to the Grb2 SH2 domains adopts a type-I β-turn conformation, except those with a proline residue at the pY+3 position. Molecular modeling also suggests that the same peptide bound to PI3K might adopt a very different conformation.

  3. High resolution crystal structure of the Grb2 SH2 domain with a phosphopeptide derived from CD28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Kunitake; Ikura, Teikichi; Oda, Masayuki; Morii, Hisayuki; Takahashi, Jun; Abe, Ryo; Ito, Nobutoshi

    2013-01-01

    Src homology 2 (SH2) domains play a critical role in cellular signal transduction. They bind to peptides containing phosphotyrosine (pY) with various specificities that depend on the flanking amino-acid residues. The SH2 domain of growth-factor receptor-bound protein 2 (Grb2) specifically recognizes pY-X-N-X, whereas the SH2 domains in phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) recognize pY-X-X-M. Binding of the pY site in CD28 (pY-M-N-M) by PI3K and Grb2 through their SH2 domains is a key step that triggers the CD28 signal transduction for T cell activation and differentiation. In this study, we determined the crystal structure of the Grb2 SH2 domain in complex with a pY-containing peptide derived from CD28 at 1.35 Å resolution. The peptide was found to adopt a twisted U-type conformation, similar to, but distinct from type-I β-turn. In all previously reported crystal structures, the peptide bound to the Grb2 SH2 domains adopts a type-I β-turn conformation, except those with a proline residue at the pY+3 position. Molecular modeling also suggests that the same peptide bound to PI3K might adopt a very different conformation.

  4. A recombined fusion protein PTD-Grb2-SH2 inhibits the proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jikai; Cai, Zhongliang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Jian; He, Xianli; Du, Xilin; Wang, Qing; Lu, Jianguo

    2013-03-01

    The growth factor receptor bound protein 2 (Grb2) is one of the affirmative targets for cancer therapy, especially for breast cancer. In this study, we hypothesized the Src-homology 2 (SH2) domain in Grb2 may serve as a competitive protein-binding agent to interfere with the proliferation of breast cancer cells in vitro. We designed, constructed, expressed and purified a novel fusion protein containing the protein transduction domain (PTD) and Grb2-SH2 domain (we named it after PTD-Grb2-SH2). An immunofluorescence assay was used to investigate the location of PTD-Grb2-SH2 in cells. MTT assay and EdU experiments were applied to detect the proliferation of breast cancer cells. The ultra-structure was observed using transmission electron microscopy. Flow cytometry was used to determine the cytotoxicity of PTD-Grb2-SH2 on cell proliferation. We successfully obtained the PTD-Grb2-SH2 fusion protein in soluble form using a prokaryotic expression system. The new fusion protein successfully passed through both the cellular and nuclear membranes of breast cancer cells. The MTT assay showed that PTD-Grb2-SH2 exhibited significant toxicity to breast cancer cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner in vitro. EdU identified the decreased proliferation rates in treated MDA-MB-231 and SK-BR-3 cells. Observation by transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry further confirmed the cytotoxicity as apoptosis. Our results show that the HIV1-TAT domain is a useful tool for transporting a low molecular weight protein across the cell membrane in vitro. The PTD-Grb2-SH2 may be a novel agent for breast cancer therapy.

  5. The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) - Naval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meteorology Oceanography Ice You are here: Home › FNMOC FNMOC Logo FNMOC Navigation Meteorology Products Oceanography Products Tropical Applications Climatology and Archived Data Info The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC) The Fleet Numerical Meteorology and Oceanography Center (FNMOC

  6. Meteorological Drivers of Extreme Air Pollution Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, D. E.; Schnell, J.; Callahan, C. W.; Suo, Y.

    2017-12-01

    The accumulation of pollutants in the near-surface atmosphere has been shown to have deleterious consequences for public health, agricultural productivity, and economic vitality. Natural and anthropogenic emissions of ozone and particulate matter can accumulate to hazardous concentrations when atmospheric conditions are favorable, and can reach extreme levels when such conditions persist. Favorable atmospheric conditions for pollutant accumulation include optimal temperatures for photochemical reaction rates, circulation patterns conducive to pollutant advection, and a lack of ventilation, dispersion, and scavenging in the local environment. Given our changing climate system and the dual ingredients of poor air quality - pollutants and the atmospheric conditions favorable to their accumulation - it is important to characterize recent changes in favorable meteorological conditions, and quantify their potential contribution to recent extreme air pollution events. To facilitate our characterization, this study employs the recently updated Schnell et al (2015) 1°×1° gridded observed surface ozone and particulate matter datasets for the period of 1998 to 2015, in conjunction with reanalysis and climate model simulation data. We identify extreme air pollution episodes in the observational record and assess the meteorological factors of primary support at local and synoptic scales. We then assess (i) the contribution of observed meteorological trends (if extant) to the magnitude of the event, (ii) the return interval of the meteorological event in the observational record, simulated historical climate, and simulated pre-industrial climate, as well as (iii) the probability of the observed meteorological trend in historical and pre-industrial climates.

  7. The GW170817/GRB 170817A/AT 2017gfo Association: Some Implications for Physics and Astrophysics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao; Zhang, Fu-Wen; Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Shen, Zhao-Qiang; Liang, Yun-Feng; Li, Xiang; Liao, Neng-Hui; Jin, Zhi-Ping; Yuan, Qiang; Zou, Yuan-Chuan; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming

    2017-12-01

    On 2017 August 17, a gravitational-wave event (GW170817) and an associated short gamma-ray burst (GRB 170817A) from a binary neutron star merger had been detected. The follow-up optical/infrared observations also identified the macronova/kilonova emission (AT 2017gfo). In this work, we discuss some implications of the remarkable GW170817/GRB 170817A/AT 2017gfo association. We show that the ∼1.7 s time delay between the gravitational-wave (GW) and GRB signals imposes very tight constraints on the superluminal movement of gravitational waves (i.e., the relative departure of GW velocity from the speed of light is ≤slant 4.3× {10}-16) or the possible violation of the weak equivalence principle (i.e., the difference of the gamma-ray and GW trajectories in the gravitational field of the galaxy and the local universe should be within a factor of ∼ 3.4× {10}-9). The so-called Dark Matter Emulators and a class of contender models for cosmic acceleration (“Covariant Galileon”) are ruled out as well. The successful identification of lanthanide elements in the macronova/kilonova spectrum also excludes the possibility that the progenitors of GRB 170817A are a binary strange star system. The high neutron star merger rate (inferred from both the local sGRB data and the gravitational-wave data) together with the significant ejected mass strongly suggest that such mergers are the prime sites of heavy r-process nucleosynthesis.

  8. DISCOVERY OF THE BROAD-LINED TYPE Ic SN 2013cq ASSOCIATED WITH THE VERY ENERGETIC GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, D.; Krühler, T.; Hjorth, J.; Malesani, D.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Watson, D. J.; Geier, S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); De Ugarte Postigo, A.; Thöne, C. C.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía, CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008 Granada (Spain); Leloudas, G. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Physics, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Cano, Z.; Jakobsson, P. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, IS-107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Schulze, S. [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Kaper, L. [Astronomical Institute Anton Pannekoek, University of Amsterdam, Science Park 904, NL-1098 XH Amsterdam (Netherlands); Sollerman, J. [The Oskar Klein Centre, Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova, SE-10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Cabrera-Lavers, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Cao, C. [Department of Space Science and Physics, Shandong University at Weihai, Weihai, Shandong 264209 (China); Covino, S. [INAF/Brera Astronomical Observatory, via Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Italy); Flores, H., E-mail: dong@dark-cosmology.dk [Laboratoire Galaxies Etoiles Physique et Instrumentation, Observatoire de Paris, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France); and others

    2013-10-20

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) at z < 1 are found in most cases to be accompanied by bright, broad-lined Type Ic supernovae (SNe Ic-BL). The highest-energy GRBs are mostly located at higher redshifts, where the associated SNe are hard to detect observationally. Here, we present early and late observations of the optical counterpart of the very energetic GRB 130427A. Despite its moderate redshift, z = 0.3399 ± 0.0002, GRB 130427A is at the high end of the GRB energy distribution, with an isotropic-equivalent energy release of E{sub iso} ∼ 9.6 × 10{sup 53} erg, more than an order of magnitude more energetic than other GRBs with spectroscopically confirmed SNe. In our dense photometric monitoring, we detect excess flux in the host-subtracted r-band light curve, consistent with that expected from an emerging SN, ∼0.2 mag fainter than the prototypical SN 1998bw. A spectrum obtained around the time of the SN peak (16.7 days after the GRB) reveals broad undulations typical of SNe Ic-BL, confirming the presence of an SN, designated SN 2013cq. The spectral shape and early peak time are similar to those of the high expansion velocity SN 2010bh associated with GRB 100316D. Our findings demonstrate that high-energy, long-duration GRBs, commonly detected at high redshift, can also be associated with SNe Ic-BL, pointing to a common progenitor mechanism.

  9. THE OPTICAL AFTERGLOW AND z = 0.92 EARLY-TYPE HOST GALAXY OF THE SHORT GRB 100117A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fong, W.; Berger, E.; Chornock, R.; Tanvir, N. R.; Levan, A. J.; Fruchter, A. S.; Graham, J. F.; Cucchiara, A.; Fox, D. B.

    2011-01-01

    We present the discovery of the optical afterglow and early-type host galaxy of the short-duration GRB 100117A. The faint afterglow is detected 8.3 hr after the burst with r AB = 25.46 ± 0.20 mag. Follow-up optical and near-infrared observations uncover a coincident compact red galaxy, identified as an early-type galaxy at a spectroscopic redshift of z ∼ 0.915 with a mass of ∼3 x 10 10 M sun , an age of ∼1 Gyr, and a luminosity of L B ≅ 0.5 L * . From a possible weak detection of [O II]λ3727 emission at z = 0.915 we infer an upper bound on the star formation rate of ∼0.1 M sun yr -1 , leading to a specific star formation rate of ∼ -1 . Thus, GRB 100117A is only the second short burst to date with a secure early-type host (the other being GRB 050724 at z = 0.257) and it has one of the highest short gamma-ray burst (GRB) redshifts. The offset between the host center and the burst position, 470 ± 310 pc, is the smallest to date. Combined with the old stellar population age, this indicates that the burst likely originated from a progenitor with no significant kick velocity. However, from the brightness of the optical afterglow we infer a relatively low density of n ∼ 3 x 10 -4 ε -3 e,-1 ε -1.75 B,-1 cm -3 . The combination of an optically faint afterglow and host suggests that previous such events may have been missed, thereby potentially biasing the known short GRB host population against z ∼> 1 early-type hosts.

  10. SEARCH FOR GAMMA-RAYS FROM THE UNUSUALLY BRIGHT GRB 130427A WITH THE HAWC GAMMA-RAY OBSERVATORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abeysekara, A. U. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI (United States); Alfaro, R. [Instituto de Física, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D. F. (Mexico); Alvarez, C.; Arceo, R. [CEFyMAP, Universidad Autónoma de Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas (Mexico); Álvarez, J. D.; Arteaga-Velázquez, J. C.; Cotti, U.; De León, C. [Universidad Michoacana de San Nicolás de Hidalgo, Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Solares, H. A. Ayala [Department of Physics, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, MI (United States); Barber, A. S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Baughman, B. M.; Braun, J. [Department of Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Bautista-Elivar, N. [Universidad Politécnica de Pachuca, Municipio de Zempoala, Hidalgo (Mexico); BenZvi, S. Y. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY (United States); Rosales, M. Bonilla; Carramiñana, A. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica, Óptica y Electrónica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Caballero-Mora, K. S. [Centro de Investigación y de Estudios Avanzados del Instituto Politécnico Nacional, México D. F. (Mexico); Castillo, M.; Cotzomi, J. [Facultad de Ciencias Físico Matemáticas, Benemérita Universidad Autónoma de Puebla, Ciudad Universitaria, Puebla (Mexico); De la Fuente, E., E-mail: dirk.lennarz@gatech.edu [Departamento de Física, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e Ingenierías, Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara (Mexico); Collaboration: HAWC collaboration; and others

    2015-02-20

    The first limits on the prompt emission from the long gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130427A in the >100 GeV energy band are reported. GRB 130427A was the most powerful burst ever detected with a redshift z ≲ 0.5 and featured the longest lasting emission above 100 MeV. The energy spectrum extends at least up to 95 GeV, clearly in the range observable by the High Altitude Water Cherenkov (HAWC) Gamma-Ray Observatory, a new extensive air shower detector currently under construction in central Mexico. The burst occurred under unfavorable observation conditions, low in the sky and when HAWC was running 10% of the final detector. Based on the observed light curve at MeV-GeV energies, eight different time periods have been searched for prompt and delayed emission from this GRB. In all cases, no statistically significant excess of counts has been found and upper limits have been placed. It is shown that a similar GRB close to zenith would be easily detected by the full HAWC detector, which will be completed soon. The detection rate of the full HAWC detector may be as high as one to two GRBs per year. A detection could provide important information regarding the high energy processes at work and the observation of a possible cut-off beyond the Fermi Large Area Telescope energy range could be the signature of gamma-ray absorption, either in the GRB or along the line of sight due to the extragalactic background light.

  11. Hubble space telescope observations of the afterglow, supernova, and host galaxy associated with the extremely bright GRB 130427A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Tanvir, N. R.; Wiersema, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Fruchter, A. S.; Hounsell, R. A.; Graham, J. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Pian, E. [INAF, Trieste Astronomical Observatory, via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Mazzali, P. [Astrophysics Research Institute, Liverpool John Moores University, IC2 Liverpool Science Park 146 Brownlow Hill, Liverpool L3 5RF (United Kingdom); Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cano, Z. [Centre for Astrophysics and Cosmology, Science Institute, University of Iceland, Dunhagi 5, 107 Reykjavik (Iceland); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Mail Code 661, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Science and Technology Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Pe' er, A. [Department of Physics, University College Cork, Cork (Ireland); Misra, K., E-mail: a.j.levan@warwick.ac.uk [Aryabhatta Research Institute of Observational Sciences, Manora Peak, Nainital-263 002 (India)

    2014-09-10

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 130427A. At z = 0.34, this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova (SN) and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E {sub iso} > 10{sup 54} erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated SN. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability, and invariant point-spread function of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host, and SN contributions to the observed light ∼17 rest-frame days after the burst, utilizing a host subtraction spectrum obtained one year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys grism observations show that the associated SN, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, v {sub ph} ∼ 15, 000 km s{sup –1}). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (v {sub ph} ∼ 30, 000 km s{sup –1}), but this SN is significantly fainter and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated ∼4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}), possibly interacting disk galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size, and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it, are also strikingly similar to those of GRB 980425/SN 1998bw. The similarity of the SNe and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests that broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  12. DISCOVERY AND REDSHIFT OF AN OPTICAL AFTERGLOW IN 71 deg2: iPTF13bxl AND GRB 130702A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Leo P.; Brown, Duncan A.; Bradley Cenko, S.; Gehrels, Neil; McEnery, Julie; Kasliwal, Mansi M.; Mulchaey, John; Perley, Daniel A.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Bellm, Eric; Barlow, Tom; Cao, Yi; Horesh, Assaf; Ofek, Eran O.; Arcavi, Iair; Nugent, Peter E.; Bloom, Joshua S.; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Masci, Frank J.

    2013-01-01

    We report the discovery of the optical afterglow of the γ-ray burst (GRB) 130702A, identified upon searching 71 deg 2 surrounding the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) localization. Discovered and characterized by the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory, iPTF13bxl is the first afterglow discovered solely based on a GBM localization. Real-time image subtraction, machine learning, human vetting, and rapid response multi-wavelength follow-up enabled us to quickly narrow a list of 27,004 optical transient candidates to a single afterglow-like source. Detection of a new, fading X-ray source by Swift and a radio counterpart by CARMA and the Very Large Array confirmed the association between iPTF13bxl and GRB 130702A. Spectroscopy with the Magellan and Palomar 200 inch telescopes showed the afterglow to be at a redshift of z = 0.145, placing GRB 130702A among the lowest redshift GRBs detected to date. The prompt γ-ray energy release and afterglow luminosity are intermediate between typical cosmological GRBs and nearby sub-luminous events such as GRB 980425 and GRB 060218. The bright afterglow and emerging supernova offer an opportunity for extensive panchromatic follow-up. Our discovery of iPTF13bxl demonstrates the first observational proof-of-principle for ∼10 Fermi-iPTF localizations annually. Furthermore, it represents an important step toward overcoming the challenges inherent in uncovering faint optical counterparts to comparably localized gravitational wave events in the Advanced LIGO and Virgo era

  13. Meteorological considerations in emergency response capability at nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairobent, J.E.

    1985-01-01

    Meteorological considerations in emergency response at nuclear power plants are discussed through examination of current regulations and guidance documents, including discussion of the rationale for current regulatory requirements related to meteorological information for emergency response. Areas discussed include: major meteorological features important to emergency response; onsite meteorological measurements programs, including redundant and backup measurements; access to offsite sources of meteorological information; consideration of real-time and forecast conditions and atmospheric dispersion modeling

  14. Air pollutants, meteorology and plant injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukammal, E I; Brandt, C S; Neuwirth, R; Pack, D H; Swinbank, W C

    1968-01-01

    The study of the effect of air pollutants on plant growth inevitably involves meteorological factors, and the World Meteorological Organization has therefore been giving much attention to this matter for some time. Within the Organization, responsibility for this work naturally fell to the Commission for Agricultural Meteorology (CAgM), and following the time-honored procedure in such cases, the Commission established in 1962 a small international group of acknowledged experts to study plant injury and reduction of yield by non-radioactive air pollutants, and charged it with the specific task of preparing a review of present knowledge of the subjects involved. After several years' work, the group fulfilled its appointed task and the resulting report is now published in this WMO Technical Note. 95 references.

  15. Meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiester, T.R.; Pennell, W.T.

    1981-01-01

    This report, which focuses on the meteorological aspects of siting large wind turbines (turbines with a rated output exceeding 100 kW), has four main goals. The first is to outline the elements of a siting strategy that will identify the most favorable wind energy sites in a region and that will provide sufficient wind data to make responsible economic evaluations of the site wind resource possible. The second is to critique and summarize siting techniques that were studied in the Department of Energy (DOE) Wind Energy Program. The third goal is to educate utility technical personnel, engineering consultants, and meteorological consultants (who may have not yet undertaken wind energy consulting) on meteorological phenomena relevant to wind turbine siting in order to enhance dialogues between these groups. The fourth goal is to minimize the chances of failure of early siting programs due to insufficient understanding of wind behavior.

