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Sample records for grazing cattle waste

  1. The grazing pattern of Muturu cattle under range system | Nweze ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighty Muturu cattle were grazed on rangeland, twice daily for two years to determine their grazing pattern. Twenty bulls and cows each between two to four years and forty calves between one to three months were used. The field grazing time (FGT), active grazing time (GT) and grazing travel time (GTT) were monitored.

  2. Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Small mammal communities on cattle and game grazing areas in Namibia. ... small mammal communities on two differently managed farmlands (cattle and game farm) in Namibia over the course of one year. ... AJOL African Journals Online.

  3. Grazing Affects Exosomal Circulating MicroRNAs in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muroya, Susumu; Ogasawara, Hideki; Hojito, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs (c-miRNAs) are associated with physiological adaptation to acute and chronic aerobic exercise in humans. To investigate the potential effect of grazing movement on miRNA circulation in cattle, here we profiled miRNA expression in centrifugally prepared exosomes from the plasma of both grazing and housed Japanese Shorthorn cattle. Microarray analysis of the c-miRNAs resulted in detection of a total of 231 bovine exosomal miRNAs in the plasma, with a constant expression level of let-7g across the duration and cattle groups. Expression of muscle-specific miRNAs such as miR-1, miR-133a, miR-206, miR-208a/b, and miR-499 were undetectable, suggesting the mildness of grazing movement as exercise. According to validation by quantitative RT-PCR, the circulating miR-150 level in the grazing cattle normalized by the endogenous let-7g level was down-regulated after 2 and 4 months of grazing (P cattle equalized when the grazing cattle were returned to a housed situation. Likewise, the levels of miR-19b, miR-148a, miR-221, miR-223, miR-320a, miR-361, and miR-486 were temporarily lowered in the cattle at 1 and/or 2 month of grazing compared to those of the housed cattle (P cattle at 2 months of grazing (P = 0.044). The elevation of miR-451 level in the plasma was coincident with that in the biceps femoris muscle of the grazing cattle (P = 0.008), which suggests the secretion or intake of miR-451 between skeletal muscle cells and circulation during grazing. These results revealed that exosomal c-miRNAs in cattle were affected by grazing, suggesting their usefulness as molecular grazing markers and functions in physiological adaptation of grazing cattle associated with endocytosis, focal adhesion, axon guidance, and a variety of intracellular signaling, as predicted by bioinformatic analysis. PMID:26308447

  4. Day and night grazing by cattle in the Sahel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayantunde, A.A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Hiernaux, P.H.; Keulen, van H.; Udo, H.M.J.

    2002-01-01

    The influence of night grazing on feeding behavior, nutrition and performance of cattle was studied. Twenty-four steers weighing 367 kg (SD = 76) grazed either from 0900 to 1900 (day grazers), 2100 to 0700 (night grazers) or 0900 to 1900 and 2400 to 0400 (day-and-night grazers) during 13 weeks. Four

  5. Sympatric cattle grazing and desert bighorn sheep foraging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrison, Kyle R.; Cain, James W.; Rominger, Eric M.; Goldstein, Elise J.

    2015-01-01

    Foraging behavior affects animal fitness and is largely dictated by the resources available to an animal. Understanding factors that affect forage resources is important for conservation and management of wildlife. Cattle sympatry is proposed to limit desert bighorn population performance, but few studies have quantified the effect of cattle foraging on bighorn forage resources or foraging behavior by desert bighorn. We estimated forage biomass for desert bighorn sheep in 2 mountain ranges: the cattle-grazed Caballo Mountains and the ungrazed San Andres Mountains, New Mexico. We recorded foraging bout efficiency of adult females by recording feeding time/step while foraging, and activity budgets of 3 age-sex classes (i.e., adult males, adult females, yearlings). We also estimated forage biomass at sites where bighorn were observed foraging. We expected lower forage biomass in the cattle-grazed Caballo range than in the ungrazed San Andres range and lower biomass at cattle-accessible versus inaccessible areas within the Caballo range. We predicted bighorn would be less efficient foragers in the Caballo range. Groundcover forage biomass was low in both ranges throughout the study (Jun 2012–Nov 2013). Browse biomass, however, was 4.7 times lower in the Caballo range versus the San Andres range. Bighorn in the Caballo range exhibited greater overall daily travel time, presumably to locate areas of higher forage abundance. By selecting areas with greater forage abundance, adult females in the Caballo range exhibited foraging bout efficiency similar to their San Andres counterparts but lower overall daily browsing time. We did not find a significant reduction in forage biomass at cattle-accessible areas in the Caballo range. Only the most rugged areas in the Caballo range had abundant forage, potentially a result of intensive historical livestock use in less rugged areas. Forage conditions in the Caballo range apparently force bighorn to increase foraging effort by

  6. Traditional cattle grazing in a mosaic alkali landscape: effects on grassland biodiversity along a moisture gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Péter Török

    Full Text Available Extensively managed pastures are of crucial importance in sustaining biodiversity both in local- and landscape-level. Thus, re-introduction of traditional grazing management is a crucial issue in grassland conservation actions worldwide. Traditional grazing with robust cattle breeds in low stocking rates is considered to be especially useful to mimic natural grazing regimes, but well documented case-studies are surprisingly rare on this topic. Our goal was to evaluate the effectiveness of traditional Hungarian Grey cattle grazing as a conservation action in a mosaic alkali landscape. We asked the following questions: (i How does cattle grazing affect species composition and diversity of the grasslands? (ii What are the effects of grazing on short-lived and perennial noxious species? (iii Are there distinct effects of grazing in dry-, mesophilous- and wet grassland types? Vegetation of fenced and grazed plots in a 200-ha sized habitat complex (secondary dry grasslands and pristine mesophilous- and wet alkali grasslands was sampled from 2006-2009 in East-Hungary. We found higher diversity scores in grazed plots compared to fenced ones in mesophilous- and wet grasslands. Higher cover of noxious species was typical in fenced plots compared to their grazed counterparts in the last year in every studied grassland type. We found an increasing effect of grazing from the dry- towards the wet grassland types. The year-to-year differences also followed similar pattern: the site-dependent effects were the lowest in the dry grassland and an increasing effect was detected along the moisture gradient. We found that extensive Hungarian Grey cattle grazing is an effective tool to suppress noxious species and to create a mosaic vegetation structure, which enables to maintain high species richness in the landscape. Hungarian Grey cattle can feed in open habitats along long moisture gradient, thus in highly mosaic landscapes this breed can be the most suitable

  7. Claw lesions and lameness in zero-grazed cattle fed on brewer\\'s ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feet from 218 cattle in 35 zerograzing units were studied from June 2003 to June 2004. Cattle in 20 of the zero-grazing units were fed brewer's grain while 15 of the units did not feed brewer's grain. The units were conveniently selected. Comparing brewer's grain fed and non-grain fed animals, the prevalence of laminitis ...

  8. The impact of cattle and goats grazing on vegetation in oak stands of varying coppicing age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papachristou, Thomas G.; Platis, Panayiotis D.

    2011-01-01

    The effects of cattle and goats grazing on oak shoot growth and herbaceous vegetation in three oak forest stands with different coppicing age (1, 4 and 7 yrs after the clear cutting) were investigated. In April 1997, an experimental area was chosen with three forest stands, which were clear cut in 1996 (CL1996), 1993 (CL1993), and 1990 (CL1990). All stands were grazed by cattle and goats after they were clear cut. In each forest stand, five 10 m × 10 m paired plots were located, which represented grazed and protected patches. Herbage biomass within protected and grazed plots was measured four times each year (spring: May-June, summer: July-August, autumn: September-October, and winter: November-December). Behavioural observations on grazing animals were conducted in the same periods. In both protected and open plots the height and basal diameter of all oak shoots on 5 preselected stumps were measured at the end of five growing periods from 1997 to 2001. All forest stands carried a similar amount of available herbage (averaged over forest stands and growing season, 2614 kg/ha). Grazing animals removed on average 1057 kg/ha throughout the growing period. Cattle mainly consumed herbage (97% of bites) while goats consumed a mixture of oak browse (41% bites), herbaceous species (34% bites), and other woody species browse (25% bites). The height, diameter and volume of oak shoots were affected by grazing. The three forest stands had similar shoot heights in the protected plots in 2001 after 5 years of grazing protection. The volume of oak shoots of the grazed plots were 146.7 cm3 for CL1996, 232.9 cm3 for CL1993, and 239.1 cm3 for CL1990 in 2001 (i.e. 5, 8, and 11 years grazing after the clear cuttings, respectively). The protected plots carried greater volumes of oak shoots, CL1996: 496.0 cm3 (few months grazing before protection), CL1993: 690.0 cm3 (4 years grazing before protection), and CL1990: 344.0 cm3 (7 years grazing before protection). In conclusion, almost

  9. An agent-based model of cattle grazing toxic Geyer's larkspur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Kevin E; Boone, Randall B; Meiman, Paul J

    2018-01-01

    By killing cattle and otherwise complicating management, the many species of larkspur (Delphinium spp.) present a serious, intractable, and complex challenge to livestock grazing management in the western United States. Among the many obstacles to improving our understanding of cattle-larkspur dynamics has been the difficulty of testing different grazing management strategies in the field, as the risk of dead animals is too great. Agent-based models (ABMs) provide an effective method of testing alternate management strategies without risk to livestock. ABMs are especially useful for modeling complex systems such as livestock grazing management, and allow for realistic bottom-up encoding of cattle behavior. Here, we introduce a spatially-explicit, behavior-based ABM of cattle grazing in a pasture with a dangerous amount of Geyer's larkspur (D. geyeri). This model tests the role of herd cohesion and stocking density in larkspur intake, finds that both are key drivers of larkspur-induced toxicosis, and indicates that alteration of these factors within realistic bounds can mitigate risk. Crucially, the model points to herd cohesion, which has received little attention in the discipline, as playing an important role in lethal acute toxicosis. As the first ABM to model grazing behavior at realistic scales, this study also demonstrates the tremendous potential of ABMs to illuminate grazing management dynamics, including fundamental aspects of livestock behavior amidst ecological heterogeneity.

  10. Grassland Fire and Cattle Grazing Regulate Reptile and Amphibian Assembly Among Patches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Danelle M.

    2014-12-01

    Fire and grazing are common management schemes of grasslands globally and are potential drivers of reptilian and amphibian (herpetofauna) metacommunity dynamics. Few studies have assessed the impacts of fire and cattle grazing on herpetofauna assemblages in grasslands. A patch-burn grazing study at Osage Prairie, MO, USA in 2011-2012 created landscape patches with treatments of grazing, fire, and such legacies. Response variables were measured before and after the application of treatments, and I used robust-design occupancy modeling to estimate patch occupancy and detection rate within patches, and recolonization and extinction (i.e., dispersal) across patches. I conducted redundancy analysis and a permuted multivariate analysis of variance to determine if patch type and the associated environmental factors explained herpetofauna assemblage. Estimates for reptiles indicate that occupancy was seasonally constant in Control patches ( ψ ~ 0.5), but declined to ψ ~ 0.15 in patches following the applications of fire and grazing. Local extinctions for reptiles were higher in patches with fire or light grazing ( ɛ ~ 0.7) compared to the controls. For the riparian herpetofaunal community, patch type and grass height were important predictors of abundance; further, the turtles, lizards, snakes, and adult amphibians used different patch types. The aquatic amphibian community was predicted by watershed and in-stream characteristics, irrespective of fire or grazing. The varying responses from taxonomic groups demonstrate habitat partitioning across multiple patch types undergoing fire, cattle grazing, and legacy effects. Prairies will need an array of patch types to accommodate multiple herpetofauna species.

  11. Water Quality Conditions Associated with Cattle Grazing and Recreation on National Forest Lands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie M Roche

    Full Text Available There is substantial concern that microbial and nutrient pollution by cattle on public lands degrades water quality, threatening human and ecological health. Given the importance of clean water on multiple-use landscapes, additional research is required to document and examine potential water quality issues across common resource use activities. During the 2011 grazing-recreation season, we conducted a cross sectional survey of water quality conditions associated with cattle grazing and/or recreation on 12 public lands grazing allotments in California. Our specific study objectives were to 1 quantify fecal indicator bacteria (FIB; fecal coliform and E. coli, total nitrogen, nitrate, ammonium, total phosphorus, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations in surface waters; 2 compare results to a water quality regulatory benchmarks, b recommended maximum nutrient concentrations, and c estimates of nutrient background concentrations; and 3 examine relationships between water quality, environmental conditions, cattle grazing, and recreation. Nutrient concentrations observed throughout the grazing-recreation season were at least one order of magnitude below levels of ecological concern, and were similar to U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA estimates for background water quality conditions in the region. The relative percentage of FIB regulatory benchmark exceedances widely varied under individual regional and national water quality standards. Relative to USEPA's national E. coli FIB benchmarks-the most contemporary and relevant standards for this study-over 90% of the 743 samples collected were below recommended criteria values. FIB concentrations were significantly greater when stream flow was low or stagnant, water was turbid, and when cattle were actively observed at sampling. Recreation sites had the lowest mean FIB, total nitrogen, and soluble-reactive phosphorus concentrations, and there were no significant differences in FIB and

  12. Review: Behavior and daily grazing patterns of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gregorini, P.; Tamminga, S.; Gunther, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grazing ruminants consume their food in discrete grazing events. The frequency and distribution of these events depend on the current physiological state of the animal and its environment. Within a small spatio-temporal scale, foraging decisions such as when to begin, which frequency, and how to

  13. Cattle grazing in semiarid forestlands: Habitat selection during periods of drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. L. Roever; T. DelCurto; M. Rowland; M. Vavra; M. Wisdom

    2015-01-01

    Climate change models are predicting increased frequency and severity of droughts in arid and semiarid environments, and these areas are responsible for much of the world’s livestock production. Because cattle (Bos Taurus) grazing can impact the abundance, distribution, and ecological function of native plant and animal communities, it is important...

  14. Effects of cattle grazing, glyphosate, and prescribed burning on fountaingrass fuel loading in Hawai`i

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.M. Castillo; G. Enriques; M. Nakahara; D. Weise; L. Ford; R. Moraga; R. Vihnanek

    2007-01-01

    Crimson fountaingrass (Pennisetum setaceum) is a nonnative invasive grass that has occupied a significant portion of the western side of the island of Hawai`i. As a result, several fires in excess of 4,049 ha have occurred in the area over the past 20 y. We are studying the effectiveness of cattle grazing, aerial application of glyphosate herbicide, and prescribed...

  15. Magnetic alignment in grazing and resting cattle and deer

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Begall, S.; Červený, Jaroslav; Neef, J.; Burda, H.; Vojtěch, O.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 105, č. 36 (2008), s. 13451-13455 ISSN 0027-8424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60930519 Keywords : grazing behavior * magnetic alignment * magnetoreception * resting behavior * spatial orientation Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 9.380, year: 2008

  16. Effects of previous grazing nutrition and management on feedlot performance of cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouillard, J S; Kuhl, G L

    1999-01-01

    Management strategies designed to improve grazing animal performance can influence feedlot performance and carcass traits both positively and negatively. In spite of the economic relevance of potential interactions between grazing and finishing performance, controlled experiments evaluating integrated production systems are limited in number. Effects of grazing treatments can result from, or be overshadowed by, changes in gut fill, thus making it difficult to assign precise costs to different phases of production. Published reports have considered the effects of stocking rate, duration of grazing, forage characteristics, supplementation, and growth-promoting implants on subsequent finishing performance. Improvements in cattle performance attributed to changes in stocking rate generally have been neutral to positive with respect to effects on finishing performance. Comparisons among forages have led to the suggestion that forage species may contribute to differences in gastrointestinal fill of grazing cattle, thereby influencing gain and efficiency during the subsequent finishing phase. Creep-feeding suckling calves generally has increased preweaning performance but has had relatively little influence on performance during the subsequent finishing phase. Grain supplementation of stocker cattle during the grazing period has improved grazing performance, but effects on subsequent feedlot performance have been inconsistent. Potential carryover effects from protein and mineral supplementation also have been inconclusive. Lack of congruence among studies is puzzling but may be the consequence of highly varied production systems, differences in experimental procedures, and changes in gut fill or mass of internal organs. Based on the studies reviewed, the expression or absence of compensatory growth during the finishing phase appears to be related to the nutritional quality of forages utilized in the grazing period, with higher quality forages tending to yield greater

  17. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal samples from buffalo, wildebeest and zebra grazing together with and without cattle in Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakweba, A A S; Møller, K S; Muumba, J; Muhairwa, A P; Damborg, P; Rosenkrantz, J T; Minga, U M; Mtambo, M M A; Olsen, J E

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether the practice of co-grazing with cattle and wild life constitutes a risk of transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria to wild ungulates. Faecal samples were collected from buffalo (n = 35), wildebeest (n = 40), zebra (n = 40) and cattle (N = 20) from Mikumi National Park, Tanzania (MNP), where cattle is prohibited and from Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) where co-grazing is practiced. The number of coliforms and enterococci resistant to selected antibiotics was determined. Wild life generally harboured higher number of resistant Escherichia coli and Enterococci than cattle, but with no general influence in wild life of co-grazing with cattle. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci were detected in wild life samples, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime and enrofloxacin were observed among isolates from all wild life, but not from cattle. Culture independent estimates of the number of sulII gene copies obtained by qPCR did not differ between wild life from the two sample sites, while tetW was significantly higher in samples from MPN than from NCA. Antibiotic resistant bacteria were not more frequently found in ungulates grazing together with cattle than ungulates without this interaction. This study did not indicate that transmission of antibiotic resistant bacteria is a frequent event following co-grazing of wild life and cattle. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  18. EFFECTS OF FERTILIZER TYPE (CHICKEN LITTER VS. INORGANIC FERTILIZER) AND CATTLE GRAZING ON THE SOIL MICROBIAL COMMUNITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasture plots included unharvested, hayed, light and heavy cattle grazing pressure, fertilized with either inorganic N-P-K or broiler litter. Total phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) followed a seasonal trend and were higher in grazed plots than hayed & unharvested plots. Fungi a...

  19. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of a large 2-year study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate the effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and ser...

  20. Neospora caninum infection in beef cattle reared under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    Karina Mondragón-Zavala; Carlos Cruz-Vázquez; Leticia Medina-Esparza; Miguel Ramos-Parra; Zeferino García-Vázquez

    2011-01-01

    Objetive. To determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies and prevalence of parasite DNA in blood, and estimate the association between seroprevalence and the potential risk of some factors in beef cattle under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico. Materials and methods. Blood samples from 139 cows and only 10 bulls belonging to 13 farms were collected and evaluated by ELISA test to detect antibodies against N. caninum. Furthermore, to determine the presence of parasite DNA, ne...

  1. PRODUCTIVITY OF A SILVOPASTORAL SYSTEM UNDER INTENSIVE MIXED SPECIES GRAZING BY CATTLE AND SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonor Yalid Manriquez-Mendoza

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The presence of forage trees in pastures enhances yield and nutritional quality of forage available for animal feeding. We assessed forage yield and nutritional quality, and weight gain of cattle and sheep foraging in a silvopastoral system containing Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. and the grasses Digitaria eriantha Stent (cv. Pangola, Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst. ex A. Rich. Stapf (cv. Insurgentes and Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs (cv. Tanzania, during three seasons (windy, dry and rainy in two grazing treatments: 1 mixed species grazing by four to five Criollo Lechero Tropical heifers and six female Pelibuey lambs, and 2 simple species grazing by 12 female Pelibuey lambs. Weight gain was greater (P

  2. Grazing patterns on signalgrass pasture according to location of cattle feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the defoliation patterns on B. decumbens cv. Basilisk (signalgrass tiller as a function of influence of feces deposited naturally by cattle. The signalgrass was managed with an average height of 25 cm, under continuous stocking and variable stocking rate. Interval and intensity of defoliation, grazing efficiency and forage loss were evaluated in two sites on pasture - one close and the other distant from feces. The completely randomized block design with three replications was adopted. The defoliation rate of the pasture site close to feces was 40% lower than at that distant from feces. This response pattern was similar to defoliation intensity of leaf blade. The leaf blade of the tiller close to feces also achieved lower de foliation (1.64 than that in the tiller distant from feces (3.97. The relative number of grazed leaf per tiller in the tillers distant from feces was approximately 185% higher than those close to feces. The grazing efficiency was lower in the local close to feces compared with that distant, unlike forage loss. The natural deposition of feces by cattle modifies the grazing and use patterns of B. decumbens under continuous stocking.

  3. Actinide concentrations in tissues from cattle grazing a contaminated range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.; Bernhardt, D.E.

    1977-01-01

    Actinide concentrations in the tissues of beef animals periodically sacrificed and sampled during a 3-year grazing study on a plutonium-contaminated range of the Nevada Test Site are discussed. Actinide concentrations in the skeletons of the cows originally introduced into the study areas showed little increase with increased time of exposure, while those of animals born in the study areas showed a continued upward trend with time. Plutonium-239/americium-241 ratios in tissues and ingesta suggest little differentiation in the uptake of these radionuclides. However, the plutonium-239/plutonium-238 ratios indicate that plutonium-238 is more readily absorbed. The gonadal concentrations of the actinides were significantly higher than those of blood and muscle and approached those of bone. These data indicate that consideration should be given to the plutonium-239 dose to gonads as well as that to bone, liver, and lungs of man

  4. Antimicrobial resistance in faecal samples from buffalo, wildebeest and zebra grazing together with and without cattle in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakweba, A. A. S.; Møller, K. S.; Muumba, J.

    2015-01-01

    number of resistant Escherichia coli and Enterococci than cattle, but with no general influence in wild life of co-grazing with cattle. Vancomycin-resistant Enterococci were detected in wild life samples, and E. coli resistant to cefotaxime and enrofloxacin were observed among isolates from all wild life...

  5. Short-term spider community monitoring after cattle removal in grazed grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme O. da Silva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. At the Pampa Biome, grazing, like others disturbances, affects fauna and flora, creating heterogeneity in the environment. Little is known about how the diversity and richness of arthropods change during this impact. To improve the knowledge of how spider diversity is affected by grazing, experiments were realized at Pampa. The hypothesis is that abundance of spider will be different when comparing grazed and ungrazed areas. A paired block, with two areas of one hectare each, was established in three areas in the Environmental Protection Area of Ibirapuitã (APA Ibirapuitã, state of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. One of these hectares was closed with fences, excluding the catle grazing, in August of 2012. Samplings were realized in November of 2011, 2012 and 2013 using Pitfall traps filled with formol 4% and disposed in an “X” format in each area. For statistical analyses, T test, ANOSIM, ANOVA and Rarefaction were performed. A total of 1,315 spiders were captured, comprising 77 species or morphospecies belonging to 20 families. The family most abundant was Lycosidae followed by Hahniidae, Linyphiidae and Theridiidae. Linyphiidae was the richest family with 14 species or morphospecies identified. All spiders, adults and juveniles, only adults in species and morphospecies, and most abundant species were used as models for statistics. These models revealed no significant difference between grazed and ungrazed areas after three and 15 months of cattle exclusion.

  6. Interactions of Grazing History, Cattle Removal and Time since Rain Drive Divergent Short-Term Responses by Desert Biota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Anke S. K.; Dickman, Chris R.; Wardle, Glenda M.; Greenville, Aaron C.

    2013-01-01

    Arid grasslands are used worldwide for grazing by domestic livestock, generating debate about how this pastoral enterprise may influence native desert biota. One approach to resolving this question is to experimentally reduce livestock numbers and measure the effects. However, a key challenge in doing this is that historical grazing impacts are likely to be cumulative and may therefore confound comparisons of the short-term responses of desert biota to changes in stocking levels. Arid areas are also subject to infrequent flooding rainfalls that drive productivity and dramatically alter abundances of flora and fauna. We took advantage of an opportunity to study the recent effects of a property-scale cattle removal on two properties with similarly varied grazing histories in central Australia. Following the removal of cattle in 2006 and before and after a significant rainfall event at the beginning of 2007, we sampled vegetation and small vertebrates on eight occasions until October 2008. Our results revealed significant interactions of time of survey with both grazing history and grazing removal for vascular plants, small mammals and reptiles. The mammals exhibited a three-way interaction of time, grazing history and grazing removal, thus highlighting the importance of careful sampling designs and timing for future monitoring. The strongest response to the cessation of grazing after two years was depressed reproductive output of plants in areas where cattle continued to graze. Our results confirm that neither vegetation nor small vertebrates necessarily respond immediately to the removal of livestock, but that rainfall events and cumulative grazing history are key determinants of floral and faunal performance in grassland landscapes with low and variable rainfall. We suggest that improved assessments could be made of the health of arid grazing environments if long-term monitoring were implemented to track the complex interactions that influence how native biota

  7. Greenhouse Gas Emission from Beef Cattle Grazing Systems on Temperate Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, C. W.; Rivera-Zayas, J.

    2017-12-01

    At a global scale, cattle production is responsible for 65% of GHG emissions. During 2014 cattle management was the largest emitters of methane (CH4) representing a 23.2% of the total CH4 from anthropogenic activities. Since 2014, gas samples have been gathered and analyzed for carbon dioxide (CO2), CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O) from three grazing areas under three different burning regimes at the temperate grassland of Konza Prairie Biological Station in Kansas. Burning regimes included one site in annually burned, and two sites with patch burned every three years on offset years. Burning regimes showed no effect in N2O emissions (pconsumed on grazed grassland soils; with an increase in consumption with patch burning. Results quantify the role of temperate grasslands as a sink of CH4, and a possible sink of N2O. This experiment evidence CO2, CH4 and N2O emissions behavior as a consequence of burning regimes, and quantify the role of temperate grasslands as a sink of CH4 and N2O in order to understand best practice for resilience of beef cattle management.

  8. Cattle grazing and its long-term effects on sedge meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middleton, Beth

    2004-01-01

    Most people think that wetlands are temporary, that they fill in by natural processes, and eventually become dry land. Some of these outdated ideas have come from the way that this subject has been covered in introductory textbooks in schools (Gibson, 1996). From these texts, we learned incorrectly that over time a lake fills with sediment or organic matter to become a wetland, which dries out to support shrubs and trees, and eventually it is no longer a wetland (Middleton, 1999; Middleton and others, 2004). These old ideas of how vegetation changes (succession) are no longer accepted. Wetland succession should be thought of as a cycle, with natural disturbance driving the changes, depending on the needs of the species. Succession is not something that changes a wetland into something that is not a wetland (Egler, 1978; van der Valk, 1981; Middleton and others, 1991; Klinger, 1996; Middleton, 1999).As an example of how disturbance changes wetlands, I have studied sedge meadows that have become invaded by shrubs after cattle (Bos sp.) have grazed them, in the Lodi Marsh State Natural Area, Wisconsin. Cattle disturbances allowed shrubs to invade sedge meadows, but the cattle also grazed on the shrubs, which kept them small. After the cows were removed, the plant species changed in the sedge meadow from the original sedges (fig. 1), to sedges mixed with growing small shrubs, and eventually to tall shrubs with very small amounts of sedge, called “shrub carr” (Middleton, 2002a). Even though there has been a succession of plant types, the meadows, which began as wetlands, have remained wetlands. The settlers originally found the sedge meadows to be open “sedge” lands and not shrubby. The settlers cut the sedges by hand to feed the cattle. Whitetailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus), though probably not bison (Bison bison), grazed these sedge meadows (Middleton 2002a).Subsequent studies have explored methods to control invasive shrubs to restore the biodiversity of

  9. Ingestive behavior of cattle kept in Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés grass managed under different grazing heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Alves de Freitas Barbosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of grazing heights on daytime behavioral activities of Nellore beef cattle in the rainy season. The experimental area was 12 hectares divided into paddocks of one hectare each. The treatments consisted of four defoliation heights (15, 30, 45 and 60 cm in pastures of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Xaraés with three replicates each. It was used the continuos grazing method, with variable stocking rate. Forage samples collected on the plots were sent to the laboratory for separation of the botanical components, weighing and determination of dry matter, with the material collected by simulated grazing. The variables: grazing time, idle time and ruminating time were evaluated for 12 consecutive hours on days 15 and 16 February 2011, considering the morning and afternoon periods. It was used a completely randomized design. The height of the canopy significantly influenced the daily grazing time and ruminating time, with a quadratic response as a function of time of defoliation. The bite rate decreased as a function of heights studied. However the chemical composition of the material collected by simulated grazing did not differ between treatments. Xaraés grass swards grazed at around 45 cm height provide greater ease of apprehension by grazing cattle.

  10. Effects of nitrogen deposition and cattle grazing on productivity, invasion impact, and soil microbial processes in a serpentine grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasari, J.; Hernandez, D.; Selmants, P. C.; Keck, D.

    2010-12-01

    In recent decades, human activities have vastly increased the amount of biologically available nitrogen (N) in the biosphere. The resulting increase in N availability has broadly affected ecosystems through increased productivity, changes in species composition, altered nutrient cycles, and increases in invasion by exotic plant species, especially in systems that were historically low in N. California serpentine grasslands are N-limited ecosystems historically dominated by native species including several threatened and endangered plants and animals. Cattle grazing has emerged as the primary tool for controlling the impact of nitrophilic exotic grasses whose increased abundance has paralleled the regional traffic-derived increase in atmospheric N deposition. We examined the interactive effects of cattle grazing and N deposition on plant community composition, productivity, invasion resistance, and microbial processes in the Bay Area's largest serpentine grassland to determine the efficacy of current management strategies as well as the biogeochemical consequences of exotic species invasion. In the first two years of the study, aboveground net primary productivity decreased in response to grazing and increased in response to nitrogen addition. However, contrary to our hypotheses the change in productivity was not due to an increase in exotic species cover as there was little overall effect of grazing or N addition on species composition. Microbial activity was more responsive to grazing and N. Potential net N mineralization rates increased with N addition, but were not affected by grazing. In contrast, soil respiration rates were inhibited by grazing, but were not affected by N addition; suggesting strong carbon-limitation of soil microbial activity, particularly under grazing. Site differences in soil depth and grazing intensity were often more important than treatment effects. We suspect that the unusually dry conditions in the first two growing seasons inhibited

  11. Changes in composition and structure of a tropical dry forest following intermittent Cattle grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Stern

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available In northwestern Costa Rica, cattle are being used as a "management tool" to reduce the amount of combustible material, mainly dominated by Hyparrhenia rufa, an African grass. This project is being developed within Parque Nacional Palo Verde and Reserva Biológica Lomas Barbudal, both of which fonn part of the only remaining tropical dry forests in Mesoamerica. To determine the short-term effects of cattle grazing on the natural vegetation, we compared the floristic composition within Palo Verde in an area under intermittent cattle grazing with an area that has not been grazed. There were significantly fewer plant species in the area with intermittent cattle grazing compared to the area with no grazing. Floristic composition of these two habitats was different as reflected by both Fisher's alpha values and the Shannon index of diversity, both of which were significantly higher in the ungrazed site. The ungrazed area contained more plant species and was more similar to mature forest. The structure of the vegetation was significantly different between the intermittently grazed and ungrazed sites with more small stems (1-5 cm dbh and fewer large stems (>5 cm dbh in the intermittently grazed habitat. These results indicate that cattle grazing has an impact on the dry forest by reducing the relative abundance and density of larger tree species and by changing the species composition and structure of the community. The current management plan implemented in Palo Verde and Lomas Barbudal is not appropriate because of the impact that cattle have on the structure of the natural vegetation and should not be considered a viable alternative in other protected areas of dry forest in the Neotropics. We suggest that alternative fire prevention measures be evaluated including hand-cutting H. rufa, the creation of more frequent and larger fire breaks, and the development of green breaks.En el noroeste de Costa Rica se utiliza ganado como una "herramienta de

  12. Effect of nocturnal grazing and supplementation on diet selection, eating time, forage intake and weight changes of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayantunde, A.A.; Fernandez-Rivera, S.; Hiernaux, P.H.Y.; Keulen, van H.; Udo, H.M.J.; Chanono, M.

    2000-01-01

    Sixty-four Azawak male calves were used to study the effect of nocturnal grazing (NG) and supplementation (S) in the dry season on forage and water intake, faecal output, eating time and weight changes of cattle in the Sahel. Treatments were factorial combinations of four levels of NG (0, 2, 4 and 6

  13. Exposure of young dairy cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) through intensive grazing of contaminated pastures in a herd positive for Johne's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fecteau, Marie-Eve; Whitlock, Robert H; Buergelt, Claus D; Sweeney, Raymond W

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the susceptibility of 1- to 2-year-old cattle to Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) on pasture previously grazed by infected cattle. The exposure of yearling cattle to pastures contaminated with MAP resulted in infection with MAP, showing that age resistance to infection can be overcome by pressure of infection.

  14. Corticosterone metabolite concentrations in greater sage-grouse are positively associated with the presence of cattle grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, M.D.; Russell, Robin E.; Franson, J. Christian; Dusek, Robert J.; Hines, M.K.; Gregg, M.; Hofmeister, Erik K.

    2014-01-01

    The sagebrush biome in the western United States is home to the imperiled greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) and encompasses rangelands used for cattle production. Cattle grazing activities have been implicated in the range-wide decline of the sage-grouse, but no studies have investigated the relationship between the physiological condition of sage-grouse and the presence of grazing cattle. We sampled 329 sage-grouse across four sites (two grazed and two ungrazed) encompassing 13 600 km2 during the spring and late summer–early autumn of 2005 to evaluate whether demographic factors, breeding status, plasma protein levels, and residence in a cattle-grazed habitat were associated with the stress hormone corticosterone. Corticosterone was measured in feces as immunoreactive corticosterone metabolites (ICM). Males captured during the lekking season exhibited higher ICM levels than all others. Prenesting female sage-grouse captured in a grazed site had higher ICM levels than those in ungrazed sites and prenesting female plasma protein levels were negatively correlated with ICM concentrations. With the use of a small-scale spatial model, we identified a positive correlation between cattle pat count and sage-grouse ICM levels. Our model indicated that ICM levels increased by 2.60 ng · g-1 dry feces for every increase in the number of cow pats found in the vicinity. Management practices will benefit from future research regarding the consistency and mechanism(s) responsible for this association and, importantly, how ICM levels and demographic rates are related in this species of conservation concern.

  15. Enhancing Soil Productivity Using a Multi-Crop Rotation and Beef Cattle Grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürklü, Songül; Landblom, Douglas; Cihacek, Larry; Brevik, Eric

    2016-04-01

    Agricultural production systems that include complimentary plant, soil and animal interaction contribute to sustainability. In sustainable livestock systems integrated with crop production, the soil resource is impacted positively. The goal of this research was to maximize beef cattle and crop economic yield, while improving the soil resource by increasing soil organic matter (SOM) and subsequently seasonal soil nitrogen fertility over a 5-year period (2011-2015). Each experimental crop field used in the study was 1.74 ha. Small-seeded crops were planted using a JD 1590 No-Till drill. Corn (C) and sunflowers (SF) were planted using a JD 7000 No-Till planter. The cropping sequence used in the study was SF, hard red spring wheat (HRSW), fall seeded winter triticale-hairy vetch (T-HV), spring harvested for hay/mid-June seeded 7-species cover crop (CC; SF, Everleaf Oat, Flex Winter Pea, HV, Winfred Forage Rape, Ethiopian Cabbage, Hunter Leaf Turnip), C (85-day var.), and field pea-barley intercrop (PBY). The HRSW and SF were harvested as cash crops and the PBY, C, and CC were harvested by grazing cattle. In the system, yearling beef steers grazed PBY and unharvested C before feedlot entry, and after weaning, gestating cows grazed CC. Seasonal soil nitrogen fertility was measured at 0-15, 15-30, and 30-61 cm depths approximately every two weeks from June to October, 2014. The regression illustrating the relationship between SOM and average seasonal available mineral nitrogen shows that for each percentage increase in SOM there is a corresponding N increase of 1.47 kg/ha. Nitrogen fertilizer applications for the 5-year period of the study were variable; however, the overall trend was for reduced fertilizer requirement as SOM increased. At the same time, grain, oilseed, and annual forage crop yields increased year over year (2011-2015) except for the 2014 crop year, when above average precipitation delayed seeding and early frost killed the C and SF crops prematurely

  16. Mixed grazing systems of goats with cattle in tropical conditions: an alternative to improving animal production in the pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Alexis, S; Periacarpin, F; Jackson, F; Boval, M

    2014-08-01

    Mixed grazing systems combining sheep and cattle have shown better growth performance for one or both species. This observation has been attributed to their complementary feeding behaviour and the reduced host infection by gastrointestinal nematodes. Less attention has been paid to mixed grazing systems combining goats and cattle. Here, continuously grazing goats mixed with cattle (M) were compared with control goats reared alone (C) under tropical conditions. The comparison was conducted with gastrointestinal nematode-infected (I) and non-infected (nI) goats. Thus, the four treatments were cattle with gastrointestinal nematode-infected goats (MI), gastrointestinal nematode-infected goats alone (CI), cattle with non-infected goats (MnI) and non-infected goats (CnI). Average daily gain (ADG, g/day) and grass production were measured for the four groups of animals (six goats and two heifers treated with MI or MnI) grazing for 3 months on 4 subplots. Monthly measurements were performed over 5-day periods. This pattern was replicated in space for a second set of four subplots and in time for six successive cohorts of animals (bands 1 to 6). The ADG of goats in mixed grazing conditions was higher than controls irrespective of the infection status (32.6 v. 18.4 g/day for MI v. CI; 44.2 v. 33.5 g/day for MnI v. CnI). Concomitantly, the average biomass was lower for mixed grazing animals compared with controls (174 v. 170 for MI and MnI; 235 v. 208 for CI and CnI, respectively), suggesting better use of the sward. For daily BW gain (g/kg DM), mixed grazing also yielded better results than the control (1.88 v. 0.52 g BW/kg DM per day for MI v. CI; 2.08 v. 1.47 g BW/kg DM per day for MnI and CnI). Mixed grazing of goats and heifers offers a promising alternative for increasing goat and overall animal production as well as improving the management of pastures.

  17. FORAGE PRODUCTIVITY IN AGROECOSYSTEMS USING TRADITIONAL AND ROTATIONAL CATTLE GRAZING IN PASO DE OVEJAS, VERACRUZ, MEXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Bautista-Tolentino

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Forage biomass and chemical composition of Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. B.K. Simon & S.W.L. Jacobs were assessed in monoculture (P or associated with trees of Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. (PGu or Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp (PGs, under traditional (TG or rotational (RG cattle grazing regimes, by season of the year (windy: October-February, dry: March-June, and rainy: July-September and annually. Annual forage production (kg DM ha-1 under RG and TG was 8049±586 and 4170±319, respectively; 5441±2225 in P-TG, 2022±82 in PGs-TG, 12326±2094 in PGu-TG, 9612±1331 in PGs-RG, and 7976±737 in PGu-RG. Gliricidia sepium produced 1448±2 and 1660±3 kg DM ha-1 year-1 under PGs-TG and PGs-RG, respectively. Forage yield across plant associations and grazing regimes was higher in the rainy season (5333.6±56.7 kg DM ha-1, and decreased in the windy (2462±349.0 kg DM ha-1 and dry seasons (252.9±2 kg DM ha-1. The PGu system had the highest crude protein content annually (21.8 % and by season (23.1 %, windy, and also showed the least neutral detergent fiber content during the year (55.2 % and by season (55.2 %, rainy. Biomass production and chemical composition of M. maximus in monoculture or associated with G. ulmifolia and G. sepium can be increased by modifying the traditional grazing regimes to a more intensive rotational system during the growth period of the year.

  18. Ruminal changes in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, M P; Nagaraja, T G; Fina, L R

    1986-10-01

    Microbial and fermentation changes in the rumen in monensin- and lasalocid-fed cattle grazing bloat-provocative alfalfa pasture were studied using genetically bloat-susceptible, ruminally-cannulated adult cattle. Monensin at .66 and .99 mg/kg body weight daily reduced the severity of legume bloat by 41 and 73%, respectively. The same doses of lasalocid reduced bloat by 25 and 12%. Comparison of ruminal contents from animals before treatment with ruminal contents from antibiotic-treated animals showed no differences in pH, ammonia, soluble N, soluble carbohydrate, ethanol-precipitable slime and anaerobic bacterial counts. Monensin treatment decreased protozoal numbers and microbial activity, as evidenced by lower gas production from in vitro fermentation of ground alfalfa hay when compared to pretreatment. Lasalocid had no effect on protozoal counts and in vitro gas production. Addition of monensin or lasalocid (12 micrograms/ml) to in vitro fermentation of chopped, fresh alfalfa reduced microbial activity as evidenced by higher soluble N, lower ammonia concentration and decreased gas production. Monensin reduced the amount of ethanol-precipitable slime and protozoal numbers. Reduction in the severity of bloat when monensin was fed appears to be due to decreased protozoal numbers, which resulted in decreased gas production. Lasalocid did not reduce legume bloat because of its minimal effect on the ruminal protozoa.

  19. Impact of cattle grazing on soil and vegetation - a case study in a mountainous region of Austria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohner, Andreas; Foldal, Cecilie; Jandl, Robert

    2015-04-01

    In mountainous regions of Austria and of many other European countries, climate change may cause a further intensification of grassland management. Therefore, the effects of intensive cattle grazing on selected soil chemical and physical properties, above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality, plant species composition and plant species richness at the scale of a representative paddock in a mountainous region of Austria were investigated. At the study site (Styrian Enns valley; 675 m a.s.l.), climate is relatively cool and humid, with a mean annual air temperature of 6.7°C and a mean annual precipitation of 970 mm, of which 66% falls during the vegetation period (April-October). The soil is a deep, base-rich Cambisol with a loamy sand texture. The paddock investigated has a total area of about 2 ha and had been grazed by dairy cows (Brown Swiss) five times per grazing season. The stocking density was 4 cows ha-1 during 180 days from early May to the end of October with a grazing time of about 8 hours per day. The strip grazed permanent pasture was manured annually for a long time, mostly with cattle slurry. Vegetation surveys were carried out using the method of Braun-Blanquet. Above- and below-ground phytomass, forage quality and mineral element concentration in the harvestable above-ground plant biomass were determined by using standard methods. During the grazing season surface soil samples (0-10 cm depth) for chemical analyses were collected before each grazing period (5 analyses of composite samples per site). At the beginning and the end of the grazing season also soil samples for physical analyses were taken from the topsoil (0-15 cm depth). Heavy cattle treading led to a substantial soil compaction especially in the 5-10 cm layer and to a deterioration of topsoil structure. The porous crumb structure was replaced by a compact platy structure. The topsoil was enriched with nutrients (mainly nitrogen, potassium, phosphorus and boron). The degree of

  20. Pathology and bacteria related to digital dermatitis in dairy cattle in all year round grazing system in Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moreira, Tiago F.; Facury Filho, Elias J.; Carvalho, Antônio U.

    2018-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the main causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide, and it is frequently reported in high-yielding, free stall dairy herds from regions with a temperate climate. However, DD is also observed with high prevalence in grazing cattle with a low milk yield in tropi...... data support the hypothesis that Treponema constitutes the main pathogen responsible for DD, independent of the environment and region where cows are kept, and it further suggests D. nodosus as another potentially important pathogen....

  1. Carbon and nitrogen cycling in an integrated soybean-beef cattle production system under different grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of grazing intensity on the decomposition of cover crop pasture, dung, and soybean residues, as well as the C and N release rates from these residues in a long-term integrated soybean-beef cattle system under no-tillage. The experiment was initiated in 2001, with soybean cultivated in summer and black oat + Italian ryegrass in winter. The treatments consisted of four sward heights (10, 20, 30, and 40 cm, plus an ungrazed area, as the control. In 2009-2011, residues from pasture, dung, and soybean stems and leaves were placed in nylon-mesh litter bags and allowed to decompose for up to 258 days. With increasing grazing intensity, residual dry matter of the pasture decreased and that of dung increased. Pasture and dung lignin concentrations and C release rates were lower with moderate grazing intensity. C and N release rates from soybean residues are not affected by grazing intensity. The moderate grazing intensity produces higher quality residues, both for pasture and dung. Total C and N release is influenced by the greater residual dry matter produced when pastures were either lightly grazed or ungrazed.

  2. The Influence of Cattle Wastes on Degraded Savanna Soils of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper examines the effects of cattle wastes on degraded savanna soils of Kwara State, Nigeria. A total of 40 soil samples were systematically collected from five quadrats of 12m x 12m. In 4 identified cattle sheds and 1 in adjacent fallow land (control field) on the same soil, climatic type and ecological zone. Standard ...

  3. Influence of lokpa cattle market wastes on agricultural soil quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of lokpa cattle market wastes on agricultural soil quality. ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... Soil samples were collected from the Central, 3 and 6 m Northwards, Southwards, Eastwards and Westwards of Lokpa cattle market, Umuneochi Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria at ...

  4. Observations on ostertagiasis in young cattle over two grazing seasons with special reference to plasma pepsinogen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Bairden, K; Duncan, J L; Jennings, F W; Parkins, J J

    1979-12-01

    The epidemiology of ostertagiasis in south west Scotland was studied in groups of cattle grazed through two successive grazing seasons separated by a period of winter housing. Towards the end of the first grazing season (September) the numbers of infective larvae (L3) on the pasture had increased to high levels (up to 24,000 L3 per kg) which resulted in high faecal egg counts, worm burdens, plasma pepsinogen levels and the occurrence of clinical ostertagiasis in the calves. By late spring (May) at the onset of the second grazing season, there was an almost complete mortality of the overwintered L3 on the pasture followed by the appearance of moderately high numbers of a new population of L3 in September (up to 9000 L3 per kg). The latter increase in the numbers of L3 was reflected by negligible faecal egg counts, low worm burdens and a moderate elevation of plasma pepsinogens in the second year animals. It therefore seems that although young cattle acquire a good immunity to Ostertagia ostertagi after one season at grass the small infections established in the early part of the second season are capable of contaminating the pasture to levels which could be dangerous for susceptible stock. An allergic reaction in the abomasal mucosa could be the basis of the elevated pepsinogens present in the second year animals.

  5. Levels of high energy cottonseed meal in multiple supplements for grazing cattle: performance and economic evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanis Tilemahos Zervoudakis

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the substitution levels of protein from soybean meal by high energy cottonseed (CS meal in multiple supplements for beef cattle grazing in the dry season on the average daily gain (ADG and economic viability. Twenty Nellore steers with initial body weight of 351.25±35.38 kg and average initial age of 24±0.8 months were used, divided into four paddocks of Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu with 1.6 ha each incompletely randomized design with four animals and five supplements to assess the following supplements: 0CS, 25CS and 50CS corresponding to the level of 0,25 and 50% high energy cottonseed meal to replace the meal soybean, provided the amount of 2 kg/animal/day, which were compared to mineral mixture (MM. The supplement 25CS provided higher (P<0.0001 ADG (0.75kg/animal/day-1 compared to supplement 50CS (0.60kg/animal/day-1. The ADG of animals supplemented with 0CS (0.53kg/animal/day-1 did not differ (P<0.0001 of the ADG of the bulls receiving supplementation with 25CS (0.75k /animal/day-1 and 50CS (0,60kg / animal / day-1. The 25CS supplement showed a higher economic return on invested capital in the period. The use of cottonseed meal high energy level of 25% replacement of soybean meal in multiple supplements provided greater weight gain of cattle and improved economic viability. 

  6. Neospora caninum infection in beef cattle reared under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Mondragón-Zavala

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Objetive. To determine the seroprevalence of N. caninum antibodies and prevalence of parasite DNA in blood, and estimate the association between seroprevalence and the potential risk of some factors in beef cattle under grazing conditions in north-central Mexico. Materials and methods. Blood samples from 139 cows and only 10 bulls belonging to 13 farms were collected and evaluated by ELISA test to detect antibodies against N. caninum. Furthermore, to determine the presence of parasite DNA, nested PCR probe was performed on blood samples. Association between potential risk factors and seroprevalence was estimated. Results. Overall seroprevalence was 23% (35/149 samples, while the prevalence of parasite DNA in blood was 28% (42/149 samples. Of the 149 animals examined 28 (19% were positive to both tests (25 cows and 3 bulls. Concordance between tests was k = 0.63. All herds had seropositive animals with positive parasite DNA detection in blood. The only risk factor identified was the presence of dogs (OR= 2.65. Conclusions. This study showed that bovine neospososis should be considered as an important infectious disease in north-central Mexico herds. Therefore, an epidemiological control should be taken into consideration to avoid the negative effect of this disease on mexican beef industry.

  7. The Influence of Community Management Agreements on Household Economic Strategies : Cattle Grazing and Fishing Agreements on the Lower Amazon Floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David G. McGrath

    2007-10-01

    major factor in the growth of smallholder ranching, and many households have far more cattle than could be sustained on their own property. The result is a classic tragedy of the commons in which growing numbers of cattle are overgrazing grasslands and degrading the productive capacity of floodplain fisheries. Concerned with the impact of cattle on floodplain habitat and conflicts between cattle owners and farmers, many communities have developed collective agreements to regulate grazing on grasslands. As with fishing, the impact of these agreements on household economic strategies varies depending on the degree to which they limit the number of cattle families can graze on grasslands. In this paper, we investigate interactions between smallholders household economic strategies for two major common pool resources and their respective management regimes. The paper identifies conflict between collective and individual strategies for long-term security as the critical issue for floodplain resources and concludes proposing a more household-based approach to collective management.

  8. Effects of Grazing Management and Cattle on Aquatic Habitat Use by the Anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis in Agro-Savannah Landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo M Pelinson

    Full Text Available Because of their strong dependence on the environment, the spatial distribution of pond-breeding amphibians can be greatly influenced by anthropogenic habitat alteration. In some agricultural landscapes in Brazil, the anuran Pseudopaludicola mystacalis appears to be highly influenced by land use. Because adult males and tadpoles of this species are usually found in marshy areas with cattle hoof prints, we hypothesized that P. mystacalis preferentially occupies aquatic habitats with marshy areas that are trampled by cattle. To test our hypothesis, we assessed whether the occurrence of P. mystacalis is associated with the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas, and which environmental features best explain the spatial distribution and abundance of P. mystacalis. To do so, we sampled 38 aquatic habitats in an area intensely used for livestock in southeastern Brazil. We found that the presence of cattle and trampled marshy areas in aquatic habitats are positively associated to P. mystacalis occurrence. Additionally, the abundance of calling males is better predicted by variables of landscape and local habitat structure. Specifically, the size of trampled marshy areas and the proportion of herbaceous vegetation within the aquatic habitat are positively associated with abundance, while distance to nearest aquatic habitat are negatively associated with abundance of calling males. All three of these variables can be directly or indirectly linked to the presence of cattle or grazing management. Therefore, this work shows evidence that Pseudopaludicola mystacalis is positively influenced by grazing management with cattle, and draws attention to other unknown potential consequences of different land use to fresh water diversity.

  9. Contrasting Effects of Cattle Grazing Intensity on Upland-Nesting Duck Production at Nest and Field Scales in the Aspen Parkland, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey M. Warren

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The Aspen Parkland of Canada is one of the most important breeding areas for temperate nesting ducks in North America. The region is dominated by agricultural land use, with approximately 9.3 million ha in pasture land for cattle grazing. However, the effects of using land for cattle grazing on upland-nesting duck production are poorly understood. The current study was undertaken during 2001 and 2002 to investigate how nest density and nesting success of upland-nesting ducks varied with respect to the intensity of cattle grazing in the Aspen Parkland. We predicted that the removal and trampling of vegetation through cattle grazing would reduce duck nest density. Both positive and negative responses of duck nesting success to grazing have been reported in previous studies, leading us to test competing hypotheses that nesting success would (1 decline linearly with grazing intensity or (2 peak at moderate levels of grazing. Nearly 3300 ha of upland cover were searched during the study. Despite extensive and severe drought, nest searches located 302 duck nests. As predicted, nest density was higher in fields with lower grazing intensity and higher pasture health scores. A lightly grazed field with a pasture score of 85 out of a possible 100 was predicted to have 16.1 nests/100 ha (95% CI = 11.7-22.1, more than five times the predicted nest density of a heavily grazed field with a pasture score of 58 (3.3 nests/100 ha, 95% CI = 2.2-4.5. Nesting success was positively related to nest-site vegetation density across most levels of grazing intensity studied, supporting our hypothesis that reductions in vegetation caused by grazing would negatively affect nesting success. However, nesting success increased with grazing intensity at the field scale. For example, nesting success for a well-concealed nest in a lightly grazed field was 11.6% (95% CI = 3.6-25.0%, whereas nesting success for a nest with the same level of nest-site vegetation in a heavily grazed

  10. Influence of grazing regimes on cattle nutrition and performance and vegetation dynamics in Sahelian rangelands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayantunde, A.A.

    1998-01-01

    In the West African Sahel, common herd management practices such as night grazing and corralling influence time available for grazing. When animals are used to deposit manure in the cropping fields, conflicts often arise between the need for animals to graze long enough for adequate feed

  11. Nutritive value of tea (Camellia sinensis, Linn) waste for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ananthasubramaniam, C R; Menachery, M

    1977-01-01

    Tea waste, the residue of instant tea manufacturing, was subjected to feeding trails in cattle in order to find out its nutritive value. The material possesses a digestable crude protein of 9.7% and a total digestible N of 43.0%. The total tanins represented only 1.9%. Results indicated that tea waste is a potential feed source for livestock.

  12. The transmission of Fasciola spp. to cattle and contamination of grazing areas with Fasciola eggs in the Red River Delta region of Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan Anh, Nguyen Thi; Thanh, Dao Thi Ha; Hoan, Doan Huu; Thuy, Do Thu; Khong, Nguyen Viet; Anderson, Norman

    2014-04-01

    At four times during November 2010, cattle with infections of Fasciola spp., in two communes of northern Vietnam, were allocated to two equivalent groups. Cattle in one group were treated with triclabendazole. Faecal samples collected monthly from both groups were tested for Fasciola copro-antigens and the presence of Fasciola eggs. Re-infection of treated cattle occurred from early March to late November, coinciding with high weekly totals of rainfall. Contamination of grazing areas by untreated cattle was high and relatively constant throughout the year. However, contamination was reduced to undetectable amounts for 8 to 12 weeks after treatment and even at 20 weeks was only 50% or less of the pre-treatment amounts. Therefore, treatments given in mid-September and again in early April, at the start of the wet season, may be sufficient to prevent contamination of grazing areas and reduce the prevalence and severity of Fasciola infections in cattle.

  13. Whole or ground millet grain provided in two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle: nutritional parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcos Beltrame Benatti

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the processing of millet grain provided at two supplementation frequencies for grazing beef cattle during the dry season on nutritional parameters. Five rumen-cannulated crossbred steers, with 24 to 26 months of age and average body weight of 428.6±26.06 kg, were assigned to a Latin square design (5 × 5 in a 2 × 2 + 1 factorial arrangement, as follows: two forms of millet grain (whole grains - or ground; WG - GG, two strategies of concentrate supplementation (daily distribution - 7X; or three times a week - 3X and a control treatment (mineral mixture - MM. Animals were kept in five paddocks of 0.24 ha each with Marandu grass pastures. Concentrate supplements were supplied at 2.00 and 4.66 kg/animal/day for treatments 7X and 3X, respectively. The concentrate supplementation enhanced the intake of total dry matter (DM and organic matter (OM and nutrients compared with mineral supplementation. No differences were found between dry matter intake and forage organic matter intake. The values of digestibility coefficients of DM, OM, ether extract, total carbohydrates and non-fiber carbohydrates were increased by concentrate supplementation. Regarding concentrations of rumen ammonia nitrogen, the interactions among time × treatment × day and day × treatment had effects on the measurements of ruminal pH. Plasma urea nitrogen, urinary urea excretion and urinary urea N excretion differed only between MM treatment and the others, with no interference of grain physical form and supplementation frequency on those variables. The millet grain processing does not alter forage intake, but improves digestibility. Daily supplementation increases digestibility of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber.

  14. Introducing cattle grazing to a noxious weed-dominated rangeland shifts plant communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josh S. Davy

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Invasive weed species in California's rangelands can reduce herbaceous diversity, forage quality and wildlife habitat. Small-scale studies (5 acres or fewer have shown reductions of medusahead and yellow starthistle using prescribed grazing on rangelands, but little is published on the effects of pasture-scale (greater than 80 acres prescribed grazing on weed control and plant community responses. We report the results of a 6-year collaborative study of manager-applied prescribed grazing implemented on rangeland that had not been grazed for 4 years. Grazing reduced medusahead but did not alter yellow starthistle cover. Medusahead reductions were only seen in years that did not have significant late spring rainfall, suggesting that it is able to recover from heavy grazing if soil moisture is present. Later season grazing appears to have the potential to suppress medusahead in all years. In practice, however, such grazing is constrained by livestock drinking water availability and forage quality, which were limited even in years with late spring rainfall. Thus, we expect that grazing treatments under real-world constraints would reduce medusahead only in years with little late spring rainfall. After 10 years of grazing exclusion, the ungrazed plant communities began to shift, replacing medusahead with species that have little value, such as ripgut and red brome.

  15. A 4-year study on the effectiveness of alternate grazing of cattle and sheep in the control of bovine parasitic gastro-enteritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairden, K; Armour, J; Duncan, J L

    1995-11-01

    In many farming enterprises, animal management systems which could provide a practical and effective alternative to chemotherapy for the control of bovine helminthosis would be readily accepted. One system which has been proposed and shown to be effective in the short or medium term involves grazing different host species on a rotational basis. The study described here examined the effect of alternating cattle and sheep annually over an extended period of 4 years. Up to the second grazing season the system appeared to be successful, with a marked reduction in the cattle worm burdens. However, by the end of the study period the parasite burdens in calves grazed on the alternated pasture were equal to, or greater than, those of set-stocked control animals. It was thus clear that the alternate grazing strategy had failed. Data obtained from other parameters measured, i.e. faecal egg counts, pasture larval numbers and plasma pepsinogen levels, confirmed this observation.

  16. Alterations in serotonin receptor-induced contractility of bovine lateral saphenous vein in cattle grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klotz, J L; Brown, K R; Xue, Y; Matthews, J C; Boling, J A; Burris, W R; Bush, L P; Strickland, J R

    2012-02-01

    As part of a 2-yr study documenting the physiologic impact of grazing endophyte-infected tall fescue on growing cattle, 2 experiments were conducted to characterize and evaluate effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue pastures on vascular contractility and serotonin receptors. Experiment 1 examined vasoconstrictive activities of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT), α-methylserotonin (ME5HT; a 5HT(2) receptor agonist), d-lysergic acid (LSA), and ergovaline (ERV) on lateral saphenous veins collected from steers immediately removed from a high-endophyte-infected tall fescue pasture (HE) or a low-endophyte-infected mixed-grass (LE) pasture. Using the same pastures, Exp. 2 evaluated effects of grazing 2 levels of toxic endophyte-infected tall fescue on vasoconstrictive activities of (±)-1-(2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodophenyl)-2-aminopropane hydrochloride (DOI), BW 723C86 (BW7), CGS-12066A (CGS), and 5-carboxamidotryptamine hemiethanolate maleate (5CT), agonists for 5HT(2A),( 2B), 5HT(1B), and 5HT(7) receptors, respectively. One-half of the steers in Exp. 2 were slaughtered immediately after removal from pasture, and the other one-half were fed finishing diets for >91 d before slaughter. For Exp. 1, maximal contractile intensities were greater (P 91 d. Experiment 1 demonstrated that grazing of HE pastures for 89 to 105 d induces functional alterations in blood vessels, as evidenced by reduced contractile capacity and altered serotonergic receptor activity. Experiment 2 demonstrated that grazing HE pastures alters vascular responses, which may be mediated through altered serotonin receptor activities, and these alterations may be ameliorated by the removal of ergot alkaloid exposure as demonstrated by the absence of differences in finished steers.

  17. The Utilization of Sago Waste as Cattle Feed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiro, B. M. W.; Beding, P. A.; Baliadi, Y.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed was to evaluate nutrition value of sago waste and its effect on cattle performance.The collected data were analyzed using analysis of variance. The results of the study showed that of the utilization of sago waste had a positive effect on average daily gain (ADG), where with 2% sago waste of body weight (P2 treatment) gave the highest ADG 0.43 ± 0.02 kg/h/day and cattle which consumed only forage without sago waste (P0) gave the lowest ADG 0.26 ± 0.04 kg/h/day. Statistical analysis showed that the addition of sago waste significantly affected the ADG (P0.05), but significant affect(Pcattle.

  18. Dairy cattle on Norwegian alpine rangelands – grazing preferences and milk quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sickel, H; Abrahamsen, R K; Eldegard, K; Lunnan, T; Norderhaug, A; Petersen, M.A.; Sickel, M.; Steenhuisen, F.; Ohlson, M.

    2014-01-01

    The results from the study ‘Effects of vegetation and grazing preferences on the quality of alpine dairy products’ will be presented. The main objective of the project was to investigate the connections bet - ween alpine rangeland vegetation, landscape use and grazing preferences of free ranging

  19. Cattle grazing and fish recovery on US federal lands: can social-ecological systems science help?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan Charnley; Hannah Gosnell; Kendra L Wendel; Mary M Rowland; Michael J Wisdom

    2018-01-01

    In the western US, grazing management on federal lands containing habitat for fish species listed under the US Endangered Species Act (ESA) has sparked social conflict and litigation for decades. To date, the problem has been addressed through a top-down environmental governance system, but rangeland managers and grazing permittees now believe there is a need for more...

