WorldWideScience

Sample records for gray luvisol typic

  1. Mapping Gray Matter Development: Implications for Typical Development and Vulnerability to Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogtay, Nitin; Thompson, Paul M.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies with brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have scanned large numbers of children and adolescents repeatedly over time, as their brains develop, tracking volumetric changes in gray and white matter in remarkable detail. Focusing on gray matter changes specifically, here we explain how earlier studies using lobar volumes of specific…

  2. Mineralization of organic matter in gray forest soil and typical chernozem with degraded structure due to physical impacts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, V. M.; Zhuravlev, N. S.; Tulina, A. S.

    2015-10-01

    The dynamics of the organic matter mineralization in the gray forest soil and typical chernozem with structure disturbed by physical impacts (grinding and extraction of water-soluble substances) were studied in two long-term experiments at the constant temperature and moisture. The grinding of soil to particles of 0.1, day-1) and difficultly mineralizable (0.01 > k 3 > 0.001, day-1) fractions in the active pool of soil organic matter. The results of the studies show that the destruction of the structural-aggregate status is one of the reasons for the active soil organic matter depletion and, as a consequence, for the degradation of the properties inherent to the undisturbed soils.

  3. Evaluation of deep gray matter volume, cortical thickness and white matter integrity in patients with typical absence epilepsy: a study using voxelwise-based techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correa, D.G.; Ventura, N.; Tukamoto, G.; Gasparetto, E.L.; Zimmermann, N.; Doring, T.M.; Leme, J.; Pereira, M.; Andrea, I. d'; Rego, C.; Alves-Leon, S.V.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cortical thickness and the volume of deep gray matter structures, measured from 3D T1-weighted gradient echo imaging, and white matter integrity, by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with typical absence epilepsy (AE). Patients (n = 19) with typical childhood AE and juvenile AE, currently taking antiepileptic medication, were compared with control subjects (n = 19), matched for gender and age. 3D T1 magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo-weighted imaging and DTI along 30 noncolinear directions were performed using a 1.5-T MR scanner. FreeSurfer was used to perform cortical volumetric reconstruction and segmentation of deep gray matter structures. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI, a white matter skeleton was created, along with a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations. A threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The mean, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Patients with AE presented decreased FA and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity values in the genu and the body of the corpus callosum and right anterior corona radiata, as well as decreased axial diffusivity in the left posterior thalamic radiation, inferior cerebellar peduncle, right cerebral peduncle, and right corticospinal tract. However, there were no significant differences in cortical thickness or deep gray matter structure volumes between patients with AE and controls. Abnormalities found in white matter integrity may help to better understand the pathophysiology of AE and optimize diagnosis and treatment strategies. (orig.)

  4. Evaluation of deep gray matter volume, cortical thickness and white matter integrity in patients with typical absence epilepsy: a study using voxelwise-based techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, D.G.; Ventura, N.; Tukamoto, G.; Gasparetto, E.L. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Zimmermann, N. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Pontifical Catholic University of Rio Grande do Sul, Department of Psychology, Porto Alegre (Brazil); Doring, T.M. [Clinica de Diagnostico por Imagem (CDPI), Rio de Janeiro (Brazil); Leme, J.; Pereira, M. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Radiology, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Andrea, I. d' ; Rego, C.; Alves-Leon, S.V. [Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Department of Neurology, Epilepsy Center, Hospital Universitario Clementino Fraga Filho, Rio de Janeiro (Brazil)

    2017-03-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the cortical thickness and the volume of deep gray matter structures, measured from 3D T1-weighted gradient echo imaging, and white matter integrity, by diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in patients with typical absence epilepsy (AE). Patients (n = 19) with typical childhood AE and juvenile AE, currently taking antiepileptic medication, were compared with control subjects (n = 19), matched for gender and age. 3D T1 magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo-weighted imaging and DTI along 30 noncolinear directions were performed using a 1.5-T MR scanner. FreeSurfer was used to perform cortical volumetric reconstruction and segmentation of deep gray matter structures. For tract-based spatial statistics analysis of DTI, a white matter skeleton was created, along with a permutation-based inference with 5000 permutations. A threshold of p < 0.05 was used to identify abnormalities in fractional anisotropy (FA). The mean, radial, and axial diffusivities were also projected onto the mean FA skeleton. Patients with AE presented decreased FA and increased mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity values in the genu and the body of the corpus callosum and right anterior corona radiata, as well as decreased axial diffusivity in the left posterior thalamic radiation, inferior cerebellar peduncle, right cerebral peduncle, and right corticospinal tract. However, there were no significant differences in cortical thickness or deep gray matter structure volumes between patients with AE and controls. Abnormalities found in white matter integrity may help to better understand the pathophysiology of AE and optimize diagnosis and treatment strategies. (orig.)

  5. Corrensite in Albic Luvisol at Podmokly (Křivoklátsko Protected Landscape Area, Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Žigová, Anna; Šťastný, Martin; Novák, F.; Hájek, P.; Šrein, V.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 4 (2017), s. 463-474 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:67985831 Keywords : Skryje-Týřovice Basin * Buchava Formation * Albic Luvisol * loess * volcanic rocks * clay minerals * corrensite Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science OBOR OECD: Soil science Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016

  6. Degradation rates of alachlor, atrazine and bentazone in the profiles of Polish Luvisols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paszko, Tadeusz; Muszyński, Paweł

    2017-07-01

    The degradation rates of three herbicides (alachlor, atrazine, and bentazone) were examined according to OECD Guideline 307 in three profiles of grey-brown podzolic soil (Luvisol) in a laboratory experiment. The aim of the experiment was to determine herbicide degradation parameters and their relationships with soil properties. Degradation processes were effectively described by a first-order model. However, in some cases, the best results were produced by bi-phasic kinetics (hockey-stick and bi-exponential model). The degradation rates of the tested herbicides at 25°C and 40% maximum water holding capacity, established based on half-life values in the Ap horizon, increased in the following order: atrazine (32.6-42.8 days) herbicide degradation rates and the organic matter content of soils. The depth-dependent degradation factors obtained for topsoil and two subsoil horizons (1: 0.42: 0.11 - based on average values, and 1: 0.31: 0.12 - based on median values) reflect the degradation abilities of Polish Luvisols. The values noted are soil-specific; therefore, they can also be applied to other pesticides in Polish Luvisols.

  7. Impacts of long-term waste-water irrigation on the development of sandy Luvisols: consequences for metal pollutant distributions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oort, van F.; Jongmans, A.G.; Lamy, I.; Baize, D.; Chevallier, P.

    2008-01-01

    Studies relating macro- and microscopic aspects of impacts of long-term contaminative practices on soils are scarce. We performed such an approach by assessing the fate of metal pollutants in an area close to Paris, where sandy Luvisols were irrigated for 100 years with urban waste water. As a

  8. STABILITY OF ORGANIC MATER OF HAPLIC CHERNOZEM AND HAPLIC LUVISOL OF DIFFERENT ECOSYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ERIKA TOBIAŠOVÁ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the changes in soil organic matter (SOM and the possibilities of their monitoring in a shorter period of time by means of carbon parameters were followed. The experiment includes four ecosystems (forest, meadow, urban, and agro-ecosystem on Haplic Chernozem (Močenok, Horná Kráľová, Trnava and Haplic Luvisol (Ludanice, Veľké Zálužie, Lovce of different localities. The objectives of this study were assessment of the differences in the stability of soil organic matter in different ecosystems and in soil types using labile forms of carbon and nitrogen, and also with dependence on particle size distribution. The highest contents of total organic carbon (TOC and labile carbon (CL were in a forest ecosystem, but in case of other ecosystems, the differences were determined only in the contents of CL. After forest ecosystem, the highest content of CL was in agro-ecosystem > meadow ecosystem > urban ecosystem. Based on parameter of lability of carbon (LC, the most labile carbon can be evaluated also in the forest ecosystem (0.209 > agro-ecosystem (0.178 > meadow ecosystem (0.119 and urban ecosystem (0.116. In the case of nitrogen, the differences were observed between the soils. Higher contents of NT and NL were recorded in Haplic Chernozen than in Haplic Luvisol. Contents of TOC (P < 0.05; r = -0.480, CNL (P < 0.05; r = -0.480, and NL (P < 0.01; r = -0.545 were in a negative correlation with the content of sand fraction. The values of studied parameters in meadow and urban ecosystems were relatively balanced, because in both cases, the vegetation cover were grass, pointing to a significant influence of vegetation on the parameters of SOM.

  9. Efecto de sistemas de labranza en luvisoles dedicados a la producción de pastos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santa L Leyva

    Full Text Available Se realizó un experimento con el objetivo de determinar la influencia de los sistemas de labranza en las propiedades de los suelos luvisoles, en el municipio de Las Tunas. Los indicadores evaluados fueron: la densidad aparente (r b, la porosidad total (Pt, la porosidad de aireación (Pa, la materia orgánica (MO y la densidad y biomasa de oligoquetos. Se muestrearon unidades experimentales, en un diseño de parcelas divididas y tres repeticiones, a las profundidades de 0-5, 5-20 y 20-30 cm. Los contenidos de MO y de densidad y biomasa de oligoquetos se evaluaron hasta los 20 cm. Se consideraron dos sistemas: labranza tradicional (LT y labranza sin inversión del prisma (LSP en comparación con un control sin labranza (NL. La LSP produjo la menor densidad y la mayor cantidad de espacios porosos en la matriz del suelo, con valores que difirieron significativamente de la LT y la NL, y favoreció el desarrollo de los oligoquetos hasta la profundidad de 20 cm. El mantenimiento de las capas densas en la profundidad de 20-30 cm en la LT disminuyó la porosidad total y restringió el desarrollo de las raíces, con valores de porosidad de aireación muy por debajo del 10 %. Se concluye que la labranza tradicional afectó el contenido de MO a corto plazo, y mantuvo las capas compactas en el horizonte subyacente, por lo que la continuidad de esta práctica en las áreas ganaderas de la región no se justifica ni a corto ni a largo plazo.

  10. Henry Gray, plagiarist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Ruth

    2016-03-01

    The first edition of Anatomy Descriptive and Surgical (1858) was greeted with accolades, but also provoked serious controversy concerning Henry Gray's failure to acknowledge the work of earlier anatomists. A review in the Medical Times (1859) accused Gray of intellectual theft. The journal took the unusual step of substantiating its indictment by publishing twenty parallel texts from Gray and from a pre-existing textbook, Quain's Anatomy. At the recent "Vesalius Continuum" conference in Zakynthos, Greece (2014) Professor Brion Benninger disputed the theft by announcing from the floor the results of a computer analysis of both texts, which he reported exonerated Gray by revealing no evidence of plagiarism. The analysis has not been forthcoming, however, despite requests. Here the historian of Gray's Anatomy supplements the argument set out in the Medical Times 150 years ago with data suggesting unwelcome personality traits in Henry Gray, and demonstrating the utility of others' work to his professional advancement. Fair dealing in the world of anatomy and indeed the genuineness of the lustre of medical fame are important matters, but whether quantitative evidence has anything to add to the discussion concerning Gray's probity can be assessed only if Benninger makes public his computer analysis. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Typical entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deelan Cunden, Fabio; Facchi, Paolo; Florio, Giuseppe; Pascazio, Saverio

    2013-05-01

    Let a pure state | ψ> be chosen randomly in an NM-dimensional Hilbert space, and consider the reduced density matrix ρ A of an N-dimensional subsystem. The bipartite entanglement properties of | ψ> are encoded in the spectrum of ρ A . By means of a saddle point method and using a "Coulomb gas" model for the eigenvalues, we obtain the typical spectrum of reduced density matrices. We consider the cases of an unbiased ensemble of pure states and of a fixed value of the purity. We finally obtain the eigenvalue distribution by using a statistical mechanics approach based on the introduction of a partition function.

  12. Henry Gray's Anatomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, J M S

    2009-04-01

    Little is generally known of Henry Gray, the author of Gray's Anatomy, and even less of his colleague Henry Vandyke Carter, who played a vital role in the dissections and illustrations leading to the production of the first volume in 1859. This essay attempts to sketch briefly the salient, know aspects of these two men and their divergent careers. It traces succinctly the subsequent fate of the unique anatomy book that has influenced and instructed almost every student of medicine. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  13. Long-term fate of exogenous metals in a sandy Luvisol subjected to intensive irrigation with raw wastewater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dere, C.; Lamy, I.; Jaulin, A.; Cornu, S.

    2007-01-01

    From 1899 to 2002, sandy Luvisol in the Paris region has been intensively irrigated with raw wastewater, resulting in major soil pollution by metallic trace elements (MTE). To identify the soil phases implicated in retaining these metals, sequential extractions were performed on a solum irrigated with untreated wastewater and another reference solum. The endogenous and exogenous fractions of MTE in the contaminated soil were discriminated using correlations between MTE and major elements defined from unpolluted soils of the area. In the contaminated soil no exogenous lead and chromium are present below the surface horizon, whereas exogenous zinc and copper are found down to the base of the solum. The endogenous MTE are mainly found in the residual fraction. Exogenous MTE appear to be associated with organic matter in the surface horizon, and exogenous zinc seems to be readsorbed on iron and manganese oxyhydroxides in the underlying horizons. - After 100 years of intensive irrigation with wastewater, no exogenous Pb and Cr are found in the subsoil, while exogenous Zn and Cu are found down to the base of the solum, mostly readsorbed

  14. Effects of different agricultural management on a stagnic Luvisol in Lower Saxony, Germany - Factors for sustainable soil protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Marco; Brunotte, Joachim; Ortmeier, Berthold

    2017-04-01

    Regarding increasing pressures by global societal and climate change, for example, the assessment of the impact of land use and land management practices on land productivity, land degradation and the related decrease in sustainable food production and the provision of ecosystem services gains increasing interest. Regarding international research on land use and soil threats, main problems in agricultural land use on global scale are erosion by water and wind, soil organic matter loss, salinization, depletion of nutrients, chemical and physical deterioration, including e.g. soil compaction. When coming to soil sciences, basically soil functions are affected negatively by intensive food production and field traffic. Management based negative changes in soil functions and a suboptimal soil structure have multiple negative effects on physical, biological and chemical soil functions, like a poor water balance, air and water permeability, disturbed soil fauna, impeded root penetration etc. and in consequence on the achievable yields. The presentation deals with the multiple effects of different agricultural machinery and technologies and different agricultural soil tillage (e.g. no-till, conservation tillage, ploughing), on various soil properties of a stagnic Luvisol in Lower Saxony, Germany. These are e.g. bulk density, air capacity, saturated water permeability, changes in pore size distribution and water retention curve as well as crop yields. Furthermore results of a long term study of bulk density and total pore size on more then 20 farms in Lower Saxony since the year 1952 will be presented. Finally, key factors and first recommendations for sustainable agricultural soil protection will be derived from the results.

  15. Changes in the Content of Soil Phosphorus after its Application into Chernozem and Haplic Luvisol and the Effect on Yields of Barley Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Lošák

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The pot experiment was established in vegetation hall in the year 2015. Spring barley, variety KWS Irina, was grown. Two different soils – chernozem from Brno (with a low phosphorus content and alkali soil reaction – 7.37 and haplic luvisol from Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou (with a high phosphorus content and slightly acid soil reaction – 6.01 were used for comparison. The rates of phosphorus in the form of triple superphosphate (45 % P2O5 were increased from 0.3 – 0.6 – 1.2 g per pot (5 kg of soil – Mitscherlich pots. Nitrogen was applied in the form of CAN (27 % N at a rate of 1 g N per pot in all the treatments incl. the control. Using statistical analysis, significant differences were found between the two soil types both in terms of the postharvest soil P content and yields of aboveground biomass. The content of post‑harvest soil phosphorus increased significantly with the applied rate (96 – 141 – 210 mg/kg in chernozem and 128 – 179 – 277 mg/kg in haplic luvisol. Dry matter yields of the aboveground biomass grown on chernozem were the lowest in the control treatment not fertilised with P (38.97 g per pot and increased significantly with the P rate applied (46.02 – 47.28 g per pot, although there were no significant differences among the fertilised treatments. On haplic luvisol phosphorus fertilisation was not seen at all, demonstrating that the weight of the biomass in all the treatments was balanced (48.12 – 49.63 g per pot.

  16. The Internet And Gray Marketing

    OpenAIRE

    Soumava Bandyopadhyay

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this conceptual paper is to investigate the nature, extent, and outcomes of gray marketing on the Internet.  We examined the current state of Internet-based gray marketing in several product categories and found the phenomenon to be on the rise.  Next, we developed a series of propositions to address evolving trends in online gray marketing, regarding actions of intermediaries and manufacturers, response by consumers, and outcomes on marketing strategy.

  17. Identifying critical nitrogen application rate for maize yield and nitrate leaching in a Haplic Luvisol soil using the DNDC model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yitao; Wang, Hongyuan; Liu, Shen; Lei, Qiuliang; Liu, Jian; He, Jianqiang; Zhai, Limei; Ren, Tianzhi; Liu, Hongbin

    2015-05-01

    Identification of critical nitrogen (N) application rate can provide management supports for ensuring grain yield and reducing amount of nitrate leaching to ground water. A five-year (2008-2012) field lysimeter (1 m × 2 m × 1.2 m) experiment with three N treatments (0, 180 and 240 kg Nha(-1)) was conducted to quantify maize yields and amount of nitrate leaching from a Haplic Luvisol soil in the North China Plain. The experimental data were used to calibrate and validate the process-based model of Denitrification-Decomposition (DNDC). After this, the model was used to simulate maize yield production and amount of nitrate leaching under a series of N application rates and to identify critical N application rate based on acceptable yield and amount of nitrate leaching for this cropping system. The results of model calibration and validation indicated that the model could correctly simulate maize yield and amount of nitrate leaching, with satisfactory values of RMSE-observation standard deviation ratio, model efficiency and determination coefficient. The model simulations confirmed the measurements that N application increased maize yield compared with the control, but the high N rate (240 kg Nha(-1)) did not produce more yield than the low one (120 kg Nha(-1)), and that the amount of nitrate leaching increased with increasing N application rate. The simulation results suggested that the optimal N application rate was in a range between 150 and 240 kg ha(-1), which would keep the amount of nitrate leaching below 18.4 kg NO₃(-)-Nha(-1) and meanwhile maintain acceptable maize yield above 9410 kg ha(-1). Furthermore, 180 kg Nha(-1) produced the highest yields (9837 kg ha(-1)) and comparatively lower amount of nitrate leaching (10.0 kg NO₃(-)-Nha(-1)). This study will provide a valuable reference for determining optimal N application rate (or range) in other crop systems and regions in China. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Grays Harbor Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigg, B. [Grays Harbor Paper, Hoquiam, WA (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Wood waste biomass boilers are used at Grays Harbor Paper in Hoquiam, Washington. This presentation showed that large volumes of biomass are left after a traditional clearcut. The opportunities and challenges of collecting branches, tops and stumps from this wet coastal climate were outlined. The paper described some of the low-tech methods for picking up branches, stumps and woody debris. It included several photographs of custom logging machines for timber harvest, including a brush grapple slasher, a shearer shovel, chippers, grinders, slicesaws, trucks, trailers and caterpillar log loaders for handling slash. The slash recovery program relies on innovative harvesting machines that convert scattered logging slash into bundles that can be easily collected, transported, and stored for use in existing facilities that utilize wood fiber for fuel. figs.

  19. Why Does Hair Turn Gray?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... out, but people with naturally lighter hair are just as likely to go gray. From the time a person notices a few gray hairs, it may take more than 10 years for all of that person's hair to turn ... really believe that this happens. Just in case, try not to freak out your ...

  20. Novel Amdovirus in Gray Foxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Linlin; Pesavento, Patricia A.; Woods, Leslie; Clifford, Deana L.; Luff, Jennifer; Wang, Chunlin

    2011-01-01

    We used viral metagenomics to identify a novel parvovirus in tissues of a gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus). Nearly full genome characterization and phylogenetic analyses showed this parvovirus (provisionally named gray fox amdovirus) to be distantly related to Aleutian mink disease virus, representing the second viral species in the Amdovirus genus. PMID:22000359

  1. Lysimeter experiments on the translocation of methabenzthiazuron and dissolved organic carbon in an orthic luvisol, construction of two climate measuring stations and investigations to validate the lysimeter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Puetz, T.

    1993-09-01

    To study the transfer of methabenzthiazuron into the soil solution and to investigate leaching in intensively cultivated orthic luvisol soil, 248 and 264 mg m -2 [phenyl-U- 14 C]methabenzthiazuron were applied to winter wheat in a w.p. 66.7% formulation by pre-emergence spraying in accordance with good agricultural practice on two lysimeters in November 1988. This corresponded to an application quantity of 3.7 and 4.0 kg ha -1 of Tribunil R . To study the translocation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in an orthic luvisol, 631 g m -2 14 C-labelled oat straw, corresponding to a practical application of 6-8 t ha -1 , was worked into the 0-5 cm of the soil of the third lysimeter in October 1988. After oat straw and methabenzthiazuron application, two suction candles were installed at each depth of 10, 20, 40 and 60 cm in two lysimeters for continuous soil solution sampling. (orig.)

  2. Influence of soil management practices and substrate availability on microbial biomass and its activities in some haplic luvisols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedel, Jurgen K [University Hohenheeim, Stuttgart (Germany)

    1996-07-01

    barbecho y con los sistemas de monocultivo. La razon principal de estas diferencias es un abastecimiento mas grande con residuos de cosecha y raices en los sistemas de rotacion de cultivos, que conduce a un mayor sustrato disponible para microorganismos. Los objetivos del estudio presente fueron describir los indices del sustrato disponible para microorganismos en suelos ara bles, dependiendo de las practicas de manejo de suelos, y relacionarlos con la biomasa y la actividad microbianas. En dos localidades (Muttergarten e Ihinger Hof, cerca de la Universidad de Hohenheim, Stuttgart, sudoeste de Alemania) fueron medidos los contenidos de trifosfato de adenosina y la actividad microbiana en Luvisoles haplicos. Como indices del sustrato disponible para microorganismos fueron determinados los compuestos organicos de carbon soluble en agua y se calculo la ateria organica de suelos jovenes susceptible a descomponerse en los fertilizantes organicos y en los residuos de cosecha y de raices, usando funciones de descomposicion empiricas. Los contenidos mas altos de ATP y las actividades microbianas mas altas fueron observados con la fertilizacion organica (abono liquido de ganado), antes que con la fertilizacion mineral. La labranza somera con un cultivador rotatorio condujo a valores mas altos de la propiedades microbianas en la parte superior del horizonte Ap que con la labranza con arado. Los parametros microbianos del suelo fueron mas altos en parcelas bajo una rotacion de cultivos de colza-cereales, en comparacion con una rotacion de cultivos de legumbres-cereales. La biomasa microbiana y sus actividades estuvieron relacionadas mas estrechamente a materia organica de suelos jovenes susceptible a descomponerse que al contenido de humus o a cualquiera otra propiedad del suelo. Los compuestos organicos de carbon soluble en agua no demostraron ser un indicador del sustrato disponible para microorganismos.

  3. The Gray whale: Eschrichtius robustus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jones, Mary Lou; Leatherwood, Stephen; Swartz, Steven L

    1984-01-01

    .... Section II documents historical aspects of gray whale exploitation and the economic importance of these whales to humans, beginning with aboriginal societies in Asia and North America, and leading...

  4. Niobium in gray cast iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castello Branco, C.H.; Beckert, E.A.

    1984-03-01

    The potential for utilization of niobium in gray cast iron is appraised and reviewed. Experiments described in literature indicate that niobium provides structural refinement of the eutectic cells and also promotes pearlite formation. (Author) [pt

  5. Subependymal Gray Matter Heterotopia

    OpenAIRE

    Dekeyzer, S.; Deblaere, K.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A 31-year-old woman presented at the department of neurology with a history of seizures since childhood. About five years ago her seize pattern changed from generalized atonic attacks with asphyxia to simple partial attacks characterized by left hemiparesis and speech difficulties. These seizures occurred multiple times a day and typically lasted about a minute. The patient had a negative family history of epilepsy.