  16. Background of the Military Aviation Meteorological Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.I. Zshumatiy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the birth of aviation and its meteorological service in the early twentieth century. The article details the military aviation meteorological services in Italy, France, Germany, Austria, the USA and Russia. Are described the problems, which arose with the takeoff and landings of flight vehicles with complex weather conditions. It is shown that the information about the actual and forthcoming weather is capable of reducing a quantity of failures of flight vehicles, of increasing safety of pilots and accuracy of the defeat of enemy, of planning the application of aviation.

  17. GRB 100816

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malesani, Daniele; Xu, Dong; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall

    2011-01-01

    ) and the putative host galaxy (Im et al., GCN 11108; Tanvir et al., GCN 11109). We find magnitudes of R = 23.0 +- 0.1 and R = 21.65 +- 0.05 for the two objects, respectively, assuming R=17.06 for the nearby USNO star 1165-0595190. We caution that accurate photometry will have to await for late-time templates...

  18. The host galaxy and optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980703

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holland, S.; Fynbo, J.P.U.; Hjorth, J.

    2001-01-01

    We present deep HST/STIS and ground-based photometry of the host galaxy of the gamma-ray burst GRB 980703 taken 17, 551, 710, and 716 days after the burst. We find that the host is a blue, slightly over-luminous galaxy with V-gal = 23.00 +/-0.10, (V - R)(gal) = 0.43 +/-0.13, and a centre...... 980703 with any special features in the host. The host galaxy appears to be a typical example of a compact star forming galaxy similar to those found in the Hubble Deep Field North. The R-band light curve of the optical afterglow associated with this gamma-ray burst is consistent with a single power...

  19. Broadband observations of the naked-eye gamma-ray burst GRB 080319B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Racusin, J L; Karpov, S V; Sokolowski, M; Granot, J; Wu, X F; Pal'shin, V; Covino, S; van der Horst, A J; Oates, S R; Schady, P; Smith, R J; Cummings, J; Starling, R L C; Piotrowski, L W; Zhang, B; Evans, P A; Holland, S T; Malek, K; Page, M T; Vetere, L; Margutti, R; Guidorzi, C; Kamble, A P; Curran, P A; Beardmore, A; Kouveliotou, C; Mankiewicz, L; Melandri, A; O'Brien, P T; Page, K L; Piran, T; Tanvir, N R; Wrochna, G; Aptekar, R L; Barthelmy, S; Bartolini, C; Beskin, G M; Bondar, S; Bremer, M; Campana, S; Castro-Tirado, A; Cucchiara, A; Cwiok, M; D'Avanzo, P; D'Elia, V; Valle, M Della; de Ugarte Postigo, A; Dominik, W; Falcone, A; Fiore, F; Fox, D B; Frederiks, D D; Fruchter, A S; Fugazza, D; Garrett, M A; Gehrels, N; Golenetskii, S; Gomboc, A; Gorosabel, J; Greco, G; Guarnieri, A; Immler, S; Jelinek, M; Kasprowicz, G; La Parola, V; Levan, A J; Mangano, V; Mazets, E P; Molinari, E; Moretti, A; Nawrocki, K; Oleynik, P P; Osborne, J P; Pagani, C; Pandey, S B; Paragi, Z; Perri, M; Piccioni, A; Ramirez-Ruiz, E; Roming, P W A; Steele, I A; Strom, R G; Testa, V; Tosti, G; Ulanov, M V; Wiersema, K; Wijers, R A M J; Winters, J M; Zarnecki, A F; Zerbi, F; Mészáros, P; Chincarini, G; Burrows, D N

    2008-09-11

    Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) release copious amounts of energy across the entire electromagnetic spectrum, and so provide a window into the process of black hole formation from the collapse of massive stars. Previous early optical observations of even the most exceptional GRBs (990123 and 030329) lacked both the temporal resolution to probe the optical flash in detail and the accuracy needed to trace the transition from the prompt emission within the outflow to external shocks caused by interaction with the progenitor environment. Here we report observations of the extraordinarily bright prompt optical and gamma-ray emission of GRB 080319B that provide diagnostics within seconds of its formation, followed by broadband observations of the afterglow decay that continued for weeks. We show that the prompt emission stems from a single physical region, implying an extremely relativistic outflow that propagates within the narrow inner core of a two-component jet.

  20. THE AFTERGLOW AND ULIRG HOST GALAXY OF THE DARK SHORT GRB 120804A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Margutti, R.; Laskar, T.; Fong, W.; Chornock, R.; Dupuy, T. J. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Levan, A.; Tunnicliffe, R. L. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Mangano, V. [INAF, Istituto di Astrofisica Spaziale e Fisica Cosmica, Via U. La Malfa 153, I-90146 Palermo (Italy); Fox, D. B. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Menten, K. M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Radioastronomie, Auf dem Huegel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Hjorth, J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen O (Denmark); Roth, K. [Gemini Observatory, 670 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)

    2013-03-10

    We present the optical discovery and subarcsecond optical and X-ray localization of the afterglow of the short GRB 120804A, as well as optical, near-IR, and radio detections of its host galaxy. X-ray observations with Swift/XRT, Chandra, and XMM-Newton extending to {delta}t Almost-Equal-To 19 days reveal a single power-law decline. The optical afterglow is faint, and comparison to the X-ray flux indicates that GRB 120804A is ''dark'', with a rest-frame extinction of A {sup host}{sub V} Almost-Equal-To 2.5 mag (at z = 1.3). The intrinsic neutral hydrogen column density inferred from the X-ray spectrum, N{sub H,{sub int}}(z = 1.3) Almost-Equal-To 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}, is commensurate with the large extinction. The host galaxy exhibits red optical/near-IR colors. Equally important, JVLA observations at Almost-Equal-To 0.9-11 days reveal a constant flux density of F{sub {nu}}(5.8 GHz) = 35 {+-} 4 {mu}Jy and an optically thin spectrum, unprecedented for GRB afterglows, but suggestive instead of emission from the host galaxy. The optical/near-IR and radio fluxes are well fit with the scaled spectral energy distribution of the local ultraluminous infrared galaxy (ULIRG) Arp 220 at z Almost-Equal-To 1.3, with a resulting star formation rate of x Almost-Equal-To 300 M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1}. The inferred extinction and small projected offset (2.2 {+-} 1.2 kpc) are also consistent with the ULIRG scenario, as is the presence of a companion galaxy at the same redshift and with a separation of about 11 kpc. The limits on radio afterglow emission, in conjunction with the observed X-ray and optical emission, require a circumburst density of n {approx} 10{sup -3} cm{sup -3}, an isotropic-equivalent energy scale of E{sub {gamma},{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To E{sub K,{sub iso}} Almost-Equal-To 7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 51} erg, and a jet opening angle of {theta}{sub j} {approx}> 11 Degree-Sign . The expected fraction of luminous infrared

  1. OBSERVATIONAL SEARCH FOR PeV-EeV TAU NEUTRINO FROM GRB081203A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aita, Y.; Aoki, T.; Asaoka, Y.; Chonan, T.; Jobashi, M.; Masuda, M.; Morimoto, Y.; Noda, K.; Sasaki, M.; Asoh, J.; Ishikawa, N.; Ogawa, S.; Learned, J. G.; Matsuno, S.; Olsen, S.; Binder, P.-M.; Hamilton, J.; Sugiyama, N.; Watanabe, Y.

    2011-01-01

    We report the first observational search for tau neutrinos (ν τ ) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) using one of the Ashra light collectors. The Earth-skimming ν τ technique of imaging Cherenkov τ showers was applied as a detection method. We set stringent upper limits on the ν τ fluence in PeV-EeV region for 3780 s (between 2.83 and 1.78 hr before) and another 3780 s (between 21.2 and 22.2 hr after) surrounding GRB081203A triggered by the Swift satellite. This first search for PeV-EeV ν τ complements other experiments in energy range and methodology, and suggests the prologue of 'multi-particle astronomy' with a precise determination of time and location.

  2. Microbiologically influenced corrosion of sa106 gr.b carbon steel in raw water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunaru, M.; Velciu, L.; Stancu, M.; Popa, L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the evaluation of microbiological corrosion susceptibility of carbon steel SA106gr.B in raw water. The experiment consisted of a series of electrochemical accelerated tests which evaluated the pitting corrosion susceptibility and determined corrosion rates before and after the immersion. The microbiological analysis of the water determined the types of bacteria and bacterial concentration present in water and in biofilms. Microbiological analysis of the water sample emphasized the existence, in small numbers (10-101 ml-1), of heterotrophic aerobic bacteria, sulphate-reducing bacteria and iron-oxidizing microorganisms. Along with sulphate-reducing bacteria, the heterotrophic aerobic bacteria and the iron-oxidizing microorganisms are categorized as having an important role in the corrosion of metals, including steel. The surfaces of the tested samples were analysed using the optical and electronic microscope, and emphasized the role of bacteria in the development of biofilms under which appeared characteristics of corrosion attack. (authors)

  3. Observation of X-ray lines from a gamma-ray burst (GRB991216): evidence of moving ejecta from the progenitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piro, L; Garmire, G; Garcia, M; Stratta, G; Costa, E; Feroci, M; Mészáros, P; Vietri, M; Bradt, H; Frail, D; Frontera, F; Halpern, J; Heise, J; Hurley, K; Kawai, N; Kippen, R M; Marshall, F; Murakami, T; Sokolov, V V; Takeshima, T; Yoshida, A

    2000-11-03

    We report on the discovery of two emission features observed in the x-ray spectrum of the afterglow of the gamma-ray burst (GRB) of 16 December 1999 by the Chandra X-ray Observatory. These features are identified with the Ly(alpha) line and the narrow recombination continuum by hydrogenic ions of iron at a redshift z = 1.00 +/- 0.02, providing an unambiguous measurement of the distance of a GRB. Line width and intensity imply that the progenitor of the GRB was a massive star system that ejected, before the GRB event, a quantity of iron approximately 0.01 of the mass of the sun at a velocity approximately 0.1 of the speed of light, probably by a supernova explosion.

  4. Significant and variable linear polarization during the prompt optical flash of GRB 160625B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troja, E.; Lipunov, V. M.; Mundell, C. G.; Butler, N. R.; Watson, A. M.; Kobayashi, S.; Cenko, S. B.; Marshall, F. E.; Ricci, R.; Fruchter, A.; Wieringa, M. H.; Gorbovskoy, E. S.; Kornilov, V.; Kutyrev, A.; Lee, W. H.; Toy, V.; Tyurina, N. V.; Budnev, N. M.; Buckley, D. A. H.; González, J.; Gress, O.; Horesh, A.; Panasyuk, M. I.; Prochaska, J. X.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Rebolo Lopez, R.; Richer, M. G.; Roman-Zuniga, C.; Serra-Ricart, M.; Yurkov, V.; Gehrels, N.

    2017-07-01

    Newly formed black holes of stellar mass launch collimated outflows (jets) of ionized matter that approach the speed of light. These outflows power prompt, brief and intense flashes of γ-rays known as γ-ray bursts (GRBs), followed by longer-lived afterglow radiation that is detected across the electromagnetic spectrum. Measuring the polarization of the observed GRB radiation provides a direct probe of the magnetic fields in the collimated jets. Rapid-response polarimetric observations of newly discovered bursts have probed the initial afterglow phase, and show that, minutes after the prompt emission has ended, the degree of linear polarization can be as high as 30 per cent - consistent with the idea that a stable, globally ordered magnetic field permeates the jet at large distances from the central source. By contrast, optical and γ-ray observations during the prompt phase have led to discordant and often controversial results, and no definitive conclusions have been reached regarding the origin of the prompt radiation or the configuration of the magnetic field. Here we report the detection of substantial (8.3 ± 0.8 per cent from our most conservative simulation), variable linear polarization of a prompt optical flash that accompanied the extremely energetic and long-lived prompt γ-ray emission from GRB 160625B. Our measurements probe the structure of the magnetic field at an early stage of the jet, closer to its central black hole, and show that the prompt phase is produced via fast-cooling synchrotron radiation in a large-scale magnetic field that is advected from the black hole and distorted by dissipation processes within the jet.

  5. PROPAGATION OF RELATIVISTIC, HYDRODYNAMIC, INTERMITTENT JETS IN A ROTATING, COLLAPSING GRB PROGENITOR STAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Jin-Jun [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210046 (China); Zhang, Bing [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States); Kuiper, Rolf, E-mail: gengjinjun@gmail.com, E-mail: zhang@physics.unlv.edu [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 10, D-72076 Tübingen (Germany)

    2016-12-10

    The prompt emission of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is characterized by rapid variabilities, which may be a direct reflection of the unsteady central engine. We perform a series of axisymmetric 2.5-dimensional simulations to study the propagation of relativistic, hydrodynamic, intermittent jets through the envelope of a GRB progenitor star. A realistic rapidly rotating star is incorporated as the background of jet propagation, and the star is allowed to collapse due to the gravity of the central black hole. By modeling the intermittent jets with constant-luminosity pulses with equal on and off durations, we investigate how the half period, T , affects the jet dynamics. For relatively small T values (e.g., 0.2 s), the jet breakout time t {sub bo} depends on the opening angle of the jet, with narrower jets more penetrating and reaching the surface at shorter times. For T  ≤ 1 s, the reverse shock (RS) crosses each pulse before the jet penetrates through the stellar envelope. As a result, after the breakout of the first group of pulses at t {sub bo}, several subsequent pulses vanish before penetrating the star, causing a quiescent gap. For larger half periods ( T = 2.0 and 4.0 s), all the pulses can successfully penetrate through the envelope, since each pulse can propagate through the star before the RS crosses the shell. Our results may interpret the existence of a weak precursor in some long GRBs, given that the GRB central engine injects intermittent pulses with a half period T  ≤ 1 s. The observational data seem to be consistent with such a possibility.

  6. Synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock on GRB 120326A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urata, Yuji [Institute of Astronomy, National Central University, Chung-Li 32054, Taiwan (China); Huang, Kuiyun; Takahashi, Satoko [Academia Sinica Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Jang, Minsung [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, FPRD, Seoul National University, Shillim-dong, San 56-1, Kwanak-gu, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yamaoka, Kazutaka [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-8601 (Japan); Tashiro, Makoto [Department of Physics, Saitama University, Shimo-Okubo, Saitama 338-8570 (Japan); Pak, Soojong, E-mail: urata@astro.ncu.edu.tw [School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-10

    We present multi-wavelength observations of a typical long duration GRB 120326A at z = 1.798, including rapid observations using a Submillimeter Array (SMA) and a comprehensive monitoring in the X-ray and optical. The SMA observation provided the fastest detection to date among seven submillimeter afterglows at 230 GHz. The prompt spectral analysis, using Swift and Suzaku, yielded a spectral peak energy of E{sub peak}{sup src}=107.8{sub −15.3}{sup +15.3} keV and an equivalent isotropic energy of E{sub iso} as 3.18{sub −0.32}{sup +0.40}×10{sup 52} erg. The temporal evolution and spectral properties in the optical were consistent with the standard forward shock synchrotron with jet collimation (6.°69 ± 0.°16). The forward shock modeling, using a two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic jet simulation, was also determined by the reasonable burst explosion and the synchrotron radiation parameters for the optical afterglow. The X-ray light curve showed no apparent jet break and the temporal decay index relation between the X-ray and optical (αo – α{sub X} = –1.45 ± 0.10) indicated different radiation processes in each of them. Introducing synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock is a possible solution, and the detection and slow decay of the afterglow in submillimeter supports that this is a plausible idea. The observed temporal evolution and spectral properties, as well as forward shock modeling parameters, enabled us to determine reasonable functions to describe the afterglow properties. Because half of the events share similar properties in the X-ray and optical as the current event, GRB 120326A will be a benchmark with further rapid follow-ups, using submillimeter instruments such as an SMA and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.

  7. Synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock on GRB 120326A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kuiyun; Takahashi, Satoko; Im, Myungshin; Kim, Jae-Woo; Jang, Minsung; Yamaoka, Kazutaka; Tashiro, Makoto; Pak, Soojong

    2014-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of a typical long duration GRB 120326A at z = 1.798, including rapid observations using a Submillimeter Array (SMA) and a comprehensive monitoring in the X-ray and optical. The SMA observation provided the fastest detection to date among seven submillimeter afterglows at 230 GHz. The prompt spectral analysis, using Swift and Suzaku, yielded a spectral peak energy of E peak src =107.8 −15.3 +15.3 keV and an equivalent isotropic energy of E iso as 3.18 −0.32 +0.40 ×10 52 erg. The temporal evolution and spectral properties in the optical were consistent with the standard forward shock synchrotron with jet collimation (6.°69 ± 0.°16). The forward shock modeling, using a two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamic jet simulation, was also determined by the reasonable burst explosion and the synchrotron radiation parameters for the optical afterglow. The X-ray light curve showed no apparent jet break and the temporal decay index relation between the X-ray and optical (αo – α X = –1.45 ± 0.10) indicated different radiation processes in each of them. Introducing synchrotron self-inverse Compton radiation from reverse shock is a possible solution, and the detection and slow decay of the afterglow in submillimeter supports that this is a plausible idea. The observed temporal evolution and spectral properties, as well as forward shock modeling parameters, enabled us to determine reasonable functions to describe the afterglow properties. Because half of the events share similar properties in the X-ray and optical as the current event, GRB 120326A will be a benchmark with further rapid follow-ups, using submillimeter instruments such as an SMA and the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.

  8. Steep extinction towards GRB 140506A reconciled from host galaxy observations: Evidence that steep reddening laws are local

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heintz, K. E.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Jakobsson, P.; Krühler, T.; Christensen, L.; Watson, D.; Ledoux, C.; Noterdaeme, P.; Perley, D. A.; Rhodin, H.; Selsing, J.; Schulze, S.; Tanvir, N. R.; Møller, P.; Goldoni, P.; Xu, D.; Milvang-Jensen, B.