  20. Tree-shrub associations in grazed woodlands: First rodents, then cattle?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C.; Verwijmeren, M.

    2011-01-01

    Spatial associations of tree saplings with spiny or toxic plants in grazed woodlands are generally explained by associational resistance, i. e., protection against grazing via a well-defended neighbor. In this study, we tested whether directed seed dispersal and post-dispersal seed removal by wood

  1. Acoustic monitoring system to quantify ingestive behavior of free-grazing cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methods to estimate intake in grazing livestock include using markers, visual observation, mechanical sensors that respond to jaw movement and acoustic recording. In most of the acoustic monitoring studies, the microphone is inverted on the forehead of the grazing livestock and the skull is utilize...

  2. The Behavioural Responses of Beef Cattle (Bos taurus to Declining Pasture Availability and the Use of GNSS Technology to Determine Grazing Preference

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Manning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Combining technologies for monitoring spatial behaviour of livestock with technologies that monitor pasture availability, offers the opportunity to improve the management and welfare of extensively produced beef cattle. The aims of the study were to investigate changes to beef cattle behaviour as pasture availability changed, and to determine whether Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS technology could determine livestock grazing preference and hence improve pasture management and paddock utilisation. Data derived from GNSS collars included distance travelled and location in the paddock. The latter enabled investigation of individual animal interactions with the underlying Normalised Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI and pasture biomass of the paddock. As expected, there was a significant temporal decrease in NDVI during the study and an increase in distance travelled by cattle (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.88. The proportion of time budget occupied in grazing behaviour also increased (P < 0.001; r2 = 0.71. Cattle showed a partial preference for areas of higher pasture biomass/NDVI, although there was a large amount of variation over the course of the study. In conclusion, cattle behaviour changed in response to declining NDVI, highlighting how technologies that monitor these two variables may be used in the future as management tools to assist producers better manage cattle, to manipulate grazing intensity and paddock utilisation.

  3. Ixodid ticks on cattle belonging to small-scale farmers at 4 communal grazing areas in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Bryson

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Ixodid ticks were collected during the period September 1991 to August 1993 from cattle belonging to small-scale farmers utilising 4 communal grazing areas. Three of these were in North West Province and 1 in Mpumalanga province, South Africa. Ten tick species were collected in North West Province and 7 in Mpumalanga. The adults of Amblyomma hebraeum, Rhipicephalus appendiculatus and Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were most numerous in North West Province, while in Mpumalanga Boophilus decoloratus comprised more than 75% of the total population. Amblyomma hebraeum was present on all grazing areas, and heavy infestations of adults occurred during the period October to May on 1 of these. Few B. decoloratus were collected in North West Province, chiefly because the sampling method was inadequate, and most of these were present during early summer (October to December and late summer and autumn (March to May. The initially low population of B. decoloratus in Mpumalanga increased substantially towards the conclusion of the survey, probably because of the cessation of dipping. Boophilus microplus was present in small numbers on 2 grazing areas in the North West Province. Adult Hyalomma marginatum rufipes reached peak numbers from December to February and Hyalomma truncatum from February to April in the North West Province. Only H. marginatum rufipes was collected in Mpumalanga. Rhipicephalus appendiculatus was present on all the grazing areas, with most adults present from December to April. Most adult Rhipicephalus evertsi evertsi were collected from September to April and Rhipicephalus simus was present during the period October-April.

  4. Epidemiological studies of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Schistosoma mattheei infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Faecal samples of cattle were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas, respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined at monthly intervals from November 1998 to October 2000, a period of 24 months, in six dams and six streams in the highveld and nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Monthly, each site was sampled for relative snail density, the vegetation cover and type, and physical and chemical properties of the water. Mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Snails collected at the same time were individually examined for shedding of cercariae of S. mattheei and Schistosoma haematobium. A total of 16 264 (5 418 calves, 5 461 weaners and 5 385 adults faecal samples were collected during the entire period of study and 734 (4.5 % were positive for S. mattheei eggs. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P < 0.001, calves compared to adult cattle (P < 0.01 and the wet season compared to the dry season (P < 0.01. Faecal egg output peaked from October/ November to March / April for both years of the study. Bulinus globosus, the snail intermediate host of S. mattheei was recorded from the study sites with the highveld having a significantly higher abundance of the snails than the lowveld (P < 0.01. Monthly densities of B. globosus did not show a clearcut pattern although there were peaks between March / May and September / November. The mean num ber of snails collected was positively correlated with the water plants Nymphaea caerulea and

  5. An investigation into the causes of low calving percentage in communally grazed cattle in Jericho, North West Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mokantla

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The communal grazing system is generally understood to have a low input, low output type of management. However, the actual inputs and outputs of the farmers are not well known and the farmers are often unaware of their problems. Although the causes of low calving percentage are well understood in commercial beef farming enterprises in South Africa, the same is not true for communal farming systems. The aim of this study was to determine the reproductive performance of beef cattle on a communal farming system in Jericho, NorthWest Province. Ten farmers from five villages with a total of 265 cows and 13 bulls were purposively selected. The selection criteria were that each farmer had to have a minimum of 10 breeding cows and a bull and be willing to participate in the study. This was followed by a 12-month longitudinal study with monthly herd visits where cows were examined rectally and bulls (n = 13 were subjected to a single breeding soundness evaluation. The calving percentage was found to be 37.7 %. This is lower than the recorded percentages for commercial beef cattle on extensive grazing. The factors playing a role in low calving percentage were ranked using field data. From this it appeared that failure of cows to become pregnant was the main cause of poor calving percentage as opposed of loss of calves through abortion or resorption. Sub-fertility of the bulls was found to be of great significance and it is proposed that this be included in extension messages and that bulls be fertility tested routinely. Poor body condition score of cows, mainly caused by poor management, was also considered to play a major role in reducing pregnancy rates. Infectious diseases like trichomonosis, campylobacteriosis and brucellosis played a much leser role than anticipated.

  6. Collection methods, data compilation, and lessons learned from a study of stream geomorphology associated with riparian cattle grazing along the Fever River, University of Wisconsin- Platteville Pioneer Farm, Wisconsin, 2004–11

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peppler, Marie C.; Fitzpatrick, Faith A.

    2018-03-09

    Stream geomorphic characteristics were monitored along a 0.8-mile reach of the Fever River in the Driftless Area of southwestern Wisconsin from 2004 to 2011 where cattle grazed in paddocks along the riverbank at the University of Wisconsin-Platteville’s Pioneer Farm. The study reach encompassed seven paddocks that covered a total of 30 acres on both sides of the river. Monitoring data included channel crosssection surveys, eroding bank measurements and photograph points, erosion-pin measurements, longitudinal profile surveys, measurements of the volume of soft sediment in the channel, and repeated time-lapse photographs. Characteristics were summarized into subreaches by use of a geographic information system. From 2004 to 2007, baseline monitoring was done to identify geomorphic conditions prior to evaluating the effects of management alternatives for riparian grazing. Subsequent to the full-scale baseline monitoring, additional data were collected from 2007 to 2011. Samples of eroding bank and in-channel soft sediment were collected and analyzed for dry bulk density in 2008 for use in a sediment budget. One of the pastures was excluded from cattle grazing in the fall of 2007; in 2009 channel cross sections, longitudinal profiles, erosion-pin measurements, photographs, and a soft sediment survey were again collected along the full 0.8-mile reach for a comparison to baseline monitoring data. Channel cross sections were surveyed a final time in 2011. Lessons learned from bank monitoring with erosion pins were most numerous and included the need for consistent tracking of each pin and whether there was deposition or erosion, timing of measurements and bank conditions during measurements (frozen, postflood), and awareness of pins loosening in place. Repeated freezing and thawing of banks and consequential mass wasting and jointing enhance fluvial erosion. Monitoring equipment in the paddocks was kept flush to the ground or located high on posts to avoid injuring the

  7. Epidemiological studies of amphistome infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of amphistome infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Cattle faecal samples were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas, respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined by sampling at monthly intervals for a period of 24 months (November 1998 to October 2000 in six dams and six streams in the highveld and in nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Each site was sampled for relative snail density and the vegetation cover and type, physical and chemical properties of water, and mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Aquatic vegetation and grass samples 0-1 m from the edges of the snail habitats were collected monthly to determine the presence or absence of amphistome metacercariae. Snails collected at the same time were individually checked for the emergence of larval stages of amphistomes. A total of 16 264 (calves 5 418, weaners 5 461 and adults 5 385 faecal samples were collected during the entire period of the study and 4 790 (29.5 % of the samples were positive for amphistome eggs. For both regions the number of animals positive for amphistome eggs differed significantly between the 2 years, with the second year having a significantly higher prevalence (P < 0.01 than the first year. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P < 0.001, for adult cattle than calves (P < 0.01, and in the wet over the dry season (P < 0.01. Faecal egg output peaked from October to March in both years of the study. Bulinus tropicus, Bulinus forskalii and Biomphalaria pfeifferi were recorded from the study sites. The main

  8. Effects of cattle and rabbit grazing on clonal expansion of spiny shrubs in wood-pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, Christian; Bakker, Elisabeth S.; Apol, M. Emile F.; Olff, Han

    2010-01-01

    Spiny shrubs protect non-defended plants against herbivores. Therefore, they play a role for the diversity in grazed ecosystems. While the importance of these keystone nurse shrubs is presently recognized, little is known about the factors controlling them. This knowledge is required to understand

  9. Monitoring and assessment of ingestive chewing sounds for prediction of herbage intake rate in grazing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, J R; Cangiano, C A; Pece, M A; Larripa, M J; Milone, D H; Utsumi, S A; Laca, E A

    2018-05-01

    Accurate measurement of herbage intake rate is critical to advance knowledge of the ecology of grazing ruminants. This experiment tested the integration of behavioral and acoustic measurements of chewing and biting to estimate herbage dry matter intake (DMI) in dairy cows offered micro-swards of contrasting plant structure. Micro-swards constructed with plastic pots were offered to three lactating Holstein cows (608±24.9 kg of BW) in individual grazing sessions (n=48). Treatments were a factorial combination of two forage species (alfalfa and fescue) and two plant heights (tall=25±3.8 cm and short=12±1.9 cm) and were offered on a gradient of increasing herbage mass (10 to 30 pots) and number of bites (~10 to 40 bites). During each grazing session, sounds of biting and chewing were recorded with a wireless microphone placed on the cows' foreheads and a digital video camera to allow synchronized audio and video recordings. Dry matter intake rate was higher in tall alfalfa than in the other three treatments (32±1.6 v. 19±1.2 g/min). A high proportion of jaw movements in every grazing session (23 to 36%) were compound jaw movements (chew-bites) that appeared to be a key component of chewing and biting efficiency and of the ability of cows to regulate intake rate. Dry matter intake was accurately predicted based on easily observable behavioral and acoustic variables. Chewing sound energy measured as energy flux density (EFD) was linearly related to DMI, with 74% of EFD variation explained by DMI. Total chewing EFD, number of chew-bites and plant height (tall v. short) were the most important predictors of DMI. The best model explained 91% of the variation in DMI with a coefficient of variation of 17%. Ingestive sounds integrate valuable information to remotely monitor feeding behavior and predict DMI in grazing cows.

  10. Soil Microbial Community Changes in Wooded Mountain Pastures due to Simulated Effects of Cattle Grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kohler, F.; Hamelin, J.; Gillet, F.; Gobat, J.M.; Buttler, A.

    2005-01-01

    The effect of cattle activity on pastures can be subdivided into three categories of disturbances: herbage removal, dunging and trampling. The objective of this study was to assess separately or in combination the effect of these factors on the potential activities of soil microbial communities and

  11. Epidemiological studies of Fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available During the period between January 1999 and December 2000, the distribution and seasonal patterns of Fasciola gigantica infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were determined through monthly coprological examination. Cattle faecal samples were collected from 12 and nine dipping sites in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas respectively. Patterns of distribution and seasonal fluctuations of the intermediate host-snail populations and the climatic factors influencing the distribution were also determined by sampling at monthly intervals for a period of 24 months (November 1998 to October 2000 in six dams and six streams in the highveld and in nine dams in the lowveld communal grazing areas. Each site was sampled for relative snail density and the vegetation cover and type, physical and chemical properties of water, and mean monthly rainfall and temperature were recorded. Aquatic vegetation and grass samples 0-1 m from the edges of the snail habitats were collected monthly to determine the presence or absence of F. gigantica metacercariae. Snails collected at the same time were individually checked for the emergence of larval stages of F. gigantica. A total of 16 264 (calves 5 418; weaners 5 461 and adults 5 385 faecal samples were collected during the entire period of the study and 2 500 (15.4 % of the samples were positive for F. gigantica eggs. Significantly higher prevalences were found in the highveld compared to the lowveld (P < 0.001, for adult cattle than calves ( P < 0.01 and in the wet season over the dry season (P < 0.01. Faecal egg output peaked from August / September to March / April for both years of the study. Lymnaea natalensis, the snail intermediate host of F. gigantica was recorded from the study sites with the highveld having a significantly higher abundance of the snail species than the lowveld (P < 0.01. The snail population was low between December and March and started

  12. The effect of temperate or tropical pasture grazing state and grain-based concentrate allocation on dairy cattle production and behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C E F; Kaur, R; Millapan, L O; Golder, H M; Thomson, P C; Horadagoda, A; Islam, M R; Kerrisk, K L; Garcia, S C

    2018-06-01

    Grain-based concentrate (GBC) supplement is of high cost to dairy farmers as a feed source as opposed to grazed pasture. Milk production response to GBC is affected by the composition and nutritive value of the remainder of the diet, animal factors, and interactions between forage type and level of GBC. In grazing systems, dairy cattle encounter contrasting pasture states, primarily because the social structure of the herd affects the timing of when each animal accesses a paddock after milking as a result of a relatively consistent cow milking order. However, the effect of feed management, namely pasture state and GBC allocation, on dairy cattle production and behavior is unknown. We examined the effect of varying GBC allocation for dairy cattle grazing differing states of kikuyu grass (Pennisetum clandestinum, a tropical pasture species; experiment 1) and annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum L., a temperate pasture species; experiment 2) on dry matter intake, milk production and composition, and grazing behavior. For each experiment, 90 lactating dairy cattle were randomly allocated to 2 consistent (fresh-fresh and depleted-depleted) and 2 inconsistent (fresh-depleted and depleted-fresh pasture state treatments (defined as sequences of pasture state allocation for the morning and afternoon grazing events) and 3 GBC treatments [2.7, 5.4, and 8.1 kg of dry matter (DM)/cow per day], giving 12 treatment combinations for each experiment. The duration of each experiment was 14 d, with the first 7 d used as adaptation to treatment. In each experiment, 3 cattle were selected from each of the 12 pasture type × GBC treatment groups within the experimental herd to determine herbage intake and total DM digestibility using the n-alkanes method (n = 36). There was no interaction between kikuyu grass or ryegrass pasture state and GBC level for intake, digestibility, or milk yield or components. Dairy cattle offered fresh-fresh and depleted-fresh ryegrass produced 9% more milk

  13. The prevalence of serum antibodies to tick-borne infections in Mbale District, Uganda: The effect of agro-ecological zone, grazing management and age of cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rubaire-Akiiki

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Between August and October 2000, a cross-sectional study was conducted in smallholder dairy farms in Mbale District, Uganda to assess the prevalence of ticks and tick-borne diseases under different grazing systems and agro-ecological zones and understand the circumstances under which farmers operated. A questionnaire was administered to obtain information on dairy farm circumstances and practices. A total of 102 farms were visited and sera and ticks were collected from 478 animals. Sero-prevalence of tick-borne diseases was determined using an enzyme-linked immunoassay. Acaricides were used indiscriminately but the intensity of their use varied with the grazing system and zone. Cattle from different farms mixed for various reasons. During the dry seasons farmers have to get additional fodder from outside their farms that can result in importation of ticks. The prevalence of ticks and serum antibodies to tick-borne infections differed across the grazing systems and zones. The highest serum antibody prevalence (>60% was recorded in the lowland zone under the free range and tethering grazing systems. The lowest tick challenge and serum antibody levels (<50% were recorded in the midland and upland zones under a zero-grazing system. These findings suggest that endemic stability to East Coast Fever, babesiosis and anaplasmosis is most likely to have existed in the lowland zone, particularly, under the tethering and free-range grazing systems. Also, endemic stability for babesiosis existed in the upland zones. Endemic instability for East Coast Fever existed in the midland and upland zones. These structured observational studies are instrumental in planning of control strategies for ticks and tick borne diseases since production systems and the cattle population at high risk of the diseases in the district have been identified.

  14. Effect of Duddingtonia flagrans against Ostertagia ostertagi in cattle grazing at different stocking rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernández, A.S.; Larsen, M.; Henningsen, E.

    1999-01-01

    divided into 3 comparable groups and allocated to 3 similar paddocks in each of the 2 trials. Two of the 3 groups received fungal material once per day during the initial 2 months, either at high dose (10(6) fungal spores/kg body weight) or low dose (5 x 10(5) or 2.5 x 10(5) fungal spores/kg body weight......The efficacy of an isolate of the nematophagous fungus Duddingtonia flagrans against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle was examined at 2 dose levels on 2 permanent pastures, with high and low stocking rates, respectively. Thirty calves, experimentally infected with Ostertagia ostertagi, were...... seemed not to be very heavy, and a conclusive effect of the fungi at the dose-level used could not be detected....

  15. The effects of PPO activity on the proteome of ingested red clover and implications for improving the nutrition of grazing cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, E H; Onime, L A; Davies, T E; Morphew, R M; Kingston-Smith, A H

    2016-06-01

    Increasing the rumen-stable protein content of feed would lead to improved nitrogen utilisation in cattle, and less nitrogenous waste. Red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) is a high protein ruminant feed containing high polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity. PPO mediated protein-quinone binding has been linked to protecting plant proteins from proteolysis. To explore the mechanism underlying the effect of PPO on protein protection in fresh forage feeds, proteomic components of feed down-boli produced from wild-type red clover and a low PPO mutant, at point of ingestion and after 4h in vitro incubation with rumen inoculum were analysed. Significant differences in proteomic profiles between wild-type and mutant red clover were determined after 4h incubation, with over 50% less spots in mutant than wild-type proteomes, indicating decreased proteolysis in the latter. Protein identifications revealed preferentially retained proteins localised within the chloroplast, suggesting that PPO mediated protection in the wild-type operates due to the proximity of target proteins to the enzyme and substrates, either diffusing into this compartment from the vacuole or are present in the chloroplast. This increased understanding of protein targets of PPO indicates that wider exploitation of the trait could contribute to increased protein use efficiency in grazing cattle. One of the main challenges for sustainable livestock farming is improving capture of dietary nitrogen by ruminants. Typically up to 70% of ingested protein-N is excreted representing a loss of productivity potential and a serious environmental problem in terms of nitrogenous pollution of lands and water. Identification of key characteristics of rumen-protected protein will deliver target traits for selection in forage breeding programmes. The chloroplastic enzyme PPO catalyzes the oxidation of phenols to quinones, which react with protein. Little is currently known about the intracellular protein targets of the products

  16. Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks Show a Mixed Response to Cattle Grazing in the Intermountain Region of British Columbia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan L. Harrison

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing in the shortgrass steppe of the Intermountain region of British Columbia is predicted to have significant effects on grassland habitats and their associated ground-nesting bird communities. We tested whether grazed and ungrazed sites could be discriminated on the basis of their vegetation communities, whether the abundance of two ground-nesting bird species, Vesper Sparrow (Pooecetes gramineus and Western Meadowlark (Sturnella neglecta, differed between grazed and ungrazed sites, and whether vegetation variables found to differ between grazed and ungrazed plots could be used to predict the abundance of the two bird species at a fine scale. Grazed sites were easily distinguishable from a site that had been ungrazed for >30 years based on the structure and composition of their vegetation communities. However, more detailed grazing categories could not be distinguished on the basis of vegetation characteristics. Despite the existence of grazing effects on vegetation structure and composition, we found no consistent differences in abundance of Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks between the grazed and ungrazed sites. However, there was weak evidence that the abundance of both species was higher at fine-scale plots (100 m radius point count station with less bare ground and taller vegetation. Bare ground cover was lower on grazed plots, but vegetation was taller on ungrazed plots. Combined, our results suggest that low intensity grazing leads to grassland habitat change with both negative and positive effects on Vesper Sparrows and Western Meadowlarks, resulting in no net change in their broad-scale abundance.

  17. Estimates of diet selection in cattle grazing cornstalk residues by measurement of chemical composition and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy of diet samples collected by ruminal evacuation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzel, Emily A; Smart, Alexander J; St-Pierre, Benoit; Selman, Susan L; Bailey, Eric A; Beck, Erin E; Walker, Julie A; Wright, Cody L; Held, Jeffrey E; Brake, Derek W

    2018-05-04

    Six ruminally cannulated cows (570 ± 73 kg) fed corn residues were placed in a 6 × 6 Latin square to evaluate predictions of diet composition from ruminally collected diet samples. After complete ruminal evacuation, cows were fed 1-kg meals (dry matter [DM]-basis) containing different combinations of cornstalk and leaf and husk (LH) residues in ratios of 0:100, 20:80, 40:60, 60:40, 80:20, and 100:0. Diet samples from each meal were collected by removal of ruminal contents after 1-h and were either unrinsed, hand-rinsed or machine-rinsed to evaluate effects of endogenous compounds on predictions of diet composition. Diet samples were analyzed for neutral (NDF) and acid (ADF) detergent fiber, acid detergent insoluble ash (ADIA), acid detergent lignin (ADL), crude protein (CP), and near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to calculate diet composition. Rinsing type increased NDF and ADF content and decreased ADIA and CP content of diet samples (P content of diet samples. Differences in concentration between cornstalk and LH residues within each chemical component were standardized by calculating a coefficient of variation (CV). Accuracy and precision of estimates of diet composition were analyzed by regressing predicted diet composition and known diet composition. Predictions of diet composition were improved by increasing differences in concentration of chemical components between cornstalk and LH residues up to a CV of 22.6 ± 5.4%. Predictions of diet composition from unrinsed ADIA and machine-rinsed NIRS had the greatest accuracy (slope = 0.98 and 0.95, respectively) and large coefficients of determination (r2 = 0.86 and 0.74, respectively). Subsequently, a field study (Exp. 2) was performed to evaluate predictions of diet composition in cattle (646 ± 89 kg) grazing corn residue. Five cows were placed in 1 of 10 paddocks and allowed to graze continuously or to strip-graze corn residues. Predictions of diet composition from ADIA, ADL, and NIRS did not

  18. Analysis of the Potential Solid Waste Palm Oil as Animal Feed Cattle in Province Riau

    OpenAIRE

    Chalid, Nursiah; Flordeluna, Cattelya

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to identify and analyze the potential of solid waste as cattle feed in the Riau province where oil palm solid waste is estimated each year has increased the amount of solid waste production as the increasing production of fresh fruit bunches ( FFB ) is in if every year .The data used in this study are primary and secondary data . The method used in this peneilitan is descriptive method . To see the right strategy in the potential of oil palm solid waste as cattle feed in the p...

  19. Nature conservation and grazing management. Free-ranging cattle as a driving force for cyclic vegetation seccession

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokdam, J.

    2003-01-01

    Key-words : biodiversity, herbivory, wilderness, non-linear dynamics, mosaic cycling, grassland, wood encroachment, forest, Bos taurus , Calluna vulgaris , Deschampsia flexuosa.This thesis examines the suitability of controlled and wilderness grazing as conservation management tool for open,

  20. Herbage intake and animal performance of cattle grazing dwarf elaphant grass with two access times to a forage peanut area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Melo de Liz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Relatively short grazing periods in a pure legume pasture can be an alternative for increasing animal performance in medium-quality tropical pastures. Thus, the aim was to evaluate the herbage intake and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. BRS Kurumi with two access times [2 h (07:00 - 9:00 and 6 h (07:00 - 13:00] to an area of forage peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo. Twelve steers (219 ± 28.8 kg LW were divided into four groups and assessed during three consecutive grazing cycles, from January to March 2013. The crude protein and neutral detergent fiber contents were 158 and 577 g/kg dry matter (DM for dwarf elephant grass and 209 and 435 g/kg DM for forage peanut, respectively. The pre-grazing height and leaf mass of dwarf elephant grass and forage peanut were 94 cm and 2782 kg DM/ha and 15 cm and 1751 kg DM/ha, respectively. The herbage intake (mean = 2.7 ± 0.06% LW and average daily weight gain (mean = 1.16 ± 0.31 kg/day were similar for both treatments. However, animals with 2-h access to the legume paddock grazed for 71% of the time, whereas those with 6-h access grazed for 48% of the time. The performance of the steers that were allowed to graze forage peanut pasture for 2 h is similar to that of those that were allowed to graze the legume pasture for 6 h.

  1. Solubility of plutonium and americium-241 from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids - August 1975 to January 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.; Giles, K.R.; Brown, K.W.

    1985-01-01

    The alimentary solubility of plutonium and americium-241 ingested by cattle grazing at Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site and the Clean Slate II site on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada was studied in a series of experiments. For each experiment, or trial, rumen contents collected from a fistulated steer or a normal animals at the time of sacrifice were incubated in simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids, and the solubility of plutonium and americium was analyzed following the abomasal, duodenal, jejunal, and lower intestinal digestive states. For Area 13, the peak plutonium-238 solubilities ranged from 1.09 to 9.60 percent for animals grazing in the inner enclosure that surrounds ground zero (GZ); for animals grazing in the outer enclosure, the peaks ranged from 1.86 to 18.46%. The peak plutonium-239 solubilities ranged from 0.71 to 4.81% for animals from the inner enclosure and from 0.71 to 3.61% for animals from the outer enclosure. Plutonium-238 was generally more soluble than plutonium-239. Plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the outer enclosure was usually more soluble than plutonium ingested by cattle grazing in the inner enclosure. The highest concentrations of plutonium in the rumen contents of cattle grazing in the inner enclosure were found in trials conducted during August and November 1975 and January 1976. These concentrations decreased during the February, May, and July 1976 trials. The decrease was followed by an increase in plutonium concentration during the November 1976 trial. The concentration of americium-241 followed the same trend. 13 references, 13 tables

  2. Plant oils thymol and eugenol affect cattle and swine waste emissions differently.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D N; Lindsay, A D

    2004-01-01

    Wastes generated from the production of cattle and swine in confined facilities create the potential for surface and groundwater pollution, emission of greenhouse gases, transmission of pathogens to food and water sources, and odor. It is our hypothesis that something which inhibits microbial fermentation in livestock wastes will be beneficial to solving some of the environmental problems. Our work has concentrated on the use of antimicrobial plant oils, thymol, thyme oil, carvacrol, eugenol and clove oil. Anaerobic one-litre flasks with a working volume of 0.5 L cattle or swine manure were used to evaluate the effect of thymol and eugenol on production of fermentation gas, short-chain volatile fatty acids, lactate, and bacterial populations. Either oil at 0.2% in both wastes essentially stopped all production of gas and volatile fatty acids, and eliminated all fecal coliform bacteria. In cattle but not swine waste, thymol prevented the accumulation of lactate. However, eugenol stimulated lactate formation in cattle and swine wastes. Thus, eugenol may offer a distinct advantage over thymol, because lactate accumulation in the wastes causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. We conclude that plant oils may offer solutions to controlling various environmental problems associated with livestock wastes, assuming that they are cost-effective.

  3. Effects of grazing and feedlot finishing duration on the performance of three beef cattle genotypes in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asizua, Denis; Mpairwe, Denis; Kabi, Fred

    2017-01-01

    genotype (212±35 kg). The bulls were allotted to two feeding systems and three finishing durations. The feeding systems comprised sole grazing as the control where animals only grazed natural pastures and feedlot finishing where animals were fed a locally formulated total mixed ration containing 200 maize...... stover, 300 maize bran, 447 brewers’ spent grain, 50 molasses and 3 salt (NaCl) as g/kg on dry matter (DM) basis. The three durations were 60, 90 and 120 days excluding 14 days of adaptation period. Data was collected on feed intake, growth, slaughter and carcass characteristics. The Boran consumed less....... However, carcass quality grade scores were higher (Pcarcass...

  4. Solubility of plutonium from rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation in in vitro bovine gastrointestinal fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barth, J.

    1975-01-01

    Rumen contents of cattle grazing on plutonium-contaminated desert vegetation at the Nevada Test Site were incubated in simulated bovine gastrointestinal fluids to study the alimentary solubility of plutonium. Trials were run during November 1973, and during February, May, July and August 1974. During the May and July trials, a large increase in plutonium solubility accompanied by a marked reduction in plutonium concentration of the rumen contents was observed concurrently with a reduction in intake of Eurotia lanata and an increase in the intake of Oryzopsis hymenoides or Sitanion jubatum. However, during the November, February, and August trials, comparatively high concentration of plutonium, but low plutonium solubility, was associated with high levels of Eurotia lanata in the rumen contents. Plutonium-238 was generally more soluble than plutonium-239 in these fluids. Ratios of the percentage of soluble plutonium-238 to the percentage of soluble plutonium-239 varied fro []1:1 to 18:1 on a radioactivity basis. (auth)

  5. A study of the level and dynamics of Eimeria populations in naturally infected, grazing beef cattle at various stages of production in the Mid-Atlantic USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Aaron S; Swecker, William S; Lindsay, David S; Scaglia, Guillermo; Neel, James P S; Elvinger, Francois C; Zajac, Anne M

    2014-05-28

    There is little information available on the species dynamics of eimerian parasites in grazing cattle in the central Appalachian region of the United States. Therefore, the objective of this study was to describe the level of infection and species dynamics of Eimeria spp. in grazing beef cattle of various age groups over the course of a year in the central Appalachian region. Rectal fecal samples were collected from male and female calves (n=72) monthly from May through October 2005, heifers only (n=36) monthly from November 2005 to April 2006, and cows (n=72) in May, July, and September, 2005. Eimeria spp. oocysts were seen in 399 of 414 (96%) fecal samples collected from the calves from May through October. Fecal oocysts counts (FOC) in the calves were lower (PEimeria spp. oocysts were detected in 198 of 213 (92%) of fecal samples collected from the 36 replacement heifers monthly from November to April and monthly mean FOC did not differ during this time period. The prevalence of oocyst shedding increased to 100% in calves in September and remained near 100% in the replacement heifers during the sampling period. Eimeria spp. oocysts were also detected in 150 of 200 (75%) samples collected in May, July, and September from the cows and mean FOC did not differ significantly over the sampling period. Eimeria spp. composition was dominated by Eimeria bovis in fecal samples collected from calves, replacement heifers and cows. Mixed Eimeria spp. infections were, however, common in all groups and 13 Eimeria spp. oocysts were identified throughout the sampling period. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Epidemiological studies of parasitic gastrointestinal nematodes, cestodes and coccidia infections in cattle in the highveld and lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.M. Pfukenyi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Between January 1999 and December 2000 faecal samples from 16 264 cattle at 12 dipping sites in the highveld and nine in the lowveld communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe were examined for gastrointestinal (GI nematode and cestodes eggs, and coccidia oocysts. Strongyle larvae were identified following culture of pooled faecal samples collected at monthly intervals. The effects of region, age, sex and season on the prevalence of GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia were determined. Faecal egg and oocyst counts showed an overall prevalence of GI nematodes of 43 %, coccidia 19.8 % and cestodes 4.8 %. A significantly higher prevalence of infection with GI nematodes, cestodes and coccidia was recorded in calves (P < 0.01 than in adults. Pregnant and lactating cows had significantly higher prevalences than bulls, oxen and non-lactating (dry cows (P < 0.01. The general trend of eggs per gram (epg of faeces and oocysts per gram (opg of faeces was associated with the rainfall pattern in the two regions, with high epg and opg being recorded during the wet months. The most prevalent genera of GI nematodes were Cooperia, Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus in that order. Strongyloides papillosus was found exclusively in calves. Haemonchus was significantly more prevalent during the wet season than the dry season (P < 0.01. In contrast, Trichostrongylus was present in significantly (P < 0.01 higher numbers during the dry months than the wet months, while Cooperia and Oesophagostomum revealed no significant differences between the wet and dry season. These findings are discussed with reference to their relevance for strategic control of GI parasites in cattle in communal grazing areas of Zimbabwe.

  7. Efeito do pastejo rotacionado e alternado com bovinos adultos no controle da verminose em ovelhas Effect of rotational and alternate grazing with adult cattle on the control of nematode parasites in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.H. Fernandes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Estudaram-se os efeitos do pastejo alternado de ovinos e bovinos e do pastejo rotacionado sobre o controle da verminose em ovelhas. Utilizou-se uma área experimental composta por três módulos de 1,67ha cada. Os módulos foram subdivididos em oito piquetes. Vinte ovelhas foram colocadas no módulo 1 e quatro bovinos adultos no módulo 2. Os animais permaneceram em cada piquete do módulo por cinco dias, totalizando 40 dias de permanência em cada módulo. Ao final desse período, as ovelhas foram transferidas para o módulo onde estavam os bovinos e estes para o módulo onde estavam os ovinos, mantendo esse esquema até o final do experimento. Um grupo-controle de 20 ovelhas foi mantido, também em sistema rotacionado, em um terceiro módulo, sem compartilhar a pastagem. As ovelhas submetidas ao manejo com bovinos apresentaram o menor grau de infecção por nematódeos gastrintestinais e os maiores valores de volume globular. O pastejo rotacionado de ovinos, sem a utilização de bovinos, não foi eficiente no controle da verminose das ovelhas. A utilização do pastejo rotacionado e alternado de ovinos e bovinos adultos exerceu efeito benéfico significativo no controle da verminose ovina.The effects of rotational and alternate grazing involving cattle and sheep on the control of nematode parasites in sheep were evaluated. Three areas with 1.67ha were subdivided into eight paddocks each. Twenty ewes and four cattle were allotted to areas 1 and 2, respectively. They grazed during five days in each of eight paddocks of each area. The sheep and cattle rotated in each area for 40 days. At the end of this period, ewes were transferred to the area where cattle were previously kept and these animals were transferred to the area where sheep had previously grazed. This arrangement was kept until the end of the experiment. A control group with 20 ewes rotated in the third area, also with eight paddocks. Ewes that alternately grazed with cattle showed

  8. The influence of cattle grazing and grass seeding on coniferous regeneration after shelterwood cutting in eastern Oregon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.W. Seidel; J. Michael Geist; Gerald S. Strickler

    1990-01-01

    Natural regeneration was abundant, regardless of grazing and grass seeding treatments,after shelterwood cutting to three overstory densities (27, 73, and 119 square feet of basal area per acre) in mixed conifer stands in the Starkey Experimental Forest and Range in eastern Oregon. After 6 years, the number of tree seedlings ranged from about 3,800 per acre on the low-...

  9. Energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions, and profitability of thermobarical pretreatment of cattle waste in anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Budde, Jörn; Prochnow, Annette; Plöchl, Matthias; Suárez Quiñones, Teresa; Heiermann, Monika

    2016-03-01

    In this study modeled full scale application of thermobarical hydrolysis of less degradable feedstock for biomethanation was assessed in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions, and economy. Data were provided whether the substitution of maize silage as feedstock for biogas production by pretreated cattle wastes is beneficial in full-scale application or not. A model device for thermobarical treatment has been suggested for and theoretically integrated in a biogas plant. The assessment considered the replacement of maize silage as feedstock with liquid and/or solid cattle waste (feces, litter, and feed residues from animal husbandry of high-performance dairy cattle, dry cows, and heifers). The integration of thermobarical pretreatment is beneficial for raw material with high contents of organic dry matter and ligno-cellulose: Solid cattle waste revealed very short payback times, e.g. 9 months for energy, 3 months for greenhouse gases, and 3 years 3 months for economic amortization, whereas, in contrast, liquid cattle waste did not perform positive replacement effects in this analysis. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Seasonal changes in water content and turnover in cattle, sheep and goats grazing under humid tropical conditions in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aggrey, E.K.

    1982-01-01

    The effect of seasonal changes on water content and water turnover of cattle, sheep and goats at pasture under humid tropical conditions was studied. Measurement of total body water and water turnover was based on the tritium dilution technique. Total body water was significantly higher in all three species of animal during the dry season, while water turnover was significantly lower in the dry season than in the wet season. In all seasons water turnover was highest in cattle, followed by sheep and then goat. Changes in body weight, body water, body solids and water turnover were associated with seasonal variations in nutrition. The indication was that the goat would be a more suitable animal for production under dry conditions than cattle and sheep. (author)

  11. OUTBREAK OF HEMORRHAGIC SEPTICEMIA IN FREE RANGE BUFFALO AND CATTLE GRAZING AT RIVERSIDE GRASSLAND IN MURSHIDABAD DISTRICT, WEST BENGAL, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyjit Mitra

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of Haemorrhegic Septicaemia among free ranging buffaloes and cattle reared at the natural grassland at the embankment and surrounding area of Bhagirathi river in 3 blocks of Murshidabad district of West Bengal, India was diagnosed by clinical symptoms, postmortem examination, bacteriological study and biochemical tests. Among 154 affected animals (2.16% of total animals at risk buffalo were 85.71% and cattle were 14.28%. A total of 52 affected animals (33.76% died before starting treatment. Among the dead animals, 86.53% was buffalo and 13.46% was cattle. The ailing animals were successfully treated with antibiotic, analgesic and corticosteroid. The epidemic was finally controlled by vaccination, restriction of animal movement and proper disposal of carcasses.

  12. Strategic control of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in a subtropical semi-arid region of Argentina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Nicolás; Signorini, Marcelo L; Mangold, Atilio J; Guglielmone, Alberto A; Nava, Santiago

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this work was to test the efficacy of strategic control methods of Rhipicephalus microplus infestation on beef cattle grazed in Panicum maximum grasses in northwestern Argentina. Also, an analysis to discern how the R. microplus population was distributed amongst cattle was also performed to determine if partial selective treatment or cull the small proportion of more heavily infested animals are feasible options to control this tick. The strategic scheme of treatments was designed to act on the small 1st generation of R. microplus in early spring and prevent in that way the appearance of the annual peak of abundance of R. microplus in summer and autumn. Animals of the group 1 were treated with ivermectin 3.15% on day 0 (25th September 2015), with fluazuron on day 32 (27th October 2015) and with fipronil on day 75 (9th December 2015). Animals of group 2 formed the control group. The overall effect of the treatments was positively significant. The number of ticks observed on the control group was significantly higher than the number of ticks observed on the treated group in all post-treatment counts (Pcattle in all counts was adjusted to the negative binomial distribution, but a temporal variation in the tick aggregation levels associated to changes in tick abundance was found. The higher the abundance of R. microplus, the lower the aggregation. It was found that the steers (15.8% of the total number of animals evaluated) belonging to the high infestation group accounted for 23.0% of the total ticks. The strategic control method evaluated during this study provides a remarkable overall effect against R. microplus because it significantly reduces the tick infestation on cattle with only three applications of acaricides in one-year period. The analyses of tick distribution amongst cattle suggest that partial selective treatment and culling do not represent feasible methods to control R. microplus infestation on cattle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  13. Distribution and interaction of white-tailed deer and cattle in a semi-arid grazing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan M. Cooper; Humberto L. Perotto-Baldivieso; M. Keith Owens; Michael G. Meek; Manuel Figueroa-Pagan

    2008-01-01

    In order to optimize production, range managers need to understand and manage the spatial distribution of free-ranging herbivores, although this task becomes increasingly difficult as ranching operations diversify to include management of wildlife for recreational hunting. White-tailed deer are sympatric with cattle throughout much of their range and are a valuable...

  14. Quantification of tylosin and tylosin antibiotic resistance genes in cattle waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Presented is the development of a solid phase extraction (SPE) procedure and a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) method for quantifying tylosin in cattle waste samples. Tylosin is a macrolide antibiotic found naturally as a fermentation product of Streptomyces fradiae and is mainly ...

  15. Comparison of three methods for gastrointestinal nematode diagnosis determination in grazing dairy cattle in relation to milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejía, M E; Perri, A F; Licoff, N; Miglierina, M M; Cseh, S; Ornstein, A M; Becu-Villalobos, D; Lacau-Mengido, I M

    2011-12-29

    Development of resistance to anthelmintic drugs has motivated the search for diagnostic methods to identify animals for targeted selective treatments. We compared three methods for the diagnosis of nematode infection in relation to milk production in a fully grazing dairy herd of 150 cows in the humid Pampa (Argentina). Animals had feces, blood and milk sampled during the first postpartum month for EPG, pepsinogen and anti-Ostertagia antibody determination, respectively. With the results obtained two groups of cows, divided in high and low parasite burden, were conformed for each method, and milk production was then compared between groups. When cows were separated by the EPG method (EPG=0 (N=106) vs. EPG>0 (N=44)) a difference of nearly 800 l of milk per cow per lactation was found (P 1000) or by anti-Ostertagia (ODR ≤ 0.5 vs. ODR > 0.5) results did not differ. Interestingly, proportion of cows in each group differed between methods (P<0.0001), and the anti-Ostertagia method yielded significantly more cows in the high index group compared to results using the EPG or Pepsinogen method. No correlations were found between parasite indexes determined by the different methods. High parasite burden estimation found may be ascribed to the production system, fully grazing all year round, and to the sampling time, at the beginning of lactation with cows in negative energy balance and depressed immunity. The fact that the cows were born and reared outside, on pasture with continuous nematode larvae exposure, may also account for the results obtained. In conclusion, EPG counting during the first postpartum month may be a useful tool for the diagnosis of production impairment induced by high nematode burden in adult grazing dairy cows. The anthelmintic treatment of only the EPG-positive recently calved cows would improve milk production, while reducing selective pressure on nematode population for the development of resistance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Technical note: Validation of an ear-tag accelerometer sensor to determine rumination, eating, and activity behaviors of grazing dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, G M; Heins, B J; Endres, M I

    2018-03-01

    The objective of this study was to validate an ear-tag accelerometer sensor (CowManager SensOor, Agis Automatisering BV, Harmelen, the Netherlands) using direct visual observations in a grazing dairy herd. Lactating crossbred cows (n = 24) were used for this experiment at the University of Minnesota West Central Research and Outreach Center grazing dairy (Morris, MN) during the summer of 2016. A single trained observer recorded behavior every minute for 6 h for each cow (24 cows × 6 h = 144 h of observation total). Direct visual observation was compared with sensor data during August and September 2016. The sensor detected and identified ear and head movements, and through algorithms the sensor classified each minute as one of the following behaviors: rumination, eating, not active, active, and high active. A 2-sided t-test was conducted with PROC TTEST of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) to compare the percentage of time each cow's behavior was recorded by direct visual observation and sensor data. For total recorded time, the percentage of time of direct visual observation compared with sensor data was 17.9 and 19.1% for rumination, 52.8 and 51.9% for eating, 17.4 and 11.9% for not active, and 7.9 and 21.1% for active. Pearson correlations (PROC CORR of SAS) were used to evaluate associations between direct visual observations and sensor data. Furthermore, concordance correlation coefficient (CCC), bias correction factors, location shift, and scale shift (epiR package of R version 3.3.1; R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria) were calculated to provide a measure of accuracy and precision. Correlations between visual observations for all 4 behaviors were highly to weakly correlated (rumination: r = 0.72, CCC = 0.71; eating: r = 0.88, CCC = 0.88; not active: r = 0.65, CCC = 0.52; and active: r = 0.20, CCC = 0.19) compared with sensor data. The results suggest that the sensor accurately monitors rumination and eating behavior of grazing dairy

  17. Eugenol stimulates lactate accumulation yet inhibits volatile fatty acid production and eliminates coliform bacteria in cattle and swine waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Miller, D L

    2004-01-01

    To determine how eugenol affects fermentation parameters and faecal coliforms in cattle and swine waste slurries stored anaerobically. Waste slurries (faeces:urine:water, 50:35:15) were blended with and without additives and aliquoted to triplicate 1-l flasks. Faecal coliforms were eliminated in cattle and swine waste slurries within 1 or 2 days with additions of eugenol at 10.05 mm (0.15%) and 16.75 mm (0.25%). At these concentrations volatile fatty acids (VFA) were reduced ca 70 and 50% in cattle and swine waste, respectively, over 6-8 weeks. Additionally, in cattle waste, eugenol stimulated the accumulation of lactate (>180 mm) when compared with thymol treatment (20 mm lactate). In swine waste, lactate accumulation did not occur without additives; eugenol and thymol stimulated lactate accumulation to concentrations of 22 and 32 mm, respectively. Eugenol added to cattle waste may be more beneficial than thymol because not only does it effectively control faecal coliforms and odour (VFA production), it also stimulates lactate accumulation. This in turn, causes the pH to drop more rapidly, further inhibiting microbial activity and nutrient emissions. Plant essential oils have the potential to solve some of the environmental problems associated with consolidated animal feeding operations. Thymol and eugenol reduce fermentative activity, thus, have the potential to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases and odour, and curtail transmission of pathogens in cattle and swine wastes.

  18. Co-composting of Beef Cattle Feedlot Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Xiying; Hill, Brett; Caffyn, Pam; Travis, Greg; Olson, Andrew F; Larney, Francis J; McAllister, Tim; Alexander, Trevor

    2014-09-01

    With increased availability of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) as cattle feed and the need to recycle organic wastes, this research investigated the feasibility of co-composting DDGS cattle feedlot manure with construction and demolition (C&D) waste. Manure was collected from cattle fed a typical western Canadian finishing diet (CK) of 860 g rolled barley ( L.) grain, 100 g barley silage, and 40 g vitamin and mineral supplement kg dry matter (DM) and from cattle fed the same diet but (DG manure) with 300 g kg DM barley grain being replaced by DDGS. The CK and DG manures were co-composted with and without C&D waste in 13 m bins. Compost materials were turned on Days 14, 37, and 64, and terminated on Day 99. Adding C&D waste led to higher compost temperatures (0.4 to 16.3°C, average 7.2°C) than manure alone. Final composts had similar total C, total N, C/N ratios, and water-extractable K, Mg, and NO content across all treatments. However, adding C&D waste increased δC, δN, water-extractable SO, and Ca contents and decreased pH, total P (TP), water-extractable C, N, and P and most volatile fatty acids (VFA). The higher C&D compost temperatures should reduce pathogens while reduced VFA content should reduce odors. When using the final compost product, the increased SO and reduced TP and available N and P content in C&D waste compost should be taken into consideration. Increased S content in C&D compost may be beneficial for some crops grown on S-deficient soils. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  19. Recovery of energy and nutrient resources from cattle paunch waste using temperature phased anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Paul D; Mehta, Chirag M; Carney, Chris; Batstone, D J

    2016-05-01

    Cattle paunch is comprised of partially digested cattle feed, containing mainly grass and grain and is a major waste produced at cattle slaughterhouses contributing 20-30% of organic matter and 40-50% of P waste produced on-site. In this work, Temperature Phased Anaerobic Digestion (TPAD) and struvite crystallization processes were developed at pilot-scale to recover methane energy and nutrients from paunch solid waste. The TPAD plant achieved a maximum sustainable organic loading rate of 1-1.5kgCODm(-3)day(-1) using a feed solids concentration of approximately 3%; this loading rate was limited by plant engineering and not the biology of the process. Organic solids destruction (60%) and methane production (230LCH4kg(-1) VSfed) achieved in the plant were similar to levels predicted from laboratory biochemical methane potential (BMP) testing. Model based analysis identified no significant difference in batch laboratory parameters vs pilot-scale continuous parameters, and no change in speed or extent of degradation. However the TPAD process did result in a degree of process intensification with a high level of solids destruction at an average treatment time of 21days. Results from the pilot plant show that an integrated process enabled resource recovery at 7.8GJ/dry tonne paunch, 1.8kgP/dry tonne paunch and 1.0kgN/dry tonne paunch. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated in Organic Waste Products (Cattle Fecal Matter, Manure and, Slurry) from Cattle's Markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bako, Evariste; Kagambèga, Assèta; Traore, Kuan Abdoulaye; Bagre, Touwendsida Serge; Ibrahim, Hadiza Bawa; Bouda, Soutongnooma Caroline; Bonkoungou, Isidore Juste Ouindgueta; Kaboré, Saidou; Zongo, Cheikna; Traore, Alfred Sababenejo; Barro, Nicolas

    2017-09-22

    Cattle farming can promote diarrheal disease transmission through waste, effluents or cattle fecal matter. The study aims to characterize the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC) isolated from cattle feces, manure in the composting process and slurry, collected from four cattle markets in Ouagadougou. A total of 585 samples (340 cattle feces, 200 slurries and 45 manures in the composting process) were collected from the four cattle markets between May 2015 and May 2016. A multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), namely 16-plex PCR, was used to screen simultaneously the virulence genes specific for shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC), enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC), enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC), enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC) and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC). DEC was detected in 10.76% of samples. ETEC was the most prevalent (9.91%). STEC and EAEC have been observed with the same rate (0.51%). ETEC were detected in 12.64% of cattle feces, in 6.66% of manure in the composting process and in 5% of slurry. STEC were detected in 0.58% of cattle feces and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. EAEC was detected only in 1% of slurry and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. ETEC strains were identified based on estIa gene and/or estIb gene and/or elt gene amplification. Of the 58 ETEC, 10.34% contained astA , 17.24% contained elt , 3.44% contained estIa and 79.31% contained estIb . The two positive EAEC strains contained only the aggR gene, and the third was positive only for the pic gene. The results show that effluent from cattle markets could contribute to the spreading of DEC in the environment in Burkina Faso.

  1. Supplementation of beef cattle grazing Brachiariabrizantha during the dry and rainy seasons: performance and carcass ultrasound prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geisi Loures Guerra

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of genetic group, sex and level of protein-energy supplementation on the performance and carcass traitsultrasound prediction of weaned calves Nellore and crossbred animals ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus. A completely randomized design in a factorial 2x2x2, were used, with two levels of protein-energy supplementation, two sex and two genetic groups. Fifty-six animals were used (28 Nellore and 28 crossbred ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus, equally divided between males and females, maintained on grazing Brachiariabrizanthacv. Marandu and evaluated in three experimental periods: period 1 = protein-energy supplementation in the dry season; period 2 = protein-energy supplementation during the rainy season; period 3 = only mineral supplementation. In the dry season, they were supplemented with levels of 0.5 and 1% of body weight (BW and in the rainy season with 0 and 1% BW. Dry matter intake (kg day-1, % BW, g kgBW0.75-1 was estimated. In vivo ultrasound measurements of carcass were: loin eye area (LEA, fat thickness (FT and rump fat thickness (RFT. There was influence of genetic group and protein-energy supplementation levels on average daily gain (ADG of animals in period 1 and 2 (P < 0.05. Sex affected the ADG only in period 2, and the males had 754 gday-1 and females, 582 g day-1. There was no interaction of genetic group x sex x supplementation level. At the end of the experimental period (end of period 3, it was found that male animals and crossbred animals ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus had higher ADG (716 and 748 g day-1, respectively. The values of dry matter intake (DMI were influenced by genetic group and sex, in all periods, verifying highest intake in crossbred animals ½ Nellore x ½ Aberdeen Angus, with better feed conversion for crossbred animals. Regarding ultrasound measurements taken on the carcass, the influence of sex on FT and RFT, it was observed, and the males showed higher

  2. Valorisation of Phosphorus Extracted from Dairy Cattle Slurry and Municipal Solid Wastes Digestates as a Fertilizer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, V.; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Labrincha, J.

    2016-01-01

    Phosphorus is a vital cell component and an essential and irreplaceable element. Yet at the current rate of exploitation, the phosphate’s reserves will be fast depleted. Dairy cattle slurry and digestates from anaerobic digestion of municipal solid wastes (MSW) are organic wastes containing...... phosphorus which can potentially be used as a secondary source of this nutrient. The present study investigated the effect of pH in phosphorus release from these wastes using acid and base extraction followed by phosphorus recovery via precipitation, targeting the production of a fertilizer. Results showed...... the formation of amorphous calcium phosphates, a potential fertilizer that can help to close the cycle of this nutrient. During the process, heavy metals might become enriched in the precipitates. In the perspective of producing a fertilizer this is an undesirable process, and one that should be taken...

  3. Reducing the environmental impact of methane emissions from dairy farms by anaerobic digestion of cattle waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marañón, E; Salter, A M; Castrillón, L; Heaven, S; Fernández-Nava, Y

    2011-08-01

    Four dairy cattle farms considered representative of Northern Spain milk production were studied. Cattle waste was characterised and energy consumption in the farms was inventoried. Methane emissions due to slurry/manure management and fuel consumption on the farms were calculated. The possibility of applying anaerobic digestion to the slurry to minimise emissions and of using the biogas produced to replace fossil fuels on the farm was considered. Methane emissions due to slurry management (storage and use as fertiliser) ranged from 34 to 66kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for dairy cows and from 13 to 25kg CH(4)cow(-1)year(-1) for suckler calves. Cattle on these farms are housed for most of the year, and the contribution from emissions from manure dropped in pastures is insignificant due to the very low methane conversion factors. If anaerobic digestion were implemented on the farms, the potential GHG emissions savings per livestock unit would range from 978 to 1776kg CO(2)eq year(-1), with the main savings due to avoided methane emissions during slurry management. The methane produced would be sufficient to supply digester heating needs (35-55% of the total methane produced) and on-farm fuel energy requirements. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The production of anaerobic bacteria and biogas from dairy cattle waste in various growth mediums

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Y. A.; Kurnani, T. B. A.; Marlina, E. T.; Rahmah, K. N.; Harlia, E.; Joni, I. M.

    2018-02-01

    The growth of anaerobic bacteria except the ruminal fluid quailty is strongly influenced by the media formulations. Previous researchers have set a standard media formulation for anaerobic bacteria from rumen, however the use of standard media formulations require chemicals with high cost. Moreover, other constraint of using standard media formulations is requires large quantities of media for anaerobic bacteria to grow. Therefore, it is necessary to find media with a new culture media formulation. Media used in this research were minimalist media consist of Nutrient Agar (NA), Lactose broth and rumen fluid; enriched media Rumen Fluid-Glucose-Agar (RGCA); and enriched media 98-5. The dairy cattle waste is utilized as source of anaerobic bacteria. The obtained data was analyzed by descriptive approach. The results showed that minimalist media produced anaerobic bacteria 2148 × 104 cfu/ml and biogas production: 1.06% CH4, 9.893% CO2; enriched media Rumen Fluid-Glucose-Agar (RGCA) produced anaerobic bacteria 1848 × 104 cfu/ml and biogas production 4.644% CH4, 9.5356% CO2; enriched media 98-5 produced anaerobic bacteria growth 15400 × 104 cfu/ml and biogas production 0.83% of CH4, 42.2% of CO2. It is conclude that the minimalist media was showed the best performance for the dairy cattle waste as source of anaerobic bacteria.

  5. Suplementación con fósforo en ganado de carne a pastoreo - Phosphorus supplementation in grazing beef cattle.

    OpenAIRE

    Soto, Claudio; Reinoso, Valeria

    2012-01-01

    ResumenLa deficiencia de fósforo es la deficiencia mineral más frecuente a nivel mundial en rumiantes a pastoreo.AbstractPhosphorus deficiency is the most common mineral deficiency worldwide in grazing ruminants

  6. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marañón, E.; Castrillón, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernández-Nava, Y.; Gómez, L.; García, M.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. ► Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. ► Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. ► Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. ► Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2–1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH 4 /kg VS feed for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 °C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20–28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 °C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  7. Co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sludge to increase biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maranon, E., E-mail: emara@uniovi.es [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Castrillon, L.; Quiroga, G.; Fernandez-Nava, Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Environmental Technology, University Institute of Technology of Asturias, Campus of Gijon, University of Oviedo, 33203 Gijon (Spain); Gomez, L.; Garcia, M.M. [Zero Emissions Technology, 41018 Seville (Spain)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Small increase in methane production was observed applying sonication pretreatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biogas productions between 720 and 1100 mL/Lreactor day were achieved. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Volatile solids removal efficiencies ranged between 53% and 60%. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lower methane yields were obtained when operating under thermophilic conditions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimum OLR in lab-scale CSTR was 1.2-1.3 g VS/L day (HRT: 20 days). - Abstract: Anaerobic co-digestion strategies are needed to enhance biogas production, especially when treating certain residues such as cattle/pig manure. This paper presents a study of co-digestion of cattle manure with food waste and sewage sludge. With the aim of maximising biogas yields, a series of experiments were carried out under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions using continuously stirred-tank reactors, operating at different hydraulic residence times. Pretreatment with ultrasound was also applied to compare the results with those obtained with non-pretreated waste. Specific methane production decreases when increasing the OLR and decreasing HRT. The maximum value obtained was 603 LCH{sub 4}/kg VS{sub feed} for the co-digestion of a mixture of 70% manure, 20% food waste and 10% sewage sludge (total solid concentration around 4%) at 36 Degree-Sign C, for an OLR of 1.2 g VS/L day. Increasing the OLR to 1.5 g VS/L day led to a decrease of around 20-28% in SMP. Lower methane yields were obtained when operating at 55 Degree-Sign C. The increase in methane production when applying ultrasound to the feed mixtures does not compensate for the energy spent in this pretreatment.

  8. Transition of transuranium radionuclides to the stock-raising production at the grazing land of the cattle on the territory of the radioactive contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryashov, V.P.; Korol', R.A.; Pershukevich, E.V.; Bykovskij, V.V.

    2009-01-01

    As a result of receipt of transuranium elements in an organism of cattle probably pollution of animal produces by significant amounts of transuranium elements and their receipt on a food chain in a human body. (authors)

  9. Bacterial and fungal communities and contribution of physicochemical factors during cattle farm waste composting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhe; Jiang, Chao; Wu, Yanpei; Cheng, Yunxiang

    2017-12-01

    During composting, the composition of microbial communities is subject to constant change owing to interactions with fluctuating physicochemical parameters. This study explored the changes in bacterial and fungal communities during cattle farm waste composting and aimed to identify and prioritize the contributing physicochemical factors. Microbial community compositions were determined by high-throughput sequencing. While the predominant phyla in the bacterial and fungal communities were largely consistent during the composting, differences in relative abundances were observed. Bacterial and fungal community diversity and relative abundance varied significantly, and inversely, over time. Relationships between physicochemical factors and microbial community compositions were evaluated by redundancy analysis. The variation in bacterial community composition was significantly related to water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC), and pile temperature and moisture (p composts. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of daily movement of dairy cattle to fresh grass in morning or afternoon on intake, grazing behaviour, rumen fermentation and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abrahamse, P.A.; Tamminga, S.; Dijkstra, J.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty Holstein cows were split into two equal groups to test the effect of daily move to a previously ungrazed strip after morning milking (MA) or afternoon milking (AA) on herbage intake, grazing behaviour, rumen characteristics and milk production using a randomized block design with three

  11. Herbage availability €rs a stress factor on grazed Coastcross II ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) relationships for Coastcross ll Bermuda grass grazed for four consecutive summer periods by young growing beef cattle. Stocking rate affected the daily. LWG/animal through its influence on herbage availability. Rota- tional grazing showed a ...

  12. Fate and occurrence of steroids in swine and dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Shan; Ying Guangguo; Zhang Ruiquan; Zhou Lijun; Lai Huajie; Chen Zhifeng

    2012-01-01

    Fate and occurrence of fourteen androgens, four estrogens, five glucocorticoids and five progestagens were investigated in three swine farms and three dairy cattle farms with different farming scales and wastes disposal systems in China. Twenty-one, 22, and 12 of total 28 steroids were detected in feces samples with concentrations ranging from below method limit of quantitation (< LOQ for estrone) to 8100 ± 444 ng/g (progesterone), in wastewater samples with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (estrone) to 20,700 ± 1490 ng/L (androsterone), in suspended particles with concentrations ranging from < LOQ (17β-trenbolone) to 778 ± 82.1 ng/g (5α-dihydrotestosterone) in the six farms, respectively. The steroids via swine farms and human sources were mainly originated from wastewater into the receiving environments while those steroids via cattle farms were mainly from cattle feces. The total contributions of steroids to the environment in China are estimated to be 139, 65.8 and 60.7 t/year from swine, dairy cattle and human sources, respectively. - Highlights: ► 28 steroids were investigated in three swine farms and three cattle farms. ► Eight detected synthetic steroids were from exogenous usage. ► Lagoon systems were more effective in removing steroids than sedimentation tanks. ► The steroids via swine and human sources were mainly from wastewater. ► The steroids via cattle were mainly originated from feces. - The swine and cattle farms contribute higher steroids masses to the environment than the human sources.

  13. Impact of Graze-­‐Out in Hard Red Winter Wheat Production

    OpenAIRE

    Neupane, Diwash; Moss, Charles B.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between wheat graze-­‐out and cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level and examine the impact of graze-­‐out on wheat yield in major wheat-­‐producing states in US. Results indicate that cattle-­‐wheat price ratio and moisture level affect farmers’ graze out decision and graze-­‐out have significant impact on wheat yield.