  6. Advanced gray rod control assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drudy, Keith J; Carlson, William R; Conner, Michael E; Goldenfield, Mark; Hone, Michael J; Long, Jr., Carroll J; Parkinson, Jerod; Pomirleanu, Radu O

    2013-09-17

    An advanced gray rod control assembly (GRCA) for a nuclear reactor. The GRCA provides controlled insertion of gray rod assemblies into the reactor, thereby controlling the rate of power produced by the reactor and providing reactivity control at full power. Each gray rod assembly includes an elongated tubular member, a primary neutron-absorber disposed within the tubular member said neutron-absorber comprising an absorber material, preferably tungsten, having a 2200 m/s neutron absorption microscopic capture cross-section of from 10 to 30 barns. An internal support tube can be positioned between the primary absorber and the tubular member as a secondary absorber to enhance neutron absorption, absorber depletion, assembly weight, and assembly heat transfer characteristics.

  7. Grays River Watershed Geomorphic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geist, David R

    2005-04-30

    This investigation, completed for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), is part of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment commissioned by Bonneville Power Administration under project number 2003-013-00 to assess impacts on salmon habitat in the upper Grays River watershed and present recommendations for habitat improvement. This report presents the findings of the geomorphic assessment and is intended to support the overall PNNL project by evaluating the following: The effects of historical and current land use practices on erosion and sedimentation within the channel network The ways in which these effects have influenced the sediment budget of the upper watershed The resulting responses in the main stem Grays River upstream of State Highway 4 The past and future implications for salmon habitat.

  8. Dye tracer and morphophysical properties to observe water flow in a Gleyic Luvisol Fluxo de água em um Gleyic Luvisol usando traçador e sua relação com as propriedades físicas e morfológicas do solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Martins Silva Salvador

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the preferential water flow and solute transport is important with regard to losses of nutrients and pesticides that affect the quality of the groundwater or surface water resources. Experiments using the brilliant blue dye tracer, a tension infiltrometer (TI and a double square infiltrometer (DI were carried out in the experimental field site located around 15 km southeast of the city of Rostock (North-Eastern Germany on arable land in a Pleistocene lowland landscape where corn (Zea mays L. and barley (Hordeum spp. had been cultivated. One day after dye the infiltration, a pit was dug and vertical profiles were prepared in the TI and DI sites to assess the dye pathways in the subsoil of a Gleyic Luvisol. We wanted to examine if the mottled red and white (bleached colour-pattern of the Gleyic Luvisol subsoil resulting from temporally stagnant water could be related to flow paths as visualized by dye tracing and if the soil colour could be related to other physical soil properties. Biogenic soil structures were the main transport routes conducting water and solutes into great depth in short time. These pathways had lower bulk density and less cone resistance than the adjacent red or white (bleached areas of the Gleyic Luvisol subsoil. The red areas were involved in transport because their water contents increased after as compared to before infiltration. However, the measured physical soil properties did not differ between white and red areas. We assume that red areas participate in transport at least by imbibing water from the adjacent biogenic flow paths.O fluxo preferencial de água e o transporte de solutos relacionam-se com perdas de nutrientes e pesticidas e afetam a qualidade de águas subterrâneas. Foram realizados experimentos utilizando o traçador Brilhante Blue, um infiltrômetro de tensão (TI e um infiltrômetro com "duplos quadrados" (DI num campo experimental localizado a cerca de 15 km a sudeste da cidade de

  9. The Picture of Dorian Gray

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilde, Oscar

    2005-01-01

    On its first publication The Picture of Dorian Gray was regarded as dangerously modern in its depiction of fin-de-sicle decadence. In this updated version of the Faust story, the tempter is Lord Henry Wotton, who lives selfishly for amoral pleasure; Dorian's good angel is the portrait painter Basil

  10. Paulette Gray, Ph.D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulette S. Gray, Ph.D. is the Director for the Division of Extramural Activities (DEA). As the director of the division, she is responsible for the overall scientific, fiscal, and administrative management of the division, including broad strategic planning, development, implementation, and evaluation.

  11. Tsenseerimata Dorian Gray? / Udo Uibo

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Uibo, Udo, 1956-

    2011-01-01

    Harvardi ülikooli kirjastus üllitas 2011. a. kevadel Oscar Wilde'i ainsaks jäänud romaani "Dorian Gray portree" esialgse versiooni, mis on varustatud toimetaja Nicholas Frankeli põhjalike kommentaaridega ja kus eessõna manifesteerib jõuliselt autori esteetilisi vaateid

  12. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    OpenAIRE

    Devine, Matthew S.; Pannek, Kerstin; Coulthard, Alan; McCombe, Pamela A.; Rose, Stephen E.; Henderson, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore gray matter (GM) asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each und...

  13. X-ray computed microtomography analysis of the influence of different agricultural treatments on the topsoil porosity of a Grey Brown Luvisol from Ontario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taina, I. A.; Heck, R. J.; Scaiff, N. T.

    2009-05-01

    One of the most important applications of X-ray computed tomography (CT) for the study of soil is the characterization of the shape and spatial distribution of pores. Analysis of 3D X-ray CT image data, related to different pore categories, can provide insight to soil structural changes, which have implications in water infiltration and soil aeration, resulting from agricultural practices. The aim of this study was to evaluate changes in the spatial characteristics of voids, due to tillage practices, in the Ap horizon of an Orthic Grey- Brown Luvisol (located at the Elora Research Station of the University of Guelph). Undisturbed oriented soil samples were collected from ten plots representing different tillage treatments: spring moldboard plow, spring moldboard plow, cultivate and pack, fall moldboard plow, cultivate and pack, spring tandem disc, no cultivator, fall offset disc, fall offset disc, cultivate and pack, fall chisel plow, cultivate and pack, zero zone till (soys twin rows), zero tillage (long term), and zero tillage (corn residue removed in row, soys twin rows). Since the utilization of standardized classes, in the quantification of similar features, proved to be necessary in order to obtain comparable results, categories of pores, separated according to their size, circularity and orientation were considered in the interpretation of data. Total volume of pores and volume percentage of each class were calculated, revealing substantial differences among the analyzed soil samples.

  14. Gray Code for Cayley Permutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.-L. Baril

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A length-n Cayley permutation p of a total ordered set S is a length-n sequence of elements from S, subject to the condition that if an element x appears in p then all elements y < x also appear in p . In this paper, we give a Gray code list for the set of length-n Cayley permutations. Two successive permutations in this list differ at most in two positions.

  15. PROPIEDADES QUÍMICAS DE UN LUVISOL DESPUÉS DE LA CONVERSIÓN DEL BOSQUE A LA AGRICULTURA EN CAMPECHE, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Medina-M\\u00E9ndez

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar los cambios en las propiedades químicas de un suelo Luvisol en Campeche, México en un período de 30 años (1974 al 2003. Los principales cultivos en el área de estudio fueron el maíz bajo temporal y mango bajo riego. Con fines de comparación también se consideró como punto de referencia al suelo con vegetación natural de selva. En el maíz, se observaron disminuciones con el tiempo en el pH, conductividad eléctrica, materia orgánica y calcio intercambiable; ocurrió todo lo contrario en el mango. En el maíz, el fósforo, potasio, sodio, hierro y cobre presentaron una tendencia a disminuir, pero posteriormente se incrementaron a un valor superior al que presentó el suelo de vegetación natural; mientras que en el mango, este comportamiento solo se observó en el cobre, hierro y zinc. Los cationes intercambiables, calcio, potasio, magnesio y sodio, al igual que el manganeso, presentaron valores inferiores en los huertos de mango 30 años de edad, comparados con el suelo de vegetación natural. En el maíz, el fósforo, magnesio, potasio, hierro, manganeso, cobre y zinc, presentaron un valor superior al del suelo con vegetación natural, en el estrato de uno a cinco años, relacionado con el desmonte del terreno, la "quema" de la vegetación y la labranza; pero a excepción del zinc, el valor alcanzado por éstos disminuyó a partir de los siguientes cinco años.

  16. Modeling the migration of fallout radionuclides to quantify the contemporary transfer of fine particles in Luvisol profiles under different land uses and farming practices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagercikova, M.; Balesdent, J.; Cornu, S.; Evrard, O.; Lefevre, I.

    2014-01-01

    Soil mixing and the downward movement of solid matter in soils are dynamic pedological processes that strongly affect the vertical distribution of all soil properties across the soil profile. These processes are affected by land use and the implementation of various farming practices, but their kinetics have rarely been quantified. Our objective was to investigate the vertical transfer of matter in Luvisols at long-term experimental sites under different land uses (cropland, grassland and forest) and different farming practices (conventional tillage, reduced tillage and no tillage). To investigate these processes, the vertical radionuclide distributions of 137 Cs and 210 Pb (xs) were analyzed in 9 soil profiles. The mass balance calculations showed that as much as 91± 9% of the 137 Cs was linked to the fine particles (2 mm). To assess the kinetics of radionuclide redistribution in soil, we modeled their depth profiles using a convection-diffusion equation. The diffusion coefficient represented the rate of bioturbation, and the convection velocity provided a proxy for fine particle leaching. Both parameters were modeled as either constant or variable with depth. The tillage was simulated using an empirical formula that considered the tillage depth and a variable mixing ratio depending on the type of tillage used. A loss of isotopes due to soil erosion was introduced into the model to account for the total radionuclide inventory. All of these parameters were optimized based on the 137 Cs data and were then subsequently applied to the 210 Pb (xs) data. Our results show that the 137 Cs isotopes migrate deeper under grasslands than under forests or croplands. Additionally, our results suggest that the diffusion coefficient decreased with depth and that it remained negligible below the tillage depth at the cropland sites, below 20 cm in the forest sites, and below 80 cm in the grassland sites. (authors)

  17. ESTADO NUTRIMENTAL Y PRODUCCIÓN DE FRUTO DE MANGO (Mangifera indica L., CV. TOMMY ATKINS, EN SUELOS LUVISOLES DEL ESTADO DE CAMPECHE, MÉXICO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Medina-Méndez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el estado nutrimental en árboles de mango ( Mangifera indica L., en suelos Luvisoles del estado de Campeche, México, con fines de determinar posibles deficiencias y, en su caso, decidir acerca de la necesidad de realizar aplicaciones de fertilizantes. En huertos comerciales de mango se tomaron muestras de suelo, para determinar sus propiedades físicas y químicas, y de hoja, para especificar las concentraciones nutrimentales, a la vez que se obtuvo información sobre el manejo del huerto y del rendimiento de frutos. Se estimaron modelos de regresión del rendimiento como función de las concentraciones nutrimentales y propiedades físicas y químicas del suelo así como factores tecnológicos. Se establecieron los rangos de suficiencia nutrimental como expresión del estado nutrimental de los árboles. El rango de suficiencia ade - cuado fue, para N, de 0.90 a 1.35 %; P, de 0.07 a 0.11 %; K, de 0.5 a 0.8 %; Ca, de 3.5 a 3.75 %; Mg, de 0.16 a 0.25 %; Fe, de 75 ≥ 140 mg · kg -1 ; Mn, de 175 a 320 mg · kg -1 ; Cu, de 6 a 9 mg · kg -1 ; Zn, de 10 a 22 mg · kg -1 ; y, B de 85 a 210 mg · kg -1 . Con base en la distribución de los huertos en los rangos de suficiencia, se observó que hay huertos que requerirían aplicaciones de fertilizantes: P (48 %, K (52 %, Ca (62 %, Mg (56 %, Fe (73 %, Cu (65 %, y B (44 %. En cambio, las deficiencias son menores para Mn (17 % y Zn (21 %, y no se observaron para N.

  18. Is our Universe typical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurzadyan, V.G.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of typicalness of the Universe - as a dynamical system possessing both regular and chaotic regions of positive measure of phase space, is raised and discussed. Two dynamical systems are considered: 1) The observed Universe as a hierarchy of systems of N graviting bodies; 2) (3+1)-manifold with matter evolving to Wheeler-DeWitt equation in superspace with Hawking boundary condition of compact metrics. It is shown that the observed Universe is typical. There is no unambiguous answer for the second system yet. If it is typical too then the same present state of the Universe could have been originated from an infinite number of different initial conditions the restoration of which is practically impossible at present. 35 refs.; 2 refs

  19. Typical Complexity Numbers

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. Typical Complexity Numbers. Say. 1000 tones,; 100 Users,; Transmission every 10 msec. Full Crosstalk cancellation would require. Full cancellation requires a matrix multiplication of order 100*100 for all the tones. 1000*100*100*100 operations every second for the ...

  20. The Effect of Illumination on Gray Color

    Science.gov (United States)

    Da Pos, Osvaldo; Baratella, Linda; Sperandio, Gabriele

    2010-01-01

    The present study explored the perceptual process of integration of luminance information in the production of the gray color of an object placed in an environment viewed from a window. The mean luminance of the object was varied for each mean luminance of the environment. Participants matched the gray color of the object with that of Munsell…

  1. Typicality and reasoning fallacies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafir, E B; Smith, E E; Osherson, D N

    1990-05-01

    The work of Tversky and Kahneman on intuitive probability judgment leads to the following prediction: The judged probability that an instance belongs to a category is an increasing function of the typicality of the instance in the category. To test this prediction, subjects in Experiment 1 read a description of a person (e.g., "Linda is 31, bright, ... outspoken") followed by a category. Some subjects rated how typical the person was of the category, while others rated the probability that the person belonged to that category. For categories like bank teller and feminist bank teller: (1) subjects rated the person as more typical of the conjunctive category (a conjunction effect); (2) subjects rated it more probable that the person belonged to the conjunctive category (a conjunction fallacy); and (3) the magnitudes of the conjunction effect and fallacy were highly correlated. Experiment 2 documents an inclusion fallacy, wherein subjects judge, for example, "All bank tellers are conservative" to be more probable than "All feminist bank tellers are conservative." In Experiment 3, results parallel to those of Experiment 1 were obtained with respect to the inclusion fallacy.

  2. Typicals/Típicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Vélez

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Typicals is a series of 12 colour photographs digitally created from photojournalistic images from Colombia combined with "typical" craft textiles and text from guest writers. Typicals was first exhibited as photographs 50cm x 75cm in size, each with their own magnifying glass, at the Contemporary Art Space at Gorman House in Canberra, Australia, in 2000. It was then exhibited in "Feedback: Art Social Consciousness and Resistance" at Monash University Museum of Art in Melbourne, Australia, from March to May 2003. From May to June 2003 it was exhibited at the Museo de Arte de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Santa Fé Bogotá, Colombia. In its current manifestation the artwork has been adapted from the catalogue of the museum exhibitions. It is broken up into eight pieces corresponding to the contributions of the writers. The introduction by Sylvia Vélez is the PDF file accessible via a link below this abstract. The other seven PDF files are accessible via the 'Supplementary Files' section to the left of your screen. Please note that these files are around 4 megabytes each, so it may be difficult to access them from a dial-up connection.

  3. Eileen Gray: a child of Japonism?

    OpenAIRE

    Starr, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    Exhibited at the Glucksman Memorial Symposium on June 12th 2008 My interest is in Gray's lacquer work and the influences on that work in the context of nineteenth-century fashion of Japonisme. Gray (1878-1976) had an appreciation of the Japanese characteristics of lacquer - perhaps absorbed from private and public Irish collections of Japanese art. Gray also had a twenty-year working collaboration with Seizo Sugawara (1884-1937) from Jahoji, Japan - a town famous for its lacquer work. Suga...

  4. MR imaging of heterotopic gray matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryst-Widzgowska, T.; Kozlowski, P.; Poniatowska, R.

    1994-01-01

    Six patients with heterotopic gray matter were evaluated with MR. 5 patients had history of seizures. 4 cases were suspected of the cerebral tumor. In the MR examination areas of heterotopic gray matter were found along the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle on the one side in 4 cases and bilateraly in 2 cases. In 3 cases another brain abnormalities were also detected including: hypoplasia of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of brain hemisphere, cavum septi pellucidi. MR is a modality of choice in the assessment of abnormal gray matter migration. (author)

  5. The effect of illumination on gray color

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Sperandio

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study explored the perceptual process of integration of luminance information in the production of the gray color of an object placed in an environment viewed from a window. The mean luminance of the object was varied for each mean luminance of the environment. Participants matched the gray color of the object with that of Munsell chips in a viewing box. The results show that the Munsell values so obtained are linear measures of gray color. The results support the possibility that the gray color of the object derives from an additive integration of the information about mean luminance of the object and about mean luminance of the environment, with the weights of this information varying with the mean luminances.

  6. Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in gray water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Butkovskyi, A.; Jeremiasse, A.W.; Hernandez Leal, L.; Zande, van der T.; Rijnaarts, H.; Zeeman, G.

    2014-01-01

    Electrochemical conversion of micropollutants in real gray water effluent was studied for the first time. Six compounds that are frequently found in personal care and household products, namely methylparaben, propylparaben, bisphenol A, triclosan, galaxolide, and 4- methylbenzilidene camphor

  7. Laboratory Characterization of Gray Masonry Concrete

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Williams, Erin M; Akers, Stephen A; Reed, Paul A

    2007-01-01

    Personnel of the Geotechnical and Structures Laboratory, U.S. Army Engineer Research and Development Center, conducted a laboratory investigation to characterize the strength and constitutive property behavior of a gray masonry concrete...

  8. Gray Matter Characteristics in Mid and Old Aged Adults with ASD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koolschijn, P. Cédric M. P.; Geurts, Hilde M.

    2016-01-01

    It is widely acknowledged that the brain anatomy of children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) shows a different developmental pattern then typical age-matched peers. There is however, a paucity of studies examining gray matter in mid and late adulthood in ASD. In this cross-sectional neuroimaging study, we, performed vertex-wise…

  9. MQ-1C Gray Eagle Unmanned Aircraft System (MQ-1C Gray Eagle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    Range Finder /Laser Designator, Synthetic Aperture Radar/Ground Moving Target Indicator, communications relay, and Hellfire Missiles. Ground equipment...equipment strength . Each Gray Eagle company will consist of 125 soldiers within the Divisional CAB and the NTC. Each unit will have three identical...will bring these companies to full Gray Eagle System equipment strength . Each Gray Eagle company will consist of 125 soldiers within the divisional

  10. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients. A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnet...

  11. Louis Harold Gray (1905-1965)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomljenovic, I.

    2003-01-01

    15th CGPM (Conference General de Poids et Mesures) conference of 1975 accepted gray (Gy) as the unit of absorbed dose in honour of British physicist and radiation biologist Louis Harold Gray. This unit is a part of the SI system for units and measures. The idea of the article is to give a closer look into the life and work of this great scientist. (author)

  12. A Typical Synergy

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Noort, Thomas; Achten, Peter; Plasmeijer, Rinus

    We present a typical synergy between dynamic types (dynamics) and generalised algebraic datatypes (GADTs). The former provides a clean approach to integrating dynamic typing in a statically typed language. It allows values to be wrapped together with their type in a uniform package, deferring type unification until run time using a pattern match annotated with the desired type. The latter allows for the explicit specification of constructor types, as to enforce their structural validity. In contrast to ADTs, GADTs are heterogeneous structures since each constructor type is implicitly universally quantified. Unfortunately, pattern matching only enforces structural validity and does not provide instantiation information on polymorphic types. Consequently, functions that manipulate such values, such as a type-safe update function, are cumbersome due to boilerplate type representation administration. In this paper we focus on improving such functions by providing a new GADT annotation via a natural synergy with dynamics. We formally define the semantics of the annotation and touch on novel other applications of this technique such as type dispatching and enforcing type equality invariants on GADT values.

  13. Cost Comparison of Conventional Gray Combined Sewer Overflow Control Infrastructure versus a Green/Gray Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper outlines a life-cycle cost analysis comparing a green (rain gardens) and gray (tunnels) infrastructure combination to a gray-only option to control combined sewer overflow in the Turkey Creek Combined Sewer Overflow Basin, in Kansas City, MO. The plan area of this Bas...

  14. Gray matter heterotopias: MR and clinical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Tae Myung; Yoon, Jeong Hee; Chung, Chun Phil

    1995-01-01

    To evaluate types of gray matter heterotopias, associated brain anomalies, and its correlation with the patterns of seizure. We evaluated retrospectively 19 patients (male:female=10:9, mean age 21 years) with gray matter heterotopias on brain MRI. Using 1.0T superconducting MR unit, spin echo T1-, proton -density and T2-weighted images in axial, coronal and sagittal planes were obtained. Types of gray matter heterotopias were single subependymal in four patients, multiple subependymal in one, focal subcortical in eight, diffuse subcortical in two, mixed multiple subependymal and focal subcortical in four. Associated anomalies were seen in 11 patients: other neuronal migration anomalies in eight patients, corpus callosum agenesis in two, and combined holoprosencephaly and Dandy-Walker malformation in one. Fifteen patients had seizure. The patterns of seizure were not correlated with the types of heterotopias. In addition to subependymal, focal subcortical, and diffuse subcortical types, gray matter heterotopias included mixed variant of multiple subependymal and subcortical type. Schizencephaly was the most common form of accompanying anomalies, and patterns of seizure were not correlated with types of gray matter heterotopias, even though main clinical manifestation was seizure

  15. In Vivo Evidence of Reduced Integrity of the Gray-White Matter Boundary in Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Derek Sayre; Avino, Thomas A; Gudbrandsen, Maria; Daly, Eileen; Marquand, Andre; Murphy, Clodagh M; Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V; Ruigrok, Amber N V; Williams, Steven C; Bullmore, Edward T; The Mrc Aims Consortium; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Craig, Michael C; Murphy, Declan G M; Ecker, Christine

    2017-02-01

    Atypical cortical organization and reduced integrity of the gray-white matter boundary have been reported by postmortem studies in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, there are no in vivo studies that examine these particular features of cortical organization in ASD. Hence, we used structural magnetic resonance imaging to examine differences in tissue contrast between gray and white matter in 98 adults with ASD and 98 typically developing controls, to test the hypothesis that individuals with ASD have significantly reduced tissue contrast. More specifically, we examined contrast as a percentage between gray and white matter tissue signal intensities (GWPC) sampled at the gray-white matter boundary, and across different cortical layers. We found that individuals with ASD had significantly reduced GWPC in several clusters throughout the cortex (cluster, P gray-white matter interface, which indicates a less distinct gray-white matter boundary in ASD. Our in vivo findings of reduced GWPC in ASD are therefore consistent with prior postmortem findings of a less well-defined gray-white matter boundary in ASD. Taken together, these results indicate that GWPC might be utilized as an in vivo proxy measure of atypical cortical microstructural organization in future studies. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press.

  16. Response to Biber, Gray, and Poonpon (2011)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, WeiWei

    2013-01-01

    The recent "TESOL Quarterly" article by Biber, Gray, and Poonpon (2011) raises important considerations with respect to the use of syntactic complexity (SC) measures in second language (L2) studies. The article draws the field's attention to one particular measure--complexity of noun phrases (NP) (i.e., noun phrases with modifiers, such as…

  17. The Return to Gray Flannel Thinking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shields, James J., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The liberal mood of the 1960s has given way to a conservatism reminiscent of the gray flannel thinking of the 1950s. Today's young people are cautious, cynical, and dead serious about personal survival. Innovation and liberalism in education are being replaced by fiscal conservatism and emphasis on standards. (Author/SJL)

  18. Chapter 17. Information needs: Great gray owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward

    1994-01-01

    Current understanding of great gray owl biology and ecology is based on studies of less than five populations. In an ideal world, a strong conservation strategy would require significant new information. However, current knowledge suggests that conservation of this forest owl should involve fewer conflicts than either the boreal or flammulated owl. The mix of forest...