    2017-05-01

    We present the spectroscopic and photometric late-time follow-up of the host galaxy of the long-duration Swift γ-ray burst GRB 140506A at z = 0.889. The optical and near-infrared afterglow of this GRB had a peculiar spectral energy distribution (SED) with a strong flux-drop at 8000 Å (4000 Å rest-frame) suggesting an unusually steep extinction curve. By analysing the contribution and physical properties of the host galaxy, we here aim at providing additional information on the properties and origin of this steep, non-standard extinction. We find that the strong flux-drop in the GRB afterglow spectrum at contamination by the host galaxy light at short wavelengths so that the scenario with an extreme 2175 Å extinction bump can be excluded. We localise the GRB to be at a projected distance of approximately 4 kpc from the centre of the host galaxy. Based on emission-line diagnostics of the four detected nebular lines, Hα, Hβ, [O II] and [O III], we find the host to be a modestly star forming (SFR = 1.34 ± 0.04 M⊙ yr-1) and relatively metal poor (Z=0.35+0.15-0.11 Z⊙) galaxy with a large dust content, characterised by a measured visual attenuation of AV = 1.74 ± 0.41 mag. We compare the host to other GRB hosts at similar redshifts and find that it is unexceptional in all its physical properties. We model the extinction curve of the host-corrected afterglow and show that the standard dust properties causing the reddening seen in the Local Group are inadequate in describing the steep drop. We thus conclude that the steep extinction curve seen in the afterglow towards the GRB is of exotic origin and issightline-dependent only, further confirming that this type of reddening is present only at very local scales and that it is solely a consequence of the circumburst environment. Based on observations carried out under programme IDs 095.D-0043(A, C) and 095.A-0045(A) with the X-shooter spectrograph and the FOcal Reducer and low dispersion Spectrograph 2 (FORS2

  9. Meteorological influences on coastal new particle formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, G. de; Kunz, G.J.; Buzorius, G.; O`Dowd, C.D.

    2002-01-01

    The meteorological situation at the midlatitude coastal station of Mace Head, Ireland, is described based on observations during the New Particle Formation and Fate in the Coastal Environment (PARFORCE) experiments in September 1998 and June 1999. Micrometeorological sensors were mounted near the

  10. assessment and monitoring of meteorological and hydrological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    F. Djellouli, A. Bouanani and K. Babahamed

    2016-09-01

    Sep 1, 2016 ... en meteorological drought indices was found for 9-month time step ... Drought severity is expected to increase further in the next 50 years [20]. ... In the present study, our interest to examine the applicability of various drought ...

  11. Meteorological features associated with unprecedented precipitation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    56

    India Meteorological Department, Lodi Road, New Delhi-110003 .... adjoining Iran & Arabian Sea with temperature gradient of order 5 Kelvin on 28th February, 2015. (Fig. 4a). On 1st .... Indian Region on 00 UTC of 1st March and seen in two patches, one over north Pakistan & .... Accordingly, the precipitation belt also.

  12. Meteorological data related to the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graziani, G.; Zarimpas, N.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents a detailed technical description of the JRC-Ispra comprehensive collection of meteorological information related to the Chernobyl accident and attempts an analysis of the data in order to perform an initial checking of their quality and facilitate a suitable and compact way of display

  13. Integrating meteorology into research on migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamoun-Baranes, Judy; Bouten, Willem; van Loon, E Emiel

    2010-09-01

    Atmospheric dynamics strongly influence the migration of flying organisms. They affect, among others, the onset, duration and cost of migration, migratory routes, stop-over decisions, and flight speeds en-route. Animals move through a heterogeneous environment and have to react to atmospheric dynamics at different spatial and temporal scales. Integrating meteorology into research on migration is not only challenging but it is also important, especially when trying to understand the variability of the various aspects of migratory behavior observed in nature. In this article, we give an overview of some different modeling approaches and we show how these have been incorporated into migration research. We provide a more detailed description of the development and application of two dynamic, individual-based models, one for waders and one for soaring migrants, as examples of how and why to integrate meteorology into research on migration. We use these models to help understand underlying mechanisms of individual response to atmospheric conditions en-route and to explain emergent patterns. This type of models can be used to study the impact of variability in atmospheric dynamics on migration along a migratory trajectory, between seasons and between years. We conclude by providing some basic guidelines to help researchers towards finding the right modeling approach and the meteorological data needed to integrate meteorology into their own research. © The Author 2010. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Integrative and Comparative Biology. All rights reserved.

  14. Atmospheric Science: It's More than Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, David R.; Krockover, Gerald H.

    1988-01-01

    Indicates that atmospheric science is not just forcasting the weather. Gives an overview of current topics in meteorology including ozone depletion, acid precipitation, winter cyclones, severe local storms, the greenhouse effect, wind shear and microbursts. Outlines the Atmospheric Sciences Education Program at Purdue University to produce…

  15. Problem-Based Learning Approaches in Meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlton-Perez, Andrew James

    2013-01-01

    Problem-Based Learning, despite recent controversies about its effectiveness, is used extensively as a teaching method throughout higher education. In meteorology, there has been little attempt to incorporate Problem-Based Learning techniques into the curriculum. Motivated by a desire to enhance the reflective engagement of students within a…

  16. How To...Activities in Meteorology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmer, Donald N.; Sagness, Richard L.

    This series of experiments seeks to provide laboratory exercises which demonstrate concepts in Earth Science, particularly meteorology. Materials used in the experiments are easily obtainable. Examples of experiments include: (1) making a thermometer; (2) air/space relationship; (3) weight of air; (4) barometers; (5) particulates; (6) evaporation;…

  17. assessment and monitoring of meteorological and hydrological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    During the last century, Algeria experienced a rainfall deficit was recorded in 1944, then successive drought periods since 1975 to the present day in Northen and Eastern. The most recent has repercussions on water resources and on agriculture. In this paper, we focus on the meteorological and hydrological drought.

  18. Meteorological Development Laboratory Student Career Experience Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCalla, C., Sr.

    2007-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Weather Service (NWS) provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the protection of life and property and the enhancement of the national economy. The NWS's Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) supports this mission by developing meteorological prediction methods. Given this mission, NOAA, NWS, and MDL all have a need to continually recruit talented scientists. One avenue for recruiting such talented scientist is the Student Career Experience Program (SCEP). Through SCEP, MDL offers undergraduate and graduate students majoring in meteorology, computer science, mathematics, oceanography, physics, and statistics the opportunity to alternate full-time paid employment with periods of full-time study. Using SCEP as a recruiting vehicle, MDL has employed students who possess some of the very latest technical skills and knowledge needed to make meaningful contributions to projects within the lab. MDL has recently expanded its use of SCEP and has increased the number of students (sometimes called co- ops) in its program. As a co-op, a student can expect to develop and implement computer based scientific techniques, participate in the development of statistical algorithms, assist in the analysis of meteorological data, and verify forecasts. This presentation will focus on describing recruitment, projects, and the application process related to MDL's SCEP. In addition, this presentation will also briefly explore the career paths of students who successfully completed the program.

  19. NASA's aviation safety - meteorology research programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winblade, R. L.

    1983-01-01

    The areas covering the meteorological hazards program are: severe storms and the hazards to flight generated by severe storms; clear air turbulence; icing; warm fog dissipation; and landing systems. Remote sensing of ozone by satellites, and the use of satellites as data relays is also discussed.

  20. Optical light curve of GRB 121011A: a textbook for the onset of GRB afterglow in a mixture of ISM and wind-type medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xin, Li-Ping; Wei, Jian-Yan; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Deng, Jin-Song; Wang, Jing; Han, Xu-Hui

    2016-01-01

    We report the optical observations of GRB 121011A by the 0.8m TNT facility at Xinglong observatory, China. The light curve of the optical afterglow shows a smooth and featureless bump during the epoch of ∼130 s and ∼5000 s with a rising index of 1.57 ± 0.28 before the break time of 539 ± 44 s, and a decaying index of about 1.29 ± 0.07 up to the end of our observations. Moreover, the X-ray light curve decays in a single power-law with a slope of about 1.51 ± 0.03 observed by XRT onboard Swift from 100 s to about 10 000 s after the burst trigger. The featureless optical light curve could be understood as an onset process under the external-shock model. The typical frequency has been below or near the optical one before the deceleration time, and the cooling frequency is located between the optical and X-ray wavelengths. The external medium density has a transition from a mixed stage of ISM and wind-type medium before the peak time to the ISM at the later phase. The joint-analysis of X-ray and optical light curves shows that the emissions from both frequencies are consistent with the prediction of the standard afterglow model without any energy injections, indicating that the central engine has stopped its activity and does not restart anymore after the prompt phase. (paper)

  1. LFsGRB: Binary neutron star merger rate via the luminosity function of short gamma-ray bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Debdutta

    2018-04-01

    LFsGRB models the luminosity function (LF) of short Gamma Ray Bursts (sGRBs) by using the available catalog data of all short GRBs (sGRBs) detected till 2017 October, estimating the luminosities via pseudo-redshifts obtained from the Yonetoku correlation, and then assuming a standard delay distribution between the cosmic star formation rate and the production rate of their progenitors. The data are fit well both by exponential cutoff powerlaw and broken powerlaw models. Using the derived parameters of these models along with conservative values in the jet opening angles seen from afterglow observations, the true rate of short GRBs is derived. Assuming a short GRB is produced from each binary neutron star merger (BNSM), the rate of gravitational wave (GW) detections from these mergers are derived for the past, present and future configurations of the GW detector networks.

  2. Conformation of an Shc-derived phosphotyrosine-containing peptide complexed with the Grb2 SH2 domain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogura, Kenji; Tsuchiya, Shigeo; Terasawa, Hiroaki; Yuzawa, Satoru; Hatanaka, Hideki; Mandiyan, Valsan; Schlessinger, Joseph; Inagaki, Fuyuhiko

    1997-01-01

    We have determined the structure of an Shc-derived phosphotyrosine-containing peptide complexed with Grb2 SH2 based on intra-and intermolecular NOE correlations observed by a series of isotope-filtered NMR experiments using a PFG z-filter. In contrast to an extended conformation of phosphotyrosine-containing peptides bound to Src, Syp and PLC γ SH2s, the Shc-derived peptide formed a turn at the +1 and +2 positions next to the phosphotyrosine residue. Trp 121 , located at the EF1 site of Grb2 SH2, blocked the peptide binding in an extended conformation. The present study confirms that each phosphotyrosine-containing peptide binds to the cognate SH2 with a specific conformation, which gives the structural basis for the binding specificity between SH2s and target proteins

  3. A novel redox-based switch: LMW-PTP oxidation enhances Grb2 binding and leads to ERK activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giannoni, Elisa; Raugei, Giovanni; Chiarugi, Paola; Ramponi, Giampietro

    2006-01-01

    Low molecular weight-PTP has been reported as a redox-sensitive protein during both platelet-derived growth factor and integrin signalling. In response to oxidation the phosphatase undergoes a reversible inactivation, which in turn leads to the increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of its substrates and the properly executed anchorage-dependent proliferation program. Here, we report that an exogenous oxidative stress enhances LMW-PTP tyrosine phosphorylation, through oxidation/inactivation of the enzyme, thus preventing its auto-dephosphorylation activity. In particular, we observed a selective hyper-phosphorylation of Tyr132, that acts as a docking site for the adaptor protein Grb2. The redox-dependent enhancement of Grb2 recruitment to LMW-PTP ultimately leads to an improvement of ERK activation, likely triggering a prosurvival signal against the oxidant environment

  4. EARLY-TIME VLA OBSERVATIONS AND BROADBAND AFTERGLOW ANALYSIS OF THE FERMI/LAT DETECTED GRB 130907A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veres, Péter; Corsi, Alessandra; Frail, Dale A.; Cenko, S. Bradley; Perley, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    We present multi-wavelength observations of the hyper-energetic gamma-ray burst (GRB) 130907A, a Swift-discovered burst with early radio observations starting at ≈4 hr after the γ-ray trigger. GRB 130907A was also detected by the Fermi/LAT instrument and at late times showed a strong spectral evolution in X-rays. We focus on the early-time radio observations, especially at >10 GHz, to attempt to identify reverse shock signatures. While our radio follow-up of GRB 130907A ranks among the earliest observations of a GRB with the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array, we did not see an unambiguous signature of a reverse shock. While a model with both reverse and forward shock can correctly describe the observations, the data is not constraining enough to decide upon the presence of the reverse-shock component. We model the broadband data using a simple forward-shock synchrotron scenario with a transition from a wind environment to a constant density interstellar medium (ISM) in order to account for the observed features. Within the confines of this model, we also derive the underlying physical parameters of the fireball, which are within typical ranges except for the wind density parameter (A * ), which is higher than those for bursts with wind-ISM transition, but typical for the general population of bursts. We note the importance of early-time radio observations of the afterglow (and of well-sampled light curves) for unambiguously identifying the potential contribution of the reverse shock

  5. Hubble Space Telescope Observations of the Afterglow, Supernova and Host Galaxy Associated with the Extremely Bright GRB 130427A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levan, A.J.; Tanvir, N. R.; Fruchter, A. S.; Hjorth, J.; Pian, E.; Mazzali, P.; Hounsell, R. A.; Perley, D. A.; Cano, Z.; Graham, J.; hide

    2014-01-01

    We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations of the exceptionally bright and luminous Swift gamma-ray burst, GRB 130427A. At z=0.34 this burst affords an excellent opportunity to study the supernova and host galaxy associated with an intrinsically extremely luminous burst (E(sub iso) greater than 10(exp 54) erg): more luminous than any previous GRB with a spectroscopically associated supernova. We use the combination of the image quality, UV capability and and invariant PSF of HST to provide the best possible separation of the afterglow, host and supernova contributions to the observed light approximately 17 rest-frame days after the burst utilising a host subtraction spectrum obtained 1 year later. Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) grism observations show that the associated supernova, SN 2013cq, has an overall spectral shape and luminosity similar to SN 1998bw (with a photospheric velocity, vph approximately 15,000 kilometers per second). The positions of the bluer features are better matched by the higher velocity SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second), but SN 2010bh (vph approximately 30,000 kilometers per second but this SN is significantly fainter, and fails to reproduce the overall spectral shape, perhaps indicative of velocity structure in the ejecta. We find that the burst originated approximately 4 kpc from the nucleus of a moderately star forming (1 Solar Mass yr(exp-1)), possibly interacting disc galaxy. The absolute magnitude, physical size and morphology of this galaxy, as well as the location of the GRB within it are also strikingly similar to those of GRB980425SN 1998bw. The similarity of supernovae and environment from both the most luminous and least luminous GRBs suggests broadly similar progenitor stars can create GRBs across six orders of magnitude in isotropic energy.

  6. Grb-IR: A SH2-Domain-Containing Protein that Binds to the Insulin Receptor and Inhibits Its Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Feng; Roth, Richard A.

    1995-10-01

    To identify potential signaling molecules involved in mediating insulin-induced biological responses, a yeast two-hybrid screen was performed with the cytoplasmic domain of the human insulin receptor (IR) as bait to trap high-affinity interacting proteins encoded by human liver or HeLa cDNA libraries. A SH2-domain-containing protein was identified that binds with high affinity in vitro to the autophosphorylated IR. The mRNA for this protein was found by Northern blot analyses to be highest in skeletal muscle and was also detected in fat by PCR. To study the role of this protein in insulin signaling, a full-length cDNA encoding this protein (called Grb-IR) was isolated and stably expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells overexpressing the human IR. Insulin treatment of these cells resulted in the in situ formation of a complex of the IR and the 60-kDa Grb-IR. Although almost 75% of the Grb-IR protein was bound to the IR, it was only weakly tyrosine-phosphorylated. The formation of this complex appeared to inhibit the insulin-induced increase in tyrosine phosphorylation of two endogenous substrates, a 60-kDa GTPase-activating-protein-associated protein and, to a lesser extent, IR substrate 1. The subsequent association of this latter protein with phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase also appeared to be inhibited. These findings raise the possibility that Grb-IR is a SH2-domain-containing protein that directly complexes with the IR and serves to inhibit signaling or redirect the IR signaling pathway.

  7. ICON - Port Everglades 2015 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0156578)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  8. Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Oceanus Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  9. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  10. Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Melville Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  11. Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantic Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  12. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  13. Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Healy Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  14. Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Knorr Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  15. Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Nathaniel B. Palmer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  16. NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Delaware II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  17. Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Atlantis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  19. Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Robert Gordon Sproul Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and...

  20. Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Roger Revelle Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  1. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  2. NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Bell M. Shimada Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  3. NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Hi'ialakai Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  4. Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship New Horizon Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  5. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  6. Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Aurora Australis Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  7. NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Miller Freeman Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  8. NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship David Starr Jordan Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  9. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  10. NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Henry B. Bigelow Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  11. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  12. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  13. NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Elton Sette Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  14. NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Fairweather Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  15. Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Kilo Moana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  16. NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Nancy Foster Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  17. NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Gordon Gunter Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  18. Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Southern Surveyor Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  19. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  20. Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Tangaroa Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  1. NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ka'imimoana Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  2. NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oregon II Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System...

  3. ICON - Media Luna Reef 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  4. NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Rainier Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  5. NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Pisces Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  6. ICON - Port Everglades 2014 Meteorological Observations (NCEI Accession 0137094)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  7. ICON - Salt River Bay 2010 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  8. ICON - Port Everglades 2013 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0124002)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  9. ICON - Little Cayman, Cayman Islands 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  10. ICON - Salt River Bay 2009 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  11. Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship T. G. Thompson Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  12. Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Research Ship Laurence M. Gould Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  13. NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Ronald Brown Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  14. NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data, Quality Controlled

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer Underway Meteorological Data (delayed ~10 days for quality control) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic...

  15. NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data, Near Real Time

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA Ship Oscar Dyson Underway Meteorological Data (Near Real Time, updated daily) are from the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS)...

  16. ICON - Port Everglades 2012 Meteorological Observations (NODC Accession 0117727)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  17. Instrumentation for high-frequency meteorological observations from research vessel

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    VijayKumar, K.; Khalap, S.; Mehra, P.

    Ship provides an attractive platform from which high-frequency meteorological observations (e.g., wind components, water vapor density, and air temperature) can be made accurately. However, accurate observations of meteorological variables depend...

  18. ICON - Salt River Bay 2005 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  19. Frequency modulator. Transmission of meteorological signals in LVC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rivero G, P.T.; Ramirez S, R.; Gonzalez M, J.L.; Rojas N, P.; Celis del Angel, L.