  14. Efecto del pastoreo sobre la resistencia mecánica del suelo en sistemas de producción bajo siembra directa continua Impact of cattle grazing on soil mechanical resistance in production systems under continuous no-till

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo R Krüger

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del estudio fueron: a caracterizar la variación de la resistencia mecánica a la penetración (RST de la capa de suelo de 0 a 20 cm en dos rotaciones con y sin pastoreo directo y b establecer su relación con el contenido de agua del suelo (W. El estudio se realizó sobre un Hapludol típico del sudoeste de la provincia de Buenos Aires, sobre secuencias basadas en girasol y trigo. Se estudiaron dos tratamientos: a Agrícola, que no incluyó pastoreo y b Mixta que incorporó un cultivo de avena pastoreado por novillos de 350 a 400 kg (25 cabezas/ha previo al girasol. Se determinaron RST y W en diez fechas de muestreo. Luego del pastoreo de avena, la RST de Mixta fue mayor que la de Agrícola en toda la capa, con picos en 2,5-7,5 cm. Ajustada a un W de 190 g kg-1, la RST de Agrícola mostró una tendencia lineal ligeramente creciente en el tiempo; la RST Mixta ajustó a un modelo cuadrático con tendencia a estabilizarse en valores cercanos a 2,5 MPa. Mixta presentó además un segundo nivel de variación relacionado con las fechas de muestreo: la RST luego del pastoreo de avena fue mayor que al final del ciclo avena-girasol-trigo. La disminución se atribuyó a una recuperación de la bioporosidad por efecto de las raíces de los cultivos. Las RST observadas fueron cercanas o mayores a las críticas para la penetración de las raíces en el 20 y 50% de las fechas de muestreo para Agrícola y Mixta, respectivamente.The objectives of this study, were: a to characterize the soil mechanical penetration resistance (RST variation in the 0 to 20 -cm depth of two rotation treatments with and without cattle grazing and b to determine the RST relationship with soil water content (W. The experiment took place on a Typic Haplustoll in SW Buenos Aires province, on sunflower-wheat based rotations. Treatments included: a 100 % cash-crop rotation with no cattle grazing and b Mixed rotation, including an oat forage crop with direct grazing by 350

  15. Life cycle assessment of a small-scale anaerobic digestion plant from cattle waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mezzullo, William G.; McManus, Marcelle C.; Hammond, Geoff P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Emissions from plant manufacture contributed little towards the lifecycle impacts. ► The use phase of the AD plant could have significant impacts. ► Production of biogas and fertiliser created significant impacts. ► The consequential displacement of kerosene showed a net-benefit. ► The study concluded that it is essential to cover the digestate storage tank. -- Abstract: This paper outlines the results of a comprehensive life cycle study of the production of energy, in the form of biogas, using a small scale farm based cattle waste fed anaerobic digestion (AD) plant. The life cycle assessment (LCA) shows that in terms of environmental and energy impact the plant manufacture contributes very little to the whole life cycle impacts. The results show that compared with alternative energy supply the production and use of biogas is beneficial in terms of greenhouse gases and fossil fuel use. This is mainly due to the replacement of the alternative, kerosene, and from fertiliser production from the AD process. However, these benefits come at a cost to ecosystem health and the production of respiratory inorganics. These were found to be a result of ammonia emissions during the production phase of the biogas. These damages can be significantly reduced if further emission control measures are undertaken.

  16. Economic feasibility of four grazing intensities of Tanzania grass for beef cattleViabilidade econômica de quatro intensidades de pastejo do capim Tanzânia na pecuária de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valter Harry Bumbieris Júnior

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Were evaluated the economic effects of four grazing heights (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm of Tanzânia grass for beef cattle. The total area was 12 acres divided into paddocks of one hectare, with three replications. We used three animals, males, Nelore per paddock, as more animals need additional adjustment to the height you want. The reduction in sward height allowed higher stocking rate, which, even with a reduction in individual performance, there was more beef production per area. The interest rate on capital given the property represented the largest share in the final cost of production. The participation of fixed variables showed a positive linear function of the increase in height from grazing, showing significant reduction of the production scale. A reduction in cost of production per hectare per year with increasing grazing height. No differences were found in certain economic indicators, and the four systems remunerate the capital invested.Foram avaliados os efeitos econômicos de quatro alturas de pastejo (20; 40; 60 e 80 cm do capim Tanzânia para bovinos de corte. A área total foi de 12 hectares divididos em piquetes de um hectare, com três repetições. Foram utilizados três bovinos, machos, Nelore por piquete, mais animais adicionais conforme necessidade de ajuste para as alturas pretendidas. A redução da altura do pasto permitiu maior taxa de lotação, onde, mesmo com redução no desempenho individual, houve maior produção por área. A taxa de juros atribuída sobre o capital do imóvel representou a maior parcela no custo final de produção. A participação das variáveis fixas apresentou comportamento linear positivo em função do aumento na altura dos pastos, se mostrando sensível à redução da escala de produção. Houve redução do custo de produção anual por hectare com aumento da altura de pastejo. Não foram detectadas diferenças nos indicadores econômicos determinados, e os quatro sistemas remuneraram o

  17. Mixed grazing systems benefit both upland biodiversity and livestock production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariecia D Fraser

    Full Text Available With world food demand expected to double by 2050, identifying farming systems that benefit both agricultural production and biodiversity is a fundamentally important challenge for the 21(st century, but this has to be achieved in a sustainable way. Livestock grazing management directly influences both economic outputs and biodiversity on upland farms while contributing to potentially damaging greenhouse gas emissions, yet no study has attempted to address these impacts simultaneously.Using a replicated, landscape-scale field experiment consisting of five management 'systems' we tested the effects of progressively altering elements within an upland farming system, viz i incorporating cattle grazing into an upland sheep system, ii integrating grazing of semi-natural rough grazing into a mixed grazing system based on improved pasture, iii altering the stocking ratio within a mixed grazing system, and iv replacing modern crossbred cattle with a traditional breed. We quantified the impacts on livestock productivity and numbers of birds and butterflies over four years.We found that management systems incorporating mixed grazing with cattle improve livestock productivity and reduce methane emissions relative to sheep only systems. Systems that also included semi-natural rough grazing consistently supported more species of birds and butterflies, and it was possible to incorporate bouts of summer grazing of these pastures by cattle to meet habitat management prescriptions without compromising cattle performance overall. We found no evidence that the system incorporating a cattle breed popular as a conservation grazer was any better for bird and butterfly species richness than those based on a mainstream breed, yet methane emissions from such a system were predicted to be higher. We have demonstrated that mixed upland grazing systems not only improve livestock production, but also benefit biodiversity, suggesting a 'win-win' solution for farmers and

  18. Dairy farmers using mob grazing in Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proponents of ultra-high stocking density grazing emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 500,000 lb per acre of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods up to 180 days. However, it is unclear if this management tec...

  19. Grass species selection patterns on rotationally-grazed Dohne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbaceous species preference was studied during autumn and winter periods of occupation, on rotationally-grazed Dohne Sourveld, at four different stocking rates. Reports on species selection by cattle and sheep grazing together. Illustrates with graphsLanguage: English. Keywords: Grass species; Herbage availibility; ...

  20. Environmental Assessment of Beale AFB Grazing Lease Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Beale AFB will use livestock (cattle, sheep and goats ) on its properties throughout the year as needed for the control of noxious weeds, reduction...initiating a wildfire. California Farm Bureau Federation policy recognizes that grazing is the most practical and environmentally acceptable way to...Site Monitoring Well Installation and Annual Targeted Goat Grazing Project, Placer County, California. 21 September 2011.  

  1. Effect of addition of organic waste on reduction of Escherichia coli during cattle feces composting under high-moisture condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanajima, Dai; Kuroda, Kazutaka; Fukumoto, Yasuyuki; Haga, Kiyonori

    2006-09-01

    To ensure Escherichia coli reduction during cattle feces composting, co-composting with a variety of organic wastes was examined. A mixture of dairy cattle feces and shredded rice straw (control) was blended with organic wastes (tofu residue, rice bran, rapeseed meal, dried chicken feces, raw chicken feces, or garbage), and composted using a bench-scale composter under the high-moisture condition (78%). The addition of organic waste except chicken feces brought about maximum temperatures of more than 55 degrees C and significantly reduced the number of E. coli from 10(6) to below 10(2)CFU/g-wet after seven days composting, while in the control treatment, E. coli survived at the same level as that of raw feces. Enhancements of the thermophilic phase and E. coli reduction were related to the initial amount of easily digestible carbon in mass determined as BOD. BOD value more than 166.2 mg O2/DMg brought about significant E. coli reduction.

  2. The effect of grazing on cow mortality in Danish dairy herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, Elke; Thomsen, Peter Thorup; Sørensen, Jan Tind

    2011-01-01

    The effect of summer grazing in large Danish dairy herds and certain management characteristics of grazing were studied for their impact on dairy cow mortality. Mortality data (from the Danish Cattle Database) from 391 Danish dairy herds (>100 cows) were combined with information from...... a questionnaire survey of grazing procedures on these herds in 2008. In all, 131 of the herds were identified as summer grazing and 260 as zero-grazing herds. The mortality was affected by an interaction of summer grazing and milking system. The risk of a cow dying was reduced to 46% in a grazing compared...... and pasture was associated with increased cow mortality....

  3. Frequent occurrence of Osteomalacia among grazing cattle caused by hydrofluoric acid contained in the flue gas discharged by a chemical plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupka, E; Luy, P

    1929-01-01

    In 1928 a number of animals grazing in the vicinity of a chemical plant fell ill to a disease which was diagnosed as fluorosis. But the symptoms shown by the diseased animals were in many respects different from those commonly associated with such cases. The two front legs became lame, toes and ankles were swollen. The pulse rate was higher, an increased body temperature was measured and pain was felt. In some cases the hind legs became stiff. Furthermore, an enormous loss of weight was observed and swellings appeared along the ribs. The milk production decreased. All these symptoms indicate osteomalacia. The grass on which these animals fed was examined but it was found lush and in no way lacking in Ca and phosphoric acid (osteomalacia is a deficiency of these two minerals). The toxicant was found to be the fluorine deposited on the grass and plants. Hydrofluoric acid attacks the calcium in the bones and dissolves it. The consequence is osteoporosis. The fluorine is discharged with the flue gas of the nearby chemical plant. The disease did not occur outside the range of the chemical plant. The condition of the animals visibly improved during winter time when they were fed with fodder coming from an unpolluted area. The chemical physiological examinations which were conducted showed that the calcium of the bones is used to neutralize the hydrofluoric acid. The by-product of this neutralizing process, phosphoric acid, is discharged with the urine. 12 references.

  4. Net requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals for weight gain of grazing beef cattle castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anilza Andréia da Rocha

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to estimate the requirements of energy, protein and macrominerals of grazing crossbreds calves, in Brachiaria decumbens Stapf pasture, castrated at different ages, with and without supplementation. Forty-seven young calves at initial age of 120±30.1 days and 115.3±1.97 kg of live weight were used. To estimate net energy requirements for weight gain, a regression equation between energy retained in the gain and empty body weight gain and metabolic empty body weight was obtained. For estimation of net protein requirements for weight gain, a regression equation was adjusted between protein retained in gain and empty body weight gain and energy content of this gain. Net requirements of Ca, P, Mg and Na for weight gain were determined by the equation Y' = a.b. Xb-1, in which a and b represent the intercept and the coefficient of the alometric equation of macromineral body content prediction, respectively. Neither castration nor concentrate supplementation affects body weight gain net requirements, except the ones of Ca, which were higher for non-castrated animals.

  5. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B.; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W.

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers’ grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills. PMID:27300323

  6. Effect of Co-Composting Cattle Manure with Construction and Demolition Waste on the Archaeal, Bacterial, and Fungal Microbiota, and on Antimicrobial Resistance Determinants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Hao, Xiying; Topp, Edward; Yang, Hee Eun; Alexander, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    Agricultural operations generate large quantities of manure which must be eliminated in a manner that is consistent with public health guidelines. Meanwhile, construction and demolition waste makes up about 25% of total solid municipal waste. Co-composting of manure with construction and demolition waste offers a potential means to make manure safe for soil amendment and also divert construction and demolition waste from municipal landfills. Therefore, the archaeal, bacterial, and fungal microbiota of two different types of composted cattle manure and one co-composted with construction and demolition waste, were assessed over a 99-day composting period. The microbiota of the three compost mixtures did not differ, but significant changes over time and by sampling depth were observed. Bacillus and Halocella, however, were more relatively abundant in composted manure from cattle fed dried distillers' grains and solubles. Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were enriched at day 0 and Firmicutes at day 99. The fungal genus Kernia was the most relatively abundant overall and was enriched at day 0. The concentration of 12 antimicrobial resistance determinants in the compost mixtures was also determined, and 10 of these determinants decreased significantly from days 0 to 99. The addition of construction and demolition waste did not affect the persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes or community structure of the compost microbiota and therefore co-composting construction and demolition waste with cattle manure offers a safe, viable way to divert this waste from landfills.

  7. Dietary selection by steers grazing kikuyu

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    being grazeA for a period of 3,5 days in a four-week rotation, at ... Cattle improve the quality of their diet by actively seeking ... of stem in their diet. This would explain why the stem fraction mad~ no significant contribution to the equation predicting diet~ry selection. A:1unusual fact which emerged is that the animals selected.

  8. Characterization of Diarrheagenic Escherichia coli Isolated in Organic Waste Products (Cattle Fecal Matter, Manure and, Slurry from Cattle’s Markets in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evariste Bako

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Cattle farming can promote diarrheal disease transmission through waste, effluents or cattle fecal matter. The study aims to characterize the diarrheagenic Escherichia coli (DEC isolated from cattle feces, manure in the composting process and slurry, collected from four cattle markets in Ouagadougou. A total of 585 samples (340 cattle feces, 200 slurries and 45 manures in the composting process were collected from the four cattle markets between May 2015 and May 2016. A multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR, namely 16-plex PCR, was used to screen simultaneously the virulence genes specific for shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC, enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC, enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC, enteroinvasive E. coli (EIEC and enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC. DEC was detected in 10.76% of samples. ETEC was the most prevalent (9.91%. STEC and EAEC have been observed with the same rate (0.51%. ETEC were detected in 12.64% of cattle feces, in 6.66% of manure in the composting process and in 5% of slurry. STEC were detected in 0.58% of cattle feces and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. EAEC was detected only in 1% of slurry and in 2.22% of manure in the composting process. ETEC strains were identified based on estIa gene and/or estIb gene and/or elt gene amplification. Of the 58 ETEC, 10.34% contained astA, 17.24% contained elt, 3.44% contained estIa and 79.31% contained estIb. The two positive EAEC strains contained only the aggR gene, and the third was positive only for the pic gene. The results show that effluent from cattle markets could contribute to the spreading of DEC in the environment in Burkina Faso.

  9. Risk factors for episodes of enteric disease in cattle wastes handlers in Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madoshi, B; Lupindu, A. M.; Mtambo, MMA

    2017-01-01

    of handlers who were aware of risks of acquiring enteric episodes in animal waste handlers was low (43.6 %. There was limited awareness of government guideline on handling such wastes (3.2%) and washing hands without soap was found to be the most common health measures taken after handling animal wastes (70...

  10. Planning Of Beef Cattle Development in District Blora, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Budi; Prasetiyono, Bambang Waluyo Hadi Eko

    2018-02-01

    Continuity of meat supply availability is generally related to the number and production of livestock in a region. Therefore, a framework of sustainable livestock development is needed to increase the production and productivity of livestock. Blora Regency is one of the areas in the Province of Central Java with the largest number of large livestock, primarily beef cattle. Blora Regency has a population of 199.584 beef cattle. Agricultural waste results in Blora Regency can be used as supporting the availability of feed for livestock sector. This is supported by the availability of forage feed which is very abundant.Based on these potentials, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of natural land for the development of beef cattle farms. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1) to assess the environmental suitability of the environment for the development of cattle ranching that is grazed and stacked; (2) to analyze the potential of forage source of fodder and bearing capacity for beef cattle farming; (3) to analyze the centers of activity of development of beef cattle; (4) to prepare direction and strategy of beef cattle development in Blora Regency.

  11. Planning Of Beef Cattle Development in District Blora, Central Java, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santoso Budi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Continuity of meat supply availability is generally related to the number and production of livestock in a region. Therefore, a framework of sustainable livestock development is needed to increase the production and productivity of livestock. Blora Regency is one of the areas in the Province of Central Java with the largest number of large livestock, primarily beef cattle. Blora Regency has a population of 199.584 beef cattle. Agricultural waste results in Blora Regency can be used as supporting the availability of feed for livestock sector. This is supported by the availability of forage feed which is very abundant.Based on these potentials, it is necessary to assess the characteristics of natural land for the development of beef cattle farms. Therefore, the objectives of this study are (1 to assess the environmental suitability of the environment for the development of cattle ranching that is grazed and stacked; (2 to analyze the potential of forage source of fodder and bearing capacity for beef cattle farming; (3 to analyze the centers of activity of development of beef cattle; (4 to prepare direction and strategy of beef cattle development in Blora Regency.

  12. Doença granulomatosa sistêmica em bovinos no Rio Grande do Sul associada ao pastoreio de ervilhaca (Vicia spp Systemic granulomatous disease in cattle in Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, associated with grazing vetch (Vicia spp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudio S. L. Barros

    2001-12-01

    adult Holstein cows from two farms in southern Brazil. In one of the farms four out of 42 cows (9.5% and in the other one out of eight cows (12.5% were affected. Clinical signs included, although not consistently, fever, pruritus, thickening and wrinkling of the skin with multifocal plaques of alopecia, conjunctivitis, nasal serous discharge, loss of weight, dramatic drop in milk yield, and diarrhea. The duration of the clinical disease was approximately two weeks. All clinically affected cows died, one was euthanatized; three were necropsied. In each of these animals there was a pattern of systemic lesions consisting of multifocal to coalescing grey-white soft to moderately firm nodules which infiltrated several organs but were particularly prominent in the myocardium, lymph nodes, spleen, adrenal gland and renal cortex. These lesions resulted in enlargement and disruption of the architecture of the invaded organ. Microscopically the lesions consisted of extensive cellular infiltration composed of variabe proportions of epithelioid macrophages, lymphocytes, plasma cells, multinucleated giant cells and eosinophils. Eosinophils numbers were usually large. This granulomatous infiltration caused degeneration and loss of parenchymal cells of affected organs. Intensity of lesions varied among the three cows and among individual organs. This is the first documented report on a systemic granulomatous disease in cattle associated with grazing vetch in Brazil.

  13. The Effect of Different Type of Herbivores, Grazing Types and Grazing Intensities on Alpine Basiphillous Vegetation of the Romanian Carpathians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballová, Zuzana; Pekárik, Ladislav; Šibík, Jozef

    2017-04-01

    The major purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that there are significant differences in vegetation structure, plant species composition, and soil chemical properties in relation to type of grazing animals, various levels of grazing intensity and grazing type, and if potential differences alter with ecosystem productivity (increase in more productive ecosystems). The study was conducted in three mountain ranges of the Romanian Carpathians with a predominance of alkaline substrates (the Bucegi Mts, the Little Retezat Mts and the Ceahlău Massif). Statistical analyses were performed in R statistical software environment. The effects of grazing animals (cattle, horses and sheep), grazing types (fence, regular, irregular) and grazing intensity (low, medium, high) on the community structure were tested using ordination methods. In the case of soil properties, General Linear Mixed Model was applied. Special statistical approach eliminated the differences between the examined mountains and sites. Type of grazing animal does not significantly influence species cover but it is related to specific species occurrence. According to our results, grazing horses had similar effects as cattle compared to sheep. Grazing in restricted areas (surrounded by fence) and regular unrestricted grazing were more similar if compared to irregular grazing. When comparing the intensity of grazing, high and medium intensity were more similar to each other than to the low intensity grazing. Cattle grazed sites had significantly higher lichens cover, while the sheep patches were covered with increased overall herb layer (forbs, graminoids and low shrubs together). Medium grazing intensity decreased the lichens cover, cover of overall herb layer, and total vegetation cover compared to high and low grazing intensity. Grazing type had important impact on the lichens cover and cover of overall herb layer. The lichens cover appeared to decrease while the cover of overall herb layer

  14. Intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing supplemented with nitrogenous compounds during dry season Consumo e digestibilidade em bovinos em pastejo durante o período seco recebendo suplementação com compostos nitrogenados

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janderson Florencio Figueiras

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of supplementation with nitrogenous compounds on intake and digestibility in cattle under grazing during dry season. It was used five Holstein × Zebu steers with average initial live weight of 236 kg, kept in five Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. paddocks (0.34 ha. The experiment was carried out according to a 5 × 5 Latin square design, with five supplementation levels and five experimental periods. The supplementation levels were the following: 0; 0.35; 0.70; 1.05, and 1.40 g of crude protein/kg live weight. A mixture of urea, ammonium sulfate and albumin (4.5:0.5:1.0, respectively was used as nitrogen supplement. The average crude protein levels in the diet were 7.39; 8.92; 10.98; 12.55; and 13.62%, as dry matter basis, for the respective supplementation levels. Linear-response-plateau relationships were observed between intake estimates and diet crude protein levels. The linear-response-plateau pattern showed that intake was increased up to crude protein levels close to 9%, as dry matter basis. The estimates became unchangeable from this level. The total and ruminal digestibility coefficients of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber, and diet level of total digestible nutrients presented a positive linear pattern according to diet crude protein levels. The rumen ammonia nitrogen concentration was linearly increased by diet crude protein levels. This variable assumed the value of 8.00 mg/dL when the intake estimates reached the maximum values. Supplementation with nitrogen compounds in quantities that raise the crude protein content in the diet to levels close to 9% optimizes the use of low-quality forage by cattle under grazing.Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos da suplementação com compostos nitrogenados sobre o consumo e a digestibilidade em bovinos em pastejo durante o período seco do ano. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandês × Zebu, com peso vivo (PV médio inicial de

  15. Direct effects of cattle on grassland birds in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleho, Barbara I; Koper, Nicola; Machtans, Craig S

    2014-06-01

    Effects of grazing on grassland birds are generally thought to be indirect, through alteration of vegetation structure; however, livestock can also affect nest survival directly through trampling and other disturbances (e.g., livestock-induced abandonment). We extracted data on nest fates from 18 grazing studies conducted in Canada. We used these data to assess rates of nest destruction by cattle among 9 ecoregions and between seasonal and rotational grazing systems. Overall, few nests were destroyed by cattle (average 1.5% of 9132 nests). Nest destruction was positively correlated with grazing pressure (i.e., stocking rate or grazing intensity), but nest survival was higher in more heavily grazed areas for some species. Because rates of destruction of grassland bird nests by cattle are low in Canada, management efforts to reduce such destruction may not be of ecological or economic value in Canada. © 2014 Society for Conservation Biology.

  16. White clover regenerative ability under N fertilizing and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Leto

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently, ecological and economic factors in milk and meat production stimulate use of legumes and grass-legumes mixtures, with zero or minimum mineral N as alternative to grass monoculture with high rate of mineral N. Research objective was to examine the effect of N application (0-N0 and 150 kg ha-1 year-1-N150 and rotational grazing by cattle (C and sheep (S on white clover: growing points number, stolon lenght, stolon dry weight, dry matter yield and clover contribution to total annual herbage production. N150 significantly reduced the growing points number, stolon length and stolon dry weight for more than 70 % compared to N0. Grazing treatment affected stolon population density only in interaction with N application because of N150 significantly reduced white clover population density only in sheep grazing. S-treatment had higher clover DM yield (0.21 t ha-1 than C-treatment (0.13 t ha-1. N0 had higher clover DM yield (0.25 t ha-1 than N150 (0.09 t ha-1. However, the interaction grazing management x N rate was significant for clover DM yield and clover contribution to total DM yield. N150 reduced both parameters for 80 % only in sheep grazing while difference in DM yield and clover contribution to total DM yield between grazing treatment was recorded only in N0 Sheep grazing increased DM yield for 150 % and clover contribution for 99 % compared to cattle grazing.

  17. Avaliação nutricional da grama-estrela cv. Africana para vacas leiteiras em condições de pastejo Nutritional analysis of stargrass cv. Africana for dairy cattle under rotational grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício Gomes Favoreto

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar nutricionalmente a grama-estrela (Cynodon nlemfuensis cv. Africana utilizada sob pastejo rotacionado por vacas leiteiras. Dez vacas mestiças foram manejadas em 2 ha de grama-estrela e divididas em 11 piquetes/ha. O período de pastejo foi de três dias e os 30 subseqüentes foram destinados à recuperação da pastagem. Durante o período experimental, os animais foram ordenhados duas vezes ao dia e receberam suplementação com 2 kg de concentrado. Amostras representativas do pasto ingeridas (extrusa foram colhidas para determinação de sua composição nutricional. O consumo de matéria seca (MS pelos animais foi estimado utilizando-se cromo e a MS indigestível como indicadores externo e interno. O desempenho individual das vacas foi avaliado pela produção de leite diária e pela pesagem dos animais. A dinâmica da matéria alimentar foi estimada com base nas técnicas in vitro gravimétricas, de produção cumulativa de gases da fermentação microbiana e da estimativa da cinética de passagem das fases sólida e líquida. A quantidade de energia líquida total (ELt, em MJ/dia, atendeu à demanda energética exigida pelos animais. Os valores de proteína metabolizável (PM preditos corresponderam ao suprimento de 91% da PM exigida por esses animais. As predições das exigências em macrominerais atenderam apenas 75% do Ca exigido, mas atenderam às exigências dos demais macrominerais. A grama-estrela atende à demanda energética nutricional de mantença e produção de 11,7 kg de leite por dia. Nas circunstâncias estudadas, é necessário suplementar nutrientes que complementem a PM e Ca não atendidos completamente. O teor e as características cinéticas da fibra não causam repleção ruminal e restrição sobre o consumo de vacas leiteiras em pastejo.An nutritional analysis of stargrass cv. Africana fed dairy cattle under rotational grazing was evaluated in this research. Ten Holstein-Zebu crossbred cows were

  18. Financial analysis of biogas utilization : input cattle, pig feces and coffee waste in Karo, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, N.; Zuhri, F.; Hasnudi; Mirwandhono, E.; Sembiring, I.; Daulay, A. H.

    2018-02-01

    The community's need for renewable energy was very urgent. In addition, efforts to preserve the environment from waste caused biogas technology feasible to apply. This study aims to provide biogas technology with minimal cost and utilize agricultural waste that were coffee and livestock waste. The study was conducted from July to October 2016. The theoretical and empirical methods used in this study were included data from officials resources, field survey on 16 biogas locations, focus group discussion and interview with stake holders. Data were tabulated by Excel Program which then were analysed by SAS. Parameters were included Production Cost, Production Result, Profit Loss Analysis, Revenue Cost Ratio (R/C Ratio), Return On Investment (ROI), Net B/C, and IRR. The result of this research showed that the application of bioplastic gas with cow dung and coffee waste as bioplasticgas input cause the best results.

  19. Organic Fertilizer Production From Cattle Waste Vermicomposting Assisted By Lumbricus Rubellus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siswo Sumardiono

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Composting is decomposition of compound in organic waste by specific treatment using microorganism aerobically. Natural composting for producing organic fertilizer from manure and market waste utilize long time processing and less equal to the market demand. Vermicomposting is a technique to produce high quality compos fertilizer from biodegradable garbage and mixture of red worm (Lumbricus Rubellus. In conventional compos production took 8 weeks of processing time, in vermicomposting only took half processing time of conventional technique. It is occurred by red worm additional ease cellulose degradation contain in manure which is could not decomposed with composting bacteria. The purposes of this research are to investigate the effect of manure comparison to red worm growth and to evaluate the effect of comparison between manure and market waste to red worm growth. This research was conducted by vary the weight of red worm (100 gr, 200 gr, 300 gr, 400 gr, 500 gr and market waste addition (50 gr, 100 gr, 150 gr, 200 gr, 300 gr. Moreover, 3 kg of manure was mixed by various weight of red worm, while variation of market waste addition was involved 500 gr red worm and 3 kg manure mixture. Optimum increasing weight of red worm that was obtained by 100 gr red worm addition is 160 gr within 2 weeks. In added market waste variation, the highest increasing of red worm was resulted by 50 gr market waste addition, with 60 gr increasing weight of red worm. Production of casting fertilizer was highly effected by composition of used materials such as medium, manure and red worm comparison as well as market waste additional

  20. Digestibilidade dos compostos nitrogenados insolúveis em detergente ácido em bovinos manejados em pastagem de capim-braquiária Digestibility of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen in cattle grazing signalgrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edenio Detmann

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se neste estudo avaliar as digestibilidades total e parcial dos compostos nitrogenados insolúveis em detergente ácido (NIDA em bovinos em pastejo. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandês x Zebu (24 meses de idade e 304 kg de PV, canulados no esôfago, rúmen e abomaso, manejados em cinco piquetes de Brachiaria decumbens (0,34 ha, recebendo ou não suplementação com concentrado. O experimento foi realizado em quatro períodos experimentais de 21 dias, entre agosto e novembro de 2000. A avaliação da forragem selecionada pelos animais foi feita em amostras de extrusa esofágica e a estimativa do consumo e dos fluxos fecais e abomasais de MS e NIDA, foram estimados por intermédio de indicadores interno e externo. A avaliação estatística da digestibilidade do NIDA foi conduzida por ajustamento de equação de regressão linear, desconsiderando o parâmetro intercepto e utilizando-se como variáveis independente e dependente as estimativas de influxo e efluxo de NIDA, respectivamente. Os desvios do coeficiente de regressão a partir do valor paramétrico 1,0 foram considerados estimativas de digestibilidade. A comparação entre o consumo e os fluxos abomasal e fecal de NIDA indicou haver digestibilidade desta fração em nível total, atribuída exclusivamente a eventos intestinais (30,7%, uma vez que não foi observada digestibilidade no compartimento ruminal. Esse comportamento indica que o teor de NIDA de um alimento é somente indicador, e não preditor, da digestibilidade potencial dos compostos nitrogenados totais.The objective of this trial was to investigate ruminal, intestinal and total tract digestibility of acid detergent insoluble nitrogen (ADIN in grazing cattle. Five Holstein x Zebu steers averaging 304 kg of body weight and 24 months of age and fitted with esophageal, ruminal and abomasal cannulas were used in this study. Animals were maintained in five 0.34-ha paddocks of Brachiaria decumbens with or

  1. Increase in plasma total antioxidant capacity of grazing Japanese Black heifers and cows in forestland in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haga, Satoshi; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Nakao, Seiji; Hirano, Kiyoshi; Yamamoto, Yoshito; Kitagawa, Miya; Sasaki, Hiroyuki; Kariya, Yoshihiro

    2014-02-01

    Blood total antioxidant capacity (TAC) has become a key bio-marker for animal health. Forest-grazing cattle are known to forage various native plants that have high TAC. This study evaluated differences of plasma TAC between forest-grazing (FG) and pasture-grazing cattle (PG). Experiment 1 monitored the plasma TAC levels of 32 Japanese Black cattle. The level in PG did not change throughout the grazing period. However, that in FG, which increased from summer, was significantly higher than that in PG through fall (P trees consumed by FG were higher than those in pasture grasses. Results of this study show that plasma TAC of grazing Japanese Black cattle in forestland increase from summer through fall. © 2013 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Facilitative and competitive interactions between sympatric cattle, red deer and wild boar in Dutch woodland pastures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiters, A.T.; Groot Bruinderink, G.W.T.A.; Lammertsma, D.R.

    2005-01-01

    Use of cattle-grazed and ungrazed woodland pastures by red deer Cervus elaphus Linnaeus, 1758 and wild boar Sus scrofa Linnaeus, 1758 was investigated monthly by measuring dung-deposition rates. Cattle Bos taurus grazed pastures year-round, with peak intensities during the growing season

  3. Case study: dairies utilizing ultra-high stocking density grazing in Pennsylvania and New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ultra-high stocking density (UHSD) grazing has gained interest in the forage industry. Proponents of UHSD emphasize increased forage use efficiency and soil improvement by grazing mature forage with stocking densities up to 560,425 kg ha**-1 of beef cattle on small paddocks with rest periods of up t...

  4. Some effects of winter grazing of Dohne sour veld | PF | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilisation of spared sour veld poses practical problems. As a result of the development of high level protein or nitrogen supplements it has however become possible to efficiently graze spared veld. Results of experiments during three winters where spared sour veld was grazed off either by sheep or by cattle are given.

  5. The Effects of Timing of Grazing on Plant and Arthropod Communities in High-Elevation Grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Stacy C.; Burkle, Laura A.; Cross, Wyatt F.; Cutting, Kyle A.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock grazing can be used as a key management tool for maintaining healthy ecosystems. However, the effectiveness of using grazing to modify habitat for species of conservation concern depends on how the grazing regime is implemented. Timing of grazing is one grazing regime component that is less understood than grazing intensity and grazer identity, but is predicted to have important implications for plant and higher trophic level responses. We experimentally assessed how timing of cattle grazing affected plant and arthropod communities in high-elevation grasslands of southwest Montana to better evaluate its use as a tool for multi-trophic level management. We manipulated timing of grazing, with one grazing treatment beginning in mid-June and the other in mid-July, in two experiments conducted in different grassland habitat types (i.e., wet meadow and upland) in 2011 and 2012. In the upland grassland experiment, we found that both early and late grazing treatments reduced forb biomass, whereas graminoid biomass was only reduced with late grazing. Grazing earlier in the growing season versus later did not result in greater recovery of graminoid or forb biomass as expected. In addition, the density of the most ubiquitous grassland arthropod order (Hemiptera) was reduced by both grazing treatments in upland grasslands. A comparison of end-of-season plant responses to grazing in upland versus wet meadow grasslands revealed that grazing reduced graminoid biomass in the wet meadow and forb biomass in the upland, irrespective of timing of grazing. Both grazing treatments also reduced end-of-season total arthropod and Hemiptera densities and Hemiptera biomass in both grassland habitat types. Our results indicate that both early and late season herbivory affect many plant and arthropod characteristics in a similar manner, but grazing earlier may negatively impact species of conservation concern requiring forage earlier in the growing season. PMID:25338008

  6. Phosphorus and the grazing ruminant. 1. The effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    M.Sc.-tesis,. Universiteit Stellenbosch. DUDZINSKI, M.L. & ARNOLD, G.W., 1973. Comparison of diets of sheep and cattle grazing together on sown pastures on the southern tablelands of New South Wales by principal components analysis. Aust. J. Agric. Res. 24, 899. DU TOlT, P.J., MALAN, AI. & ROSSOUW, S.D., 1930.

  7. Grazing animal husbandry based on sustainable nutrient management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermans, C.; Vereijken, P.H.

    1995-01-01

    Sustainable husbandry systems for grazing animals (cattle and sheep) can be achieved by sustainable nutrient management (SNM). This implies the tuning of inputs to outputs of nutrients, to achieve and maintain optimum ranges of agronomically wanted and ecologically acceptable reserves of single

  8. The potential of Pleurotus-treated olive mill solid waste as cattle feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabtay, Ariel; Hadar, Yitzhak; Eitam, Harel; Brosh, Arieh; Orlov, Alla; Tadmor, Yaakov; Izhaki, Ido; Kerem, Zohar

    2009-12-01

    The aims of the current study were to follow: (1) the capability of the edible mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus to degrade cell wall components and soluble phenols of the olive mill solid waste (OMSW), and improve it for ruminant nutrition (2) the fate of oil and the lipid-soluble compounds tocopherols, squalene and beta-sitosterol in the fermented OMSW. A significant decrease in oil and lipid-soluble compounds with a concomitant shift in the fatty acid profile and degradation of soluble phenols took place already after 14 d. The utilization of lipids by the fungus shifted the degradation of the structural carbohydrates to a later stage, and significantly reduced the metabolizable energy of the OMSW. We propose that edible fungi with reduced lipase activity would preserve the energy and health promoting ingredients of the oil, and force the fungus to degrade structural carbohydrates, thus improving its digestibility.

  9. Trajectory and rate of desert vegetation response following cattle removal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Minckley

    2013-01-01

    Cattle have grazed continuously over the past three centuries in the Sky Island region and most work has focused on how these grazers have affected riparian and grassland habitats. I examined the effects of grazing on a fuller spectrum of desert habitats that occur in the close proximity to the San Bernardino Valley of Mexico and the United States. Plots in each of...

  10. Hematological Changes Associated with Theileria orientalis Infection in Korean Indigenous Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Suhee; Yu, Do-Hyeon; Kang, Sung-Woo; Chae, Jeong-Byoung; Choi, Kyoung-Seong; Kim, Hyeon-Cheol; Park, Bae-Keun; Chae, Joon-Seok; Park, Jinho

    2017-10-01

    Tick-borne pathogens can cause serious problems in grazing cattle. However, little information is available on tick-mediated diseases in cattle grazing on mountains. Thus, this study aimed to understand the potential problems related to tick-borne diseases in grazing cattle through the investigation of prevalent tick-transmitted infections, and their associated hematological changes, in terms of season and grazing type in Korean indigenous cattle (=Hanwoo). Hanwoo cattle from 3 regions of the Republic of Korea (=Korea) were either maintained indoors or placed on grassy mountains from spring to fall of 2014 and 2015. Cattle that grazed in mountainous areas showed a greater prevalence of tick-borne infections with an increased Theileria orientalis infection rate (54.7%) compared to that in non-grazing cattle (16.3%) (Pcattle were significantly lower than those of non-grazing cattle throughout the season (Pcattle in mountainous areas is closely associated with an increase in T. orientalis infection (RR=3.4, Pcattle in mountainous areas of Korea are at a high risk of infection by T. orientalis, which can lead to hematological alterations. This study highlights the necessity of preventive strategies that target T. orientalis infection.

  11. The influence of grazing on surface climatological variables of tallgrass prairie. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seastedt, T.R.; Dyer, M.I.; Turner, C.L.

    1992-01-01

    Mass and energy exchange between most grassland canopies and the atmosphere are mediated by grazing activities. Ambient temperatures can be increased or decreased by grazers. Data have been assembled from simulated grazing experiments on Konza Prairie Research Natural Area and observations on adjacent pastures grazed by cattle show significant changes in primary production, nutrient content, and bidirectional reflectance characteristics as a function of grazing intensity. The purpose of this research was to provide algorithms that would allow incorporation of grazing effects into models of energy budgets using remote sensing procedures. The approach involved: (1) linking empirical measurements of plant biomass and grazing intensities to remotely sensed canopy reflectance, and (2) using a higher resolution, mechanistic grazing model to derive plant ecophysiological parameters that influence reflectance and other surface climatological variables

  12. Growth and reproductive traits of Friesian X Sanga crossbred cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The typical cattle production system in Ghana is predominantly pasture-based. Cattle are grazed all year round on natural pastures with minimal feed supplementation. The animals kept in this production system often experience inadequate nutrition and fluctuating nutrient supply affecting their productivity. There is ...

  13. Seroprevalence of Fasciola hepatica in cattle in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersson, Jennifer; Jokelainen, Pikka; Lassen, Brian

    2017-01-01

    Fasciolosis, an infectious disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica, affects grazing cattle world-wide. Liver fluke F. hepatica is prevalent and well-documented in cattle in many European countries, but for the Baltic countries such information is limited. This study investigated...

  14. Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Factors affecting in sacco dietary degradation by Ankole cattle grazing natural range pastures in Uganda. ... Keywords: Ankole cattle, dietary selection, dry matter disappearance, free water intake, in sacco degradation, lignification, live weight change, predictive model, water solubility. African Journal of Range & Forage ...

  15. Poop and pedometers: What cattle really do on the range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattle serve as energy brokers between cellulose in plant biomass and energy and protein available for human consumption. Despite the global significance of cattle to society for livelihood, culture and meat production, a key question remains for nutrition of these ruminants: does grazing management...

  16. The effect of El Nino on trypanosome infection in cattle in Dar es ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A retrospective study was carried out to assess the effect of El Nino on trypanosome infection in cattle. Trypanosome infection was monitored in free grazing dairy cattle before and after El Nino in Dar es Salaam. The study involved 49 smallholder dairy herds with a total of 570 dairy cattle. Trypanosomes were identified by ...

  17. Divergent Impacts of Two Cattle Types on Vegetation in Coastal Meadows: Implications for Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurila, Marika; Huuskonen, Arto; Pesonen, Maiju; Kaseva, Janne; Joki-Tokola, Erkki; Hyvärinen, Marko

    2015-11-01

    The proportion of beef cattle in relation to the total number of cattle has increased in Europe, which has led to a higher contribution of beef cattle in the management of semi-natural grasslands. Changes in vegetation caused by this change in grazers are virtually unexplored so far. In the present study, the impacts of beef and dairy cattle on vegetation structure and composition were compared on Bothnian Bay coastal meadows. Vegetation parameters were measured in seven beef cattle, six dairy heifer pastures, and in six unmanaged meadows. Compared to unmanaged meadows, vegetation in grazed meadows was significantly lower in height and more frequently colonized by low-growth species. As expected, vegetation grazed by beef cattle was more open than that on dairy heifer pastures where litter cover and proportion of bare ground were in the same level as in the unmanaged meadows. However, the observed differences may have in part arisen from the higher cattle densities in coastal meadows grazed by beef cattle than by dairy heifers. The frequencies of different species groups and the species richness values of vegetation did not differ between the coastal meadows grazed by the two cattle types. One reason for this may be the relatively short management history of the studied pastures. The potential differences in grazing impacts of the two cattle types on vegetation structure can be utilized in the management of coastal meadows for species with divergent habitat requirements.

  18. Forage intake and wastage by ewes in pea/hay barley swath grazing and bale feeding systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvested feed costs, particularly during the winter, are traditionally the highest input associated with a ruminant livestock operation. Although swath grazing has been practiced for over 100 years and literature exists for cattle use of swath grazing, no published results are available on use of s...

  19. Nest Success and Cause-Specific Nest Failure of Grassland Passerines Breeding in Prairie Grazed by Livestock

    Science.gov (United States)

    This manuscript describes two years of field research on ground-nesting songbird species at Zumwalt Prairie Reserve, northeastern Oregon, USA. Cattle-grazing has long been suspected in declines of ground-nesting songbirds in grazed grassland, primarily due to increased trampling...

  20. Studies of transuranic element ingestion by fistulated steers grazing Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1985-01-01

    Area 13 is one of several areas of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) contaminated with transuranics. Cattle were grazed on the area to study the botanical and chemical composition of the forage, the digestibility of range plants as selected by range cattle, and the intake of plutonium and americium by grazing cattle. The digestibility of dry matter ranged from 34 to 44%. Cattle generally consumed over 2 kilograms per 100 kilograms body weight of dry matter daily, which resulted in a daily intake of 3600 to 11,100 pCi of plutonium-238, 85,000 to 400,000 pCi of plutonium-239, and 11,000 to 56,000 pCi of americium-241. The soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium. 21 references, 1 figure, 9 tables

  1. Evaluation of turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as supplement for grazing beef cattle Avaliação do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como suplemento para bovinos de corte em pastagens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vera Martins Franco

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were performed to evaluate the use of the turnip forage residue extracted from biodiesel production as alternative protein source for grazing zebu cattle. At the first experiment, the performance of Nellore zebu cattle was evaluated on grazing grass. Twenty four animals were distributed in three treatments and allocated on six paddocks, with four animals each and two repetitions. Treatments consisted of supplements with two levels of turnip forage residue (7.5 and 15.0% dry matter and without turnip forage (control. Pasture availability and quality were also evaluated. At the second trial, degradability of the residue turnip forage was measured in six rumen fistulated zebu cattle fed basal diet composed by grass coast-cross hay and concentrate (35% CP with 15% of turnip forage. No difference was observed among the treatments for the animal performance, but the steers fed 7.5% of turnip forage residue showed the highest daily gain weight (0.575 kg DGW. The turnip forage residue showed high and fast ruminal effective degradability of the dry matter (83.8%, crude protein (88.9% and neutral detergent fiber (52.1%. In conclusion, the turnip forage residue can be used as protein source in supplement diet for cattle, shifting the conventional protein sources up to 15% in supplement with 35% of total crude protein.Dois experimentos foram realizados visando avaliar o uso do resíduo de nabo forrageiro extraído da produção de biodiesel como fonte de proteína alternativa de suplementos para bovinos de corte em pastejo de gramíneas. No primeiro experimento, avaliou-se o desempenho de bovinos Nelore a pasto (ganho diário de peso, utilizando-se 24 animais, distribuídos em três tratamentos em seis piquetes com quatro animais cada e duas repetições. Os tratamentos consistiram de suplementos com dois níveis do resíduo de nabo forrageiro (7,5 e 15,0% na matéria seca e sem nabo forrageiro (testemunha. A disponibilidade e qualidade da

  2. Carbon budgets for an irrigated intensively grazed dairy pasture and an unirrigated winter-grazed pasture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, John E.; Laubach, Johannes; Barthel, Matti; Fraser, Anitra; Phillips, Rebecca L.

    2016-05-01

    Intensification of pastoral agriculture is occurring rapidly across New Zealand, including increasing use of irrigation and fertiliser application in some regions. While this enables greater gross primary production (GPP) and livestock grazing intensity, the consequences for the net ecosystem carbon budget (NECB) of the pastures are poorly known. Here, we determined the NECB over one year for an irrigated, fertilised and rotationally grazed dairy pasture and a neighbouring unirrigated, unfertilised, winter-grazed pasture. Primary terms in the NECB calculation were: net ecosystem production (NEP), biomass carbon removed by grazing cows and carbon (C) input from their excreta. Annual NEP was measured using the eddy-covariance method. Carbon removal was estimated with plate-meter measurements calibrated against biomass collections, pre- and post-grazing. Excreta deposition was calculated from animal feed intake. The intensively managed pasture gained C (NECB = 103 ± 42 g C m-2 yr-1) but would have been subject to a non-significant C loss if cattle excreta had not been returned to the pasture. The unirrigated pasture was C-neutral (NECB = -13 ± 23 g C m-2 yr-1). While annual GPP of the former was almost twice that of the latter (2679 vs. 1372 g C m-2 yr-1), ecosystem respiration differed by only 68 % between the two pastures (2271 vs. 1352 g C m-2 yr-1). The ratio of GPP to the total annual water input of the irrigated pasture was 37 % greater than that of the unirrigated pasture, i.e. the former used the water input more efficiently than the latter to produce biomass. The NECB results agree qualitatively with those from many other eddy-covariance studies of grazed grasslands, but they seem to be at odds with long-term carbon-stock studies of other New Zealand pastures.

  3. Using digital photography to examine grazing in montane meadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Susan K.; Allen-Diaz, Barbara H.; Berg, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle (Bos taurus) numbers on national forests are allocated based on allotment grazing capacity, but spatial patterns of timing and density at smaller scales are difficult to assess. However, it is often in meadows or riparian areas that grazing may affect hydrology, biodiversity, and other important ecosystem characteristics. To explore real-time animal presence in montane meadows we distributed 18 digital cameras across nine sites in the Sierra National Forest, California. Our objectives were to document seasonal and diurnal presence of both cattle and mule deer (Odocoileus hemionus), identify the effects of three fencing treatments on animal distribution, and test digital photography as a tool for documenting cattle presence. We recorded 409 399 images during daylight hours for two grazing seasons, and we identified 5 084 and 24 482 cattle "marks" (instances of animal occurrence) in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Deer presence was much lower, with 331 marks in 2006 and 598 in 2007. Morning cattle presence was highest before 0800 hours both years (13.7% and 15.4% of total marks for 2006 and 2007, respectively). Marks decreased until 1100 hours and then increased around 1400 hours and remained relatively stable until 1900 hours. Marks then rose precipitously, with >20% of total marks recorded after 1900 hours both years. Deer presence was less than 10% per hour until 1800 hours, when >20% of total marks were recorded after this time both years. Among treatments, cattle marks were highest outside fences at partially fenced meadows, and deer were highest within completely fenced meadows. Our experience suggests that cameras are not viable tools for meadow monitoring due to variation captured within meadows and the time and effort involved in image processing and review.

  4. Dry anaerobic co-digestion of food waste and cattle manure: Impact of total solids, substrate ratio and thermal pre treatment on methane yield and quality of biomanure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arelli, Vijayalakshmi; Begum, Sameena; Anupoju, Gangagni Rao; Kuruti, Kranti; S, Shailaja

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present study is to assess the impact of TS concentration, substrate mixing ratio (co digestion) and thermal pretreatment on biogas production, methane yield, VS reduction (%) and quality of biomanure through dry anaerobic digestion (DAD) of food waste (FW) and cattle manure (CM). Results divulged that the optimum methane yield and biomanure of 0.18 and 0.21 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 3.15 and 2.8 kg/kg waste was obtained from FW at TS of 25% and 30% at an HRT of 41 and 31 days respectively whereas it was 0.32 and 0.43 m 3 CH 4 /(kg VS reduced) and 2.2 and 1.15 kg/kg waste from pretreated FW at an HRT of 16 and 20 days correspondingly. Improvement of methane from 62 to 81% was obtained due to thermal pretreatment. The highest nutrient recovery in terms of N, P, K was found to be 5.14, 2.6 and 3.2 respectively. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Mineral supplementation for grazing ruminants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDowell, L.R.; Conrad, J.H.; Ellis, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    Grazing ruminants to which concentrate feeds cannot be economically fed must rely on self-feeding of mineral supplements. A number of factors affect mineral consumption of free-choice mixtures. Livestock exhibit little nutritional wisdom and will select palatable mixtures in preference to mixtures designed to meet their requirements. Palatability and appetite stimulators are often used to achieve a more uniform herd-wide consumption. It is best to formulate free-choice mixtures on the basis of analyses or other available data. However, when no information on mineral status is known, a free-choice complete mineral supplement is warranted. A 'complete' mineral mixture usually includes salt, a low fluoride P source, Ca, Co, Cu, I, Mn and Zn. Selenium, Mg, K, S, Fe or additional elements can be incorporated into a mineral supplement as new information suggests a need. The detriment to ruminant production caused by providing Ca, Se and Cu in excess can be greater than any benefit derived by providing a mineral supplement. In regions where high forage Mo predominates, three to five times the Cu content in mineral mixtures is needed to counteract Mo toxicity. Supplemental minerals are most critical during the wet season, when cattle are gaining weight rapidly and energy and protein supplies are adequate. Economic return on mineral supplementation is high. (author)

  6. Radionuclides in sheep grazing near old uranium mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Fernando P.; Oliveira, Joao M.; Malta, M. [Instituto Superior Tecnico/Campus Tecnologico e Nuclear/ (IST/CTN), Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada Nacional 10 - ao km 139,7, - 2695-066 Bobadela LRS (Portugal); Lemos, M.E. [Servicos de Alimentacao e Veterinaria da Regiao Centro, Bairro Na Sra dos Remedios, 6300 Guarda (Portugal); Vala, H.; Esteves, F. [Escola Superior Agraria de Viseu, Quinta da Alagoa, Estrada de Nelas, Ranhados,3500-606 Viseu (Portugal)

    2014-07-01

    During the past century extensive uranium mining took place in Portugal for radium and uranium production. Many uranium deposits were mined as open pits and after ore extraction and transportation to milling facilities, mining wastes were left on site. One uranium ore mining site, Boco Mine, was extracted in the 1960's and 70's and mining waste and open pits were left uncovered and non-remediated since closure of uranium mining activities. During the nineties a quarry for sand extraction was operated in the same site and water from a local stream was extensively used in sand sieving. Downstream the mine areas, agriculture soils along the water course are currently used for cattle grazing. Water from this stream, and water wells, soil, pasture and sheep meat were analyzed for radionuclides of the uranium series. The U- series radionuclide {sup 226}Ra was generally the highest in concentrations especially in soil, pasture, and in internal organs of sheep. Ra-226 concentrations averaged 1093±96 Bq/kg (dry weight) in soil, 43±3 Bq/kg (dw) in pasture, and 0.76±0.41 Bq/kg (dw) in muscle tissue of sheep grown there. Other sheep internal organs displayed much higher {sup 226}Ra concentrations, such as the brain and kidneys with 7.7±2.3 Bq/kg (dw) and 28±29 Bq/kg (dw), respectively. Results of tissue sample analysis for sheep grown in a comparison area were 2 to 11 times lower, depending on the tissue. Absorbed radiation doses for internal organs of sheep were computed and may exceed 20 mSv/y in the kidney. Although elevated, this absorbed radiation dose still is below the threshold for biological effects on mammals. Nevertheless, enhanced environmental radioactive contamination mainly due to radium was observed in the area of influence of this legacy uranium mine and there is potential food chain transfer for humans (authors)

  7. Effect of grazing system and the grass species on the pasture infestation and on the nematode gastrointestinal parasitism in beef cattle Efeito de sistema de pastejo e de espécies forrageiras na contaminação da pastagem e no parasitismo por nematóides gastrintestinais em bovinos de corte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Bianchin

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available During two years, the infestation of infecting larvae on grazing grass and the level of gastrointestinal nematodes in beef cattle, in the region of the Brazilian Cerrado, were monitored. In the first study, parasitological variables were investigated on pasture of Panicum maximum cv Mombaça, under continuous or rotational grazing, with four (36 resting days and 12 occupation days and ten paddocks (36 resting days and 4 occupation days. In the second study, these variables were evaluated with different forage species (Panicum maximum cv Mombaça, Braquiaria brizantha cv Marandu and Cynodon spp. (Tifton 85, under rotational grazing on eight paddocks (28 resting days and 4 occupation days. In the first study, and only in the first year, the infestation of pasture with infecting larvae was lower (P<0.05 in the rotation system with ten divisions. For the remaining observations of both studies, there were no significant effects of grazing systems and grass species on the fecal egg count and the number of infecting larvae in the pasture. These results indicated that, in the conditions the studies were carried out, the pasture resting for 36 days was insufficient to decrease the EPF and the infestation of pasture.Durante dois anos, acompanhou-se a infestação das pastagens por larvas infectantes e o nível de parasitismo por nematódeos gastrintestinais em bovinos de corte, na região do Cerrado. No primeiro estudo as variáveis parasitológicas foram acompanhadas em pastagens de Panicum maximum cv Mombaça, submetidas ao pastejo continuo e ao rotacionado, com 4 (36 dias de descanso e 12 dias de ocupação e 10 piquetes (36 dias de descanso e 4 dias de ocupação. No segundo estudo, essas variáveis foram avaliadas com diferentes espécies forrageiras (Panicum maximum cv Mombaça, Braquiaria brizantha cv Marandu e Cynodon spp (Tifton 85, sob pastejo rotacionado em 8 piquetes (28 dias de descanso e 4 dias de ocupação. No primeiro estudo, e apenas no

  8. Woodlands Grazing Issues in Mediterranean Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, P.

    2009-04-01

    's family ownerships. These poor livestockeepers could maintain their livestock regimen on the basis of low cash-income earnings and crops self-consumption in extremely poor family living conditions. In this state woodlands, social an environmental goals -as they were noted above- could generate high trade off between family basic needs and soil degradation because woodlands and crops operations. As result, grazing rent is pending on the low opportunity cost for family labour. In this context, Tunisian Mediterranean woodlands maintain the highest livestock rate population, which woodland economy could be called for poor people subsistence and environmentally unsustainable because soil erosion, forest degradation and over/under grazing. These study present three study cases where Mediterranean basin grazing resources economies are analyzed in the contexts of Tunisian developing economy (Iteimia woodlands, North West of Tunisia) and Spanish developed economy (Jerez de la Frontera and Monfragüe woodlands, South and West of Spain). The results show the crucial role that livestock (goat, sheep and cattle) play in maintaining the working Mediterranean woodlands landscape. People, woodlands and livestock grazing dependences are changing so fast in Mediterranean basin that they appear too complex for being accurately forecasting by rangeland economists. In this context, perhaps a question might be a more suitable concluding remark: ¿will does woodlands extensive livestock become a quasi-wild management for urban landowners pleasure aims in rich Mediterranean basin countries?

  9. Signal grass structure at different sites of the same pasture under three grazing intensities - doi: 10.4025/actascianimsci.v35i1.11801

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronan Lopes Albino

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was conducted to evaluate Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk at different sites of the same pasture featuring varying grazing intensities (under grazed, properly grazed and overgrazed. The pasture was managed under continuous stocking using 200-kg cattle and grass height kept at about 25 cm. The randomized block design was used, with three replications. Sward height (38.0 cm and extended plant height (85.2 cm were greater at the under grazed site. The falling index was lower at the properly grazed site (1.28. At the under grazed site, the masses of green leaf blade (3442 kg ha-1 DM, green stem (8370 kg ha-1 DM, green forage (11812 kg ha-1 DM and total forage (14137 kg ha-1 DM were higher when compared to the overgrazed and properly grazed sites. Dead material mass was higher at the properly grazed (3422 kg ha-1 DM and under grazed (2324 kg ha-1 DM sites. At the under grazed sites, there was a higher occurrence of tillers taller than 40 cm. Tillers with sizes between 10 and 30 cm predominated in properly grazed sites. In overgrazed site there was a higher share of tillers with sizes smaller than 20 cm. There is spatial variability of vegetation in the same pasture of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk due to uneven grazing by cattle.

  10. CATTLE FEEDER BEHAVIOR AND FEEDER CATTLE PLACEMENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Kastens, Terry L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    1994-01-01

    Cattle feeders appear irrational when they place cattle on feed when projected profit is negative. Long futures positions appear to offer superior returns to cattle feeding investment. Cattle feeder behavior suggests that they believe a downward bias in live cattle futures persists and that cattle feeders use different expectations than the live cattle futures market price when making placement decisions. This study examines feeder cattle placement determinants, comparing performance of expec...

  11. Revealing livestock effects on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat ETM+ data across a grazing season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Vincent S.

    Remote sensing provides monitoring solutions for more informed grazing management. To investigate the ability to detect the effects of cattle grazing on bunchgrass vegetation with Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) data, we conducted a study on the Zumwalt Prairie in northeastern Oregon across a gradient of grazing intensities. Biophysical vegetation data was collected on vertical structure, biomass, and cover at three different time periods during the grazing season: June, August, and October 2012. To relate these measures to the remotely sensed Landsat ETM+ data, Pearson's correlations and multiple regression models were computed. Using the best models, predicted vegetation metrics were then mapped across the study area. Results indicated that models using common vegetation indices had the ability to discern different levels of grazing across the study area. Results can be distributed to land managers to help guide grassland conservation by improving monitoring of bunchgrass vegetation for sustainable livestock management.

  12. Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in grazing Irish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Grady, Luke; Doherty, Michael L; Mulligan, Finbar J

    2008-04-01

    Subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) is a significant production disease of dairy cattle. Previous concerns have been raised over the occurrence of SARA in pasture-fed dairy cattle and the potential consequences of laminitis and lameness. Highly digestible perennial rye grass contains high concentrations of rapidly fermentable carbohydrate and low concentrations of physical effective fibre that may result in SARA. This study conducted a point prevalence survey of rumen health status in grazing Irish dairy cattle fed predominantly perennial rye grass-based pasture. The survey assessed rumen fluid, animal health status, milk production data and pasture composition. A total of 144 cows between 80 and 150 days in milk were sampled on 12 farms. Eleven percent of cows were classified as affected with SARA (pH 5.8). The study showed that low rumen pH is prevalent in grazing Irish dairy cattle consuming perennial rye grass-based pasture and raises concerns regarding effective pasture utilisation and possible consequences for animal health.

  13. Grazing alters net ecosystem C fluxes and the global warming potential of a subtropical pasture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Casanovas, Nuria; DeLucia, Nicholas J; Bernacchi, Carl J; Boughton, Elizabeth H; Sparks, Jed P; Chamberlain, Samuel D; DeLucia, Evan H

    2018-03-01

    The impact of grazing on C fluxes from pastures in subtropical and tropical regions and on the environment is uncertain, although these systems account for a substantial portion of global C storage. We investigated how cattle grazing influences net ecosystem CO 2 and CH 4 exchange in subtropical pastures using the eddy covariance technique. Measurements were made over several wet-dry seasonal cycles in a grazed pasture, and in an adjacent pasture during the first three years of grazer exclusion. Grazing increased soil wetness but did not affect soil temperature. By removing aboveground biomass, grazing decreased ecosystem respiration (R eco ) and gross primary productivity (GPP). As the decrease in R eco was larger than the reduction in GPP, grazing consistently increased the net CO 2 sink strength of subtropical pastures (55, 219 and 187 more C/m 2 in 2013, 2014, and 2015). Enteric ruminant fermentation and increased soil wetness due to grazers, increased total net ecosystem CH 4 emissions in grazed relative to ungrazed pasture (27-80%). Unlike temperate, arid, and semiarid pastures, where differences in CH 4 emissions between grazed and ungrazed pastures are mainly driven by enteric ruminant fermentation, our results showed that the effect of grazing on soil CH 4 emissions can be greater than CH 4 produced by cattle. Thus, our results suggest that the interactions between grazers and soil hydrology affecting soil CH 4 emissions play an important role in determining the environmental impacts of this management practice in a subtropical pasture. Although grazing increased total net ecosystem CH 4 emissions and removed aboveground biomass, it increased the net storage of C and decreased the global warming potential associated with C fluxes of pasture by increasing its net CO 2 sink strength. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. The ingestion of plutonium and americium by range cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blincoe, C.; Bohman, V.R.; Smith, D.D.