  19. Gray matter alterations and correlation of nutritional intake with the gray matter volume in prediabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yi-Cheng; Lai, Chien-Han; Wu, Yu-Te; Yang, Shwu-Huey

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The neurophysiology of prediabetes plays an important role in preventive medicine. The dysregulation of glucose metabolism is likely linked to changes in neuron-related gray matter. Therefore, we designed this study to investigate gray matter alterations in medication-naive prediabetic patients. We expected to find alterations in the gray matter of prediabetic patients. A total of 64 prediabetic patients and 54 controls were enrolled. All subjects received T1 scans using a 3-T magnetic resonance imaging machine. Subjects also completed nutritional intake records at the 24-hour and 3-day time points to determine their carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake. We utilized optimized voxel-based morphometry to estimate the gray matter differences between the patients and controls. In addition, the preprandial serum glucose level and the carbohydrate, protein, fat, and total calorie intake levels were tested to determine whether these parameters were correlated with the gray matter volume. Prediabetic patients had lower gray matter volumes than controls in the right anterior cingulate gyrus, right posterior cingulate gyrus, left insula, left super temporal gyrus, and left middle temporal gyrus (corrected P prediabetic patients. PMID:27336893

  20. Premature graying of hair: An independent risk marker for coronary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with 3.24 times the risk of CAD on multiple logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSION: The presence of premature graying of hair was associated with an increased risk of CAD in young smokers. Premature graying of hair can be used as preliminary evidence by ...

  1. Delamination wear mechanism in gray cast irons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salehi, M.

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of the friction and sliding wear of gray cast iron against chromium plated cast irons was carried out on a newly constructed reciprocating friction and wear tester. The tests were the first to be done on the test rig under dry conditions and at the speed of 170 cm/min, and variable loads of 20-260 N for a duration of 15 min. to 3 hours. The gray cast iron surfaces worn by a process of plastic deformation at the subsurface, crack nucleation, and crack growth leading to formation of plate like debris and therefore the delamination theory applies. No evidence of adhesion was observed. This could be due to formation of oxides on the wear surface which prevent adhesion. channel type chromium plating ''picked'' up cast iron from the counter-body surfaces by mechanically trapping cast iron debris on and within the cracks. The removal of the plated chromium left a pitted surface on the cast iron

  2. Gray divorce: Explaining midlife marital splits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Jocelyn Elise

    2017-12-06

    Recent research suggests that one out of every four divorces in the United States is now "gray," meaning that at least one half of the couple has reached the age of 50 when the marriage breaks down. To understand why this age group-the Baby Boomer generation-is splitting up, this study conducted 40 in-depth, semistructured interviews with men and 40 with women who have experienced a gray divorce in their lifetimes. Respondents' beliefs in an expressive individualistic model of marriage, where partnerships are only valuable if they help individuals achieve personal growth, were compared against their potential adherence to what I call a commitment-based model of marriage, where binding, romantic love holds couples together unless there is severe relationship strain. The results demonstrated that the commitment-based model most strongly governs marriage and the decision to divorce among Baby Boomers for both sexes, although some specific reasons for divorce differ for men and women.

  3. Investigation of the alteration of gray matter volume in children with mental retardation with the optimal voxel-based morphometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xinyu; Xie Sheng; Xiao Jiangxi; Zhang Yuanzhe; Jiang Xuexiang; Jin Chunhua; Bai Zhenhua; Yi Xiaoli

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To detect brain structural difference between children with unexplained mental retardation and children with typically normal development. Methods: The high-resolution magnetic MR imaging were obtained from 21 children with unexplained mental retardation and 30 age-matched control children without intellectual disabilities. Voxel-based morphometry analysis with an optimization of spatial segmentation and normalization procedures were applied to compare differences of gray matter volume between the two groups. The total and regional gray matter volume were compared between the two groups with independent t test. Meanwhile, correlation was conducted to analyze the relationship between the total gray matter volume and intelligence quotient (IQ) with partial correlation test. Results: The total gray matter volume was significantly increased in the mental retardation children (1.012±0.079) × 10 6 mm 3 ] in relative to the controls [(0.956±0.059)×10 6 mm 3 , t=-2.80, P 0.05). Conclusions: VBM would detect the gray matter abnormalities that were not founded in routine MR scanning. The increase of gray matter volume in the frontal-thalamus network might indicate the delayed maturation of the brain development. This might be one of the causations of' mental retardation in children. (authors)

  4. Generative complexity of Gray-Scott model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    In the Gray-Scott reaction-diffusion system one reactant is constantly fed in the system, another reactant is reproduced by consuming the supplied reactant and also converted to an inert product. The rate of feeding one reactant in the system and the rate of removing another reactant from the system determine configurations of concentration profiles: stripes, spots, waves. We calculate the generative complexity-a morphological complexity of concentration profiles grown from a point-wise perturbation of the medium-of the Gray-Scott system for a range of the feeding and removal rates. The morphological complexity is evaluated using Shannon entropy, Simpson diversity, approximation of Lempel-Ziv complexity, and expressivity (Shannon entropy divided by space-filling). We analyse behaviour of the systems with highest values of the generative morphological complexity and show that the Gray-Scott systems expressing highest levels of the complexity are composed of the wave-fragments (similar to wave-fragments in sub-excitable media) and travelling localisations (similar to quasi-dissipative solitons and gliders in Conway's Game of Life).

  5. Regional gray matter correlates of vocational interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeder, David H; Haier, Richard J; Tang, Cheuk Ying

    2012-05-16

    Previous studies have identified brain areas related to cognitive abilities and personality, respectively. In this exploratory study, we extend the application of modern neuroimaging techniques to another area of individual differences, vocational interests, and relate the results to an earlier study of cognitive abilities salient for vocations. First, we examined the psychometric relationships between vocational interests and abilities in a large sample. The primary relationships between those domains were between Investigative (scientific) interests and general intelligence and between Realistic ("blue-collar") interests and spatial ability. Then, using MRI and voxel-based morphometry, we investigated the relationships between regional gray matter volume and vocational interests. Specific clusters of gray matter were found to be correlated with Investigative and Realistic interests. Overlap analyses indicated some common brain areas between the correlates of Investigative interests and general intelligence and between the correlates of Realistic interests and spatial ability. Two of six vocational-interest scales show substantial relationships with regional gray matter volume. The overlap between the brain correlates of these scales and cognitive-ability factors suggest there are relationships between individual differences in brain structure and vocations.

  6. Gray rod for a nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, T.A.; Cerni, Samuel.

    1986-01-01

    The invention relates to an improved gray rod for insertion in a nuclear fuel assembly having an array of fuel rods. The gray rod includes a thin-walled cladding tube a first longitudinal section of which is positioned within, and a second longitudinal section of which is positioned essentially without, the array of fuel rods when the gray rod is inserted in the fuel assembly. The first longitudinal section defines a pellet-receiving space having detained therein a stack of annular pellets with an outer diameter sufficient to lend radial support to the wall of the first longitudinal tube section. The second longitudinal section defines a hollow space devoid of pellets and having means to resist radial collapse under external pressure. This means may be a partially compressed spiral spring which serves the dual purpose of retaining the stack of pellets in the pellet-receiving space and of lending radial support to the wall of the second longitudinal tube section or it may be holes through the wall to allow pressure equalisation. The cladding tube is composed of stainless-steel material having a low neutron-capture cross-section, and the annular pellets preferably being composed of Zircaloy or Zirconia material. (author)

  7. Testing typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2015-05-01

    In extracting predictions from theories that describe a multiverse, we face the difficulty that we must assess probability distributions over possible observations prescribed not just by an underlying theory, but by a theory together with a conditionalization scheme that allows for (anthropic) selection effects. This means we usually need to compare distributions that are consistent with a broad range of possible observations with actual experimental data. One controversial means of making this comparison is by invoking the "principle of mediocrity": that is, the principle that we are typical of the reference class implicit in the conjunction of the theory and the conditionalization scheme. In this paper, we quantitatively assess the principle of mediocrity in a range of cosmological settings, employing "xerographic distributions" to impose a variety of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that for a fixed theory, the assumption that we are typical gives rise to higher likelihoods for our observations. If, however, one allows both the underlying theory and the assumption of typicality to vary, then the assumption of typicality does not always provide the highest likelihoods. Interpreted from a Bayesian perspective, these results support the claim that when one has the freedom to consider different combinations of theories and xerographic distributions (or different "frameworks"), one should favor the framework that has the highest posterior probability; and then from this framework one can infer, in particular, how typical we are. In this way, the invocation of the principle of mediocrity is more questionable than has been recently claimed.

  8. Information fusion for the Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenstermacher, Laurie

    2016-05-01

    United States Special Operations Command (SOCOM) recently published a white paper describing the "Gray Zone", security challenges characterized by "ambiguity about the nature of the conflict, opacity of the parties involved…competitive interactions among and within state and non-state actors that fall between the traditional war and peace duality."1 Ambiguity and related uncertainty about actors, situations, relationships, and intent require new approaches to information collection, processing and fusion. General Votel, the current SOCOM commander, during a recent speech on "Operating in the Gray Zone" emphasized that it would be important to get left of the next crises and stated emphatically, "to do that we must understand the Human Domain."2 This understanding of the human domain must come from making meaning based on different perspectives, including the "emic" or first person/participant and "etic" or third person/observer perspectives. Much of the information currently collected and processed is etic. Incorporation and fusion with the emic perspective enables forecasting of behaviors/events and provides context for etic information (e.g., video).3 Gray zone challenges are perspective-dependent; for example, the conflict in Ukraine is interpreted quite differently by Russia, the US and Ukraine. Russia views it as war, necessitating aggressive action, the US views it as a security issue best dealt with by economic sanctions and diplomacy and the Ukraine views it as a threat to its sovereignty.4 General Otto in the Air Force ISR 2023 vision document stated that Air Force ISR is needed to anticipate strategic surprise.5 Anticipatory analysis enabling getting left of a crisis inherently requires a greater focus on information sources that elucidate the human environment as well as new methods that elucidate not only the "who's" and "what's", but the "how's and "why's," extracting features and/or patterns and subtle cues useful for forecasting behaviors and

  9. Gray Zone Legislation and Activities: Evaluating the Orchestration of Convergence Within the Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    The Agency and the Hill (Government Printing Office, 2008), 8. 16 Lowenthal, Intelligence . 17 Marshall Erwin, Covert Action: Legislative Background...military and intelligence activities within the Gray Zone and what directs their convergence. More specifically, the author analyzes the...determining convergence or divergence. In the end, classical military theory directs the convergence and divergence of military and intelligence activities

  10. PET MRI Coregistration in Intractable Epilepsy and Gray Matter Heterotopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seniaray, Nikhil; Jain, Anuj

    2017-03-01

    A 25-year-old woman with intractable seizures underwent FDG PET/MRI for seizure focus localization. MRI demonstrated bilateral carpetlike nodular subependymal gray matter and asymmetrical focal dilatation in the right temporal horn. PET/MRI showed increased FDG within subependymal gray matter with significant hypometabolism in right anterior temporal lobe. EEG and ictal semiology confirmed the right temporal seizure origin. This case highlights the importance of identification of gray matter heterotopia on FDG PET/MRI.

  11. Dichromatic Gray Pixel for Camera-agnostic Color Constancy

    OpenAIRE

    Qian, Yanlin; Chen, Ke; Nikkanen, Jarno; Kämäräinen, Joni-Kristian; Matas, Jiri

    2018-01-01

    We propose a novel statistical color constancy method, especially suitable for the Camera-agnostic Color Constancy, i.e. the scenario where nothing is known a priori about the capturing devices. The method, called Dichromatic Gray Pixel, or DGP, relies on a novel gray pixel detection algorithm derived using the Dichromatic Reflection Model. DGP is suitable for camera-agnostic color constancy since varying devices are set to make achromatic pixels look gray under standard neutral illumination....

  12. The greenhouse effect in a gray planetary atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildt, R.

    1966-01-01

    Hopf analytical solution for values of ratio of gray absorption coefficients for insolating and escaping radiation /greenhouse parameter/ assumed constant at all depths, presenting temperature distribution graphs

  13. Gray Mold on Saintpaulia ionantha Caused by Botrytis cinerea in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyung-Moo Kim

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Gray mold caused by Botrytis cinerea occurred on Saintpaulia ionantha in flower shop of the Jeonju city in Korea. Typical symptoms with brown water-soaked and rotting lesions were appeared on the flowers, leaves and petiole of infected plants. Many conidia spores appeared on the lesions under humid conditions. Colonies were grayish brown and sclerotial formation on potato dextrose agar. Conidia were one celled, mostly ellipsoidal or ovoid in shape, and were colorless to pale brown in color. The conidia were 7~14×5~9 μm in size. Based on pathogenicity and morphological characteristics of the isolated fungus, the causal fungus was identified as B. cinerea Persoon: Fries. Gray mold of S. ionantha was proposed to the name of this disease.

  14. Short communication: Pseudomonas azotoformans causes gray discoloration in HTST fluid milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evanowski, Rachel L; Reichler, Samuel J; Kent, David J; Martin, Nicole H; Boor, Kathryn J; Wiedmann, Martin

    2017-10-01

    Pseudomonas species are well recognized as dairy product spoilage organisms, particularly due to their ability to grow at refrigeration temperatures. Although Pseudomonas-related spoilage usually manifests itself in flavor, odor, and texture defects, which are typically due to production of bacterial enzymes, Pseudomonas is also reported to cause color defects. Because of consumer complaints, a commercial dairy company shipped 4 samples of high temperature, short time (HTST)-pasteurized milk with distinctly gray colors to our laboratory. Bacterial isolates from all 4 samples were identified as Pseudomonas azotoformans. All isolates shared the same partial 16S rDNA sequence and showed black pigmentation on Dichloran Rose Bengal Chloramphenicol agar. Inoculation of one pigment-producing P. azotoformans isolate into HTST-pasteurized fluid milk led to development of gray milk after 14 d of storage at 6°C, but only in containers that had half of the total volume filled with milk (∼500 mL of milk in ∼1,000-mL bottles). We conclusively demonstrate that Pseudomonas can cause a color defect in fluid milk that manifests in gray discoloration, adding to the palette of color defects known to be caused by Pseudomonas. This information is of considerable interest to the dairy industry, because dairy processors and others may not typically associate black or gray colors in fluid milk with the presence of microbial contaminants but rather with product tampering (e.g., addition of ink) or other inadvertent chemical contamination. Copyright © 2017 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Aberrant paralimbic gray matter in criminal psychopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermer, Elsa; Cope, Lora M; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2012-08-01

    Psychopaths impose large costs on society, as they are frequently habitual, violent criminals. The pervasive nature of emotional and behavioral symptoms in psychopathy suggests that several associated brain regions may contribute to the disorder. Studies employing a variety of methods have converged on a set of brain regions in paralimbic cortex and limbic areas that appear to be dysfunctional in psychopathy. The present study further tests this hypothesis by investigating structural abnormalities using voxel-based morphometry in a sample of incarcerated men (N=296). Psychopathy was associated with decreased regional gray matter in several paralimbic and limbic areas, including bilateral parahippocampal, amygdala, and hippocampal regions, bilateral temporal pole, posterior cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex. The consistent identification of paralimbic cortex and limbic structures in psychopathy across diverse methodologies strengthens the interpretation that these regions are crucial for understanding neural dysfunction in psychopathy. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved.

  16. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S. Devine

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM to explore gray matter (GM asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15 or left-sided limb (n = 15. Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p < 0.01. Asymmetric atrophy of the left somatosensory cortex and temporal gyri was only observed in ALS subjects with right-sided onset of limb weakness. Our VBM protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.

  17. Exposing asymmetric gray matter vulnerability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Matthew S; Pannek, Kerstin; Coulthard, Alan; McCombe, Pamela A; Rose, Stephen E; Henderson, Robert D

    2015-01-01

    Limb weakness in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is typically asymmetric. Previous studies have identified an effect of limb dominance on onset and spread of weakness, however relative atrophy of dominant and non-dominant brain regions has not been investigated. Our objective was to use voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to explore gray matter (GM) asymmetry in ALS, in the context of limb dominance. 30 ALS subjects were matched with 17 healthy controls. All subjects were right-handed. Each underwent a structural MRI sequence, from which GM segmentations were generated. Patterns of GM atrophy were assessed in ALS subjects with first weakness in a right-sided limb (n = 15) or left-sided limb (n = 15). Within each group, a voxelwise comparison was also performed between native and mirror GM images, to identify regions of hemispheric GM asymmetry. Subjects with ALS showed disproportionate atrophy of the dominant (left) motor cortex hand area, irrespective of the side of first limb weakness (p protocol, contrasting native and mirror images, was able to more sensitively detect asymmetric GM pathology in a small cohort, compared with standard methods. These findings indicate particular vulnerability of dominant upper limb representation in ALS, supporting previous clinical studies, and with implications for cortical organisation and selective vulnerability.

  18. Underwater Image Enhancement by Adaptive Gray World and Differential Gray-Levels Histogram Equalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WONG, S.-L.

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Most underwater images tend to be dominated by a single color cast. This paper presents a solution to remove the color cast and improve the contrast in underwater images. However, after the removal of the color cast using Gray World (GW method, the resultant image is not visually pleasing. Hence, we propose an integrated approach using Adaptive GW (AGW and Differential Gray-Levels Histogram Equalization (DHE that operate in parallel. The AGW is applied to remove the color cast while DHE is used to improve the contrast of the underwater image. The outputs of both chromaticity components of AGW and intensity components of DHE are combined to form the enhanced image. The results of the proposed method are compared with three existing methods using qualitative and quantitative measures. The proposed method increased the visibility of underwater images and in most cases produces better quantitative scores when compared to the three existing methods.

  19. PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Booth, R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available consequence relations first studied by Lehmann and col- leagues in the 90?s play a central role in nonmonotonic reasoning [13, 14]. This has been the case due to at least three main reasons. Firstly, they are based on semantic constructions that are elegant...) j ; 6j : ^ j PTL: A Propositional Typicality Logic 3 The semantics of (propositional) rational consequence is in terms of ranked models. These are partially ordered structures in which the ordering is modular. Definition 1. Given a set S...

  20. Gray literature: An important resource in systematic reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paez, Arsenio

    2017-08-01

    Systematic reviews aide the analysis and dissemination of evidence, using rigorous and transparent methods to generate empirically attained answers to focused research questions. Identifying all evidence relevant to the research questions is an essential component, and challenge, of systematic reviews. Gray literature, or evidence not published in commercial publications, can make important contributions to a systematic review. Gray literature can include academic papers, including theses and dissertations, research and committee reports, government reports, conference papers, and ongoing research, among others. It may provide data not found within commercially published literature, providing an important forum for disseminating studies with null or negative results that might not otherwise be disseminated. Gray literature may thusly reduce publication bias, increase reviews' comprehensiveness and timeliness, and foster a balanced picture of available evidence. Gray literature's diverse formats and audiences can present a significant challenge in a systematic search for evidence. However, the benefits of including gray literature may far outweigh the cost in time and resource needed to search for it, and it is important for it to be included in a systematic review or review of evidence. A carefully thought out gray literature search strategy may be an invaluable component of a systematic review. This narrative review provides guidance about the benefits of including gray literature in a systematic review, and sources for searching through gray literature. An illustrative example of a search for evidence within gray literature sources is presented to highlight the potential contributions of such a search to a systematic review. Benefits and challenges of gray literature search methods are discussed, and recommendations made. © 2017 Chinese Cochrane Center, West China Hospital of Sichuan University and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  1. Anatomical and diffusion MRI of deep gray matter in pediatric spina bifida

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley L. Ware

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individuals with spina bifida myelomeningocele (SBM exhibit brain abnormalities in cortical thickness, white matter integrity, and cerebellar structure. Little is known about deep gray matter macro- and microstructure in this population. The current study utilized volumetric and diffusion-weighted MRI techniques to examine gray matter volume and microstructure in several subcortical structures: basal ganglia nuclei, thalamus, hippocampus, and amygdala. Sixty-six children and adolescents (ages 8–18; M = 12.0, SD = 2.73 with SBM and typically developing (TD controls underwent T1- and diffusion-weighted neuroimaging. Microstructural results indicated that hippocampal volume was disproportionately reduced, whereas the putamen volume was enlarged in the group with SBM. Microstructural analyses indicated increased mean diffusivity (MD and fractional anisotropy (FA in the gray matter of most examined structures (i.e., thalamus, caudate, hippocampus, with the putamen exhibiting a unique pattern of decreased MD and increased FA. These results provide further support that SBM differentially disrupts brain regions whereby some structures are volumetrically normal whereas others are reduced or enlarged. In the hippocampus, volumetric reduction coupled with increased MD may imply reduced cellular density and aberrant organization. Alternatively, the enlarged volume and significantly reduced MD in the putamen suggest increased density.

  2. Antecedents of Gray Divorce: A Life Course Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, I-Fen; Brown, Susan L; Wright, Matthew R; Hammersmith, Anna M

    2016-12-16

    Increasingly, older adults are experiencing divorce, yet little is known about the risk factors associated with divorce after age 50 (termed "gray divorce"). Guided by a life course perspective, our study examined whether key later life turning points are related to gray divorce. We used data from the 1998-2012 Health and Retirement Study to conduct a prospective, couple-level discrete-time event history analysis of the antecedents of gray divorce. Our models incorporated key turning points (empty nest, retirement, and poor health) as well as demographic characteristics and economic resources. Contrary to our expectations, the onset of an empty nest, the wife's or husband's retirement, and the wife's or husband's chronic conditions were unrelated to the likelihood of gray divorce. Rather, factors traditionally associated with divorce among younger adults were also salient for older adults. Marital duration, marital quality, home ownership, and wealth were negatively related to the risk of gray divorce. Gray divorce is especially likely to occur among couples who are socially and economically disadvantaged, raising new questions about the consequences of gray divorce for individual health and well-being. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Potential ungulate prey for Gray Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Francis J.; Mack, John A.

    1993-01-01

    Data were gathered for six ungulate species that reside in or near Yellowstone National Park. If gray wolves (Canis lupus) are reintroduced into the Yellowstone area, their avoidance of human activities or their management by human may determine their range. Therefore, the area of wolf occupation cannot be predicted now. We restricted our analysis to Yellowstone National Park and to the adjacent national forest wilderness areas. We included mostly ungulate herds that summer inside or adjacent to the park and that would probably be affected by wolves. Our wolf study area includes Yellowstone National Park and adjacent wilderness areas most likely to be occupied by wolves. We reviewed publications, park records, survey reports, and state fish and game surveys and reports for statistics on ungulate populations. These data [provide an overview of ungulate populations and harvests. Each ungulate herd is described in detail. We restricted our analysis to 1980-89, because population surveys were more complete during that period and because population estimates of most ungulate populations had increased by the 1980's. We feel the higher estimates of the 1980's reflect more up-to-date techniques and are most representative of the situation into which the wolves would be reintroduced.

  4. Black and gray Helmholtz-Kerr soliton refraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez-Curto, Julio; Chamorro-Posada, Pedro; McDonald, Graham S.

    2011-01-01

    Refraction of black and gray solitons at boundaries separating different defocusing Kerr media is analyzed within a Helmholtz framework. A universal nonlinear Snell's law is derived that describes gray soliton refraction, in addition to capturing the behavior of bright and black Kerr solitons at interfaces. Key regimes, defined by beam and interface characteristics, are identified, and predictions are verified by full numerical simulations. The existence of a unique total nonrefraction angle for gray solitons is reported; both internal and external refraction at a single interface is shown possible (dependent only on incidence angle). This, in turn, leads to the proposal of positive or negative lensing operations on soliton arrays at planar boundaries.

  5. Differences in quantitative assessment of myocardial scar and gray zone by LGE-CMR imaging using established gray zone protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesubi, Olurotimi; Ego-Osuala, Kelechi; Jeudy, Jean; Purtilo, James; Synowski, Stephen; Abutaleb, Ameer; Niekoop, Michelle; Abdulghani, Mohammed; Asoglu, Ramazan; See, Vincent; Saliaris, Anastasios; Shorofsky, Stephen; Dickfeld, Timm

    2015-02-01

    Late gadolinium enhancement cardiac magnetic resonance (LGE-CMR) imaging is the gold standard for myocardial scar evaluation. Heterogeneous areas of scar ('gray zone'), may serve as arrhythmogenic substrate. Various gray zone protocols have been correlated to clinical outcomes and ventricular tachycardia channels. This study assessed the quantitative differences in gray zone and scar core sizes as defined by previously validated signal intensity (SI) threshold algorithms. High quality LGE-CMR images performed in 41 cardiomyopathy patients [ischemic (33) or non-ischemic (8)] were analyzed using previously validated SI threshold methods [Full Width at Half Maximum (FWHM), n-standard deviation (NSD) and modified-FWHM]. Myocardial scar was defined as scar core and gray zone using SI thresholds based on these methods. Scar core, gray zone and total scar sizes were then computed and compared among these models. The median gray zone mass was 2-3 times larger with FWHM (15 g, IQR: 8-26 g) compared to NSD or modified-FWHM (5 g, IQR: 3-9 g; and 8 g. IQR: 6-12 g respectively, p zone extent (percentage of total scar that was gray zone) also varied significantly among the three methods, 51 % (IQR: 42-61 %), 17 % (IQR: 11-21 %) versus 38 % (IQR: 33-43 %) for FWHM, NSD and modified-FWHM respectively (p zone and scar core. Infarct core and total myocardial scar mass also differ using these methods. Further evaluation of the most accurate quantification method is needed.