    2007-01-01

    The development of the frequency modulator and demodulator circuit for transmission of meteorological signals by means of fiber optics of the meteorology station to the nuclear reactor unit 1 in the Laguna Verde Central in Veracruz is described. (Author)

  20. ICON - North Norman's Patch Reef 2004 Meteorological and Oceanographic Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Atlantic Oceanographic and Meteorological Laboratory (AOML) of OAR is conducting research on the influence of meteorological and oceanographic factors upon coral...

  1. Evaluating the Bulk Lorentz Factors of Outflow Material: Lessons Learned from the Extremely Energetic Outburst GRB 160625B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Wang, Hao; Zhang, Shuai; Liang, Yun-Feng; Jin, Zhi-Ping; He, Hao-Ning; Liao, Neng-Hui; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Wei, Da-Ming, E-mail: liangyf@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: jin@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: dmwei@pmo.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Dark Matter and Space Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Science, Nanjing, 210008 (China)

    2017-02-10

    GRB 160625B is an extremely bright outburst with well-monitored afterglow emission. The geometry-corrected energy is high, up to ∼5.2 × 10{sup 52} erg or even ∼8 × 10{sup 52} erg, rendering it the most energetic GRB prompt emission recorded so far. We analyzed the time-resolved spectra of the prompt emission and found that in some intervals there were likely thermal-radiation components and the high energy emission was characterized by significant cutoff. The bulk Lorentz factors of the outflow material are estimated accordingly. We found out that the Lorentz factors derived in the thermal-radiation model are consistent with the luminosity-Lorentz factor correlation found in other bursts, as well as in GRB 090902B for the time-resolved thermal-radiation components, while the spectral cutoff model yields much lower Lorentz factors that are in tension with the constraints set by the electron pair Compton scattering process. We then suggest that these spectral cutoffs are more likely related to the particle acceleration process and that one should be careful in estimating the Lorentz factors if the spectrum cuts at a rather low energy (e.g., ∼tens of MeV). The nature of the central engine has also been discussed, and a stellar-mass black hole is favored.

  2. The Faint Optical Afterglow and Host Galaxy of GRB 020124: Implications for the Nature of Dark Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, E.; Kulkarni, S. R.; Bloom, J. S.; Price, P. A.; Fox, D. W.; Frail, D. A.; Axelrod, T. S.; Chevalier, R. A.; Colbert, E.; Costa, E.; Djorgovski, S. G.; Frontera, F.; Galama, T. J.; Halpern, J. P.; Harrison, F. A.; Holtzman, J.; Hurley, K.; Kimble, R. A.; McCarthy, P. J.; Piro, L.; Reichart, D.; Ricker, G. R.; Sari, R.; Schmidt, B. P.; Wheeler, J. C.; Vanderppek, R.; Yost, S. A.

    2002-12-01

    We present ground-based optical observations of GRB 020124 starting 1.6 hr after the burst, as well as subsequent Very Large Array and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) observations. The optical afterglow of GRB 020124 is one of the faintest afterglows detected to date, and it exhibits a relatively rapid decay, Fν~t-1.60+/-0.04, followed by further steepening. In addition, a weak radio source was found coincident with the optical afterglow. The HST observations reveal that a positionally coincident host galaxy must be the faintest host to date, R>~29.5 mag. The afterglow observations can be explained by several models requiring little or no extinction within the host galaxy, AhostV~0-0.9 mag. These observations have significant implications for the interpretation of the so-called dark bursts (bursts for which no optical afterglow is detected), which are usually attributed to dust extinction within the host galaxy. The faintness and relatively rapid decay of the afterglow of GRB 020124, combined with the low inferred extinction, indicate that some dark bursts are intrinsically dim and not dust obscured. Thus, the diversity in the underlying properties of optical afterglows must be observationally determined before substantive inferences can be drawn from the statistics of dark bursts.

  3. Statistics of meteorological data at Tokai Research Establishment in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sekita, Tsutomu; Tachibana, Haruo; Matsuura, Kenichi; Yamaguchi, Takenori

    2003-12-01

    The meteorological observation data at Tokai site were analyzed statistically based on a 'Guideline of meteorological statistics for the safety analysis of nuclear power reactor' (Nuclear Safety Commission on January 28, 1982; revised on March 29, 2001). This report shows the meteorological analysis of wind direction, wind velocity and atmospheric stability etc. to assess the public dose around the Tokai site caused by the released gaseous radioactivity. The statistical period of meteorological data is every 5 years from 1981 to 1995. (author)

  4. Meteorological services annual data report for 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, Scott [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-01-25

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2015. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  5. Meteorological services annual data report for 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Smith, S.

    2017-01-18

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2016. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  6. Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) Instrument Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holdridge, Donna J [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Kyrouac, Jenni A [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2017-08-01

    The Meteorological Automatic Weather Station (MAWS) is a surface meteorological station, manufactured by Vaisala, Inc., dedicated to the balloon-borne sounding system (BBSS), providing surface measurements of the thermodynamic state of the atmosphere and the wind speed and direction for each radiosonde profile. These data are automatically provided to the BBSS during the launch procedure and included in the radiosonde profile as the surface measurements of record for the sounding. The MAWS core set of measurements is: Barometric Pressure (hPa), Temperature (°C), Relative Humidity (%), Arithmetic-Averaged Wind Speed (m/s), and Vector-Averaged Wind Direction (deg). The sensors that collect the core variables are mounted at the standard heights defined for each variable.

  7. Meteorological observatory for Antarctic data collection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grigioni, P.; De Silvestri, L.

    1996-01-01

    In the last years, a great number of automatic weather stations was installed in Antarctica, with the aim to examine closely the weather and climate of this region and to improve the coverage of measuring points on the Antarctic surface. In 1987 the Italian Antarctic Project started to set up a meteorological network, in an area not completely covered by other countries. Some of the activities performed by the meteorological observatory, concerning technical functions such as maintenance of the AWS's and the execution of radio soundings, or relating to scientific purposes such as validation and elaboration of collected data, are exposed. Finally, some climatological considerations on the thermal behaviour of the Antarctic troposphere such as 'coreless winter', and on the wind field, including katabatic flows in North Victoria Land are described

  8. Meteorological services annual data report for 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John

    2018-01-18

    This document presents the meteorological data collected at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) by Meteorological Services (Met Services) for the calendar year 2017. The purpose is to publicize the data sets available to emergency personnel, researchers and facility operations. Met services has been collecting data at BNL since 1949. Data from 1994 to the present is available in digital format. Data is presented in monthly plots of one-minute data. This allows the reader the ability to peruse the data for trends or anomalies that may be of interest to them. Full data sets are available to BNL personnel and to a limited degree outside researchers. The full data sets allow plotting the data on expanded time scales to obtain greater details (e.g., daily solar variability, inversions, etc.).

  9. Autonomous Aerial Sensors for Wind Power Meteorology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giebel, Gregor; Schmidt Paulsen, Uwe; Reuder, Joachim

    2011-01-01

    , UAVs could be quite cost-effective. In order to test this assumption and to test the limits of UAVs for wind power meteorology, this project assembles four different UAVs from four participating groups. Risø has built a lighter-than-air kite with a long tether, Bergen University flies a derivative......This paper describes a new approach for measurements in wind power meteorology using small unmanned flying platforms. Large-scale wind farms, especially offshore, need an optimisation between installed wind power density and the losses in the wind farm due to wake effects between the turbines. Good...... movement. In any case, a good LIDAR or SODAR will cost many tenthousands of euros. Another current problem in wind energy is the coming generation of wind turbines in the 10-12MW class, with tip heights of over 200m. Very few measurement masts exist to verify our knowledge of atmospheric physics, and most...

  10. Uncertainty in dispersion forecasts using meteorological ensembles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chin, H N; Leach, M J

    1999-01-01

    The usefulness of dispersion forecasts depends on proper interpretation of results. Understanding the uncertainty in model predictions and the range of possible outcomes is critical for determining the optimal course of action in response to terrorist attacks. One of the objectives for the Modeling and Prediction initiative is creating tools for emergency planning for special events such as the upcoming the Olympics. Meteorological forecasts hours to days in advance are used to estimate the dispersion at the time of the event. However, there is uncertainty in any meteorological forecast, arising from both errors in the data (both initial conditions and boundary conditions) and from errors in the model. We use ensemble forecasts to estimate the uncertainty in the forecasts and the range of possible outcomes

  11. Integrating Current Meteorological Research Through Club Fundraising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, S. S.; Kauffman, C. M.

    2003-12-01

    Earth science programs whose focus is primarily an undergraduate education do not often have the funding to take students to very many conferences which could expose the student to new research as well as possible graduate programs and employment opportunities. Conferences also give the more enthusiastic and hardworking students a venue in which to present their research to the meteorological community. In addition, the California University services largely lower income counties, which make student attendance at conferences even more difficult even though the student in SW PA may be individually motivated. This issue is compounded by the fact that the Meteorology Concentration within the Earth Science department at Cal U is composed of only two full-time Professors, which limits the amount of research students can be exposed to within a classroom setting. New research ideas presented at conferences are thus an important mechanism for broadening what could be an isolated program. One way in which the meteorology program has circumvented the funding problem to a certain extent is through an active student club. With nearly 60 majors (3/4 of which are active in club activities, the meteorology club is able to execute a variety of fundraising activities. Money that is raised can then request from student services matching funds. Further money is given to clubs, which are very active not only in fundraising, but using that money for academic related activities. For the last 3 years the club budget has been in the neighborhood of \\$4500. The money has then been used to partially finance student registration and accommodation costs making conference attendance much more affordable. Normally 8-16 students attend conferences that they would otherwise not be able to attend without great expense. There are times when more than 16 students wish to attend, but travel arrangements prohibit more than 16. Moreover club money is also use to supplement student costs on a summer

  12. Uncertainty analysis of hydro-meteorological forecasts

    OpenAIRE

    Grythe, Karl Kristian; Gao, Yukun

    2010-01-01

    Masteroppgave i informasjons- og kommunikasjonsteknologi 2010 – Universitetet i Agder, Grimstad Meteorological and hydrological forecasts are very important to human’s life which concerns agriculture, industry, transport, etc. The Nordic hydropower industry use and develop hydrological forecasting models to make predictions of rivers steam flow. The quantity of incoming stream flow is important to the electricity production because excessive water in reservoir will cause flood ...

  13. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit entrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    StenniSphere at NASA's John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., invites visitors to discover why America comes to Stennis Space Center before going into space. Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center.

  14. Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command exhibit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-01-01

    Designed to entertain while educating, StenniSphere at the John C. Stennis Space Center in Hancock County, Miss., includes informative displays and exhibits from NASA and other agencies located at Stennis, such as this one from the Naval Meteorology and Oceanography Command. Visitors can 'travel' three-dimensionally under the sea and check on the weather back home in the Weather Center. StenniSphere is open free of charge from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. daily.

  15. Operative meteorological data base in Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appelgren, A.; Hallberg, B.; Nordlinder, S.

    1990-01-01

    This report describes how data collected during a field measurement campaign were analysed and compiled to create a data base for operative use. The data base gives information about the wind and the atmospheric stability at five locations around the Forsmark nuclear power plant. In the measurement campaign, sodar systems and a 100 m high tower at Forsmark were used. Temperature, wind speed and wind direction were measured by sensors on the tower, while wind speed and direction, and the standard deviation of the vertical wind, were monitored by the sodar systems. This gave meteorological data from several heights. At Forsmark, the temperature difference and the wind speed from the tower were used to determine the atmospheric stability. At the sodar locations, the stability was deduced by employing a scheme which considered the season, the time of day, the wind direction and the wind speed. To create the operative data base, the wind speeds and wind directions, respectively, from two locations at the time were correlated. A code for graphical and numerical presentation of the data from the data base was developed. A special system of warnings was included, featuring notification about phenomena such as sea breeze, warnings about large variation in the wind conditions within the area, and warnings for situations in which the meteorological conditions make the results from the atmospheric dispersion calculations uncertain. This feature was implemented to alert the user to the fact that ordinary dispersion and dose calculations, using meteorological data from a single point, might give erroneous results. The operative data base and the presentation code were integrated with the dispersion and dose calculation code AIRPAC/EMMA, which is to be used in case of increased releases from nuclear power plants. The possibility to use the data from the operative data base in the dispersion calculations was investigated. It was found that a modification of AIRPAC/EMMA, in such a

  16. Meteorological experiments for emergency preparedness. part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leao, I.L.B.; Nicolli, D.

    1993-12-01

    Since the preliminary studies for the Angra dos Reis Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) siting, by an American consultant company, it was verified that the micro scale and mesoscale meteorological conditions in the region show a unique complex pattern, so that no similar nuclear installation site could be found for reference. Therefore, it was recommended to install onsite a correspondingly complex meteorological data acquisition system which comprises a 100-meter tower with instruments at three different levels and three 15-meter satellite towers on the hills around. In this report, are described the equipment and instruments sent by the IAEA to CNEN as well as the procedures and particular computer programming developed by the staff. It is also reported on the bureaucratic problems and meager budget allocation for the Project which delayed the installation of the two meteorological stations and hindered the implementation of the Project. The equipment for the atmospheric boundary layer sounding were used for the first time in September 1993, when CNEN provided some resource for the purchase of gas and batteries. The first atmospheric sounding campaign showed the occurrence of strong night winds and intense thermal inversion at the higher level of the boundary layer, until now unknown by the Brazilian meteorologists. By way of this report, the staff of meteorologists tries to show the status of Project BRA/09/031 and the know-how gained with it. (author)

  17. Mesoscale meteorological measurements characterizing complex flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hubbe, J.M.; Allwine, K.J.

    1993-09-01

    Meteorological measurements are an integral and essential component of any emergency response system for addressing accidental releases from nuclear facilities. An important element of the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Atmospheric Studies in Complex Terrain (ASCOT) program is the refinement and use of state-of-the-art meteorological instrumentation. ASCOT is currently making use of ground-based remote wind sensing instruments such as doppler acoustic sounders (sodars). These instruments are capable of continuously and reliably measuring winds up to several hundred meters above the ground, unattended. Two sodars are currently measuring the winds, as part of ASCOT's Front Range Study, in the vicinity of DOE's Rocky Flats Plant (RFP) near Boulder, Colorado. A brief description of ASCOT's ongoing Front Range Study is given followed by a case study analysis that demonstrates the utility of the meteorological measurement equipment and the complexity of flow phenomena that are experienced near RFP. These complex flow phenomena can significantly influence the transport of the released material and consequently need to be identified for accurate assessments of the consequences of a release

  18. Coastal Mapping Program Project OR1401; SOUTH SLOUGH NERR, OR.

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The objective of the Coastal Mapping Program (CMP) is to provide surveying and mapping information of our nation's coastline. This shoreline mapping effort also...

  19. 2017 Grand Bay NERR UAS 4-band Imagery

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Data was gathered by use of VIS and BGNIR UAV sensors. UAV flight altitude is at least 100m and covers an area of 0.91 km2. Data was collected between May 9, 2017...

  20. Evidence for in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 SH2-domain binding site on focal adhesion kinase by Src-family protein-tyrosine kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlaepfer, D D; Hunter, T

    1996-10-01

    Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is a nonreceptor protein-tyrosine kinase (PTK) that associates with integrin receptors and participates in extracellular matrix-mediated signal transduction events. We showed previously that the c-Src nonreceptor PTK and the Grb2 SH2/SH3 adaptor protein bound directly to FAK after fibronectin stimulation (D. D. Schlaepfer, S.K. Hanks, T. Hunter, and P. van der Geer, Nature [London] 372:786-791, 1994). Here, we present evidence that c-Src association with FAK is required for Grb2 binding to FAK. Using a tryptic phosphopeptide mapping approach, the in vivo phosphorylation of the Grb2 binding site on FAK (Tyr-925) was detected after fibronectin stimulation of NIH 3T3 cells and was constitutively phosphorylated in v-Src-transformed NIH 3T3 cells. In vitro, c-Src phosphorylated FAK Tyr-925 in a glutathione S-transferase-FAK C-terminal domain fusion protein, whereas FAK did not. Using epitope-tagged FAK constructs, transiently expressed in human 293 cells, we determined the effect of site-directed mutations on c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK. Mutation of FAK Tyr-925 disrupted Grb2 binding, whereas mutation of the c-Src binding site on FAK (Tyr-397) disrupted both c-Src and Grb2 binding to FAK in vivo. These results support a model whereby Src-family PTKs are recruited to FAK and focal adhesions following integrin-induced autophosphorylation and exposure of FAK Tyr-397. Src-family binding and phosphorylation of FAK at Tyr-925 creates a Grb2 SH2-domain binding site and provides a link to the activation of the Ras signal transduction pathway. In Src-transformed cells, this pathway may be constitutively activated as a result of FAK Tyr-925 phosphorylation in the absence of integrin stimulation.

  1. GEMINI SPECTROSCOPY OF THE SHORT-HARD GAMMA-RAY BURST GRB 130603B AFTERGLOW AND HOST GALAXY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cucchiara, A.; Prochaska, J. X.; Werk, J. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Perley, D.; Cao, Y. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Cenko, S. B. [Astrophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Cardwell, A.; Turner, J. [Gemini South Observatory, AURA, Casilla 603, La Serena (Chile); Bloom, J. S. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States); Cobb, B. E., E-mail: acucchia@ucolick.org [The George Washington University, Washington, DC (United States)

    2013-11-10

    We present early optical photometry and spectroscopy of the afterglow and host galaxy of the bright short-duration gamma-ray burst GRB 130603B discovered by the Swift satellite. Using our Target of Opportunity program on the Gemini South telescope, our prompt optical spectra reveal a strong trace from the afterglow superimposed on continuum and emission lines from the z = 0.3568 ± 0.0005 host galaxy. The combination of a relatively bright optical afterglow (r' = 21.52 at Δt = 8.4 hr), together with an observed offset of 0.''9 from the host nucleus (4.8 kpc projected distance at z = 0.3568), allow us to extract a relatively clean spectrum dominated by afterglow light. Furthermore, the spatially resolved spectrum allows us to constrain the properties of the explosion site directly, and compare these with the host galaxy nucleus, as well as other short-duration GRB host galaxies. We find that while the host is a relatively luminous (L∼0.8 L{sup *}{sub B}), star-forming (SFR = 1.84 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) galaxy with almost solar metallicity, the spectrum of the afterglow exhibits weak Ca II absorption features but negligible emission features. The explosion site therefore lacks evidence of recent star formation, consistent with the relatively long delay time distribution expected in a compact binary merger scenario. The star formation rate (SFR; both in an absolute sense and normalized to the luminosity) and metallicity of the host are both consistent with the known sample of short-duration GRB hosts and with recent results which suggest GRB 130603B emission to be the product of the decay of radioactive species produced during the merging process of a neutron-star-neutron-star binary ({sup k}ilonova{sup )}. Ultimately, the discovery of more events similar to GRB 130603B and their rapid follow-up from 8 m class telescopes will open new opportunities for our understanding of the final stages of compact-objects binary systems and provide crucial

  2. THE BURST CLUSTER: DARK MATTER IN A CLUSTER MERGER ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST, GRB 050509B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahle, H.; Sarazin, C. L.; Lopez, L. A.; Kouveliotou, C.; Patel, S. K.; Rol, E.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J.; Fynbo, J.; Michałowski, M. J.; Burrows, D. N.; Grupe, D.; Gehrels, N.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.