    1981-01-01

    The intake of plutonium and americium in the diet of cattle grazing on plutonium contaminated desert range was determined. Daily feed intake of the grazing animals was also determined so that the amount of nuclides ingested daily could be ascertained. Soil ingested by range cattle constituted the principal and possibly only source of ingested plutonium and americium and resulted in a daily intake of 3600-6600 pCi 238 Pu, 85,000-400,000 pCi 239 Pu, and 11,000-31,000 pCi 241 Am daily. Determining transuranic intake by direct measurement and from the composition and contamination of the diet gave identical results. (author)

  15. Strategies to reduce losses and improve utilisation of nitrogen from solid cattle manure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shah, G.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background and objectives

    The number of domesticated cattle in the world has steadily increased during the last decades, and thereby also the amount of manure produced annually. The excrements of grazing cattle are dropped in pastures and left unmanaged, but that of

  16. Radiation hygiene problems of uranium mine waste bank reclamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skalicky, J.; Klener, V.; Thomas, J.; Romanidis, K.

    1982-01-01

    Using a comprehensive approach, the hygienic feasibility is evaluated of recultivation by forests of waste banks from uranium mines. The evaluation is based on the investigation of samples of soil, timber and dry grass from waste banks of ore mines from the 16th century and recent waste banks in the same area. Using model reflections and the data collected, it is concluded that various alternatives regarding the use of timber from these localities would not involve significant exposure of people. Neither the consumption of meat and milk from cattle and sheep grazing in these areas or the consumption of berries from the woods would cause a significant increase of exposure in extensive population groups, provided these products would only form part of the total diet. (author)

  17. Comparative aspects of ruminants and camels grazing on a thornbush savannah pasture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Rutagwenda, T.; Lechner-Doll, M.; Kaske, M.; Schultka, W.

    1989-01-01

    A factor limiting animal production in a savannah pasture is the ability of the animals to adapt and survive during the harsh dry season. Survival strategies for the various species are different. Compared to cattle and sheep, camels, and to a lesser extent goats, have the advantage of being able to select high quality plant species. Camels and goats compete very little for forage that is predominantly grazed by cattle, donkeys and sheep. As a result, camels and goats are less subject to the grazing pressures experienced by other animals. During the harsh dry season, cattle, and also sheep, eat mostly low quality forage. When doing this, they are able to increase the retention time of feed particles in the forestomach by increasing forestomach volume. This strategy allows the digestion of poor quality, fibre rich diets to be improved. Camels are superior because they are able to use two different strategies. When fed a very poor quality diet they selectively retain feed particles in the forestomach for a considerable length of time. When grazing in the thornbush savannah, on the other hand, they select medium or high quality plants, which are not used by cattle, donkeys and sheep and are only partly used by goats. A multispecies grazing system may help to improve livestock productivity on a semiarid pasture because the available plant biomass is utilized more efficiently. At the same time overgrazing and its consequences are diminished. (author). 11 refs

  18. Grazing supplementation and crop diversification on beef farm simulations in southern Brazil: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Economics and environmental footprints of beef cattle raised on natural pasture or combined with soybean in specific biomes are still not well evaluated. The objective of this research was to simulate and evaluate the economics of three common pastured beef grazing systems in southern Brazil along w...

  19. Reaction of cocksfoot (Dactylis glomerata L. in grass-clover mixture on N fertilization and grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Andreata-Koren

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Grazing is the most common way of using a hill and mountain areas because of their specific agro-ecological conditions. Cocksfoot is a grass with high productivity and quality, and it is very good for sowing in the sward for grazing. Because of its good adaptability to different growing conditions, especially in very dry and cold areas, it is excellent in relation to some other good grasses, which can not be raised in such areas. The aim of the experiment was to determine effect of N application (0-N0 and 150 kg ha-1 year-1-N150 and rotational grazing by cattle (C and sheep (S, and their interaction on the cocksfoot sown in a mixture of smooth-stalked meadow grass (Poa pratensis L. and white clover (Trifolium repens L. in hill mountain areas. In a three-year average, the application of 150 kg ha-1 N had significant impact on cocksfoot population density (number of tillers m-2, and it was 51.4 % higher than the recorded one before grazing (P<0.05 and 42.2 % higher after grazing (P<0.01 in comparison to N0. The application of 150 kg ha-1 N resulted in significantly higher cocksfoot dry matter (DM yield for 38.6 % (P<0.01 and 15.3 % higher cocksfoot share in the total mixture in relation to N0 (P<0.01. Grazing management and grazing management interaction with N rate did not significantly affect the population density of individual years. However, in the three-year average, grazing management significantly affected cocksfoot DM (P<0.01 and its percentage in the total DM mixture (P<0.01. Cattle grazing resulted in 9.9 % higher cocksfoot DM yield and 15.2 % higher cocksfoot percentage in pasture. Interaction of grazing management and N-level had significant influence on the percentage of cocksfoot DM in grass-clover mixture. On cattle grazed areas fertilized with 150 kg ha-1 N, the percentage of cocksfoot DM was the highest (74. 07%, while the lowest percentage of cocksfoot DM was recorded on the sheep grazed areas without N (55.12%.

  20. Evaluation of fruit vegetable wastes (FV) from a market place as a alternative deed stuffs in dairy cattle diets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angulo, J.; Yepes, S. A.; Yepes, A. M.; Bustamante, G.; Mahecha, L.

    2009-01-01

    Solid food residues from market places represent about 10% to 20% of the total wastes of a city. A big proportion comes from the overproduction of fruits and vegetables in some production steps, its low price and abundance, turning them into potential contaminants, particularly since not always there is an appropriate knowledge and experience in its alternative use. (Author)

  1. Root Characteristics of Perennial Warm-Season Grasslands Managed for Grazing and Biomass Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattan Lal

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Minirhizotrons were used to study root growth characteristics in recently established fields dominated by perennial C4-grasses that were managed either for cattle grazing or biomass production for bioenergy in Virginia, USA. Measurements over a 13-month period showed that grazing resulted in smaller total root volumes and root diameters. Under biomass management, root volume was 40% higher (49 vs. 35 mm3 and diameters were 20% larger (0.29 vs. 0.24 mm compared to grazing. While total root length did not differ between grazed and biomass treatments, root distribution was shallower under grazed areas, with 50% of total root length in the top 7 cm of soil, compared to 41% in ungrazed exclosures. These changes (i.e., longer roots and greater root volume in the top 10 cm of soil under grazing but the reverse at 17–28 cm soil depths were likely caused by a shift in plant species composition as grazing reduced C4 grass biomass and allowed invasion of annual unsown species. The data suggest that management of perennial C4 grasslands for either grazing or biomass production can affect root growth in different ways and this, in turn, may have implications for the subsequent carbon sequestration potential of these grasslands.

  2. Uso do abate comparativo na determinação da exigência de energia de mantença de gado de corte pastejando capim-elefante: descrição da metodologia e dos resultados Use of comparative slaughter to set maintenance energy requirements of beef cattle grazing elephantgrass: description of methodology and results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Augusto de Alencar Fontes

    2005-10-01

    exterior, para gado europeu.The maintenance net energy requirement of steers grazing elephangrass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum cv. Napier, as unique food, was determined. The trial lasted 175 days. Nine 0.5 ha paddocks were implanted in flat-land, in rotational grazing, were used. Thirty-six ¾ Gyr-Holstein steers averaging initial age of 20 months and 332 ± 37 kg body weight (BW were used. Half of animals had grazing time restricted to four hours daily, to limit energy intake at a level close to maintenance, and half had free access to pasture. Six steers were slaughtered at the beginning of trial to determine initial body composition (reference group, and six were slaughtered each 35 days. Body composition was determined by chemical analysis of representative samples of all animal body. The net energy maintenance requirements were estimated as heat production at zero level of metabolizable energy intake, regressing log heat production on metabolizable energy intake, per day and per unit metabolic size. Two equations were fitted: for the first, metabolic size was calculated as a function of body weight (BW0.75 and for the second as function of empty body weight (EBW0.75. Forage intake and digestibility of forage consumed (extrusa were determined monthly. The grazing time restricted to four hours a day allowed intake of energy at level close to maintenance as indicated the individual weight gains, showing that the procedure used in this research might be used in future trials. The net energy maintenance requirement observed was 57 kcal/kg LW0.75 or 63,27 kcal/kg EBW0.75. The values obtained fall into the range of values observed in Brazil and were lower than those recommended abroad for European type cattle.

  3. Radiobiological problems concerning grazing animals following the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prister, B.S.; Lazarev, N.M.; Romanov, L.M.

    1997-01-01

    Chernobyl accident took place on April 26 1986, which was the beginning of the grazing season, when there was not enough fodder on the farms and the cattle was grazed on the open territory. Therefore grazing animal-breeding was the most radioactively affected branch. The consumption of contaminated fodder and surface contamination with radioactive precipitation caused the accumulation of considerable ingested doses in the organisms of animals (up to 1 GY). Radioactive damage caused to the thyroid by the selective accumulation of radioiodine (mainly 131 I) is of particular attention. Cumulative doses of thyroid irradiation in mammals were much higher than for the other organs. Thus, in cows during their grazing on the contaminated pastures outside 30-km zone the ratio of ingested doses of the thyroid and whole body was 130:1 and more, therefore, radiation effects could have a certain negative effect, concerning the agricultural animals in the zone of accidental release influence. Accumulated ingested doses in the thyroid of cows on the contaminated territory in a number of cases caused the complete destruction of the thyroid (doses above 600 Gy), which provided the loss of milk productivity and reproductive qualities of the animals. Lower doses caused the functional disturbances, which in most cases have been levelled during the years after the accident

  4. The Occurrence and Toxicity of Indospicine to Grazing Animals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary T. Fletcher

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Indospicine is a non-proteinogenic amino acid which occurs in Indigofera species with widespread prevalence in grazing pastures across tropical Africa, Asia, Australia, and the Americas. It accumulates in the tissues of grazing livestock after ingestion of Indigofera. It is a competitive inhibitor of arginase and causes both liver degeneration and abortion. Indospicine hepatoxicity occurs universally across animal species but the degree varies considerably between species, with dogs being particularly sensitive. The magnitude of canine sensitivity is such that ingestion of naturally indospicine-contaminated horse and camel meat has caused secondary poisoning of dogs, raising significant industry concern. Indospicine impacts on the health and production of grazing animals per se has been less widely documented. Livestock grazing Indigofera have a chronic and cumulative exposure to this toxin, with such exposure experimentally shown to induce both hepatotoxicity and embryo-lethal effects in cattle and sheep. In extensive pasture systems, where animals are not closely monitored, the resultant toxicosis may well occur after prolonged exposure but either be undetected, or even if detected not be attributable to a particular cause. Indospicine should be considered as a possible cause of animal poor performance, particularly reduced weight gain or reproductive losses, in pastures where Indigofera are prevalent.

  5. Tall Fescue Alkaloids Bind Serotonin Receptors in Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    The serotonin (5HT) receptor 5HT2A is involved in the tall fescue alkaloid-induced vascular contraction in the bovine periphery. This was determined by evaluating the contractile responses of lateral saphenous veins biopsied from cattle grazing different tall fescue/endophyte combinations. The contr...

  6. Controls of nitrous oxide emission after simulated cattle urine deposition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baral, Khagendra Raj; Thomsen, Anton Gårde; Olesen, Jørgen E

    2014-01-01

    Urine deposited during grazing is a significant source of atmospheric nitrous oxide (N2O). The potential for N2O emissions from urine patches is high, and a better understanding of controls is needed. This study investigated soil nitrogen (N) dynamics and N2O emissions from cattle urine...

  7. Experimental infection of cattle with ovine Dichelobacter nodosus isolates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe-Poindecker, Maren; Jørgensen, Hannah Joan; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2015-01-01

    Dichelobacter nodosus is the main causative agent of ovine footrot, and there are strong indications that the bacterium can be transferred to cattle grazing on the same pasture as sheep. The aim of this study was to investigate if benign and virulent D. nodosus strains isolated from sheep can be ...

  8. Influence of nitrogen loading and plant nitrogen assimilation on nitrogen leaching and N₂O emission in forage rice paddy fields fertilized with liquid cattle waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riya, Shohei; Zhou, Sheng; Kobara, Yuso; Sagehashi, Masaki; Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki

    2015-04-01

    Livestock wastewater disposal onto rice paddy fields is a cost- and labor-effective way to treat wastewater and cultivate rice crops. We evaluated the influence of nitrogen loading rates on nitrogen assimilation by rice plants and on nitrogen losses (leaching and N2O emission) in forage rice fields receiving liquid cattle waste (LCW). Four forage rice fields were subjected to nitrogen loads of 107, 258, 522, and 786 kg N ha(-1) (N100, N250, N500, and N750, respectively) using basal fertilizer (chemical fertilizer) (50 kg N ha(-1)) and three LCW topdressings (each 57-284 kg N ha(-1)). Nitrogen assimilated by rice plants increased over time. However, after the third topdressing, the nitrogen content of the biomass did not increase in any treatment. Harvested aboveground biomass contained 93, 60, 33, and 31 % of applied nitrogen in N100, N250, N500, and N750, respectively. The NH4 (+) concentration in the pore water at a depth of 20 cm was less than 1 mg N L(-1) in N100, N250, and N500 throughout the cultivation period, while the NH4 (+) concentration in N750 increased to 3 mg N L(-1) after the third topdressing. Cumulative N2O emissions ranged from -0.042 to 2.39 kg N ha(-1); the highest value was observed in N750, followed by N500. In N750, N2O emitted during the final drainage accounted for 80 % of cumulative N2O emissions. This study suggested that 100-258 kg N ha(-1) is a recommended nitrogen loading rate for nitrogen recovery by rice plants without negative environmental impacts such as groundwater pollution and N2O emission.

  9. Grazing incidence beam expander

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkapeddi, P.R.; Glenn, P.; Fuschetto, A.; Appert, Q.; Viswanathan, V.K.

    1985-01-01

    A Grazing Incidence Beam Expander (GIBE) telescope is being designed and fabricated to be used as an equivalent end mirror in a long laser resonator cavity. The design requirements for this GIBE flow down from a generic Free Electron Laser (FEL) resonator. The nature of the FEL gain volume (a thin, pencil-like, on-axis region) dictates that the output beam be very small. Such a thin beam with the high power levels characteristic of FELs would have to travel perhaps hundreds of meters or more before expanding enough to allow reflection from cooled mirrors. A GIBE, on the other hand, would allow placing these optics closer to the gain region and thus reduces the cavity lengths substantially. Results are presented relating to optical and mechanical design, alignment sensitivity analysis, radius of curvature analysis, laser cavity stability analysis of a linear stable concentric laser cavity with a GIBE. Fabrication details of the GIBE are also given.

  10. Effects of livestock grazing on grasshopper abundance on a native rangeland in Montana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neill, Kevin M; Olson, Bret E; Wallander, Roseann; Rolston, Marni G; Seibert, Catherine E

    2010-06-01

    Livestock grazing can affect habitat quality for grasshoppers through effects on food and oviposition site availability, microclimate, and other factors. Because of this, some authors have suggested that grazing programs can be used to help manage pest grasshopper populations. In a 6-yr study, we controlled access of cattle to replicated experimental plots on an Agropyron spicatum/Poa sandbergii pasture to create consistent year-to-year differences in postgrazing plant cover, with resultant affects on microclimate. After sampling grasshoppers multiple times after grazing treatments each summer, we found evidence of between-treatment differences in grasshopper abundance for the entire assemblage during 4 of the 6 yr. Some species, including Melanoplus sanguinipes (perhaps the worse rangeland grasshopper pest in the western United States), tended to be more abundant on ungrazed plots, whereas Melanoplus gladstoni often had greater densities on heavily-grazed plots. The effect of grazing on grasshopper densities in this study was lower in magnitude and less consistent among years than in a study we conducted simultaneously at a nearby site where the vegetation was dominated by the exotic species crested wheatgrass (Agropyron cristatum). Our results generally support proposals that grazing could be used to reduce pest grasshopper densities, although the effectiveness of a particular grazing scheme may vary among sites, years, and grasshopper and vegetation assemblages.

  11. Salt as a mitigation option for decreasing nitrogen leaching losses from grazed pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledgard, Stewart F; Welten, Brendon; Betteridge, Keith

    2015-12-01

    The main source of nitrogen (N) leaching from grazed pastures is animal urine with a high N deposition rate (i.e. per urine patch), particularly between late summer and early winter. Salt is a potential mitigation option as a diuretic to induce greater drinking-water intake, increase urination frequency, decrease urine N concentration and urine N deposition rate, and thereby potentially decrease N leaching. This hypothesis was tested in three phases: a cattle metabolism stall study to examine effects of salt supplementation rate on water consumption, urination frequency and urine N concentration; a grazing trial to assess effects of salt (150 g per heifer per day) on urination frequency; and a lysimeter study on effects of urine N rate on N leaching. Salt supplementation increased cattle water intake. Urination frequency increased by up to 69%, with a similar decrease in urine N deposition rate and no change in individual urination volume. Under field grazing, sensors showed increased urination frequency by 17%. Lysimeter studies showed a proportionally greater decrease in N leaching with decreased urine N rate. Modelling revealed that this could decrease per-hectare N leaching by 10-22%. Salt supplementation increases cattle water intake and urination frequency, resulting in a lower urine N deposition rate and proportionally greater decrease in urine N leaching. Strategic salt supplementation in autumn/early winter with feed is a practical mitigation option to decrease N leaching in grazed pastures. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Effects of livestock species and stocking density on accretion rates in grazed salt marshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, Stefanie; Esselink, Peter; Bakker, Jan P.; Smit, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Coastal ecosystems, such as salt marshes, are threatened by accelerated sea-level rise (SLR). Salt marshes deliver valuable ecosystem services such as coastal protection and the provision of habitat for a unique flora and fauna. Whether salt marshes in the Wadden Sea area are able to survive accelerated SLR depends on sufficient deposition of sediments which add to vertical marsh accretion. Accretion rate is influenced by a number of factors, and livestock grazing was recently included. Livestock grazing is assumed to reduce accretion rates in two ways: (a) directly by increasing soil compaction through trampling, and (b) indirectly by affecting the vegetation structure, which may lower the sediment deposition. For four years, we studied the impact of two livestock species (horse and cattle) at two stocking densities (0.5 and 1.0 animal ha-1) on accretion in a large-scale grazing experiment using sedimentation plates. We found lower cumulative accretion rates in high stocking densities, probably because more animals cause more compaction and create a lower canopy. Furthermore, a trend towards lower accretion rates in horse-compared to cattle-grazed treatments was found, most likely because (1) horses are more active and thus cause more compaction, and (2) herbage intake by horses is higher than by cattle, which causes a higher biomass removal and shorter canopy. During summer periods, negative accretion rates were found. When the grazing and non-grazing seasons were separated, the impact of grazing differed among years. In summer, we only found an effect of different treatments if soil moisture (precipitation) was relatively low. In winter, a sufficiently high inundation frequency was necessary to create differences between grazing treatments. We conclude that stocking densities, and to a certain extent also livestock species, affect accretion rates in salt marshes. Both stocking densities and livestock species should thus be taken into account in management

  13. Black-tailed prairie dogs, cattle, and the conservation of North America's arid grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Sierra-Corona

    Full Text Available Prairie dogs (Cynomys spp. have been eliminated from over 95% of their historic range in large part from direct eradication campaigns to reduce their purported competition with cattle for forage. Despite the longstanding importance of this issue to grassland management and conservation, the ecological interactions between cattle and prairie dogs have not been well examined. We address this issue through two complementary experiments to determine if cattle and prairie dogs form a mutualistic grazing association similar to that between prairie dogs and American bison. Our experimental results show that cattle preferentially graze along prairie dog colony edges and use their colony centers for resting, resembling the mutualistic relationship prairie dogs have with American bison. Our results also show that prairie dog colonies are not only an important component of the grassland mosaic for maintaining biodiversity, but also provide benefits to cattle, thereby challenging the long-standing view of prairie dogs as an undesirable pest species in grasslands.

  14. Lucerne varieties for continuous grazing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    severe grazing with heifers in two cutting/grazing managements. Two new varieties, Verbena and Camporegio, and an older variety Luzelle were established in 2009 in pure stands and in two different mixtures with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Camporegio had the lowest yield, the lowest competitive...... strength, the lowest plant density in spring, and the density was most reduced during grazing. The results could not confirm significant differences between the new and the older varieties. The results for Luzelle were generally between Verbena and Camporegio. The varieties did not differ in herbage...

  15. Integrated Bali Cattle Development Model Under Oil Palm Plantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasali Hakim Matondang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bali cattle have several advantages such as high fertility and carcass percentage, easy adaptation to the new environment as well. Bali cattle productivity has not been optimal yet. This is due to one of the limitation of feed resources, decreasing of grazing and agricultural land. The aim of this paper is to describe Bali cattle development integrated with oil palm plantations, which is expected to improve productivity and increase Bali cattle population. This integration model is carried out by raising Bali cattle under oil palm plantation through nucleus estate scheme model or individual farmers estates business. Some of Bali cattle raising systems have been applied in the integration of palm plantation-Bali cattle. One of the intensive systems can increase daily weight gain of 0.8 kg/head, calfcrop of 35% per year and has the potency for industrial development of feed and organic fertilizer. In the semi-intensive system, it can improve the production of oil palm fruit bunches (PFB more than 10%, increase harvested-crop area to 15 ha/farmer and reduce the amount of inorganic fertilizer. The extensive system can produce calfcrop ³70%, improve ³30% of PFB, increase business scale ³13 cows/farmer and reduce weeding costs ³16%. Integrated Bali cattle development may provide positive added value for both, palm oil business and cattle business.

  16. Forage Quality and Grazing Performance of Beef Cattle Grazing Brown Mid-rib Grain Sorghum Residue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residue from two grain sorghum hybrids, the control AWheatland x RTx430 (CON) and its near-isogenic hybrid containing the brown mid-rib gene bmr12 (BMR), were compared in a 2 year study. Forty-eight steers (236 ± 23 kg) in each year were assigned randomly to 2.12 ha paddocks (6 steers/paddock) cont...

  17. Consumo e dinâmica ruminal da fibra em detergente neutro em bovinos em pastejo no período das águas recebendo suplementação com nitrogênio não-proteico e/ou proteína verdadeira Intake and rumen dynamics of neutral detergent fiber in grazing cattle supplemented with non-protein nitrogen and, or true protein during the rainy season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Aparecida Carli Costa

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de diferentes relações entre proteína verdadeira e nitrogênio não-proteico sobre o consumo e a dinâmica de trânsito e degradação ruminal da fibra em detergente neutro (FDN da forragem em bovinos em pastejo durante o período das águas. Foram utilizados cinco novilhos mestiços Holandês × Zebu, castrados, com peso corporal inicial de 335±35 kg fistulados no rúmen e no abomaso. Os tratamentos foram: controle (somente pasto; e suplementos com ureia; com 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; com 1/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da ureia e 2/3 de compostos nitrogenados oriundos da albumina; e com albumina. Foram fornecidos 200 g/dia de proteína bruta (PB a partir dos suplementos. O experimento foi conduzido segundo delineamento em quadrado latino 5 × 5, com cinco períodos experimentais de 15 dias. Não foram observados efeitos da suplementação sobre o consumo voluntário, com exceção do consumo de PB, que aumentou com a suplementação. A substituição da ureia por albumina nos suplementos teve efeito linear sobre o consumo de PB. Os consumos dos demais componentes da dieta não foram afetados pela composição dos suplementos. Nenhum efeito foi observado sobre a taxa de passagem ruminal de compostos fibrosos. O fornecimento de suplementos ampliou, em média, a estimativa da taxa comum de latência e degradação da FDN. Contudo, não houve efeito da alteração na composição dos suplementos sobre este parâmetro. A suplementação de bovinos com fontes de compostos nitrogenados degradáveis no rúmen proteicos ou não-proteicos durante o período das águas não afeta o consumo voluntário de pasto.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different true protein:non-protein nitrogen ratios in supplements on intake and ruminal transit and degradation dynamics of neutral detergent fiber (NDF in grazing cattle

  18. Assessing nitrification and denitrification in a paddy soil with different water dynamics and applied liquid cattle waste using the {sup 15}N isotopic technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Sheng, E-mail: jszs@cc.tuat.ac.jp [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Eco-environmental Protection Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1000 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Sakiyama, Yukina; Riya, Shohei [Graduate School of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan); Song, Xiangfu [Eco-environmental Protection Institute, Shanghai Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 1000 Jinqi Road, Shanghai 201403 (China); Terada, Akihiko; Hosomi, Masaaki [Institute of Engineering, Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, 2-24-16 Naka-cho, Koganei, Tokyo 184-8588 (Japan)

    2012-07-15

    Using livestock wastewater for rice production in paddy fields can remove nitrogen and supplement the use of chemical fertilizers. However, paddy fields have complicated water dynamics owing to varying characteristics and would influence nitrogen removal through nitrification followed by denitrification. Quantification of nitrification and denitrification is of great importance in assessing the influence of water dynamics on nitrogen removal in paddy fields. In this study, nitrification and nitrate reduction rates with different water dynamics after liquid cattle waste application were evaluated, and the in situ denitrification rate was determined directly using the {sup 15}N isotopic technique in a laboratory experiment. A significant linear regression correlation between nitrification and the nitrate reduction rate was observed and showed different regression coefficients under different water dynamics. The regression coefficient in the continuously flooded paddy soil was higher than in the drained-reflooded paddy soil, suggesting that nitrate would be consumed faster in the flooded paddy soil. However, nitrification was limited and the maximum rate was only 13.3 {mu}g N g{sup -1} day{sup -1} in the flooded paddy soil with rice plants, which limited the supply of nitrate. In contrast, the drained-reflooded paddy soil had an enhanced nitrification rate up to 56.8 {mu}g N g{sup -1} day{sup -1}, which was four times higher than the flooded paddy soil and further stimulated nitrate reduction rates. Correspondingly, the in situ denitrification rates determined directly in the drained-reflooded paddy soil ranged from 5 to 1035 mg N m{sup -2} day{sup -1}, which was higher than the continuously flooded paddy soil (from 5 to 318 mg N m{sup -2} day{sup -1}) during the vegetation period. The nitrogen removal through denitrification accounted for 38.9% and 9.9% of applied nitrogen in the drained-reflooded paddy soil and continuously flooded paddy soil, respectively

  19. Vegetation change in a man-made salt marsh affected by a reduction in both grazing and drainage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esselink, Peter; Fresco, LFM; Dijkema, KS

    In order to restore natural salt marsh in a 460-ha nature reserve established in man-made salt marsh in the Dollard estuary, The Netherlands, the artificial drainage system was neglected and cattle grazing reduced. Vegetation changes were traced through two vegetation surveys and monitoring of

  20. Does grazing of cover crops impact biologically active soil C and N fractions under inversion and no tillage management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cover crops are a key component of conservation cropping systems. They can also be a key component of integrated crop-livestock systems by offering high-quality forage during short periods between cash crops. The impact of cattle grazing on biologically active soil C and N fractions has not receiv...

  1. Phyto-oestrogens in herbage and milk from cows grazing whiteclover, red clover, lucerne or chicory-rich pastures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C; Nielsen, T S; Purup, S

    2009-01-01

    A grazing experiment was carried out to study the concentration of phyto-oestrogens in herbage for cattle and in milk during two periods (May and June). Forty-eight Danish Holstein cows were divided into four groups with four treatment diets; white clover, red clover, lucerne and chicory-rich pas...

  2. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Picasso, V.D.; Modernel Hristoff, P.D.; Becona, G.; Salvo, L.; Gutierrez, L.; Astigarraga, L.

    2014-01-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs

  3. Use of labelled water in studies on the nutrition and physiology of grazing ruminants in New Zealand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wright, D.E.

    1982-01-01

    Applications of isotopic water in animal production studies on grazing ruminants in New Zealand are described. These include the seasonal and nutritional effects on water metabolism of dairy cattle and meat breeds of sheep, milk intakes of calves and lambs, and individual intakes of dietary supplements to control diseases such as hypomagnesaemia, bloat and facial eczema. (author)

  4. Nest trampling and ground nesting birds: Quantifying temporal and spatial overlap between cattle activity and breeding redshank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharps, Elwyn; Smart, Jennifer; Mason, Lucy R; Jones, Kate; Skov, Martin W; Garbutt, Angus; Hiddink, Jan G

    2017-08-01

    Conservation grazing for breeding birds needs to balance the positive effects on vegetation structure and negative effects of nest trampling. In the UK, populations of Common redshank Tringa totanus breeding on saltmarshes declined by >50% between 1985 and 2011. These declines have been linked to changes in grazing management. The highest breeding densities of redshank on saltmarshes are found in lightly grazed areas. Conservation initiatives have encouraged low-intensity grazing at nest trampling. If livestock distribution is not spatially or temporally homogenous but concentrated where and when redshank breed, rates of nest trampling may be much higher than expected based on livestock density alone. By GPS tracking cattle on saltmarshes and monitoring trampling of dummy nests, this study quantified (i) the spatial and temporal distribution of cattle in relation to the distribution of redshank nesting habitats and (ii) trampling rates of dummy nests. The distribution of livestock was highly variable depending on both time in the season and the saltmarsh under study, with cattle using between 3% and 42% of the saltmarsh extent and spending most their time on higher elevation habitat within 500 m of the sea wall, but moving further onto the saltmarsh as the season progressed. Breeding redshank also nest on these higher elevation zones, and this breeding coincides with the early period of grazing. Probability of nest trampling was correlated to livestock density and was up to six times higher in the areas where redshank breed. This overlap in both space and time of the habitat use of cattle and redshank means that the trampling probability of a nest can be much higher than would be expected based on standard measures of cattle density. Synthesis and applications : Because saltmarsh grazing is required to maintain a favorable vegetation structure for redshank breeding, grazing management should aim to keep livestock away from redshank nesting habitat between mid

  5. Grazing Incidence Optics Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Brian; Smith, W. Scott; Gubarev, Mikhail; McCracken, Jeff

    2015-01-01

    This project is to demonstrate the capability to directly fabricate lightweight, high-resolution, grazing-incidence x-ray optics using a commercially available robotic polishing machine. Typical x-ray optics production at NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) uses a replication process in which metal mirrors are electroformed on to figured and polished mandrels from which they are later removed. The attraction of this process is that multiple copies can be made from a single master. The drawback is that the replication process limits the angular resolution that can be attained. By directly fabricating each shell, errors inherent in the replication process are removed. The principal challenge now becomes how to support the mirror shell during all aspects of fabrication, including the necessary metrology to converge on the required mirror performance specifications. This program makes use of a Zeeko seven-axis computer-controlled polishing machine (see fig. 1) and supporting fabrication, metrology, and test equipment at MSFC. The overall development plan calls for proof-of-concept demonstration with relatively thick mirror shells (5-6 mm, fig. 2) which are straightforward to support and then a transition to much thinner shells (2-3 mm), which are an order of magnitude thinner than those used for Chandra. Both glass and metal substrates are being investigated. Currently, a thick glass shell is being figured. This has enabled experience to be gained with programming and operating the polishing machine without worrying about shell distortions or breakage. It has also allowed time for more complex support mechanisms for figuring/ polishing and metrology to be designed for the more challenging thinner shells. These are now in fabrication. Figure 1: Zeeko polishing machine.

  6. Spatial Distribution of Nitrogen on Grazed Karst Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas G. Boyer

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact on water quality by agricultural activity in karst terrain is an important consideration for resource management within the Appalachian region. Karst areas comprise about 18% of the region’s land area. An estimated one-third of the region’s farms, cattle, and agricultural market value are located on karst terrain. Mean nitrate concentrations in several karst springs in southeastern West Virginia exhibit a strong linear relationship with the percentage of agriculture land cover. Development of best management practices for efficient nitrogen (N use and reduction of outflow of N to water from karst areas requires knowledge about N dynamics on those landscapes. Water extractable NO3-N and NH4-N were measured along transects at four soil depths in two grazed sinkholes and one wooded sinkhole. Distribution of soil NO3-N and NH4-N were related to frequency of animal presence and to topographic and hydrologic redistribution of soil and fecal matter in the grazed sinkholes. Karst pastures are characterized by under drainage and funneling of water and contaminants to the shallow aquifer. Control of NO3-N leaching from karst pasture may depend on management strategies that change livestock grazing behavior in sinkholes and reduce the opportunity for water and contaminants to quickly reach sinkhole drains.

  7. Soil physical attributes in forms of sowing the annual winter pasture and intervals between grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton da Veiga

    Full Text Available The sowing of winter pastures in areas used for summer grain production and their management under direct cattle grazing can cause changes in soil physical attributes, whose intensity depends on the degree of soil mobilization, grazing interval, stocking rate and weather. To study these aspects it was conducted over four years an experiment in a randomized block with split plots design and four replications. In the main plots were applied two forms of sowing the annual winter pasture (direct seeding and seeding + harrowing and, in the subplots, four intervals between grazing (7, 14 and 28 days and ungrazed. Undisturbed soil cores were sampled at the end of each grazing cycle, in the 0-0.05 m layer to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity and aggregate stability and in the layers of 0-0.05, 0.05-0.10, 0.10-0.15 and 0.15-0.20 m depth to determine bulk density and classes of soil pores. The direct seeding of annual winter pasture increases hydraulic conductivity and reduces soil bulk density in relation to seeding + harrowing while dairy cows trampling increases soil density and reduces macroporosity in the most superficial soil layer. The variation in climatic conditions among grazing cycles affects the soil physical attributes more markedly than forms of sowing and intervals between grazing of the annual winter pasture.

  8. Níveis de energia em suplementos múltiplos para terminação de novilhos em pastagem de capim-braquiária no período de transição águas-seca Energy levels in multiple supplements for finishing beef cattle grazing palisade grass pasture during the rainy to dry transition season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maykel Franklin Lima Sales

    2008-04-01

    finishing beef cattle grazing palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu, during the rainy to dry transition season. For the performance evaluation, 24 crossbred bulls, 18 month old and 330 kg of initial body weight (BW, were distributed to a completely randomized design, in four paddocks of 1.5 ha each. Four treatments were evaluated: mineral mix (MM and corn and whole soybean grain based supplements offered in three levels: 1.0; 1.5 and 2.0 kg/d, allowing TDN intake of, respectively, 0.832; 1.163 and 1.496 kg/d. There was a positive linear effect of the energy levels on the average daily gain and on the final body weight. The nutritional parameters were assessed in four crossbred bulls , with average initial 300 kg BW, fitted with esophageal, ruminal and abomasal cannula, and fed similar diets of those animals used in the performance. There was no ffect of supplementation on dry matter intake (DMI, although it was observed a linear reduction in forage intake. The intakes organic matter from pasture, of the NDF from the total diet and of the pasture was negative linearly affected by the energy levels. There were not observed effects of supplementation levels on the total apparent digestibility of the nutrients, except for CP, which showed a quadratic effect by the level of supplementation. Additional weight gain, ranging from 20 to 30%, can be obtained in beef cattle supplemented with increasing amounts of energy during the finishing phase; however, those gains depend of the substitution of forage intake by the supplement.

  9. Blumea lacera Plant Poisoning in Cattle; Epidemiology and Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mst. Nusrat Zahan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Plant poisoning in grazing animals is more common in Bangladesh, especially during the scarcity period. The present study was undertaken to find out the epidemiology of Blumea lacera fresh plant poisoning and its management in cattle. A total of 765 suspected clinical cases were examined, of these 48 were diagnosed as Blumea lacera plant poisoning. The poisoning was found more in local cattle (92% than that of crossbred (8% cattle. Most of the cases were found in autumn (71%, in compare to summer (23% and winter (6%. The highest occurrence of poisoning was observed in cattle of 6 months to 2 years of age (57% in comparison to other age category. Therapeutic response (16% was found if treatments were given within 4 hours of ingestion of the plant and the effective treatment was a combination of laxative, normal saline, vitamin B1. Veterinarian can apply this treatment during Blumea lacera poisoning in animals.

  10. Sustainability of US Organic Beef and Dairy Production Systems: Soil, Plant and Cattle Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathy J. Soder

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, the National Organic Program implemented a rule for the US stating that pasture must be a significant source of feed in organic ruminant systems. This article will focus on how the pasture rule has impacted the management, economics and nutritional value of products derived from organic ruminant systems and the interactions of grazing cattle with pasture forages and soils. The use of synthetic fertilizers is prohibited in organic systems; therefore, producers must rely on animal manures, compost and cover crops to increase and maintain soil nitrogen content. Rotational and strip grazing are two of the most common grazing management practices utilized in grazing ruminant production systems; however, these practices are not exclusive to organic livestock producers. For dairy cattle, grazing reduces foot and leg problems common in confinement systems, but lowers milk production and exposes cows to parasites that can be difficult to treat without pharmaceuticals. Organic beef cattle may still be finished in feedlots for no more than 120 days in the US, but without growth hormones and antibiotics, gains may be reduced and illnesses increased. Grazing reduces the use of environmentally and economically costly concentrate feeds and recycles nutrients back to the soil efficiently, but lowers the rate of beef liveweight gain. Increased use of pasture can be economically, environmentally and socially sustainable if forage use efficiency is high and US consumers continue to pay a premium for organic beef and dairy products.

  11. Influence of Cattle Trails on Runoff Quantity and Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jim J; Curtis, Tony; Chanasyk, David S; Willms, Walter D

    2017-03-01

    Cattle trails in grazed pastures close to rivers may adversely affect surface water quality of the adjacent river by directing runoff to it. The objective of this 3-yr study (2013-2015) in southern Alberta, Canada, was to determine if cattle trails significantly increased the risk of runoff and contaminants (sediment, nutrients) compared with the adjacent grazed pasture (control). A portable rainfall simulator was used to generate artificial rainfall (140 mm h) and runoff. The runoff properties measured were time to runoff and initial abstraction (infiltration), total runoff depth and average runoff rates, as well as concentrations and mass loads of sediment, N, and P fractions. Cattle trails significantly ( ≤ 0.10) decreased time to runoff and initial abstraction (26-32%) in the 2 yr measured and increased total runoff depth, runoff coefficients, and average runoff rates (21-51%) in 2 of 3 yr. Concentrations of sediment, N, and P fractions in runoff were not significantly greater for cattle trails than for control areas. However, mass loads of total suspended solids (57-85% increase), NH-N (31-90%), and dissolved reactive P (DRP) (30-92%) were significantly greater because of increased runoff volumes. Overall, runoff quantity and loads of sediment, NH-N, and DRP were greater for cattle trails compared with the adjacent grazed pasture, and hydrologic connection with cattle-access sites on the riverbank suggests that this could adversely affect water quality in the adjacent river. Extrapolation of the study results should be tempered by the specific conditions represented by this rainfall simulation study. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  12. Ecology of grazing lawns in Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Hempson, GP

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available otherwise outcompete lawn species for light. Regular grazing that prevents shading and maintains sward quality is thus the cornerstone of grazing lawn dynamics. The strong interplay between abiotic conditions and disturbance factors, which are central...

  13. Effects of chicory/perennial ryegrass swards compared with perennial ryegrass swards on the performance and carcass quality of grazing beef steers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Marley

    Full Text Available An experiment investigated whether the inclusion of chicory (Cichorium intybus in swards grazed by beef steers altered their performance, carcass characteristics or parasitism when compared to steers grazing perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne. Triplicate 2-ha plots were established with a chicory/ryegrass mix or ryegrass control. Forty-eight Belgian Blue-cross steers were used in the first grazing season and a core group (n = 36 were retained for finishing in the second grazing season. The experiment comprised of a standardisation and measurement period. During standardisation, steers grazed a ryegrass/white clover pasture as one group. Animals were allocated to treatment on the basis of liveweight, body condition and faecal egg counts (FEC determined 7 days prior to the measurement period. The measurement period ran from 25 May until 28 September 2010 and 12 April until 11 October 2011 in the first and second grazing year. Steers were weighed every 14 days at pasture or 28 days during housing. In the first grazing year, faecal samples were collected for FEC and parasite cultures. At the end of the first grazing year, individual blood samples were taken to determine O. ostertagi antibody and plasma pepsinogen levels. During winter, animals were housed as one group and fed silage. In the second grazing year, steers were slaughtered when deemed to reach fat class 3. Data on steer performance showed no differences in daily live-weight gain which averaged 1.04 kg/day. The conformation, fat grade and killing out proportion of beef steers grazing chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were not found to differ. No differences in FEC, O. ostertagi antibody or plasma pepsinogen levels of beef steers grazing either chicory/ryegrass or ryegrass were observed. Overall, there were no detrimental effects of including chicory in swards grazed by beef cattle on their performance, carcass characteristics or helminth parasitism, when compared with steers grazing ryegrass.

  14. Livestock grazing, wildlife habitat, and rangeland values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul R. Krausman; David E. Naugle; Michael R. Frisina; Rick Northrup; Vernon C. Bleich; William M. Block; Mark C. Wallace; Jeffrey D. Wright

    2009-01-01

    Livestock managers make and implement grazing management decisions to achieve a variety of objectives including livestock production, sustainable grazing, and wildlife habitat enhancement. Assessed values of grazing lands and ranches are often based on aesthetics and wildlife habitat or recreational values, which can exceed agricultural values, thus providing...

  15. 50 CFR 35.9 - Livestock grazing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Livestock grazing. 35.9 Section 35.9... NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE SYSTEM WILDERNESS PRESERVATION AND MANAGEMENT General Rules § 35.9 Livestock grazing. (a) The grazing of livestock, where established prior to the date of legislation which designates...

  16. 7 CFR 760.305 - Eligible grazing losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible grazing losses. 760.305 Section 760.305... grazing losses. (a) A grazing loss due to drought is eligible for LFP only if the grazing loss for the... period for the specific type of grazing land or pastureland for the county.) (b) A grazing loss is not...

  17. Grassland Arthropods Are Controlled by Direct and Indirect Interactions with Cattle but Are Largely Unaffected by Plant Provenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrell, Kelly Anne; Harpole, W Stanley; Stein, Claudia; Suding, Katharine N; Borer, Elizabeth T

    2015-01-01

    Cattle grazing and invasion by non-native plant species are globally-ubiquitous changes occurring to plant communities that are likely to reverberate through whole food webs. We used a manipulative field experiment to quantify how arthropod community structure differed in native and non-native California grassland communities in the presence and absence of grazing. The arthropod community was strongly affected by cattle grazing: the biovolume of herbivorous arthropods was 79% higher in grazed than ungrazed plots, whereas the biovolume of predatory arthropods was 13% higher in ungrazed plots. In plots where non-native grasses were grazed, arthropod biovolume increased, possibly in response to increased plant productivity or increased nutritional quality of rapidly-growing annual plants. Grazing may thus affect plant biomass both through the direct removal of biomass, and through arthropod-mediated impacts. We also expected the arthropod community to differ between native and non-native plant communities; surprisingly, arthropod richness and diversity did not vary consistently between these grass community types, although arthropod abundance was slightly higher in plots with native and ungrazed grasses. These results suggest that whereas cattle grazing affects the arthropod community via direct and indirect pathways, arthropod community changes commonly associated with non-native plant invasions may not be due to the identity or dominance of the invasive species in those systems, but to accompanying changes in plant traits or functional group composition, not seen in this experiment because of the similarity of the plant communities.

  18. Grassland Arthropods Are Controlled by Direct and Indirect Interactions with Cattle but Are Largely Unaffected by Plant Provenance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Anne Farrell

    Full Text Available Cattle grazing and invasion by non-native plant species are globally-ubiquitous changes occurring to plant communities that are likely to reverberate through whole food webs. We used a manipulative field experiment to quantify how arthropod community structure differed in native and non-native California grassland communities in the presence and absence of grazing. The arthropod community was strongly affected by cattle grazing: the biovolume of herbivorous arthropods was 79% higher in grazed than ungrazed plots, whereas the biovolume of predatory arthropods was 13% higher in ungrazed plots. In plots where non-native grasses were grazed, arthropod biovolume increased, possibly in response to increased plant productivity or increased nutritional quality of rapidly-growing annual plants. Grazing may thus affect plant biomass both through the direct removal of biomass, and through arthropod-mediated impacts. We also expected the arthropod community to differ between native and non-native plant communities; surprisingly, arthropod richness and diversity did not vary consistently between these grass community types, although arthropod abundance was slightly higher in plots with native and ungrazed grasses. These results suggest that whereas cattle grazing affects the arthropod community via direct and indirect pathways, arthropod community changes commonly associated with non-native plant invasions may not be due to the identity or dominance of the invasive species in those systems, but to accompanying changes in plant traits or functional group composition, not seen in this experiment because of the similarity of the plant communities.

  19. Resource heterogeneity and foraging behaviour of cattle across spatial scales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demment Montague W

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the mechanisms that influence grazing selectivity in patchy environments is vital to promote sustainable production and conservation of cultivated and natural grasslands. To better understand how patch size and spatial dynamics influence selectivity in cattle, we examined grazing selectivity under 9 different treatments by offering alfalfa and fescue in patches of 3 sizes spaced with 1, 4, and 8 m between patches along an alley. We hypothesized that (1 selectivity is driven by preference for the forage species that maximizes forage intake over feeding scales ranging from single bites to patches along grazing paths, (2 that increasing patch size enhances selectivity for the preferred species, and that (3 increasing distances between patches restricts selectivity because of the aggregation of scale-specific behaviours across foraging scales. Results Cows preferred and selected alfalfa, the species that yielded greater short-term intake rates (P Conclusion We conclude that patch size and spacing affect components of intake rate and, to a lesser extent, the selectivity of livestock at lower hierarchies of the grazing process, particularly by enticing livestock to make more even use of the available species as patches are spaced further apart. Thus, modifications in the spatial pattern of plant patches along with reductions in the temporal and spatial allocation of grazing may offer opportunities to improve uniformity of grazing by livestock and help sustain biodiversity and stability of plant communities.

  20. Ensiling characteristics and feeding value of silage made from cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this investigation, silage made from cattle waste being ensiled with maize residues (ECW), was evaluated ... high concentrate ration tended to be of a better quality and scored 8,9 points out of 13in comparison ..... reclaimed fecal residue.

  1. The response of spider (Araneae assemblages to structural heterogeneity and prey abundance in sub-montane vegetation modified by conservation grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Dennis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of experimental livestock grazing regimens (4 treatments×6 replicates on spiders via habitat structure and prey abundance was investigated on sub-montane habitats in the Southern Highlands of Scotland. The study, 2002–2004 included a baseline survey under the prior, commercial sheep grazing regimen and two assessments of spider assemblages post-treatment: commercial stocking density of sheep; 1/3 stocking density with sheep; 1/3 stocking density cattle with sheep; and no grazing. Spiders were sampled with a suction sampler, five sucks at each of 25 sample units by 24 plots (600 samples in 2003 and 2004, ca. 320 in 2002. Spider abundance and species richness increased under reduced stocking density, mixed herbivore and ungrazed treatments indirectly via changes in vegetation structure and prey abundance. The results refuted a meta-analysis that concluded species richness of spiders is unaffected by grazing. Grazing regimens caused turnover in species composition more than the net difference in species richness suggested, implying that no single, optimal grazing regimen will support as many species as a patchwork under varied grazing management. Conservation grazing benefits spiders and will have significant benefits for food webs in sub-montane ecosystems but the period to equilibrium after changes to grazing requires further investigation.

  2. Arrested larval development in cattle nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, J; Duncan, M

    1987-06-01

    Most economically important cattle nematodes are able to arrest their larval development within the host - entering a period of dormancy or hypobiosis. Arrested larvae have a low death rate, and large numbers can accumulate in infected cattle during the grazing season. Because of this, outbreaks of disease caused by such nematodes can occur at times when recent infection with the parasites could not have occurred, for example during winter in temperature northern climates when cattle are normally housed. The capacity to arrest is a heritable trait. It is seen as an adaptation by the parasite to avoid further development to its free-living stages during times when the climate is unsuitable for free-living survival. But levels of arrestment can vary markedly in different regions, in different cattle, and under different management regimes. Climatic factors, previous conditioning, host immune status, and farm management all seem to affect arrestment levels. In this article, James Armour and Mary Duncan review the biological basis of the phenomenon, and discuss the apparently conflicting views on how it is controlled.

  3. Expectations of Cattle Feeding Investors in Feeder Cattle Placements

    OpenAIRE

    Kastens, Terry L.; Schroeder, Ted C.

    1993-01-01

    Cattle feeders appear irrational when they place cattle on feed when projected profits are negative. Long futures positions appear to offer superior returns to cattle feeding investment. Cattle feeder behavior suggests that they believe a downward bias in live cattle futures persists and that cattle feeders use different information than the live cattle futures market price when making placement decisions. This paper examines feeder cattle placement determinants and compares performance of ex...

  4. STRUCTURE AND NUTRITIVE VALUE OF DEFERRED PASTURE OF BRACHIARIA DECUMBENS CV. BASILISK DURING THE GRAZING PERIOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment aimed to understand the effect of grazing period on morphology and nutritive value of deferred Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk pasture and on hand-plucking sample with cattle. Subdivided plots were used according to a randomized block design with two replicates. Four grazing periods (1, 31, 57 and 88 days and two forage samples (available in pasture (AP and obtained by hand-plucking (HP were studied. The live leaf laminae (LLL, potentially digestible neutral detergent fiber (PDNDF, potentially digestible dry matter (PDDM and crude protein (CP levels were higher and dead leaf laminae (DLL, and dead stem (DS, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and indigestible NDF percentages were lower in sample of HP in relation to forage AP. The grazing period decreased linearly the LLL, PDNDF, PDDM percentages, as well as increased linearly DS and indigestible NDF levels in forages. The potential selectivity indexes (PSI of LLL and indigestible NDF increased linearly with grazing period. The PSI of live stem was smaller and the PSI of CP was higher in interim periods of grazing. The reduction in deferring period results in B. decumbens with better morphological composition and nutritional value, which favors the animal selectivity.

  5. Grazing as an alternative for utilization of saline-sodic soils in the San Joaquin Valley: Selenium accretion and performance of beef heifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Juchem, Sergio O., E-mail: sdjuchem@gmail.com [Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Department of Plant Science, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740-8033 (United States); Benes, Sharon E. [Department of Plant Science, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740-8033 (United States); Robinson, P.H. [Department of Animal Science, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Grattan, Stephen R. [Department of Land and Water Resources, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Vasquez, Pablo [Department of Plant Science, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740-8033 (United States); Chilibroste, Pablo [Instituto Nacional de Investigacion Agropecuaria, Paysandu (Uruguay); Brito, Martin [Department of Plant Science, California State University, Fresno, CA 93740-8033 (United States)

    2012-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate Se accumulation and health of non-pregnant, non-breeding beef cattle grazing on forages with a high Se content due to irrigation with saline drainage water. Heifers grazed experimental pastures of 'Jose' tall wheatgrass (TWG; Thinopyrum ponticum var. 'Jose') and creeping wildrye (CWR; Leymus triticoides var. 'Rio') for190 days in Experiment 1 (2007) and for 165 days in Experiment 2 (2008). In experiment 1, mean Se concentrations were similar in TWG and CWR herbage (4.0 versus 3.7 {+-} 0.26 mg/kg dry weight; p = 0.34) as was crude protein (113 versus 114 {+-} 7.9 g/kg dry weight; p = 0.94). Concentrations of Se in blood increased by 300% during the grazing period, and were similar for heifers grazing the TWG or CWR pastures (0.94 versus 0.87 {+-} 0.03 mg/kg; p = 0.89). Heifers grazing on TWG gained more body weight than did heifers grazing on CWR (0.59 versus 0.27 {+-} 0.07 kg/days; p < 0.01). In experiment 2, concentration of Se (4.0 versus 2.8 mg/kg {+-} 0.19 mg/kg dry weight; p < 0.01) and crude protein (79 versus 90 {+-} 5.6 g/kg dry weight; p < 0.01) differed, for TWG and CWR, respectively. Within 20 days, Se concentrations in blood had increased by 300% and by nearly 200% in heifers grazing on TWG or CWR. All data cited are least square means {+-} standard error of the mean. Data from our two grazing seasons are consistent in demonstrating the safety of grazing beef cattle for a period of up to 6 months on TWG and CWR forages having high levels of Se due to irrigation with saline drainage water. This suggests that forage production using saline drainage water is a viable alternative for saline soils with limited potential for producing high value, salt-sensitive, crops. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Forages irrigated with saline drainage water may contain high levels of selenium. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer High concentration of selenium in forages can be toxic to grazing

  6. Grazing as an alternative for utilization of saline-sodic soils in the San Joaquin Valley: Selenium accretion and performance of beef heifers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juchem, Sérgio O.; Benes, Sharon E.; Robinson, P.H.; Grattan, Stephen R.; Vasquez, Pablo; Chilibroste, Pablo; Brito, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate Se accumulation and health of non-pregnant, non-breeding beef cattle grazing on forages with a high Se content due to irrigation with saline drainage water. Heifers grazed experimental pastures of “Jose” tall wheatgrass (TWG; Thinopyrum ponticum var. “Jose”) and creeping wildrye (CWR; Leymus triticoides var. “Rio”) for190 days in Experiment 1 (2007) and for 165 days in Experiment 2 (2008). In experiment 1, mean Se concentrations were similar in TWG and CWR herbage (4.0 versus 3.7 ± 0.26 mg/kg dry weight; p = 0.34) as was crude protein (113 versus 114 ± 7.9 g/kg dry weight; p = 0.94). Concentrations of Se in blood increased by 300% during the grazing period, and were similar for heifers grazing the TWG or CWR pastures (0.94 versus 0.87 ± 0.03 mg/kg; p = 0.89). Heifers grazing on TWG gained more body weight than did heifers grazing on CWR (0.59 versus 0.27 ± 0.07 kg/days; p < 0.01). In experiment 2, concentration of Se (4.0 versus 2.8 mg/kg ± 0.19 mg/kg dry weight; p < 0.01) and crude protein (79 versus 90 ± 5.6 g/kg dry weight; p < 0.01) differed, for TWG and CWR, respectively. Within 20 days, Se concentrations in blood had increased by 300% and by nearly 200% in heifers grazing on TWG or CWR. All data cited are least square means ± standard error of the mean. Data from our two grazing seasons are consistent in demonstrating the safety of grazing beef cattle for a period of up to 6 months on TWG and CWR forages having high levels of Se due to irrigation with saline drainage water. This suggests that forage production using saline drainage water is a viable alternative for saline soils with limited potential for producing high value, salt-sensitive, crops. - Highlights: ► Forages irrigated with saline drainage water may contain high levels of selenium. ► High concentration of selenium in forages can be toxic to grazing cattle. ► Cattle accumulated high levels of selenium in blood, liver and muscle

  7. Rotational Grazing System for Beef Cows on Dwarf Elephantgrass Pasture for Two Years after Establishment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Mukhtar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An intensive rotational grazing system for dwarf and late heading (DL elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach pasture was examined in a summer period for two years following establishment. Four 0.05 of DL elephant grass pastures (20×25 m were established on May 2003. They were rotationally grazed for 1 week, followed by a 3-week rest period by three breeding or raising beef cattle for three and six cycles during the first and second years of establishment respectively. Before grazing, the plant height, leaf area index and the ratio of leaf blade to stem were at the highest, while tiller number increased and herbage mass tended to increase, except for the first grazing cycle both two years and for one paddock in the second year. Herbage consumption, the rate of herbage consumption and dry matter intake tended to decrease in three paddocks from the first to the third cycle in the first year, but increase as grazing occurred in the second year. Dry matter intake averaged 10.2-14.5 and 15.4–23.2 g DM/kg/live weight (LW/day over the four paddocks in the first and second year, respectively, and average daily gains were 0.09 and 0.35 kg/head/day in the first and second year respectively. The carrying capacities were estimated at 1,016 and 208 cow-days (CD/ha (annual total 1,224 CD/ha in the first year and 1,355 and 207 CD/ha (annual total 1,562 CD/ha in the second year. Thus, DL elephant grass pasture can expand the grazing period for beef cows for the following two-year establishment. (Animal Production 13(1:10-17 (2011 Key Words: dwarf elephant grass, herbage mass, plant characters, rotational grazing

  8. WASTE CONTAINMENT OVERVIEW

    Science.gov (United States)

    BSE waste is derived from diseased animals such as BSE (bovine spongiform encepilopothy, also known as Mad Cow) in cattle and CWD (chronic wasting disease) in deer and elk. Landfilling is examined as a disposal option and this presentation introduces waste containment technology...

  9. Risk from cattle trampling to nests of an endangered passerine evaluated using artificial nest experiments and simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian W. Rolek

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasslands are often grazed by cattle and many grassland birds nest on the ground, potentially exposing nests to trampling. We tested for trampling risk introduced by cattle to nests of endangered Florida Grasshopper Sparrows (Ammodramus savannarum floridanus using experimentally paired grids of artificial nests (i.e., clay targets similar in size to nests of Florida Grasshopper Sparrows and counted the number of clay targets that were broken in paired grazed and ungrazed enclosures. Clay targets in grazed grids were trampled 3.9% more often than their respective ungrazed grids, and measurements of cattle presence or density were correlated with the number of broken clay targets, suggesting that excluding cattle during breeding is an important management recommendation for the Florida Grasshopper Sparrow. Trampling rates within grazed enclosures were spatially homogeneous with respect to cattle infrastructure such as supplemental feeding troughs and fences, and forests and stocking density were poor predictors of trampling rates when excluding ungrazed grids. We used population viability analysis to compare quasi-extinction rates, intrinsic growth rates, and median abundance in grazed and ungrazed Florida Grasshopper Sparrow aggregations to further understand the biological significance of management aimed at reducing trampling rates during the breeding season. Simulations indicated that trampling from grazing increased quasi-extinction rates by 41% while reducing intrinsic growth rates by 0.048, and reducing median abundance by an average of 214 singing males after 50 years. Management should avoid grazing enclosures occupied by Florida Grasshopper Sparrows during the nesting season to minimize trampling rates. Our methods that combine trampling experiments with population viability analysis provide a framework for testing effects from trampling on other grassland ground-nesting birds, and can directly inform conservation and management of the

  10. Prevalence and risk factors of ticks infesting cattle reared on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk factors among cattle reared on dairy, beef and free-range grazing farms of Haramaya University .... guidelines using gross and stereomicroscopic examination. .... with the risk and differences in the farm management systems, prevalence of ... tick genera combinations infested animals with diversified tick genera in Ha-.

  11. Smallholder dairy systems in the Kenya highlands: cattle population dynamics under increasing intensification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bebe, B.O.; Udo, H.M.J.; Rowlands, G.J.; Thorpe, W.

    2003-01-01

    A cross-sectional stratified random sample survey of 1755 households in the Kenya highlands was conducted between June 1996 and April 1998 to quantify cattle population dynamics in smallholder herds. The free-, semi-zero- and zero-grazing systems practised represented increasing levels of

  12. Improving cattle nutrition on the Great Plains with shrubs and fecal seeding of fourwing saltbush

    Science.gov (United States)

    Two in vitro trials were conducted for estimates of dietary percentage of fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens; FS) or winterfat (Krascheninnikovia lanata; WF) to improve diet digestibility when cattle graze mature cool-season grass. Three in vitro trials were conducted to estimate the percentage ...

  13. Phenotypic sex ratios of Atriplex canescens shrubs in relation to cattle browsing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andres F. Cibils; David M. Swift; Richard H. Hart

    2001-01-01

    Previous studies conducted at our research site on the shortgrass steppe in Colorado showed that phenotypic sex ratios of tetraploid fourwing saltbush (Atriplex canescens Pursh [Nutt]) shrubs were less female biased in grazed pastures than in adjacent exclosures. The potential effects of cattle browsing on shrub sex ratios were studied both in the field and in a...

  14. Livestock and elk grazing effects on stream morphology, brown trout population dynamics, movement, and growth rate, Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael C. Anderson

    2009-01-01

    Ungulate grazing in riparian areas has been shown to detrimentally impact stream morphology and fish populations. Goals of this research were to assess changes in stream morphology and responses of a brown trout (Salmo trutta) population to exclusion of cattle (Bos taurus) and elk (Cervus elaphus) from riparian...

  15. Antagonism of lateral saphenous vein serotonin receptors from steers grazing endophyte-free, wild-type, or novel endophyte-infected tall fescue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pharmacologic profiling of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT) receptors of bovine lateral saphenous vein has shown that cattle grazing endophyte-infected (Neotyphodium coenophialum) tall fescue (Lolium arundinaceum) have altered responses to ergovaline (ERV), 5HT, 5HT2A and 5HT7 agonists. To determine if 5HT...

  16. Reducing supplementation frequency for Nellore beef steers grazing tropical pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Carrilho Canesin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Reduced supplementation frequency is a broadly applied management practice. Ruminants consuming low quality forages/pastures, supplemented less than once daily are able to maintain body weight gain (BWG, efficiency of use of dry matter, nitrogen and other nutrients, as compared with animals supplemented once daily. We evaluated the feeding behavior, dry matter intake (DMI, dry matter and organic matter digestibility (DMD and OMD, BWG, Longissimus muscle area and backfat depth of Nellore steers raised on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season, with different supplementation patterns. Thirty six animals (338 ± 40.7 kg were distributed over nine paddocks according to a completely randomized design. Treatments were based on supplementation frequency: once daily (OD, once daily except Saturdays and Sundays (SS, or on alternate days (AD, at 1.0 %, 1.4 % and 2.0 % BW, respectively. Average total DMI accounted for 1.6 % BW day-1, with no effect of supplementation frequency. Supplementation frequency had no effect on BWG or grazing time during the day. There was no difference in Longissimus muscle area animals supplemented daily, SS and AD. The backfat depth was thinner in animals supplemented AD, but even in this case, it was within the standards considered satisfactory for a finishing steer. Reducing supplementation frequency seems a good option to lower labor costs without affecting feed efficiency or carcass quality in beef cattle grazing tropical pastures.