  6. Gray Matter Is Targeted in First-Attack Multiple Sclerosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutzer, Steven E.; Angel, Thomas E.; Liu, Tao; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Xie, Fang; Bergquist, Jonas P.; Vecsei, Lazlo' ; Zadori, Denes; Camp, David G.; Holland, Bart K.; Smith, Richard D.; Coyle, Patricia K.

    2013-09-10

    The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS), its driving pathogenesis at the earliest stages, and what factors allow the first clinical attack to manifest remain unknown. Some imaging studies suggest gray rather than white matter may be involved early, and some postulate this may be predictive of developing MS. Other imaging studies are in conflict. To determine if there was objective molecular evidence of gray matter involvement in early MS we used high-resolution mass spectrometry to identify proteins in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of first-attack MS patients (two independent groups) compared to established relapsing remitting (RR) MS and controls. We found that the CSF proteins in first-attack patients were differentially enriched for gray matter components (axon, neuron, synapse). Myelin components did not distinguish these groups. The results support that gray matter dysfunction is involved early in MS, and also may be integral for the initial clinical presentation.

  7. Comparison of Cox and Gray's survival models in severe sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kasal, Jan; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Clermont, Gilles

    2004-01-01

    Although survival is traditionally modeled using Cox proportional hazards modeling, this approach may be inappropriate in sepsis, in which the proportional hazards assumption does not hold. Newer, more flexible models, such as Gray's model, may be more appropriate....

  8. Severe maxillary osteomyelitis in a Gray Wolf (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber-Meyer, Shannon

    2012-01-01

    Dental injuries to or abnormalities in functionally important teeth and associated bones in predators may significantly reduce the ability to kill and consume prey (Lazar et al. 2009). This impairment is likely exacerbated in coursing predators, such as Gray Wolves, that bite and hold onto fleeing and kicking prey with their teeth. Damage to carnassials (upper fourth premolar, P4, and lower first molar, M1) and associated bones in Gray Wolves may especially inhibit the consumption of prey because these teeth slice meat and crush bone. Here I report maxillary osteomyelitis involving the carnassials in a wild Gray Wolf from northeastern Minnesota of such severity that I hypothesize it ultimately caused the Gray Wolf to starve to death.

  9. Gray Matter Concentration Abnormality in Brains of Narcolepsy Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    To investigate gray matter concentration changes in the brains of narcoleptic patients. Twenty-nine narcoleptic patient with cataplexy and 29 age and sex-matched normal subjects (mean age, 31 years old) underwent volumetric MRIs. The MRIs were spatially normalized to a standard T1 template and subdivided into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These segmented images were then smoothed using a 12-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) isotropic Gaussian kernel. An optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol was used to analyze brain tissue concentrations using SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping). A one-way analysis of variance was applied to the concentration analysis of gray matter images. Narcoleptics with cataplexy showed reduced gray matter concentration in bilateral thalami, left gyrus rectus, bilateral frontopolar gyri, bilateral short insular gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyri, and right superior temporal and left inferior temporal gyri compared to normal subjects (uncorrected p < 0.001). Furthermore, small volume correction revealed gray matter concentration reduction in bilateral nuclei accumbens, hypothalami, and thalami (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Gray matter concentration reductions were observed in brain regions related to excessive daytime sleepiness, cognition, attention, and memory in narcoleptics with cataplexy

  10. Gray Matter Concentration Abnormality in Brains of Narcolepsy Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joo, Eun Yeon; Tae, Woo Suk; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong

    2009-01-01

    To investigate gray matter concentration changes in the brains of narcoleptic patients. Twenty-nine narcoleptic patient with cataplexy and 29 age and sex-matched normal subjects (mean age, 31 years old) underwent volumetric MRIs. The MRIs were spatially normalized to a standard T1 template and subdivided into gray matter, white matter, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). These segmented images were then smoothed using a 12-mm full width at half maximum (FWHM) isotropic Gaussian kernel. An optimized voxel-based morphometry protocol was used to analyze brain tissue concentrations using SPM2 (statistical parametric mapping). A one-way analysis of variance was applied to the concentration analysis of gray matter images. Narcoleptics with cataplexy showed reduced gray matter concentration in bilateral thalami, left gyrus rectus, bilateral frontopolar gyri, bilateral short insular gyri, bilateral superior frontal gyri, and right superior temporal and left inferior temporal gyri compared to normal subjects (uncorrected p < 0.001). Furthermore, small volume correction revealed gray matter concentration reduction in bilateral nuclei accumbens, hypothalami, and thalami (false discovery rate corrected p < 0.05). Gray matter concentration reductions were observed in brain regions related to excessive daytime sleepiness, cognition, attention, and memory in narcoleptics with cataplexy

  11. Cognitive Implications of Deep Gray Matter Iron in Multiple Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujiwara, E; Kmech, J A; Cobzas, D; Sun, H; Seres, P; Blevins, G; Wilman, A H

    2017-05-01

    Deep gray matter iron accumulation is increasingly recognized in association with multiple sclerosis and can be measured in vivo with MR imaging. The cognitive implications of this pathology are not well-understood, especially vis-à-vis deep gray matter atrophy. Our aim was to investigate the relationships between cognition and deep gray matter iron in MS by using 2 MR imaging-based iron-susceptibility measures. Forty patients with multiple sclerosis (relapsing-remitting, n = 16; progressive, n = 24) and 27 healthy controls were imaged at 4.7T by using the transverse relaxation rate and quantitative susceptibility mapping. The transverse relaxation rate and quantitative susceptibility mapping values and volumes (atrophy) of the caudate, putamen, globus pallidus, and thalamus were determined by multiatlas segmentation. Cognition was assessed with the Brief Repeatable Battery of Neuropsychological Tests. Relationships between cognition and deep gray matter iron were examined by hierarchic regressions. Compared with controls, patients showed reduced memory ( P processing speed ( P = .02) and smaller putamen ( P deep gray matter iron accumulation in the current multiple sclerosis cohort. Atrophy and iron accumulation in deep gray matter both have negative but separable relationships to cognition in multiple sclerosis. © 2017 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  12. Spinal Cord Gray Matter Atrophy in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquin, M-Ê; El Mendili, M M; Gros, C; Dupont, S M; Cohen-Adad, J; Pradat, P-F

    2018-01-01

    There is an emerging need for biomarkers to better categorize clinical phenotypes and predict progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This study aimed to quantify cervical spinal gray matter atrophy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and investigate its association with clinical disability at baseline and after 1 year. Twenty-nine patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 22 healthy controls were scanned with 3T MR imaging. Standard functional scale was recorded at the time of MR imaging and after 1 year. MR imaging data were processed automatically to measure the spinal cord, gray matter, and white matter cross-sectional areas. A statistical analysis assessed the difference in cross-sectional areas between patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and controls, correlations between spinal cord and gray matter atrophy to clinical disability at baseline and at 1 year, and prediction of clinical disability at 1 year. Gray matter atrophy was more sensitive to discriminate patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis from controls ( P = .004) compared with spinal cord atrophy ( P = .02). Gray matter and spinal cord cross-sectional areas showed good correlations with clinical scores at baseline ( R = 0.56 for gray matter and R = 0.55 for spinal cord; P amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. © 2018 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  13. Petrology, Palynology, and Geochemistry of Gray Hawk Coal (Early Pennsylvanian, Langsettian in Eastern Kentucky, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James C. Hower

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presents recently collected data examining the organic petrology, palynology, mineralogy and geochemistry of the Gray Hawk coal bed. From the Early Pennsylvanian, Langsettian substage, Gray Hawk coal has been mined near the western edge of the eastern Kentucky portion of the Central Appalachian coalfield. While the coal is thin, rarely more than 0.5-m thick, it has a low-ash yield and a low-S content, making it an important local resource. The Gray Hawk coal palynology is dominated by Lycospora spp., and contains a diverse spectrum of small lycopods, tree ferns, small ferns, calamites, and gymnosperms. The maceral assemblages show an abundance of collotelinite, telinite, vitrodetrinite, fusinite, and semifusinite. Fecal pellet-derived macrinite, albeit with more compaction than is typically seen in younger coals, was observed in the Gray Hawk coal. The minerals in the coal are dominated by clay minerals (e.g., kaolinite, mixed-layer illite/smectite, illite, and to a lesser extent, pyrite, quartz, and iron III hydroxyl-sulfate, along with traces of chlorite, and in some cases, jarosite, szomolnokite, anatase, and calcite. The clay minerals are of authigenic and detrital origins. The occurrence of anatase as cell-fillings also indicates an authigenic origin. With the exception of Ge and As, which are slightly enriched in the coals, the concentrations of other trace elements are either close to or much lower than the averages for world hard coals. Arsenic and Hg are also enriched in the top bench of the coal and probably occur in pyrite. The elemental associations (e.g., Al2O3/TiO2, Cr/Th-Sc/Th indicate a sediment-source region with intermediate and felsic compositions. Rare metals, including Ga, rare earth elements and Ge, are highly enriched in the coal ashes, and the Gray Hawk coals have a great potential for industrial use of these metals. The rare earth elements in the samples are weakly fractionated or are characterized by heavy

  14. Medial frontal white and gray matter contributions to general intelligence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Toshiyuki Ohtani

    Full Text Available The medial orbitofrontal cortex (mOFC and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC are part of a wider neural network that plays an important role in general intelligence and executive function. We used structural brain imaging to quantify magnetic resonance gray matter volume and diffusion tensor white matter integrity of the mOFC-rACC network in 26 healthy participants who also completed neuropsychological tests of intellectual abilities and executive function. Stochastic tractography, the most effective Diffusion Tensor Imaging method for examining white matter connections between adjacent gray matter regions, was employed to assess the integrity of mOFC-rACC pathways. Fractional anisotropy (FA, which reflects the integrity of white matter connections, was calculated. Results indicated that higher intelligence correlated with greater gray matter volumes for both mOFC and rACC, as well as with increased FA for left posterior mOFC-rACC connectivity. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that DTI-derived FA of left posterior mOFC-rACC uniquely accounted for 29%-34% of the variance in IQ, in comparison to 11%-16% uniquely explained by gray matter volume of the left rACC. Together, left rACC gray matter volume and white matter connectivity between left posterior mOFC and rACC accounted for up to 50% of the variance in general intelligence. This study is to our knowledge the first to examine white matter connectivity between OFC and ACC, two gray matter regions of interests that are very close in physical proximity, and underscores the important independent contributions of variations in rACC gray matter volume and mOFC-rACC white matter connectivity to individual differences in general intelligence.

  15. Longitudinal Study of Gray Matter Changes in Parkinson Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, X; Liang, P; Li, Y; Shi, L; Wang, D; Li, K

    2015-12-01

    The pathology of Parkinson disease leads to morphological brain volume changes. So far, the progressive gray matter volume change across time specific to patients with Parkinson disease compared controls remains unclear. Our aim was to investigate the pattern of gray matter changes in patients with Parkinson disease and to explore the progressive gray matter volume change specific to patients with Parkinson disease with disease progression by using voxel-based morphometry analysis. Longitudinal cognitive assessment and structural MR imaging of 89 patients with Parkinson disease (62 men) and 55 healthy controls (33 men) were from the Parkinson's Progression Markers Initiative data base, including the initial baseline and 12-month follow-up data. Two-way analysis of covariance was performed with covariates of age, sex, years of education, imaging data from multiple centers, and total intracranial volume by using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra tool from SPM8 software. Gray matter volume changes for patients with Parkinson disease were detected with decreased gray matter volume in the frontotemporoparietal areas and the bilateral caudate, with increased gray matter volume in the bilateral limbic/paralimbic areas, medial globus pallidus/putamen, and the right occipital cortex compared with healthy controls. Progressive gray matter volume decrease in the bilateral caudate was found for both patients with Parkinson disease and healthy controls, and this caudate volume was positively associated with cognitive ability for both groups. The progressive gray matter volume increase specific to the patients with Parkinson disease was identified close to the left ventral lateral nucleus of thalamus, and a positive relationship was found between the thalamic volume and the tremor scores in a subgroup with tremor-dominant patients with Parkinson disease. The observed progressive changes in gray matter volume in Parkinson disease may provide

  16. QCA Gray Code Converter Circuits Using LTEx Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Chiradeep; Panda, Saradindu; Mukhopadhyay, Asish Kumar; Maji, Bansibadan

    2018-04-01

    The Quantum-dot Cellular Automata (QCA) is the prominent paradigm of nanotechnology considered to continue the computation at deep sub-micron regime. The QCA realizations of several multilevel circuit of arithmetic logic unit have been introduced in the recent years. However, as high fan-in Binary to Gray (B2G) and Gray to Binary (G2B) Converters exist in the processor based architecture, no attention has been paid towards the QCA instantiation of the Gray Code Converters which are anticipated to be used in 8-bit, 16-bit, 32-bit or even more bit addressable machines of Gray Code Addressing schemes. In this work the two-input Layered T module is presented to exploit the operation of an Exclusive-OR Gate (namely LTEx module) as an elemental block. The "defect-tolerant analysis" of the two-input LTEx module has been analyzed to establish the scalability and reproducibility of the LTEx module in the complex circuits. The novel formulations exploiting the operability of the LTEx module have been proposed to instantiate area-delay efficient B2G and G2B Converters which can be exclusively used in Gray Code Addressing schemes. Moreover this work formulates the QCA design metrics such as O-Cost, Effective area, Delay and Cost α for the n-bit converter layouts.

  17. Evaluation of Accelerated Graphitic Corrosion Test of Gray Cast Iron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jeong Hyeon; Hong, Jong Dae; Chang Heui; Na, Kyung Hwan; Lee, Jae Gon

    2011-01-01

    In operating nuclear power plants, gray cast iron is commonly used as materials for various non-safety system components including pipes in fire water system, valve bodies, bonnets, and pump castings. In such locations, operating condition does not require alloy steels with excellent mechanical properties. But, a few corrosion related degradation, or graphitic corrosion is frequently occurred to gray cast iron during the long-term operation in nuclear power plant. Graphitic corrosion is selective leaching of iron from gray cast iron, where iron gets removed and graphite grains remain intact. In U.S.A., one-time visual inspection and hardness measurement are required from regulatory body to detect the graphitic corrosion for the life extension evaluation of the operating nuclear power plant. In this study, experiments were conducted to make accelerated graphitic corrosion of gray cast iron using electrochemical method, and hardness was measured for the specimens to establish the correlation between degree of graphitic corrosion and surface hardness of gray cast iron

  18. Gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid volume differences in children with Specific Language Impairment and/or Reading Disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girbau-Massana, Dolors; Garcia-Marti, Gracian; Marti-Bonmati, Luis; Schwartz, Richard G

    2014-04-01

    We studied gray-white matter and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) alterations that may be critical for language, through an optimized voxel-based morphometry evaluation in children with Specific Language Impairment (SLI), compared to Typical Language Development (TLD). Ten children with SLI (8;5-10;9) and 14 children with TLD (8;2-11;8) participated. They received a comprehensive language and reading test battery. We also analyzed a subgroup of six children with SLI+RD (Reading Disability). Brain images from 3-Tesla MRIs were analyzed with intelligence, age, gender, and total intracranial volume as covariates. Children with SLI or SLI+RD exhibited a significant lower overall gray matter volume than children with TLD. Particularly, children with SLI showed a significantly lower volume of gray matter compared to children with TLD in the right postcentral parietal gyrus (BA4), and left and right medial occipital gyri (BA19). The group with SLI also exhibited a significantly greater volume of gray matter in the right superior occipital gyrus (BA19), which may reflect a brain reorganization to compensate for their lower volumes at medial occipital gyri. Children with SLI+RD, compared to children with TLD, showed a significantly lower volume of: (a) gray matter in the right postcentral parietal gyrus; and (b) white matter in the right inferior longitudinal fasciculus (RILF), which interconnects the temporal and occipital lobes. Children with TLD exhibited a significantly lower CSF volume than children with SLI and children with SLI+RD respectively, who had somewhat smaller volumes of gray matter allowing for more CSF volume. The significant lower gray matter volume at the right postcentral parietal gyrus and greater cerebrospinal fluid volume may prove to be unique markers for SLI. We discuss the association of poor knowledge/visual representations and language input to brain development. Our comorbid study showed that a significant lower volume of white matter in the right

  19. Prefrontal gray matter volume mediates genetic risks for obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opel, N; Redlich, R; Kaehler, C; Grotegerd, D; Dohm, K; Heindel, W; Kugel, H; Thalamuthu, A; Koutsouleris, N; Arolt, V; Teuber, A; Wersching, H; Baune, B T; Berger, K; Dannlowski, U

    2017-05-01

    Genetic and neuroimaging research has identified neurobiological correlates of obesity. However, evidence for an integrated model of genetic risk and brain structural alterations in the pathophysiology of obesity is still absent. Here we investigated the relationship between polygenic risk for obesity, gray matter structure and body mass index (BMI) by the use of univariate and multivariate analyses in two large, independent cohorts (n=330 and n=347). Higher BMI and higher polygenic risk for obesity were significantly associated with medial prefrontal gray matter decrease, and prefrontal gray matter was further shown to significantly mediate the effect of polygenic risk for obesity on BMI in both samples. Building on this, the successful individualized prediction of BMI by means of multivariate pattern classification algorithms trained on whole-brain imaging data and external validations in the second cohort points to potential clinical applications of this imaging trait marker.

  20. THE CORROSION BEHAVIOR AND WEAR RESISTANCE OF GRAY CAST IRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina F. Kadhim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gray cast iron has many applications as pipes , pumps and valve bodies where it has influenced by heat and contact with other solutions . This research has studied the corrosion behavior and Vickers hardness of gray cast iron by immersion in four strong alkaline solutions (NaOH, KOH, Ca(OH2, LiOHwith three concentrations (1%,2%,3% of each solution. Dry sliding wear has carried out before and after the heat treatments (stress relief ,normalizing, hardening and tempering. In this work ,maximum wear strength has obtained at tempered gray cast iron and minimum corrosion rate has obtained in LiOH solution by forming protective white visible oxide layer.

  1. The ``gray cortex``: an early sign of stress fracture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulligan, M.E. [Dept. of Radiology, Univ. of Maryland Medical Center, Baltimore, MD (United States)

    1995-04-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe an early radiographic sign of stress fracture, the ``gray cortex.`` The imaging findings in three patients with tibial stress fractures were reviewed. The ``gray cortex`` sign was evident on the initial conventional radiographs in all three cases. It was prospectively reported as a sign of stress fracture in two patients and was evident on the initial radiographs (taken elsewhere) of the third patient, who was referred for additional workup of a possible neoplasm. Special imaging studies (technetium-99m bone scan, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) confirmed the diagnosis in all three cases. (orig.)

  2. The ''gray cortex'': an early sign of stress fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mulligan, M.E.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe an early radiographic sign of stress fracture, the ''gray cortex.'' The imaging findings in three patients with tibial stress fractures were reviewed. The ''gray cortex'' sign was evident on the initial conventional radiographs in all three cases. It was prospectively reported as a sign of stress fracture in two patients and was evident on the initial radiographs (taken elsewhere) of the third patient, who was referred for additional workup of a possible neoplasm. Special imaging studies (technetium-99m bone scan, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging) confirmed the diagnosis in all three cases. (orig.)

  3. Wave-splitting in the bistable Gray-Scott model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, K.E.; Mazin, W.; Mosekilde, Erik

    1996-01-01

    The Gray-Scott model describes a chemical reaction in which an activator species grows autocatalytically on a continuously fed substrate. For certain feed rates and activator life times the model shows the coexistence of two homogeneous steady states. The blue state, where the activator concentra......The Gray-Scott model describes a chemical reaction in which an activator species grows autocatalytically on a continuously fed substrate. For certain feed rates and activator life times the model shows the coexistence of two homogeneous steady states. The blue state, where the activator...

  4. [Surface electromyography signal classification using gray system theory].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Hongbo; Ma, Congbin; Wang, Zhizhong; Huang, Hai

    2004-12-01

    A new method based on gray correlation was introduced to improve the identification rate in artificial limb. The electromyography (EMG) signal was first transformed into time-frequency domain by wavelet transform. Singular value decomposition (SVD) was then used to extract feature vector from the wavelet coefficient for pattern recognition. The decision was made according to the maximum gray correlation coefficient. Compared with neural network recognition, this robust method has an almost equivalent recognition rate but much lower computation costs and less training samples.

  5. Dorsal anterior cingulate cortex in typically developing children: Laterality analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jue Wang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to elucidate the dACC laterality in typically developing children and their sex/age-related differences with a sample of 84 right-handed children (6–16 years, 42 boys. We first replicated the previous finding observed in adults that gray matter density asymmetry in the dACC was region-specific: leftward (left > right in its superior part, rightward (left < right in its inferior part. Intrinsic connectivity analysis of these regions further revealed region-specific asymmetric connectivity profiles in dACC as well as their sex and age differences. Specifically, the superior dACC connectivity with frontoparietal network and the inferior dACC connectivity with visual network are rightward. The superior dACC connectivity with the default network (lateral temporal cortex was more involved in the left hemisphere. In contrast, the inferior dACC connectivity with the default network (anterior medial prefrontal cortex was more lateralized towards the right hemisphere. The superior dACC connectivity with lateral visual cortex was more distinct across two hemispheres in girls than that in boys. This connection in boys changed with age from right-prominent to left-prominent asymmetry whereas girls developed the connection from left-prominent to no asymmetry. These findings not only highlight the complexity and laterality of the dACC but also provided insights into dynamical structure–function relationships during the development.

  6. Gray bootstrap method for estimating frequency-varying random vibration signals with small samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yanqing

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available During environment testing, the estimation of random vibration signals (RVS is an important technique for the airborne platform safety and reliability. However, the available methods including extreme value envelope method (EVEM, statistical tolerances method (STM and improved statistical tolerance method (ISTM require large samples and typical probability distribution. Moreover, the frequency-varying characteristic of RVS is usually not taken into account. Gray bootstrap method (GBM is proposed to solve the problem of estimating frequency-varying RVS with small samples. Firstly, the estimated indexes are obtained including the estimated interval, the estimated uncertainty, the estimated value, the estimated error and estimated reliability. In addition, GBM is applied to estimating the single flight testing of certain aircraft. At last, in order to evaluate the estimated performance, GBM is compared with bootstrap method (BM and gray method (GM in testing analysis. The result shows that GBM has superiority for estimating dynamic signals with small samples and estimated reliability is proved to be 100% at the given confidence level.

  7. Chapter 13. Current management situation: Great gray owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jon Verner

    1994-01-01

    The breeding range of great gray owls (Strix nebulosa) in the United States includes portions of Alaska, mountains in the western United States including portions of the Cascades and Sierra Nevada ranges and the northern Rockies, and portions of Minnesota, Michigan, Wisconsin, and New York (see Chapter 14 and Map 3). The species is sometimes observed...

  8. Mastering the Gray Zone: Understanding a Changing Era of Conflict

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    sequentially or in parallel, to a range of other tactics largely built around psychological opera- tions and information warfare. The goal is to...choice is the prisoner’s dilemma: The assumed players can see the lineup of rewards. Gray zone strategies complicate this process and raise ambiguities

  9. Anophthalmia in a Wild Eastern Gray Squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenburger, Jamie L; Hartnett, Elizabeth A; James, Fiona M K; Grahn, Bruce H

    2017-10-01

    We describe bilateral true anophthalmia in a juvenile female eastern gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis) with histologic confirmation that orbital contents lacked ocular tissues. Additionally, the optic chiasm of the brain was absent and axon density in the optic tract adjacent to the lateral geniculate nucleus was reduced.