    2013-01-01

    We have identified a merging galaxy cluster with evidence of two distinct subclusters. The X-ray and optical data suggest that the subclusters are presently moving away from each other after closest approach. This cluster merger was discovered from observations of the first well-localized short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 050509B. The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope error position of the source is coincident with a cluster of galaxies ZwCl 1234.0+02916, while the subsequent Swift/X-Ray Telescope localization of the X-ray afterglow found the GRB coincident with 2MASX J12361286+2858580, a giant red elliptical galaxy in the cluster. Deep multi-epoch optical images were obtained in this field to constrain the evolution of the GRB afterglow, including a total of 27,480 s exposure in the F814W band with Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys, among the deepest imaging ever obtained toward a known galaxy cluster in a single passband. We perform a weak gravitational lensing analysis based on these data, including mapping of the total mass distribution of the merger system with high spatial resolution. When combined with Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and Swift/XRT observations, we are able to investigate the dynamical state of the merger to better understand the nature of the dark matter component. Our weak gravitational lensing measurements reveal a separation of the X-ray centroid of the western subcluster from the center of the mass and galaxy light distributions, which is somewhat similar to that of the famous 'Bullet cluster', and we conclude that this 'Burst cluster' adds another candidate to the previously known merger systems for determining the nature of dark matter, as well as for studying the environment of a short GRB. Finally, we discuss potential connections between the cluster dynamical state and/or matter composition, and compact object mergers, which is currently the leading model for the origin of short GRBs

  3. THE BURST CLUSTER: DARK MATTER IN A CLUSTER MERGER ASSOCIATED WITH THE SHORT GAMMA-RAY BURST, GRB 050509B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahle, H. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1029, Blindern, NO-0315 Oslo (Norway); Sarazin, C. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, P.O. Box 400325, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Lopez, L. A. [MIT-Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, 37-664H, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Kouveliotou, C. [Space Science Office, ZP12, NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, AL 35812 (United States); Patel, S. K. [Optical Sciences Corporation, 6767 Old Madison Pike, Suite 650, Huntsville, AL 35806 (United States); Rol, E.; Van der Horst, A. J.; Wijers, R. A. M. J. [Astronomical Institute ' Anton Pannekoek' , University of Amsterdam, Kruislaan 403, 1098 SJ Amsterdam (Netherlands); Fynbo, J.; Michalowski, M. J. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Burrows, D. N.; Grupe, D. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Laboratory, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Gehrels, N. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Ramirez-Ruiz, E., E-mail: hdahle@astro.uio.no [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 (United States)

    2013-07-20

    We have identified a merging galaxy cluster with evidence of two distinct subclusters. The X-ray and optical data suggest that the subclusters are presently moving away from each other after closest approach. This cluster merger was discovered from observations of the first well-localized short-duration gamma-ray burst (GRB), GRB 050509B. The Swift/Burst Alert Telescope error position of the source is coincident with a cluster of galaxies ZwCl 1234.0+02916, while the subsequent Swift/X-Ray Telescope localization of the X-ray afterglow found the GRB coincident with 2MASX J12361286+2858580, a giant red elliptical galaxy in the cluster. Deep multi-epoch optical images were obtained in this field to constrain the evolution of the GRB afterglow, including a total of 27,480 s exposure in the F814W band with Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys, among the deepest imaging ever obtained toward a known galaxy cluster in a single passband. We perform a weak gravitational lensing analysis based on these data, including mapping of the total mass distribution of the merger system with high spatial resolution. When combined with Chandra X-ray Observatory Advanced CCD Imaging Spectrometer and Swift/XRT observations, we are able to investigate the dynamical state of the merger to better understand the nature of the dark matter component. Our weak gravitational lensing measurements reveal a separation of the X-ray centroid of the western subcluster from the center of the mass and galaxy light distributions, which is somewhat similar to that of the famous 'Bullet cluster', and we conclude that this 'Burst cluster' adds another candidate to the previously known merger systems for determining the nature of dark matter, as well as for studying the environment of a short GRB. Finally, we discuss potential connections between the cluster dynamical state and/or matter composition, and compact object mergers, which is currently the leading model for the

  4. Growth hormone-promoted tyrosyl phosphorylation of SHC proteins and SHC association with Grb2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    VanderKuur, J; Allevato, G; Billestrup, Nils

    1995-01-01

    . To gain insight into pathways coupling GH receptor (GHR) to MAP kinase activation and signaling molecules that might interact with GHR and its associated tyrosine kinase JAK2, we examined whether SHC and Grb2 proteins serve as signaling molecules for GH. Human GH was shown to promote the rapid tyrosyl...... phosphorylation of 66-, 52-, and 46-kDa SHC proteins in 3T3-F442A fibroblasts. GH also promoted binding of GHR and JAK2 to the SH2 domain of 46/52-kDa SHC protein fused to glutathione S-transferase (GST). Constitutively phosphorylated JAK2, from COS-7 cells transiently transfected with murine JAK2 cDNA, bound......-638 and GHR1-638(Y333,338F), GH stimulated phosphorylation of all 3 SHC proteins whereas GH stimulated phosphorylation of only the 66- and 52-kDa SHC proteins in cells expressing GHR1-454. GH had no effect on SHC phosphorylation in cells expressing GHR1-294 or GHR delta P, the latter lacking amino acids 297...

  5. The afterglow and elliptical host galaxy of the short gamma-ray burst GRB 050724.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, E; Price, P A; Cenko, S B; Gal-Yam, A; Soderberg, A M; Kasliwal, M; Leonard, D C; Cameron, P B; Frail, D A; Kulkarni, S R; Murphy, D C; Krzeminski, W; Piran, T; Lee, B L; Roth, K C; Moon, D-S; Fox, D B; Harrison, F A; Persson, S E; Schmidt, B P; Penprase, B E; Rich, J; Peterson, B A; Cowie, L L

    2005-12-15

    Despite a rich phenomenology, gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are divided into two classes based on their duration and spectral hardness--the long-soft and the short-hard bursts. The discovery of afterglow emission from long GRBs was a watershed event, pinpointing their origin to star-forming galaxies, and hence the death of massive stars, and indicating an energy release of about 10(51) erg. While theoretical arguments suggest that short GRBs are produced in the coalescence of binary compact objects (neutron stars or black holes), the progenitors, energetics and environments of these events remain elusive despite recent localizations. Here we report the discovery of the first radio afterglow from the short burst GRB 050724, which unambiguously associates it with an elliptical galaxy at a redshift z = 0.257. We show that the burst is powered by the same relativistic fireball mechanism as long GRBs, with the ejecta possibly collimated in jets, but that the total energy release is 10-1,000 times smaller. More importantly, the nature of the host galaxy demonstrates that short GRBs arise from an old (> 1 Gyr) stellar population, strengthening earlier suggestions and providing support for coalescing compact object binaries as the progenitors.

  6. GRB 110530A: Peculiar Broad Bump and Delayed Plateau in Early Optical Afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shu-Qing; Xin, Li-Ping; Liang, En-Wei; Wei, Jian-Yan; Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kui-Yun; Qiu, Yu-Lei; Deng, Can-Min; Wang, Yuan-Zhu; Deng, Jin-Song

    2016-11-01

    We report our very early optical observations of GRB 110530A and investigate its jet properties together with its X-ray afterglow data. A peculiar broad onset bump followed by a plateau is observed in its early R band afterglow light curve. The optical data in the other bands and the X-ray data are well consistent with the temporal feature of the R band light curve. Our joint spectral fits of the optical and X-ray data show that they are in the same regime, with a photon index of ∼1.70. The optical and X-ray afterglow light curves are well fitted with the standard external shock model by considering a delayed energy injection component. Based on our modeling results, we find that the radiative efficiency of the gamma-ray burst jet is ∼ 1 % and the magnetization parameter of the afterglow jet is \\lt 0.04 with a derived extremely low {ε }B (the ratio of shock energy to the magnetic field) of (1.64+/- 0.25)× {10}-6. These results indicate that the jet may be matter dominated. A discussion on delayed energy injection from the accretion of the late fall-back material of its pre-supernova star is also presented.

  7. A New Era of Submillimeter GRB Afterglow Follow-Ups with the Greenland Telescope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuji Urata

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Planned rapid submillimeter (submm gamma-ray-bursts (GRBs follow-up observations conducted using the Greenland Telescope (GLT are presented. The GLT is a 12-m submm telescope to be located at the top of the Greenland ice sheet, where the high altitude and dry weather porvide excellent conditions for observations at submm wavelengths. With its combination of wavelength window and rapid responding system, the GLT will explore new insights on GRBs. Summarizing the current achievements of submm GRB follow-ups, we identify the following three scientific goals regarding GRBs: (1 systematic detection of bright submm emissions originating from reverse shock (RS in the early afterglow phase, (2 characterization of forward shock and RS emissions by capturing their peak flux and frequencies and performing continuous monitoring, and (3 detections of GRBs at a high redshift as a result of the explosion of first generation stars through systematic rapid follow-ups. The light curves and spectra calculated by available theoretical models clearly show that the GLT could play a crucial role in these studies.

  8. A New Era of Submillimeter GRB Afterglow Follow-Ups with the Greenland Telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urata, Yuji; Huang, Kuiyun; Asada, Keiichi; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Inoue, Makoto; Ho, Paul T. P.

    A planned rapid submillimeter (submm) Gamma Ray Burst (GRBs) follow-up observations conducted using the Greenland Telescope (GLT) is presented. The GLT is a 12-m submm telescope to be located at the top of the Greenland ice sheet, where the high-altitude and dry weather porvides excellent conditions for observations at submm wavelengths. With its combination of wavelength window and rapid responding system, the GLT will explore new insights on GRBs. Summarizing the current achievements of submm GRB follow-ups, we identify the following three scientific goals regarding GRBs: (1) systematic detection of bright submm emissions originating from reverse shock (RS) in the early afterglow phase, (2) characterization of forward shock and RS emissions by capturing their peak flux and frequencies and performing continuous monitoring, and (3) detections of GRBs as a result of the explosion of first-generation stars result of GRBs at a high redshift through systematic rapid follow ups. The light curves and spectra calculated by available theoretical models clearly show that the GLT could play a crucial role in these studies.

  9. GRB 081029: A Gamma-Ray Burst with a Multi-Component Afterglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen T.; DePasquale, Massimiliano; Mao, Jirong; Sakamoto, Taka; Shady, Patricia; Covino, Stefano; Yi-Zhong, Fan; Zhi-Ping, Jin; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Antonelli, Angelo; hide

    2011-01-01

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 081029, a long-soft burst with a redshift of z = 3.8479. We combine X-ray and optical observations from the Swift X-Ray Telescope and the Swift UltraViolet Optical Telescope with ground-based optical and infrared data obtained using the REM and ROTSE telescopes to construct a detailed data set extending from 86 s to approx. 100000 s after the BAT trigger. Our data cover a wide energy range, from 10 keV to 0.77 eV (1.24 A to 16000 A). The X-ray afterglow shows a shallow initial decay followed by a rapid decay starting at about 18000 s. The optical and infrared afterglow, however, shows an uncharacteristic rise at about 5000 s that does not correspond to any feature in the X-ray light curve. Our data are not consistent with synchrotron radiation from a jet interacting with an external medium, a two-component jet, or continuous energy injection from the central engine. We find that the the optical light curves can be broadly explained by a collision between two ejecta shells within a two-component jet. A growing number of gamma-ray burst afterglows are consistent with complex jets, which suggests that some (or all) gamma-ray burst jets are complex and will require detailed modelling to fully understand them.

  10. Magnetars in Ultra-Long Gamma-Ray Bursts and GRB 111209A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gompertz, B.; Fruchter, A., E-mail: bgompertz@stsci.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2017-04-10

    Supernova 2011kl, associated with the ultra-long gamma-ray burst (ULGRB) 111209A, exhibited a higher-than-normal peak luminosity, placing it in the parameter space between regular supernovae and super-luminous supernovae. Its light curve can only be matched by an abnormally high fraction of {sup 56}Ni that appears inconsistent with the observed spectrum, and as a result it has been suggested that the supernova, and by extension the gamma-ray burst, are powered by the spin-down of a highly magnetized millisecond pulsar, known as a magnetar. We investigate the broadband observations of ULGRB 111209A and find two independent measures that suggest a high density circumburst environment. However, the light curve of the GRB afterglow shows no evidence of a jet break (the steep decline that would be expected as the jet slows due to the resistance of the external medium) out to three weeks after trigger, implying a wide jet. Combined with the high isotropic energy of the burst, this implies that only a magnetar with a spin period of ∼1 ms or faster can provide enough energy to power both ULGRB 111209A and Supernova 2011kl.

  11. Method for detecting neutrinos from internal shocks in GRB fireballs with AMANDA

    CERN Document Server

    Stamatikos, M

    2004-01-01

    Neutrino-based astronomy provides a new window on the most energetic processes in the universe. The discovery of high-energy (E >or= 10 /sup 14/ eV) muonic neutrinos (v/sub mu /) from gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) would confirm hadronic acceleration in the relativistic GRB- wind, validate the phenomenology of the canonical fireball model and possibly reveal an acceleration mechanism for the highest energy cosmic rays (CRs). The Antarctic Muon and Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA) is the world's largest operational neutrino telescope with a PeV muon effective area (averaged over zenith angle) ~ 50,000 m/sup 2 /. AMANDA uses the natural ice at the geographic South Pole as a Cherenkov medium and has been successfully calibrated on the signal of atmospheric neutrinos (v/sub atm/). Contrary to previous diffuse searches, we describe an analysis based upon confronting AMANDA observations of individual GRBs, adequately modeled by fireball phenomenology, with the predictions of the canonical fireball model. The expected neut...

  12. HIGH-ENERGY NON-THERMAL AND THERMAL EMISSION FROM GRB 141207A DETECTED BY FERMI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arimoto, Makoto [Research Institute for Science and Engineering, Waseda University, 3-4-1, Ohkubo, Shinjuku, Tokyo, 169-8555 (Japan); Asano, Katsuaki [Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa, Chiba, 277-8582 (Japan); Ohno, Masanori [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima, 739-8526 (Japan); Veres, Péter [Center for Space Plasma and Aeronomic Research (CSPAR), University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL 35899 (United States); Axelsson, Magnus [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Department of Physics, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Bissaldi, Elisabetta [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sezione di Bari, I-70126 Bari (Italy); Tachibana, Yutaro; Kawai, Nobuyuki, E-mail: m.arimoto@aoni.waseda.jp [Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro, Tokyo, 152-8551 (Japan)

    2016-12-20

    A bright long gamma-ray burst GRB 141207A was observed by the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope and detected by both instruments onboard. The observations show that the spectrum in the prompt phase is not well described by the canonical empirical Band function alone, and that an additional power-law component is needed. In the early phase of the prompt emission, a modified blackbody with a hard low-energy photon index ( α  = +0.2 to +0.4) is detected, which suggests a photospheric origin. In a finely time-resolved analysis, the spectra are also well fitted by the modified blackbody combined with a power-law function. We discuss the physical parameters of the photosphere such as the bulk Lorentz factor of the relativistic flow and the radius. We also discuss the physical origin of the extra power-law component observed during the prompt phase in the context of different models such as leptonic and hadronic scenarios in the internal shock regime and synchrotron emission in the external forward shock. In the afterglow phase, the temporal and spectral behaviors of the temporally extended high-energy emission and the fading X-ray emission detected by the X-Ray Telescope on-board Swift are consistent with synchrotron emission in a radiative external forward shock.

  13. A GRB and Broad-lined Type Ic Supernova from a Single Central Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Jennifer; Duffell, Paul C.; Liu, Yuqian; Modjaz, Maryam; Bianco, Federica B.; Kasen, Daniel; MacFadyen, Andrew I.

    2018-06-01

    Unusually high velocities (≳0.1c) and correspondingly high kinetic energies have been observed in a subset of Type Ic supernovae (so-called “broad-lined Ic” supernovae; SNe Ic-BL), prompting a search for a central engine model capable of generating such energetic explosions. A clue to the explosion mechanism may lie in the fact that all supernovae that accompany long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) belong to the SN Ic-BL class. Using a combination of two-dimensional relativistic hydrodynamics and radiation transport calculations, we demonstrate that the central engine responsible for long GRBs can also trigger an SN Ic-BL. We find that a reasonable GRB engine injected into a stripped Wolf–Rayet progenitor produces a relativistic jet with energy ∼1051 erg, as well as an SN whose synthetic light curves and spectra are fully consistent with observed SNe Ic-BL during the photospheric phase. As a result of the jet’s asymmetric energy injection, the SN spectra and light curves depend on viewing angle. The impact of viewing angle on the spectrum is particularly pronounced at early times, while the viewing-angle dependence for the light curves (∼10% variation in bolometric luminosity) persists throughout the photospheric phase.

  14. The Lag-Luminosity Relation in the GRB Source Frame: An Investigation with Swift BAT Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ukwatta, T. N.; Dhuga, K. S.; Stamatikos, M.; Dermer, C. D.; Sakamoto, T.; Sonbas, E.; Parke, W. C.; Maximon, L. C.; Linnemann, J. T.; Bhat, P. N.; hide

    2011-01-01

    Spectral lag. which is defined as the difference in time of arrival of high- and low-energy photons. is a common feature in gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). Previous investigations have shown a correlation between this lag and the isotropic peak luminosity for long duration bursts. However. most of the previous investigations used lags extracted in the observer frame only. In this work (based on a sample of 43 Swift long GRBs with known redshifts). we present an analysis of the lag-luminosity relation in the GRB source frame. Our analysis indicates a higher degree of correlation -0.82 +/- 0.05 (chance probability of approx. 5.5 x 10(exp -5) between the spectral lag and the isotropic peak luminosity, L(sub iso). with a best-fitting power-law index of -1.2 +/- 0.2. In addition, there is an anticorrelation between the source-frame spectral lag and the source-frame peak energy of the burst spectrum.