  17. Breeds of cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buchanan, David S.; Lenstra, Johannes A.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter gives an overview on the different breeds of cattle (Bos taurus and B. indicus). Cattle breeds are presented and categorized according to utility and mode of origin. Classification and phylogeny of breeds are also discussed. Furthermore, a description of cattle breeds is provided.

  18. The Agersoe cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Withen, K.B.; Brüniche-Olsen, A.; Pedersen, Bo Vest

    2011-01-01

    A phenotypically interesting strain of cattle existed on the small island of Agersoe, on the west coast of Zealand, Denmark, in the beginning of the last decade. The cattle share a great resemblance to the extinct Danish breed, the Island cattle. The objective of this study was to genetically...

  19. Environmental Awareness on Beef Cattle Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah M Bamualim

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The acceleration program to meet beef self sufficient in 2010 is expected to increase animal protein consumption of Indonesian people in order to be equal with other countries as well as to improve the livestock farmer’s income. The main objective of the program is to increase cattle population. Since the availability of forage and grassland is limited, beef cattle development is driven to the crop and plantation integration approach by using their by-product as cattle feed. Crop and plantation by-products, generally are considered to be fiber source with high lignocellulose’s and low nutritive value. Feeding high fiber would increase methane gas production, and faeces and grass cultivation also contributed on greenhouse emission. Methane is one of the main greenhouse gases contributed by agriculture sector; increasing beef cattle population using high fiber feed is predicted to increase methane production. Good management is expected to improve productivity and to reduce methane production on livestock. Some efforts could be done such as good feeding management and nutrition manipulation, environment friendly cattle waste management, improving management on roughage cultivation, and improving management on cattle production.

  20. Effect of cattle exclosures on Columbia Spotted Frog abundance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Michael J.; Pearl, Christopher; Chambert, Thierry; Mccreary, Brome; Galvan, Stephanie; Rowe, Jennifer

    2018-01-01

    Livestock grazing is an important land use in the western USA and can have positive or negative effects on amphibians. Columbia Spotted Frog (Rana luteiventris) often use ponds that provide water for cattle. We conducted a long-term manipulative study on US Forest Service land in northeastern Oregon to determine the effects of full and partial exclosures that limited cattle access to ponds used by frogs. We found weak evidence of a short-term increase in abundance that did not differ between full and partial exclosures and that diminished with continuing exclusion of cattle. The benefit of exclosures was small relative to the overall decline in breeding numbers that we documented. This suggests that some protection can provide a short-term boost to populations.

  1. Grass composition and rangeland condition of the major grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One area represented lightly grazed government ranches or parks which were used as benchmarks, another area represented the seasonal grazing areas with an intermediate grazing pressure and the remaining were the heavily grazed roadsides, lakeshores and other communal grazing lands. The range condition ...

  2. The first appearance of cattle in Denmark occurred 6000 years ago: an effect of cultural or climate and environmental changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe-Nygaard, Nanna; Hede, Mikkel Ulfeldt

    2006-01-01

    the youngest aurochs have similar values to Late Atlantic red deer from the same locality. As eastern Denmark was largely covered by forest, speculations on the origin of the grazing areas are many. The grass may have grown in openings in the forest, at the forest fringe, or more likely on the newly reclaimed......Stable carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios from bones of contemporaneous Late Atlantic aurochs and early cattle in eastern Denmark are significantly different and provide information on the origin and feeding strategies of the earliest domestic cattle. The data show that the early cattle were...... feeding on grass right from the beginning 4000 cal. yr BC. In contrast, the youngest aurochs population primarily browsed and grazed from the dense forest floor resulting in rather negative 613C values measured on bone collagen. The oldest aurochs have similar isotope values to the earlier cattle, whereas...

  3. Wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bovard, Pierre

    The origin of the wastes (power stations, reprocessing, fission products) is determined and the control ensuring the innocuity with respect to man, public acceptance, availability, economics and cost are examined [fr

  4. Absence of a weight gain response to Vitamin B12 supplementation in weaned dairy heifers grazing pastures of marginal cobalt content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, R G; Ellison, R S; Mortleman, L; Kirk, J A; Henderson, H V

    1999-08-01

    To obtain information on serum and liver vitamin B12 and urinary methylmalonic acid concentrations as diagnostic tests to predict a weight gain response to supplementation with vitamin B12 in young dairy cattle when grazing pasture of low cobalt content. Methodology. Forty dairy cattle (12 Friesian, 14 Friesian x Jersey and 14 Jersey) were allocated to two equal sized groups, treated and untreated, based on liveweight. At monthly intervals for 14 months, all animals were weighed, their serum and urine sampled, their liver biopsied and the pasture sampled from the paddocks they were grazing and going to graze. Serum and liver were assayed for vitamin B12 concentrations. For the first 5 months of the trial, urine was assayed for methylmalonic acid concentrations. Both washed and unwashed pasture samples were assayed for cobalt concentrations. No weight gain response occurred vitamin B12 supplementation in young growing cattle grazing pasture with a cobalt concentration of 0.04-0.06 mg/kg DM. For 5 months of the trial, liver vitamin B12 concentrations from untreated calves were in the range 75-220 nmol/kg and serum vitamin B12 concentrations were as low as 72 pmol/1. There was no associated growth response to supplementation. Further trials involving young cattle grazing pastures with cobalt concentrations less than 0.04 mg/kg DM are required to reliably determine liver and serum vitamin B12 concentrations at which growth responses to vitamin B12 or cobalt supplementation are likely under New Zealand pastoral grazing conditions.

  5. Using the Q10 model to simulate E. coli survival in cowpats on grazing lands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Microbiological quality of surface waters can be affected by microbial load in runoff from grazing lands. This effect, with other factors, depends on the survival of microorganisms in animal waste deposited on pastures. Since temperature is a leading environmental parameter affec...

  6. Grazing incidence diffraction : A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gilles, B [LTPCM, ENSEEG. St. Martin d` Heres. (France)

    1996-09-01

    Different Grazing Incidence Diffraction (GID) methods for the analysis of thin films and multilayer structures are reviewed in three sections: the reflectivity is developed in the first one, which includes the non-specular diffuse scattering. The second one is devoted to the extremely asymmetric Bragg diffraction and the third one to the in-plane Bragg diffraction. Analytical formulations of the scattered intensities are developed for each geometry, in the framework of the kinetical analysis as well as the dynamical theory. Experimental examples are given to illustrate the quantitative possibility of the GID techniques.

  7. Application of Technology on Improving Beef Cattle Productivity in East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wirdahayati R B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The Province of East Nusa Tenggara (NTT had been one of the major beef cattle suppliers under traditional management system in Indonesia. The beef cattle farming that based on grazing native pasture and the introduction of shrub legumes (Leucaena leucocephala may contribute to around 15 – 50% of the farmers’ household income. In the last few years, supply of beef cattle tended to decline due to the decrease in cattle population in NTT. Some basic improvements in management and feeding toward increasing beef cattle productivities had been carried out in Nusa Tenggara, such as a baseline survey on Cattle Health and Productivity Survey (CHAPS conducted in 1990 – 1992. The objective of the program was to identify the existing beef cattle productivity and health condition throughout Nusa Tenggara. A collaborative research with the Ministry of Research and Technology (Integrated Prime Research had also been carried out and the result showed that early weaning in Bali calves that can be practised as early as 3 – 6 months to prevent calves losses during the dry season. A program of the Assessment on Beef Cattle Base Farming Activities had also been conducted to improve fattening and breeding practices through the improvement in beef cattle management and feeding systems. At the latest development, fattening scheme has been introduced under a partnership approach involving private sectors and cooperatives. This needs to be facilitated by the government to accelerate the program such as access to capital and intensive extension services to build farmers awareness toward profit oriented beef cattle farming. Optimalization of the available potential resources and technology in NTT, will be an opportunity to enhance beef cattle production and gains back the reputation as one of the major producing beef cattle in the past. This will also support the national livestock program nowadays, called Beef Cattle Self Sufficiency Program 2014.

  8. Dairy cows increase ingestive mastication and reduce ruminative chewing when grazing chicory and plantain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregorini, P; Minnee, E M K; Griffiths, W; Lee, J M

    2013-01-01

    Although the nutritive value of chicory (Cichorium intybus L.) and plantain (Plantago lanceolata L.) has been thoroughly studied, little is known about the grazing behavior of cattle feeding on chicory and plantain swards. The objective of the present study was to assess and describe the grazing behavior of dairy cows as affected by dietary proportions of chicory and plantain fed as monocultures for part of the day. Ninety Holstein-Friesian cows (489±42 kg of body weight; 4.1±0.3 body condition score, and 216±15 d in milk) were randomly assigned to 15 groups (6 cows per group) and grazed according to 7 treatments: control (CTL, 3 groups), perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) dominant sward (24-h pasture strip); 3 chicory treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of chicory to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment); and 3 plantain treatments comprising 20, 40, and 60% of the diet, strip-grazing a monoculture of plantain to a fixed postgrazing residual before strip-grazing a perennial ryegrass dominant sward (2 groups of cows per treatment). Four focal animals per group were equipped with 3-dimensional motion sensors, which provided the number of steps taken at each minute of the day. These cows were also fitted with automatic jaw-movement recorders that identified bites, mastication during ingestion, chewing during rumination, and determined grazing, rumination and idling times and bouts. Daily grazing time and bouts were not affected by treatments but rumination time differed and was reduced by up to 90 min when cows were allocated to chicory and plantain as 60% of their diet. Ruminative chewing was reduced in cows grazing chicory and plantain by up to 20% in cows allocated to the 60% treatments. Compared with perennial ryegrass, as the dietary proportion of chicory and plantain increased, cows spent more time idling and less time ruminating

  9. Dairy cattle sustainability using the emergy methodology: Environmental loading ratio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmar Eduardo Bassan Mendes

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The dairy cattle activity in São Paulo State has been depressed in recent years, evidenced by the reduction of 35.47% of dairy herd between 1996 and 2008 (LUPA and 29.73% in milk production between the census of the IBGE (1995 and 2006. Activity remains in the Agricultural Production Units (UPA that have adopted more intensive systems of milk production, using animals of high genetic potential, management-intensive rotational grazing or agricultural inputs, and with the objective of profit maximization. In face of environmental pressures, the problem is to know the degree of sustainability of milk production. The objective in this work was to analyze the production of milk from a farm in the municipality of Guzolândia, São Paulo State, during the period 2005/2011, using the emergy methodology to assess the sustainability of system, calculated by Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR. The UPA Alto da Araúna is dedicated to dairy cattle adopting the system of milk production semi-intensive type B; it produces on average 650 liters of milk per day with 45 lactating cows, using 30 ha of pasture with supplemental feed and silage. It has sandy soil, classified as latossol red, yellow, ortho phase, with gently rolling slopes. The UPA is administered with business structure, aiming to profit maximization and minimization of environmental impacts, seeking to maintain economically viable activity and preserving the environment. Currently, administrative decisions have the support of operational control that collects and records information necessary to generate animal and agricultural indexes that evaluate the performance of the UPA, in addition to managerial accounting records that generate cash flow information used to evaluate the economic efficiency of the UPA. The Environmental Loading Ratio (ELR=N+F/R is obtained by the ratio of natural non-renewable resources (N plus economic resources (F by total renewable emergy (R. It is an indicator of the

  10. Relationships among rotational and conventional grazing systems, stream channels, and macroinvertebrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, K.L.; Vondracek, B.

    2011-01-01

    Cattle grazing in riparian areas can reduce water quality, alter stream channel characteristics, and alter fish and macroinvertebrate assemblage structure. The U.S. Department of Agriculture, Natural Resources Conservation Services has recommended Rotational Grazing (RG) as an alternative management method on livestock and dairy operations to protect riparian areas and water quality. We evaluated 13 stream channel characteristics, benthic macroinvertebrate larvae (BML), and chironomid pupal exuviae (CPE) from 18 sites in the Upper Midwest of the United States in relation to RG and conventional grazing (CG). A Biotic Composite Score comprised of several macroinvertebrate metrics was developed for both the BML assemblage and the CPE assemblage. Multi-Response Permutation Procedures (MRPP) indicated a significant difference in stream channel characteristics between RG and CG. Nonmetric Multidimensional Scaling indicated that RG sites were associated with more stable stream banks, higher quality aquatic habitat, lower soil compaction, and larger particles in the streambed. However, neither MRPP nor Mann-Whitney U tests demonstrated a difference in Biotic Composite Scores for BML or CPE along RG and CG sites. The BML and CPE metrics were significantly correlated, indicating that they were likely responding to similar variables among the study sites. Although stream channel characteristics appeared to respond to grazing management, BML and CPE may have responded to land use throughout the watershed, as well as local land use. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  11. Methane Emission By Grazing Livestock. A Synopsis Of 1000 Direct Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lassey, K.R. [National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research (NIWA), Wellington (New Zealand); Ulyatt, M.J. [New Zealand Pastoral Agriculture Research Institute (AgResearch), Palmerston North (New Zealand)

    2000-07-01

    In a series of field campaigns since 1995, a team of atmospheric and ruminant-nutrition scientists have measured methane emissions directly from individual ruminant livestock freely grazing representative New Zealand pastures. The technique collects integrated 'breath' samples during grazing, using an implanted SF6 source as a conservative calibrated tracer, an approach pioneered by Johnson et al. [1994]. Most of these measurements have been on grazing sheep (942 animal-days to Aug 1999), others on grazing dairy cows (283), with some measurements also on sheep under controlled feeding conditions (305) [eg, Lassey et al., 1997; Ulyatt et al., 1999]. The aim is to characterise the variability of emission rates, including their dependence on pasture quality and physiological condition. The research goal is two-fold: (1) to provide a better scientific basis for assessing the national emissions inventory; and (2) to investigate options for mitigating livestock emissions. Here, we discuss the research strategy and overview the principal research findings. We note in particular, that as a source of enterically fermented methane, sheep may not be merely 'small cattle'. 5 refs.

  12. Herbage intake by grazing dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijs, J.A.C.

    1981-01-01

    An extensive review of the literature is given of
    - nine possible methods for estimating herbage intake by grazing ruminants, with special attention to the sward-cutting and indirect animal methods
    - the factors determining the herbage intake by grazing ruminants.

    The

  13. 75 FR 29572 - Information Collection; Grazing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... Control Number 1004-0019] Information Collection; Grazing Management AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... submitted an information collection request to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for a 3-year... INFORMATION: Title: Grazing Management (43 CFR 4120). OMB Number: 1004-0019. Forms: 4120-6 (Cooperative Range...

  14. Epidemiological survey of Crimean Congo hemorrhagic fever virus in cattle in East Darfur State, Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Alaa M; Adam, Ibrahim A; Osman, Badreldin T; Aradaib, Imadeldin E

    2015-06-01

    Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is a tick-borne disease caused by CCHF virus (CCHFV) of the genus Nairovirus in the family Bunyaviridae. CCHFV causes subclinical infection in domestic livestock and an often fatal hemorrhagic illness in humans, with approximately 30% mortality rates. In the present study, a cross-sectional serosurvey was conducted in a total of 282 randomly selected cattle from five localities in East Darfur State, Sudan. The exposure status to CCHF was determined using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies in cattle serum samples. The CCHFV-specific IgG antibodies were detected in 54 out of 282 animals, accounting for a 19.14% prevalence rate. Older cattle (>2 years of age) were approximately five times more likely to be infected with the virus (OR=4.90, CI=1.28-18.98, p-value=0.02). Heavily tick-infested cattle (ticks all over the body) were at 11 times higher at risk compared to tick-free animals (OR=11.11, CI=2.86-43.25, p-value=0.01). Grazing system is another factor affecting CCHF, where cattle grazing on open system were 27 times more at risk compared to other grazing systems (OR=27.22, CI=7.46-99.24, p-value=0.001). There was an association between localities and CCHF cattle (OR=0.24, CI=0.07-0.83, p-value=0.02). This study confirms the exposure of cattle to CCHF in East Darfur and identifies potential risk factors associated with the disease. Further epidemiological studies and improved surveillance are urgently needed to prevent a possible outbreak of CCHF among humans in the Darfur region of Sudan. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. How grazing affects soil quality of soils formed in the glaciated northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Alissa H; Amador, José A

    2018-02-21

    Historically, much of the New England landscape was converted to pasture for grazing animals and harvesting hay. Both consumer demand for local sustainably produced food, and the number of small farms is increasing in RI, highlighting the importance of characterizing the effects livestock have on the quality of pasture soils. To assess how livestock affect pasture on Charlton and Canton soils series in RI, we examined soil quality in farms raising beef cattle (Bos taurus), sheep (Ovis aries), and horses (Equus ferus caballus), using hayed pastures as a control. We sampled three pastures per livestock type and three control hayed pastures in May, August, and October 2012. Hay fields and pastures grazed by sheep had statistically significant (P soil quality than pastures grazed by beef cattle or horses. This was driven by parameters including penetration resistance, bulk density, aggregate stability, and infiltration rate. Hayfields also showed higher soil quality measures than grazed pastures for organic matter content and active C. In addition, significant differences in nitrate and phosphate concentrations were observed among livestock types. Respiration and infiltration rates, pH, and ammonium concentrations, on the other hand, did not differ significantly among pasture types. When all soil quality indicators in this study were weighed equally, soil quality scores followed the order: hay > sheep > beef cattle > horses. The results of our study provide baseline data on the effect different types of livestock have on pasture soil quality in RI, which may be useful in making sound land use and agricultural management decisions.

  16. Relationship of bite mass of cattle to sward structure of four temperate grasses in short-term foraging sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bite mass is a fundamental element of ruminant ingestive behavior and is highly influenced by sward structure. We compared the sward structure of four grasses and related structure to the bite mass of cattle grazing the grasses. Reed canarygrass (RCG; Phalaris arundinacea L), quackgrass (QG; Elytri...

  17. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atxaerandio Raquel

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks, 626 beef cattle (46 herds and 115 goats (11 herds. Serum antibodies were analysed by ELISA and positive samples were retested by Complement Fixation test (CFT to detect recent infections. Results ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 ± 2.0% than in goats (8.7 ± 5.9% and beef cattle (6.7 ± 2.0%. Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence ≥ 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants. Conclusions Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.

  18. Seroepidemiological study of Q fever in domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fons, Francisco; Astobiza, Ianire; Barandika, Jesús F; Hurtado, Ana; Atxaerandio, Raquel; Juste, Ramón A; García-Pérez, Ana L

    2010-01-20

    Q fever, a worldwide zoonotic disease caused by Coxiella burnetii, is endemic in northern Spain where it has been reported as responsible for large series of human pneumonia cases and domestic ruminants' reproductive disorders. To investigate pathogen exposure among domestic ruminants in semi-extensive grazing systems in northern Spain, a serosurvey was carried out in 1,379 sheep (42 flocks), 626 beef cattle (46 herds) and 115 goats (11 herds). Serum antibodies were analysed by ELISA and positive samples were retested by Complement Fixation test (CFT) to detect recent infections. ELISA anti-C. burnetii antibody prevalence was slightly higher in sheep (11.8 +/- 2.0%) than in goats (8.7 +/- 5.9%) and beef cattle (6.7 +/- 2.0%). Herd prevalence was 74% for ovine, 45% for goat and 43% for bovine. Twenty-one percent of sheep flocks, 27% of goat and 14% of cattle herds had a C. burnetii seroprevalence >or= 20%. Only 15 out of 214 ELISA-positive animals reacted positive by CFT. Age-associated seroprevalence differed between ruminant species with a general increasing pattern with age. No evidence of correlation between abortion history and seroprevalence rates was observed despite the known abortifacient nature of C. burnetii in domestic ruminants. Results reported herein showed that sheep had the highest contact rate with C. burnetii in the region but also that cattle and goats should not be neglected as part of the domestic cycle of C. burnetii. This work reports basic epidemiologic patterns of C. burnetii in semi-extensive grazed domestic ruminants which, together with the relevant role of C. burnetii as a zoonotic and abortifacient agent, makes these results to concern both Public and Animal Health Authorities.

  19. Nitrogen Losses under Different Cattle Grazing Frequencies and Intensities in a Volcanic Soil of Southern Chile Pérdidas de Nitrógeno bajo Diferentes Frecuencias e Intensidades de Pastoreo en un Suelo Volcánico del Sur de Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Núñez

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Chilean livestock production systems have intensified over the last years, with increasing amounts of N fertilizer inputs creating the potentiality for environmental damage through N pollution of water and air, so that alternative production strategies have been developed to reduce such environmental impacts. This study assesses N losses under different grazing frequencies and intensities on permanent pasture (Lolium perenne L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., and Trifolium repens L. on an Andisol in Southern Chile. Four grazing strategies were evaluated: frequent-heavy (FH, frequent-light (FL, infrequent-heavy (IH, infrequent-light (IL, and a no grazing control (C treatment, and each with three replicates in a randomized complete block design. Results of the experiment indicate that N leaching losses were greater in the FH treatment (58.7 kg available N ha-1; p Los sistemas chilenos de producción ganadera se han intensificado en los últimos años con el uso creciente de fertilizantes que aportan nitrógeno (N, creando el potencial de daño ambiental a través de la contaminación del agua y el aire con N, de manera que se han diseñado estrategias alternativas de producción con el objetivo de reducir este potencial impacto. El presente estudio busca determinar las pérdidas de N bajo diferentes frecuencias e intensidades de pastoreo en una pradera permanente (Lolium perenne L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., Dactylis glomerata L., y Trifolium repens L. en un Andisol del sur de Chile. Se evaluaron cuatro estrategias de pastoreo: frecuente-intenso (FH, frecuente-laxo (FL, infrecuente-intenso (IH, infrecuente-laxo (IL, y un control (C o tratamiento sin pastoreo, cada uno con tres repeticiones en un diseño de bloques completos al azar. Las pérdidas de N por lixiviación fueron mayores en el tratamiento FH (59 kg N disponible ha-1; P ≤ 0,05 donde la mayor parte de las pérdidas ocurrieron en la primavera (39%. En promedio

  20. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.

  1. indigenous cattle breeds

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Received 31 August 1996; accepted 20 March /998. Mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns from representative animals of the Afrikaner and Nguni sanga cattle breeds, indigenous to Southern Africa, were compared to the mitochondrial DNA cleavage patterns of the Brahman (zebu) and the Jersey. (taurine) cattle breeds.

  2. 36 CFR 293.7 - Grazing of livestock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing of livestock. 293.7...-PRIMITIVE AREAS § 293.7 Grazing of livestock. (a) The grazing of livestock, where such use was established..., shall be permitted to continue under the general regulations covering grazing of livestock on the...

  3. Productivity of grasslands under continuous and rotational grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lantinga, E.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the Netherlands, rotational grazing, with grazing periods of 2 to 5 days, is the most common grazing system at present. In contrast with other countries of North-western Europe, the continuous grazing system is used here only to a limited extent. However, the results of numerous

  4. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    2017-01-01

    ) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola...... on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing...... on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test...

  5. Modelling carbon and water exchange of a grazed pasture in New Zealand constrained by eddy covariance measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirschbaum, Miko U F; Rutledge, Susanna; Kuijper, Isoude A; Mudge, Paul L; Puche, Nicolas; Wall, Aaron M; Roach, Chris G; Schipper, Louis A; Campbell, David I

    2015-04-15

    We used two years of eddy covariance (EC) measurements collected over an intensively grazed dairy pasture to better understand the key drivers of changes in soil organic carbon stocks. Analysing grazing systems with EC measurements poses significant challenges as the respiration from grazing animals can result in large short-term CO2 fluxes. As paddocks are grazed only periodically, EC observations derive from a mosaic of paddocks with very different exchange rates. This violates the assumptions implicit in the use of EC methodology. To test whether these challenges could be overcome, and to develop a tool for wider scenario testing, we compared EC measurements with simulation runs with the detailed ecosystem model CenW 4.1. Simulations were run separately for 26 paddocks around the EC tower and coupled to a footprint analysis to estimate net fluxes at the EC tower. Overall, we obtained good agreement between modelled and measured fluxes, especially for the comparison of evapotranspiration rates, with model efficiency of 0.96 for weekly averaged values of the validation data. For net ecosystem productivity (NEP) comparisons, observations were omitted when cattle grazed the paddocks immediately around the tower. With those points omitted, model efficiencies for weekly averaged values of the validation data were 0.78, 0.67 and 0.54 for daytime, night-time and 24-hour NEP, respectively. While not included for model parameterisation, simulated gross primary production also agreed closely with values inferred from eddy covariance measurements (model efficiency of 0.84 for weekly averages). The study confirmed that CenW simulations could adequately model carbon and water exchange in grazed pastures. It highlighted the critical role of animal respiration for net CO2 fluxes, and showed that EC studies of grazed pastures need to consider the best approach of accounting for this important flux to avoid unbalanced accounting. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Re-visiting the nutrition of dairy sheep grazing Mediterranean pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Decandia

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the light of recent findings in sheep nutrition and behaviour, the diets of grazing dairy sheep should be based on forages encompassing a variety of complementary nutritional values and containing moderate levels of complementary plant secondary metabolites, until recently regarded as "anti-nutritional". In lactating sheep, pastures of tannin-containing legumes like sulla (Hedysarum coronarium and chicory (Cichorium intybus can be integrated with annual grasses for establishing sustainable artificial pastures under rainfed conditions. Diets based on these forages, while ensuring high milking performance, can mitigate the unbalance of CP to energy ratio of grazing sheep. By grazing sulla and annual or Italian ryegrass (50:50 by area as spatially conterminal monocultures or in timely sequence (complementary grazing sheep eat more and perform better than by grazing the ryegrass pasture only. Concentrate supplementation of lactating sheep should be preferably based on fibrous sources (soyhulls or beet pulps, particularly from mid-lactation onwards and when supplementation levels are high. Milk urea concentration is confirmedly a useful monitoring tool to balance protein nutrition and curb the waste of N at animal and system level.

  7. Grazing management that regenerates ecosystem function and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing management that regenerates ecosystem function and grazingland ... in ecosystem improvement, productivity, soil carbon and fertility, water-holding ... for sufficient time to produce resource improvement, sound animal production, and ...

  8. Determinants of choice of market-oriented indigenous Horo cattle production in Dano district of western Showa, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alemayehu, Befikadu; Bogale, Ayalneh; Wollny, Clemens; Tesfahun, Girma

    2010-12-01

    Based on a survey data collected from 150 farming households in Dano district of western Showa of Ethiopia, this paper analyzes determinants of smallholders' choice for market oriented indigenous Horo cattle production and tries to suggest policy alternatives for sustainable use of animal genetic resource in the study area. Descriptive statistics and binary logistic model were employed to analyze the data. Eight explanatory variables including age of the household head, size of the grazing land, total size of cultivated land, farmer's experience in indigenous cattle production, farmer's attitude towards productivity of local breed, off-farm income, fattening practice, and availability of information and training of the head of the household regarding conservation, management and sustainable use indigenous cattle were found to be statistically significant variables to explain farmers' choice for market oriented indigenous cattle production activities. Besides, possible policy implications were made in order to improve conservation, management and sustainable use of market oriented indigenous cattle genetic resources.

  9. Survey of smallholder beef cattle production systems in different agro-ecological zones of Cambodia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samkol, Pok; Sath, Keo; Patel, Mikaela; Windsor, Peter Andrew; Holtenius, Kjell

    2015-10-01

    A survey was conducted to better understand the contribution of farm productivity to rural household income and identify differences in production systems, feeding practices and development constraints to smallholder beef cattle producers in the four agro-ecological zones (AEZs) of Cambodia. A semi-structured questionnaire was used to interview 360 households in the four AEZs: I, the Great Lake Floodplain; II, the Mekong Floodplain; III, the Coastal and IV, the Plateau/Mountainous. In addition, samples of common nutritional resources used for cattle feed were collected for nutrient composition analysis, plus cattle were scored for body condition. Rice farming and cattle production were the most common sources of income in all AEZs. The average cattle herd size was 3.7 (SD = 2.4), but the majority of households raised 1-3 animals. The most common cattle management system was grazing with supplementation, mainly with rice straw and 'cut-and-carry' natural grasses fed during the wet season in all AEZs. The body condition score of all cattle types was 3.2 (SD = 0.8), except for cows in lactation that were 1.8. Major constraints to cattle production in AEZs I, II and III were lack of quality feed resources, capital for cattle production and concerns on breed quality, whereas in AEZ IV, diseases were identified as the main constraint. This survey confirms the importance of cattle to smallholders in the four AEZs. Interventions including farmer education to improve husbandry skills, increase the utilisation of forages and crop residues and address disease issues are necessary to enhance cattle production and rural livelihoods in Cambodia.

  10. Practices of traditional beef farmers in their production and marketing of cattle in Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumba, Chisoni; Häsler, Barbara; Muma, John B; Munyeme, Musso; Sitali, Doreen Chilolo; Skjerve, Eystein; Rich, Karl M

    2018-01-01

    Understanding the practices of traditional cattle farmers in developing countries is an important factor in the development of appropriate, pro-poor disease control policies, and in formulating regional-specific production incentives that can improve productivity. This paper describes the production, husbandry practices, economics, and constraints of traditional cattle farming in Zambia. A cross-sectional study design was used to obtain data from traditional cattle farmers (n = 699) using a structured questionnaire. Data analyses were carried out using SPSS and STATA statistical packages. The results revealed that the majority [65% (95% CI: 59.3-71.1)] of farmers practised a transhumant cattle herding system under communal grazing. In these transhumant herding systems, animal husbandry and management systems were found to be of poor quality, in terms of supplementary feeding, vaccination coverage, deworming, uptake of veterinary services, usage of artificial insemination, and dip tanks all being low or absent. East Coast Fever was the most common disease, affecting 60% (95% CI: 56.4-63.7) of farmers. Cattle sales were low, as farmers only sold a median of two cattle per household per year. Crop farming was found to be the main source of farm income (47%) in agro-pastoralist communities, followed by cattle farming (28%) and other sources (25%). The median cost of production in the surveyed provinces was reported at US$316, while that of revenue from cattle and cattle products sales was estimated at US$885 per herd per year. This translates to an estimated gross margin of US$569, representing 64.3% of revenue.There is considerable diversity in disease distribution, animal husbandry practices, economics, and challenges in traditional cattle production in different locations of Zambia. Therefore, to improve the productivity of the traditional cattle sub-sector, policy makers and stakeholders in the beef value chain must develop fit-for-purpose policies and

  11. Grazing function g and collimation angular acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen G. Peggs

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The grazing function g is introduced—a synchrobetatron optical quantity that is analogous (and closely connected to the Twiss and dispersion functions β, α, η, and η^{′}. It parametrizes the rate of change of total angle with respect to synchrotron amplitude for grazing particles, which just touch the surface of an aperture when their synchrotron and betatron oscillations are simultaneously (in time at their extreme displacements. The grazing function can be important at collimators with limited acceptance angles. For example, it is important in both modes of crystal collimation operation—in channeling and in volume reflection. The grazing function is independent of the collimator type—crystal or amorphous—but can depend strongly on its azimuthal location. The rigorous synchrobetatron condition g=0 is solved, by invoking the close connection between the grazing function and the slope of the normalized dispersion. Propagation of the grazing function is described, through drifts, dipoles, and quadrupoles. Analytic expressions are developed for g in perfectly matched periodic FODO cells, and in the presence of β or η error waves. These analytic approximations are shown to be, in general, in good agreement with realistic numerical examples. The grazing function is shown to scale linearly with FODO cell bend angle, but to be independent of FODO cell length. The ideal value is g=0 at the collimator, but finite nonzero values are acceptable. Practically achievable grazing functions are described and evaluated, for both amorphous and crystal primary collimators, at RHIC, the SPS (UA9, the Tevatron (T-980, and the LHC.

  12. Grazing behavior and intake of goats rotationally grazing Tanzania-grass pasture with different post-grazing residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia H.M.R. Fernandes

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate intake and ingestive behavior of goats rotationally grazing Tanzania (Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia 1 pastures with 2 levels of post-grazing residue. The experimental area consisted of 1.2 ha of Tanzania pasture divided into 12 paddocks (24 areas, managed under 2 post-grazing residues: low green (leaf + stem herbage mass (GHM post-grazing (LR, approximately 1,500 kg/ha GHM; and high GHM post-grazing (HR, approximately 3,000 kg/ha GHM. Each paddock was grazed for 3 consecutive days (D1, D2, D3 followed by 33 days rest and evaluated from October 2005 to April 2006. Animal behavior (grazing time, bite rate and bite size/weight was evaluated on each grazing day. While goats spent more time grazing on LR than HR (P=0.02, bite rate did not differ between treatments or among days (P=0.31 and averaged 26.5 bites/min. In contrast, bite weight was greater in HR (0.15 g/bite than in LR (0.12 g/bite, and decreased from D1 to D3 (P<0.001. Absolute dry matter intake of goats was greater in the HR (2.19 kg/d than the LR (1.89 kg/d treatment; however, differences were not significant (P>0.05 when intake was determined on a body weight or metabolic weight basis. Our findings are consistent with the general assumption that bite weight is a trade-off between quantity and quality of the herbage mass and is the main determinant of animal performance. More studies are needed to determine animal performance on the various treatments and to determine management strategies to provide a desirable balance between animal weight gain and pasture stability.Keywords: Animal behavior, foraging, grazing systems, Megathyrsus maximus, plant - animal relations.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(491-100

  13. In vitro bacterial growth and in vivo ruminal microbiota populations associated with bloat in steers grazing wheat forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, B R; Pinchak, W E; Anderson, R C; Hume, M E

    2006-10-01

    The role of ruminal bacteria in the frothy bloat complex common to cattle grazing winter wheat has not been previously determined. Two experiments, one in vitro and another in vivo, were designed to elucidate the effects of fresh wheat forage on bacterial growth, biofilm complexes, rumen fermentation end products, rumen bacterial diversity, and bloat potential. In Exp. 1, 6 strains of ruminal bacteria (Streptococcus bovis strain 26, Prevotella ruminicola strain 23, Eubacterium ruminantium B1C23, Ruminococcus albus SY3, Fibrobacter succinogenes ssp. S85, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens C94) were used in vitro to determine the effect of soluble plant protein from winter wheat forage on specific bacterial growth rate, biofilm complexes, VFA, and ruminal H2 and CH4 in mono or coculture with Methanobrevibacter smithii. The specific growth rate in plant protein medium containing soluble plant protein (3.27% nitrogen) was measured during a 24-h incubation at 39 degrees C in Hungate tubes under a CO2 gas phase. A monoculture of M. smithii was grown similarly, except under H2:CO2 (1:1), in a basal methanogen growth medium supplemented likewise with soluble plant protein. In Exp. 2, 6 ruminally cannulated steers grazing wheat forage were used to evaluate the influence of bloat on the production of biofilm complexes, ruminal microbial biodiversity patterns, and ruminal fluid protein fractions. In Exp. 1, cultures of R. albus (P bloated than for nonbloated steers when grazing wheat forage. The molecular analysis of the 16S rDNA showed that 2 different ruminal microbiota populations developed between bloated and nonbloated animals grazing wheat forage. Bloat in cattle grazing wheat pastures may be caused by increased production of biofilm, resulting from a diet-influenced switch in the rumen bacterial population.

  14. Competition on the range: science vs. perception in a bison-cattle conflict in the western USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranglack, Dustin H; Durham, Susan; du Toit, Johan T

    2015-04-01

    1. Competition between livestock and wild ungulates is commonly perceived to occur on shared rangelands. In the Henry Mountains (HM) of Utah, a free-ranging population of bison Bison bison has raised concerns among ranchers holding grazing permits on these public lands. Bison are the most conspicuous potential competitors with cattle, but lagomorphs (mainly jackrabbits Lepus californicus ) are also abundant in this area. The local ranching community is applying political pressure on state and federal agencies to resolve 'the bison problem', but the relative grazing impacts of bison, cattle and lagomorphs have not previously been quantified. 2. We constructed 40 grazing exclosures (each 5·95 m 2 ) in the conflict area: 20 excluded bison + cattle ('partial') and 20 excluded bison + cattle + lagomorphs ('full'). All exclosures, each with a paired open reference plot, were monitored for 1 year, and above-ground plant production was measured. GPS telemetry (bison) and scheduled grazing (cattle) allowed visitation to be quantified for each ungulate species based on the number of 'animal days' in the area. Rancher perceptions of wildlife-cattle interactions were recorded in a questionnaire survey. 3. Ranchers perceived bison as a high-level competitor with cattle, whereas lagomorphs were perceived as low-level competitors. 4. Grazed reference plots yielded an average (±SE) of 22·7 g m -2 (±5·16) of grass, compared to 36·5 g m -2 (±7·33) in the partial exclosures and 43·7 g m -2 (±7·61) in the full exclosures. Exclusion of large herbivores thus resulted in a 13·8 g m -2 increase in grass biomass relative to the reference plots ( P = 0·005), with the additional exclusion of lagomorphs resulting in a further 7·18 g m -2 increase ( P = 0·048). 5. Overall, lagomorphs accounted for 34·1%, bison 13·7% and cattle 52·3% of the total grass biomass removed by all herbivores on the shared range. 6. Synthesis and applications . Cattle face a greater competitive

  15. Cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bishu, Kinfe G.; O'Reilly, Seamus; Lahiff, Edward

    2018-01-01

    This study analyzes cattle farmers’ perceptions of risk and risk management strategies in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We use survey data from a sample of 356 farmers based on multistage random sampling. Factor analysis is employed to classify scores of risk and management strategies, and multiple...... utilization were perceived as the most important strategies for managing risks. Livestock disease and labor shortage were perceived as less of a risk by farmers who adopted the practice of zero grazing compared to other farmers, pointing to the potential of this practice for risk reduction. We find strong...... evidence that farmers engage in multiple risk management practices in order to reduce losses from cattle morbidity and mortality. The results suggest that government strategies that aim at reducing farmers’ risk need to be tailored to specific farm and farmer characteristics. Findings from this study have...

  16. The grazing capacity of sweetveld: 2. A model to estimate grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relations between grazing capacity and three independent variables were investigated in the False Thornveld of the Eastern Cape. The variables were veld condition, rainfall and density of woody species. These relations were used to develop a preliminary model to assess grazing capacity in the veld type. Despite its ...

  17. Domestic Resources Cost Analysis of Small-Scale Beef Cattle Farming at Upstream Area of Benain-Noelmina Watershed, West Timor, East Nusa Tenggara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nalle Agus Arnold

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The study aims to evaluate the Domestic Resources Cost (DRC of beef cattle raised either on grazing, or a tethering system of small-scale beef cattle farming. The study was done using a survey method. A total of 120 respondents were selected purposively to consist of 60 farmers applying the grazing system and another 60 farmers applying the tethering system. The parameters measured were socio-economic characteristic, Domestic Resources Cost Ratio (DRCR and Private Cost Ratio (PCR. Data were analyzed by applying a method of Policy Analysis Matrix (PAM. The result of the study indicated that 87% of those farmers involved in the grazing system and 85% of those involved in tethered beef cattle production, were within the productive age range. In the grazing system, the cattle farmers upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed area gain the private and social profit levels which is IDR 406,284,-/AU/year and IDR 688,388,-/AU/year, respectively. Further, in the tethering system, the average of private and social profit gain is IDR 855,222,-/AU/year and IDR 1,385,712,-/AU/year, respectively. The small-scale beef cattle farming upstream of Benain-Noelmina watershed has competitive and comparative advantages, indicated by the value of PCR and DRCR which are less than 1. The PCR value was 0.41 in the grazing system and 0.71 on the tethering system; hence, the DRCR of the grazing system was 0.29 and 0.60 of the tethering system.

  18. SUSTAINABILITY OF TURKISH GREY CATTLE IN ORGANIC SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya HANOĞLU

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beef consumption has significantly increased in the last fifty years as a response to the increase in population size, whereas the sustainability of production systems has begun to be questioned. Because the residues left in the animal feed additives used in conventional food production constitute major health problems in consumers. Therefore, an interest in organic farming methods based on natural grazing and feed production without the use of chemicals is increasing. One of the most important examples of organic beef production in Turkey is the project carried out in the villages of Ayvacık district in Çanakkale. This region has an ecological structure which does not allow an extensive production of culture cattle. The most important advantages of the Turkish grey cattle living in the pastures in the region covered with bushes are that they have less needs of shelter, they do not need supplementary feeding throughout the year and labor costs for their production for beef are low. Breeders in this region maintained a market price for their products by shifting to organic system and thus allowed the sustainable production of the Turkish grey cattle. In this study, Ayvacık Organic Beef Production Project which sets an example for the sustainability of Turkish grey cattle production by featuring its surplus values was evaluated.

  19. Improvement of beef cattle genetics provided increasing sustainability of beef cattle production and protein consumption in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boonyanuwat, K. [Beef Cattle Research and Development Group, Division of Animal Husbandry, Department of Livestock Development, Bangkok (Thailand)], E-mail: kalayabo@yahoo.com; Sirisom, P [Tak Livestock Breeding and Research Center, Meung (Thailand); Putharatanung, A [Nongkwang Livestock Research and Breeding Center, Photharam (Thailand)

    2009-07-01

    The rural innovation research and development (R and D) in beef cattle genetics, biotechnology, climate science and production systems, supported profitable and sustainable beef cattle production in Thailand. Department of Livestock Development (DLD) undertakes R and D to achieve continuous improvement in genetics, production technologies to improve productivity, profitability and sustainability of beef cattle production and quality of products. Efficiencies were achieved through improvements in genetics, nutrition and grazing management, use of information, meat science, and reduction in ruminant methane production. This function was essential to maintain long-term production competitiveness and achieve sustained economic growth in rural Thailand, where the beef cattle production was the important livestock production, accounting for 36.99% of the value of livestock production in Thailand. Molecular, quantitative genetics, and biotechnology tool were being combined in the development of genetic improvement. In 2006, beef meat was imported 1,842.53 thousand tons (0.41% of all consumption, 120.84 baht/kg). For the big size cattle, such as Tak cattle, Kabinburi cattle (Thai synthetic breeds by DLD, Tak = 62.5 Charoles-Brahman, Kabinburi = 50 Simental- Brahman), and cross breed cattle, they were in fattening period for 6-12 month. Fattening group, they were raised for restaurant, hotel, super market, and steak house. Data were collected from 2 parts: 1) 354 cattle of experimental trial in DLD part, and 2) 492 fattening cattle of small holders in Tak province and Nakorn Pathom province during October 2004-September 2007. Data collecting was separated into 2 parts (performance data and reference). Data were adjusted by group location month and year to analyze for growth, carcass performance and economic performances). There were 5 breeds of fattening beef cattle: 1) Thai Native, 2) Thai Brahman, 3) Kabinburi, 4) Tak, and 5) Tajima-Native. The first group was around 41

  20. Wealth, household heterogeneity and livelihood diversification of Fulani pastoralists in the Kachia Grazing Reserve, northern Nigeria, during a period of social transition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie J Ducrotoy

    Full Text Available A mixed methods study was undertaken in the Kachia Grazing Reserve of northern Nigeria. Surveys in March, June and October 2011 included focus group discussions, key informant and in-depth household interviews, concerning livelihood practices, animal health, ownership, and productivity. In May 2011, 249 Fulani families fleeing post-election violence entered the reserve with their livestock, increasing the number of households by one third.Despite being settled within a grazing reserve, over half of households sent all their cattle away on seasonal transhumance and another third sent some away. Cattle accounted for 96% of total tropical livestock units (TLU, of which 26% were cattle kept permanently outside the reserve. While all households cited livestock as their main source of income, 90% grew crops and 55% derived income from off-farm activities. A multiple correspondence analysis showed that for each extra member of a household its TLU value increased by 2.0 [95% CI, 1.4-2.7], while for each additional marriage its TLU increased by 15.7 [95% CI, 7.1-24.3]. A strong association was also observed between small herds, small households with only one wife, alongside marked geographical wealth differences within the reserve. New immigrant families had larger household sizes (33 and livestock holdings (122 TLU than old settlers (22 people and 67 TLU. Prior to the mass immigration, the distribution of TLU per person was unimodal: 41% of households were classified as 'poor' and 27% as 'medium', whereas post-immigration it was bi-modal, with 26% classified as 'very poor' and 28% as 'medium'.While cattle remain the principal source of Fulani income and wealth, the inhabitants of Kachia Grazing Reserve have diversified their livelihood strategies to respond to changing circumstances and stress, especially the limited availability of grazing within the reserve and political insecurity outside, resulting in continued transhumance, the maintenance of

  1. Risk Factors for Bovine Tuberculosis (bTB in Cattle in Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sintayehu W Dejene

    Full Text Available Bovine tuberculosis (bTB infection is generally correlated with individual cattle's age, sex, body condition, and with husbandry practices such as herd composition, cattle movement, herd size, production system and proximity to wildlife-including bTB maintenance hosts. We tested the correlation between those factors and the prevalence of bTB, which is endemic in Ethiopia's highland cattle, in the Afar Region and Awash National Park between November 2013 and April 2015. A total of 2550 cattle from 102 herds were tested for bTB presence using the comparative intradermal tuberculin test (CITT. Data on herd structure, herd movement, management and production system, livestock transfer, and contact with wildlife were collected using semi-structured interviews with cattle herders and herd owners. The individual overall prevalence of cattle bTB was 5.5%, with a herd prevalence of 46%. Generalized Linear Mixed Models with a random herd-effect were used to analyse risk factors of cattle reactors within each herd. The older the age of the cattle and the lower the body condition the higher the chance of a positive bTB test result, but sex, lactation status and reproductive status were not correlated with bTB status. At herd level, General Linear Models showed that pastoral production systems with transhumant herds had a higher bTB prevalence than sedentary herds. A model averaging analysis identified herd size, contact with wildlife, and the interaction of herd size and contact with wildlife as significant risk factors for bTB prevalence in cattle. A subsequent Structural Equation Model showed that the probability of contact with wildlife was influenced by herd size, through herd movement. Larger herds moved more and grazed in larger areas, hence the probability of grazing in an area with wildlife and contact with either infected cattle or infected wildlife hosts increased, enhancing the chances for bTB infection. Therefore, future bTB control strategies

  2. Fire and grazing influence site resistance to Bromus tectorum through their effects on shrub, bunchgrass and biocrust communities in the Great Basin (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Lea A.; Pyke, David A.

    2018-01-01

    Shrubs, bunchgrasses and biological soil crusts (biocrusts) are believed to contribute to site resistance to plant invasions in the presence of cattle grazing. Although fire is a concomitant disturbance with grazing, little is known regarding their combined impacts on invasion resistance. We are the first to date to test the idea that biotic communities mediate the effects of disturbance on site resistance. We assessed cover of Bromus tectorum, shrubs, native bunchgrasses, lichens and mosses in 99 burned and unburned plots located on similar soils where fires occurred between 12 and 23 years before sampling. Structural equation modeling was used to test hypothesized relationships between environmental and disturbance characteristics, the biotic community and resistance to B. tectorum cover. Characteristics of fire and grazing did not directly relate to cover of B. tectorum. Relationships were mediated through shrub, bunchgrass and biocrust communities. Increased site resistance following fire was associated with higher bunchgrass cover and recovery of bunchgrasses and mosses with time since fire. Evidence of grazing was more pronounced on burned sites and was positively correlated with the cover of B. tectorum, indicating an interaction between fire and grazing that decreases site resistance. Lichen cover showed a weak, negative relationship with cover of B. tectorum. Fire reduced near-term site resistance to B. tectorum on actively grazed rangelands. Independent of fire, grazing impacts resulted in reduced site resistance to B. tectorum, suggesting that grazing management that enhances plant and biocrust communities will also enhance site resistance.

  3. Grazing-incident PIXE Analysis Technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hongri; Wang Guangpu; Liang Kun; Yang Ru; Han Dejun

    2009-01-01

    In the article, the grazing incidence technology is first applied to the PIXE (proton induced X-ray emission) analysis. Three pieces of samples were investigated, including the contaminated aluminium substrate, the SIMOX (separated by oxygen implantation) SOI (Silicon on Insulator) sample and the silicon wafer implanted with Fe + . The results reveal that the grazing-incident proton can improve the sensitivity of PIXE in trace analysis, especially for samples contaminated on surface. With the penetration depth of the proton bean decreased, the ratio of the peak area to the detection limit raised observably and the sensitivity near the sample surface increased. (authors)

  4. Dry matter intake, performance and carcass characteristics of hair sheep reared under different grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues Ventolin dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different grazing systems: isolated, alternate and simultaneous, on feed intake, performance and carcass characteristics of sheep. About 5.2 ha area of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cultivate Tanzania was divided into 13 paddocks. This area was used as a stocking rate of two animal units (AU per ha for 7 days’ occupation and 21 days rest. A total number of 58 animals were used consisting of 12 heifers and 30 Santa Ines lambs with the addition of 16 adult ewes that were used to stabilize grazing pressure in the isolated system. The sheep were fed on 200 g per head per day of concentrate and cattle 2 kg per head per day. The parameters determined were the following: weekly weight (WW, total live weight gain (LWG and mean daily weight gain (MDW. Also dry matter intake was estimated 84 days after the start of the experiment using external indicators (Purified and Enriched Lignin in addition to carcass traits and composition which were also estimated. The result obtained for carcass composition revealed that the muscle:bone ratio and bone percentage were better in the alternate system. Moreover, the simultaneous and isolated systems showed higher lamb performance than the alternate system, while there was no effect on dry matter intake. Furthermore, there was no difference of the different systems on carcass traits and feed intake of sheep. Nevertheless, the simultaneous grazing system showed better sheep performance than the alternate grazing system.

  5. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    2018-03-06

    Mar 6, 2018 ... Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture Technology, Federal University of Technology, PMB 704 Akure. ABSTRACT: This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to ...

  6. Grazing management effects on sediment, phosphorus, and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, Kirk A; Russell, James R; Kovar, John L; Morrical, Daniel G; Ensley, Steven M; Yoon, Kyoung-Jin; Cornick, Nancy A; Cho, Yong Il

    2011-01-01

    Erosion and runoff from pastures may lead to degradation of surface water. A 2-yr grazing study was conducted to quantify the effects of grazing management on sediment, phosphorus (P), and pathogen loading of streams in cool-season grass pastures. Six adjoining 12.1-ha pastures bisected by a stream in central Iowa were divided into three treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with restricted stream access (CSR), and rotational stocking (RS). Rainfall simulations on stream banks resulted in greater ( CSR pastures. Bovine enterovirus was shed by an average of 24.3% of cows during the study period and was collected in the runoff of 8.3 and 16.7% of runoff simulations on bare sites in CSU pastures in June and October of 2008, respectively, and from 8.3% of runoff simulations on vegetated sites in CSU pastures in April 2009. Fecal pathogens (bovine coronavirus [BCV], bovine rotavirus group A, and O157:H7) shed or detected in runoff were almost nonexistent; only BCV was detected in feces of one cow in August of 2008. Erosion of cut-banks was the greatest contributor of sediment and P loading to the stream; contributions from surface runoff and grazing animals were considerably less and were minimized by grazing management practices that reduced congregation of cattle by pasture streams. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  7. Modeling the grazing effect on dry grassland carbon cycling with modified Biome-BGC grazing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Geping; Han, Qifei; Li, Chaofan; Yang, Liao

    2014-05-01

    Identifying the factors that determine the carbon source/sink strength of ecosystems is important for reducing uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. Arid grassland ecosystems are a widely distributed biome type in Xinjiang, Northwest China, covering approximately one-fourth the country's land surface. These grasslands are the habitat for many endemic and rare plant and animal species and are also used as pastoral land for livestock. Using the modified Biome-BGC grazing model, we modeled carbon dynamics in Xinjiang for grasslands that varied in grazing intensity. In general, this regional simulation estimated that the grassland ecosystems in Xinjiang acted as a net carbon source, with a value of 0.38 Pg C over the period 1979-2007. There were significant effects of grazing on carbon dynamics. An over-compensatory effect in net primary productivity (NPP) and vegetation carbon (C) stock was observed when grazing intensity was lower than 0.40 head/ha. Grazing resulted in a net carbon source of 23.45 g C m-2 yr-1, which equaled 0.37 Pg in Xinjiang in the last 29 years. In general, grazing decreased vegetation C stock, while an increasing trend was observed with low grazing intensity. The soil C increased significantly (17%) with long-term grazing, while the soil C stock exhibited a steady trend without grazing. These findings have implications for grassland ecosystem management as it relates to carbon sequestration and climate change mitigation, e.g., removal of grazing should be considered in strategies that aim to increase terrestrial carbon sequestrations at local and regional scales. One of the greatest limitations in quantifying the effects of herbivores on carbon cycling is identifying the grazing systems and intensities within a given region. We hope our study emphasizes the need for large-scale assessments of how grazing impacts carbon cycling. Most terrestrial ecosystems in Xinjiang have been affected by disturbances to a greater or lesser extent in the past

  8. Effect of grazing frequency and intensity on Lolium perenne L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ) system. Low frequency, low intensity grazing produced lower CDMD and herbage N levels than higher grazing frequencies and intensities. These differences were, however, generally small. Overall, levels of herbage digestibility (estimated ...

  9. Sustainability of meat production beyond carbon footprint: a synthesis of case studies from grazing systems in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picasso, Valentín D; Modernel, Pablo D; Becoña, Gonzalo; Salvo, Lucía; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Astigarraga, Laura

    2014-11-01

    Livestock production has been challenged as a large contributor to climate change, and carbon footprint has become a widely used measure of cattle environmental impact. This analysis of fifteen beef grazing systems in Uruguay quantifies the range of variation of carbon footprint, and the trade-offs with other relevant environmental variables, using a partial life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology. Using carbon footprint as the primary environmental indicator has several limitations: different metrics (GWP vs. GTP) may lead to different conclusions, carbon sequestration from soils may drastically affect the results, and systems with lower carbon footprint may have higher energy use, soil erosion, nutrient imbalance, pesticide ecotoxicity, and impact on biodiversity. A multidimensional assessment of sustainability of meat production is therefore needed to inform decision makers. There is great potential to improve grazing livestock systems productivity while reducing carbon footprint and other environmental impacts, and conserving biodiversity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis of the Spatial Relationship between Cattle and Wild Ungulates across Different Land-Use Systems in a Tropical Savanna Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey W. Kinga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many African savanna landscapes, domestic and wild herbivores cooccur across different land-use systems, but the role of land-use in shaping their spatial relationship is poorly understood. We evaluated the spatial relationship between cattle and wild herbivores categorized by body sizes and feeding habits across different land-use types, namely, private ranches (PR, transitional lands (TRL, and pastoral grazing areas (PGA, in Laikipia County, Kenya. Cattle and wild herbivores spatial distribution data were obtained from Kenya’s Department of Resources Survey and Remote Sensing (DRSRS. Spatial relationships between cattle and different wild herbivore guilds were analyzed using Ripley’s bivariate K12 function. In PR, wild herbivore guilds showed significant attraction to cattle at short distances. In TRL, wild grazers, mixed feeders, megaherbivores, and medium-sized ungulates exhibited significant attraction to cattle. Additionally, repulsion was observed between cattle and browsers at short distances under this land-use system. In PGA, wild grazers, mixed feeders, and megaherbivores repelled strongly with cattle at short distances while browsers and medium-sized ungulates were significantly attracted to cattle. Cattle and wild herbivores were more randomly and independently distributed in PR than in TRL and PGA. These spatial relationships imply better coexistence between cattle and wild herbivores in PR than in TRL and PGA.

  11. Actividad de glutatión peroxidasa en bovinos lecheros a pastoreo correlacionada con la concentración sanguinea y plasmática de selenio Blood activity of glutathione peroxidase and its correlation with blood selenium concentration in grazing dairy cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Ceballos

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Con el objeto de validar una técnica para determinar la actividad sanguínea de glutatión peroxidasa (GSH-Px; EC 1.11.1.9 en el Laboratorio de Patología Clínica de la Universidad Austral de Chile y establecer la correlación entre su actividad y la concentración sanguínea y plasmática de selenio (Se en bovinos a pastoreo en rebaños lecheros del sur de Chile, se tomaron 5-10 mL de sangre heparinizada a 112 vacas de ocho rebaños en la provincia de Valdivia. La actividad enzimática se analizó mediante una técnica cinética, y el Se por activación de neutrones. Fueron calculadas la inexactitud e imprecisión de la técnica cinética y se describen el rango, promedio y desviación estándar de la actividad enzimática. La correlación entre la actividad sanguínea de GSH-Px y la concentración de Se fue obtenida mediante el coeficiente de correlación simple. La inexactitud e imprecisión fueron 5,9% y 10%, respectivamente. La actividad de GSH-Px fue 89 ± 45 U/g de hemoglobina (Hb y la correlación entre las variables señaladas fue r=0,97 (PSelenium (Se is part of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px; EC 1.11.1.9 structure, whose blood activity is related to the blood level of selenium. This study was designed to validate the analytical method to analyze the GSH-Px blood activity at the Clinical Pathology Laboratory of the Universidad Austral de Chile, and to correlate it with blood Se level in dairy cattle from the South of Chile. Blood heparinized samples were taken from 112 dairy cows from eight dairy herds located at Valdivia province, Chile. A kinetic NADPH-dependent technique was used to analyze the blood GSH-Px, and the content of Se in blood and plasma was analyzed by neutron activation. The Se concentration in blood was analyzed in 12 samples to correlate GSH-Px blood activity with blood and plasma Se level. The inaccuracy and imprecision were 5.9% and 10%, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of the

  12. A review of experiments comparing systems of grazing management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experiments comparing different systems of grazing management on natural pastures in various parts of the world are reviewed. In experiments in which various rotational systems were tested against continuous grazing, fewer than half revealed pasture improvement relative to continuous grazing. In the majority of ...

  13. Performance and Grazing Pattern of West African Dwarf Sheep to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sixty (60) West African Dwarf sheep managed semi intensively and grazing on natural pastures were used in a study to determine the performance and grazing pattern to seasonal forage supply and quality. The animals were allowed to graze for about 6 hours daily for four months each in the dry and wet seasons, ...

  14. How Does “Hunger” Level Impact Grazing Behavior?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grazing behavior can be influenced through feeding and grazing management decisions. Research at our USDA-ARS lab showed that ruminal fill, or how ‘hungry’ the cow is, can affect grazing behavior. Cows that had less ruminal fill took a bigger bite that was shallow and wide, compared to a ‘full’ cow ...

  15. Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Longer rest periods for intensive rotational grazing limit diet quality of sheep without enhancing environmental benefits. ... This experiment was established to compare three intensive rotational grazing strategies (fast rotation [FR], average 57-day rest; slow rotation [SR], average 114-day rest; and flexible grazing [FX], based ...

  16. Supplementation levels for growing beef cattle grazing in the dry-rainy transition season Níveis de suplementação para recria de bovinos de corte em pastejo durante o período de transição seca-águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F.L. Sales

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to study the effects of different levels of supplementation on the performance, intake, digestibility, pH and rumen ammonia concentration in growing bulls grazing Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. pasture, during the dry-rainy transition season. For evaluation of performance, intake and digestibility, it was used 25 non-castrated steers at 11 months of age and initial average body weight of 270 kg, grouped in five plots of five animals each, following a completely randomized design. Each plot received one of the following feeding treatments: mineral mixture and supplement at the proportion of 0.5, 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 kg/animal/day, corresponding to 0.18, 0.36, 0.54 and 0.72% of the average body weight of the animals. The area designated for the animals was constituted of five 2.0-ha paddocks. For the evaluation of the pH and rumen ammonia concentration, five crossbred non-castrated steers were used, with average body weight of 240 kg, fistulated in the esophagus, rumen and abomasum, disposed in a 5 × 5 Latin square, with five treatments and five experimental periods. Animal performance behaved in a positive linear manner according to the supplementation levels, responding with an increase of more than 80% on weight gains of the animals. Intakes of total and pasture dry matter (DM, organic matter and neutral detergent fiber were not influenced by supplementation. Intakes of crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrates, ether extract and total digestible nutrients as well as nutrient digestibility and rumen ammonia concentration showed a positive linear pattern in response to supplementation levels. Increasing levels of concentrate supplementation influence positively the performance of bulls growing on pastures during the dry-rainy transition season.Objetivou-se estudar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de suplementação sobre o desempenho, o consumo, a digestibilidade, o pH e a concentração de amônia ruminal em

  17. Forage patch use by grazing herbivores in a South African grazing ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Venter, J.A.; Nabe-Nielsen, J.; Prins, H.H.T.; Slotow, R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding how different herbivores make forage patch use choices explains how they maintain an adequate nutritional status, which is important for effective conservation management of grazing ecosystems. Using telemetry data, we investigated nonruminant zebra (Equus burchelli) and ruminant red

  18. Grazing incidence polarized neutron scattering in reflection ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    journal of. January 2012 physics pp. 1–58. Grazing incidence polarized ..... atomic distances, the neutron has an energy which is low compared to molecular binding ...... cores and that of the Co ions in the AF oxide coatings. ...... [32] C Leighton, M R Fitzsimmons, P Yashar, A Hoffmann, J Nogus, J Dura, C F Majkrzak and.

  19. 25 CFR 700.722 - Grazing associations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... recognition by the Commissioner are: (1) The members of the association must be grazing permittees and.... (d) The Commissioner may withdraw his recognition of the association whenever: (1) The majority of... constitution and bylaws. All of the association's livestock will be run under an association brand properly...