  10. The occurrence of hepatozoon in the gray squirrel (Sciurus carolinensis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, C.M.; Price, D.L.

    1955-01-01

    Hepatozoon sciuri (Coles, 1914) is reported from gray squirrels (Sciurus carolinensis) in Washington, D.C. and Maryland. Blood smears stained with Giemsa's stain revealed a parasitemia in 16 to 71% of the squirrels examined. A technique for laking the red cells and concentrating the white cells in blood samples demonstrated this protozoon to be present in every squirrel so tested.

  11. Outplayed: Regaining Strategic Initiative in the Gray Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    and the Great Depression . The period between 1917 and 1945 included two world wars and the Great Depres- sion. There was not a great deal of gray...2015, Center for Strategic and International Studies YouTube Channel video file, avail- able from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8WA1rP5WGfY

  12. Lateral cervical nucleus projections to periaqueductal gray matter in cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, LJ; Klop, EM; Broman, J; Zhang, ML; Holstege, G; Zhang, Mengliang

    2004-01-01

    The midbrain periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) integrates the basic responses necessary for survival of individuals and species. Examples are defense behaviors such as fight, flight, and freezing, but also sexual behavior, vocalization, and micturition. To control these behaviors the PAG depends on

  13. Nucleus retroambiguus projections to the periaqueductal gray in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, EM; Mouton, LJ; Holstege, G

    2002-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) of the caudal medulla is a relay nucleus by which neurons of the mesencephalic periaqueductal gray (PAG) reach motoneurons of pharynx, larynx, soft palate, intercostal and abdominal muscles, and several muscles of the hindlimbs. These PAG-NRA-motoneuronal projections

  14. Mentoring Graduate Students: The Good, Bad, and Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, Jeanne H.; Jolly-Ballantine, John-Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Good mentoring of graduate students influences their perseverance and success to completion, whereas bad mentoring can result in negative outcomes, including delayed degree completion or non-completion. What the authors refer to as the gray zone is that which falls between good and bad mentoring. Examples are partial mentoring or changes in…

  15. Jim Gray on eScience: A Transformed Scientific Method

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 8. Jim Gray on eScience: A Transformed Scientific Method. Classics Volume 21 Issue 8 August 2016 pp 749-763. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/021/08/0749-0763. Abstract ...

  16. Dance and music share gray matter structural correlates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpati, Falisha J; Giacosa, Chiara; Foster, Nicholas E V; Penhune, Virginia B; Hyde, Krista L

    2017-02-15

    Intensive practise of sensorimotor skills, such as music and dance, is associated with brain structural plasticity. While the neural correlates of music have been well-investigated, less is known about the neural correlates of dance. Additionally, the gray matter structural correlates of dance versus music training have not yet been directly compared. The objectives of the present study were to compare gray matter structure as measured by surface- and voxel-based morphometry between expert dancers, expert musicians and untrained controls, as well as to correlate gray matter structure with performance on dance- and music-related tasks. Dancers and musicians were found to have increased cortical thickness compared to controls in superior temporal regions. Gray matter structure in the superior temporal gyrus was also correlated with performance on dance imitation, rhythm synchronization and melody discrimination tasks. These results suggest that superior temporal regions are important in both dance- and music-related skills and may be affected similarly by both types of long-term intensive training. This work advances knowledge of the neural correlates of dance and music, as well as training-associated brain plasticity in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Typicality and misinformation: Two sources of distortion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malen Migueles

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effect of two sources of memory error: exposure to post-event information and extracting typical contents from schemata. Participants were shown a video of a bank robbery and presented with highand low-typicality misinformation extracted from two normative studies. The misleading suggestions consisted of either changes in the original video information or additions of completely new contents. In the subsequent recognition task the post-event misinformation produced memory impairment. The participants used the underlying schema of the event to extract high-typicality information which had become integrated with episodic information, thus giving rise to more hits and false alarms for these items. However, the effect of exposure to misinformation was greater on low-typicality items. There were no differences between changed or added information, but there were more false alarms when a low-typicality item was changed to a high-typicality item

  18. Phosphorus Sorption Capacity of Gray Forest Soil as Dependent on Fertilization System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogova, O. B.; Kolobova, N. A.; Ivanov, A. L.

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, the results of the study of changes in the phosphorus sorption capacity of gray forest soils of Vladimir opolie under the impact of different fertilization systems are discussed. The quantitative parameters of the potential buffer capacity of soils for phosphorus (PBCP) and Langmuir sorption isotherms have been calculated. It is shown that the application of organic fertilizers results in a stronger decrease in PBCP than the application of mineral fertilizers. The portion of phosphorus of mineral compounds considerably increases, and the high content of available phosphates is maintained. In the variants with application of mineral phosphorus in combination with manure, the portions of organic and mineral phosphorus are at the level typical of unfertilized soils. The energy of phosphate bonds with the soil is minimal upon the application of a double rate of mineral phosphorus at the maximum capacity in relation to phosphate ions.

  19. Gray fox (Urocyon cinereoargenteus parasite diversity in central Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Hernández-Camacho

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Mexico has a long history of parasitological studies in communities of vertebrates. However, the mega diversity of the country makes fauna inventories an ongoing priority. Presently, there is little published on the parasite fauna of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus Schereber, 1775 and this study provides new records of parasites for gray foxes in central Mexico. It is a continuation of a series of previous parasitological studies conducted with this carnivore in Mexico from 2003 to the present. A total of 24 foxes in the Parque Nacional El Cimatario (PANEC were trapped, anaesthetized, and parasites recovered. The species found were Dirofilaria immitis, Ctenocephalides canis, C. felis, Euhoplopsillus glacialis affinis (first report for gray foxes in Mexico Pulex simulants, and Ixodes sp. Three additional gray fox carcasses were necropsied and the parasites collected were adult nematodes Physaloptera praeputialis and Toxocara canis. The intensive study of the gray fox population selected for the 2013–2015 recent period allowed for a two-fold increase in the number of parasite species recorded for this carnivore since 2003 (nine to 18 parasite species, mainly recording parasitic arthropods, Dirofilaria immitis filariae and adult nematodes. The parasite species recorded are generalists that can survive in anthropic environments; which is characteristic of the present ecological scenario in central Mexico. The close proximity of the PANEC to the city of Santiago de Queretaro suggests possible parasite transmission between the foxes and domestic and feral dogs. Furthermore, packs of feral dogs in the PANEC might have altered habitat use by foxes, with possible impacts on transmission.

  20. "Mr. Database" : Jim Gray and the History of Database Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanwahr, Nils C

    2017-12-01

    Although the widespread use of the term "Big Data" is comparatively recent, it invokes a phenomenon in the developments of database technology with distinct historical contexts. The database engineer Jim Gray, known as "Mr. Database" in Silicon Valley before his disappearance at sea in 2007, was involved in many of the crucial developments since the 1970s that constitute the foundation of exceedingly large and distributed databases. Jim Gray was involved in the development of relational database systems based on the concepts of Edgar F. Codd at IBM in the 1970s before he went on to develop principles of Transaction Processing that enable the parallel and highly distributed performance of databases today. He was also involved in creating forums for discourse between academia and industry, which influenced industry performance standards as well as database research agendas. As a co-founder of the San Francisco branch of Microsoft Research, Gray increasingly turned toward scientific applications of database technologies, e. g. leading the TerraServer project, an online database of satellite images. Inspired by Vannevar Bush's idea of the memex, Gray laid out his vision of a Personal Memex as well as a World Memex, eventually postulating a new era of data-based scientific discovery termed "Fourth Paradigm Science". This article gives an overview of Gray's contributions to the development of database technology as well as his research agendas and shows that central notions of Big Data have been occupying database engineers for much longer than the actual term has been in use.

  1. 76 FR 12070 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-04

    ... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seat on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  2. 76 FR 68428 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  3. 77 FR 27719 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-11

    ... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  4. 75 FR 17899 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-08

    ... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  5. 76 FR 27307 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-11

    ... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seat on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council...

  6. A Typical Verification Challenge for the GRID

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Pol, Jan Cornelis; Bal, H. E.; Brim, L.; Leucker, M.

    2008-01-01

    A typical verification challenge for the GRID community is presented. The concrete challenge is to implement a simple recursive algorithm for finding the strongly connected components in a graph. The graph is typically stored in the collective memory of a number of computers, so a distributed

  7. Chapter 16. Conservation status of great gray owls in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregory D. Hayward

    1994-01-01

    Previous chapters outlined the biology and ecology of great gray owls as well as the ecology of this species in the western United States. That technical review provides the basis to assess the current conservation status of great gray owls in the United States. Are populations of great gray owls in the United States currently threatened? Are current land management...

  8. 76 FR 78240 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Continuation of Antidumping Duty Order

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-815] Gray Portland Cement and... Department) initiated the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and... of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from Japan would likely lead to...

  9. Atrophy of gray and white matters in the brain during aging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takeda, Shumpei; Matsuzawa, Taiju; Ito, Hisao.

    1984-01-01

    We studied atrophy of gray and white matter during aging in 57 males and 44 females with no neurological disturbances using x-ray computed tomography. The ages ranged from 12 to 80 years. Brain atrophy was expressed as brain volume index: 100% x [(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(brain volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Atrophy of gray and white matter volume was expressed as gray and white matter volume indices: 100% x (apparent gray or white matter volume index in individual subjects)/(apparent gray or white matter volume index in normal subjects whose brain volume index was greater than 98%), where apparent gray and white matter volume indices were expressed as 100% x [(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in individual subjects]/[(gray or white matter volume/cranial cavity volume) in normal subjects of 20-39 years]. Both the gray and white matter volume indices changed proportionally to the brain volume index (p<0.001). As the brain atrophy advanced, the gray matter volume index decreased more than the white matter volume index (P<0.001). Decrease in the gray and white matter volume indices was statistically significant only in seventies (P<0.002 for gray matter, P<0.05 for white matter). (author)

  10. 75 FR 68756 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-09

    ... North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Petition Availability AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service... petition to designate the Eastern North Pacific population of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a... Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following address: http://www.nmfs...

  11. Food Irradiation Is Done in Grays, not Rads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strom, Daniel J.

    2002-01-01

    One federal agency has chosen to use exclusively modern SI units of radiation dose in its regulations: the FDA. While not exactly hot news, this bold move by a U.S. government agency on November 26, 1997, should be noted by those who wish to encourage the switch from curies, working level months, rads, rems, and roentgens to becquerels, joule hours per cubic meter, grays, sieverts, and coulombs per kilogram. The regulation is 21 CFR 179, Irradiation in the Production, Processing, and Handling of Food. Specifically, 21 CFR 179.26 (b) 8. permits meat irradiation up to 4.5 kGy for refrigerated meat and 7.0 kGy for frozen meat. Prior to the 1997 addition, radiation doses had been quoted in grays (kGy) with rad (Mrad) values in parentheses. In the 1997 addition, the Mrads disappeared

  12. MASTICATORY MUSCLE MYOSITIS IN A GRAY WOLF (CANIS LUPUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Marc; Glass, Eric N; Castro, Fernando A; Miller, Andrew D; de Lahunta, Alexander

    2017-03-01

    A 10-yr-old male, neutered gray wolf ( Canis lupus ) was presented for atrophy of the temporalis and masseter muscles. Clinical signs and magnetic resonance imaging were consistent with a myopathy. Positive serology for antibody titers directed against Type 2M myofibers, and the observation of a mixed mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltrate along with eosinophils and neutrophils within the temporalis muscle, were diagnostic for masticatory muscle myositis. Importantly, protozoal myositis was excluded based on other clinicopathologic data. The case highlights the potential for immune-mediated polymyositis in canids other than the domesticated dog ( Canis lupus familaris). Additionally, awareness of a diet in which raw meat is used should prompt a thorough investigation for an underlying infectious myositis in the gray wolf.

  13. CASTRO: A NEW COMPRESSIBLE ASTROPHYSICAL SOLVER. II. GRAY RADIATION HYDRODYNAMICS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, W.; Almgren, A.; Bell, J.; Howell, L.; Burrows, A.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the development of a flux-limited gray radiation solver for the compressible astrophysics code, CASTRO. CASTRO uses an Eulerian grid with block-structured adaptive mesh refinement based on a nested hierarchy of logically rectangular variable-sized grids with simultaneous refinement in both space and time. The gray radiation solver is based on a mixed-frame formulation of radiation hydrodynamics. In our approach, the system is split into two parts, one part that couples the radiation and fluid in a hyperbolic subsystem, and another parabolic part that evolves radiation diffusion and source-sink terms. The hyperbolic subsystem is solved explicitly with a high-order Godunov scheme, whereas the parabolic part is solved implicitly with a first-order backward Euler method.

  14. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    OpenAIRE

    Wilmers Christopher C; Getz Wayne M; Getz Wayne M

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefo...

  15. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    OpenAIRE

    Christopher C Wilmers; Wayne M Getz

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefo...

  16. Production of hybrids between western gray wolves and western coyotes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L David Mech

    Full Text Available Using artificial insemination we attempted to produce hybrids between captive, male, western, gray wolves (Canis lupus and female, western coyotes (Canis latrans to determine whether their gametes would be compatible and the coyotes could produce and nurture offspring. The results contribute new information to an ongoing controversy over whether the eastern wolf (Canis lycaon is a valid unique species that could be subject to the U. S. Endangered Species Act. Attempts with transcervically deposited wolf semen into nine coyotes over two breeding seasons yielded three coyote pregnancies. One coyote ate her pups, another produced a resorbed fetus and a dead fetus by C-section, and the third produced seven hybrids, six of which survived. These results show that, although it might be unlikely for male western wolves to successfully produce offspring with female western coyotes under natural conditions, western-gray-wolf sperm are compatible with western-coyote ova and that at least one coyote could produce and nurture hybrid offspring. This finding in turn demonstrates that gamete incompatibility would not have prevented western, gray wolves from inseminating western coyotes and thus producing hybrids with coyote mtDNA, a claim that counters the view that the eastern wolf is a separate species. However, some of the difficulties experienced by the other inseminated coyotes tend to temper that finding and suggest that more experimentation is needed, including determining the behavioral and physical compatibility of western gray wolves copulating with western coyotes. Thus although our study adds new information to the controversy, it does not settle it. Further study is needed to determine whether the putative Canis lycaon is indeed a unique species.

  17. Evaluation of Subependymal Gray Matter Heterotopias on Fetal MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraj, U D; Peiro, J L; Bierbrauer, K S; Kline-Fath, B M

    2016-04-01

    Subependymal grey matter heterotopias are seen in a high proportion of children with Chiari II malformation and are potentially clinically relevant. However, despite its growing use, there is little in the literature describing its detection on fetal MRI. Our aim was to evaluate the accuracy in diagnosing subependymal gray matter heterotopias in fetuses with spinal dysraphism on fetal MR imaging. This study is a retrospective analysis of 203 fetal MRIs performed at a single institution for spinal dysraphism during a 10-year period. Corresponding obstetric sonography, postnatal imaging, and clinical/operative reports were reviewed. Of the fetal MRIs reviewed, 95 fetuses were included in our analysis; 23.2% (22/95) were suspected of having subependymal gray matter heterotopias on fetal MR imaging prospectively. However, only 50% (11/22) of these cases were confirmed on postnatal brain MR imaging. On postnatal brain MR imaging, 28.4% (27/95) demonstrated imaging findings consistent with subependymal gray matter heterotopia. Only 40.7% (11/27) of these cases were prospectively diagnosed on fetal MR imaging. Fetal MR imaging is limited in its ability to identify subependymal gray matter heterotopias in fetuses with spinal dysraphism. It is believed that this limitation relates to a combination of factors, including artifacts from fetal motion, the very small size of fetal neuroanatomy, differences in imaging techniques, and, possibly, irregularity related to denudation of the ependyma/subependyma in the presence of spinal dysraphism and/or stretching of the germinal matrix in ventriculomegaly. © 2016 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  18. Complete permutation Gray code implemented by finite state machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Peng

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An enumerating method of complete permutation array is proposed. The list of n! permutations based on Gray code defined over finite symbol set Z(n = {1, 2, …, n} is implemented by finite state machine, named as n-RPGCF. An RPGCF can be used to search permutation code and provide improved lower bounds on the maximum cardinality of a permutation code in some cases.

  19. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios. (paper)

  20. Prediction and typicality in multiverse cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2014-02-01

    In the absence of a fundamental theory that precisely predicts values for observable parameters, anthropic reasoning attempts to constrain probability distributions over those parameters in order to facilitate the extraction of testable predictions. The utility of this approach has been vigorously debated of late, particularly in light of theories that claim we live in a multiverse, where parameters may take differing values in regions lying outside our observable horizon. Within this cosmological framework, we investigate the efficacy of top-down anthropic reasoning based on the weak anthropic principle. We argue contrary to recent claims that it is not clear one can either dispense with notions of typicality altogether or presume typicality, in comparing resulting probability distributions with observations. We show in a concrete, top-down setting related to dark matter, that assumptions about typicality can dramatically affect predictions, thereby providing a guide to how errors in reasoning regarding typicality translate to errors in the assessment of predictive power. We conjecture that this dependence on typicality is an integral feature of anthropic reasoning in broader cosmological contexts, and argue in favour of the explicit inclusion of measures of typicality in schemes invoking anthropic reasoning, with a view to extracting predictions from multiverse scenarios.

  1. Tetrahedral gray code for visualization of genome information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natsuhiro Ichinose

    Full Text Available We propose a tetrahedral Gray code that facilitates visualization of genome information on the surfaces of a tetrahedron, where the relative abundance of each [Formula: see text]-mer in the genomic sequence is represented by a color of the corresponding cell of a triangular lattice. For biological significance, the code is designed such that the [Formula: see text]-mers corresponding to any adjacent pair of cells differ from each other by only one nucleotide. We present a simple procedure to draw such a pattern on the development surfaces of a tetrahedron. The thus constructed tetrahedral Gray code can demonstrate evolutionary conservation and variation of the genome information of many organisms at a glance. We also apply the tetrahedral Gray code to the honey bee (Apis mellifera genome to analyze its methylation structure. The results indicate that the honey bee genome exhibits CpG overrepresentation in spite of its methylation ability and that two conserved motifs, CTCGAG and CGCGCG, in the unmethylated regions are responsible for the overrepresentation of CpG.

  2. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-01-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA

  3. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo, E-mail: send007@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Qian, Ruo-Bing, E-mail: rehomail@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Fu, Xian-Ming, E-mail: 506537677@qq.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Lin, Bin, E-mail: 274722758@qq.com [School of Neurosurgery, Anhui Medical University, 81 Meishang Road, Hefei, Anhui Province 230032 (China); Han, Xiao-Peng, E-mail: hanxiaopeng@163.com [Department of Psychology, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Niu, Chao-Shi, E-mail: niuchaoshi@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Wang, Ye-Han, E-mail: wangyehan@163.com [Department of Neurosurgery, Anhui Provincial Hospital Affiliated to Anhui Medical University, 17 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China); Anhui Provincial Institute of Stereotactic Neurosurgery, 9 Lujiang Road, Hefei, Ahui Province 230001 (China)

    2013-08-15

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA.

  4. Regional gray matter variation in male-to-female transsexualism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, Eileen; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Gaser, Christian; Toga, Arthur W.; Narr, Katherine L.; Hamilton, Liberty S.; Vilain, Eric

    2009-01-01

    Gender identity—one's sense of being a man or a woman—is a fundamental perception experienced by all individuals that extends beyond biological sex. Yet, what contributes to our sense of gender remains uncertain. Since individuals who identify as transsexual report strong feelings of being the opposite sex and a belief that their sexual characteristics do not reflect their true gender, they constitute an invaluable model to understand the biological underpinnings of gender identity. We analyzed MRI data of 24 male-to-female (MTF) transsexuals not yet treated with cross-sex hormones in order to determine whether gray matter volumes in MTF transsexuals more closely resemble people who share their biological sex (30 control men), or people who share their gender identity (30 control women). Results revealed that regional gray matter variation in MTF transsexuals is more similar to the pattern found in men than in women. However, MTF transsexuals show a significantly larger volume of regional gray matter in the right putamen compared to men. These findings provide new evidence that transsexualism is associated with distinct cerebral pattern, which supports the assumption that brain anatomy plays a role in gender identity. PMID:19341803

  5. POD Model Reconstruction for Gray-Box Fault Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Han; Zak, Michail

    2007-01-01

    Proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) is the mathematical basis of a method of constructing low-order mathematical models for the "gray-box" fault-detection algorithm that is a component of a diagnostic system known as beacon-based exception analysis for multi-missions (BEAM). POD has been successfully applied in reducing computational complexity by generating simple models that can be used for control and simulation for complex systems such as fluid flows. In the present application to BEAM, POD brings the same benefits to automated diagnosis. BEAM is a method of real-time or offline, automated diagnosis of a complex dynamic system.The gray-box approach makes it possible to utilize incomplete or approximate knowledge of the dynamics of the system that one seeks to diagnose. In the gray-box approach, a deterministic model of the system is used to filter a time series of system sensor data to remove the deterministic components of the time series from further examination. What is left after the filtering operation is a time series of residual quantities that represent the unknown (or at least unmodeled) aspects of the behavior of the system. Stochastic modeling techniques are then applied to the residual time series. The procedure for detecting abnormal behavior of the system then becomes one of looking for statistical differences between the residual time series and the predictions of the stochastic model.

  6. Gray matter and white matter abnormalities in online game addiction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-Bo; Qian, Ruo-Bing; Fu, Xian-Ming; Lin, Bin; Han, Xiao-Peng; Niu, Chao-Shi; Wang, Ye-Han

    2013-08-01

    Online game addiction (OGA) has attracted greater attention as a serious public mental health issue. However, there are only a few brain magnetic resonance imaging studies on brain structure about OGA. In the current study, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) to investigate the microstructural changes in OGA and assessed the relationship between these morphology changes and the Young's Internet Addiction Scale (YIAS) scores within the OGA group. Compared with healthy subjects, OGA individuals showed significant gray matter atrophy in the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula, and right supplementary motor area. According to TBSS analysis, OGA subjects had significantly reduced FA in the right genu of corpus callosum, bilateral frontal lobe white matter, and right external capsule. Gray matter volumes (GMV) of the right orbitofrontal cortex, bilateral insula and FA values of the right external capsule were significantly positively correlated with the YIAS scores in the OGA subjects. Our findings suggested that microstructure abnormalities of gray and white matter were present in OGA subjects. This finding may provide more insights into the understanding of the underlying neural mechanisms of OGA. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Brain gray matter structural network in myotonic dystrophy type 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsuhiko Sugiyama

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate abnormalities in structural covariance network constructed from gray matter volume in myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1 patients by using graph theoretical analysis for further clarification of the underlying mechanisms of central nervous system involvement. Twenty-eight DM1 patients (4 childhood onset, 10 juvenile onset, 14 adult onset, excluding three cases from 31 consecutive patients who underwent magnetic resonance imaging in a certain period, and 28 age- and sex- matched healthy control subjects were included in this study. The normalized gray matter images of both groups were subjected to voxel based morphometry (VBM and Graph Analysis Toolbox for graph theoretical analysis. VBM revealed extensive gray matter atrophy in DM1 patients, including cortical and subcortical structures. On graph theoretical analysis, there were no significant differences between DM1 and control groups in terms of the global measures of connectivity. Betweenness centrality was increased in several regions including the left fusiform gyrus, whereas it was decreased in the right striatum. The absence of significant differences between the groups in global network measurements on graph theoretical analysis is consistent with the fact that the general cognitive function is preserved in DM1 patients. In DM1 patients, increased connectivity in the left fusiform gyrus and decreased connectivity in the right striatum might be associated with impairment in face perception and theory of mind, and schizotypal-paranoid personality traits, respectively.

  8. How typical are 'typical' tremor characteristics? : Sensitivity and specificity of five tremor phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Stouwe, A. M. M.; Elting, J. W.; van der Hoeven, J. H.; van Laar, T.; Leenders, K. L.; Maurits, N. M.; Tijssen, M. Aj.