  15. Magnetar Central Engine and Possible Gravitational Wave Emission of Nearby Short GRB 160821B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lü, Hou-Jun; Zhang, Hai-Ming; Zhong, Shu-Qing; Liang, En-Wei [GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Department of Physics, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004 (China); Hou, Shu-Jin [College of Physics and Electronic Engineering, Nanyang Normal University, Nanyang, Henan 473061 (China); Sun, Hui [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Rice, Jared, E-mail: lhj@gxu.edu.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2017-02-01

    GRB 160821B is a short gamma-ray burst (SGRB) at redshift z = 0.16, with a duration less than 1 s and without any “extended emission” detected up to more than 100 s in both Swift /BAT and Fermi /GBM bands. An X-ray plateau with a sharp drop 180 s after the BAT trigger was observed with Swift /XRT. No supernova or kilo-nova signature was detected. Assuming the central engine of this SGRB is a recently born supra-massive magnetar, we can explain the SGRB as jet radiation and its X-ray plateau as the internal energy dissipation of the pulsar wind as it spins down. We constrain its surface magnetic field to B {sub p} < 3.12 × 10{sup 16} G and initial spin period to P{sub 0} < 8.5 × 10{sup −3} s. Its equation of state is consistent with the GM1 model with M{sub TOV} ∼ 2.37 M {sub ⊙} and ellipticity ϵ < 0.07. Its gravitational wave (GW) radiation may be detectable with the future Einstein Telescope, but is much weaker than the current detectability limit of Advanced LIGO. The GW radiation of such an event would be detectable by Advanced LIGO if it occurred at a distance of 100 Mpc ( z = 0.023).

  16. Determination of Cosmological Parameters from GRB Correlation between E_iso (gamma) and Afterglow Flux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannachi, Zitouni; Guessoum, Nidhal; Azzam, Walid

    2016-07-01

    Context: We use the correlation relations between the energy emitted by the GRBs in their prompt phases and the X-ray afterglow fluxes, in an effort to constrain cosmological parameters and construct a Hubble diagram at high redshifts, i.e. beyond those found in Type Ia supernovae. Methods: We use a sample of 128 Swift GRBs, which we have selected among more than 800 ones observed until July 2015. The selection is based on a few observational constraints: GRB flux higher than 0.4 photons/cm^2/s in the band 15-150 keV; spectrum fitted with simple power law; redshift accurately known and given; and X-ray afterglow observed and flux measured. The statistical method of maximum likelihood is then used to determine the best cosmological parameters (Ω_M, Ω_L) that give the best correlation between the isotropic gamma energies E_{iso} and the afterglow fluxes at the break time t_{b}. The χ^2 statistical test is also used as a way to compare results from two methods. Results & Conclusions: Although the number of GRBs with high redshifts is rather small, and despite the notable dispersion found in the data, the results we have obtained are quite encouraging and promising. The values of the cosmological parameters obtained here are close to those currently used.

  17. Variable jet properties in GRB 110721A: time resolved observations of the jet photosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyyani, S.; Ryde, F.; Axelsson, M.; Burgess, J. M.; Guiriec, S.; Larsson, J.; Lundman, C.; Moretti, E.; McGlynn, S.; Nymark, T.; Rosquist, K.

    2013-08-01

    Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope observations of GRB 110721A have revealed two emission components from the relativistic jet: emission from the photosphere, peaking at ˜100 keV, and a non-thermal component, which peaks at ˜1000 keV. We use the photospheric component to calculate the properties of the relativistic outflow. We find a strong evolution in the flow properties: the Lorentz factor decreases with time during the bursts from Γ ˜ 1000 to ˜150 (assuming a redshift z = 2; the values are only weakly dependent on unknown efficiency parameters). Such a decrease is contrary to the expectations from the internal shocks and the isolated magnetar birth models. Moreover, the position of the flow nozzle measured from the central engine, r0, increases by more than two orders of magnitude. Assuming a moderately magnetized outflow we estimate that r0 varies from 106 to ˜109 cm during the burst. We suggest that the maximal value reflects the size of the progenitor core. Finally, we show that these jet properties naturally explain the observed broken power-law decay of the temperature which has been reported as a characteristic for gamma-ray burst pulses.

  18. GRB 081029: A GAMMA-RAY BURST WITH A MULTI-COMPONENT AFTERGLOW

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, Stephen T.; Sakamoto, Takanori [Astrophysics Science Division, Code 660.1, 8800 Greenbelt Road, Goddard Space Flight Centre, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); De Pasquale, Massimiliano; Schady, Patricia [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Mao, Jirong; Covino, Stefano; Jin, Zhi-Ping; D' Avanzo, Paolo; Chincarini, Guido [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Brera, Via Emilio Bianchi 46, I-23807 Merate (Saint Lucia) (Italy); Fan, Yi-Zhong [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China); Antonelli, Angelo; D' Elia, Valerio; Fiore, Fabrizio [INAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via de Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio Catone (Roma) (Italy); Pandey, Shashi Bhushan [Randall Laboratory of Physics, University of Michigan, 450 Church St, Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1040 (United States); Cobb, Bethany E., E-mail: Stephen.T.Holland@nasa.gov [Department of Physics, The George Washington University, 725 21st St NW, Washington, DC 20052 (United States)

    2012-01-20

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 081029, a long-soft burst with a redshift of z = 3.8479. We combine X-ray and optical observations from the Swift X-Ray Telescope and the Swift UltraViolet/Optical Telescope with ground-based optical and infrared data obtained using the REM, ROTSE, and CTIO 1.3 m telescopes to construct a detailed data set extending from 86 s to {approx}100000 s after the BAT trigger. Our data cover a wide energy range from 10 keV to 0.77 eV (1.24 A-16000 A). The X-ray afterglow shows a shallow initial decay followed by a rapid decay starting at about 18000 s. The optical and infrared afterglow, however, shows an uncharacteristic rise at about 3000 s that does not correspond to any feature in the X-ray light curve. Our data are not consistent with synchrotron radiation from a jet interacting with an external medium, a two-component jet, or continuous energy injection from the central engine. We find that the optical light curves can be broadly explained by a collision between two ejecta shells within a two-component jet. A growing number of gamma-ray-burst afterglows are consistent with complex jets, which suggests that some (or all) gamma-ray-burst jets are complex and will require detailed modeling to fully understand them.

  19. Coupling between p210bcr-abl and Shc and Grb2 adaptor proteins in hematopoietic cells permits growth factor receptor-independent link to ras activation pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauchi, T; Boswell, H S; Leibowitz, D; Broxmeyer, H E

    1994-01-01

    Enforced expression of p210bcr-abl transforms interleukin 3 (IL-3)-dependent hematopoietic cell lines to growth factor-independent proliferation. It has been demonstrated that nonreceptor tyrosine kinase oncogenes may couple to the p21ras pathway to exert their transforming effect. In particular, p210bcr-abl was recently found to effect p21ras activation in hematopoietic cells. In this context, experiments were performed to evaluate a protein signaling pathway by which p210bcr-abl might regulate p21ras. It was asked whether Shc p46/p52, a protein containing a src-homology region 2 (SH2) domain, and known to function upstream from p21ras, might form specific complexes with p210bcr-abl and thus, possibly alter p21ras activity by coupling to the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Sos/CDC25) through the Grb2 protein-Sos complex. This latter complex has been previously demonstrated to occur ubiquitously. We found that p210bcr-abl formed a specific complex with Shc and with Grb2 in three different murine cell lines transfected with a p210bcr-abl expression vector. There appeared to be a higher order complex containing Shc, Grb2, and bcr-abl proteins. In contrast to p210bcr-abl transformed cells, in which there was constitutive tight association between Grb2 and Shc, binding between Grb2 and Shc was Steel factor (SLF)-dependent in a SLF-responsive, nontransformed parental cell line. The SLF-dependent association between Grb2 and Shc in nontransformed cells involved formation of a complex of Grb2 with c-kit receptor after SLF treatment. Thus, p210bcr-abl appears to function in a hematopoietic p21ras activation pathway to allow growth factor-independent coupling between Grb2, which exists in a complex with the guanine nucleotide exchange factor (Sos), and p21ras. Shc may not be required for Grb2-c-kit interaction, because it fails to bind strongly to c-kit.

  20. Preparation and crystallization of the Grb7 SH2 domain in complex with the G7-18NATE nonphosphorylated cyclic inhibitor peptide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yap, Min Y.; Wilce, Matthew C. J.; Clayton, Daniel J.; Perlmutter, Patrick; Aguilar, Marie-Isabel; Wilce, Jacqueline A.

    2010-01-01

    The preparation and successful crystallization of the Grb7 SH2 domain in complex with the specific cyclic peptide inhibitor G7-18NATE are reported. This structure is anticipated to reveal the basis of the binding affinity and specificity and to assist with the development of second-generation inhibitors of Grb7, which is involved in cancer progression. Grb7 is an adapter protein that is involved in signalling pathways that mediate eukaryotic cell proliferation and migration. Its overexpression in several cancer types has implicated it in cancer progression and led to the development of the G7-18NATE cyclic peptide inhibitor. Here, the preparation of crystals of G7-18NATE in complex with its Grb7 SH2 domain target is reported. Crystals of the complex were grown by the hanging-drop vapour-diffusion method using PEG 3350 as the precipitant at room temperature. X-ray diffraction data were collected from crystals to 2.4 Å resolution using synchrotron X-ray radiation at 100 K. The diffraction was consistent with space group P2 1 , with unit-cell parameters a = 52.7, b = 79.1, c = 54.7 Å, α = γ = 90.0, β = 104.4°. The structure of the G7-18NATE peptide in complex with its target will facilitate the rational development of Grb7-targeted cancer therapeutics

  1. The role of the Finnish Meteorological Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savolainen, A.L.; Valkama, I.

    1993-01-01

    The Finnish Meteorological Institute is responsible for the dispersion forecasts for the radiation control in Finland. In addition to the normal weather forecasts the duty forecaster has the work station based three dimensional trajectory model and the short range dispersion model YDINO at his disposal. For expert use, dispersion and dose model TRADOS is available. The TRADOS, developed by the Finnish Meteorological Institute and by the Technical Research Centre of Finland, includes a meteorological data base that utilizes the numerical forecasts of the High Resolution Limited Area Model (HIRLAM) weather prediction model. The transport is described by three-dimensional air-parcel trajectories. For each time step the integrated air concentrations as well as dry and wet deposition for selected groups of radionuclides are computed. In the operational emergency application only external dose rates are computed. In the statistical version also individual and population dose estimates via several external and internal pathways can be made. The TRADOS is currently run under two separate user interfaces. The trajectory and dispersion model interface includes ready-made lists of the nuclear power plants and other installations. The dose model has a set of release terms for several groups of radionuclides. There is also a graphical module that enables the computed results to be presented in grid or also isolines. A new graphical user interface and presentation lay-outs redesigned as visual and end-user friendly as possible and with the aim of possible and with the aim of possible adoption as a Nordic standard will be installed in the near future. (orig.)

  2. Autonomous Operation of Mars Meteorological Network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, W.; Harri, A.-M.; Vázquez, L.; Linkin, V.; Alexashkin, S.

    2012-09-01

    In the next years a series of small landing vehicles concentrating on Martian meteorology should be deployed to the surface of Mars. As commanding from Earth will not be possible most of the time, the station software has to be capable of adapting to any foreseeable conditions and optimize the science return as much as feasible. In this paper we outline the constraints and strategies implemented into the control system of the MetNet Landers. For details to the mission and its instruments see the mission home page [1].

  3. Defense meteorological satellite measurements of total ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovill, J.E.; Ellis, J.S.; Luther, F.M.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weichel, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    A multichannel filter radiometer (MFR) on Defense Meteorological Satellites (DMS) that measured total ozone on a global-scale from March 1977 - February 1980 is described. The total ozone data measured by the MFR were compared with total ozone data taken by surfaced-based Dobson spectrophotometers. When comparisons were made for five months, the Dobson spectrophotometer measured 2-5% more total ozone than the MFR. Comparisons between the Dobson spectrophotometer and the MFR showed a reduced RMS difference as the comparisons were made at closer proximity. A Northern Hemisphere total ozone distribution obtained from MFR data is presented

  4. Viking-1 meteorological measurements - First impressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hess, S. L.; Henry, R. M.; Leovy, C. B.; Tillman, J. E.; Ryan, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary evaluation is given of in situ meteorological measurements made by Viking 1 on Mars. The data reported show that: (1) the atmosphere has approximate volume mixing ratios of 1.5% argon, 3% nitrogen, and 95% carbon dioxide; (2) the diurnal temperature range is large and regular, with a sunrise minimum of about 188 K and a midafternoon maximum near 244 K; (3) air and ground temperatures coincide quite closely during the night, but ground temperature exceeds air temperature near midday by as much as 25 C; (4) the winds exhibit a marked diurnal cycle; and (5) a large diurnal pressure variation with an afternoon minimum and an early-morning maximum parallels the wind pattern. The variations are explained in terms of familiar meteorological processes. It is suggested that latent heat is unlikely to play an important role on Mars because no evidence has been observed for traveling synoptic-scale disturbances such as those that occur in the terrestrial tropics.

  5. Automated data system for emergency meteorological response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kern, C.D.

    1975-01-01

    The Savannah River Plant (SRP) releases small amounts of radioactive nuclides to the atmosphere as a consequence of the production of radioisotopes. The potential for larger accidental releases to the atmosphere also exists, although the probability for most accidents is low. To provide for emergency meteorological response to accidental releases and to conduct research on the transport and diffusion of radioactive nuclides in the routine releases, a series of high-quality meteorological sensors have been located on towers in and about SRP. These towers are equipped with instrumentation to detect and record temperature and wind turbulence. Signals from the meterological sensors are brought by land-line to the SRL Weather Center-Analysis Laboratory (WC-AL). At the WC-AL, a Weather Information and Display (WIND) system has been installed. The WIND system consists of a minicomputer with graphical displays in the WC-AL and also in the emergency operating center (EOC) of SRP. In addition, data are available to the system from standard weat []er teletype services, which provide both routine surface weather observations and routine upper air wind and temperature observations for the southeastern United States. Should there be an accidental release to the atmosphere, available recorded data and computer codes would allow the calculation and display of the location, time, and downwind concentration of the atmospheric release. These data are made available to decision makers in near real-time to permit rapid decisive action to limit the consequences of such accidental releases. (auth)

  6. Estimating detection rates for the LIGO-Virgo search for gravitational-wave burst counterparts to gamma-ray bursts using inferred local GRB rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leonor, I; Frey, R; Sutton, P J; Jones, G; Marka, S; Marka, Z

    2009-01-01

    One of the ongoing searches performed using the LIGO-Virgo network of gravitational-wave interferometers is the search for gravitational-wave burst (GWB) counterparts to gamma-ray bursts (GRBs). This type of analysis makes use of GRB time and position information from gamma-ray satellite detectors to trigger the GWB search, and the GWB detection rates possible for such an analysis thus strongly depend on the GRB detection efficiencies of the satellite detectors. Using local GRB rate densities inferred from observations which are found in the science literature, we calculate estimates of the GWB detection rates for different configurations of the LIGO-Virgo network for this type of analysis.

  7. ALMA Observations of the Host Galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23: Deep Limits on Obscured Star Formation 630 Million Years after the Big Bang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Chary, R.-R.; Laskar, T.; Chornock, R.; Tanvir, N. R.; Stanway, E. R.; Levan, A. J.; Levesque, E. M.; Davies, J. E.

    2014-12-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3σ limits of F ν(222 GHz) Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) observations is SFRUV ~ 4 (Lyman break galaxies, Lyα emitters, and submillimeter galaxies) and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB 090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z >~ 4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  8. Time evolution of the spectral break in the high-energy extra component of GRB 090926A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yassine, M.; Piron, F.; Mochkovitch, R.; Daigne, F.

    2017-10-01

    Aims: The prompt light curve of the long GRB 090926A reveals a short pulse 10 s after the beginning of the burst emission, which has been observed by the Fermi observatory from the keV to the GeV energy domain. During this bright spike, the high-energy emission from GRB 090926A underwent a sudden hardening above 10 MeV in the form of an additional power-law component exhibiting a spectral attenuation at a few hundreds of MeV. This high-energy break has been previously interpreted in terms of gamma-ray opacity to pair creation and has been used to estimate the bulk Lorentz factor of the outflow. In this article, we report on a new time-resolved analysis of the GRB 090926A broadband spectrum during its prompt phase and on its interpretation in the framework of prompt emission models. Methods: We characterized the emission from GRB 090926A at the highest energies with Pass 8 data from the Fermi Large Area Telescope (LAT), which offer a greater sensitivity than any data set used in previous studies of this burst, particularly in the 30-100 MeV energy band. Then, we combined the LAT data with the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) in joint spectral fits to characterize the time evolution of the broadband spectrum from keV to GeV energies. We paid careful attention to the systematic effects that arise from the uncertainties on the LAT response. Finally, we performed a temporal analysis of the light curves and we computed the variability timescales from keV to GeV energies during and after the bright spike. Results: Our analysis confirms and better constrains the spectral break, which has been previously reported during the bright spike. Furthermore, it reveals that the spectral attenuation persists at later times with an increase of the break characteristic energy up to the GeV domain until the end of the prompt phase. We discuss these results in terms of keV-MeV synchroton radiation of electrons accelerated during the dissipation of the jet energy and inverse Compton

  9. GRB 090926A AND BRIGHT LATE-TIME FERMI LARGE AREA TELESCOPE GAMMA-RAY BURST AFTERGLOWS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, C. A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Vetere, L.; Kennea, J. A.; Maxham, A.; Zhang, B. B.; Zhang, B.; Schady, P.; Holland, S. T.; Kuin, N. P. M.; Oates, S. R.; De Pasquale, M.; Page, K. L.