  20. Grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming

    OpenAIRE

    Kuusela, Eeva

    2005-01-01

    The aims of this study were to identify limiting factors and to develop adjusted grazing management for Nordic organic dairy farming conditions. The focus was to combine the aspects of plant, animal and organic production, as they are all involved in organic dairy pastures.

  1. Phosphorus supplementation of Karakul sheep grazing natural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The phosphorus (P) status of adult Karakul ewes grazing natural pasture was determined by measuring the P content of blood, saliva, faecal, and bone samples. The ewes were divided into four groups of 20 ewes each, viz. ewes supplemented with P+ and P- which lambed during May and October. All lambs born were ...

  2. Comparison of nitrogen utilization and urea kinetics between yaks (Bos grunniens) and indigenous cattle (Bos taurus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, J W; Zhong, C L; Liu, H; Degen, A A; Titgemeyer, E C; Ding, L M; Shang, Z H; Guo, X S; Qiu, Q; Li, Z P; Yang, G; Long, R J

    2017-10-01

    Under traditional management on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau, yaks () graze only on natural pasture without supplements and are forced to cope with sparse forage of low N content, especially in winter. In contrast, indigenous Tibetan yellow cattle () require supplements during the cold season. We hypothesized that, in response to harsh conditions, yaks cope with low N intakes better than cattle. To test this hypothesis, a study of whole-body N retention and urea kinetics was conducted in 2 concurrent 4 × 4 Latin squares, with 1 square using yaks and 1 square using cattle. Four isocaloric forage-concentrate diets differing in N concentrations (10.3, 19.5, 28.5, and 37.6 g N/kg DM) were formulated, and by design, DMI were similar between species and across diets. Urea kinetics were determined with continuous intravenous infusion of NN urea for 104 h, and total urine and feces were concomitantly collected. Urea production, urea recycling to the gut, and ruminal microbial protein synthesis all linearly increased ( Urea production was greater in yaks than in cattle at the 3 lowest N diets but greater in cattle than in yaks at the highest N diet (species × diet, Urea N recycled to the gut ( urea N captured by ruminal bacteria ( urea recycling was through saliva, with no difference between species ( = 0.61). Glomerular filtration rate was lower ( = 0.05) in yaks than in cattle. The higher urea recycling and greater capture of recycled urea by ruminal microbes in yaks than in cattle suggest that yaks use mechanisms to utilize dietary N more efficiently than cattle, which may partially explain the better survival of yaks than cattle when fed low-N diets.

  3. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Rahimi

    Full Text Available Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus to 76 h (P. aviculare. Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; P<0.05. This study shows that management programs aiming to minimize weed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  4. Variation in Weed Seed Fate Fed to Different Holstein Cattle Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, Salman; Mashhadi, Hamid Rahimian; Banadaky, Mehdi Dehghan; Mesgaran, Mohsen Beheshtian

    2016-01-01

    Weed seeds may maintain their viability when passing through the digestive tract of cattle and can be therefore dispersed by animal movement or the application of manure. Whether different cattle types of the same species can cause differential weed seed fate is largely unknown to us particularly under non-grazed systems similar to Holstein-Friesian dairy farming. We investigated the effect on the seed survival of four weed species in the digestive tracts of four groups of Holstein cattle: lactating cows, feedlot male calves, dry cows and growing heifers. The weed species used were Cuscuta campestris, Polygonum aviculare, Rumex crispus and Sorghum halepense. Cattle excretion was sampled for recovery and viability of seeds at four 24 hourly intervals after seed intake. The highest seed recovery occurred two days after seed intake in all cattle groups. Averaged over weed species, dry and lactating cows had the lowest and highest seed recovery of 36.4% and 74.4% respectively. No significant differences were observed in seed recovery of the four weed species when their seeds were fed to dry cows. Based on a power model fitted to seed viability data, the estimated time to 50% viability loss after seed intake, over all cattle groups ranged from 65 h (R. crispus) to 76 h (P. aviculare). Recovered seeds from the dung of feedlot male calves showed the highest mortality among cattle groups. Significant correlation was found between seed viability and ruminal pH (r = 0.86; Pweed infestation caused by livestock should account for the variation amongst cattle groups in seed persistence. Our findings can be used as a guideline for evaluating the potential risk of the spread of weeds via the application of cattle manure.

  5. Bivalve grazing can shape phytoplankton communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, Lisa; Cloern, James E.; Thompson, Janet K.; Stacey, Mark T.; Koseff, Jeffrey K.

    2016-01-01

    The ability of bivalve filter feeders to limit phytoplankton biomass in shallow waters is well-documented, but the role of bivalves in shaping phytoplankton communities is not. The coupled effect of bivalve grazing at the sediment-water interface and sinking of phytoplankton cells to that bottom filtration zone could influence the relative biomass of sinking (diatoms) and non-sinking phytoplankton. Simulations with a pseudo-2D numerical model showed that benthic filter feeding can interact with sinking to alter diatom:non-diatom ratios. Cases with the smallest proportion of diatom biomass were those with the fastest sinking speeds and strongest bivalve grazing rates. Hydrodynamics modulated the coupled sinking-grazing influence on phytoplankton communities. For example, in simulations with persistent stratification, the non-sinking forms accumulated in the surface layer away from bottom grazers while the sinking forms dropped out of the surface layer toward bottom grazers. Tidal-scale stratification also influenced vertical gradients of the two groups in opposite ways. The model was applied to Suisun Bay, a low-salinity habitat of the San Francisco Bay system that was transformed by the introduction of the exotic clam Potamocorbula amurensis. Simulation results for this Bay were similar to (but more muted than) those for generic habitats, indicating that P. amurensis grazing could have caused a disproportionate loss of diatoms after its introduction. Our model simulations suggest bivalve grazing affects both phytoplankton biomass and community composition in shallow waters. We view these results as hypotheses to be tested with experiments and more complex modeling approaches.

  6. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGorum, Bruce C; Pirie, R Scott; Glendinning, Laura; McLachlan, Gerry; Metcalf, James S; Banack, Sandra A; Cox, Paul A; Codd, Geoffrey A

    2015-02-25

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in all samples tested, including 6 plant washings, 1 soil sample and ileal contents from 2 grazing horses. Further work was performed to test the hypothesis that ingestion of cyanotoxins contributes to the pathogenesis of some currently unexplained diseases of grazing horses, including equine grass sickness (EGS), equine motor neuron disease (EMND) and hepatopathy. Phormidium population density was significantly higher on EGS fields than on control fields. The cyanobacterial neurotoxic amino acid 2,4-diaminobutyric acid (DAB) was detected in plant washings from EGS fields, but worst case scenario estimations suggested the dose would be insufficient to cause disease. Neither DAB nor the cyanobacterial neurotoxins β-N-methylamino-L-alanine and N-(2-aminoethyl) glycine were detected in neural tissue from 6 EGS horses, 2 EMND horses and 7 control horses. Phormidium was present in low numbers on plants where horses had unexplained hepatopathy. This study did not yield evidence linking known cyanotoxins with disease in grazing horses. However, further study is warranted to identify and quantify toxins produced by cyanobacteria on livestock fields, and determine whether, under appropriate conditions, known or unknown cyanotoxins contribute to currently unexplained diseases in grazing livestock.

  7. Factors influencing growth hormone levels of Bali cattle in Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa Islands, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suwiti, N K; Besung, I N K; Mahardika, G N

    2017-10-01

    Bali cattle ( Bos javanicus ) are an Indonesian's native cattle breed that distributed in Asia to Australia. The scientific literature on these cattle is scarce. The growth hormone (GH) of Bali cattle is investigated from three separated islands, namely, Bali, Nusa Penida, and Sumbawa. Forty plasma samples were collected from each island, and the GH was measured using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kit. The data were analyzed based on the origin, sex, and cattle raising practices. We found that the GH level (bovine GH [BGH]) of animal kept in stall 1.72±0.70 µg/ml was higher than free-grazing animal 1.27±0.81 µg/ml. The GH level was lower in female (1.22±0.62 µg/ml) compared to male animals (1.77±0.83 µg/ml). We conclude that the level of BGH in Bali cattle was low and statistically equal from all origins. The different level was related to sex and management practices. Further validation is needed through observing the growth rate following BGH administration and discovering the inbreeding coefficient of the animal in Indonesia.

  8. Effect of concentrate feed level on methane emissions from grazing dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Dale, A J; Carson, A F; Murray, S; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2014-11-01

    Although the effect of nutrition on enteric methane (CH4) emissions from confined dairy cattle has been extensively examined, less information is available on factors influencing CH4 emissions from grazing dairy cattle. In the present experiment, 40 Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (12 primiparous and 28 multiparous) were used to examine the effect of concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/cow per day; fresh basis) on enteric CH4 emissions from cows grazing perennial ryegrass-based swards (10 cows per treatment). Methane emissions were measured on 4 occasions during the grazing period (one 4-d measurement period and three 5-d measurement periods) using the sulfur hexafluoride technique. Milk yield, liveweight, and milk composition for each cow was recorded daily during each CH4 measurement period, whereas daily herbage dry matter intake (DMI) was estimated for each cow from performance data, using the back-calculation approach. Total DMI, milk yield, and energy-corrected milk (ECM) yield increased with increasing concentrate feed level. Within each of the 4 measurement periods, daily CH4 production (g/d) was unaffected by concentrate level, whereas CH4/DMI decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in period 4, and CH4/ECM yield decreased with increasing concentrate feed level in periods 2 and 4. When emissions data were combined across all 4 measurement periods, concentrate feed level (2.0, 4.0, 6.0, and 8.0 kg/d; fresh basis) had no effect on daily CH4 emissions (287, 273, 272, and 277 g/d, respectively), whereas CH4/DMI (20.0, 19.3, 17.7, and 18.1g/kg, respectively) and CH4-E/gross energy intake (0.059, 0.057, 0.053, and 0.054, respectively) decreased with increasing concentrate feed levels. A range of prediction equations for CH4 emissions were developed using liveweight, DMI, ECM yield, and energy intake, with the strongest relationship found between ECM yield and CH4/ECM yield (coefficient of determination = 0.50). These results demonstrate that

  9. Herbivory of sympatric elk and cattle on Lincoln National Forest, south-central New Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather H. Halbritter

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Wildlife and livestock grazing are important products of forest ecosystems, but can be controversial. Herbivory by North American elk and domestic cattle is a contentious management issue throughout western North America, often driving management proposals to decrease cattle and elk numbers based on perceived overutilization of forages. Such observations are often site level rather than landscape, and may confuse ecological sustainability with desired conditions. Methods We used line transects to document vegetation composition, structure, and grazing and browsing utilization for 4 key habitat types: mountain meadows, aspen, thinned conifer, and burned conifer on Lincoln National Forest, New Mexico, USA. We documented relative habitat use of these types by elk, mule deer, and cattle and modeled relative use on residual grass biomass of mountain meadows and browse utilization of forested types. We determined diets and diet quality of elk and cattle to assess degree of competition. Results Use of grasses in meadows was below management thresholds, and combined elk, cattle, and deer relative habitat use accounted for < 14 % of the variance in residual stubble height of Poa pratensis, the most abundant grass. Palatable browse was limited in habitat types (< 107 stems·ha -1 , use was generally high, and elk presence was correlated with the majority of browsing. Elk and cattle diets did not significantly overlap (Schoener’s index 0.54–0.57; elk fed primarily on deciduous shrubs (34 %–55 % of annual diets and cattle on grass (72 %–77 %. Digestibility and crude protein levels of cattle diets and body condition of elk indicated high quality diets for cattle and marginal–good quality diets for elk. Conclusions At observed stocking levels and densities, cattle and elk were not competing for forage based on diet similarity, nor were key habitat types being used beyond sustainable levels. Low browse availability indicates that

  10. 25 CFR 166.307 - Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... § 166.307 Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze adjacent trust or non-trust rangelands not... trust or non-trust rangeland in common with the permitted land. Grazing capacity will be established... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Will the grazing capacity be increased if I graze...

  11. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, David N.; Van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Moore, Peggy E.; McDougald, Neil K.

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer's reed grass (Calamagrostis breweri Thurber), and tufted hairgrass [Deschampsia cespitosa (L.) Beauv.]. Horses and mules grazed experimental plots at intensities of 15 to 69% utilization for 4 seasons. In all 3 meadows, grazing caused decreases in productivity. The mean reduction after 4 years of grazing was 18% in the shorthair sedge meadow, 17% in the Brewer's reed grass meadow, and 22% in the tufted hairgrass meadow. Grazing also caused shifts in basal groundcover (usually a reduction in vegetation cover and increase in bare soil cover), and changes in species composition. Productivity and vegetation cover decreased as percent utilization increased, while bare soil cover increased as utilization increased. Changes in species composition were less predictably related to differences in grazing intensity. Passive management of grazing is insufficient in wilderness areas that are regularly used by groups with recreational stock. Wilderness managers need to monitor meadow conditions and the grazing intensities that occur. Our study suggests that biomass and ground cover are more sensitive indicators of grazing impact than species composition. Managers must make decisions about maximum acceptable levels of grazing impact and then develop guidelines for maximum use levels, based on data such as ours that relates grazing intensity to meadow response.

  12. Lameness in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokka, G L; Lechtenberg, K; Edwards, T; MacGregor, S; Voss, K; Griffin, D; Grotelueschen, D M; Smith, R A; Perino, L J

    2001-03-01

    This article examines the various causes of lameness in feedlot cattle, with an emphasis on clinical signs, treatment, and prevention. Specific conditions are discussed, including interdigital necrobacillosis, laminitis, feedlot injuries, and feedlot lameness associated with Mycoplasma bovis. Immune management of the foot is also reviewed.

  13. Sulfur poisoning in cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julian, R J; Harrison, K B

    1975-01-01

    A case of sulfur poisoning is described in which 12 of 20 cattle died following the feeding of sulfur. Respiratory distress and abdominal pain were the prominent signs. Examination of one animal revealed vasculitis and necrosis of the rumen and abomasal wall. The possible toxic effects of sulfur are discussed.

  14. Natural radionuclides near a coal-fired power station. [/sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb levels in cattle livers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith-Briggs, J L; Crick, M J [National Radiological Protection Board, Harwell (UK)

    1982-11-01

    Previous measurements have shown enhanced levels of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb from fly ash deposited in the environment around old coal-fired power stations. Preliminary results are presented for levels of /sup 210/Po and /sup 210/Pb in liver samples from cattle which had grazed for two to three years in a field adjacent to a modern power station. No significant difference in the levels of these natural radionuclides was found compared to liver samples obtained from cattle in a control area.

  15. Welfare of cattle kept in intensive silvopastoral systems: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Marcel Tarazona Morales

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective of this research was to evaluate the effect of three different intensive silvopastoral systems (ISPS on cattle animal welfare (AW in Colombia. The three ISPS differed in area, plant composition, and grazing periods as follows: ISPS1 - low plant diversity in paddocks of 1200 m2, with grazing period of 24 h; ISPS2 - middle plant diversity in paddocks of 600 m2, with grazing period of 12 h; and ISPS3 - high plant diversity in paddocks of 600 m2, with grazing period of 24 h. Animal welfare was assessed using a wide range of criteria, which were integrated using L-spline functions and Choquet integrals to generate overall values. It was found that AW was good in all ISPS; the highest scoring criteria was for food and water, with 99, 97, and 100 points from a maximum of 100 for ISPSs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. Comfort showed values of 100 for all three systems, but good health was the most problematic criteria of the AW features with scores of 25, 40, and 36 for ISPSs 1, 2, and 3, respectively. All three ISPS showed excellent scores for appropriate behavior (82, 88, and 89. The welfare problems shown here were not specific to the individual ISPS, but were common to all livestock systems in the region. Despite the differences in diversity of plants, size of paddocks, and grazing period among the three ISPSs tested, all of them provide cattle with sufficient resources and a diverse environment, ensuring a good state of welfare to them.

  16. The current status of grazing incidence optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aschenbach, B.

    1983-01-01

    The developments in the area of grazing incidence optics with emphasis on telescopes for use in X-ray astronomy are reviewed. The performance of existing high-resolution telescopes is outlined and compared with those expected from future missions like ROSAT and AXAF. Starting from the basic principles of X-ray reflection and scattering, an attempt is made to highlight the current understanding of X-ray mirror physics using new theoretical ideas as well as experimental laboratory results. (author)

  17. Seasonality constraints to livestock grazing intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetzel, Tamara; Havlik, Petr; Herrero, Mario; Erb, Karl-Heinz

    2017-04-01

    Increasing food production is essential to meet the future food demand of a growing world population. In light of pressing sustainability challenges such as climate change and the importance of the global livestock system for food security as well as GHG emissions, finding ways to increasing food production sustainably and without increasing competition for food crops is essential. Yet, many unknowns relate to livestock grazing, in particular grazing intensity, an essential variable to assess the sustainability of livestock systems. Here, we explore ecological limits to grazing intensity (GI; i.e. the fraction of net primary production consumed by grazing animals) by analysing the role of seasonality in natural grasslands. We estimate seasonal limitations to GI by combining monthly net primary production data and a map of global livestock distribution with assumptions on the length of nonfavourable periods that can be bridged by livestock (e.g. by browsing dead standing biomass, storage systems or biomass conservation). This allows us to derive a seasonality-limited potential GI, which we compare with the GI prevailing in 2000. We find that GI in 2000 lies below its potential on 39% of the total global natural grasslands, which has a potential for increasing biomass extraction of up to 181 MtC/yr. In contrast, on 61% of the area GI exceeds the potential, made possible by management. Mobilizing this potential could increase milk production by 5%, meat production by 4% or contribute to free up to 2.8 Mio km² of grassland area at the global scale if the numerous socio-ecological constraints can be overcome. We discuss socio-ecological trade-offs, which may reduce the estimated potential considerably and require the establishment of sound monitoring systems and an improved understanding of livestock system's role in the Earth system. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Grazing livestock are exposed to terrestrial cyanobacteria

    OpenAIRE

    McGorum , Bruce C; Pirie , R Scott; Glendinning , Laura; McLachlan , Gerry; Metcalf , James S; Banack , Sandra A; Cox , Paul A; Codd , Geoffrey A

    2015-01-01

    While toxins from aquatic cyanobacteria are a well-recognised cause of disease in birds and animals, exposure of grazing livestock to terrestrial cyanobacteria has not been described. This study identified terrestrial cyanobacteria, predominantly Phormidium spp., in the biofilm of plants from most livestock fields investigated. Lower numbers of other cyanobacteria, microalgae and fungi were present on many plants. Cyanobacterial 16S rDNA, predominantly from Phormidium spp., was detected in al...

  19. Nematode burdens of pastured cattle treated once at turnout with eprinomectin extended-release injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehbein, S; Baggott, D G; Johnson, E G; Kunkle, B N; Yazwinski, T A; Yoon, S; Cramer, L G; Soll, M D

    2013-03-01

    The efficacy of eprinomectin in an extended-release injection (ERI) formulation was evaluated against infections with third-stage larvae or eggs of gastrointestinal and pulmonary nematodes in cattle under 120-day natural challenge conditions in a series of five studies conducted in the USA (three studies) and in Europe (two studies). For each study, 30 nematode-free (four studies) or 30 cattle harboring naturally acquired nematode infections (one study) were included. The cattle were of various breeds or crosses, weighed 107.5-273 kg prior to treatment and aged approximately 4-11 months. For each study, animals were blocked based on pre-treatment bodyweight and then randomly allocated to treatment: ERI vehicle (control) at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight or Eprinomectin 5% (w/v) ERI at 1 mL/50 kg bodyweight (1.0 mg eprinomectin/kg) for a total of 15 and 15 animals in each group. Treatments were administered once on Day 0 by subcutaneous injection in front of the shoulder. In each study, all animals grazed one naturally contaminated pasture for 120 days. At regular intervals during the studies, fecal samples from all cattle were examined for nematode egg and larval counts. In four studies pairs of tracer cattle were used to monitor pasture infectivity at 28-day intervals before and/or during the grazing period. All calves were weighed before turnout onto pasture and at regular intervals until housing on Day 120. For parasite recovery, all study animals were humanely euthanized 27-30 days after removal from pasture. Cattle treated with Eprinomectin ERI had significantly (p92%: Dictyocaulus viviparus (adults and fourth-stage larvae (L4), Bunostomum phlebotomum, Cooperia curticei, Cooperia oncophora, Cooperia punctata, Cooperia surnabada, Cooperia spp. inhibited L4, Haemonchus contortus, Haemonchus placei, Haemonchus spp. inhibited L4, Nematodirus helvetianus, Nematodirus spp. inhibited L4, Oesophagostomum radiatum, Oesophagostomum spp. inhibited L4, Ostertagia leptospicularis

  20. A questionnaire survey of the management and use of anthelmintics in cattle and antelope in mixed farming systems in Zimbabwe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Madzingira

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A survey of the management of mixed farming of cattle and antelope and use of anthelmintics was conducted on eleven farms between August and December 1999 by a self-administered questionnaire. Seventeen antelope species ranging from grey duikers (Sylvicapra grimmia to eland (Taurotragus oryx occurred on the farms. Impala (Aepyceros melampus was the most abundant antelope on the farms. Seventy-five per cent of the antelope species on the farms were grazers and mixed feeders and shared grazing with cattle. Most farmers (n =8 did not consider the stocking density for cattle and antelope as an important management factor. Fifty-four per cent of the farmers (n = 6 routinely dewormed both cattle and antelopes. Albendazole and fenbendazole were the most commonly used drugs for deworming cattle (72.7 % and antelope species (54.5 %. The deworming of antelope was carried out during the dry season, using albendazole-, fenbendazole-and rafoxanide-medicated supplementary feed blocks. Doramectin injections were given to antelopes on two farms. Cattle were dewormed preventively and according to the general body condition of the animal. Few farmers (n = 4 followed the recommended deworming programme for cattle in Zimbabwe and only one farmer followed a specified dosing programme for game. However, results from the survey on the deworming of game indicate that farmers perceived helminth infections in antelope to be important.

  1. Data resources for range-wide assessment of livestock grazing across the sagebrush biome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assal, T.J.; Veblen, K.E.; Farinha, M.A.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Casazza, Michael L.; Pyke, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    allotment; (2) whether if evaluated, each region-specific standard (3–8 LHS depending on region) had been met on a given allotment; and (3) whether livestock contributed to any of these standards not being met. A description of how we processed the original data to prepare for analysis is described in Appendix 2, and the synthesized dataset can be found in the table "lhs_x_walk." Permitted use dates, livestock type (horse, sheep or cattle), number of livestock, and Animal Unit Months [the number of animal units (1,000-pound animal equivalents) that can be grazed for 31 days with the available forage in a sustainable manner] are the legal maximum grazing amounts for a given allotment, and legal adjustments to these numbers occur infrequently. We summarized permitted use by BLM allotment in the table "Permitted_Use." Billed use records are used for calculations of permittees' annual grazing bills. We summarized billed use by allotment for BLM grazing year in the table "Billed_Use." All three tables can be joined with the allotment spatial data in a geographic information system (GIS) environment, using the IDENT attribute as the primary key.

  2. Grazing disturbance increases transient but decreases persistent soil seed bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Miaojun; Walck, Jeffrey L; Ma, Zhen; Wang, Lipei; Du, Guozhen

    2018-04-30

    Very few studies have examined whether the impacts of grazing disturbance on soil seed banks occur directly or indirectly through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. The potential role of the seed bank in alpine wetland restoration is also unknown. We used SEM (structural equation modeling) to explore the direct effect of grazing disturbance on the seed bank and the indirect effect through aboveground vegetation and soil properties. We also studied the role of the seed bank on the restoration potential in wetlands with various grazing intensities: low (fenced, winter grazed only), medium (seasonally grazed), and high (whole-year grazed). For the seed bank, species richness and density per plot showed no difference among grazing intensities for each depth (0-5, 5-10, 10-15 cm) and for the whole depth (0-15 cm) in spring and summer. There was no direct effect of grazing disturbance on seed bank richness and density both in spring and summer, and also no indirect effect on the seed bank through its direct effect on vegetation richness and abundance. Grazing disturbance indirectly increased spring seed bank density but decreased summer seed bank density through its direct effect (negative correlation) on soil moisture and total nitrogen and its indirect effect on vegetation abundance. Species composition of the vegetation changed with grazing regime, but that of the seed bank did not. An increased trend of similarity between the seed bank and aboveground vegetation with increased grazing disturbance was found in the shallow depth and in the whole depth only in spring. Although there was almost no change in seed bank size with grazing intensities, grazing disturbance increased the quantity of transient seeds but decreased persistent seeds. Persistent seeds stored in the soil could play a crucial role in vegetation regeneration and in restoration of degraded wetland ecosystems. The seed bank should be an integral part of alpine wetland restoration programs.

  3. Protocol for the microbial degradation of coumaphos from cattle dip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulbry, W.; Karns, J.

    1997-01-01

    Insecticide wastes generated from livestock dipping operations are well suited for biodegradation processes since these wastes are concentrated, contained, and have no other significant toxic components. About 400,000 L of cattle dip wastes containing approximately 1500 mg/L of the organophosphate coumaphos are generated yearly along the Mexican border from a USDA program designed to control disease carrying cattle ticks. Use of unlined evaporation pits for the disposal of these wastes has resulted in highly contaminated soils underlying these sites. Previous work has shown that microbial consortia present in selected dip wastes can be induced to mineralize coumaphos. Our laboratory results show that these consortia are able to colonize plastic fibers in trickling biofilters and can be used in these filters to quickly metabolize coumaphos from dip wastes. A field scale biofilter capable of treating 15,000 litre batches of dip waste was used to reduce the coumaphos concentration in two successive 11,000 litre batch trials from 2000 mg/L to 10 mg/L in approximately 14 d. (author)

  4. Vitamin C nutrition in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsui, T

    2012-05-01

    Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC) in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  5. Vitamin C Nutrition in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Matsui

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Domestic animals, including ruminants, can synthesize vitamin C (VC in their liver; as such, the dietary requirement for VC has not been confirmed in these animals. The adequacy of VC has been evaluated by quantifying VC levels in plasma, but the reported values in bovine plasma have been widely variable. Plasma VC concentration is decreased by heat stress, hepatic lesions, fattening, and infectious diseases such as mastitis in cattle. Therefore, VC supplementation is potentially beneficial for cattle with low plasma VC concentration. This review discusses the methods for determination of plasma VC concentration in cattle, VC nutrition, and the efficacy of VC supplementation in calves, dairy cattle, and beef cattle. Additionally I propose a reference range for plasma VC concentration in Japanese Black cattle.

  6. Occurrence and factors associated with bovine cysticercosis recorded in cattle at meat inspection in Denmark in 2004-2011

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    were attributed to female gender. Increasing age at slaughter was also associated with high risk of BC. There may be overlaps between these effects in animals with multiple risk factors. Other underlying factors such as grazing patterns might explain the risk factors and attribution results found...... in this study. However, grazing practices are currently not recorded in the Danish cattle database. Therefore, animal level risk factors such as age and gender together with other risk factors such as grazing practices might be included as food chain information, required to be provided by the farmer prior...... infection. If relevant data could be effectively used to classify animals with respect to their risk of being infected, then the current meat inspection could be replaced by a more cost-effective system targeting high-risk animals. This study aimed to (1) describe the distribution of BC cases in the Danish...

  7. Comparison of feed intake, digestion and rumen function among domestic ruminant species grazing in upland vegetation communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, L M M; Hervás, G; Belenguer, A; Celaya, R; Rodrigues, M A M; García, U; Frutos, P; Osoro, K

    2017-10-01

    This study aimed to compare feed intake, digestion, rumen fermentation parameters and bacterial community of 5 beef cows, 12 crossed ewes and 12 goats grazing together in spring-early summer on heather-gorse vegetation communities with an adjacent area of improved pasture. Organic matter intake (OMI) and digestibility (OMD) were estimated using alkane markers. Ruminal fluid samples were collected for measuring fermentation parameters, and studying the bacterial community using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP). Spot samples of urine were taken to determine purine derivative (PD) and creatinine concentrations to estimate microbial protein synthesis in the rumen. Herbaceous species were the main dietary component in all animal species. Cattle had higher (p rumen bacterial structure. Differences among animal species were also observed in the relative frequency of several T-RFs. Certain T-RFs compatible with Lachnospiraceae, Proteobacteria and Clostridiales species were not found in goats, while these animals showed high relative frequencies of some fragments compatible with the Ruminococcaceae family that were not detected in sheep and cattle. Results suggest a close relationship between animals' grazing behaviour and rumen bacterial structure and its function. Goats seem to show a greater specialization of their microbial populations to deal with the greater fibrous and tannin content of their diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) increasingly select for grazed areas with increasing distance-to-nest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldbjerg, Henning; Fox, Anthony D; Thellesen, Peder V; Dalby, Lars; Sunde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The abundant and widespread Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris) is currently declining across much of Europe due to landscape changes caused by agricultural intensification. The proximate mechanisms causing adverse effects to breeding Starlings are unclear, hampering our ability to implement cost-efficient agri-environmental schemes to restore populations to former levels. This study aimed to show how this central foraging farmland bird uses and selects land cover types in general and how use of foraging habitat changes in relation to distance from the nest. We attached GPS-loggers to 17 breeding Starlings at a Danish dairy cattle farm in 2015 and 2016 and analysed their use of different land cover types as a function of distance intervals from the nest and their relative availability. As expected for a central place forager, Starlings increasingly avoided potential foraging areas with greater distance-to-nest: areas ≥ 500 m were selected > 100 times less frequently than areas within 100 m. On average, Starlings selected the land cover category Grazed most frequently, followed by Short Grass, Bare Ground, Meadow and Winter Crops. Starlings compensated for elevated travel costs by showing increasing habitat selection the further they foraged from the nest. Our results highlight the importance of Grazed foraging habitats close to the nest site of breeding Starlings. The ecological capacity of intensively managed farmlands for insectivorous birds like the Starling is decreasing through conversion of the most strongly selected land cover type (Grazed) to the least selected (Winter Crops) which may be further exacerbated through spatial segregation of foraging and breeding habitats.

  9. Common Starlings (Sturnus vulgaris increasingly select for grazed areas with increasing distance-to-nest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henning Heldbjerg

    Full Text Available The abundant and widespread Common Starling (Sturnus vulgaris is currently declining across much of Europe due to landscape changes caused by agricultural intensification. The proximate mechanisms causing adverse effects to breeding Starlings are unclear, hampering our ability to implement cost-efficient agri-environmental schemes to restore populations to former levels. This study aimed to show how this central foraging farmland bird uses and selects land cover types in general and how use of foraging habitat changes in relation to distance from the nest. We attached GPS-loggers to 17 breeding Starlings at a Danish dairy cattle farm in 2015 and 2016 and analysed their use of different land cover types as a function of distance intervals from the nest and their relative availability. As expected for a central place forager, Starlings increasingly avoided potential foraging areas with greater distance-to-nest: areas ≥ 500 m were selected > 100 times less frequently than areas within 100 m. On average, Starlings selected the land cover category Grazed most frequently, followed by Short Grass, Bare Ground, Meadow and Winter Crops. Starlings compensated for elevated travel costs by showing increasing habitat selection the further they foraged from the nest. Our results highlight the importance of Grazed foraging habitats close to the nest site of breeding Starlings. The ecological capacity of intensively managed farmlands for insectivorous birds like the Starling is decreasing through conversion of the most strongly selected land cover type (Grazed to the least selected (Winter Crops which may be further exacerbated through spatial segregation of foraging and breeding habitats.

  10. Radiation levels in Ecuadorian Cattle Milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinoso, Teresa; Vasquez, Ramiro

    2008-01-01

    Full text: The radiation and natural radioactivity present in the ground from a radioactive decay of 238 U, 235 U and 232 Th, and of the radioisotope 40 K can be transferred to the nutritional chain of the human being. Milk is a food considered basic within population's diet. The Ecuadorian Highlands has the greater production of cattle milk in the country, this industry needs great extensions of graze and available superficial water, which the cows consumed for crude milk production, with the consequent product industrialization. In the present research, gamma radiation levels where monitoring in 12 crude milk representative samples of the zone. The measurements where carried out using an equipment of spectrometry gamma ray system, with a detector of Hiperpuro Germanium (GeHp), which has been used in the analysis of standard and samples spectrums, with a constant geometry of the sample holder. The spectrums of the milk analysis show the presence of the radioisotopes coming from uranium radioactive decay. The majority of the values of activity concentration are below the minimum detection activity, unlike the potassium that presents a detectable but a non quantitative spectrum. So far, with the results obtained it is possible to guarantee the milk consumption and its derivatives in the Andean Region of the country. Related research will allow us implementing the radiological monitoring of this and other foods in the country, in order to protected population health. (author)

  11. Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mbugua, P N; Gachuiri, C K; Wahome, R G; Wanyoike, M M; Abate, A [Department of Animal Production, University of Nairobi (Kenya); Munyua, S J.M. [Department of Clinical Studies, University of Nairobi (Kenya); Kamau, J M.Z. [Department of Animal Physiology, University of Nairobi (Kenya)

    1999-07-01

    A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author) 6 refs, 2 figs, 4 tabs

  12. Performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, as practiced in Kiambu and Nyandarua district of Central Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mbugua, P.N.; Gachuiri, C.K.; Wahome, R.G.; Wanyoike, M.M.; Abate, A.; Munyua, S.J.M.; Kamau, J.M.Z.

    1999-01-01

    A study was carried out in Central Kenya to compare the performance of dairy cattle under two different feeding systems, stall feeding in Kiambu and grazing in Nyandarua. A total of 23 dairy farmers were randomly selected, 11 from the Kiambu district with a total of 61 cows and 12 from Nyandarua district with a total of 102 cows. Data on milk production and reproduction was collected over a period of two years. Stall-fed cattle showed a significantly higher milk yield (P <0.05) than the grazed animals over a 10 month lactation period (3,150 vs 2,299 kg/lactation). In both feeding systems Ayshires performed better than the other breeds. The cross-bred animals compared well with pure-breds in the grazing system. Lactation yield increased with parity for the stall-fed animals while for grazed animals, milk yield declined from the 5th parity onwards. The calving intervals were long for both feeding systems (437 vs 513 days, stall-fed vs grazed, respectively). Services per conception were significantly lower (P <0.05) for stall-fed (1.85 vs 2.36) compared to grazed animals. Calving season did not have any significant effect on milk yield in both feeding systems but animals calving during the wet season, on average, had a slightly higher milk yield. Lactation curves for animals in both feeding systems did not show a distinct peak. Body weight and body condition score varied with the stage of lactation. (author)

  13. Current Trends in the Transhumant Cattle Sector in Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasios Ragkos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Bovine transhumance is characterized by the seasonal movement of livestock between winter and summer pastures. The system is well-known for Mediterranean countries, including Greece, where its role is multifunctional, because of its complex interactions with the environments and local societies. Unlike the dairy farming sector in Greece, whose salient features are the emergence of large-sized farms which are heavily dependent on fixed capital endowments and the provision of feedstuff, the transhumant system is much more flexible, by taking advantage of excessive family labor and by reducing feeding costs through grazing. The total number of transhumant farms in Greece has diminished during the last decades this farming system remains an essential activity in less favored areas of the country; the bovine cattle transhumant system, in particular, provides an efficient alternative to the capital-intensive dairy farming system. The purpose of this study is to provide a presentation of the current condition of the transhumant bovine cattle farming system in Greece. Through a survey of all relevant public services, data concerning the number of transhumant farms and animals as well as their movements in 2011 are presented. The survey reveals that the larger amount of transhumant farms is present in the lowlands of Thessaly and of East Macedonia-Thrace and move towards the mountainous rangelands of less favored areas, particularly those of West Macedonia. The mean transhumant bovine farm size does not exceed 100 animals, as nearly 76.1%, of the total rear less than 100 cattle. Thessaly is the region which accommodates the major part of transhumant farming in Greece; this is also the case for transhumant cattle, as 51.4% of all transhumant farms in the country have their winter domiciles in Thessaly.

  14. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.

    1979-01-01

    Sewage solids were collected as primary settled solids and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using /sup 60/Co or /sup 137/Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one megarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays with rumen microbes suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. Short-term experiments with sheep and then with cattle further suggested that usage of nutrients could be beneficial and that accumulation of heavy metals was not excessive. A longer-term feeding trial with cattle fed sewage solids as 20% of diet for 68 days demonstrated that tissue uptake of elements such as Cu, Fe and Pb was measurably increased, but not sufficient to exceed ranges considered normal. Likewise, of 22 refractory organic compounds having toxicological interest, only a few were detectible in adipose tissue and none of these exceeded levels that have been reported in tissues from cattle produced conventionally. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no spplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottonseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type.

  15. Anglo-Saxon animal husbandry techniques revealed though isotope and chemical variations in cattle teeth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.A.; Tatham, S.; Chenery, S.R.; Chenery, C.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Sr concentration and isotope composition of tooth enamel from domesticated animals from two neighbouring Anglo-Saxon settlements, at Empingham (6-7th century) and Ketton (10-12th century) in Rutland, central England, are compared both with each other, and with associated human populations. Data from the Empingham II site form discrete fields in Sr concentration and isotope composition space for cattle, pig and sheep with a partial overlap of the human and pig fields. By contrast there is significant overlap in all the animal and human data fields from the Ketton site. The differences in data distribution between the two sites are attributed to animal husbandry techniques, as the surface geology of the two areas is very similar, implying geological factors are an unlikely cause of the difference. It is suggested that the grazing and feeding patterns of animals at the Empingham II site were controlled and restricted, whereas at the Ketton site the animals grazed and foraged freely over a common area. Strontium isotope variation within cattle molars from the two settlements show marked differences that reflect the nature of their feeding and rearing. The enamel from a cattle molar from the Empingham II site has a well-defined, systematic variation of Sr isotope composition with Sr concentration, whereas no such patterns exist in a comparable cattle molar from Ketton. Chemical and O isotope variations in the cattle tooth from Empingham II show sympathetic variation of Sr and Ba concentrations with Sr isotope composition from cusp to cervix. The cusp has higher Sr and Ba concentrations log (Sr/Ca) ratio of -3.1 and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr ratio of 0.71151 where as the cervical region of the enamel has log (Sr/Ca) = -3.3 and 87 Sr/ 86 Sr = 0.71061

  16. Anglo-Saxon animal husbandry techniques revealed though isotope and chemical variations in cattle teeth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, J.A. [NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, BGS, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: je@nigl.nerc.ac.uk; Tatham, S. [School of Archaeology and Ancient History, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 7RH (United Kingdom); Chenery, S.R. [British Geological Survey, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom); Chenery, C.A. [NERC Isotope Geosciences Laboratory, BGS, Keyworth, Nottingham NG12 5GG (United Kingdom)

    2007-09-15

    The Sr concentration and isotope composition of tooth enamel from domesticated animals from two neighbouring Anglo-Saxon settlements, at Empingham (6-7th century) and Ketton (10-12th century) in Rutland, central England, are compared both with each other, and with associated human populations. Data from the Empingham II site form discrete fields in Sr concentration and isotope composition space for cattle, pig and sheep with a partial overlap of the human and pig fields. By contrast there is significant overlap in all the animal and human data fields from the Ketton site. The differences in data distribution between the two sites are attributed to animal husbandry techniques, as the surface geology of the two areas is very similar, implying geological factors are an unlikely cause of the difference. It is suggested that the grazing and feeding patterns of animals at the Empingham II site were controlled and restricted, whereas at the Ketton site the animals grazed and foraged freely over a common area. Strontium isotope variation within cattle molars from the two settlements show marked differences that reflect the nature of their feeding and rearing. The enamel from a cattle molar from the Empingham II site has a well-defined, systematic variation of Sr isotope composition with Sr concentration, whereas no such patterns exist in a comparable cattle molar from Ketton. Chemical and O isotope variations in the cattle tooth from Empingham II show sympathetic variation of Sr and Ba concentrations with Sr isotope composition from cusp to cervix. The cusp has higher Sr and Ba concentrations log (Sr/Ca) ratio of -3.1 and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr ratio of 0.71151 where as the cervical region of the enamel has log (Sr/Ca) = -3.3 and {sup 87}Sr/{sup 86}Sr = 0.71061.

  17. Developmental instability and fitness in Periploca laevigata experiencing grazing disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alados, C.L.; Giner, M.L.; Dehesa, L.; Escos, J.; Barroso, F.; Emlen, J.M.; Freeman, D.C.

    2002-01-01

    We investigated the sensitivity of developmental instability measurements (leaf fluctuating asymmetry, floral radial asymmetry, and shoot translational asymmetry) to a long‐standing natural stress (grazing) in a palatable tannin‐producing shrub (Periploca laevigata Aiton). We also assessed the relationship between these measures of developmental instability and fitness components (growth and floral production). Developmental instability, measured by translational asymmetry, was the most accurate estimator of a plant’s condition and, consequently, environmental stress. Plants with less translational asymmetry grew more and produced more flowers. Plants from the medium‐grazed population were developmentally more stable, as estimated by translational and floral asymmetry, than either more heavily or more lightly grazed populations. Leaf fluctuating asymmetry was positively correlated with tannin concentration. The pattern of internode growth also responded to grazing impact. Plants under medium to heavy grazing pressure accelerated early growth and consequently escaped herbivory later in the season, i.e., at the beginning of the spring, when grazing activity was concentrated in herbaceous plants. Periploca laevigata accelerated growth and finished growing sooner than in the other grazing treatment. Thus, its annual growth was more mature and less palatable later in the season when grazers typically concentrate on shrubs. The reduction of developmental instability under medium grazing is interpreted as a direct effect of grazing and not as the release from competition.

  18. Ecological Effects of Grazing in the Northern Tianshan Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaotao Huang

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Identifying the effects of grazing is critical for the conservation, protection and sustainable use of arid grassland ecosystems. However, research regarding the ecological effects of grazing along mountainous elevation gradients is limited in arid areas, particularly at the regional scale. Using the Biome-BGC grazing model, we explored the effects of grazing on grassland net primary productivity (NPP, evapotranspiration (ET and water use efficiency (WUE from 1979 to 2012 along an elevation gradient in the northern Tianshan Mountains. The NPP, ET and WUE values were generally lower under the grazing scenario than under the ungrazed scenario; the differences between the grazing and ungrazed scenarios showed increasing trends over time; and distinct spatial heterogeneity in these differences was observed. Distinct decreases in NPP and WUE under the grazing scenario mainly occurred in regions with high livestock consumption. The decrease in ET was greater in mountainous areas with high grazing intensity due to decreased transpiration and increased surface runoff. This study contributes to a better understanding of the ecological effects of grazing along an elevation gradient in the northern Tianshan Mountains and provides data to support the scientific management of grassland ecosystems.

  19. Livestock grazing and the desert tortoise in the Mojave Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldemeyer, John L.

    1994-01-01

    A large part of the Mojave Desert is not in pristine condition, and some current conditions can be related to past grazing-management practices. No information could be found on densities of the desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii) or on vegetative conditions of areas that had not been grazed to allow managers a comparison of range conditions with data on tortoises. Experimental information to assess the effect of livestock grazing on tortoises is lacking, and researchers have not yet examined whether the forage that remains after grazing is sufficient to meet the nutritional needs of desert tortoises.

  20. Balkan brachicerous cattle - the first domesticated cattle in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hristov, Peter; Sirakova, Daniela; Mitkov, Ivan; Spassov, Nikolai; Radoslavov, Georgi

    2018-01-01

    The present study aimed to compare mitochondrial diversity among Balkan Neolithic/Chalcolithic cattle and present day Shorthorn Rhodopean cattle (Busha) to throw a new insight into European cattle domestication. The results showed that both ancient- and present-day samples belonged to the macrohaplogroup T. From the 28 sequences (8 ancient and 20 modern), the T1 and T2 haplogroup represent about 3.6% (1/28; 1/28). The T3 haplogroup was with the highest frequency - 57% (16/28). Based on the SNPs on 16057A and 16133C, the new T6 haplogroup was proposed. This haplogroup represents 75% from the ancient and 20% from the present day Bulgarian brachicerous cattle population. The survey in GenBank data base did not find a similar motif, except for the recent Serbian Busha cattle. Overall, these results showed that: (i) The newly named T6 haplogroup is Balkan specific; (ii) The T6 haplogroup survives in present day Bulgarian rhodopean cattle; (iii) The Balkan brachicerous cattle is the oldest European cattle breed.

  1. Improvement of indigenous cattle to modern Japanese Black (Wagyu) cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikawa, T.

    2018-02-01

    Wagyu cattle have been improved from indigenous cattle raised in Japan since the country was opened 100 years ago. Characteristics of the breed were formed during that period. Here, the process of the breeding is described, and recent topics about breeding studies are discussed.

  2. Measuring the respiratory gas exchange of grazing cattle using the GreenFeed emissions monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruminants are a significant source of enteric methane, which has been identified as a powerful greenhouse gas that contributes to climate change. With interest in developing technologies to decrease enteric methane emission, systems are currently being developed to measure the methane emission by c...

  3. Seasonal changes in the digesta-adherent rumen bacterial communities of dairy cattle grazing pasture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noel, Samantha Joan; Attwood, G T; Rakonjac, J

    2017-01-01

    The complex microbiota that resides within the rumen is responsible for the break-down of plant fibre. The bacteria that attach to ingested plant matter within the rumen are thought to be responsible for initial fibre degradation. Most studies examining the ecology of this important microbiome only.......1%), followed by Bacteroidetes (11.8%). This community differed between the seasons, returning to close to that observed in the same season one year later. These seasonal differences were only small, but were statistically significant (p diet...

  4. Cross-infection of virulent Dichelobacter nodosus between sheep and co-grazing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knappe-Poindecker, Maren; Gilhuus, Marianne; Jensen, Tim Kåre

    2014-01-01

    the footrot scores recorded. On each farm, the same ten ewes and ten cows were chosen for bacterial analyses. Swabs were analysed for D. nodosus by PCR and culturing. D. nodosus isolates were virulence-tested and assigned to serogroups by fimA variant determination. Biopsies were evaluated histopathologically...

  5. Iodine-129 in thyroids of grazing animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballad, R.V.; Holman, D.W.; Hennecke, E.W.; Johnson, J.E.; Manuel, O.K.; Nicholson, L.M.

    1976-01-01

    A combination of neutron activation and mass spectrometry has been used to determine the concentrations of fissiogenic 129 I and stable 127 I in thyroids of grazing animals and in mineral iodine. The 129 I/ 127 I ratios are lowest in mineral iodine and in a given area lower in cow thyroids than in deer thyroids. Near saturation levels of mineral iodine in commercial feeds and salt licks may account for differences in the 129 I levels of cows and deer. Values of the 129 I/ 127 I ratio in deer appear to vary inversely with the iodine concentration of the thyroid. (author)

  6. Dried, irradiated sewage solids as supplemental feed for cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.S.; Kiesling, H.E.; Ray, E.E.; Orcasberro, R.; Trujillo, P.; Herbel, C.H.; Sivinski, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Sewage solids were collected as 'primary settled solids' and then dried and gamma-irradiated (using 60 Co or 177 Cs) to absorbed dosage of about one magarad to minimize viable parasites and pathogenic organisms. Nutrient composition and bioassays suggested prospective usage as supplemental feed for ruminants. In a large-scale experiment, beef cows grazing poor-quality rangeland forage during late gestation-early lactation were given either no supplemental feed or cottonseed meal or experimental supplement comprised of 62% sewage solids. Supplements were provided for 13 weeks until rangeland forage quality improved seasonably. Supplemental cottenseed meal for cows improved weaning weights of calves by about 11% over unsupplemented controls; whereas, supplement with 62% sewage solids improved calf weaning weights by about 7%. Hazards or risks to animals or to human health appear to be slight when sewage solids of this type are fed as supplemental feeds to cattle in production programs of this type. (Auth.)

  7. Milk production, grazing behavior and nutritional status of dairy cows grazing two herbage allowances during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ruiz-Albarran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Winter grazing provides a useful means for increasing the proportion of grazed herbage in the annual diet of dairy cows. This season is characterized by low herbage growth rate, low herbage allowance, and low herbage intake and hence greater needs for supplements to supply the requirements of lactating dairy cows. The aim of this study was to determine the influence of herbage allowance (HA offered to autumn calving dairy cows grazing winter herbage on milk production, nutritional status, and grazing behavior. The study took 63 d using 32 multiparous Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Prior to experimental treatment, milk production averaged 20.2 ± 1.7 kg d-1, body weight was 503 ± 19 kg, and days in milking were 103 ± 6. Experimental animals were randomly assigned to two treatments according to HA offered above ground level: low (17 kg DM cow-1 d-1 vs. high HA (25 kg DM cow¹ d¹. All cows were supplemented with grass silage supplying daily 6.25 and 4.6 kg DM of concentrate (concentrate commercial plus high corn moisture. Decreasing HA influenced positively milk production (+25%, milk protein (+20 kg, and milk fat (+17 kg per hectare; however no effects on milk production per cow or energy metabolic status were observed in the cows. In conclusion, a low HA showed to be the most significant influencing factor on milk and milk solids production per hectare in dairy cows grazing restricted winter and supplemented with grass silage and concentrate; but no effect on the milk production per cow was found.

  8. Genomic selection in dairy cattle

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roos, de A.P.W.

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this Ph.D. thesis were (1) to optimise genomic selection in dairy cattle with respect to the accuracy of predicting total genetic merit and (2) to optimise a dairy cattle breeding program using genomic selection. The study was performed using a combination of real data sets and

  9. Modelling nitrous oxide emissions from grazed grassland systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Junye; Cardenas, Laura M.; Misselbrook, Tom H.; Cuttle, Steve; Thorman, Rachel E.; Li Changsheng

    2012-01-01

    Grazed grassland systems are an important component of the global carbon cycle and also influence global climate change through their emissions of nitrous oxide and methane. However, there are huge uncertainties and challenges in the development and parameterisation of process-based models for grazed grassland systems because of the wide diversity of vegetation and impacts of grazing animals. A process-based biogeochemistry model, DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC), has been modified to describe N 2 O emissions for the UK from regional conditions. This paper reports a new development of UK-DNDC in which the animal grazing practices were modified to track their contributions to the soil nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry. The new version of UK-DNDC was tested against datasets of N 2 O fluxes measured at three contrasting field sites. The results showed that the responses of the model to changes in grazing parameters were generally in agreement with observations, showing that N 2 O emissions increased as the grazing intensity increased. - Highlights: ► Parameterisation of grazing system using grazing intensity. ► Modification of UK D NDC for the UK soil and weather conditions. ► Validation of the UK D NDC against measured data of N 2 O emissions in three UK sites. ► Estimating influence of animal grazing practises on N 2 O emissions. - Grazing system was parameterised using grazing intensity and UK-DNDC model was modified and validated against measured data of N 2 O emissions in three UK sites.

  10. Evaluation of the Effect of Replacing Maize with Cattle Rumen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the nutritive values of cattle rumen waste (CRW) meal used for replacement of maize in the diets of Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus. CRW (20.9% CP) was used to replace maize (10.1 CP) at 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% making diets (D1-D5). The diets were fed to the fish (5.59±0.37g) to apparent ...

  11. Health implications of radionuclide levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities in Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapham, S.C.; Millard, J.B.; Samet, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    This study was conducted to determine radionuclide tissue levels in cattle raised near U mining and milling facilities. Ambrosia Lake, New Mexico, has been the site of extensive U mining for 30 y and contains several underground U mines, a processing mill, and two large U tailings piles. Ten cows were purchased from two grazing areas in Ambrosia Lake and ten control animals were purchased from Crownpoint, New Mexico. Muscle, liver, kidney, and bone tissue taken from these animals, and environmental samples, including water, grasses and soil collected from the animals' grazing areas, were analyzed for 238 U, 234 U, 230 Th, 226 Ra, 210 Pb, and 210 Po. Mean radionuclide levels in cattle tissue and environmental samples from Ambrosia Lake were higher in almost every comparison than those found in respective controls. Liver and kidney tissues were particularly elevated in 226 Ra and 210 Po. Radiation dose commitments from eating cattle tissue with these radionuclide concentrations were calculated. We concluded that the health risk to the public from eating exposed cattle is minimal, unless large amounts of this tissue, especially liver and kidney, are ingested

  12. Analytical confirmation of Xanthium strumarium poisoning in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botha, Christo J; Lessing, Dries; Rösemann, Magda; van Wilpe, Erna; Williams, June H

    2014-09-01

    Xanthium strumarium, commonly referred to as "cocklebur," rarely causes poisoning in cattle. When mature, this robust, annual weed bears numerous oval, brownish, spiny burs. Only the seeds in the burs and young seedlings (cotyledonary leaves) contain the toxic principle, carboxyatractyloside. In the Frankfort district of the Free State Province of South Africa, a herd of 150 Bonsmara cows were allowed to graze on the banks of a small river, where mature cocklebur was growing. Four cows died while grazing in this relatively small area. Clinical signs ranged from recumbency, apparent blindness, and hypersensitivity to convulsive seizures. During necropsy, burs completely matted with ingesta were located in the rumen content. The most distinctive microscopic lesions were severe, bridging centrilobular to midzonal hepatocyte necrosis and hemorrhage. Ultrastructurally, periacinar hepatocytes were necrotic, and novel electron-dense cytoplasmic needle-like crystals were observed, often in close association with peroxisomes. Carboxyatractyloside concentrations were determined using liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS). Carboxyatractyloside was present in rumen contents at 2.5 mg/kg; in burs removed from the rumen at 0.17 mg/kg; in liver at 66 ng/g, and was below the limit of quantitation in the kidney sample, estimated at approximately 0.8 ng/g. Based on the presence of the plants on the riverbank, the history of exposure, the clinical findings, the presence of burs in the rumen, and the microscopic and ultrastructural lesions, X. strumarium poisoning in the herd of cattle was confirmed and was supported by LC-HRMS. © 2014 The Author(s).

  13. Genomic dairy cattle breeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mark, Thomas; Sandøe, Peter

    2010-01-01

    the thoughts of breeders and other stakeholders on how to best make use of genomic breeding in the future. Intensive breeding has played a major role in securing dramatic increases in milk yield since the Second World War. Until recently, the main focus in dairy cattle breeding was on production traits...... it less accountable to the concern of private farmers for the welfare of their animals. It is argued that there is a need to mobilise a wide range of stakeholders to monitor developments and maintain pressure on breeding companies so that they are aware of the need to take precautionary measures to avoid...

  14. Resilience of soils and vegetation subjected to different grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The resilience of rangeland soils and vegetation to different levels of grazing is still poorly understood. A study was conducted to determine the recovery of a rangeland grazed at different intensities and allowed a two-year rest period. The following treatments were applied to 0.5 hectare plots: 0, 4, 8 and 16 heifers per ...

  15. Soil contamination of plant surfaces from grazing and rainfall interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinton, T.G.; Stoll, J.M.; Tobler, L.

    1995-01-01

    Contaminants often attach to soil particles, and their subsequent environmental transport is largely determined by processes that govern soil movement. We examined the influence of grazing intensity on soil contamination of pastures. Four different grazing densities of sheep were tested against an ungrazed control plot. Scandium concentrations were determined by neutron activation analysis and was used as a tracer of soil adhesion on vegetation. Soil loadings ( g soil kg -1 dry plant) increased 60% when grazing intensity was increased by a factor of four (p 0.003). Rain and wind removed soil from vegetation in the ungrazed control plots, but when grazing sheep were present, an increase in rain from 0.3 to 9.7 mm caused a 130% increase in soil contamination. Multiple regression was used to develop an equation that predicts soil loadings as a function of grazing density, rainfall and wind speed (p = 0.0001, r 2 = 0.78). The model predicts that if grazing management were to be used as a tool to reduce contaminant intake from inadvertent consumption of resuspended soil by grazing animals, grazing densities would have to be reduced 2.5 times to reduce soil loadings by 50%. (author)

  16. Transformation of a savanna grassland by drought and grazing | O ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relative effects of drought and heavy grazing on the floristic composition, population size and and structure, and basal cover of an African savanna grassland were differentiated by comparing changes over eight years over eight years, which included a severe drought year, across a gradient of grazing history. Drought ...

  17. The evaluation of four Eragrostis curvula ecotypes with grazing sheep.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There were no significant differences in the dry matter production and chemical composition of the clipped samples of the ecotypes. Keywords: afrikaans; chemical composition; dry matter production; ecotypes; eragrostis curvula; grazing; live mass; live mass gains; open rotational grazing system; production; sheep; south ...

  18. Mixed farming in a grazing reserve in Northern Nigeria | Babalobi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigeria's main pastoral development strategy is the settlement of pastoralists in grazing reserves. The goal of the strategy is to turn such nomadic pastoralists into mixed farmers who will take up crop farming to supplement livestock farming. Using the Bobi Grazing Reserve, Niger State, Nigeria as case study, the attainment ...

  19. Possibilities and constraints for grazing in high output dairy systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hennessy, D.; Delaby, L.; Pol, van den A.; Shalloo, L.

    2015-01-01

    In temperate and oceanic regions, grazed grass is the lowest cost feed available for milk production. In other regions, grazed grass is less important but can contribute to the diet of livestock. Within high output systems the interaction between the animal and sward is challenging for a host of

  20. The grazing index method of range condition assessment | du Toit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owing to the difficulty of examining succession theory in the Karoo, it is suggested the ecological index method (EIM), be replaced by the grazing index method (GIM), through the introduction of grazing index values (GIV) for Karoo plant species. The GIM may provide more acceptable range condition scores and more ...

  1. Forage selection and performance of sheep grazing dry annual range.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Benjamin, R.W.; Keulen, van H.

    1986-01-01

    During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and

  2. Livestock Grazing as a Driver of Vernal Pool Ecohydrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, J.; McCarten, N. F.

    2017-12-01

    Vernal pools are seasonal wetlands that host rare plant communities of high conservation priority. Plant community composition is largely driven by pool hydroperiod. A previous study found that vernal pools grazed by livestock had longer hydroperiods compared with pools excluded from grazing for 10 years, and suggests that livestock grazing can be used to protect plant diversity. It is important to assess whether observed differences are due to the grazing or due to water balance variables including upland discharge into or out of the pools since no a priori measurements were made of the hydrology prior to grazing. To address this question, in 2016 we compared 15 pools that have been grazed continuously and 15 pools that have been fenced off for over 40 years at a site in Sacramento County. We paired pools based on abiotic characteristics (size, shape, slope, soil type) to minimize natural variation. We sampled vegetation and water depth using Solinst level loggers. We found that plant diversity and average hydroperiod was significantly higher in the grazed pools. We are currently measuring groundwater connectivity and upland inputs in order to compare the relative strength of livestock grazing as a driver of hydroperiod to these other drivers.

  3. Effect of mowing and grazing on ramet emergence of Leymus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-03-21

    Mar 21, 2011 ... experiment was conducted in the spring of 2004 to investigate the effects on the surface soil temperature caused by mowing, grazing and grazing exclusion, and the influence of these factors on the ramets emergence characteristics. The primary effect of the treatments was significant changes in.

  4. Vegetation patterns and nutrients in relation to grazing pressure and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A major challenge confronting managers of extensive grazing systems is uneven use of erbaceous forage plants by livestock. The concentration of grazing in preferred areas or around foci points (e.g. water points) eventually results in adverse impacts in soil nutrients, vegetation structure, production and composition.

  5. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  6. Implementation of the Sulfur Hexafluoride Technique in Costa Rica to Quantify Enteric Methane in Cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Montenegro Ballestero

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to implement, for the first time in Costa Rica, the sulfur hexafluoride (SF6 tracer technique to determine the enteric methane (CH4released by cattle consuming tropical forages, this study was carried out at the Universidad Tecnica Nacional, Atenas, from May to July 2013. This technique allows capturing and storing a sample of methane in a device placed over the animal. The implementation was done in two phases: confinement and grazing. In both phases, Jersey heifers were used. They were subjected to an adaptation phase prior to the collection of gas samples. Confinement diet consisted of transvala silopaca (Digitaria decumbens and Brachiaria brizantha. In the second phase B. decumbens was grazed. The three species had 35 days of regrowth without fertilization. The daily emission of methane per heifer in confinement was 147±7 g, and 17.3±1.1 g kg-1 DM consumed. During the grazing phase, heifers released 141±16 g of CH4 d-1, and 16.1±1.1 g of CH4 kg-1 DM of consumed grass was estimated. The emission factor (Ym: 4.9 ± 0.3% for the grazing phase was lower than that suggested by IPCC. It is concluded that this technique is suitable for use under similar conditions to those used in this research, and with the calculation of Ym it is possible to estimate with low uncertainty, the emission of enteric methane in cattle that should be used in the National Inventories Greenhouse Gases for the livestock sector in Costa Rica.

  7. Grazing behavior and production characteristics among cows differing in residual feed intake while grazing late season Idaho rangeland

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives were to determine if cows classified as either low- or high-residual feed intake (LRFI or HRFI) differed in BW, BCS, and winter grazing activity over time. Thirty Hereford x Angus (LRFI = 16; HRFI = 14) 2-year-old cows grazed sagebrush-steppe for 78 d beginning 29 September 2016. Body...

  8. Effects of grazing system on production and parasitism of dairy breed heifers and steers grazing wet marginal grasslands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Troels; Thamsborg, S.M.; Andersen, Refsgaard

    2006-01-01

    Production and endoparasitism of first grazing season Holstein heifers and steers were investigated over two grazing seasons. Studies were conducted on low-lying peaty soil. In year 2000, 40 animals were included in a 2x2 factorial, replicated experiment with two sexes (steers v. heifers) and two...