    Introduction: Distinguishing between different tremor disorders can be challenging. Some tremor disorders are thought to have typical tremor characteristics: the current study aims to provide sensitivity and specificity for five 'typical' tremor phenomena. Methods: Retrospectively, we examined 210

  9. Histogram and gray level co-occurrence matrix on gray-scale ultrasound images for diagnosing lymphocytic thyroiditis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Gyung; Yoo, Jaeheung; Kwon, Hyeong Ju; Hong, Jung Hwa; Lee, Hye Sun; Yoon, Jung Hyun; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Moon, Hee Jung; Han, Kyunghwa; Kwak, Jin Young

    2016-08-01

    The objective of the study was to evaluate whether texture analysis using histogram and gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) parameters can help clinicians diagnose lymphocytic thyroiditis (LT) and differentiate LT according to pathologic grade. The background thyroid pathology of 441 patients was classified into no evidence of LT, chronic LT (CLT), and Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT). Histogram and GLCM parameters were extracted from the regions of interest on ultrasound. The diagnostic performances of the parameters for diagnosing and differentiating LT were calculated. Of the histogram and GLCM parameters, the mean on histogram had the highest Az (0.63) and VUS (0.303). As the degrees of LT increased, the mean decreased and the standard deviation and entropy increased. The mean on histogram from gray-scale ultrasound showed the best diagnostic performance as a single parameter in differentiating LT according to pathologic grade as well as in diagnosing LT. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. What is typical is good: The influence of face typicality on perceived trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, C.; Dotsch, R.; Wigboldus, D.H.J.; Todorov, A.T.

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality's influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  11. Grays Harbor and Chehalis River Improvements to Navigation Environmental Studies. Wildlife Studies at Proposed Disposal Sites in Grays Harbor, Washington,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    sltand. T 𔃼~P i’ W 210 three times VtwCerI November IOC’C -nd ~co l.Etls ~ ec!,!zervc-o betxwe H -gF 12 Th -ind hl rway u- 7Plie Sicuobh. E. Cumin -s 1... stress imposed by dredge dsosal ;ictivities on these species. It is difficult to rredict the effects of establishing a salt marsh in Grays Harbor on

  12. A tensor based morphometry study of longitudinal gray matter contraction in FTD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brambati, Simona M.; Renda, Natasha C.; Rankin, Katherine P.; Rosen, Howard J.; Seeley, William W.; Ashburner, John; Weiner, Michael W.; Miller, Bruce L.; Gorno-Tempini, Maria Luisa

    2008-01-01

    Frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive behavioural abnormalities and frontotemporal atrophy. Here we used tensor based morphometry (TBM) to identify regions of longitudinal progression of gray matter atrophy in FTD compared to controls. T1-weighted MRI images were acquired at presentation and 1-year follow-up from 12 patients with mild to moderate FTD and 12 healthy controls. Using TBM as implemented in SPM2, a voxel-wise estimation of regional tissue volume change was derived from the deformation field required to warp a subject’s late to early anatomical images. A whole brain analysis was performed, in which a level of significance of pBased on prior studies, a region of interest (ROI) analysis was also performed, including in the search area bilateral medial and orbital frontal regions, anterior cingulate gyrus, insula, amygdala and hippocampus. Within this ROI a level of significance of p<0.001 uncorrected was accepted. In the whole brain analysis, the anterior cingulate/paracingulate gyri were the only regions that showed significant atrophy change over 1 year. In the ROI analysis, the left ventro-medial frontal cortex, right medial superior frontal gyrus, anterior insulae and left amygdala/hippocampus showed significant longitudinal changes. In conclusion, limbic and paralimbic regions showed detectable gray matter contraction over 1 year in FTD, confirming the susceptibility of these regions to the disease and the consistency with their putative role in causing typical presenting behaviours. These results suggest that TBM might be useful in tracking progression of regional atrophy in FTD. PMID:17350290

  13. Typical horticultural products between tradition and innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocenza Chessa

    Full Text Available Recent EU and National policies for agriculture and rural development are mainly focused to foster the production of high quality products as a result of the increasing demand of food safety, typical foods and traditional processing methods. Another word very often used to describe foods in these days is “typicality” which pools together the concepts of “food connected with a specific place”, “historical memory and tradition” and “culture”. The importance for the EU and the National administrations of the above mentioned kind of food is demonstrated, among other things, by the high number of the PDO, PGI and TSG certificated products in Italy. In this period of global markets and economical crisis farmers are realizing how “typical products” can be an opportunity to maintain their market share and to improve the economy of local areas. At the same time, new tools and strategy are needed to reach these goals. A lack of knowledge has being recognized also on how new technologies and results coming from recent research can help in exploiting traditional product and in maintaining the biodiversity. Taking into account the great variety and richness of typical products, landscapes and biodiversity, this report will describe and analyze the relationships among typicality, innovation and research in horticulture. At the beginning “typicality” and “innovation” will be defined also through some statistical features, which ranks Italy at the first place in terms of number of typical labelled products, then will be highlighted how typical products of high quality and connected with the tradition and culture of specific production areas are in a strict relationship with the value of agro-biodiversity. Several different examples will be used to explain different successful methods and/or strategies used to exploit and foster typical Italian vegetables, fruits and flowers. Finally, as a conclusion, since it is thought that

  14. Countering Gray-Zone Hybrid Threats: An Analysis of Russias New Generation Warfare and Implications for the US Army

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-18

    Threats 21 Laws and Cultural Norms as a Weapons System : When operating in the gray zone, aggressors try to use... Operational Phases 26 Countering Gray-Zone Hybrid Threats 4 Abstract The gray zone is an operating environment in...Countering Gray-Zone Hybrid Threats 6 Criminal Organizations and Networks,

  15. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment Final Report 2006.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher W.; McGrath, Kathleen E.; Geist, David R. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory; Abbe, Timothy; Barton, Chase [Herrera Environmental Consultants, Inc.

    2008-02-04

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  16. Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment, 2006 Final Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    May, Christopher; Geist, David [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2007-04-01

    The Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment was funded to address degradation and loss of spawning habitat for chum salmon (Onchorhynchus keta) and fall Chinook salmon (Onchoryhnchus tshawytscha). In 1999, the National Marine Fisheries Service listed lower Columbia River chum salmon as a threatened Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU) under the Endangered Species Act of 1973 (ESA). The Grays River watershed is one of two remaining significant chum salmon spawning locations in this ESU. Runs of Grays River chum and Chinook salmon have declined significantly during the past century, largely because of damage to spawning habitat associated with timber harvest and agriculture in the watershed. In addition, approximately 20-25% of the then-remaining chum salmon spawning habitat was lost during a 1999 channel avulsion that destroyed an important artificial spawning channel operated by the Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife (WDFW). Although the lack of stable, high-quality spawning habitat is considered the primary physical limitation on Grays River chum salmon production today, few data are available to guide watershed management and channel restoration activities. The objectives of the Grays River Watershed and Biological Assessment project were to (1) perform a comprehensive watershed and biological analysis, including hydrologic, geomorphic, and ecological assessments; (2) develop a prioritized list of actions that protect and restore critical chum and Chinook salmon spawning habitat in the Grays River based on comprehensive geomorphic, hydrologic, and stream channel assessments; and (3) gain a better understanding of chum and Chinook salmon habitat requirements and survival within the lower Columbia River and the Grays River. The watershed-based approach to river ecosystem restoration relies on a conceptual framework that describes general relationships between natural landscape characteristics, watershed-scale habitat-forming processes, aquatic

  17. Influence of the gray gases number in the weighted sum of gray gases model on the radiative heat exchange calculation inside pulverized coal-fired furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crnomarković Nenad Đ.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of the number of gray gases in the weighted sum in the gray gases model on the calculation of the radiative heat transfer is discussed in the paper. A computer code which solved the set of equations of the mathematical model describing the reactive two-phase turbulent flow with radiative heat exchange and with thermal equilibrium between phases inside the pulverized coal-fired furnace was used. Gas-phase radiative properties were determined by the simple gray gas model and two combinations of the weighted sum of the gray gases models: one gray gas plus a clear gas and two gray gases plus a clear gas. Investigation was carried out for two values of the total extinction coefficient of the dispersed phase, for the clean furnace walls and furnace walls covered by an ash layer deposit, and for three levels of the approximation accuracy of the weighting coefficients. The influence of the number of gray gases was analyzed through the relative differences of the wall fluxes, wall temperatures, medium temperatures, and heat transfer rate through all furnace walls. The investigation showed that there were conditions of the numerical investigations for which the relative differences of the variables describing the radiative heat exchange decrease with the increase in the number of gray gases. The results of this investigation show that if the weighted sum of the gray gases model is used, the complexity of the computer code and calculation time can be reduced by optimizing the number of gray gases. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-33018: Increase in energy and ecology efficiency of processes in pulverized coal-fired furnace and optimization of utility steam boiler air preheater by using in-house developed software tools

  18. Identifying Typical Movements Among Indoor Objects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radaelli, Laura; Sabonis, Dovydas; Lu, Hua

    2013-01-01

    With the proliferation of mobile computing, positioning systems are becoming available that enable indoor location-based services. As a result, indoor tracking data is also becoming available. This paper puts focus on one use of such data, namely the identification of typical movement patterns...

  19. TYPICAL FORMS OF LIVER PATHOLOGY IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter F. Litvitskiy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This lecture for the system of postgraduate medical education analyzes causes, types, key links of pathogenesis, and manifestations of the main typical forms of liver pathology — liver failure, hepatic coma, jaundice, cholemia, acholia, cholelithiasis, and their complications in children. To control the retention of the lecture material, case problems and multiple-choice tests are given.

  20. Typical electric bills, January 1, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    The Typical Electric Bills report is prepared by the Electric Power Division; Office of Coal, Nuclear, Electric and Alternate Fuels; Energy Information Administration; Department of Energy. The publication is geared to a variety of applications by electric utilities, industry, consumes, educational institutions, and government in recognition of the growing importance of energy planning in contemporary society. 19 figs., 18 tabs

  1. Medicinal Herbs Affecting Gray Hair in Iranian Traditional Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rameshk, Maryam; Khandani, Shahram Kalantari; Raeiszadeh, Mahboobeh

    2016-05-01

    The presence of hair plays an important role in people's overall physical appearance and self-perception. As a result of increased life expectancy, the desire to look youthful plays a bigger role than ever.The use of medicinal plants is as old as mankind and the market will face many new products containing natural oils and herbs in coming years. In traditional Iranian medicine, many plants and herbal formulations are reported for hair growth as well as the improvement in hair quality. The aim of this article is to introduce effective medicinal plants in traditional Iranian medicine to prevent gray hair and advocate them as the new products. The present investigation is an overview study and has been codified by library search in the main sources of traditional Iranian medicine. In traditional Iranian medicine, three types of formulations are proposed to prevent gray hair, namely (i) treatment compounds, (ii) preventive compounds, and (iii) hair dyes to color gray hairs. Our search showed that the main parts of a plant that is used in the treatment and preventive compounds are seeds and fruits. These are primarily in the form of topical oil or oral compound (electuary). The majority of plant parts used in hair dyes is from the fruit and/or leaves. Natural products are highly popular and the use of plant extracts in formulations is on the rise. This is because synthetic based product may cause health hazards with several side effects. Considering the increased popularity of herbal drugs in hair care, it is worthwhile to conduct systemic investigation on the production and efficacy of these drugs. We trust that our investigation would encourage the use of traditional Iranian medicine in future hair care products.

  2. Selective Leaching of Gray Cast Iron: Electrochemical Aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Kyung Hwan; Yun, Eun Sub; Park, Young Sheop

    2010-01-01

    Currently, to keep step with increases in energy consumption, much attention has been paid to the construction of new nuclear power plants (NPPs) and to the continued operation of NPPs. For continued operation, the selective leaching of materials should be evaluated by visual inspections and hardness measurements as a part of One-Time Inspection Program according to the requirements of the guidelines for continued operation of pressured water reactors (PWRs) in Korea and license renewals in the United States, entitled the 'Generic Aging Lessons Learned (GALL) report.' However, the acceptance criteria for hardness have yet to be provided. Recently, USNRC released a new draft of the GALL report for comment and plans to publish its formal version by the end of 2010. In the new draft, the quantitative acceptance criteria for hardness are given at last: no more than a 20 percent decrease in hardness for gray cast iron and brass containing more than 15 percent zinc. Selective leaching is the preferential removal of one of the alloying elements from a solid alloy by corrosion processes, leaving behind a weakened spongy or porous residual structure. The materials susceptible to selective leaching include gray cast iron and brass, which are mainly used as pump casings and valve bodies in the fire protection systems of NPPs. Since selective leaching proceeds slowly during a long period of time and causes a decrease in strength without changing the overall dimensions of original material, it is difficult to identify. In the present work, the selective leaching of gray cast iron is investigated in terms of its electrochemical aspects as part of an ongoing research project to study the changes in metal properties by selective leaching

  3. Gray Matter Volumes in Patients with Chronic Fatigue Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le-wei Tang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS is a debilitating and complex disorder characterized by profound fatigue with uncertain pathologic mechanism. Neuroimage may be an important key to unveil the central nervous system (CNS mechanism in CFS. Although most of the studies found gray matter (GM volumes reduced in some brain regions in CFS, there are many factors that could affect GM volumes in CFS, including chronic pain, stress, psychiatric disorder, physical activity, and insomnia, which may bias the results. In this paper, through reviewing recent literatures, we discussed these interferential factors, which overlap with the symptoms of CFS.

  4. Gray-box modelling approach for description of storage tunnel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harremoës, Poul; Carstensen, Jacob

    1999-01-01

    The dynamics of a storage tunnel is examined using a model based on on-line measured data and a combination of simple deterministic and black-box stochastic elements. This approach, called gray-box modeling, is a new promising methodology for giving an on-line state description of sewer systems...... of the water in the overflow structures. The capacity of a pump draining the storage tunnel is estimated for two different rain events, revealing that the pump was malfunctioning during the first rain event. The proposed modeling approach can be used in automated online surveillance and control and implemented...

  5. The weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model for arbitrary solution methods in radiative transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Modest, M.F.

    1991-01-01

    In this paper the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases approach for radiative transfer in non-gray participating media, first developed by Hottel in the context of the zonal method, has been shown to be applicable to the general radiative equation of transfer. Within the limits of the weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model (non-scattering media within a black-walled enclosure) any non-gray radiation problem can be solved by any desired solution method after replacing the medium by an equivalent small number of gray media with constant absorption coefficients. Some examples are presented for isothermal media and media at radiative equilibrium, using the exact integral equations as well as the popular P-1 approximation of the equivalent gray media solution. The results demonstrate the equivalency of the method with the quadrature of spectral results, as well as the tremendous computer times savings (by a minimum of 95%) which are achieved

  6. Herpes zoster - typical and atypical presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, Roy Rafael; Peleg, Roni

    2017-08-01

    Varicella- zoster virus infection is an intriguing medical entity that involves many medical specialties including infectious diseases, immunology, dermatology, and neurology. It can affect patients from early childhood to old age. Its treatment requires expertise in pain management and psychological support. While varicella is caused by acute viremia, herpes zoster occurs after the dormant viral infection, involving the cranial nerve or sensory root ganglia, is re-activated and spreads orthodromically from the ganglion, via the sensory nerve root, to the innervated target tissue (skin, cornea, auditory canal, etc.). Typically, a single dermatome is involved, although two or three adjacent dermatomes may be affected. The lesions usually do not cross the midline. Herpes zoster can also present with unique or atypical clinical manifestations, such as glioma, zoster sine herpete and bilateral herpes zoster, which can be a challenging diagnosis even for experienced physicians. We discuss the epidemiology, pathophysiology, diagnosis and management of Herpes Zoster, typical and atypical presentations.

  7. Metabolic disorders with typical alterations in MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warmuth-Metz, M.

    2010-01-01

    The classification of metabolic disorders according to the etiology is not practical for neuroradiological purposes because the underlying defect does not uniformly transform into morphological characteristics. Therefore typical MR and clinical features of some easily identifiable metabolic disorders are presented. Canavan disease, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Alexander disease, X-chromosomal adrenoleukodystrophy and adrenomyeloneuropathy, mitochondrial disorders, such as MELAS (mitochondrial encephalopathy, lactic acidosis, and stroke-like episodes) and Leigh syndrome as well as L-2-hydroxyglutaric aciduria are presented. (orig.) [de

  8. [Typical atrial flutter: Diagnosis and therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Dierk; Eckardt, Lars; Estner, Heidi L; Kuniss, Malte; Meyer, Christian; Neuberger, Hans-Ruprecht; Sommer, Philipp; Steven, Daniel; Voss, Frederik; Bonnemeier, Hendrik

    2016-03-01

    Typical, cavotricuspid-dependent atrial flutter is the most common atrial macroreentry tachycardia. The incidence of atrial flutter (typical and atypical forms) is age-dependent with 5/100,000 in patients less than 50 years and approximately 600/100,000 in subjects > 80 years of age. Concomitant heart failure or pulmonary disease further increases the risk of typical atrial flutter.Patients with atrial flutter may present with symptoms of palpitations, reduced exercise capacity, chest pain, or dyspnea. The risk of thromboembolism is probably similar to atrial fibrillation; therefore, the same antithrombotic prophylaxis is required in atrial flutter patients. Acutely symptomatic cases may be subjected to cardioversion or pharmacologic rate control to relieve symptoms. Catheter ablation of the cavotricuspid isthmus represents the primary choice in long-term therapy, associated with high procedural success (> 97 %) and low complication rates (0.5 %).This article represents the third part of a manuscript series designed to improve professional education in the field of cardiac electrophysiology. Mechanistic and clinical characteristics as well as management of isthmus-dependent atrial flutter are described in detail. Electrophysiological findings and catheter ablation of the arrhythmia are highlighted.

  9. Nonlinear defect localized modes and composite gray and anti-gray solitons in one-dimensional waveguide arrays with dual-flip defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; Guan, Yefeng; Li, Hai; Luo, Zhihuan; Mai, Zhijie

    2017-08-01

    We study families of stationary nonlinear localized modes and composite gray and anti-gray solitons in a one-dimensional linear waveguide array with dual phase-flip nonlinear point defects. Unstaggered fundamental and dipole bright modes are studied when the defect nonlinearity is self-focusing. For the fundamental modes, symmetric and asymmetric nonlinear modes are found. Their stable areas are studied using different defect coefficients and their total power. For the nonlinear dipole modes, the stability conditions of this type of mode are also identified by different defect coefficients and the total power. When the defect nonlinearity is replaced by the self-defocusing one, staggered fundamental and dipole bright modes are created. Finally, if we replace the linear waveguide with a full nonlinear waveguide, a new type of gray and anti-gray solitons, which are constructed by a kink and anti-kink pair, can be supported by such dual phase-flip defects. In contrast to the usual gray and anti-gray solitons formed by a single kink, their backgrounds on either side of the gray hole or bright hump have the same phase.

  10. Gray solitons in a strongly interacting superfluid Fermi gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spuntarelli, Andrea; Pieri, Pierbiagio; Strinati, Giancarlo C; Carr, Lincoln D

    2011-01-01

    The Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) to Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) crossover problem is solved for stationary gray solitons via the Boguliubov-de Gennes equations at zero temperature. These crossover solitons exhibit a localized notch in the gap and a characteristic phase difference across the notch for all interaction strengths, from BEC to BCS regimes. However, they do not follow the well-known Josephson-like sinusoidal relationship between velocity and phase difference except in the far BEC limit: at unitarity, the velocity has a nearly linear dependence on phase difference over an extended range. For a fixed phase difference, the soliton is of nearly constant depth from the BEC limit to unitarity and then grows progressively shallower into the BCS limit, and on the BCS side, Friedel oscillations are apparent in both gap amplitude and phase. The crossover soliton appears fundamentally in the gap; we show, however, that the density closely follows the gap, and the soliton is therefore observable. We develop an approximate power-law relationship to express this fact: the density of gray crossover solitons varies as the square of the gap amplitude in the BEC limit and as a power of about 1.5 at unitarity.

  11. Increased cerebellar gray matter volume in head chefs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cerasa

    Full Text Available Chefs exert expert motor and cognitive performances on a daily basis. Neuroimaging has clearly shown that that long-term skill learning (i.e., athletes, musicians, chess player or sommeliers induces plastic changes in the brain thus enabling tasks to be performed faster and more accurately. How a chef's expertise is embodied in a specific neural network has never been investigated.Eleven Italian head chefs with long-term brigade management expertise and 11 demographically-/ psychologically- matched non-experts underwent morphological evaluations.Voxel-based analysis performed with SUIT, as well as, automated volumetric measurement assessed with Freesurfer, revealed increased gray matter volume in the cerebellum in chefs compared to non-experts. The most significant changes were detected in the anterior vermis and the posterior cerebellar lobule. The magnitude of the brigade staff and the higher performance in the Tower of London test correlated with these specific gray matter increases, respectively.We found that chefs are characterized by an anatomical variability involving the cerebellum. This confirms the role of this region in the development of similar expert brains characterized by learning dexterous skills, such as pianists, rock climbers and basketball players. However, the nature of the cellular events underlying the detected morphological differences remains an open question.

  12. Abnormalities in cortical gray matter density in borderline personality disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Roberta; Lanfredi, Mariangela; Pievani, Michela; Boccardi, Marina; Rasser, Paul E; Thompson, Paul M; Cavedo, Enrica; Cotelli, Maria; Rosini, Sandra; Beneduce, Rossella; Bignotti, Stefano; Magni, Laura R; Rillosi, Luciana; Magnaldi, Silvia; Cobelli, Milena; Rossi, Giuseppe; Frisoni, Giovanni B

    2015-01-01

    Background Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a chronic condition with a strong impact on patients‘ affective,cognitive and social functioning. Neuroimaging techniques offer invaluable tools to understand the biological substrate of the disease. We aimed to investigate gray matter alterations over the whole cortex in a group of Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) patients compared to healthy controls (HC). Methods Magnetic resonance-based cortical pattern matching was used to assess cortical gray matter density (GMD) in 26 BPD patients and in their age- and sex-matched HC (age: 38±11; females: 16, 61%). Results BPD patients showed widespread lower cortical GMD compared to HC (4% difference) with peaks of lower density located in the dorsal frontal cortex, in the orbitofrontal cortex, the anterior and posterior cingulate, the right parietal lobe, the temporal lobe (medial temporal cortex and fusiform gyrus) and in the visual cortex (p<0.005). Our BPD subjects displayed a symmetric distribution of anomalies in the dorsal aspect of the cortical mantle, but a wider involvement of the left hemisphere in the mesial aspect in terms of lower density. A few restricted regions of higher density were detected in the right hemisphere. All regions remained significant after correction for multiple comparisons via permutation testing. Conclusions BPD patients feature specific morphology of the cerebral structures involved in cognitive and emotional processing and social cognition/mentalization, consistent with clinical and functional data. PMID:25561291

  13. LSB-Based Steganography Using Reflected Gray Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chang-Chu; Chang, Chin-Chen

    Steganography aims to hide secret data into an innocuous cover-medium for transmission and to make the attacker cannot recognize the presence of secret data easily. Even the stego-medium is captured by the eavesdropper, the slight distortion is hard to be detected. The LSB-based data hiding is one of the steganographic methods, used to embed the secret data into the least significant bits of the pixel values in a cover image. In this paper, we propose an LSB-based scheme using reflected-Gray code, which can be applied to determine the embedded bit from secret information. Following the transforming rule, the LSBs of stego-image are not always equal to the secret bits and the experiment shows that the differences are up to almost 50%. According to the mathematical deduction and experimental results, the proposed scheme has the same image quality and payload as the simple LSB substitution scheme. In fact, our proposed data hiding scheme in the case of G1 (one bit Gray code) system is equivalent to the simple LSB substitution scheme.