    2010-01-01

    GRB 090926A was detected by both the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor and Large Area Telescope (LAT) instruments on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Swift follow-up observations began ∼13 hr after the initial trigger. The optical afterglow was detected for nearly 23 days post trigger, placing it in the long-lived category. The afterglow is of particular interest due to its brightness at late times, as well as the presence of optical flares at T0+10 5 s and later, which may indicate late-time central engine activity. The LAT has detected a total of 16 gamma-ray bursts; nine of these bursts, including GRB 090926A, also have been observed by Swift. Of the nine Swift-observed LAT bursts, six were detected by UVOT, with five of the bursts having bright, long-lived optical afterglows. In comparison, Swift has been operating for five years and has detected nearly 500 bursts, but has only seen ∼30% of bursts with optical afterglows that live longer than 10 5 s. We have calculated the predicted gamma-ray fluence, as would have been seen by the Burst Alert Telescope (BAT) on board Swift, of the LAT bursts to determine whether this high percentage of long-lived optical afterglows is unique, when compared to BAT-triggered bursts. We find that, with the exception of the short burst GRB 090510A, the predicted BAT fluences indicate that the LAT bursts are more energetic than 88% of all Swift bursts and also have brighter than average X-ray and optical afterglows.

  10. GRB 120521C at z ∼ 6 and the properties of high-redshift γ-ray bursts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laskar, Tanmoy; Berger, Edo; Zauderer, B. Ashley; Margutti, Raffaella; Fong, Wen-fai [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Tanvir, Nial; Wiersema, Klaas [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Levan, Andrew [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Perley, Daniel [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Menten, Karl [Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Auf dem Hügel 69, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Hrudkova, Marie [Isaac Newton Group of Telescopes, Apartado de Correos 321, E-387 00 Santa Cruz de la Palma, Canary Islands (Spain)

    2014-01-20

    We present optical, near-infrared, and radio observations of the afterglow of GRB 120521C. By modeling the multi-wavelength data set, we derive a photometric redshift of z ≈ 6.0, which we confirm with a low signal-to-noise ratio spectrum of the afterglow. We find that a model with a constant-density environment provides a good fit to the afterglow data, with an inferred density of n ≲ 0.05 cm{sup –3}. The radio observations reveal the presence of a jet break at t {sub jet} ≈ 7 d, corresponding to a jet opening angle of θ{sub jet} ≈ 3°. The beaming-corrected γ-ray and kinetic energies are E {sub γ} ≈ E{sub K} ≈ 3 × 10{sup 50} erg. We quantify the uncertainties in our results using a detailed Markov Chain Monte Carlo analysis, which allows us to uncover degeneracies between the physical parameters of the explosion. To compare GRB 120521C to other high-redshift bursts in a uniform manner we re-fit all available afterglow data for the two other bursts at z ≳ 6 with radio detections (GRBs 050904 and 090423). We find a jet break at t {sub jet} ≈ 15 d for GRB 090423, in contrast to previous work. Based on these three events, we find that γ-ray bursts (GRBs) at z ≳ 6 appear to explode in constant-density environments, and exhibit a wide range of energies and densities that span the range inferred for lower redshift bursts. On the other hand, we find a hint for narrower jets in the z ≳ 6 bursts, potentially indicating a larger true event rate at these redshifts. Overall, our results indicate that long GRBs share a common progenitor population at least to z ∼ 8.

  11. Structural and biophysical investigation of the interaction of a mutant Grb2 SH2 domain (W121G) with its cognate phosphopeptide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Danai; Geibel, Sebastian; Kunze, Micha B A; Kay, Christopher W M; Waksman, Gabriel

    2016-03-01

    The adaptor protein Grb2 is a key element of mitogenetically important signaling pathways. With its SH2 domain it binds to upstream targets while its SH3 domains bind to downstream proteins thereby relaying signals from the cell membranes to the nucleus. The Grb2 SH2 domain binds to its targets by recognizing a phosphotyrosine (pY) in a pYxNx peptide motif, requiring an Asn at the +2 position C-terminal to the pY with the residue either side of this Asn being hydrophobic. Structural analysis of the Grb2 SH2 domain in complex with its cognate peptide has shown that the peptide adopts a unique β-turn conformation, unlike the extended conformation that phosphopeptides adopt when bound to other SH2 domains. TrpEF1 (W121) is believed to force the peptide into this unusual conformation conferring this unique specificity to the Grb2 SH2 domain. Using X-ray crystallography, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, and isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC), we describe here a series of experiments that explore the role of TrpEF1 in determining the specificity of the Grb2 SH2 domain. Our results demonstrate that the ligand does not adopt a pre-organized structure before binding to the SH2 domain, rather it is the interaction between the two that imposes the hairpin loop to the peptide. Furthermore, we find that the peptide adopts a similar structure when bound to both the wild-type Grb2 SH2 domain and a TrpEF1Gly mutant. This suggests that TrpEF1 is not the determining factor for the conformation of the phosphopeptide. © 2015 The Protein Society.

  12. THE SWIFT GRB HOST GALAXY LEGACY SURVEY. II. REST-FRAME NEAR-IR LUMINOSITY DISTRIBUTION AND EVIDENCE FOR A NEAR-SOLAR METALLICITY THRESHOLD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perley, D. A. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MC 249-17, 1200 East California Blvd., Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Tanvir, N. R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester, LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Hjorth, J.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Krühler, T. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 København Ø (Denmark); Laskar, T.; Berger, E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Chary, R. [US Planck Data Center, MS220-6, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Postigo, A. de Ugarte [Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, E-18008, Granada (Spain); Levan, A. J. [Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL (United Kingdom); Michałowski, M. J. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Schulze, S., E-mail: dperley@dark-cosmology.dk [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 7820436 Macul, Santiago 22 (Chile)

    2016-01-20

    We present rest-frame near-IR (NIR) luminosities and stellar masses for a large and uniformly selected population of gamma-ray burst (GRB) host galaxies using deep Spitzer Space Telescope imaging of 119 targets from the Swift GRB Host Galaxy Legacy Survey spanning 0.03 < z < 6.3, and we determine the effects of galaxy evolution and chemical enrichment on the mass distribution of the GRB host population across cosmic history. We find a rapid increase in the characteristic NIR host luminosity between z ∼ 0.5 and z ∼ 1.5, but little variation between z ∼ 1.5 and z ∼ 5. Dust-obscured GRBs dominate the massive host population but are only rarely seen associated with low-mass hosts, indicating that massive star-forming galaxies are universally and (to some extent) homogeneously dusty at high redshift while low-mass star-forming galaxies retain little dust in their interstellar medium. Comparing our luminosity distributions with field surveys and measurements of the high-z mass–metallicity relation, our results have good consistency with a model in which the GRB rate per unit star formation is constant in galaxies with gas-phase metallicity below approximately the solar value but heavily suppressed in more metal-rich environments. This model also naturally explains the previously reported “excess” in the GRB rate beyond z ≳ 2; metals stifle GRB production in most galaxies at z < 1.5 but have only minor impact at higher redshifts. The metallicity threshold we infer is much higher than predicted by single-star models and favors a binary progenitor. Our observations also constrain the fraction of cosmic star formation in low-mass galaxies undetectable to Spitzer to be small at z < 4.

  13. Growth of chronic myeloid leukemia cells is inhibited by infection with Ad-SH2-HA adenovirus that disrupts Grb2-Bcr-Abl complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhi; Luo, Hong-Wei; Yuan, Ying; Shi, Jing; Huang, Shi-Feng; Li, Chun-Li; Cao, Wei-Xi; Huang, Zong-Gan; Feng, Wen-Li

    2011-05-01

    The persistence of Bcr-Abl-positive cells in patients on imatinib therapy indicates that inhibition of the Bcr-Abl kinase activity alone might not be sufficient to eradicate the leukemia cells. Many downstream effectors of Bcr-Abl have been described, including activation of both the Grb2-SoS-Ras-MAPK and Grb2-Gab2-PI3K-Akt pathways. The Bcr-Abl-Grb2 interaction, which is mediated by the direct interaction of the Grb2 SH2 domain with the phospho-Bcr-Abl Y177, is required for activation of these signaling pathways. Therefore, disrupting their interaction represents a potential therapeutic strategy for inhibiting the oncogenic downstream signals of Bcr-Abl. Adenovirus Ad-SH2-HA expressing the Grb2 SH2 domain was constructed and applied in this study. As expected, Ad-SH2-HA efficiently infected CML cells and functioned by binding to the phospho-Bcr-Abl Y177 site, competitively disrupting the Grb2 SH2-phospho-Bcr-Abl Y177 complex. They induced potent anti-proliferation and apoptosis-inducing effects in CML cell lines. Moreover, the Ras, MAPK and Akt activities were significantly reduced in the Ad-SH2-HA treated cells. These were not observed with the point-mutated control adenovirus Ad-Sm-HA with abolished phospho-Bcr-Abl Y177 binding sites. These data indicate that, in addition to the direct targeting of Bcr-Abl, selective inhibition of its downstream signaling pathways may be a therapeutic option for CML, and the Ad-SH2-HA-mediated killing strategy could be explored as a promising anti-leukemia agent in CML.

  14. A Large Catalog of Multiwavelength GRB Afterglows. I. Color Evolution and Its Physical Implication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Liang; Wang, Yu; Shao, Lang; Wu, Xue-Feng; Huang, Yong-Feng; Zhang, Bing; Ryde, Felix; Yu, Hoi-Fung

    2018-02-01

    The spectrum of gamma-ray burst (GRB) afterglows can be studied with color indices. Here, we present a large comprehensive catalog of 70 GRBs with multiwavelength optical transient data on which we perform a systematic study to find the temporal evolution of color indices. We categorize them into two samples based on how well the color indices are evaluated. The Golden sample includes 25 bursts mostly observed by GROND, and the Silver sample includes 45 bursts observed by other telescopes. For the Golden sample, we find that 96% of the color indices do not vary over time. However, the color indices do vary during short periods in most bursts. The observed variations are consistent with effects of (i) the cooling frequency crossing the studied energy bands in a wind medium (43%) and in a constant-density medium (30%), (ii) early dust extinction (12%), (iii) transition from reverse-shock to forward-shock emission (5%), or (iv) an emergent SN emission (10%). We also study the evolutionary properties of the mean color indices for different emission episodes. We find that 86% of the color indices in the 70 bursts show constancy between consecutive ones. The color index variations occur mainly during the late GRB–SN bump, the flare, and early reverse-shock emission components. We further perform a statistical analysis of various observational properties and model parameters (spectral index {β }o{CI}, electron spectral indices p CI, etc.) using color indices. Overall, we conclude that ∼90% of colors are constant in time and can be accounted for by the simplest external forward-shock model, while the varying color indices call for more detailed modeling.

  15. GRB 081029: A Gamma-Ray Burst with a Multi-Component Afterglow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, Stephen T.; De Pasquale, Massimiliano; Mao, Jirong; Sakamoto, Takanori; Schady, Patricia; Covino, Stefano; Fan, Yi-Zhong; Jin, Zhi-Ping; D'Avanzo, Paolo; Antonelli, Angelo; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present an analysis of the unusual optical light curve of the gamma-ray burst GRB 081029, a long-soft burst with a redshift of z = 3.8479. We combine X-ray and optical observations from the Swift X-Ray Telescope and the Swift Ultra Violet/Optical Telescope with ground-based optical and infrared data obtained using the REM, ROTSE, and CTIO 1.3-m telescopes to construct a detailed data set extending from 86 s to approx.100,000 s after the BAT trigger. Our data covers a wide energy range, from 10 keV to 0.77 eV (1.24 A to 16000 A). The X-ray afterglow shows a shallow initial decay followed by a rapid decay starting at about 18,000 s. The optical and infrared afterglow, however, shows an uncharacteristic rise at about 3000 s that does not correspond to any feature in the X-ray light curve. Our data are not consistent with synchrotron radiation from a jet interacting with an external medium, a two-component jet, or continuous energy injection from the central engine. We find that the optical light curves can be broadly explained by a collision between two ejecta shells within a two-component jet. A growing number of gamma-ray burst afterglows are consistent with complex jets, which suggests that some (or all) gamma-ray burst jets are complex and will require detailed modelling to fully understand them.injection

  16. Consistency with synchrotron emission in the bright GRB 160625B observed by Fermi

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravasio, M. E.; Oganesyan, G.; Ghirlanda, G.; Nava, L.; Ghisellini, G.; Pescalli, A.; Celotti, A.

    2018-05-01

    We present time-resolved spectral analysis of prompt emission from GRB 160625B, one of the brightest bursts ever detected by Fermi in its nine years of operations. Standard empirical functions fail to provide an acceptable fit to the GBM spectral data, which instead require the addition of a low-energy break to the fitting function. We introduce a new fitting function, called 2SBPL, consisting of three smoothly connected power laws. Fitting this model to the data, the goodness of the fits significantly improves and the spectral parameters are well constrained. We also test a spectral model that combines non-thermal and thermal (black body) components, but find that the 2SBPL model is systematically favoured. The spectral evolution shows that the spectral break is located around Ebreak 100 keV, while the usual νFν peak energy feature Epeak evolves in the 0.5-6 MeV energy range. The slopes below and above Ebreak are consistent with the values -0.67 and -1.5, respectively, expected from synchrotron emission produced by a relativistic electron population with a low-energy cut-off. If Ebreak is interpreted as the synchrotron cooling frequency, the implied magnetic field in the emitting region is 10 Gauss, i.e. orders of magnitudes smaller than the value expected for a dissipation region located at 1013-14 cm from the central engine. The low ratio between Epeak and Ebreak implies that the radiative cooling is incomplete, contrary to what is expected in strongly magnetized and compact emitting regions.

  17. On the Origin of the Mass-Metallicity Relation for GRB Host Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kocevski, Daniel; /KIPAC, Menlo Park; West, Andrew A.; /Boston U., Dept. Astron.

    2011-06-02

    We investigate the nature of the mass-metallicity (M-Z) relation for long gamma-ray burst (LGRB) host galaxies. Recent studies suggest that the M-Z relation for local LGRB host galaxies may be systematically offset towards lower metallicities relative to the M-Z relation defined by the general star forming galaxy (SDSS) population. The nature of this offset is consistent with suggestions that low metallicity environments may be required to produce high mass progenitors, although the detection of several GRBs in high-mass, high-metallicity galaxies challenges the notion of a strict metallicity cut-off for host galaxies that are capable of producing GRBs. We show that the nature of this reported offset may be explained by a recently proposed anti-correlation between the star formation rate (SFR) and the metallicity of star forming galaxies. If low metallicity galaxies produce more stars than their equally massive, high-metallicity counterparts, then transient events that closely trace the SFR in a galaxy would be more likely to be found in these low metallicity, low mass galaxies. Therefore, the offset between the GRB and SDSS defined M-Z relations may be the result of the different methods used to select their respective galaxy populations, with GRBs being biased towards low metallicity, high SFR, galaxies. We predict that such an offset should not be expected of transient events that do not closely follow the star formation history of their host galaxies, such as short duration GRBs and SN Ia, but should be evident in core collapse SNe found through upcoming untargeted surveys.

  18. Hubble Space Telescope STIS observations of GRB 000301C: CCD imaging and near-ultraviolet MAMA spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smette, A.; Fruchter, A.S.; Gull, T.R.

    2001-01-01

    We present Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph observations of the optical transient (OT) counterpart of the c-ray burster GRB 000301C obtained 5 days after the burst, on 2000 March 6. CCD clear-aperture imaging reveals a R similar or equal to 21.50 +/- 0.15 source with no apparent host galaxy...... Telescope images appear to lie on the stellar field of a host galaxy, and as the large H I column density measured here and in later ground-based observations is unlikely on a random line of sight, we believe we are probably seeing absorption from H I in the host galaxy. In any case, this represents...

  19. What can BeppoSAX tell us about short GRBs: An update from the subsecond GRB project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gandolfi, G.; Costa, E.; Feroci, M.; Piro, L.; Smith, M.J.S.; Muller, J.M.; Coletta, A.; Celidonio, G.; Di Ciolo, L.; Paolino, A.; Tarei, G.; Tassone, G.; Frontera, F.

    2000-01-01

    We present some statistical considerations on the BeppoSAX hunt for subsecond GRBs at the Scientific Operation Center. Archival analysis of a BATSE/SAX sub-sample of bursts indicates that the GRB Monitor is sensitive to short (≤2 sec) events, that are in fact ≅22% of the total. The non-detection of corresponding prompt X-ray counterparts to short bursts in the Wide Field Cameras, in about 3 years of operations, is discussed: with present data no implications on the X-to-γ-ray spectra of short vs. long GRBs may be inferred. Finally, the status of searching procedures at the SOC is reviewed

  20. Urban meteorological modelling for nuclear emergency preparedness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baklanov, Alexander; Sorensen, Jens Havskov; Hoe, Steen Cordt; Amstrup, Bjarne

    2006-01-01

    The main objectives of the current EU project 'Integrated Systems for Forecasting Urban Meteorology, Air Pollution and Population Exposure' (FUMAPEX) are the improvement of meteorological forecasts for urban areas, the connection of numerical weather prediction (NWP) models to urban air pollution and population dose models, the building of improved urban air quality information and forecasting systems, and their application in cities in various European climates. In addition to the forecast of the worst air-pollution episodes in large cities, the potential use of improved weather forecasts for nuclear emergency management in urban areas, in case of hazardous releases from nuclear accidents or terror acts, is considered. Such use of NWP data is tested for the Copenhagen metropolitan area and the Oresund region. The Danish Meteorological Institute (DMI) is running an experimental version of the HIRLAM NWP model over Zealand including the Copenhagen metropolitan area with a horizontal resolution of 1.4 km, thus approaching the city-scale. This involves 1-km resolution physiographic data with implications for the urban surface parameters, e.g. surface fluxes, roughness length and albedo. For the city of Copenhagen, the enhanced high-resolution NWP forecasting will be provided to demonstrate the improved dispersion forecasting capabilities of the Danish nuclear emergency preparedness decision-support system, the Accident Reporting and Guidance Operational System (ARGOS), used by the Danish Emergency Management Agency (DEMA). Recently, ARGOS has been extended with a capability of real-time calculation of regional-scale atmospheric dispersion of radioactive material from accidental releases. This is effectuated through on-line interfacing with the Danish Emergency Response Model of the Atmosphere (DERMA), which is run at DMI. For local-scale modelling of atmospheric dispersion, ARGOS utilises the Local-Scale Model Chain (LSMC), which makes use of high-resolution DMI

  1. GPM GROUND VALIDATION METEOROLOGICAL TOWER ENVIRONMENT CANADA GCPEX V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GPM Ground Validation Meteorological Tower Environment Canada GCPEx dataset provides temperature, relative humidity, 10 m winds, pressure and solar radiation...