  9. Effects of grazing strategy on limiting nitrate leaching in grazed grass-clover pastures on coarse sandy soil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Elly Møller; Eriksen, Jørgen; Søegaard, Karen

    2012-01-01

    -term mean. The experiment was initiated in a 4-yr-old grass-clover sward in south Denmark. Three treatments were as follows grazing only (G), spring cut followed by grazing (CG) and both spring and autumn cuts with summer grazing (CGC). Nitrate leaching was calculated by extracting water isolates from 80 cm......Urinations of ruminants on grazed pastures increase the risk of nitrate leaching. The study investigated the effect of reducing the length of the grazing season on nitrate leaching from a coarse sandy, irrigated soil during 2006–2007 and 2007–2008. In both years, precipitation was above the long...... depth using ceramic suction cups. Because of considerable variation in measured nitrate concentrations, the 32 installed suction cups per treatment were insufficient to reveal differences between treatments. However, weighted nitrate leaching estimations for G, CG and CGC showed estimated mean nitrate N...

  10. A case-control study of risk factors for bovine cysticercosis in Danish cattle herds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calvo Artavia, Francisco Fernando; Nielsen, Liza Rosenbaum; Dahl, J.

    2013-01-01

    than in countries with few lightly infected cases per year. The aim of the present case-control study was to quantify associations between potential herd-level risk factors and BC in Danish cattle herds. Risk factors can be used in the design of a risk-based meat inspection system targeted towards...... a questionnaire and register data from the Danish Cattle Database were grouped into meaningful variables and used to investigate the risk factors for BC using a multivariable logistic regression model. Case herds were almost three times more likely than control herds to let all or most animals out grazing. Case...... the animals with the highest risk of BC. Cases (n = 77) included herds that hosted at least one animal diagnosed with BC at meat inspection, from 2006 to 2010. Control herds (n = 231) consisted of randomly selected herds that had not hosted any animals diagnosed with BC between 2004 and 2010. The answers from...

  11. Usefulness of fibroblast culture for testing of cattle tissues polluted with heavy metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weglarz, L.; Drozdz, M.Wa.; Wardas, M.; Kula, B.; Pawlaczyk-Szpilowa, M.

    1990-01-01

    Cattle tissues (liver, kidney, brain, and lung) that had been polluted with heavy metals were tested for their ability to alter fibroblast culture growth, cellular protein and DNA content, and fibroblast DNA synthesis. At 72 hr of incubation a significant increase in cellular DNA and [14C]thymidine incorporation was noted in the primary cultures as well as in the subcultures compared to controls. Fibroblast cultures also displayed growth inhibition and reduction in protein content. The measurement of basic biochemical parameters of the fibroblast culture may represent a sensitive means of assessing rapidly the activity of heavy metals deposited in the tissues of cattle as a result of their grazing on polluted soil

  12. Cattle behaviour classification from collar, halter, and ear tag sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Rahman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we summarise the outcome of a set of experiments aimed at classifying cattle behaviour based on sensor data. Each animal carried sensors generating time series accelerometer data placed on a collar on the neck at the back of the head, on a halter positioned at the side of the head behind the mouth, or on the ear using a tag. The purpose of the study was to determine how sensor data from different placement can classify a range of typical cattle behaviours. Data were collected and animal behaviours (grazing, standing or ruminating were observed over a common time frame. Statistical features were computed from the sensor data and machine learning algorithms were trained to classify each behaviour. Classification accuracies were computed on separate independent test sets. The analysis based on behaviour classification experiments revealed that different sensor placement can achieve good classification accuracy if the feature space (representing motion patterns between the training and test animal is similar. The paper will discuss these analyses in detail and can act as a guide for future studies.

  13. Resilience of South African communal grazing lands after the removal of high grazing pressure

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Harrison, YA

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available , et al., 1990; Dahlberg, 1993; Scoones, 1993; Shackleton, 1993; Sullivan, 1996). Invariably `overstocking' and hence overgrazing are deemed to be responsible for the apparent degradation. Despite this o cial perspective, most communal lands have... ones (Kelly and Walker, 1976; O'Connor and Pickett, 1992; Parsons, et al., 1997). However, these studies have not indicated the permanence, or reversibility, of the measured changes, and the magnitude of grazing eC128ects is usually minor relative...

  14. Figure and finish of grazing incidence mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takacs, P.Z.; Church, E.L.

    1989-08-01

    Great improvement has been made in the past several years in the quality of optical components used in synchrotron radiation (SR) beamlines. Most of this progress has been the result of vastly improved metrology techniques and instrumentation permitting rapid and accurate measurement of the surface finish and figure on grazing incidence optics. A significant theoretical effort has linked the actual performance of components used as x-ray wavelengths to their topological properties as measured by surface profiling instruments. Next-generation advanced light sources will require optical components and systems to have sub-arc second surface figure tolerances. This paper will explore the consequences of these requirements in terms of manufacturing tolerances to see if the present manufacturing state-of-the-art is capable of producing the required surfaces. 15 refs., 14 figs., 2 tabs

  15. Axial grazing collisions with insulator surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gravielle, M.S. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina) and Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)]. E-mail: msilvia@iafe.uba.ar; Miraglia, J.E. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE), Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas, Casilla de Correo 67, Sucursal 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Departamento de Fisica, FCEN, Universidad de Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-05-15

    Electron capture and emission processes from insulator surfaces produced by grazing impact of fast ions are investigated under axial incidence conditions. For crystal surfaces we develop a model based on distorted wave methods, which allows us to express the coherent transition amplitude along the projectile path as a sum of atomic amplitudes, each one associated with a different lattice site. The method is applied to 100 keV protons colliding with LiF surfaces. For electron transitions from a given initial crystal state, the probabilities display strong interference effects as a function of the crystal orientation. But the interference patterns disappear when these partial probabilities are added to derive the total probability from the surface band.

  16. Axial grazing collisions with insulator surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gravielle, M.S.; Miraglia, J.E.

    2007-01-01

    Electron capture and emission processes from insulator surfaces produced by grazing impact of fast ions are investigated under axial incidence conditions. For crystal surfaces we develop a model based on distorted wave methods, which allows us to express the coherent transition amplitude along the projectile path as a sum of atomic amplitudes, each one associated with a different lattice site. The method is applied to 100 keV protons colliding with LiF surfaces. For electron transitions from a given initial crystal state, the probabilities display strong interference effects as a function of the crystal orientation. But the interference patterns disappear when these partial probabilities are added to derive the total probability from the surface band

  17. Poultry performance in different grazing densities: forage characteristics, losses due to grazing and feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Cristiano França

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics of three forage species grazed by rustic poultry in stocking were evaluated. Coast-cross fodder, kikuyu grass, and stylosanthes were planted in 33-m2 paddocks with two densities (m2/animal: D1 = 3m2/animal and D2 = 1m2/animal. The design was a randomized complete block with a 3 x 2 factorial (three grasses and two densities and three replications. Grass canopy height, grass mass, morphological composition (leaf, stem, and dead material, losses due to grazing, poultry weight gain and consumption, and concentrate feed conversion ratio and efficiency were evaluated. At the end of the experiment, forage and leaves masses were considered low to stylosanthes in D2 (0.28 to 0.03 kg/m2 and to kikuyu grass in D1 (0.13 to 0.05 kg/m2 and in D2 (0.11 and 0.03 kg/m2, respectively. In addition, the grass canopy height was considered low for stylosanthes (6.50 cm that could jeopardize the entry of new poultry lot. The three grass species had similar weight gain and revealed better results for 3m²/ chicken (3.20 kg/animal. Coast-cross fodder, kikuyu grass, and stylosanthes, with some exceptions, can be considered suitable for grazing fattening poultry at 3m2/animal at the evaluated time of the year (autumn.

  18. Design and testing of a GPS/GSM collar prototype to combat cattle rustling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco M. Tangorra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Rustling is an age-old practice that was widespread in Italy until the first half of the 20th century. Today, incidents of cattle rustling are again being reported. However, the problem is not only found in Italy. It is also becoming a plague for ranchers in the US and is still rampant in East Africa. In Italy, the cattle rustling phenomena have usually been limited through the direct control of the herdsmen. Global positioning system (GPS and geographic information system (GIS combined technologies are increasingly applied for tracking and monitoring livestock with greater spatial and temporal resolution. However, so far, no case studies of the use of GPS technology to combat cattle rustling have been reported in the literature. The aim of this research was to develop a GPS/GSM (global system for mobile communication collar, using commercial hardware and implementing a specific software [ARVAshepherd 1.0; ARVAtec Srl, Rescaldina (MI, Italy] to track animals’ movements outside their grazing area and to signal when animals are straying outside virtual perimeters. A phase I study was conducted from January to June 2011 to build the GPS/GSM collar and to assess its performances in terms of GPS accuracy and precision, while a phase II study was conducted in July 2011 to test the GPS collar under real-life operating conditions. The static GPS positioning error achieved a circular error probable (50% and horizontal 95% accuracy of 1.462 m and 4.501 m, respectively. This is comparable with values obtained by other authors in static tests of a commercial GPS collar for grazing studies. In field tests, the system was able to identify the incorrect position of the cattle and the warning messages were sent promptly to the farmer, continuing until the animals had been repositioned inside the fence, thus highlighting the potential of the GPS/GSM collar as an anti-theft system.

  19. Analysis of Carrying Capacity of Agro-Ecosystem Coconut-Cattle in South Minahasa Regency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AHS Salendu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Coconut plantation is very dominating in South Minahasa regency seen from its production of 49,907.33 tons in 2010. The land under coconut trees can be used for food crops or forage. The waste from food crops is the source of animal feed, while the livestock’s manure is used to improve soil fertility under coconut tree. The research objective was to analyse the carrying capacity of the agro-ecosystem of coconut-cattle. Regency and district were determined purposively. A total of 86 farmers as respondents were determined based on the ownership of at least 2 cattle and cattle selling experience. Data were analyzed using effective potential of livestock development and land capability index (IDD. The result showed that the maximum potential of land resources (PMSL was 30,872.94 animal unit (AU. The capacity increase in cattle population based on the soil resources was 18,208.94 AU. The maximum potential based on farmer house holds was 127,023.00 AU. The value of land capability index was 2.14. The conclusion was South Minahasa Regency was still potential for cattle development regarding land resources or workforce potentials. Development of cattle can be integrated with the coconut to maintain and improve agro-ecosystem sustainability of coconut plantation. Keywords: cattle, carrying capacity, agro-ecosystem, coconut Animal Production 14(1:56-62, January 2012

  20. Riparian Meadow Response to Modern Conservation Grazing Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oles, Kristin M.; Weixelman, Dave A.; Lile, David F.; Tate, Kenneth W.; Snell, Laura K.; Roche, Leslie M.

    2017-09-01

    Riparian meadows occupy a small proportion of the public lands in the western United States but they provide numerous ecosystem services, including the production of high-quality forage for livestock grazing. Modern conservation management strategies (e.g., reductions in livestock stocking rates and adoption of new riparian grazing standards) have been implemented to better balance riparian conservation and livestock production objectives on publicly managed lands. We examined potential relationships between long-term changes in plant community, livestock grazing pressure and environmental conditions at two spatial scales in meadows grazed under conservation management strategies. Changes in plant community were not associated with either livestock stocking rate or precipitation at the grazing allotment (i.e., administrative) scale. Alternatively, both grazing pressure and precipitation had significant, albeit modest, associations with changes in plant community at the meadow (i.e., ecological site) scale. These results suggest that reductions in stocking rate have improved the balance between riparian conservation and livestock production goals. However, associations between elevation, site wetness, precipitation, and changes in plant community suggest that changing climate conditions (e.g., reduced snowpack and changes in timing of snowmelt) could trigger shifts in plant communities, potentially impacting both conservation and agricultural services (e.g., livestock and forage production). Therefore, adaptive, site-specific management strategies are required to meet grazing pressure limits and safeguard ecosystem services within individual meadows, especially under more variable climate conditions.

  1. Plasma protein loss associated with gastrointestinal parasitism in grazing sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yakoob, A Y; Holmes, P H; Parkins, J J; Armour, J

    1983-01-01

    Some pathophysiological effects of parasitic gastroenteritis in two groups of lambs grazing paddocks either heavily or lightly contaminated with trichostrongyle larvae were investigated between July and October 1980. The leak of plasma protein was measured on three occasions at pasture using 51chromic chloride. Total faecal output was measured indirectly using chromic oxide. Losses of 51chromic chloride-labelled plasma protein into the gastrointestinal tract were significantly higher in the lambs grazing the heavily contaminated pasture than in those grazing lightly infected ground in both July and August. The increased plasma losses were associated with high faecal egg counts, hypoalbuminaemia and elevated levels of plasma pepsinogen.

  2. Aplanatic grazing incidence diffraction grating: a new optical element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hettrick, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    We present the theory of a grazing incidence reflection grating capable of imaging at submicron resolution. The optic is mechanically ruled on a spherical or cylindrical surface with varied groove spacings, delivering diffraction-limited response and a wide field of view at a selected wavelength. Geometrical aberrations are calculated on the basis of Fermat's principle, revealing significant improvements over a grazing incidence mirror. Aplanatic and quasi-aplanatic versions of the grating have applications in both imaging and scanning microscopes, microprobes, collimators, and telescopes. A 2-D crossed system of such gratings, similar to the grazing incidence mirror geometry of Kirkpatrick and Baez, could potentially provide spatial resolutions of --200 A

  3. The organic selenium identification on the cattle feedstuffs in Sumedang region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endang Yuni Setyowati; Ujang Hidayat Tanuwiria; Muhayatun Santoso

    2010-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micro mineral which has an important role in cattle growth. Feeding cattle with this mineral increase feed efficiency and decrease oxidative stress that results in lengthening cattle product shelf live. Se deficiency reduce cattle resistance to infection disease and growth rate. Feeding cattle with variety feedstuffs is necessary in order to balance its nutrient requirement. Se content within feedstuffs is varying and depends on the Se content and the condition of soil. Sumedang is a potential region for cattle production as it has variety plants for cattle feed. However, there is no information on the Se content of feedstuffs since it has not been identified yet. This research was aim to identify Se content of several feedstuffs, that were grass, cassava pumice and chips, coconut meal, soya sauce waste, rice brand and wheat pollard. Samples were identified by Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA). There was no Se detection on the grass and rice brand. Se on soya sauce waste is vary from 0.25-0.45 mg/kg; on coconut meat is vary between 0.23-0.44 mg/kg; on cassava chips is 0.18 mg/kg; on cassava pumice is between 0.32-0.40 mg/kg and that on wheat pollard is between 0.18-0.35 mg/kg. Se content on the ration that mixed from all feedstuffs is 0.279 mg/kg. Supplementation organic Se 0.3 ppm on the ration increases the Se content to 0.608 mg/kg. It could expect that Se supplementation to the ration would result in rising cattle production. (author)

  4. Impact of processing on in vitro digestion of milk from grazing organic and confined conventional herds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debate on differences between milk from grazing and non-grazing cows has not addressed the effects that standard processing may have on milk digestibility. In this study, raw milk from grazing organic (ORG) and non-grazing conventional (CONV) herds was adjusted to 0 and 3.25% fat and processed as fo...

  5. Adaptation of indigenous sheep, goats and camels in harsh grazing conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engelhardt, W. von; Weyreter, H.; Heller, R.; Lechner, M.; Schultka, W.

    1986-01-01

    Microbial breakdown of cellulose is a rather slow process. Therefore the retention time of digesta and the volume of the fermentation chamber are factors limiting the quantity of fibrous diets that can be digested. Indigenous ruminants can generally adapt to harsh grazing conditions better than conventional breeds. Unexpectedly high rumen volumes were reported in a number of indigenous ruminants. In studies reported in this paper, Heidschnucken, an indigenous breed of sheep in the heather region of Northern Germany, were able to increase their rumen volume from 14% to 22% of body weight during adaptation to a low quality fibrous diet. Heidschnucken did not lose significant body weight, whereas Blackface sheep lost 20% and failed to adapt the rumen volume. Rumen volume of indigenous sheep and goats in Northern Kenya was 20% of body weight while grazing in the thornbush savannah during the dry season, compared with 9-12% while kept indoors on a hay-concentrate diet. Mean retention time of particles in the total gastrointestinal tract of goats and sheep in Kenya was 38 h and 46 h respectively. In the experiment with Heidschnucken, these sheep increased the retention time of particles to 71 h on a straw diet, while Blackface sheep retained particles 58 h. Dietary preference and feed intake have been studied in indigenous sheep and goats in Kenya at seasonal pasture conditions in the thornbush savannah. Goats have a higher preference to dicotyledon species (92-97%) than sheep, who are less selective grazers. The feeding behaviour of indigenous sheep and goats was complementary rather than competitive. Feeding observations indicate that this is also the case when cattle (grazers) and camels (browsers) are included in such a comparison. (author)

  6. Subclinical ketosis in dairy cows: prevalence and risk factors in grazing production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garro, C J; Mian, L; Cobos Roldán, M

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of Subclinical ketosis (SCK) between 4 and 19 days in milk (DIM) in a grazing production system and investigate the importance of potential risk factors for SCK. This cross-sectional study was conducted in dairy cows (n = 107), which had more of two parities. The concentration of β-hydroxybutyric (BHB) in blood was quantified through a hand-held meter. Potential risk factors evaluated were calving interval (CI), milk yield in previous lactation, metritis, dystocia, calf sex (male), parity (≤3 vs. ≥4) and pre-partum body condition score (BCS ≤ 3.5 vs. ≥3.75). Prevalence of SCK was 10.3% (95% CI 4.7-15) between 4 and 19 DIM. Risk factors identified were the occurrence of both metritis and pre-partum BCS ≥ 3.75. Cows with metritis had 4.9 (95% CI 1.17-20.98) times more risk of developing SCK than cows without metritis. And the cows with pre-partum BCS ≥ 3.75 had 5.25 (95% CI 1.32-21.11) times more risk of developing SCK than cows with pre-partum BCS ≤ 3.5. Metritis could induce a lower feed intake and promote the development of SCK. High pre-partum BCS could induce a greater mobilization of body reserves altering liver function and aggravating post-partum NEB. The results are indicative of the expected prevalence of SCK in grazing production system. Factors associated could help to identify cattle at risk of SCK and improve the management of strategies to limit the effects. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Methane emission from ruminants and solid waste: A critical analysis of baseline and mitigation projections for climate and policy studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, E.

    2012-12-01

    narrow range that does not necessarily signal low uncertainty but rather a reliance on similar animal statistics and emission factors. The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) projects 2000-2030 growth rates of livestock for most developing countries at 2% to >3% annually. However, the assumption of rapidly rising meat consumption is not supported by current trends nor by resource availability. For example, increased meat consumption in China and other developing countries is poultry and pork that do not affect CH4 emissions, suggesting that the rapid growth projected for all animals, boosting growth in CH4 emission, will not occur. From a resource standpoint, large increases in cattle, sheep and goat populations, especially for African countries (~60% by 2030), are not supportable on arid grazing lands that require very low stocking rates and semi-nomadic management. Increases projected for African animal populations would require either that about 2/3 more animals are grazed on increasingly drier lands or that all non-forested areas become grazing lands. Similar to solid waste, future methane emission from ruminant animals is likely to grow modestly although animals are not a likely candidate for CH4 mitigation due to their dispersed distribution throughout widely varying agricultural systems under very local management.

  8. Herds of methane chambers grazing bubbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinham, Alistair; Dunbabin, Matthew

    2014-05-01

    Water to air methane emissions from freshwater reservoirs can be dominated by sediment bubbling (ebullitive) events. Previous work to quantify methane bubbling from a number of Australian sub-tropical reservoirs has shown that this can contribute as much as 95% of total emissions. These bubbling events are controlled by a variety of different factors including water depth, surface and internal waves, wind seiching, atmospheric pressure changes and water levels changes. Key to quantifying the magnitude of this emission pathway is estimating both the bubbling rate as well as the areal extent of bubbling. Both bubbling rate and areal extent are seldom constant and require persistent monitoring over extended time periods before true estimates can be generated. In this paper we present a novel system for persistent monitoring of both bubbling rate and areal extent using multiple robotic surface chambers and adaptive sampling (grazing) algorithms to automate the quantification process. Individual chambers are self-propelled and guided and communicate between each other without the need for supervised control. They can maintain station at a sampling site for a desired incubation period and continuously monitor, record and report fluxes during the incubation. To exploit the methane sensor detection capabilities, the chamber can be automatically lowered to decrease the head-space and increase concentration. The grazing algorithms assign a hierarchical order to chambers within a preselected zone. Chambers then converge on the individual recording the highest 15 minute bubbling rate. Individuals maintain a specified distance apart from each other during each sampling period before all individuals are then required to move to different locations based on a sampling algorithm (systematic or adaptive) exploiting prior measurements. This system has been field tested on a large-scale subtropical reservoir, Little Nerang Dam, and over monthly timescales. Using this technique

  9. Phosphorus and the grazing ruminant. 2. The effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Department of Animal Science, University of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch. The effects of .... rosis, severely impaired locomotion and therefore grazing behaviour ..... Studies in mineral metabolism. XXXVII. The influence of variations in the dietary ...

  10. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    ABSTRACT: This study examines the effects of the emerging grazing policies on land degradation in Nigeria using soil, vegetation ... imposed land use controls divorced from economic and demographic ... may be either positive or negative.

  11. Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Animal health management practices in zero grazing dairy units in Arusha City, Tanzania. ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... findings, majority (84.6%) of the cow's enclosures were of poor hygiene.

  12. High motility reduces grazing mortality of planktonic bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matz, Carsten; Jurgens, K.

    2005-01-01

    We tested the impact of bacterial swimming speed on the survival of planktonic bacteria in the presence of protozoan grazers. Grazing experiments with three common bacterivorous nanoflagellates revealed low clearance rates for highly motile bacteria. High-resolution video microscopy demonstrated...... size revealed highest grazing losses for moderately motile bacteria with a cell size between 0.2 and 0.4 mum(3). Grazing mortality was lowest for cells of >0.5 mum(3) and small, highly motile bacteria. Survival efficiencies of >95% for the ultramicrobacterial isolate CP-1 (less than or equal to0.1 mum......(3), >50 mum s(-1)) illustrated the combined protective action of small cell size and high motility. Our findings suggest that motility has an important adaptive function in the survival of planktonic bacteria during protozoan grazing....

  13. Ecological status of species on grazing gradients on the shallow ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ecological status of species on grazing gradients on the shallow soils of the western ... Open Access DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT ... Vegetation data were gathered in such a way that those of different successional stages could be identified.

  14. The effects of potential changes in United States beef production on global grazing systems and greenhouse gas emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dumortier, Jerome; Hayes, Dermot J; Carriquiry, Miguel; Elobeid, Amani; Fabiosa, Jacinto F; Dong, Fengxia; Du Xiaodong; Martin, Pamela A; Mulik, Kranti

    2012-01-01

    We couple a global agricultural production and trade model with a greenhouse gas model to assess leakage associated with modified beef production in the United States. The effects on emissions from agricultural production (i.e., methane and nitrous oxide emissions from livestock and crop management) as well as from land-use change, especially grazing system, are assessed. We find that a reduction of US beef production induces net carbon emissions from global land-use change ranging from 37 to 85 kg CO 2 -equivalent per kg of beef annualized over 20 years. The increase in emissions is caused by an inelastic domestic demand as well as more land-intensive cattle production systems internationally. Changes in livestock production systems such as increasing stocking rate could partially offset emission increases from pasture expansion. In addition, net emissions from enteric fermentation increase because methane emissions per kilogram of beef tend to be higher globally. (letter)

  15. Effects of pasture management and off-stream water on temporal/spatial distribution of cattle and stream bank characteristics in cool-season grass pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarte, K A; Russell, J R; Morrical, D G

    2011-10-01

    A 2-yr grazing experiment was conducted to assess the effects of grazing management on cattle distribution and pasture and stream bank characteristics. Six 12.1-ha cool-season grass pastures in central Iowa were allotted to 1 of 3 treatments: continuous stocking with unrestricted stream access (CSU), continuous stocking with stream access restricted to 4.9-m-wide stabilized crossings (CSR), or rotational stocking with stream access restricted to a riparian paddock (RP). Pastures were stocked with 15 fall-calving Angus cows (Bos taurus L.) from mid-May to mid-October for 153 d in 2008 and 2009. A global positioning system (GPS) collar recording cow position every 10 min was placed on at least 1 cow per pasture for 2 wk of each month from May through September. Off-stream water was provided to cattle in CSU and CSR treatments during the second of the 2 wk when GPS collars were on the cattle. A black globe temperature relative humidity index (BGTHI) was measured at 10-min intervals to match the time of the GPS measurements. Each month of the grazing season, forage characteristics (sward height, forage mass, and CP, IVDMD, and P concentrations) and bare and fecal-covered ground were measured. Stream bank erosion susceptibility was visually scored in May, August, and October (pre-, mid-, and post-stocking). Cattle in RP and CSR treatments spent less time (P CSR treatment reduced the probability (P CSR and RP treatments in the stream and streamside zones in September and October and in July and September. Streams in pastures with the CSU treatment had less stable banks (P CSR treatments. Results show that time spent by cattle near pasture streams can be reduced by RP or CSR treatments, thereby decreasing risks of sediment and nutrient loading of pasture streams even during periods of increased BGTHI.

  16. Comparative study of biogas from cattle dung and mixture of cattle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper compares the rate of biogas production of cattle dung and a mixture of plantain peels with cattle dung. 18kg of cattle dung mixed with 36kg of water were charged to a digester while 9kg each of cattle dung and plantain peels mixed together with 36kg of water were charged to a separate digester. Both digesters ...

  17. Prevalence of Endoglobular Hemotropic Parasites in Pure Gyr Cattle in Córdoba, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Blanco Martínez

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Bovine parasitic sadness produces significant losses in Colombia and it is associated with the presence of ticks. It is caused by microscopic endoglobular hemotropic parasites such as Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. In this study, 131 pure Gyr cows were studied from four cattle farms in Córdoba, Colombia. A blood sample of 5 ml was collected from the coccygeal vein for hematocrit determination and for blood smears stained with Wright’s stain, in order to assess intracellular parasitic forms morphologically compatible with Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. Chi-square test was used to determine whether the variables of body condition, mucous color, sex and production system (grazing, semi-confinement, and confinement were independent from the frequency of endoglobular hemotropic parasites. The study found that 24.43% of the sampled animals were positive for endoglobular hemotropic parasites; 20.61% (27/131 of them were positive for Anaplasma spp.; 3.05% (4/131 for Babesia spp., and 0.76% (1/131 for both Anaplasma spp. and Babesia spp. No significant differences (p > 0.05 were found for variables of mucous color, sex and production system (grazing, semi-confinement, and confinement. This allowed to register for the first time the prevalence of infection by endoglobular hemotropic parasites in Bos indicus cattle, of the Gyr breed specifically.

  18. Neutron activation analysis application for determining iron concentration in forage grasses used in intensive cattle production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armelin, Maria Jose A.; Primavesi, Odo

    2002-01-01

    Iron is an essential element to the life. It is an important hemoglobin component and it is involved in the transport of oxygen to cells. A deficiency of iron results in an unsuitable synthesis of hemoglobin and a delay in the growth. Iron contents above the tolerable level in animal feed can cause serious damages to the health and the death in extreme cases. The forages are the main source of feed to cattle in grazing. It is known from the literature, that the growth and the nutritious value of the forage are influenced by specie and physiologic age of the plant, soil fertility and environmental conditions. Therefore, an agronomical evaluations of the forages are necessary before to introduce in an intensive cattle production systems to program adequate grazing management. Neutron activation analysis was applied to evaluate the Fe concentration in the main tropical forage grasses used in intensive dairy cattle production systems in Sao Carlos, SP, Brazil. Iron concentrations were smaller in the rain season than in the dry one. Comparison of results obtained in the analyses of forages with daily requirements of iron in dry matter, showed that the Fe concentration in forages was adequate. (author)

  19. Sexual behaviour in cattle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, G.J.

    1990-01-01

    Short duration or weak expression of oestrus are frequently cited as major reasons for poor results when artificial insemination of Bos indicus breeds is attempted. The existing literature on sexual behaviour certainly indicates that oestrus sometimes lasts for only a few hours in Bos indicus, but similar patterns are also reported in Bos taurus animals. The period of sexual receptivity in suckled Hereford or Hereford-dairy cross-breds maintained in small, totally confined groups ranged from 1 to 18 h, with a mean of 4.4 h and a median of 3.5 h. In totally confined Holstein cows the onset of the LH surge always followed the beginning of homosexual activity by 1 or 2 h even when the period of receptivity was very short. Thus, the beginning rather than the end of oestrus should be used for estimating ovulation time. The expression of sexual behaviour is modified by many factors, including environmental conditions, the number of peri-oestrous females in the group and the presence of observers. In Hereford beef, Holstein dairy and probably all other cattle breeds, the variability in duration and intensity of oestrous activity is very large, so generalizations on a typical individual behavioural pattern are not possible. (author). 39 refs, 1 fig., 2 tabs

  20. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M; Herrera, E; Ruiz, O; Reyes, O; Carrete, F O; Gutierrez, H

    2016-05-01

    increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). However, acetate concentrations decreased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Liquid dilution rate increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation but ruminal liquid volume decreased (p<0.05). On the basis of these findings, we can conclude that CDDGS supplementation enhanced the productive performance of cattle grazing native rangeland without negatively affecting forage intake, glucose and urea-nitrogen blood concentrations, ruminal degradation and ruminal fermentation patterns.

  1. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Murillo

    2016-05-01

    increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05. However, acetate concentrations decreased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05. Liquid dilution rate increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation but ruminal liquid volume decreased (p<0.05. On the basis of these findings, we can conclude that CDDGS supplementation enhanced the productive performance of cattle grazing native rangeland without negatively affecting forage intake, glucose and urea-nitrogen blood concentrations, ruminal degradation and ruminal fermentation patterns.

  2. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Ruiz, O.; Reyes, O.; Carrete, F. O.; Gutierrez, H.

    2016-01-01

    increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). However, acetate concentrations decreased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Liquid dilution rate increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation but ruminal liquid volume decreased (p<0.05). On the basis of these findings, we can conclude that CDDGS supplementation enhanced the productive performance of cattle grazing native rangeland without negatively affecting forage intake, glucose and urea-nitrogen blood concentrations, ruminal degradation and ruminal fermentation patterns. PMID:26954168

  3. Cattle management practices and milk production on mixed smallholder organic pineapple farms in Central Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nalubwama, S; Kabi, F; Vaarst, M

    2016-01-01

    A longitudinal study to assess animal management practices and milk production was conducted for a period of 12 months on 30 smallholder farms keeping dairy cattle and certified organic pineapple production in Luwero and Kayunga districts, based on questionnaire and on-farm collected data. Farm...... sizes were 9.3 ± 6.7 acres in tethering system and 4.3 ± 2.6 acres in zero-grazing. Fifty-four percent of the zero-grazing herds had animal housing facilities. All farmers in tethering system kept cows on earthen floors and calves without bedding. Hygiene level in existing farms was low. Majority...... of calves were fed once a day by restricted suckling (77 %). Seventy-four percent of tethered cows were only fed on natural grass, while cows under zero-grazing system had a more diversified diet but with 82 % feeding mainly Napier grass. Most farms (87 %) used bulls for breeding. Milk production was higher...

  4. 7 CFR 1260.118 - Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cattle. 1260.118 Section 1260.118 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS... Promotion and Research Order Definitions § 1260.118 Cattle. Cattle means live domesticated bovine animals...

  5. Characterization of Genetic Variation in Icelandic Cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars-Erik; Das, Ashutosh; Momeni, Jamal

    Identification of genetic variation in cattle breeds using next-generation sequencing technology has focused on the modern production cattle breeds. We focused on one of the oldest indigenous breeds, the Icelandic cattle breed. Sequencing of two individuals enabled identification of more than 8...

  6. Produção de forragem e de grãos de aveia branca sob pastejo Forage and grain yield of white oat under grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Cambrussi Bortolini

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos neste estudo foram quantificar os efeitos da desfolhação resultante de diferentes períodos de pastejo em aveia branca (Avena sativa L., avaliar os potenciais forrageiro e granífero do cultivar FAPA 2 e determinar o período máximo de permanência dos animais em pastejo para possibilitar colheita de forragem sem afetar a produção de grãos. Os tratamentos (sem pastejo, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 e 8 semanas de pastejo foram distribuídos em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições, em subparcelas, nas quais foram avaliados os períodos de pastejo. O cultivar de aveia branca avaliado demonstrou adequada recuperação à desfolhação para produção de altas quantidades de matéria seca, desde que a duração de pastejo não ultrapasse quatro semanas. Em pastejos prolongados (cinco, seis, sete e oito semanas, ocorre queda na produção de matéria seca e lenta recuperação de área foliar. O aumento no rendimento de grãos de aveia branca ocorre em períodos de 1 a 4 semanas de pastejo, em decorrência da redução do acamamento e da menor altura do meristema apical. Em desfolhações de 5 a 8 semanas de pastejo, a redução no rendimento de grãos acompanha o declínio do número de espigas por área, de espiguetas por espiga e de grãos por espiga. O pastejo controlado até quatro semanas estimula a produção de matéria seca e permite a produção de grãos, além de promover oportunidade para produção animal, demonstrando a alta aptidão desse cultivar ao sistema de duplo propósito.To quantify defoliation effects resulting from several grazing periods with cattle on white oat (Avena sativa L. an experiment was run at Experimental Station of Fundação Agrária de Pesquisa Agropecuária in Guarapuava, Paraná State, Brazil, from April to November of 1999. The specific objectives were to evaluate potential forage and grain yield of white oat cv. FAPA 2 after different grazing periods as well as to

  7. Occurrences of Indigestible Foreign Bodies in Cattle Slaughtered at Morogoro Municipal Slaughterhouse, Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F. Bwatota

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the occurrence of indigestible foreign bodies (IFB in cattle slaughtered at Morogoro Municipal Slaughterhouse, Tanzania. A total of 387 slaughter cattle were examined for presence of IFB. Out of 387 examined cattle, 93 (24.03% had IFB in their forestomachs. The observed IFB were plastic bags, fruit seeds, clothing materials, ropes, hairballs, leather materials, stones, metallic nails, and wire. Plastic bags were the most frequently (50.5% observed IFB followed by fruit seeds (18.3%. A significantly (p<0.05 high proportion of old animals (31.7% had IFB compared to the young animals (21.2%. Similarly, the frequency of occurrence of IFB was significantly high (p<0.05 in crossbred dairy cattle (42.3% compared to local breeds (22.7%. Cattle that appeared with poor body condition (37.8% were found to be more affected (p<0.05 by IFB than those with good body condition (15.9%. In 91.4% of animals which had IFB, all the materials were located in the rumen. This study showed that presence of IFB is a common problem in cattle slaughtered at Morogoro Municipal Slaughterhouse and may significantly cause poor production and mortality in affected animals. Therefore, appropriate solid waste disposal should be implemented.

  8. Occurrences of Indigestible Foreign Bodies in Cattle Slaughtered at Morogoro Municipal Slaughterhouse, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwatota, S F; Makungu, M; Nonga, H E

    2018-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted to determine the occurrence of indigestible foreign bodies (IFB) in cattle slaughtered at Morogoro Municipal Slaughterhouse, Tanzania. A total of 387 slaughter cattle were examined for presence of IFB. Out of 387 examined cattle, 93 (24.03%) had IFB in their forestomachs. The observed IFB were plastic bags, fruit seeds, clothing materials, ropes, hairballs, leather materials, stones, metallic nails, and wire. Plastic bags were the most frequently (50.5%) observed IFB followed by fruit seeds (18.3%). A significantly ( p < 0.05) high proportion of old animals (31.7%) had IFB compared to the young animals (21.2%). Similarly, the frequency of occurrence of IFB was significantly high ( p < 0.05) in crossbred dairy cattle (42.3%) compared to local breeds (22.7%). Cattle that appeared with poor body condition (37.8%) were found to be more affected ( p < 0.05) by IFB than those with good body condition (15.9%). In 91.4% of animals which had IFB, all the materials were located in the rumen. This study showed that presence of IFB is a common problem in cattle slaughtered at Morogoro Municipal Slaughterhouse and may significantly cause poor production and mortality in affected animals. Therefore, appropriate solid waste disposal should be implemented.

  9. STUDY OF GIVING FEED SUPPLEMENT ON PRODUCTIVITY PO CATTLE IN SUBANG DISTRICT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erni Gustiani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Decreasing of population and productivity of beef cattle due to low of post partus reproduction capability. Feeding at the last of pregnancy and early lactation period has not appropriate with the needs of cattle that caused this condition. Need the right strategy and technology to support that condition. Improvement of feed quality intake at the period is one attempt to increase of productivition capability. Assessment aims to determine the performance of beef cattle productivity capability through the improvement of feed quality. Research was conducted at Family Jaya livestock farmers group in Ponggang Village, Serangpanjang District, Subang Regency, and carried out from June to November 2013. Feed quality improvement by introduction feed supplementation (concentrates and UMB that is given at the last of pregnancy period and the early lactation period during 2 months before partus and 2 months after partus(flushing. While animal control / comparison fed in accordance with the habits of farmers is only given forage and agricultural waste which is not given every day. Provision of drinking water is done ad-libitum. Livestock productivity parameters measured were body weight calf; daily weight gain of cattle calf and post-partum estrus parent. Data collected were tabulated and analyzed by t-test. The study showed that cattle treated with additional feed gives a better effect on birth weight, weight gain of cattle and post-partum estrus.

  10. Rotation grazing as a conservation management tool : Vegetation changes after six years of application in a salt marsh ecosystem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lagendijk, D. D. Georgette; Howison, Ruth A.; Esselink, Peter; Ubels, Richard; Smit, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Grazing is commonly used in conservation to promote biodiversity, but the search for a grazing management regime that optimises biodiversity is still ongoing. Rotation grazing, where grazing is followed by a relatively long period of non-grazing, is a relative new tool in conservation management,

  11. Population Dynamics and Transcriptomic Responses of Chorthippus albonemus (Orthoptera: Acrididae to Herbivore Grazing Intensity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinghu Qin

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Livestock grazing can trigger outbreaks of insect pests in steppe ecosystems of Inner Mongolia in China. However, the physiological responses of the grasshopper Chorthippus albonemus to grazing are not well-understood. Here we investigated the effects of sheep grazing on the population dynamics and transcriptomic response of C. albonemus. We collected the insects three times (about 20 days apart in 1.33-ha plots in which there were no grazing, light grazing, moderate grazing, heavy grazing, or overgrazing. Our results showed that continuous grazing significantly decreased plant biomass and influenced plant succession. Total insect species diversity significantly declined along the grazing intensity gradient and over time. Results of the first two collections of C. albonemus indicated that moderate grazing significantly increased the abundance of C. albonemus. However, abundance was significantly decreased in plots that were overgrazed, possibly because of food stress and environmental pressures. Under moderate grazing, betA and CHDH genes were significantly upregulated in C. albonemus. In response to higher grazing intensity, upregulated genes included those involved in serine-type peptidase activity, anatomical structure development, and sensory organ development; downregulated genes included those involved in the structural constituents of the ribosome and ribosome processes. Genes strongly upregulated in response to heavy grazing pressure included adaptive genes such as those encoding ankyrin repeat domain-containing protein and HSP. These findings improve our understanding of the role of the transcriptome in C. albonemus population response to livestock grazing and may provide useful targets for grasshopper control.

  12. Effects of past and present livestock grazing on herpetofauna in a landscape-scale experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Geoffrey M; Mortelliti, Alessio; Tulloch, Ayesha; Barton, Philip; Florance, Daniel; Cunningham, Saul A; Lindenmayer, David B

    2017-04-01

    Livestock grazing is the most widespread land use on Earth and can have negative effects on biodiversity. Yet, many of the mechanisms by which grazing leads to changes in biodiversity remain unresolved. One reason is that conventional grazing studies often target broad treatments rather than specific parameters of grazing (e.g., intensity, duration, and frequency) or fail to account for historical grazing effects. We conducted a landscape-scale replicated grazing experiment (15,000 km 2 , 97 sites) to examine the impact of past grazing management and current grazing regimes (intensity, duration, and frequency) on a community of ground-dwelling herpetofauna (39 species). We analyzed community variables (species richness and composition) for all species and built multiseason patch-occupancy models to predict local colonization and extinction for the 7 most abundant species. Past grazing practices did not influence community richness but did affect community composition and patch colonization and extinction for 4 of 7 species. Present grazing parameters did not influence community richness or composition, but 6 of the 7 target species were affected by at least one grazing parameter. Grazing frequency had the most consistent influence, positively affecting 3 of 7 species (increased colonization or decreased extinction). Past grazing practice affected community composition and population dynamics in some species in different ways, which suggests that conservation planners should examine the different grazing histories of an area. Species responded differently to specific current grazing practices; thus, incentive programs that apply a diversity of approaches rather than focusing on a change such as reduced grazing intensity should be considered. Based on our findings, we suggest that determining fine-scale grazing attributes is essential for advancing grazing as a conservation strategy. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  13. Habitat‐ and rainfall‐dependent biodiversity responses to cattle removal in an arid woodland–grassland environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, Anke S K; Wardle, Glenda M; Dickman, Chris R; Greenville, Aaron C

    Biodiversity conservation in rangeland environments is often addressed by removing livestock, but inconsistent responses by biota mean that the efficacy of this form of management is hotly debated. Reasons for this inconsistency include the usually short duration and small spatial scale of manipulations compared to the area of grazing properties, as well as divergent responses amongst biota. In low-productivity arid environments, the pulse-reserve dynamic also complicates the outcome of manipulations. Here, we tested and extended these ideas in a heterogeneous desert environment in central Australia that consists of small patches of open woodland (gidgee) in a grassland (spinifex) matrix. Taking advantage of a controlled property-scale removal of cattle, and a rain event that stimulated productivity, we first quantified differences in the vegetation and small vertebrates of these two habitats, and then tracked the diversity, composition, and abundance of these biota for 6–19 months post-rain. We predicted that the two habitats would differ in the structure, composition, and reproductive output of their constituent plant species. We predicted also that the effects of cattle removal would interact with these habitat differences, with the abundance, richness, and diversity of small mammals and reptiles differing across habitats and grazing treatments. As anticipated, plant species composition in woodland was distinct from that in grassland and varied over time. The effects of cattle removal were habitat specific: Plant composition responded to de-stocking in woodland, but not in grassland; flowers were more abundant, and palatable plant cover also was greater following cessation of grazing pressure. The responses of small mammals but not reptiles showed some accord with our predictions, varying over time but inconsistently with treatment, and perhaps reflected high variability in capture success. We conclude that the timing and length of sampling are important when

  14. Greenhouse Gas Emissions of Beef Cattle Production in the Southern Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannan, N.; Niraula, R.; Saleh, A.; Osei, E.; Cole, A.; Todd, R.; Waldrip, H.; Aljoe, H.

    2017-12-01

    A five-year USDA-funded study titled "Resilience and vulnerability of beef cattle production in the Southern Great Plains under changing climate, land use, and markets" was initiated as a multi-institutional collaboration involving Texas Institute for Applied Environmental Research (TIAER)—Tarleton State University, United States Department of Agriculture (USDA)—Agricultural Research Service (ARS) in El Reno, Oklahoma, USDA—ARS in Bushland, Texas, Kansas State University, Oklahoma State University, University of Oklahoma, and the Noble Research Institute in Ardmore, Oklahoma. The project goal is to safeguard and promote regional beef production while mitigating its environmental footprint. Conducting a full Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) is one of the major objectives of the study, in addition to field experiments, extension, outreach, and education. Estimation of all the resource use and greenhouse gas emissions are parts of the LCA. A computer model titled Animal Production Life Cycle Analysis Tool (APLCAT) is developed and applied to conduct the LCA on beef cattle production in the study region. The model estimates water use, energy requirements, and emissions of enteric methane, manure methane, nitrous oxide, and carbon dioxide. Also included in the LCA analysis are land-atmospheric exchanges of methane, nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and the global warming potential. Our study is focused on the cow-calf and stocker phases of beef cattle production. The animal production system in the study region is predominantly forage based with protein and energy supplements when needed. Spring calving typical to the study region. In the cow-calf phase animals typically graze native prairie although introduced pasture grazing is also prevalent. Stockers use winter pasture as the major feed. The results of greenhouse gas emissions summarized per kg of hot carcass weight or animal fed will be presented.

  15. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  16. Summary report of the grazing studies conducted on a plutonium-contaminated range in Area 13 of the Nevada Test Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.D.

    1979-05-01

    Actinide concentrations in the tissues of beef animals periodically sacrificed and sampled during a 3-year grazing study on a plutonium-contaminated range of the Nevada Test Site are tabulated and discussed. The primary objective of this study was to determine the uptake and tissue distribution of the plutonium by ruminants. Food habit analyses of ingesta from rumen-fistulated steers and sacrificed cattle revealed that shrub species made up the major portion of their diet during most seasons of the year. Grasses were preferred during the spring months. Using activity levels found in the rumen contents, it was estimated that a study cow ingested 100 microcuries of plutonium-239 prior to sacrifice. Of this, 16.4 microcuries was in rumen fluids from which a combined retention factor of 0.0034% was calculated for the bone, muscle, and liver. Comparisons of plutonium-239/plutonium-238 ratios in ingesta and tissues indicate that the plutonium-238 is more readily absorbed and retained. No radiologically significant lesions were found. The gonadal concentrations of the actinides were significantly higher than those of blood and muscle and approached those of bone. These data indicate that consideration should be given to the plutonium-239 dose to gonads as well as that to bone, liver, and lungs of man. Actinide concentrations of animals born in the study areas showed an increasing trend with time. Concentrations of plutonium-239 in the lung, liver, muscle, and femur tissues of the Area 13 cattle were significantly higher than in tissues collected from grazing cattle from other sites. The plutonium-239 concentrations in bones, lungs, and livers collected from wildlife with free access to and from the contaminated zones reflect the dilution resulting from these animals ranging into the less contaminated areas around the study sites

  17. Beef Cattle: Selection and Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemson Univ., SC. Vocational Education Media Center.

    Designed for secondary vocational agriculture students, this text provides an overview of selecting and evaluating beef cattle in Future Farmers of America livestock judging events. The first of four major sections addresses topics such as the ideal beef animal, selecting steers, selecting breeding animals, studying the animal systematically, and…

  18. Cattle phenotypes can disguise their maternal ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srirattana, Kanokwan; McCosker, Kieren; Schatz, Tim; St John, Justin C

    2017-06-26

    Cattle are bred for, amongst other factors, specific traits, including parasite resistance and adaptation to climate. However, the influence and inheritance of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) are not usually considered in breeding programmes. In this study, we analysed the mtDNA profiles of cattle from Victoria (VIC), southern Australia, which is a temperate climate, and the Northern Territory (NT), the northern part of Australia, which has a tropical climate, to determine if the mtDNA profiles of these cattle are indicative of breed and phenotype, and whether these profiles are appropriate for their environments. A phylogenetic tree of the full mtDNA sequences of different breeds of cattle, which were obtained from the NCBI database, showed that the mtDNA profiles of cattle do not always reflect their phenotype as some cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes had Bos indicus mtDNA, whilst some cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes had Bos taurus mtDNA. Using D-loop sequencing, we were able to contrast the phenotypes and mtDNA profiles from different species of cattle from the 2 distinct cattle breeding regions of Australia. We found that 67 of the 121 cattle with Bos indicus phenotypes from NT (55.4%) had Bos taurus mtDNA. In VIC, 92 of the 225 cattle with Bos taurus phenotypes (40.9%) possessed Bos indicus mtDNA. When focusing on oocytes from cattle with the Bos taurus phenotype in VIC, their respective oocytes with Bos indicus mtDNA had significantly lower levels of mtDNA copy number compared with oocytes possessing Bos taurus mtDNA (P cattle with a Bos taurus phenotype. The phenotype of cattle is not always related to their mtDNA profiles. MtDNA profiles should be considered for breeding programmes as they also influence phenotypic traits and reproductive capacity in terms of oocyte quality.

  19. Horse grazing systems: understory biomass and plant biodiversity of a Pinus radiata stand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rigueiro-Rodríguez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Horse grazing systems may affect productivity and biodiversity of understory developed under Pinus radiata D. Don silvopastoral systems, while acting as a tool to reduce the risk of fire. This study compared continuous and rotational grazing systems effect upon biomass, fractions of stem, sprouts, leaves and woody parts of Ulex europaeus L. and alpha (Species Richness, Shannon-Wiener and beta (Jaccard and Magurran biodiversity for a period of four years in a P. radiata silvopastoral system. The experiment consisted of a randomized block design of two treatments (continuous and rotational grazing. Biomass, and species abundances were measured - biodiversity metrics were calculated based on these results for a two years of grazing and two years of post-grazing periods. Both continuous and rotational grazing systems were useful tools for reducing biomass and, therefore, fire risk. The rotational grazing system caused damage to the U. europaeus shrub, limiting its recovery once grazing was stopped. However, the more intensive grazing of U. europaeus plants under rotational had a positive effect on both alpha and beta biodiversity indexes due to the low capacity of food selection in the whole plot rather than continuous grazing systems. Biomass was not affected by the grazing system; however the rotational grazing system is more appropriate to reduce U. europaeus biomass and therefore forest fire risk at a long term and to enhance pasture biodiversity than the continuous grazing system.

  20. Herbivore effects on productivity vary by guild: cattle increase mean productivity while wildlife reduce variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles, Grace K; Porensky, Lauren M; Riginos, Corinna; Veblen, Kari E; Young, Truman P

    2017-01-01

    Wild herbivores and livestock share the majority of rangelands worldwide, yet few controlled experiments have addressed their individual, additive, and interactive impacts on ecosystem function. While ungulate herbivores generally reduce standing biomass, their effects on aboveground net primary production (ANPP) can vary by spatial and temporal context, intensity of herbivory, and herbivore identity and species richness. Some evidence indicates that moderate levels of herbivory can stimulate aboveground productivity, but few studies have explicitly tested the relationships among herbivore identity, grazing intensity, and ANPP. We used a long-term exclosure experiment to examine the effects of three groups of wild and domestic ungulate herbivores (megaherbivores, mesoherbivore wildlife, and cattle) on herbaceous productivity in an African savanna. Using both field measurements (productivity cages) and satellite imagery, we measured the effects of different herbivore guilds, separately and in different combinations, on herbaceous productivity across both space and time. Results from both productivity cage measurements and satellite normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) demonstrated a positive relationship between mean productivity and total ungulate herbivore pressure, driven in particular by the presence of cattle. In contrast, we found that variation in herbaceous productivity across space and time was driven by the presence of wild herbivores (primarily mesoherbivore wildlife), which significantly reduced heterogeneity in ANPP and NDVI across both space and time. Our results indicate that replacing wildlife with cattle (at moderate densities) could lead to similarly productive but more heterogeneous herbaceous plant communities in rangelands. © 2016 by the Ecological Society of America.

  1. Seizure disorders in 43 cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angelo, A; Bellino, C; Bertone, I; Cagnotti, G; Iulini, B; Miniscalco, B; Casalone, C; Gianella, P; Cagnasso, A

    2015-01-01

    Large animals have a relatively high seizure threshold, and in most cases seizures are acquired. No published case series have described this syndrome in cattle. To describe clinical findings and outcomes in cattle referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of the University of Turin (Italy) because of seizures. Client-owned cattle with documented evidence of seizures. Medical records of cattle with episodes of seizures reported between January 2002 and February 2014 were reviewed. Evidence of seizures was identified based on the evaluation of seizure episodes by the referring veterinarian or 1 of the authors. Animals were recruited if physical and neurologic examinations were performed and if diagnostic laboratory test results were available. Forty-three of 49 cases fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The mean age was 8 months. Thirty-one animals were male and 12 were female. Piedmontese breed accounted for 39/43 (91%) animals. Seizures were etiologically classified as reactive in 30 patients (70%) and secondary or structural in 13 (30%). Thirty-six animals survived, 2 died naturally, and 5 were euthanized for reasons of animal welfare. The definitive cause of reactive seizures was diagnosed as hypomagnesemia (n = 2), hypocalcemia (n = 12), and hypomagnesemia-hypocalcemia (n = 16). The cause of structural seizures was diagnosed as cerebrocortical necrosis (n = 8), inflammatory diseases (n = 4), and lead (Pb) intoxication (n = 1). The study results indicate that seizures largely are reported in beef cattle and that the cause can be identified and successfully treated in most cases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  2. Forage accumulation in brachiaria grass under continuous grazing with single or variable height during the seasons of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoel Eduardo Rozalino Santos

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate grazing management strategies of Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk managed with different heights under continuous grazing with cattle. Two grazing management strategies were evaluated: maintenance of pasture with an average height of 25 cm throughout the experimental period and maintenance of pasture on the average of 15 cm in height during winter, up to 25 cm from the beginning of spring. The split-plot scheme and the randomized block design with four replications were adopted. The grazing management strategies corresponded to the primary factor, while the seasons (winter, spring and summer corresponded to secondary factor. The reduction of the average sward height to 15 cm in the winter resulted, when compared with pasture maintained at 25 cm, in overall higher growth rates (95 kg/ha.day DM and leaf blade (66.1 kg/ha.day DM, as well as higher rates of total accumulation (81.5 kg/ha.day DM and leaf blade (52.6 kg/ha.day DM. The accumulated forage production (from winter to summer was higher in the pasture lowered to 15 cm in winter (25.6 t/ha DM compared with that managed with an average height of 25 cm (22.2 t/ha DM. Regarding the seasons of the year, in the winter, there were lower rates of overall growth (6.4 kg/ha.day DM, leaf blade (5.6 kg/ha.day DM and pseudostem (0.8 kg/ha.day DM, and also lower total (-6.6 kg/ha.day DM and leaf blade (-7.5 kg/ha.day DM accumulation rates. In the spring there was a higher rate of leaf senescence (22.4 kg/ha.day DM. The accumulation of forage is incremented when the pasture of B. decumbens is lowered to 15 cm during the winter, and in the spring and summer, its average height is increased to 25 cm.

  3. Determinants of Cattle Feeding Profit and Cost of Gain Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Schroeder, Ted C.; Albright, Martin L.; Langemeier, Michael R.; Mintert, James R.

    1993-01-01

    Cattle feeders face risks from fluctuating fed cattle, feeder cattle, and feed prices and cattle performance. Closeout data on 7293 pens of steers are studied to determine the relative impacts of prices and animal performance on cattle feeding profits and cost of gain. Results indicate the importance of managing price risk.

  4. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi-Storm, Nao; Denwood, Matthew; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Halasa, Tariq; Rattenborg, Erik; Boes, Jaap; Enemark, Heidi Larsen; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2017-11-09

    The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark is increasing but appropriate guidelines for control are currently lacking. In order to help develop a control strategy for liver fluke, a risk factor study of farm management factors was conducted and the utility of bulk tank milk (BTM ELISA) as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013) using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola hepatica antibody levels in BTM. A case farm was defined as having a minimum of 3 incidents of liver condemnation due to liver fluke at slaughter (in any age group) during 2013, and control farms were located within 10 km of at least one case farm and had no history of liver condemnation due to liver fluke during 2011-2013. The selected farmers were interviewed over telephone about grazing and control practices, and BTM from these farms was collected and analysed by ELISA in 2014. The final complete dataset consisting of 131 case and 63 control farms was analysed using logistic regression. Heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test, time span between slaughter data and BTM, and the relatively low sensitivity of liver inspection at slaughter. Control of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark should target heifers and

  5. Farm-level risk factors for Fasciola hepatica infection in Danish dairy cattle as evaluated by two diagnostic methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nao Takeuchi-Storm

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of bovine fasciolosis in Denmark is increasing but appropriate guidelines for control are currently lacking. In order to help develop a control strategy for liver fluke, a risk factor study of farm management factors was conducted and the utility of bulk tank milk (BTM ELISA as a tool for diagnosis in Danish dairy cattle farms was assessed. Methods This case-control study aimed to identify farm-level risk factors for fasciolosis in Danish dairy farms (> 50 animals slaughtered in 2013 using two diagnostic methods: recordings of liver condemnation at slaughter, and farm-level Fasciola hepatica antibody levels in BTM. A case farm was defined as having a minimum of 3 incidents of liver condemnation due to liver fluke at slaughter (in any age group during 2013, and control farms were located within 10 km of at least one case farm and had no history of liver condemnation due to liver fluke during 2011–2013. The selected farmers were interviewed over telephone about grazing and control practices, and BTM from these farms was collected and analysed by ELISA in 2014. The final complete dataset consisting of 131 case and 63 control farms was analysed using logistic regression. Results Heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, herd size, breed and concurrent beef cattle production were identified as risk factors associated with being classified as a case farm. With the categorised BTM ELISA result as the response variable, heifers grazing on wet pastures, dry cows grazing on wet pastures, and purchase of cows were identified as risk factors. Within the case and control groups, 74.8 and 12.7% of farms were positive for fasciolosis on BTM ELISA, respectively. The differences are likely to be related to the detection limit of the farm-level prevalence by the BTM ELISA test, time span between slaughter data and BTM, and the relatively low sensitivity of liver inspection at slaughter. Conclusions

  6. Graphite irradiated by swift heavy ions under grazing incidence

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, J; Müller, C; Neumann, R

    2002-01-01

    Highly oriented pyrolytic graphite is irradiated with various heavy projectiles (Ne, Ni, Zn, Xe and U) in the MeV to GeV energy range under different oblique angles of incidence. Using scanning tunneling microscopy, the impact zones are imaged as hillocks protruding from the surface. The diameter of surface-grazing tracks varies between 3 nm (Ne) and 6 nm (U), which is about twice as large as under normal beam incidence. Exclusively for U and Xe projectiles, grazing tracks exhibit long comet-like tails consisting of successive little bumps indicating that the damage along the ion path is discontinuous even for highest electronic stopping powers.

  7. 1000 years of sustainable grazing in Nordic conditions?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    landscapes at different spatial levels. Information on much of this sort of regulation has however been lost through modern times, tended to prefer modern (nature) scientific methods primarily developed as general (meaning not spatially contextual) recommendations for raising productivity. During the later...... years this modern tradition has also been preferred by investigations to find solutions for non-sustainable types of land use in grazing systems. However, much sustainability-relevant wisdom has been accumulated in historical grazing-systems that should be included in the repertoire of knowledge...

  8. X-ray grazing incidence diffraction from multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tixier, S.; Boeni, P.; Swygenhoven, H. van; Horisberger, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    Grazing incidence scattering geometries using synchrotron radiation have been applied in order to characterise the roughness profiles and the structural coherence of multilayers. The lateral correlation length of the roughness profiles was evaluated using diffuse reflectivity in the `out of plane` geometry. This type of measurement is the only diffuse reflectivity technique allowing large lateral momentum transfer. It is typically suitable for correlation lengths smaller than 1000 A. The lateral structural coherence length of Ni{sub 3}Al/Ni multilayers as a function of the layer thickness was obtained by grazing incidence diffraction (GID). 3 figs., 1 ref.

  9. Effect of grazing on the cow welfare of dairy herds evaluated by a multidimensional welfare index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burow, E.; Rousing, T.; Thomsen, P. T.

    2013-01-01

    Structural development in the prime sector has led to increasing herd sizes and new barn systems, followed by less summer grazing for dairy cows in Denmark. Effects of grazing on single welfare measures in dairy cows - for example, the presence of integument alterations or mortality - have been......) inspired multidimensional dairy cow welfare assessment protocol, the within-herd effect of summer grazing compared with winter barn housing in Danish dairy herds with cubicle free-stall systems for the lactating cows. Our hypothesis was that cow welfare in dairy herds was better during summer grazing than...... out to be more beneficial than few daily grazing hours (range average above 9 to 21 h) for the welfare of the dairy herds. In conclusion, this study reports a positive within-herd effect of summer grazing on dairy cow welfare, where many daily grazing hours were more beneficial than few daily grazing...

  10. Diet and fertility in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrujkić Tihomir

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet of high-yield dairy cows process a very complex and acute problem. Much new knowledge in the area of production and preparation of feedstuffs, diet technology, and the interactions that occur between the components of the nutritive feed ration are required in order to resolve this problem. It is necessary constantly to coordinate feed norms with genetic potential which is ever changing and advanced. The observed problems must be resolved using multidisciplinary methods so that a diet can yield good health, and that health contribute to better reproduction and possibilities for more successful breeding and improved performance in cattle farming. In certain countries, thanks to their geographic position and climatic conditions which allow rainfall throughout the year, a natural green diet can be applied, which provides large numbers of green mass components, and with additives which can be supplemented relatively easily. This type of diet is not possible in our farms. It is very important to know which feedstuff components are laking for certain categories of cattle. The used ration must be constant and administered to animals of certain age or production characteristics in order to improve production results at cattle farms. A great problem occurs when diet is reduced due to dried grass and the resulting stress in animals. A 50% diet reduction in young cattle often results in the occurrence of respiratory diseases. Following 10-14 days of treatment, the disease disappears in young animals, but the energy deficit leads to the weakening (depression of the immune system. Even a so-called high-energy diet often causes respiratory diseases. A diet deficient in proteins also affects cows after lactation, as opposed to a normative diet, and a reduced protein diet disturbs the microbial activity in the rumen and the synthesis of compounds which are important for both the cow and the calf, making room for the incidence of metabolic diseases, most

  11. Spanish solid wastes legislation; Legislacion espanola de Residuos Solidos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillon Pelaez, L.; Maranon Maison, E.; Rodriguez Iglesias

    2001-07-01

    A review is made of the regulations in the field of solid wastes with the aim of providing a useful working tool for those entities that generate or manage some type of waste. The coming into force of the current Spanish Wastes Law establishes common regulations for all wastes, substituting all previous Municipal Waste and Toxic and Dangerous Waste Laws. For reasons of greater practical applicability, we have preferred in this paper to classify wastes on the basis of their characteristics. The regulations are thus presented in a series of sections: municipal waste, dangerous wastes, sewage plant sludge, cattle waste and specific risk materials, highlighting in each case those areas of the regulations that are of greater interest for the producers and managers of solid wastes. (Author)

  12. Prescribed grazing for management of invasive vegetation in a hardwood forest understory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ronald A. Rathfon; Songlin Fei; Jason Tower; Kenneth Andries; Michael. Neary

    2014-01-01

    Land managers considering prescribed grazing (PG) face a lack of information on animal stocking rates, timing of grazing, and duration of grazing to achieve desired conditions in natural ecosystems under invasion stress from a variety of nonnative invasive plant (NNIP) species. In this study we tested PG treatments using goats for reducing NNIP brush species and...