  14. Serum vitamin D and hippocampal gray matter volume in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivakumar, Venkataram; Kalmady, Sunil V; Amaresha, Anekal C; Jose, Dania; Narayanaswamy, Janardhanan C; Agarwal, Sri Mahavir; Joseph, Boban; Venkatasubramanian, Ganesan; Ravi, Vasanthapuram; Keshavan, Matcheri S; Gangadhar, Bangalore N

    2015-08-30

    Disparate lines of evidence including epidemiological and case-control studies have increasingly implicated vitamin D in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia. Vitamin D deficiency can lead to dysfunction of the hippocampus--a brain region hypothesized to be critically involved in schizophrenia. In this study, we examined for potential association between serum vitamin D level and hippocampal gray matter volume in antipsychotic-naïve or antipsychotic-free schizophrenia patients (n = 35). Serum vitamin D level was estimated using 25-OH vitamin D immunoassay. Optimized voxel-based morphometry was used to analyze 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (1-mm slice thickness). Ninety-seven percent of the schizophrenia patients (n = 34) had sub-optimal levels of serum vitamin D (83%, deficiency; 14%, insufficiency). A significant positive correlation was seen between vitamin D and regional gray matter volume in the right hippocampus after controlling for age, years of education and total intracranial volume (Montreal Neurological Institute (MNI) coordinates: x = 35, y = -18, z = -8; t = 4.34 pFWE(Corrected) = 0.018). These observations support a potential role of vitamin D deficiency in mediating hippocampal volume deficits, possibly through neurotrophic, neuroimmunomodulatory and glutamatergic effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Rain-shadow: An area harboring "Gray Ocean" clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padmakumari, B.; Maheskumar, R. S.; Harikishan, G.; Morwal, S. B.; Kulkarni, J. R.

    2018-06-01

    The characteristics of monsoon convective clouds over the rain-shadow region of north peninsular India have been investigated using in situ aircraft cloud microphysical observations collected during Cloud Aerosol Interaction and Precipitation Enhancement EXperiment (CAIPEEX). The parameters considered for characterization are: liquid water content (LWC), cloud vertical motion (updraft, downdraft: w), cloud droplet number concentration (CDNC) and effective radius (Re). The results are based on 15 research flights which were conducted from the base station Hyderabad during summer monsoon season. The clouds studied were developing congestus. The clouds have low CDNC and low updraft values resembling the oceanic convective clouds. The super-saturation in clouds is found to be low (≤0.2%) due to low updrafts. The land surface behaves like ocean surface during monsoon as deduced from Bowen ratio. Microphysically the clouds showed oceanic characteristics. However, these clouds yield low rainfall due to their low efficiency (mean 14%). The cloud parameters showed a large variability; hence their characteristic values are reported in terms of median values. These values will serve the numerical models for rainfall simulations over the region and also will be useful as a scientific basis for cloud seeding operations to increase the rainfall efficiency. The study revealed that monsoon convective clouds over the rain-shadow region are of oceanic type over the gray land, and therefore we christen them as "Gray Ocean" clouds.

  16. The alteration of gray matter volume in children with mental retardation: the differences between the patients presented with operation deficit predominantly and those presented with language deficit mainly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuan Xinyu; Jiang Xuexiang; Jin Chunhua; Zhang Yuanchao; Bai Zhenhua; Yi Xiaoli; Xiao Jiangxi

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To detect the differences of grey matter volume between the patients with mental retardation (MR) presented clinically as operation deficit (OD) or as language deficit (LD) and the children with typical normal development using optimal VBM. The developmental connections between brain gray matter and language or operation skills were examined. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging was obtained from 9 children with mental retardation presented as OD predominantly and 11 children with mental retardation presented as LD mainly, as well as the age-matched control group (11 and 14 normal children,respectively) on a 1.5 T scanner. Voxel-based morphometry analysis with an optimization of spatial segmentation and normalization procedures was applied to compare the volume of grey matter between the two groups (OD VS.control; LD VS.control). Statistically, the total and local gray matter volumes were compared between the two groups with t test. Results: The total gray matter volume of OD group was [(1.030 ± 0.078) × 10 6 mm 3 ]. Compared to that of controls [(0.984 ± 0.058) × 10 6 mm 3 ], it was increased significantly (t=-2.6, P<0.05). And the gray matter volume in the posterior cingulated gyrus, left superior prefrontal gyrus, left cuneus, left middle prefrontal gyrus and the body of left caudate nucleus showed significantly increased. Meanwhile, the total gray matter volume of the MR children presented as LD [(1.002 ± 0.068) × 10 6 mm 3 ] showed significantly increased(t=-3.0, P<0.05) compared with that of control group [(0.957 ±0.057) × 10 6 mm 3 ]. The gray matter volume in bilateral thalami, the left inferior temporal gyrus,the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the left cerebellum of the LD group was more than that of normal children. Conclusion: As revealed by VBM, there are differences in alterations of gray matter volume between MR children presented with OD and with LD relative to control. (authors)

  17. What Is Typical Is Good : The Influence of Face Typicality on Perceived Trustworthiness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sofer, Carmel; Dotsch, Ron; Wigboldus, Daniel H J; Todorov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The role of face typicality in face recognition is well established, but it is unclear whether face typicality is important for face evaluation. Prior studies have focused mainly on typicality’s influence on attractiveness, although recent studies have cast doubt on its importance for attractiveness

  18. Numerical Transcoding Proficiency in 10-Year-Old Schoolchildren is Associated with Gray Matter Inter-Individual Differences: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubin, Amélie; Rossi, Sandrine; Simon, Grégory; Lanoë, Céline; Leroux, Gaëlle; Poirel, Nicolas; Pineau, Arlette; Houdé, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    Are individual differences in numerical performance sustained by variations in gray matter volume in schoolchildren? To our knowledge, this challenging question for neuroeducation has not yet been investigated in typical development. We used the Voxel-Based Morphometry method to search for possible structural brain differences between two groups of 10-year-old schoolchildren (N = 22) whose performance differed only in numerical transcoding between analog and symbolic systems. The results indicated that children with low numerical proficiency have less gray matter volume in the parietal (particularly in the left intraparietal sulcus and the bilateral angular gyri) and occipito-temporal areas. All the identified regions have previously been shown to be functionally involved in transcoding between analog and symbolic numerical systems. Our data contribute to a better understanding of the intertwined relationships between mathematics learning and brain structure in healthy schoolchildren.

  19. The trajectory of gray matter development in Broca’s area is abnormal in people who stutter.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryk Scott Beal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The acquisition and mastery of speech-motor control requires years of practice spanning the course of development. People who stutter often perform poorly on speech-motor tasks thereby calling into question their ability to establish the stable neural motor programs required for masterful speech-motor control. There is evidence to support the assertion that these neural motor programs are represented in the posterior part of Broca’s area, specifically the left pars opercularis. Consequently, various theories of stuttering causation posit that the disorder is related to a breakdown in the formation of the neural motor programs for speech early in development and that this breakdown is maintained throughout life. To date, no study has examined the potential neurodevelopmental signatures of the disorder across pediatric and adult populations. The current study aimed to fill this gap in our knowledge. We hypothesized that the developmental trajectory of cortical thickness in people who stutter would differ across the lifespan in the left pars opercularis relative to a group of control participants. We collected structural magnetic resonance images from 116 males (55 people who stutter ranging in age from 6 to 48 years old. Differences in cortical thickness across ages and between patients and controls were investigated in 30 brain regions previously implicated in speech-motor control. An interaction between age and group was found for the left pars opercularis only. In people who stutter, the pars opercularis did not demonstrate the typical maturational pattern of gradual gray matter thinning with age across the lifespan that we observed in control participants. In contrast, the developmental trajectory of gray matter thickness in other regions of interest within the neural network for speech-motor control was similar for both groups. Our findings indicate that the developmental trajectory of gray matter in left pars opercularis is abnormal in

  20. A comparison of facial color pattern and gazing behavior in canid species suggests gaze communication in gray wolves (Canis lupus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayoko Ueda

    Full Text Available As facial color pattern around the eyes has been suggested to serve various adaptive functions related to the gaze signal, we compared the patterns among 25 canid species, focusing on the gaze signal, to estimate the function of facial color pattern in these species. The facial color patterns of the studied species could be categorized into the following three types based on contrast indices relating to the gaze signal: A-type (both pupil position in the eye outline and eye position in the face are clear, B-type (only the eye position is clear, and C-type (both the pupil and eye position are unclear. A-type faces with light-colored irises were observed in most studied species of the wolf-like clade and some of the red fox-like clade. A-type faces tended to be observed in species living in family groups all year-round, whereas B-type faces tended to be seen in solo/pair-living species. The duration of gazing behavior during which the facial gaze-signal is displayed to the other individual was longest in gray wolves with typical A-type faces, of intermediate length in fennec foxes with typical B-type faces, and shortest in bush dogs with typical C-type faces. These results suggest that the facial color pattern of canid species is related to their gaze communication and that canids with A-type faces, especially gray wolves, use the gaze signal in conspecific communication.

  1. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  2. Modelling object typicality in description logics

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Britz, K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available in the context under consideration, than those lower down. For any given class C, we assume that all objects in the appli- cation domain that are in (the interpretation of) C are more typical of C than those not in C. This is a technical construction which... to be modular partial orders, i.e. reflexive, transitive, anti- symmetric relations such that, for all a, b, c in ∆I , if a and b are incomparable and a is strictly below c, then b is also strictly below c. Modular partial orders have the effect...

  3. Benchmark calculation programme concerning typical LMFBR structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donea, J.; Ferrari, G.; Grossetie, J.C.; Terzaghi, A.

    1982-01-01

    This programme, which is part of a comprehensive activity aimed at resolving difficulties encountered in using design procedures based on ASME Code Case N-47, should allow to get confidence in computer codes which are supposed to provide a realistic prediction of the LMFBR component behaviour. The calculations started on static analysis of typical structures made of non linear materials stressed by cyclic loads. The fluid structure interaction analysis is also being considered. Reasons and details of the different benchmark calculations are described, results obtained are commented and future computational exercise indicated

  4. Typical skeletal changes due to metastasising neuroblastomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggerath, A.; Persigehl, M.; Mertens, R.; Technische Hochschule Aachen

    1983-01-01

    Compared with other solid tumours in childhood, neuroblastomas show a marked tendency to metastasise to the skeleton. The differentiation of these lesions from inflammatory and other malignant bone lesions in this age group is often difficult. The radiological findings in ten patients with metastasing and histologically confirmed neuroblastomas have been reviewed and the typical appearances in the skeleton are described. The most important features in the differential diagnosies are discussed and the significance of bone changes in the diagnosis of neuroblastoma have been evaluated. (orig.) [de

  5. The Typicality Ranking Task: A New Method to Derive Typicality Judgments from Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ameel, Eef; Storms, Gert

    2016-01-01

    An alternative method for deriving typicality judgments, applicable in young children that are not familiar with numerical values yet, is introduced, allowing researchers to study gradedness at younger ages in concept development. Contrary to the long tradition of using rating-based procedures to derive typicality judgments, we propose a method that is based on typicality ranking rather than rating, in which items are gradually sorted according to their typicality, and that requires a minimum of linguistic knowledge. The validity of the method is investigated and the method is compared to the traditional typicality rating measurement in a large empirical study with eight different semantic concepts. The results show that the typicality ranking task can be used to assess children’s category knowledge and to evaluate how this knowledge evolves over time. Contrary to earlier held assumptions in studies on typicality in young children, our results also show that preference is not so much a confounding variable to be avoided, but that both variables are often significantly correlated in older children and even in adults. PMID:27322371

  6. Computed gray levels in multislice and cone-beam computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azeredo, Fabiane; de Menezes, Luciane Macedo; Enciso, Reyes; Weissheimer, Andre; de Oliveira, Rogério Belle

    2013-07-01

    Gray level is the range of shades of gray in the pixels, representing the x-ray attenuation coefficient that allows for tissue density assessments in computed tomography (CT). An in-vitro study was performed to investigate the relationship between computed gray levels in 3 cone-beam CT (CBCT) scanners and 1 multislice spiral CT device using 5 software programs. Six materials (air, water, wax, acrylic, plaster, and gutta-percha) were scanned with the CBCT and CT scanners, and the computed gray levels for each material at predetermined points were measured with OsiriX Medical Imaging software (Geneva, Switzerland), OnDemand3D (CyberMed International, Seoul, Korea), E-Film (Merge Healthcare, Milwaukee, Wis), Dolphin Imaging (Dolphin Imaging & Management Solutions, Chatsworth, Calif), and InVivo Dental Software (Anatomage, San Jose, Calif). The repeatability of these measurements was calculated with intraclass correlation coefficients, and the gray levels were averaged to represent each material. Repeated analysis of variance tests were used to assess the differences in gray levels among scanners and materials. There were no differences in mean gray levels with the different software programs. There were significant differences in gray levels between scanners for each material evaluated (P <0.001). The software programs were reliable and had no influence on the CT and CBCT gray level measurements. However, the gray levels might have discrepancies when different CT and CBCT scanners are used. Therefore, caution is essential when interpreting or evaluating CBCT images because of the significant differences in gray levels between different CBCT scanners, and between CBCT and CT values. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Orthodontists. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Compact Hilbert Curve Index Algorithm Based on Gray Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CAO Xuefeng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Hilbert curve has best clustering in various kinds of space filling curves, and has been used as an important tools in discrete global grid spatial index design field. But there are lots of redundancies in the standard Hilbert curve index when the data set has large differences between dimensions. In this paper, the construction features of Hilbert curve is analyzed based on Gray code, and then the compact Hilbert curve index algorithm is put forward, in which the redundancy problem has been avoided while Hilbert curve clustering preserved. Finally, experiment results shows that the compact Hilbert curve index outperforms the standard Hilbert index, their 1 computational complexity is nearly equivalent, but the real data set test shows the coding time and storage space decrease 40%, the speedup ratio of sorting speed is nearly 4.3.

  8. Gray- and White-Matter Anatomy of Absolute Pitch Possessors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders; Garza-Villarreal, Eduardo A.; Chakravarty, Mallar

    2015-01-01

    structural differences in brains of musicians with and without AP, by means of whole brain vertex- wise cortical thickness analysis and tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS) analysis. AP possessors (APs) displayed increased cortical thickness in a number of areas including the left superior temporal gyrus......, the left inferior frontal gyrus, and the right supramarginal gyrus. Furthermore, we found increased fractional anisotropy in APs within the path of the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus and the inferior longitudinal fasciculus. The findings in gray matter support previous...... studies indicating an increased left lateralized posterior superior temporal gyrus in APs, yet they differ from previous findings of thinner cortex for a number of areas in APs. Finally, we found a correlation between the white matter cluster and the right parahippocampal gyrus. This is a novel finding...

  9. Prolonged intensive dominance behavior between gray wolves, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Cluff, H. Dean

    2010-01-01

    Dominance is one of the most pervasive and important behaviors among wolves in a pack, yet its significance in free-ranging packs has been little studied. Insights into a behavior can often be gained by examining unusual examples of it. In the High Arctic near Eureka, Nunavut, Canada, we videotaped and described an unusually prolonged and intensive behavioral bout between an adult male Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) and a male member of his pack, thought to be a maturing son. With tail raised, the adult approached a male pack mate about 50 m from us and pinned and straddled this packmate repeatedly over 6.5 minutes, longer than we had ever seen in over 50 years of studying wolves. We interpreted this behavior as an extreme example of an adult wolf harassing a maturing offspring, perhaps in prelude to the offspring?s dispersal.

  10. The concerted impact of domestication and transposon insertions on methylation patterns between dogs and gray wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Ilana Janowitz; Clark, Michelle M.; Thompson, Michael J.; Deere-Machemer, Kerry A.; Wang, Jun; Duarte, Lionel; Gnanadesikan, Gitanjali E.; McCoy, Eskender L.; Rubbi, Liudmilla; Stahler, Daniel R.; Pellegrini, Matteo; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Wayne, Robert K.; Sinsheimer, Janet S.; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.

    2015-01-01

    The process of domestication can exert intense trait-targeted selection on genes and regulatory regions. Specifically, rapid shifts in the structure and sequence of genomic regulatory elements could provide an explanation for the extensive, and sometimes extreme, variation in phenotypic traits observed in domesticated species. Here, we explored methylation differences from >24,000 cytosines distributed across the genomes of the domesticated dog (Canis familiaris) and the gray wolf (C. lupus). PCA and model-based cluster analyses identified two primary groups, domestic versus wild canids. A scan for significantly differentially methylated sites (DMSs) revealed species-specific patterns at 68 sites after correcting for cell heterogeneity, with weak yet significant hyper-methylation typical of purebred dogs when compared to wolves (59% and 58%, p66%) of differentially methylated regions contained or were associated with repetitive elements, indicative of a genotype-mediated trend. However, DMSs were also often linked to functionally relevant genes (e.g. neurotransmitters). Finally, we utilized known genealogical relationships among Yellowstone wolves to survey transmission stability of methylation marks, from which we found a substantial fraction that demonstrated high heritability (both H2 and h2>0.99). These analyses provide a unique epigenetic insight into the molecular consequences of recent selection and radiation of our most ancient domesticated companion, the dog. These findings suggest selection has acted on methylation patterns, providing a new genomic perspective on phenotypic diversification in domesticated species. PMID:27112634

  11. Transit Station Congestion Index Research Based on Pedestrian Simulation and Gray Clustering Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-wei Wang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A congestion phenomenon in a transit station could lead to low transfer efficiency as well as a hidden danger. Effective management of congestion phenomenon shall help to reduce the efficiency decline and danger risk. However, due to the difficulty in acquiring microcosmic pedestrian density, existing researches lack quantitative indicators to reflect congestion degree. This paper aims to solve this problem. Firstly, platform, stair, transfer tunnel, auto fare collection (AFC machine, and security check machine were chosen as key traffic facilities through large amounts of field investigation. Key facilities could be used to reflect the passenger density of a whole station. Secondly, the pedestrian density change law of each key traffic facility was analyzed using pedestrian simulation, and the load degree calculating method of each facility was defined, respectively, afterwards. Taking pedestrian density as basic data and gray clustering evaluation as algorithm, an index called Transit Station Congestion Index (TSCI was constructed to reflect the congestion degree of transit stations. Finally, an evaluation demonstration was carried out with five typical transit transfer stations in Beijing, and the evaluation results show that TSCI can objectively reflect the congestion degree of transit stations.

  12. Sandhill crane abundance and nesting ecology at Grays Lake, Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin, J.E.; Henry, A.R.; Ball, I.J.

    2007-01-01

    We examined population size and factors influencing nest survival of greater sandhill cranes (Grus canadensis tabida) at Grays Lake National Wildlife Refuge, Idaho, USA, during 1997-2000. Average local population of cranes from late April to early May, 1998-2000, was 735 cranes, 34% higher than that reported for May 1970-1971. We estimated 228 (SE = 30) nests in the basin core (excluding renests), 14% higher than a 1971 estimate. Apparent nest success in our study (x?? = 60%, n = 519 nests) was lower than reported for Grays Lake 30-50 years earlier. Daily survival rates (DSRs) of all nests averaged 0.9707 (41.2%). The best model explaining nest survival included year and water depth and their interaction. Nest survival was highest (DSR = 0.9827) in 1998 compared with other years (0.9698-0.9707). Nest survival changed little relative to water depth in 1998, when flooding was extensive and alternative prey (microtines) irrupted, but declined markedly with lower water levels in 2000, the driest year studied. Hypotheses relating nest survival to vegetation height, land use (idle, summer grazing, fall grazing), and date were not supported. In a before-after-control-impact design using 12 experimental fields, nest survival differed among years but not among management treatments (idle, fall graze, fall burn, and summer-graze-idle rotation), nor was there an interaction between year and treatments. However, DSRs in fall-burn fields declined from 0.9781 in 1997-1998 to 0.9503 in 1999-2000 (posttreatment). Changes in the predator community have likely contributed to declines in nest success since the 1950s and 1970s. Our results did not support earlier concerns about effects of habitat management practices on crane productivity. Nest survival could best be enhanced by managing spring water levels. Managers should continue censuses during late April to evaluate long-term relationships to habitat conditions and management.

  13. 76 FR 17439 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-29

    ... nonessential experimental population areas for the gray wolf under section 10(j) of the ESA: the Yellowstone...-0000-C3] Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take of Wolves in the West Fork Elk Management Unit of Montana; Draft Environmental Assessment AGENCY...

  14. 76 FR 7875 - Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-11

    ... the central Idaho and Yellowstone area nonessential experimental populations of gray wolves in the...-0000-C3] Nonessential Experimental Populations of Gray Wolves in the Northern Rocky Mountains; Lethal Take of Wolves in the Lolo Elk Management Zone of Idaho; Draft Environmental Assessment AGENCY: Fish...

  15. Making a Theist out of Darwin: Asa Gray's Post-Darwinian Natural Theology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, T. Russell

    2012-01-01

    In March of 1860 the eminent Harvard Botanist and orthodox Christian Asa Gray began promoting the Origin of Species in hopes of securing a fair examination of Darwin's evolutionary theory among theistic naturalists. To this end, Gray sought to demonstrate that Darwin had not written atheistically and that his theory of evolution by natural…

  16. Plant guide: Gray's biscuitroot (Lomatium grayi [J. M. Coult. & Rose.] J.M. Coult. & Rose)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derek Tilley; Loren St. John; Dan Ogle; Nancy Shaw

    2011-01-01

    Gray's biscuitroot is grazed by deer, sheep, mice, rats, and rabbits (COSEWIC, 2008). Ogle and Brazee (2009) rate it as desirable spring and summer forage for cattle, sheep, horses, elk, deer and antelope. Gray's biscuitroot is one of the first species to green up and flower after snowmelt. This characteristic makes this an important species for early spring...

  17. Correlation among body height, intelligence, and brain gray matter volume in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kotozaki, Yuka; Nouchi, Rui; Wu, Kai; Fukuda, Hiroshi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-16

    A significant positive correlation between height and intelligence has been demonstrated in children. Additionally, intelligence has been associated with the volume of gray matter in the brains of children. Based on these correlations, we analyzed the correlation among height, full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) and gray matter volume applying voxel-based morphometry using data from the brain magnetic resonance images of 160 healthy children aged 5-18 years of age. As a result, body height was significantly positively correlated with brain gray matter volume. Additionally, the regional gray matter volume of several regions such as the bilateral prefrontal cortices, temporoparietal region, and cerebellum was significantly positively correlated with body height and that the gray matter volume of several of these regions was also significantly positively correlated with full-scale intelligence quotient (IQ) scores after adjusting for age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Our results demonstrate that gray and white matter volume may mediate the correlation between body height and intelligence in healthy children. Additionally, the correlations among gray and white matter volume, height, and intelligence may be at least partially explained by the effect of insulin-like growth factor-1 and growth hormones. Given the importance of the effect of environmental factors, especially nutrition, on height, IQ, and gray matter volume, the present results stress the importance of nutrition during childhood for the healthy maturation of body and brain. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Albinism in the Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) and other owls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pentti Alaja; Heimo Mikkola

    1997-01-01

    An incomplete albino Great Gray Owl (Strix nebulosa) was observed in Vesanto and Kajaani, Finland, 1994-1995. The literature pertaining to albinism in owls indicates that total and incomplete albinism has only been reported in 13 different owl species, the Great Gray Owl being the only species with more than five records. Thus six to seven incomplete...

  19. Gray's BIS/BAS dimensions in non-comorbid, non-medicated social anxiety disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morgan, B.E.; Honk, J. van; Hermans, E.J.; Scholten, M.R.; Stein, D.J.; Kahn, R.S.

    2009-01-01

    Gray's behavioural inhibition and behavioural activation (BIS/BAS) neural systems model has led to research on approach and withdrawal as the two most fundamental dimensions of affective behaviour, and their role in psychopathology. Although Gray proposed the BIS as the neurological basis of

  20. Gray water recycle: Effect of pretreatment technologies on low pressure reverse osmosis treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray water can be a valuable source of water when properly treated to reduce the risks associated with chemical and microbial contamination to acceptable levels for the intended reuse application. In this study, the treatment of gray water using low pressure reverse osmosis (RO) filtration after pre...