  2. Monitoring Forsmark. Meteorological monitoring at Forsmark, January-December 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Cari; Jones, Joergen (Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (SMHI), Norrkoeping (Sweden))

    2011-01-15

    In the Forsmark area, SKB's meteorological monitoring started in 2003 at the sites Storskaeret and Hoegmasten. However, since July 1, 2007 measurements are only performed at Hoegmasten. Measured and calculated parameters at Hoegmasten are precipitation and corrected precipitation, air temperature, barometric pressure, wind speed and direction, air humidity, global radiation and potential evapotranspiration. The Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, SMHI, has been responsible for planning and design, as well as for the operation of the stations used for meteorological monitoring. In general, the quality of the meteorological measurements during the period concerned, starting January 1, 2010, and ending December 31, 2010, has shown to be good

  3. Nowcasting Surface Meteorological Parameters Using Successive Correction Method

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Henmi, Teizi

    2002-01-01

    The successive correction method was examined and evaluated statistically as a nowcasting method for surface meteorological parameters including temperature, dew point temperature, and horizontal wind vector components...

  4. Meteorological perspective on intermediate range atmospheric dispersion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Hoven, I.

    1981-01-01

    The intermediate range of atmospheric transport and diffusion is defined as those dispersion processes which take place at downwind distances of 10 to 100 kilometers from pollutant sources. Meteorologists often define this range as the mesoscale. It is the range of distances where certain environmental assessments are of concern such as the determination of significant deterioration of visibility, the effect of effluent releases from tall stacks, and the effect of pollutant sources in rural settings upon the more distant urban centers. Atmospheric diffusion theory is based on steady state conditions and spatial homogeniety. Techniques must be developed to measure the inhomogenieties, models must be devised to account for the complexities, and a data base consisting of appropriate measured meteorological parameters concurrent with tracer gas concentrations should be collected

  5. Meteorological research studies at Jervis Bay, Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clark, G.H.; Bendun, E.O.K.

    1974-07-01

    A climatological study of the winds and temperature from the Jervis Bay region which commenced in October 1970 has shown the presence of a coastal sea breeze and secondary bay breeze circulation system. In an attempt to define the influence of the Murray's Beach site on the local atmospheric dispersion, special smoke plume photography studies were conducted in the lower atmosphere. In June 1972 a meteorological acoustic sounding research programme was initiated at the Jervis Bay settlement. The aims of the research are to calibrate the sounder in terms of surface wind, turbulence and temperature measurements pertinent to a description of the lower atmospheric dispersion potential. Preliminary results on six months' data have shown encouraging correlations between the acoustic sounder patterns and particularly the wind direction turbulence traces. (author)

  6. Meteorología y clima

    OpenAIRE

    Alarcón Jordán, Marta; Casas Castillo, M. del Carmen

    1999-01-01

    Este libro constituye una introducción al estudio de la atmósfera en los campos de la meteorología y la climatología. Se ha concebido especialmente como herramienta de apoyo para los estudiantes de ciencias y tecnología que inician los estudios de estos temas. El libro incorpora un programa informático de simulación del cambio climático. En él se exponen las características generales de la atmósfera, su estructura física y la composición química y también se hace una introducción al proble...

  7. Multifractal Conceptualisation of Hydro-Meteorological Extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchiguirinskaia, I.; Schertzer, D.; Lovejoy, S.

    2009-04-01

    Hydrology and more generally sciences involved in water resources management, technological or operational developments face a fundamental difficulty: the extreme variability of hydro-meteorological fields. It clearly appears today that this variability is a function of the observation scale and yield hydro-meteorological hazards. Throughout the world, the development of multifractal theory offers new techniques for handling such non-classical variability over wide ranges of time and space scales. The resulting stochastic simulations with a very limited number of parameters well reproduce the long range dependencies and the clustering of rainfall extremes often yielding fat tailed (i.e., an algebraic type) probability distributions. The goal of this work was to investigate the ability of using very short or incomplete data records for reliable statistical predictions of the extremes. In particular we discuss how to evaluate the uncertainty in the empirical or semi-analytical multifractal outcomes. We consider three main aspects of the evaluation, such as the scaling adequacy, the multifractal parameter estimation error and the quantile estimation error. We first use the multiplicative cascade model to generate long series of multifractal data. The simulated samples had to cover the range of the universal multifractal parameters widely available in the scientific literature for the rainfall and river discharges. Using these long multifractal series and their sub-samples, we defined a metric for parameter estimation error. Then using the sets of estimated parameters, we obtained the quantile values for a range of excedance probabilities from 5% to 0.01%. Plotting the error bars on a quantile plot enable an approximation of confidence intervals that would be particularly important for the predictions of multifractal extremes. We finally illustrate the efficiency of such concept on its application to a large database (more than 16000 selected stations over USA and

  8. Medical Meteorology: the Relationship between Meteorological Parameters (Humidity, Rainfall, Wind, and Temperature and Brucellosis in Zanjan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yousefali Abedini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Brucellosis (Malta fever is a major contagious zoonotic disease, with economic and public health importance. Methods To assess the effect of meteorological (temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind and climate parameters on incidence of brucellosis, brucellosis distribution and meteorological zoning maps of Zanjan Province were prepared using Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW and Kriging technique in Arc GIS medium. Zoning maps of mean temperature, rainfall, humidity, and wind were compared to brucellosis distribution maps. Results: Correlation test showed no relationship between the mean number of patients with brucellosis and any of the four meteorological parameters. Conclusion: It seems that in Zanjan province there is no correlation between brucellosis and meteorological parameters.

  9. Constraints on Born-Infeld gravity from the speed of gravitational waves after GW170817 and GRB 170817A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana, Soumya; Chakravarty, Girish Kumar; Mohanty, Subhendra

    2018-04-01

    The observations of gravitational waves from the binary neutron star merger event GW170817 and the subsequent observation of its electromagnetic counterparts from the gamma-ray burst GRB 170817A provide us a significant opportunity to study theories of gravity beyond general relativity. An important outcome of these observations is that they constrain the difference between the speed of gravity and the speed of light to less than 10-15c . Also, the time delay between the arrivals of gravitational waves at different detectors constrains the speed of gravity at the Earth to be in the range 0.55 c GRB 170817A, in a background Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe, we obtain |κ |≲1037 m2 . Although the bounds on κ are weak compared to other earlier bounds from the study of neutron stars, stellar evolution, primordial nucleosynthesis, etc., our bounds are from direct observations and thus worth noting.

  10. A low-latency pipeline for GRB light curve and spectrum using Fermi/GBM near real-time data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yi; Zhang, Bin-Bin; Xiong, Shao-Lin; Long, Xi; Zhang, Qiang; Song, Li-Ming; Sun, Jian-Chao; Wang, Yuan-Hao; Li, Han-Cheng; Bu, Qing-Cui; Feng, Min-Zi; Li, Zheng-Heng; Wen, Xing; Wu, Bo-Bing; Zhang, Lai-Yu; Zhang, Yong-Jie; Zhang, Shuang-Nan; Shao, Jian-Xiong

    2018-05-01

    Rapid response and short time latency are very important for Time Domain Astronomy, such as the observations of Gamma-ray Bursts (GRBs) and electromagnetic (EM) counterparts of gravitational waves (GWs). Based on near real-time Fermi/GBM data, we developed a low-latency pipeline to automatically calculate the temporal and spectral properties of GRBs. With this pipeline, some important parameters can be obtained, such as T 90 and fluence, within ∼ 20 min after the GRB trigger. For ∼ 90% of GRBs, T 90 and fluence are consistent with the GBM catalog results within 2σ errors. This pipeline has been used by the Gamma-ray Bursts Polarimeter (POLAR) and the Insight Hard X-ray Modulation Telescope (Insight-HXMT) to follow up the bursts of interest. For GRB 170817A, the first EM counterpart of GW events detected by Fermi/GBM and INTEGRAL/SPI-ACS, the pipeline gave T 90 and spectral information 21 min after the GBM trigger, providing important information for POLAR and Insight-HXMT observations.

  11. Identifying the Location in the Host Galaxy of Short GRB 1111l7A with the Chandra Sub- Arcsecond Position

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakamoto, Takanori; Troja, E.; Aoki, K.; Guiriec, S.; Im, M.; Leloudas, G.; Malesani, D.; Melandri, A.; deUgartePostigo, A.; Urata, Y.; hide

    2012-01-01

    We present our successful program using Chandra for identifying the X-ray afterglow with sub-arcsecond accuracy for the short GRB 111117A d iscovered by Swift and Fermi. Thanks to our rapid target of opportuni ty request, Chandra clearly detected the X-ray afterglow, whereas no optical afterglow was found in deep optical observations. Instead, we clearly detect the host galaxy in optica; and also in near-infrared b ands. We found that the best photometric redshift fitofthe host is z = 1.31:(+0.46/-0.23) (90% confidence), making it one of the highest redshift short GRBs. Furthermore, we see an offset of 1.0+/-O.2 arcseco nds, which corresponds to 8.4+/-1.7 kpc aSBuming z= 1.31, between the host and the afterglow position. We discuss the importance of using Chandra for obtaining sub-arcsecond localization of the afterglow in X -rays for short GRBs to study GRB environments in great detail.

  12. FGFR3 gene mutation plus GRB10 gene duplication in a patient with achondroplasia plus growth delay with prenatal onset.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Haiming; Huang, Linhuan; Hu, Xizi; Li, Qian; Sun, Xiaofang; Xie, Yingjun; Kong, Shu; Wang, Xiaoman

    2016-07-02

    Achondroplasia is a well-defined and common bone dysplasia. Genotype- and phenotype-level correlations have been found between the clinical symptoms of achondroplasia and achondroplasia-specific FGFR3 mutations. A 2-year-old boy with clinical features consistent with achondroplasia and Silver-Russell syndrome-like symptoms was found to carry a mutation in the fibroblast growth factor receptor-3 (FGFR3) gene at c.1138G > A (p.Gly380Arg) and a de novo 574 kb duplication at chromosome 7p12.1 that involved the entire growth-factor receptor bound protein 10 (GRB10) gene. Using quantitative real-time PCR analysis, GRB10 was over-expressed, and, using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays for IGF1 and IGF-binding protein-3 (IGFBP3), we found that IGF1 and IGFBP3 were low-expressed in this patient. We demonstrate that a combination of uncommon, rare and exceptional molecular defects related to the molecular bases of particular birth defects can be analyzed and diagnosed to potentially explain the observed variability in the combination of molecular defects.

  13. A Search for gravitational waves associated with the gamma ray burst GRB030329 using the LIGO detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbott, B.; Abbott, R.; Adhikari, R.; Ageev, A.; Allen, B.; Amin, R.; Anderson, S.B.; Anderson, W.G.; Araya, M.; Armandula, H.; Ashley, M.; Asiri, F.; Aufmuth, P.; Aulbert, C.; Babak, S.; Balasubramanian, R.; Ballmer, S.; Barish, B.C.; Barker, C.; Barker, D.; Barnes, M.; /Potsdam, Max Planck Inst. /Hannover, Max Planck Inst. Grav. /Australian

    2005-01-01

    We have performed a search for bursts of gravitational waves associated with the very bright Gamma Ray Burst GRB030329, using the two detectors at the LIGO Hanford Observatory. Our search covered the most sensitive frequency range of the LIGO detectors (approximately 80-2048 Hz), and we specifically targeted signals shorter than {approx_equal}150 ms. Our search algorithm looks for excess correlated power between the two interferometers and thus makes minimal assumptions about the gravitational waveform. We observed no candidates with gravitational wave signal strength larger than a pre-determined threshold. We report frequency dependent upper limits on the strength of the gravitational waves associated with GRB030329. Near the most sensitive frequency region, around {approx_equal}250 Hz, our root-sum-square (RSS) gravitational wave strain sensitivity for optimally polarized bursts was better than h{sub RSS} {approx_equal} 6 x 10{sup -21} Hz{sup -1/2}. Our result is comparable to the best published results searching for association between gravitational waves and GRBs.

  14. GRB 080517: a local, low-luminosity gamma-ray burst in a dusty galaxy at z = 0.09

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanway, Elizabeth R.; Levan, Andrew J.; Tanvir, Nial; Wiersema, Klaas; van der Horst, Alexander; Mundell, Carole G.; Guidorzi, Cristiano

    2015-02-01

    We present an analysis of the photometry and spectroscopy of the host galaxy of Swift-detected GRB 080517. From our optical spectroscopy, we identify a redshift of z = 0.089 ± 0.003, based on strong emission lines, making this a rare example of a very local, low-luminosity, long gamma-ray burst. The galaxy is detected in the radio with a flux density of S4.5 GHz = 0.22 ± 0.04 mJy - one of relatively few known gamma-ray bursts hosts with a securely measured radio flux. Both optical emission lines and a strong detection at 22 μm suggest that the host galaxy is forming stars rapidly, with an inferred star formation rate ˜16 M⊙ yr-1 and a high dust obscuration (E(B - V) > 1, based on sightlines to the nebular emission regions). The presence of a companion galaxy within a projected distance of 25 kpc, and almost identical in redshift, suggests that star formation may have been triggered by galaxy-galaxy interaction. However, fitting of the remarkably flat spectral energy distribution from the ultraviolet through to the infrared suggests that an older, 500 Myr post-starburst stellar population is present along with the ongoing star formation. We conclude that the host galaxy of GRB 080517 is a valuable addition to the still very small sample of well-studied local gamma-ray burst hosts.

  15. The Very Red Afterglow of GRB 000418: Further Evidence for Dust Extinction in a Gamma-Ray Burst Host Galaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klose, S.; Stecklum, B.; Masetti, N.; Pian, E.; Palazzi, E.; Henden, A. A.; Hartmann, D. H.; Fischer, O.; Gorosabel, J.; Sánchez-Fernández, C.; Butler, D.; Ott, Th.; Hippler, S.; Kasper, M.; Weiss, R.; Castro-Tirado, A.; Greiner, J.; Bartolini, C.; Guarnieri, A.; Piccioni, A.; Benetti, S.; Ghinassi, F.; Magazzú, A.; Hurley, K.; Cline, T.; Trombka, J.; McClanahan, T.; Starr, R.; Goldsten, J.; Gold, R.; Mazets, E.; Golenetskii, S.; Noeske, K.; Papaderos, P.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Tanvir, N.; Oscoz, A.; Muñoz, J. A.; Castro Cerón, J. M.

    2000-12-01

    We report near-infrared and optical follow-up observations of the afterglow of the GRB 000418 starting 2.5 days after the occurrence of the burst and extending over nearly 7 weeks. GRB 000418 represents the second case for which the afterglow was initially identified by observations in the near-infrared. During the first 10 days its R-band afterglow was well characterized by a single power-law decay with a slope of 0.86. However, at later times the temporal evolution of the afterglow flattens with respect to a simple power-law decay. Attributing this to an underlying host galaxy, we find its magnitude to be R=23.9 and an intrinsic afterglow decay slope of 1.22. The afterglow was very red with R-K~4 mag. The observations can be explained by an adiabatic, spherical fireball solution and a heavy reddening due to dust extinction in the host galaxy. This supports the picture that (long) bursts are associated with events in star-forming regions. Based on observations collected at the Bologna Astronomical Observatory in Loiano, Italy; at the TNG, Canary Islands, Spain; at the German-Spanish Astronomical Centre, Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Planck-Institut for Astronomy, Heidelberg, jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy; at the US Naval Observatory; and at the UK Infrared Telescope.

  16. Comparison of methods for generating typical meteorological year using meteorological data from a tropical environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Deeyai, P. [Laboratory of Tropical Atmospheric Physics, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

    2009-04-15

    This paper presents the comparison of methods for generating typical meteorological year (TMY) data set using a 10-year period of meteorological data from four stations in a tropical environment of Thailand. These methods are the Sadia National Laboratory method, the Danish method and the Festa and Ratto method. In investigating their performance, these methods were employed to generate TMYs for each station. For all parameters of the TMYs and the stations, statistical test indicates that there is no significant difference between the 10-year average values of these parameters and the corresponding average values from TMY generated from each method. The TMY obtained from each method was also used as input data to simulate two solar water heating systems and two photovoltaic systems with different sizes at the four stations by using the TRNSYS simulation program. Solar fractions and electrical output calculated using TMYs are in good agreement with those computed employing the 10-year period hourly meteorological data. It is concluded that the performance of the three methods has no significant difference for all stations under this investigation. Due to its simplicity, the method of Sandia National Laboratories is recommended for the generation of TMY for this tropical environment. The TMYs developed in this work can be used for solar energy and energy conservation applications at the four locations in Thailand. (author)

  17. Annual report of the Dynamic Meteorology Laboratory, 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    Research on climate simulation; data assimilation and forecasting; nonlinear dynamics and atmospheric turbulence; wave dynamics in the middle atmosphere; African and tropical meteorology and climatology; spectroscopy and modeling of atmospheric radiation; satellite meteorology and climatology; and active lidar remote sensing is presented [fr

  18. Brookhaven National Laboratory meteorological services instrument calibration plan and procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiser, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2013-02-16

    This document describes the Meteorological Services (Met Services) Calibration and Maintenance Schedule and Procedures, The purpose is to establish the frequency and mechanism for the calibration and maintenance of the network of meteorological instrumentation operated by Met Services. The goal is to maintain the network in a manner that will result in accurate, precise and reliable readings from the instrumentation.

  19. Climatic condition of Calabar as typified by some meteorological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aims at analysing some meteorological data collected by the meteorological department of the Margaret Ekpo International Airport, Calabar between 1985 and 2003. The main objectives were to provide average figures and curves of Calabar climate, and to identify possible trends since 1985. Results show that ...

  20. Meteorological aspects of site selection for nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Artemova, N.E.

    1983-01-01

    Factors are considered that characterize the NPP safe layout in a specified region and the physicogeographical conditions determining the meteorological dilution coefficient of NPP radioactive wastes in the atmosphere. A three-point scale system is proposed for estimating physicogeographical factors in three ''fitness'' classes. The data required for calculating meteorological dilution coefficient are given