  13. 36 CFR 251.103 - Mediation of term grazing permit disputes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mediation of term grazing... Lands § 251.103 Mediation of term grazing permit disputes. (a) Decisions subject to mediation. In those States with Department of Agriculture certified mediation programs, any holder of a term grazing permit...

  14. 36 CFR 222.53 - Grazing fees in the East-noncompetitive procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... lands and the total costs (other than grazing fee costs) of operating on National Forest System lands... the percentage change in the cost of alternative livestock feed. (3) Computation of Annual Grazing Fee... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Grazing fees in the East...

  15. Steers grazing of a rye cover crop influences growth of rye and no-till cotton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small grain cover crops offer opportunities for grazing but effects on following row crops are not well understood. From 1999 through 2008, stocker steers sequence grazed small grains in a 2-paddock rye-cotton-wheat-fallow- rye rotation. Treatments imposed on rye included 1) zero-grazing from 1999; ...

  16. Biomass requirements from natural pastures for livestock grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The problem of seasonal shortages of herbage production from natural pastures in the Ethiopian highlands was investigated. This was done by comparing the available biomass amounts on the pastures with biomass amounts required for livestock grazing and for protecting land slope from soil erosion within a given slope ...

  17. Livestock grazing has minimal effect on the species richness and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Succulent Karoo, one of two arid biodiversity hotspots in the world, is known for its high plant species richness, but little is known about the influence of topography and how it mediates the potentially deleterious effects of grazing. Changes in vegetation species composition, cover and species diversity were examined ...

  18. Ingestive Behaviour of Grazing Ewes Given Two Levels of Concentrate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was expected that concentrate supplementation would reflect directly on forage intake owing to the substitution effect, which causes sheep where the supplement supplied a small proportion of net energy requirement, to have a greater grazing intensity. The two breeds differed in the time spent ruminating or lying, with the ...

  19. The evolution of institutions and rules governing communal grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper traces the tradition and evolution of the institutions and rules governing communal grazing lands in Botswana. It shows how the problem of resource overuse arose partly from the dismantling and delegitimization of traditional resource management institutions that occurred during the colonial period, and was ...

  20. Bacterial production, protozoan grazing, and mineralization in stratified Lake Vechten

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloem, J.

    1989-01-01

    The role of heterotrophic nanoflagellates (HNAN, size 2-20 μm) in grazing on bacteria and mineralization of organic matter in stratified Lake Vechten was studied.

    Quantitative effects of manipulation and fixation on HNAN were checked. Considerable losses were caused by

  1. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... policies on land degradation in Nigeria using soil, vegetation and sustainability as variables for the assessment. ... animals per kilometer square of land and 15,000 persons and 12,500 grazing animals per kilometer square of water. ... OTHER RESOURCES.

  2. Stability, resilience and animal production in continuously grazed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Jones-Sandland model, popularly used in southern Africa, may be criticised because it ignores firstly the long-term effects of grazing intensity on the acceptability and productivity of pasture or veld, and secondly possible discontinuities in the animal performance - stocking rate relationship. A mathematical model is ...

  3. Influence of sward characteristics on grazing behaviour and short ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Relative to temperate systems, there has been few reported detailed assessments of sward characteristics and associated grazing behavior from natural and ... in highly heterogeneous pastures has the potential to provide integrated (sward, animal, management) strategies for sustainable livestock production in Nigeria.

  4. Phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing in the subtropical Northeast Atlantic.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cáceres

    Full Text Available Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E. Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2-5 µm and >5 µm and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11-1.60 d(-1, especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15-1.29 d(-1, suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres.

  5. The national grazing strategy of the Republic of South Africa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The White Paper on Agricultural Policy, tabled in May 1984, made reference to the alarming deterioration of natural rangelands and led to the drawing up of the National Grazing Strategy (NGS), released to parliament in May 1985, which was endorsed by the Department of Agriculture and accepted in its entirety by the ...

  6. The impact of grazing on forage quality of the herbaceous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reports on research conducted in the Mamoro cork oak forest of Morocco to describe the impacts of sheep grazing in March, April, May and June of 1987 and 1988 on seasonal changes in forage quality of the herbaceous vegetation. The study showed that trends in herbage quality were related mainly to plant maturity.

  7. Grazing on Regeneration Sites Encourages Pine Seedling Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond D. Ratliff; Renee G. Denton

    1995-01-01

    Effects of season-long, deferred-rotation, and rest-rotation grazing, on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Dougl. ex Laws.) seedling growth and herbaceous vegetation control were studied in regeneration sites at Boyd Hill, Modoc National Forest, California. Seedlings were planted in 1989. Pine seedling survival and damage did not differ, but the...

  8. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  9. Holistic Management: Misinformation on the Science of Grazed Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Carter

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over 3 billion hectares of lands worldwide are grazed by livestock, with a majority suffering degradation in ecological condition. Losses in plant productivity, biodiversity of plant and animal communities, and carbon storage are occurring as a result of livestock grazing. Holistic management (HM has been proposed as a means of restoring degraded deserts and grasslands and reversing climate change. The fundamental approach of this system is based on frequently rotating livestock herds to mimic native ungulates reacting to predators in order to break up biological soil crusts and trample plants and soils to promote restoration. This review could find no peer-reviewed studies that show that this management approach is superior to conventional grazing systems in outcomes. Any claims of success due to HM are likely due to the management aspects of goal setting, monitoring, and adapting to meet goals, not the ecological principles embodied in HM. Ecologically, the application of HM principles of trampling and intensive foraging are as detrimental to plants, soils, water storage, and plant productivity as are conventional grazing systems. Contrary to claims made that HM will reverse climate change, the scientific evidence is that global greenhouse gas emissions are vastly larger than the capacity of worldwide grasslands and deserts to store the carbon emitted each year.

  10. Research note: Grazing-index method procedures of vegetation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the past, veld condition in the Karoo was assessed using the ecological index methods. This recently changed to the graxing-index method on account of the of the differently estimated grazing-index values being used. The principles governing the method of survey remain the same. The method employs ...

  11. Effects of UV-B irradiated algae on zooplankton grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lange, de H.J.; Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.

    2003-01-01

    We tested the effects of UV-B stressed algae on grazing rates of zooplankton. Four algal species ( Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Cryptomonas sp., Scenedesmus obliquus and Microcystis aeruginosa) were used as food and fed to three zooplankton species ( Daphnia galeata, Bosmina longirostris and

  12. Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research Note Identifying key grazing indicators to monitor trends in the veld condition of Lambert's Bay Strandveld, South Africa. ... from which a minimum number of species necessary to monitor trends in the condition of the veld were determined, making it user-friendly for land-users, extension officers and others. The key ...

  13. Improved grazing activity of dairy heifers in shaded tropical grasslands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andréia Cristina Tavares de Mello

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Trees in the production systems can effectively reduce hot weather-induced stress in the Brazilian Midwest. High temperatures cause changes in animals daily routine, and trees into pastures can promote benefits. The aim of this research was to evaluate the behavior of dairy heifers in silvopastoral systems in the state of Mato Grosso, Brazil. A herd of 24 crossbreed heifers (3/4 and 7/8 Holstein/Zebu, 350kg average weight, was evaluated over three seasons. Piatã grass was managed under three shade levels: full-sun, moderate-shade, and intensive-shade provided by 10 to 12m high Eucalyptus trees. Behavior data were collected every 15 minutes from 8:30h to 16h. Shade availability significantly impacted heifer behavior, mainly affecting grazing frequency and time during the hottest hours. Grazing behavior was affected by shade levels during the different seasons. Heifers showed preferred grazing times. Heifers in the intensive-shade system visited shady areas during the hottest hours throughout the seasons. Heifers in the full sun-system avoided grazing during the warmer times, ceasing feeding activities. Our results from the Brazilian Midwest showed that shade availability causes breed heifers to change their daily routine.

  14. Phytoplankton Growth and Microzooplankton Grazing in the Subtropical Northeast Atlantic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cáceres, Carlos; Taboada, Fernando González; Höfer, Juan; Anadón, Ricardo

    2013-01-01

    Dilution experiments were performed to estimate phytoplankton growth and microzooplankton grazing rates during two Lagrangian surveys in inner and eastern locations of the Eastern North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre province (NAST-E). Our design included two phytoplankton size fractions (0.2–5 µm and >5 µm) and five depths, allowing us to characterize differences in growth and grazing rates between size fractions and depths, as well as to estimate vertically integrated measurements. Phytoplankton growth rates were high (0.11–1.60 d−1), especially in the case of the large fraction. Grazing rates were also high (0.15–1.29 d−1), suggesting high turnover rates within the phytoplankton community. The integrated balances between phytoplankton growth and grazing losses were close to zero, although deviations were detected at several depths. Also, O2 supersaturation was observed up to 110 m depth during both Lagrangian surveys. These results add up to increased evidence indicating an autotrophic metabolic balance in oceanic subtropical gyres. PMID:23935946

  15. Surface - atmosphere exchange of ammonia over grazed pasture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Plantaz, M.A.H.G.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the exchange of ammonia between the atmosphere and grazed pasture in an area of intensive livestock breeding. The term exchange is used because gaseous ammonia can be taken up (dry deposition) as well as released (emission) by this type of surface.
    Ammonia exchange

  16. Assessment of the Effects of Emerging Grazing Policies on Land ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADOWIE PERE

    carbon sequestration and water filtration. ... temperature of 13oc in the north during the harmattan in ... vegetation cover is removed with the view to obtain ... data concerning environmental degradation mitigation ... in terrestrial ecosystems and driving processes that .... Grazing systems, ecosystem response, and global.

  17. Effects of rainfall, competition and grazing on flowering of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Birds, hares and small antelope consumed 10-50% of the flowers. Size-class distributions indicated that little recent recruitment had taken place on a ranch where palatable plants were scarce and where O. sinuatum flower production was severely depressed by grazing sheep.Language: English. Keywords: Asteraceae ...

  18. Response of mountain meadows to grazing by recreational pack stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    David N. Cole; Jan W. van Wagtendonk; Mitchel P. McClaran; Peggy E. Moore; Neil K. McDougald

    2004-01-01

    Effects of recreational pack stock grazing on mountain meadows in Yosemite National Park were assessed in a 5-year study. Yosemite is a designated wilderness, to be managed such that its natural conditions are preserved. Studies were conducted in 3 characteristic meadow types: shorthair sedge (Carex filifolia Nutt.), Brewer’s reed grass (...

  19. Preliminary survey on tsetse flies and trypanosomosis at grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preliminary survey on tsetse flies and trypanosomosis were conducted between. July and August 2007 at grazing fields and villages in and around the Nech Sar national park, with the ultimate intention of forwarding baseline information on the extent of the problem and possible control strategies. . Entomological (Tsetse.

  20. Determining grazing capacity in Namibia with the aid of remote ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Namibian rangelands consist of a mixture of herbaceous and woody components. The main source of income is from farming systems with grass production the predominant source of forage. For rangeland managers to utilise this source sustainably, the accurate determination of grazing capacity is vital since it allows ...

  1. Butterfly responses to prairie restoration through fire and grazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Jennifer A.; Debinski, Diane M.; Koford, Rolf R.; Miller, J.R.

    2007-01-01

    The development of land for modern agriculture has resulted in losses of native prairie habitat. The small, isolated patches of prairie habitat that remain are threatened by fire suppression, overgrazing, and invasion by non-native species. We evaluated the effects of three restoration practices (grazing only, burning only, and burning and grazing) on the vegetation characteristics and butterfly communities of remnant prairies. Total butterfly abundance was highest on prairies that were managed with burning and grazing and lowest on those that were only burned. Butterfly species richness did not differ among any of the restoration practices. Butterfly species diversity was highest on sites that were only burned. Responses of individual butterfly species to restoration practices were highly variable. In the best predictive regression model, total butterfly abundance was negatively associated with the percent cover of bare ground and positively associated with the percent cover of forbs. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that sites with burned only and grazed only practices could be separated based on their butterfly community composition. Butterfly communities in each of the three restoration practices are equally species rich but different practices yield compositionally different butterfly communities. Because of this variation in butterfly species responses to different restoration practices, there is no single practice that will benefit all species or even all species within habitat-specialist or habitat-generalist habitat guilds. ?? 2007 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Production response of lambs receiving creep feed while grazing ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of the study was to determine the production responses of lambs receiving either creep feed or not while grazing two different pastures. The production of ewes within each treatment was also recorded. The study was conducted at both the Kromme Rhee and Langgewens Research Farms. At Kromme Rhee, sheep ...

  3. Effects of Grazing Abandoned Grassland on Herbage Production and Utilization, and Sheep Preference and Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håvard Steinshamn

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Large areas of farmland are abandoned in Norway, which for various reasons are regarded as undesirable. Loss of farmland may have negative implications for biodiversity and ecosystem function and food production potential. The objectives of this study were to assess forage mass production and utilization, botanical composition, lamb performance, and grazing distribution pattern when reintroducing livestock grazing to an abandoned grassland. The study area was located in Central Norway, unmanaged for 12 years. Sheep grazed the area for 10 weeks in 2013 and 4 weeks in spring and autumn, respectively, in 2014 and 2015. During the summer of 2014 and 2015, the area was subjected to the following replicated treatments: (1 No grazing, (2 grazing with heifers, and (3 grazing with ewes and their offspring. The stocking rate was similar in the grazed treatments. Forage biomass production and animal intake were estimated using grazing exclosure cages and botanical composition by visual assessment. Effect on lamb performance was evaluated by live weight gain and slaughter traits in sheep subjected to three treatments: (1 Common farm procedure with summer range pasturing, (2 spring grazing period extended by 1 month on the abandoned grassland before summer range pasturing, and (3 spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland. Grazing distribution patterns were studied using GPS position collars on ewes. Total annual biomass production was on average 72% higher with summer grazing than without. Annual consumption and utilization was on average 218 g DM/m2 and 70% when summer grazed, and 25 g DM/m2 and 18% without grazing, respectively. Botanical composition did not differ between treatments. Live weight gain was higher in lambs subjected to an extended spring grazing period (255 g/d compared to common farm practice (228 g/d and spring and summer grazing on the abandoned grassland (203 g/d, and carcass value was 14% higher in lambs on extended spring

  4. Chromosome fragility in Freemartin cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Barbieri

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to verify chromosome fragility in freemartin cattle using chromosome aberration (CA and sister chromatid exchange (SCE tests. A total of eighteen co-twins were investigated. Fourteen animals were identified as cytogenetically chimeric (2n=60, XX/XY while 4 were classified as normal. Freemartin cattle showed a higher percentage of aneuploid cells (18.64% and highly significant statistical differences (P < 0.001 in mean values of gaps (4.53 ± 2.05, chromatid breaks (0.26 ± 0.51, and significant statistical differences (P < 0.005 in mean values of chromosome breaks (0.12 ± 0.43 when compared to 10 control animals from single births (aneuploid cells, 11.20%; gaps, 2.01 ± 1.42; chromatid breaks, 0.05 ± 0.22; chromosome breaks, 0.02 ± 0.14.

  5. Chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Shekhar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim was to study the chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle. Materials and Methods: 27 female cattle (21 arsenic affected and 6 normal were selected for cytogenetical study. The blood samples were collected, incubated, and cultured using appropriate media and specific methods. The samples were analyzed for chromosome number and morphology, relative length of the chromosome, arm ratio, and centromere index of X chromosome and chromosomal abnormalities in arsenic affected cattle to that of normal ones. Results: The diploid number of metaphase chromosomes in arsenic affected cattle as well as in normal cattle were all 2n=60, 58 being autosomes and 2 being sex chromosomes. From the centromeric position, karyotyping studies revealed that all the 29 pair of autosomes was found to be acrocentric or telocentric, and the sex chromosomes (XX were submetacentric in both normal and arsenic affected cattle. The relative length of all the autosome pairs and sex chrosomosome pair was found to be higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle. The mean arm ratio of X-chromosome was higher in normal than that of arsenic affected cattle, but it is reverse in case of centromere index value of X-chromosome. There was no significant difference of arm ratio and centromere index of X-chromosomes between arsenic affected and normal cattle. No chromosomal abnormalities were found in arsenic affected cattle. Conclusion: The chromosome analysis of arsenic affected cattle in West Bengal reported for the first time in this present study which may serve as a guideline for future studies in other species. These reference values will also help in comparison of cytological studies of arsenic affected cattle to that of various toxicants.

  6. BEEF CATTLE MUSCULARITY CANDIDATE GENES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irida Novianti

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Muscularity is a potential indicator for the selection of more productive cattle. Mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL for traits related to muscularity is useful to identify the genomic regions where the genes affecting muscularity reside. QTL analysis from a Limousin-Jersey double backcross herd was conducted using QTL Express software with cohort and breed as the fixed effects. Nine QTL suggested to have an association with muscularity were identified on cattle chromosomes BTA 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 8, 12, 14 and 17. The myostatin gene is located at the centromeric end of chromosome 2 and not surprisingly, the Limousin myostatin F94L variant accounted for the QTL on BTA2. However, when the myostatin F94L genotype was included as an additional fixed effect, the QTL on BTA17 was also no longer significant. This result suggests that there may be gene(s that have epistatic effects with myostatin located on cattle chromosome 17. Based on the position of the QTL in base pairs, all the genes that reside in the region were determined using the Ensembl data base (www.ensembl.org. There were two potential candidate genes residing within these QTL regions were selected. They were Smad nuclear interacting protein 1 (SNIP1 and similar to follistatin-like 5 (FSTL5. (JIIPB 2010 Vol 20 No 1: 1-10

  7. Effects of cattle husbandry on abundance and activity of methanogenic archaea in upland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radl, Viviane; Gattinger, Andreas; Chronáková, Alica; Nemcová, Anna; Cuhel, Jiri; Simek, Miloslav; Munch, Jean Charles; Schloter, Michael; Elhottová, Dana

    2007-09-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that animal treading associated with a high input of organic matter would favour methanogenesis in soils used as overwintering pasture. Hence, methane emissions and methanogen populations were examined at sections with different degree of cattle impact in a Farm in South Bohemia, Czech Republic. In spring, methane emission positively corresponded to the gradient of animal impact. Applying phospholipid etherlipid analysis, the highest archaeal biomass was found in section severe impact (SI), followed by moderate impact (MI) and no impact. The same trend was observed for the methanogens as showed by real-time quantitative PCR analyses of methyl coenzyme M reductase (mcrA) genes. The detection of monounsaturated isoprenoid side chain hydrocarbons (i20:1) indicated the presence of acetoclastic methanogens in the cattle-impacted sites. This result was corroborated by the phylogenetic analysis of mcrA gene sequences obtained from section SI, which showed that 33% of the analysed clones belonged to the genus Methanosarcina. The majority of the sequenced clones (41%) showed close affiliations with uncultured rumen archaeons. This leads to the assumption that a substantial part of the methanogenic community in plot SI derived from the grazing cattle itself. Compared to the spring sampling, in autumn, a significant reduction in archaeal biomass and number of copies of mcrA genes was observed mainly for section MI. It can be concluded that after 5 months without cattle impact, the severely impact section maintained its methane production potential, whereas the methane production potential under moderate impact returned to background values.

  8. Simulating grazing practices in a complete livestock system model: estimating soil carbon storage and greenhouse gas emissions in grazed versus un-grazed agroecosystems using the Manure-DNDC model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, E. E.; Dorich, C.; Contosta, A.; Varner, R. K.

    2017-12-01

    In livestock agroecosystems, the combined contributions of enteric fermentation, manure management, and livestock grazing and/or feed production play an important role in agroecosystem carbon (C) storage and GHG losses, with complete livestock system models acting as important tools to evaluate the full impacts of these complex systems. The Manure-DeNitrification-DeComposition (DNDC) model is one such example, simulating impacts on C and nitrogen cycling, estimating methane, carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide, and ammonium dynamics in fields, manure storage, and enteric emissions. This allows the evaluation of differences in GHG and soil C impacts between conventional and organic dairy production systems, which differ in their use of grazed pasture versus confined feeding operations. However, Manure-DNDC has received limited testing in representing variations in grazed pasture management (i.e. intensive rotational grazing versus standard grazing practices). Using a set of forage biomass, soil C, and GHG emissions data collected at four sites across New England, we parameterized and validated Manure-DNDC estimations of GHG emissions and soil C in grazed versus un-grazed systems. Soil observations from these sites showed little effect from grazing practices, but larger soil carbon differences between farms. This may be due to spatial variation in SOC, making it difficult to measure and model, or due to controls of edaphic properties that make management moot. However, to further address these questions, model development will be needed to improve Manure-DNDC simulation of rotational grazing, as high stocking density grazing over short periods resulted in forage not re-growing sufficiently within the model. Furthermore, model simulations did not account for variation in interactions between livestock and soil given variability in field microclimates, perhaps requiring simulations that divide a single field into multiple paddocks to move towards more accurate evaluation of

  9. Fall-grown oat to extend the fall grazing season for replacement dairy heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coblentz, W K; Brink, G E; Hoffman, P C; Esser, N M; Bertram, M G

    2014-03-01

    , respectively. Across the 2-yr trial, average daily gain for grazing heifer groups tended to be greater than heifers remaining in confinement (0.85 vs. 0.74 kg/d), but both management strategies produced weight gains within reasonable proximity to normal targets for heifers in this weight range. Fall-grown oat should be managed as stockpiled forage for deferred grazing, and good utilization of fall-oat forage can be accomplished by a one-time removal of standing forage, facilitated by a single lead wire advanced daily to prevent waste. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Major advances in applied dairy cattle nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastridge, M L

    2006-04-01

    Milk yield per cow continues to increase with a slower rate of increase in dry matter intake; thus, efficiency of ruminal fermentation and digestibility of the dietary components are key factors in improving the efficiency of feed use. Over the past 25 yr, at least 2,567 articles relating to ruminant or dairy nutrition have been published in the Journal of Dairy Science. These studies have provided important advancements in improving feed efficiency and animal health by improving quality of feeds, increasing feedstuff and overall diet digestibility, better defining interactions among feedstuffs in diets, identifying alternative feed ingredients, better defining nutrient requirements, and improving efficiency of ruminal fermentation. The publications are vital in continuing to make advancements in providing adequate nutrition to dairy cattle and for facilitating exchange of knowledge among scientists. Forages have been studied more extensively than any other type of feed. Cereal grains continue to be the primary contributors of starch to diets, and thus are very important in meeting the energy needs of dairy cattle. Processing of cereal grains has improved their use. Feeding by-products contributes valuable nutrients to diets and allows feedstuffs to be used that would otherwise be handled as wastes in landfills. Many of these by-products provide a considerable amount of protein, nonforage fiber, fat, and minerals (sometimes a detriment as in the case of P) to diets. The primary feeding system today is the total mixed ration, with still considerable use of the pasture system. Major improvements have occurred in the use of protein, carbohydrates, and fats in diets. Although advancements have been made in feeding practices to minimize the risk of metabolic diseases, the periparturient period continues to present some of the greatest challenges in animal health. Computers are a must today for diet formulation and evaluation, but fewer software programs are developed by

  11. Contaminative influence of beef due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of cattle in an accidental release of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, W. T.; Kim, E. H.; Seo, K. S.; Jung, H. J.; Lee, S. M.; Hang, M. H.

    2004-01-01

    The contaminative influence of beef due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil of cattle, both of which are dealt with as minor contaminative pathways in most radioecological models but may not be neglected, was comprehensively investigated with the improvement of the Korean dynamic food chain model DYNACON. As the results, it was found that both pathways can not be neglected at all in the contamination of beef in the case of an accidental release during the non-grazing period of cattle. The ingestion of soil was more influential in the contamination of beef than the inhalation of air over most time following an release. If precipitation is encountered during an accidental release, contaminative influence due to the ingestion of soil was far greater compared with the cases of no precipitation. This fact was more distinct for a long-lived radionuclide 137 Cs than a short-lived radionuclide 131 I (elemental iodine). Compared with the results for milk performed prior to this study, the contaminative pathways due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil were more important in beef because of longer biological half-lives. In the meantime, in the case of an accidental release during the grazing period of cattle, radioactive contamination due to the ingestion of pasture was dominant irrespective of the existence of precipitation during an accidental release. It means that contaminative influence due to the inhalation of air and the ingestion of soil is negligible like the cases of milk

  12. Estimating the potential intensification of global grazing systems based on climate adjusted yield gap analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J. J.

    2016-12-01

    We report here a first-of-its-kind analysis of the potential for intensification of global grazing systems. Intensification is calculated using the statistical yield gap methodology developed previously by others (Mueller et al 2012 and Licker et al 2010) for global crop systems. Yield gaps are estimated by binning global pasture land area into 100 equal area sized bins of similar climate (defined by ranges of rainfall and growing degree days). Within each bin, grid cells of pastureland are ranked from lowest to highest productivity. The global intensification potential is defined as the sum of global production across all bins at a given percentile ranking (e.g. performance at the 90th percentile) divided by the total current global production. The previous yield gap studies focused on crop systems because productivity data on these systems is readily available. Nevertheless, global crop land represents only one-third of total global agricultural land, while pasture systems account for the remaining two-thirds. Thus, it is critical to conduct the same kind of analysis on what is the largest human use of land on the planet—pasture systems. In 2013, Herrero et al announced the completion of a geospatial data set that augmented the animal census data with data and modeling about production systems and overall food productivity (Herrero et al, PNAS 2013). With this data set, it is now possible to apply yield gap analysis to global pasture systems. We used the Herrero et al data set to evaluate yield gaps for meat and milk production from pasture based systems for cattle, sheep and goats. The figure included with this abstract shows the intensification potential for kcal per hectare per year of meat and milk from global cattle, sheep and goats as a function of increasing levels of performance. Performance is measured as the productivity achieved at a given ranked percentile within each bin.We find that if all pasture land were raised to their 90th percentile of

  13. Patterns in Greater Sage-grouse population dynamics correspond with public grazing records at broad scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Adrian P; Aldridge, Cameron L; Assal, Timothy J; Veblen, Kari E; Pyke, David A; Casazza, Michael L

    2017-06-01

    Human land use, such as livestock grazing, can have profound yet varied effects on wildlife interacting within common ecosystems, yet our understanding of land-use effects is often generalized from short-term, local studies that may not correspond with trends at broader scales. Here we used public land records to characterize livestock grazing across Wyoming, USA, and we used Greater Sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus) as a model organism to evaluate responses to livestock management. With annual counts of male Sage-grouse from 743 leks (breeding display sites) during 2004-2014, we modeled population trends in response to grazing level (represented by a relative grazing index) and timing across a gradient in vegetation productivity as measured by the Normalized Vegetation Difference Index (NDVI). We found grazing can have both positive and negative effects on Sage-grouse populations depending on the timing and level of grazing. Sage-grouse populations responded positively to higher grazing levels after peak vegetation productivity, but populations declined when similar grazing levels occurred earlier, likely reflecting the sensitivity of cool-season grasses to grazing during peak growth periods. We also found support for the hypothesis that effects of grazing management vary with local vegetation productivity. These results illustrate the importance of broad-scale analyses by revealing patterns in Sage-grouse population trends that may not be inferred from studies at finer scales, and could inform sustainable grazing management in these ecosystems. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  14. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus) in two meadows in Denmark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Niels M; Olsen, Henrik; Leirs, Herwig

    2009-01-01

    Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool. PMID:19152713

  15. Livestock grazing intensity affects abundance of Common shrews (Sorex araneus in two meadows in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olsen Henrik

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Current nature conservation in semi-natural grasslands often includes grazing and hay cutting, as well as the abandonment of draining. Semi-natural grassland and in particular meadows constitute important habitat type for a large number of animal species in today's fragmented and intensively cultivated landscape of Europe. Here we focus on the population characteristics of Common shrews Sorex araneus in relation to livestock grazing intensity in two wet meadows in western Denmark. Results High grazing intensity had a significant negative effect on Common shrew number compared to low grazing intensity and no grazing. Common shrew abundance was generally, but not significantly, higher on the low grazing intensity plots than on the ungrazed controls. No differences in body mass, sex ratio, or reproductive output between Common shrew individuals from the various grazing treatments were found. Conclusion No negative effects of low intensity grazing on Common shrew abundance were found compared to the ungrazed control. Low intensity grazing thus seems a suitable management regime for Common shrews, when grazing is needed as part of the meadow management scheme. High intensity grazing on the other hand is not a suitable management tool.

  16. Changes in soil carbon cycling accompanying conversion of row-crop fields to grazing dairy pastures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, A.; Kramer, M. G.; Hill, N.; Machmuller, M. B.; Cyle, K.

    2011-12-01

    Increasingly, the dairy industry in the eastern US is transitioning from total confinement dairy systems (TCD) toward pasture-based, management intensive grazing dairy (MiGD) systems. This transition is driven by the fact that MiGDs require substantially less operating capital and are more economically efficient than TCD systems. Consequently, the impact of this transition and shift in land-use practice on carbon dynamics may be considerable. Land-use in a Management intensive Grazing Dairy (MiGD) system is fundamentally different than conventional confinement dairies and conventional no-till pastures. The forage system involves rotational grazing at optimal digestibility, when the plants are immature (~20-days) and consequently protein-rich. MiGD cows spend >90% of their time in the field and deposit > 90% of their waste directly to the soil surface. Thus, little above ground plant residues are directly returned to the soil, but rather substantial C inputs derive from bovine manure. We sampled a MiGD-chronosequence of row-crop to MiGD conversion established in 2007 in eastern Georgia. All soils across the MiGD-chronosequence, all occur in relative (40 km) close proximity to one another, are deep, well-drained, fine and fine sandy loam Ultisols formed on Coastal Plain sediments. Prior to MiGD established, the soils were farmed for > 50 yrs using conventional tillage techniques. Our current sampling to 1m depths captures fields at 0, 2, 3, and 5 yrs since conversion. Total soil carbon (C) and the carbon concentration of the clay fraction increased following conversion, with the greatest increases occurring between 3 and 5 yrs since conversion. These C increases were limited to the upper 40cm of the soil, with minimal change occurring at depth. Characterization of the protein and ligand content of these soils via 13C NMR and chemolytic techniques as a function of soil particle density and size is in progress and will be presented along with estimates of carbon

  17. Effect of feeding urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole on grazing dairy heifers naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.M. Waruiru

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Between June 1999 and August 2000, the effects of feeding medicated urea-molasses supplement blocks on the growth of dairy heifers in a marginal area of central Kenya were assessed by comparing the live-weight gain of supplemented and unsupplemented heifers grazing the same pasture. Thirty-nine heifers with an average age of 9.6 months were initially treated orally with albendazole (10 mg / kg body weight and assigned to 3 groups : group I was fed urea-molasses blocks with incorporated fenbendazole (MUMB, group II was fed urea-molasses blocks (UMB and group III heifers (control received no block supplementation (NBS. Body weights of the heifers and faecal egg counts (FECs were measured monthly and larval cultures were made of positive faecal samples of each group. The mean cumulative live-weight responses of the MUMB and UMB groups were significantly greater than the NBS group (P 0.05. The FECs were moderate to low in all groups and decreased progressively with increasing age of the animals; FECs for the urea-molasses-supplemented groups remained significantly lower than those of the NBS group throughout the experimental period (P <0.05. Haemonchus and Trichostrongylus were the predominant nematode genera found in the heifers, but Cooperia, Bunostomum and Oesophagostomum were also present. These results indicate that feeding of urea-molasses blocks substantially reduced production losses attributable to nematode infection of young grazing cattle, and confirms previous observations that well-fed animals are better able to overcome the effects of helminth infections.

  18. Diet and cooling interactions on physiological responses of grazing dairy cows, milk production and composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallardo, M. R.; Valtorta, S. E.; Leva, P. E.; Gaggiotti, M. C.; Conti, G. A.; Gregoret, R. F.

    2005-11-01

    The objective of this trial was to evaluate the effects of diet and cooling in the holding pen before milking on rectal temperature, respiration rate and milk production and composition. Fifty-eight lactating Holstein cows were used in a factorial split-plot design, at Rafaela Experimental Station from 12 January to 3 March 2003. The treatments were combinations of two diets: control (CD) and balanced (BD) with two levels of cooling before milking: none (NSF) and a sprinkler and fans (SF). Forage:concentrate ratios for CD and BD were 81:19 and 68:32, respectively. Cows were milked twice daily. Milk production was recorded daily, and milk composition (fat, protein, lactose and urea) was analysed twice a week. The physiological data were recorded once a week, before the cattle entered the holding pen and after milking, in the afternoon. Average maximum weekly temperature humidity index was 75.4 and ranged from 61.4 to 83. There were highly significant effects of cooling on physiological responses. Milk production was affected by diet and cooling, with no interaction; the highest and lowest production of milk was 22.42 and 20.07 l/cow per day, for BD+SF and CD+NSF, respectively. Protein was affected by diet, and was higher for BD (3.17 vs. 3.08%). There were interaction effects on milk fat at the 8% level, the highest concentration being 3.65% for BD+NFS. It was concluded that under grazing conditions, cooling by sprinkler and fans before milking improves the comfort of dairy cows, and that the effects on milk production and composition are enhanced when diets are specially formulated for heat-stress periods.

  19. People on the Farm: Raising Beef Cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crain, Robert L.

    This booklet provides information on raising beef cattle through profiles of two families, the Ritschards of Colorado and the Schuttes of Missouri. Through descriptions of daily life for these families, the booklet discusses the way of life on modern beef cattle farms and the problems and decisions faced by farmers. The booklet explains how…

  20. Enhancement of Cellulose Degradation by Cattle Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seki, Yasutaka; Kikuchi, Yukiko; Kimura, Yoshihiro; Yoshimoto, Ryo; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Aburai, Kenichi; Kanai, Yoshihiro; Ruike, Tatsushi; Iwabata, Kazuki; Sugawara, Fumio; Sakai, Hideki; Abe, Masahiko; Sakaguchi, Kengo

    2015-01-01

    Saccharification of cellulose is a promising technique for producing alternative source of energy. However, the efficiency of conversion of cellulose into soluble sugar using any currently available methodology is too low for industrial application. Many additives, such as surfactants, have been shown to enhance the efficiency of cellulose-to-sugar conversion. In this study, we have examined first whether cattle saliva, as an additive, would enhance the cellulase-catalyzed hydrolysis of cellulose, and subsequently elucidated the mechanism by which cattle saliva enhanced this conversion. Although cattle saliva, by itself, did not degrade cellulose, it enhanced the cellulase-catalyzed degradation of cellulose. Thus, the amount of reducing sugar produced increased approximately 2.9-fold by the addition of cattle saliva. We also found that non-enzymatic proteins, which were present in cattle saliva, were responsible for causing the enhancement effect. Third, the mechanism of cattle saliva mediated enhancement of cellulase activity was probably similar to that of the canonical surfactants. Cattle saliva is available in large amounts easily and cheaply, and it can be used without further purification. Thus, cattle saliva could be a promising additive for efficient saccharification of cellulose on an industrial scale. PMID:26402242

  1. Optimising stocking rate and grazing management to enhance environmental and production outcomes for native temperate grasslands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badgery, Warwick; Zhang, Yingjun; Huang, Ding; Broadfoot, Kim; Kemp, David; Mitchell, David

    2015-04-01

    Stocking rate and grazing management can be altered to enhance the sustainable production of grasslands but the relative influence of each has not often been determined for native temperate grasslands. Grazing management can range from seasonal rests through to intensive rotational grazing involving >30 paddocks. In large scale grazing, it can be difficult to segregate the influence of grazing pressure from the timing of utilisation. Moreover, relative grazing pressure can change between years as seasonal conditions influence grassland production compared to the relative constant requirements of animals. This paper reports on two studies in temperate native grasslands of northern China and south eastern Australia that examined stocking rate and regionally relevant grazing management strategies. In China, the grazing experiment involved combinations of a rest, moderate or heavy grazing pressure of sheep in spring, then moderate or heavy grazing in summer and autumn. Moderate grazing pressure at 50% of the current district average, resulted in the better balance between maintaining productive and diverse grasslands, a profitable livestock system, and mitigation of greenhouse gases through increased soil carbon, methane uptake by the soil, and efficient methane emissions per unit of weight gain. Spring rests best maintained a desirable grassland composition, but had few other benefits and reduced livestock productivity due to lower feed quality from grazing later in the season. In Australia, the grazing experiment compared continuous grazing to flexible 4- and 20-paddock rotational grazing systems with sheep. Stocking rates were adjusted between systems biannually based on the average herbage mass of the grassland. No treatment degraded the perennial pasture composition, but ground cover was maintained at higher levels in the 20-paddock system even though this treatment had a higher stocking rate. Overall there was little difference in livestock production (e.g. kg

  2. The Sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Cattle, Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A Wardrop

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted: serum samples from 2049 humans and 955 cattle in 416 homesteads were analysed for C. burnetii antibodies. Questionnaires covering demographic, socio-economic and husbandry information were also administered. These data were linked to environmental datasets based on geographical locations (e.g., land cover. Correlation and spatial-cross correlation analyses were applied to assess the potential link between cattle and human seroprevalence. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between a range of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors and sero-positivity in both humans and animals. The overall sero-prevalence of C. burnetii was 2.5% in humans and 10.5% in cattle, but we found no evidence of correlation between cattle and human seroprevalence either within households, or when incorporating spatial proximity to other households in the survey. Multilevel modelling indicated the importance of several factors for exposure to the organism. Cattle obtained from market (as opposed to those bred in their homestead and those residing in areas with lower precipitation levels had the highest sero-prevalence. For humans, the youngest age group had the highest odds of seropositivity, variations were observed between ethnic groups, and frequent livestock contact (specifically grazing and dealing with abortion material was

  3. The Sero-epidemiology of Coxiella burnetii in Humans and Cattle, Western Kenya: Evidence from a Cross-Sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardrop, Nicola A; Thomas, Lian F; Cook, Elizabeth A J; de Glanville, William A; Atkinson, Peter M; Wamae, Claire N; Fèvre, Eric M

    2016-10-01

    Evidence suggests that the intracellular bacterial pathogen Coxiella burnetii (which causes Q fever) is widespread, with a near global distribution. While there has been increasing attention to Q fever epidemiology in high-income settings, a recent systematic review highlighted significant gaps in our understanding of the prevalence, spatial distribution and risk factors for Q fever infection across Africa. This research aimed to provide a One Health assessment of Q fever epidemiology in parts of Western and Nyanza Provinces, Western Kenya, in cattle and humans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted: serum samples from 2049 humans and 955 cattle in 416 homesteads were analysed for C. burnetii antibodies. Questionnaires covering demographic, socio-economic and husbandry information were also administered. These data were linked to environmental datasets based on geographical locations (e.g., land cover). Correlation and spatial-cross correlation analyses were applied to assess the potential link between cattle and human seroprevalence. Multilevel regression analysis was used to assess the relationships between a range of socio-economic, demographic and environmental factors and sero-positivity in both humans and animals. The overall sero-prevalence of C. burnetii was 2.5% in humans and 10.5% in cattle, but we found no evidence of correlation between cattle and human seroprevalence either within households, or when incorporating spatial proximity to other households in the survey. Multilevel modelling indicated the importance of several factors for exposure to the organism. Cattle obtained from market (as opposed to those bred in their homestead) and those residing in areas with lower precipitation levels had the highest sero-prevalence. For humans, the youngest age group had the highest odds of seropositivity, variations were observed between ethnic groups, and frequent livestock contact (specifically grazing and dealing with abortion material) was also a risk

  4. Acute photosensitisation and mortality in a herd of dairy cattle in Tasmania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golder, H M; Moss, N; Rogers, G; Jackson, B; Gannon, N; Wong, Ptw; Lean, I J

    2017-01-01

    A herd of Holstein, Jersey, or Holstein-Jersey cross lactating cattle of mixed ages presented with a sudden drop in milk yield in 94/678 cows on 3 October 2014 (Day 0). The herd was located in Gretna in the Derwent Valley (Tasmania, Australia) and had been grazing dryland pasture. On Day 0 the cows variably showed recumbency, peracute photosensitisation, inflamed coronary bands, conjunctival erythema, periauricular oedema, distress indicated by kicking at the flank, bruxism, discomfort, weight shifting, vocalisation indicating pain and depression. Blood samples collected on Day 4 from five clinically affected cows showed high activities of aspartate aminotransferase, glutamate dehydrogenase and gamma-glutamyl transferase. Morbidity, based on the number of treated cases within 72 hours of clinical onset, was estimated at 165/678 cows (24.3%). Mortality over the first 30 days was 19/678 cows (2.8%). Necropsies of two cows on Day 4 showed marked distension of the gall bladder and extensive icterus. Necropsies of another two cows on Day 5 showed enlarged livers with severe damage and oedema of the distal abomasum. Severe ulcerative abomasal gastritis was present in both cows. Hepatic histopathology was consistent with chronic cholangiohepatitis. Fifty-five different mycotoxins were detected from a barley grass (Hordeum murinum) sample from the presumably contaminated pasture. Concentrations of B-trichothecenes, fumonisins, and zearalenone metabolites from this sample were remarkably high. The leaf smut, Jamesdicksonia dactylidis, that has not been previously reported in Tasmania, was identified from the sample of barley grass, but it is not known whether the smut can produce toxins. Probably an undescribed peracute mycotoxicosis associated with the ingestion of contaminated dryland pasture. A definitive diagnosis could not be reached in this case of acute photosensitisation and mortality in dairy cattle grazing possibly contaminated dryland pasture. The findings

  5. An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating

    CERN Document Server

    Chernov, V A; Mytnichenko, S V

    2001-01-01

    An X-ray grazing incidence phase multilayer grating, representing a thin grating placed on a multilayer mirror, is proposed. A high efficiency of grating diffraction can be obtained by the possibility of changing the phase shift of the wave diffracted from the multilayer under the Bragg and total external reflection conditions. A grazing incidence phase multilayer grating consisting of Pt grating stripes on a Ni/C multilayer and optimized for the hard X-ray range was fabricated. Its diffraction properties were studied at photon energies of 7 and 8 keV. The obtained maximum value of the diffraction efficiency of the +1 grating order was 9% at 7 keV and 6.5% at 8 keV. The data obtained are in a rather good accordance with the theory.

  6. Invariant polygons in systems with grazing-sliding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szalai, R; Osinga, H M

    2008-06-01

    The paper investigates generic three-dimensional nonsmooth systems with a periodic orbit near grazing-sliding. We assume that the periodic orbit is unstable with complex multipliers so that two dominant frequencies are present in the system. Because grazing-sliding induces a dimension loss and the instability drives every trajectory into sliding, the system has an attractor that consists of forward sliding orbits. We analyze this attractor in a suitably chosen Poincare section using a three-parameter generalized map that can be viewed as a normal form. We show that in this normal form the attractor must be contained in a finite number of lines that intersect in the vertices of a polygon. However the attractor is typically larger than the associated polygon. We classify the number of lines involved in forming the attractor as a function of the parameters. Furthermore, for fixed values of parameters we investigate the one-dimensional dynamics on the attractor.

  7. Adjustable Grazing-Incidence X-Ray Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Dell, Stephen L.; Reid, Paul B.

    2015-01-01

    With its unique subarcsecond imaging performance, NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory illustrates the importance of fine angular resolution for x-ray astronomy. Indeed, the future of x-ray astronomy relies upon x-ray telescopes with comparable angular resolution but larger aperture areas. Combined with the special requirements of nested grazing-incidence optics, mass, and envelope constraints of space-borne telescopes render such advances technologically and programmatically challenging. The goal of this technology research is to enable the cost-effective fabrication of large-area, lightweight grazing-incidence x-ray optics with subarcsecond resolution. Toward this end, the project is developing active x-ray optics using slumped-glass mirrors with thin-film piezoelectric arrays for correction of intrinsic or mount-induced distortions.

  8. Active Full-Shell Grazing-Incidence Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jacqueline M.; Elsner, Ronald F.; Ramsey, Brian D.; O'Dell, Stephen L.; Kolodziejczak, Jeffery; Weisskopf, Martin C.; Gubarev, Mikhail V.

    2016-01-01

    MSFC has a long history of developing full-shell grazing-incidence x-ray optics for both narrow (pointed) and wide field (surveying) applications. The concept presented in this paper shows the potential to use active optics to switch between narrow and wide-field geometries, while maintaining large effective area and high angular resolution. In addition, active optics has the potential to reduce errors due to mounting and manufacturing lightweight optics. The design presented corrects low spatial frequency error and has significantly fewer actuators than other concepts presented thus far in the field of active x-ray optics. Using a finite element model, influence functions are calculated using active components on a full-shell grazing-incidence optic. Next, the ability of the active optic to effect a change of optical prescription and to correct for errors due to manufacturing and mounting is modeled.

  9. The qualitative variation of Katingan cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Ngaji Utomo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The characterization is main activities in order to identify important trait of Katingan cattle. Information of its phenotypic characteristic is not available yet. The aim of the study is to describe the qualitative characteristic of Katingan cattle. Three location of the study were sub-district of Tewah Sanggalang Garing (Pendahara Village, sub-district of Pulau Malan (Buntut Bali Village, and sub-district of Katingan Tengah (Tumbang Lahang Village. The samples of Katingan cattle were taken as many as possible based on the field conditions to observe pattern of colour, growth of horn and gibbosity appear among two horns. General characteristic of Katingan cattle was various in colours of coat, having horns, humped and dewlop. The main characteristics were expressed at female of Katingan cattle. There were six variations of horn shape at female, however the growth of arching forwards was dominant (78.4%. Horn shape of male was generally grown upside (98.3%. Gibbosity was founded among horn only at female cattle (92.6%. There were 9 combinations of coat colour of female Katingan Cattle, those were brown reddish (27%, brown whitish (14.1%, brown like colour of Bali cattle (13.8%, black (12.5%, brown dull (9.6%, brown sorrel (9.3%, blackish (7.1%, white brownish (5.5% and white grayish (4.5%. Male of Katingan cattle had eight colour combinations, those were brown whitish (14.8%, brown whitish and reddish (14.8%, brown reddish (13.1%, blackish (12.3%, brown whiteish with black withers (10.7%, brown sorrel (9.8% and brown sorrel with black withers (7.8%. Based on qualitative analysis, the Katingan cattle had variations in coat of colour, growth of horn and the gibbosity. The variation of coat colour had potentially selection related to the value of cultural.

  10. Bite frequency measured by head pitch movements in grazing experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oudshoorn, Frank W.; S. Nadimi, Esmaeil; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm

    2010-01-01

    . ECPLF      2007 Skiathos, Greece. p 111-116 Pulido, R.G. & Leaver, J.D., 2001. Quantifying the influence of sward height, concentrate level and initial      milk yield on the milk production and grazing behaviour of continuously stocked dairy cows. Grass      and Forage Science 56, 57-67.    ...

  11. Grazing and metabolism of Euphausia pacifica in the Yellow Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhencheng Tao

    Full Text Available Grazing and metabolism of Euphausia pacifica in the Yellow Sea were studied from September 2006 to August 2007. Euphausia pacifica is a selective-feeding omnivore and grazing rates among different months were monitored using a Coulter Counter and batch culture feeding experiments. Euphausia pacifica mainly grazed microzooplankton in August and September, which resulted in an increase in chlorophyll a concentration. Oxygen consumption rate of E. pacifica was 38.7-42.5 μmol O2 g(-1 DW h(-1 in March, which was four times higher than the oxygen consumption rates in September and December. The vigorous metabolism of E. pacifica in March consumed 3.1% of body carbon daily, which is likely related to its high reproduction and grazing rate. Respiration and metabolism of E. pacifica in September and December were similar and were lower. O:N ratio of E. pacifica was the highest (17.3-23.8 in March when spawning activity occurred and when food was abundant. The energetic source of E. pacifica during September and December was mostly protein from eating a carnivorous diet, including such items as microzooplankton. Euphausia pacifica was found in cold water at the bottom of the Yellow Sea in summer and autumn and maintained a low consumption status. O:N ratios of E. pacifica in March, September, and December were negatively correlated with SSTs and no significant correlation was found between O:N ratios and chlorophyll a concentration. Seawater temperature is clearly the most important parameter influencing the metabolism of E. pacifica.

  12. Population genetic analysis of Theileria parva isolated in cattle and buffaloes in Tanzania using minisatellite and microsatellite markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rukambile, Elpidius; Machuka, Eunice; Njahira, Moses; Kyalo, Martina; Skilton, Robert; Mwega, Elisa; Chota, Andrew; Mathias, Mkama; Sallu, Raphael; Salih, Diaeldin

    2016-07-15

    A population genetic study of Theileria parva was conducted on 103 cattle and 30 buffalo isolates from Kibaha, Lushoto, Njombe Districts and selected National parks in Tanzania. Bovine blood samples were collected from these study areas and categorized into 5 populations; Buffalo, Cattle which graze close to buffalo, Kibaha, Lushoto and Njombe. Samples were tested by nested PCR for T. parva DNA and positives were compared for genetic diversity to the T. parva Muguga vaccine reference strain, using 3micro and 11 minisatellite markers selected from all 4 chromosomes of the parasite genome. The diversity across populations was determined by the mean number of different alleles, mean number of effective alleles, mean number of private allele and expected heterozygosity. The mean number of allele unique to populations for Cattle close to buffalo, Muguga, Njombe, Kibaha, Lushoto and Buffalo populations were 0.18, 0.24, 0.63, 0.71, 1.63 and 3.37, respectively. The mean number of different alleles ranged from 6.97 (Buffalo) to 0.07 (Muguga). Mean number of effective alleles ranged from 4.49 (Buffalo) to 0.29 (Muguga). The mean expected heterozygosity were 0.07 0.29, 0.45, 0.48, 0.59 and 0.64 for Muguga, cattle close to buffalo, Kibaha, Njombe, Lushoto and Buffalo populations, respectively. The Buffalo and Lushoto isolates possessed a close degree of diversity in terms of mean number of different alleles, effective alleles, private alleles and expected heterozygosity. The study revealed more diversity in buffalo isolates and further studies are recommended to establish if there is sharing of parasites between cattle and buffaloes which may affect the effectiveness of the control methods currently in use. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The ability of winter grazing to reduce wildfire size, intensity ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    A recent study by Davies et al. sought to test whether winter grazing could reduce wildfire size, fire behavior metrics, and fire-induced plant mortality in shrub-grasslands. The authors concluded that ungrazed rangelands may experience more fire-induced mortality of native perennial bunchgrasses. The authors also presented several statements regarding the benefits of winter grazing on post-fire plant community responses. However, this commentary will show that the study by Davies et al. has underlying methodological flaws, lacks data necessary to support their conclusions, and does not provide an accurate discussion on the effect of grazing on rangeland ecosystems. Importantly, Davies et al. presented no data on the post-fire mortality of the perennial bunchgrasses or on the changes in plant community composition following their experimental fires. Rather, Davies et al. inferred these conclusions based off their observed fire behavior metrics of maximum temperature and a term described as the “heat load”. However, neither metric is appropriate for elucidating the heat flux impacts on plants. This lack of post-fire data, several methodological flaws, and the use of inadequate metrics describing heat cast doubts on the authors’ ability to support their stated conclusions. This article is a commentary highlights the scientific shortcomings in a forthcoming paper by Davies et al. in the International Journal of Wildland Fire. The study has methodological flaw

  14. Dutchwoman Butte revisited: Examining paradigms for livestock grazing exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jim Sprinkle; Mick Holder; Chas Erickson; Al Medina; Dan Robinett; George Ruyle; Jim Maynard; Sabrina Tuttle; John Hays; Walt Meyer; Scott Stratton; Alix Rogstad; Kevin Eldredge; Joe Harris; Larry Howery; Wesley Sprinkle

    2007-01-01

    In 2000, a collaborative range-monitoring program, "Reading the Range," was established with the University of Arizona Cooperative Extension in Gila County, the Gila County Cattle Growers, and the Tonto National Forest with the assistance of the US Department of Agriculture Renewable Resources Extension Act grant program. Funding for Reading the Range has...

  15. Historic land use and grazing patterns in northern New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol Raish

    1996-01-01

    The entrance of the Spanish into what is now New Mexico in the 1500s permanently altered aboriginal land use and subsistence patterns by the introduction of domesticated animals such as horses, cattle. sheep, goats, and pigs. During the Spanish Colonial and Mexican periods, both the Puebloan groups and the Hispanic settlers practiced mixed farming featuring small...

  16. Influence of grazing and land use on stream-channel characteristics among small dairy farms in the Eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Genevieve; Vondracek, Bruce C.; Jordan, Nicholas R.

    2015-01-01

    Rotational grazing (RG) is a livestock management practice that rotates grazing cattle on a scale of hours to days among small pastures termed paddocks. It may beneficially affect stream channels, relative to other livestock management practices. Such effects and other beneficial effects on hydrology are important to RG's potential to provide a highly multifunctional mode of livestock farming. Previous comparisons of effects of RG and confinement dairy (CD) on adjoining streams have been restricted in scale and scope. We examined 11 stream-channel characteristics on a representative sample of 37 small dairy farms that used either RG or CD production methods. Our objectives were: (1) to compare channel characteristics on RG and CD farms, as these production methods are implemented in practice, in New York, Pennsylvania and Wisconsin, USA; and (2) to examine land use on these farms that may affect stream-channel characteristics. To help interpret channel characteristic findings, we examined on-farm land use in riparian areas 50 m in width along both sides of stream reaches and whole-farm land use. In all states, stream-channel characteristics on RG and CD farms did not differ. Whole-farm land use differed significantly between farm types; CD farms allocated more land to annual row crops, whereas RG farms allocated more land to pasture and grassland. However, land cover in 50 m riparian areas was not different between farm types within states; in particular, many RG and CD farms had continuously grazed pastures in riparian areas, typically occupied by juvenile and non-lactating cows, which may have contributed sediment and nutrients to streams. This similarity in riparian management practices may explain the observed similarity of farm types with respect to stream-channel characteristics. To realize the potential benefits of RG on streams, best management practices that affect stream-channel characteristics, such as protection of riparian areas, may improve aggregate

  17. Milk yield and blood urea nitrogen in crossbred cows grazing Leucaena leucocephala in a silvopastoral system in the Mexican tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria B. Bottini-Luzardo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to assess milk yields, estimate the intake of crude protein (CP and determine the concentrations of blood urea nitrogen (BUN in early post-partum crossbred cows grazing irrigated Leucaena leucocephala (leucaena in a silvopastoral system relative to those in an irrigated grass monoculture.  Twenty-four multiparous cows were randomly allotted at calving on the basis of previous milk yields to 2 grazing treatments: grass monoculture system (MS of Cynodon nlemfuensis (n=12; and an intensive silvopastoral system (ISS composed of leucaena and C. nlemfuensis (n=12.  Cows were supplemented with sorghum grain (ISS or a conventional concentrate (MS during milking to ensure availability of metabolizable energy (ME and CP required for milk production.  Mean estimated intake of leucaena was 5.1±1.3 kg DM/d and estimated CP intakes were 1,479±3.3 and 1,258±3.3 g/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05, while estimated intakes of ME were 161±1.3 and 131±1.4 MJ/d for ISS and MS, respectively (P<0.05.  Milk yields were 13.5 and 14.5 kg/cow/d for cows on ISS and MS, respectively (P>0.05.  Concentrations of BUN were 19.1 mg/dL for cows in ISS and 15.3 mg/dL for cows in MS (P<0.05.  We conclude that intake of leucaena and sorghum grain in an irrigated silvopastoral system was sufficient to substitute for expensive concentrate in the diets of lactating cows grazing irrigated grass monoculture.  However, the higher levels of BUN found in ISS suggest a lower efficiency of N utilization in this treatment.  Restricting consumption of leucaena might be a means of improving efficiency of its use and this warrants investigation. Keywords: Cattle, crude protein, Cynodon nlemfuensis, leucaena, tropical pasturesDOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4159-167

  18. Zooplankton grazing in a eutrophic lake: implications of diel vertical migration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lampert, W.; Taylor, B.E.

    1985-01-01

    During summer and fall, depth profiles of zooplankton community grazing were determined in situ during day and night in the Schoehsee, a small eutrophic lake. Labeled algae of two different sizes were mixed with the natural suspension of phytoplankton in a grazing chamber. A small blue-green alga (Synechococcus, 1 μm) was labeled with 32 P; a larger green alga (Scenedesmus, 4-15 μm) was labeled with 14 C. During summer, grazing in the upper 5 m was negligible during day but strong at night. Hence, algae grow relatively unimpeded by grazing during daytime but are harvested at night. Vertical and diel differences in grazing rates disappeared when the vertical migration ceased in fall. Selectivity of grazing was controlled by the zooplankton species composition. Eudiaptomus showed a strong preference for Scenedesmus. Daphnia showed a slight preference for Scenedesmus, but Ceriodaphnia preferred Synechococcus. Cyclopoid copepodites did not ingest the small blue-green. Because Daphnia and Eudiaptomus were dominant, grazing rates on larger cells were usually higher than grazing rates on the small cells. Negative electivity indices for scenedesmus occurred only when the biomass of large crustaceans was extremely low (near the surface, during day). Zooplankton biomass was the main factor controlling both vertical and seasonal variations in grazing. Highest grazing rates (65%/d) were measured during fall when zooplankton abundance was high. Because differential losses can produce substantial errors in the results, it was necessary to process the samples on the boat immediately after collection, without preservation

  19. Dynamics of forage accumulation in Elephant grass subjected to rotational grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Maia de Lana Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the accumulation dynamics of forage and its components in Elephant grass cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. that were subjected to three post-grazing height treatments (30, 50, and 70 cm from February through May 2009 (experiment one and December 2009 through May 2010 (experiment two. In experiment one, the grazing events started when the light interception by the canopy reached 95%. The same was adopted for experiment two, except for the first grazing event, which was based on the height of the apical meristems of basal tillers. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized complete block with three replications. The pastures that were managed at a post-grazing height of 30 cm exhibited lower rates of leaf and stem growth, total growth and forage accumulation than those that were managed at 50 or 70 cm, indicating that post-grazing height affects Elephant grass. The pastures that were managed at 50 cm exhibited relatively stable accumulation rates and less stem accumulation. Pastures managed at 70 cm of pos-grazing height presented more leaf and stem accumulation. Most apical meristems of Elephant grass should be removed in the first grazing when they reach the post-grazing target height of 50 cm. The elevation in the residual post-grazing height, especially in the summer, raises the regrowth vigor in the Elephant grass cv. Napier pasture. The post-grazing height of 30 cm reduces the growth of the Elephant grass cv. Napier.

  20. Longitudinal field study on bovine Babesia spp. and Anaplasma phagocytophilum infections during a grazing season in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lempereur, Laetitia; Lebrun, Maude; Cuvelier, Pascale; Sépult, Géraldine; Caron, Yannick; Saegerman, Claude; Shiels, Brian; Losson, Bertrand

    2012-04-01

    Anaplasmosis and babesiosis are major tick-borne diseases with a high economic impact but are also a public health concern. Blood samples collected in the spring, summer, and autumn of 2010 from 65 cows in seven different farms in Belgium were monitored with an indirect immunofluorescence antibody test to assess seroprevalence against these pathogens. Seroprevalences to Babesia spp. were measured as 10.7%, 20%, and 12.3% in spring, summer, and autumn, respectively, whereas seroprevalences to Anaplasma phagocytophilum were 30.8%, 77%, and 56.9%, respectively. A total of 805 Ixodes ricinus ticks were collected at the same time from both cattle (feeding ticks) and grazed pastures (questing ticks). The infection level of ticks, assessed by PCR assay, for Babesia spp. DNA was 14.6% and 7.9% in feeding and questing ticks, respectively, whereas 21.7% and 3% of feeding and questing ticks were found be positive for A. phagocytophilum cDNA. Fifty-five PCR-positive samples were identified by sequencing as Babesia sp. EU1, of which five from feeding ticks were positive for both A. phagocytophilum and Babesia sp. EU1. The high density of wild cervids in the study area could explain these observations, as deer are considered to be the main hosts for adults of I. ricinus. However, the absence of Babesia divergens both in feeding and questing ticks is surprising, as the study area is known to be endemic for cattle babesiosis. Increasing cervid populations and comorbidity could play an import role in the epidemiology of these tick-borne diseases.