  1. Application of cone beam computed tomography gray scale values in the diagnosis of cysts and tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarfa Nasim

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Studies have unveiled that in CBCT the degree of x-ray attenuation is shown by gray scale (voxel value that is used in determining the pathologic lesion. Gray value is to assess the density or quality of bone and the density varies depending on radiation attenuation. CBCT gray values are considered approximate values and its measurement allows differentiation of soft tissue and fluid with that of hard tissue. Aim and Objective: We aimed to evaluate the application of CBCT gray scale value of cysts and tumors to assess the difference of bony changes and to determine the significance in diagnosing the contents of the lesions. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Oral Medicine and Radiology. Patient clinically diagnosed either with cysts or tumors over a period of 18 months were included in the study. The gray scale reading was taken and radiological diagnosis was made which was further compared with the histopathological report of cysts and tumors. Results: CBCT gray scale value was found to be effective and superior to conventional radiographic tool and more useful in diagnosing the nature of cysts and tumors pre-operatively. Conclusion: CBCT gray value can be considered as a major tool in diagnosis of cyst and tumor and other soft or hard tissue lesion without any microscopic evaluation. CBCT gray scale measurement is superior to conventional intraoral radiographic methods for diagnosing the nature of lytic lesion of jaw.

  2. 76 FR 63824 - Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    .... 070726412-1300-02] RIN 0648-AV88 Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... Administration (NOAA) is creating a research area within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary (GRNMS, or...

  3. 77 FR 64797 - Availability of Seats for the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-23

    ... the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA... applications for the following vacant seats on the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Advisory Council: K...

  4. 76 FR 77670 - Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-14

    .... 070726412-1300-02] RIN 0648-AV88 Research Area Within Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary; Notice of Effective Date AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric... final rule for the establishment of a research area within the Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary on...

  5. Are federal sustained yield units equitable? A case study of the Grays Harbor unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Con H Schallau; Wilbur R. Maki

    1986-01-01

    The Grays Harbor Federal Sustained Yield Unit (U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service) was established in 1949 to enhance the economic stability of the forest products industry and dependent communities in Grays Harbor County, Washington. Provisions of the unit's charter require that all logs harvested from the Quinault Ranger District of the Olympic...

  6. 75 FR 17055 - Gray's Reef National Marine Sanctuary Regulations on the Use of Spearfishing Gear; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ... Spearfishing Gear; Correction AGENCY: Office of National Marine Sanctuaries (ONMS), National Ocean Service (NOS... Federal Register on February 19, 2010 (75 FR 7361) on the use and possession of spearfishing gear in Gray..., that included a description of new requirements on the use and possession of spearfishing gear in Gray...

  7. Differential regional gray matter volumes in patients with on-line game addiction and professional gamers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with on-line game addiction (POGA) and professional video game players play video games for extended periods of time, but experience very different consequences for their on-line game play. Brain regions consisting of anterior cingulate, thalamus and occpito-temporal areas may increase the likelihood of becoming a pro-gamer or POGA. Twenty POGA, seventeen pro-gamers, and eighteen healthy comparison subjects (HC) were recruited. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner (SIEMENS, Erlangen, Germany). Voxel-wise comparisons of gray matter volume were performed between the groups using the two-sample t-test with statistical parametric mapping (SPM5). Compared to HC, the POGA group showed increased impulsiveness and perseverative errors, and volume in left thalamus gray matter, but decreased gray matter volume in both inferior temporal gyri, right middle occipital gyrus, and left inferior occipital gyrus, compared with HC. Pro-gamers showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus, but decreased gray matter volume in left middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus compared with HC. Additionally, the pro-gamer group showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus and decreased left thalamus gray matter volume compared with the POGA group. The current study suggests that increased gray matter volumes of the left cingulate gyrus in pro-gamers and of the left thalamus in POGA may contribute to the different clinical characteristics of pro-gamers and POGA. PMID:22277302

  8. GRAY CNVUFAC, Black-Body Radiation View Factors with Self-Shadowing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, R.L.

    1991-01-01

    Description of program or function: CNVUFAC, the General Dynamics heat-transfer radiation view program, was adapted for use on the LLNL computer system. The input and output were modified, and a node incrementing logic added for compatibility with TRUMP (NESC 771) thermal analyzer and related codes. The program performs the multiple integration necessary to evaluate the geometric black-body radiation node to node view factors. CNVUFAC uses an elemental area summation scheme to evaluate the multiple integrals. The program permits shadowing and self-shadowing. The basic configuration shapes that can be considered are cylinders, cones, spheres, ellipsoids, flat plates, disks, toroids, and polynomials of revolution. Portions of these shapes can also be considered. Card-image output containing node number and view factor information is generated for input to GRAY, a related code. GRAY performs the matrix manipulations necessary to convert black-body radiation heat-transfer view factors to gray-body view factors as required by thermal analyzer codes. The black-body view factors contain only geometric relationships. GRAY allows the effects of multiple gray-body reflections to be included. The resulting effective gray-body view factors can then be used with the corresponding fourth-power temperature differences to obtain the net radiative heat flux. GRAY accepts a matrix input or the card-image output generated by CNVUFAC. The resulting card-image GRAY output is in a form usable by TRUMP

  9. Captures of Crawford's gray shrews (Notiosorex crawfordi) along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alice Chung-MacCoubrey; Heather L. Bateman; Deborah M. Finch

    2009-01-01

    We captured >2000 Crawford's gray shrews (Notiosorex crawfordi) in a riparian forest mainly consisting of cottonwoods (Populus deltoides) along the Rio Grande in central New Mexico. Little has been published about abundance and habitat of Crawford's gray shrew throughout its distributional range. During 7 summers, we...

  10. Regional Gray Matter Volume Deficits in Adolescents with First-Episode Psychosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Joost; Parellada, Mara; Moreno, Dolores; Graell, Montserrat; Fraguas, David; Zabala, Arantzazu; Vazquez, Veronica Garcia; Desco, Manuel; Arango, Celso

    2008-01-01

    The regional gray matter volumes of adolescents with first-episode psychosis are compared with those of a control group. Magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 70 patients with early onset FEP and on 51 individuals without FEP. Findings revealed that volume deficits in the left medial frontal gray matter were common in individuals with…

  11. Lysimeter studies on the behavior of persistant organic pollutants in the soil-plant-system (1989-1994). Vol. 2. The behavior of 14C fluoranthene and 14C benzo(a)pyrene and also 14C PCB 28 and 14C PCB 52 in the agroecosystem - lysimeter experiments with an orthic luvisol. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schnoeder, F.; Mittelstaedt, W.; Fuehr, F.

    1995-11-01

    14 C-labelled PAH and PCB (benzo(a)pyrene/fluoranthene resp. PCB 28/PCB 52) were mixed into the A n horizon of the lysimeters containing soil cores of an Orthic Luvisol which had been removed undisturbed. Carrots (1990), winter wheat and spinach (1991), potatoes and kale (1992) were grown to harvest maturity. Radio-HPLC enabled the selective enrichment of radioactive substances from extracts of soil, plant and leachate samples in high-purity fractions for GC/MS analyses. Additionally degradation studies with benzo(a)pyrene and fluoranthene have been carried out. In the PAH-lysimeter the concentration of radioactivity in the soil dropped to less than 50% of the initial value after 4 months and after 28 months to about 30%. This can be attributed to mineralisation of fluoranthene. An increasing formation of bound residues was determined either in lysimeter as well as in the degradation study, which finally amounted to more than 50% of the 14 C activity persisting in the soil, of which 2/3 was located in the humin fraction and roughly equal fraction of the remainder in the fulvic and humic acids. Apart from the parent substances both in the lysimeter and degradation study three benzo(a)pyrene quinones were characterised and a non-polar metabolite of benzo(a)pyren with unknown structure was isolated. In the PCB-lysimeter the concentration of the radioactivity in the soil remained almost unchanged throughout 28 months. Metabolites of PCB could not be detected. A total of 0.58% (PCBs) and 0.16% (PAHs) of the radioactivity applied was recovered in the plants. The highest concentration has been determined in carrots, lower concentrations have been found in the subsequent crops and only the PCB cogeneres were detectable in small quantities ( [de

  12. ONE TYPICAL EXTREMUM IN ELECTRICAL PROBLEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Goroshko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to attract attention of teachers, scientific personnel, engineers and students to one peculiarity of extremum seeking in different electrical problems. This feature lies in the fact that in many parts of electrical engineering extremum seeking comes to analysis one and the same mathematical structure (T-structure, but differences lie only in many symbols (designation.In one problems this structure appear in finale, the most simple form, but in others – T-structure is “veiled”, and as a rule  we need  elementary algebraic transformation to detect it.Taking into account high frequency of this structure appearing in electrical problems, in the first part of article the authors  carried out the investigation of extremum characteristics of T-structure and show the results in easy algorithms. To determine the typical T-structure there were taken five problems-examples for extremum seeking  from different parts of electrical engineering. The first and the second examples belong to the theory of electrical circuits.In the first example the problem of maximum active load power obtaining was considered, in the second we see the solution of problem for inductive coupled circuit adjustment in order to obtain the hump current. In the third example the band active filter, built on operating amplifier, is analyzed. According to these methods, taken in the first part of article, the frequency is determined, on which amplifier provides maximum  amplification factor. The forth example deals with analysis of efficiency of transformer. According to algorithm, the optimal efficiency of transformer’s load and also equation for its maximum was determined in this article. In the fifth example the mechanical characteristics of induction motor is analyzed. It is indicated how, on the basis of algorithms article, to obtain equations for critical slip and motor moment, and also the simple development of formula Klossa.The methods of

  13. Optimal voxel size for measuring global gray and white matter proton metabolite concentrations using chemical shift imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hanson, Lars Peter Grüner; Adalsteinsson, E; Pfefferbaum, A

    2000-01-01

    Quantification of gray and white matter levels of spectroscopically visible metabolites can provide important insights into brain development and pathological conditions. Chemical shift imaging offers a gain in efficiency for estimation of global gray and white matter metabolite concentrations co...

  14. Typical and atypical presentations of aspergilloma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villajos, M.; Darnell, A.; Gallardo, X.; Castaner, E.; Mata, J. M.; Paedavila, E.

    1999-01-01

    To show the different forms of radiological presentations of aspergilloma, emphasizing the importance of recognizing the atypical forms. The explorations of 11 patients with aspergilloma were examined retrospectively between 1993 and 1997. These patients were studied using conventional X-rays and computed tomography (CT): Typical and atypical radiological findings were observed. In two patients, who presented recurrent hemoptysis, a percutaneous installation of amphotericin B was carried out with tomographic control. Out of the 11 patients, two were female and nine male. In eight of the cases the radiological findings showed an intercavity injury with different evolutionary forms, while in three of the cases there was a progressive pleural swelling. In the two patients treated pertinaciously, no significant radiological changes were observed, however, neither of them showed hemoptysis again. The pleural swelling adjacent to the cavity and/or the swelling of the cavity wall are atypical radiological presentations of the aspergilloma, that can accompany or precede the appearance of this illness. (Author) 7 refs

  15. Idiopathic intracranial hypertension: A typical presentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algahtani, Hussein A.; Obeid, Tahir H.; Abuzinadah, Ahmad R.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2007-01-01

    Objective was to describe the clinical features of 5 patients with rare atypical presentation of idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH), and propose the possible mechanism of this atypical presentation. We carried out a retrospective study of 5 patients, admitted at King Khalid National Guard Hospital, Jeddah, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia with IIH during the period from January 2001 to December 2005. All were females with their age ranges from 24 to 40 years. The clinical presentations, the laboratory and imaging studies were analyzed. The opening pressures of the lumbar puncture tests were documented. All patients were presented with headache. One had typical pain of trigeminal neuralgia and one with neck pain and radiculopathy. Facial diplegia was present in one patient and two patients had bilateral 6th cranial neuropathy. Papilledema was present in all patients except in one patient. Imaging study was normal in all patients, and they had a very high opening pressure during lumbar puncture, except in one patient. All patients achieved full recovery with medical therapy in 6 to 12 weeks with no relapse during the mean follow up of 2 years. Atypical finding in IIH are rare and require a high index of suspicion for early diagnosis. (author)

  16. AD-1 with research pilot Richard E. Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Standing in front of the AD-1 Oblique Wing research aircraft is research pilot Richard E. Gray. Richard E. Gray joined National Aeronautics and Space Administration's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, in November 1978, as an aerospace research pilot. In November 1981, Dick joined the NASA's Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility, Edwards, California, as a research pilot. Dick was a former Co-op at the NASA Flight Research Center (a previous name of the Ames-Dryden Flight Research Facility), serving as an Operations Engineer. At Ames-Dryden, Dick was a pilot for the F-14 Aileron Rudder Interconnect Program, AD-1 Oblique Wing Research Aircraft, F-8 Digital Fly-By-Wire and Pilot Induced Oscillations investigations. He also flew the F-104, T-37, and the F-15. On November 8, 1982, Gray was fatally injured in a T-37 jet aircraft while making a pilot proficiency flight. Dick graduated with a Bachelors degree in Aeronautical Engineering from San Jose State University in 1969. He joined the U.S. Navy in July 1969, becoming a Naval Aviator in January 1971, when he was assigned to F-4 Phantoms at Naval Air Station (NAS) Miramar, California. In 1972, he flew 48 combat missions in Vietnam in F-4s with VF-111 aboard the USS Coral Sea. After making a second cruise in 1973, Dick was assigned to Air Test and Evaluation Squadron Four (VX-4) at NAS Point Mugu, California, as a project pilot on various operational test and evaluation programs. In November 1978, Dick retired from the Navy and joined NASA's Johnson Space Center. At JSC Gray served as chief project pilot on the WB-57F high-altitude research projects and as the prime television chase pilot in a T-38 for the landing portion of the Space Shuttle orbital flight tests. Dick had over 3,000 hours in more than 30 types of aircraft, an airline transport rating, and 252 carrier arrested landings. He was a member of the Society of Experimental Test Pilots serving on the Board of Directors as Southwest Section Technical Adviser in

  17. Is There A Favorable Cultural Profile For IFRS?: An Examination And Extension Of Gray's Accounting Value Hypotheses

    OpenAIRE

    David R. Borker

    2013-01-01

    Gray (Gray, 1988) proposed a link between Geert Hofstedes (Hofstede, 1980) popular national culture dimensions used in comparative management analysis and his own comparative concepts for accounting. In the past twenty-four years, Grays work has been cited by over 650 scholars. His article presented a hypothetical set of complex correspondences between Hofstedes original four dimensions of Power-distance, Individualism, Masculinity, and Uncertainty Avoidance and Grays accounting values of Pro...

  18. Gray/White Matter Contrast in Parkinson’s Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carme Uribe

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Gray/white matter contrast (GWC decreases with aging and has been found to be a useful MRI biomarker in Alzheimer’s disease (AD, but its utility in Parkinson’s disease (PD patients has not been investigated. The aims of the study were to test whether GWC is sensitive to aging changes in PD patients, if PD patients differ from healthy controls (HCs in GWC, and whether the use of GWC data would improve the sensitivity of cortical thickness analyses to differentiate PD patients from controls. Using T1-weighted structural images, we obtained individual cortical thickness and GWC values from a sample of 90 PD patients and 27 controls. Images were processed with the automated FreeSurfer stream. GWC was computed by dividing the white matter (WM by the gray matter (GM values and projecting the ratios onto a common surface. The sample characteristics were: 52 patients and 14 controls were males; mean age of 64.4 ± 10.6 years in PD and 64.7 ± 8.6 years in controls; 8.0 ± 5.6 years of disease evolution; 15.6 ± 9.8 UPDRS; and a range of 1.5–3 in Hoehn and Yahr (H&Y stage. In both PD and controls we observed significant correlations between GWC and age involving almost the entire cortex. When applying a stringent cluster-forming threshold of p < 0.0001, the correlation between GWC and age also involved the entire cortex in the PD group; in the control group, the correlation was found in the parahippocampal gyrus and widespread frontal and parietal areas. The GWC of PD patients did not differ from controls’, whereas cortical thickness analyses showed thinning in temporal and parietal cortices in the PD group. Cortical thinning remained unchanged after adjusting for GWC. GWC is a very sensitive measure for detecting aging effects, but did not provide additional information over other parameters of atrophy in PD.

  19. Correlation between white matter damage and gray matter lesions in multiple sclerosis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-mei Han

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We observed the characteristics of white matter fibers and gray matter in multiple sclerosis patients, to identify changes in diffusion tensor imaging fractional anisotropy values following white matter fiber injury. We analyzed the correlation between fractional anisotropy values and changes in whole-brain gray matter volume. The participants included 20 patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis and 20 healthy volunteers as controls. All subjects underwent head magnetic resonance imaging and diffusion tensor imaging. Our results revealed that fractional anisotropy values decreased and gray matter volumes were reduced in the genu and splenium of corpus callosum, left anterior thalamic radiation, hippocampus, uncinate fasciculus, right corticospinal tract, bilateral cingulate gyri, and inferior longitudinal fasciculus in multiple sclerosis patients. Gray matter volumes were significantly different between the two groups in the right frontal lobe (superior frontal, middle frontal, precentral, and orbital gyri, right parietal lobe (postcentral and inferior parietal gyri, right temporal lobe (caudate nucleus, right occipital lobe (middle occipital gyrus, right insula, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cingulate gyrus. The voxel sizes of atrophic gray matter positively correlated with fractional anisotropy values in white matter association fibers in the patient group. These findings suggest that white matter fiber bundles are extensively injured in multiple sclerosis patients. The main areas of gray matter atrophy in multiple sclerosis are the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, caudate nucleus, parahippocampal gyrus, and cingulate gyrus. Gray matter atrophy is strongly associated with white matter injury in multiple sclerosis patients, particularly with injury to association fibers.

  20. Examining the effect of psychopathic traits on gray matter volume in a community substance abuse sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Lora M; Shane, Matthew S; Segall, Judith M; Nyalakanti, Prashanth K; Stevens, Michael C; Pearlson, Godfrey D; Calhoun, Vince D; Kiehl, Kent A

    2012-11-30

    Psychopathy is believed to be associated with brain abnormalities in both paralimbic (i.e., orbitofrontal cortex, insula, temporal pole, parahippocampal gyrus, posterior cingulate) and limbic (i.e., amygdala, hippocampus, anterior cingulate) regions. Recent structural imaging studies in both community and prison samples are beginning to support this view. Sixty-six participants, recruited from community corrections centers, were administered the Hare psychopathy checklist-revised (PCL-R), and underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Voxel-based morphometry was used to test the hypothesis that psychopathic traits would be associated with gray matter reductions in limbic and paralimbic regions. Effects of lifetime drug and alcohol use on gray matter volume were covaried. Psychopathic traits were negatively associated with gray matter volumes in right insula and right hippocampus. Additionally, psychopathic traits were positively associated with gray matter volumes in bilateral orbital frontal cortex and right anterior cingulate. Exploratory regression analyses indicated that gray matter volumes within right hippocampus and left orbital frontal cortex combined to explain 21.8% of the variance in psychopathy scores. These results support the notion that psychopathic traits are associated with abnormal limbic and paralimbic gray matter volume. Furthermore, gray matter increases in areas shown to be functionally impaired suggest that the structure-function relationship may be more nuanced than previously thought. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical and Morphological Aspects of Gray Matter Heterotopia Type Developmental Malformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zając-Mnich, Monika; Kostkiewicz, Agnieszka; Guz, Wiesław; Dziurzyńska-Białek, Ewa; Solińska, Anna; Stopa, Joanna; Kucharska-Miąsik, Iwona

    2014-01-01

    Gray matter heterotopia (GMH) is a malformation of the central nervous system characterized by interruption of normal neuroblasts migration between the 7 th and 16 th week of fetal development. The aim of the study was the analysis of clinical symptoms, prevalence rate and the most common concurrent central nervous system (CNS) developmental disorders as well as assessment of characteristic morphological changes of gray matter heterotopia in children hospitalized in our institution between the year 2001 and 2012. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients’ data who were hospitalized in our institution between the year 2001 and 2012. We assessed clinical data and imaging exams in children diagnosed with gray matter heterotopia confirmed in MRI (magnetic resonance imaging). GMH occurred in 26 children hospitalized in our institution between the year 2001 and 2012. Among children with gray matter heterotopia most common clinical symptoms were: epilepsy, intellectual disability and hemiparesis. The commonest location of heterotopic gray matter were fronto-parietal areas of brain parenchyma, mostly subependymal region. Gray matter heterotopia occurred with other developmental disorders of the central nervous system rather than solely and in most cases it was bilateral. Schizencephaly and abnormalities of the corpus callosum were the most often developmental disorders accompanying GMH. 1. Subependymal gray matter heterotopia was more common than subcortical GMH. Subependymal GMH showed tendency to localize in the region of the bodies of the lateral ventricles. The least common was laminar GMH. 2. Gray matter heterotopia occurred more often with other developmental disorders of the central nervous system rather than solely. The most frequent concurrent disorders of the central nervous system were: schizencephaly, developmental abnormalities of the corpus callosum, arachnoid cyst, abnormalities of the septum pellucidum and the fornix. 3. GMH foci were more often

  2. TYPICAL ABSENCES: RESULTS OF OWN INVESTIGATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Yu. Mukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Typical absences (TA are brief primary generalized epileptic seizures characterized by sudden onset and termination. According to their definition, absences consist of impairment of consciousness that is synchronously accompanied by electroencephalographic (EEG changes as generalized spike–slow wave discharges of 3 or more Hz. The authors conducted an investigation of 1261 patients with different forms of epilepsy with onset of seizures from the first days of life to the age of 18 years. The patients were followed up from 1990 to 2010. Absence seizures were detected in 231 patients, which accounts for 18.3 % of all the epileptic patients. TA were found in 102 patients, which constitutes 8.1 % of all cases of epilepsy with onset of seizures beyond the age of 18 years. The paper provides a detailed analysis of a group of patients with TA in terms of anamnestic, clinical, electroencephalographic, and neuroimaging features and the results of therapy with antiepileptic drugs (AEDs. The age of onset of TA-associated epilepsy was from 9 months to 17 years (mean 9.4 ± 4.06 years. The disease occurred most frequently in young school-age children (41.2 %. Isolated TA as the only type of seizures were observed in the clinical picture of 28 (27.5 % patients. TA were concurrent with other types of seizures in other cases. The investigators have identified 4 types of seizures which TA (generalized convulsions, myoclonic seizures, febrile seizures, and eyelid myoclonia may be concurrent with. Neuroimaging stated there were no brain changes in 85.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. Moderate diffuse subatrophic changes were detected in other cases (14.7 %. Local cerebral structural abnormalities were absent. The use of antiepileptic therapy as both monotherapy and polytherapy using different combinations showed the high efficacy of AEDs. Complete remission was achieved in 84.3 % of TA-associated epilepsy cases. An AED-induced reduction in the frequency of

  3. QTL mapping of resistance to gray leaf spot in maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Xu, Ling; Fan, Xingming; Tan, Jing; Chen, Wei; Xu, Mingliang

    2012-12-01

    Gray leaf spot (GLS), caused by the causal fungal pathogen Cercospora zeae-maydis, is one of the most serious foliar diseases of maize worldwide. In the current study, a highly resistant inbred line Y32 and a susceptible line Q11 were used to produce segregating populations for both genetic analysis and QTL mapping. The broad-sense heritability (H (2)) for GLS resistance was estimated to be as high as 0.85, indicating that genetic factors played key roles in phenotypic variation. In initial QTL analysis, four QTL, located on chromosomes 1, 2, 5, and 8, were detected to confer GLS resistance. Each QTL could explain 2.53-23.90 % of the total phenotypic variation, predominantly due to additive genetic effects. Two major QTL, qRgls1 and qRgls2 on chromosomes 8 and 5, were consistently detected across different locations and replicates. Compared to the previous results, qRgls2 is located in a 'hotspot' for GLS resistance; while, qRgls1 does not overlap with any other known resistance QTL. Furthermore, the major QTL-qRgls1 was fine-mapped into an interval of 1.4 Mb, flanked by the markers GZ204 and IDP5. The QTL-qRgls1 could enhance the resistance percentages by 19.70-61.28 %, suggesting its usefulness to improve maize resistance to GLS.

  4. Radiocesium movement in a gray rabbit brush community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klepper, B.; Rogers, L.E.; Hedlund, J.D.; Schreckhise, R.G.; Price, K.R.

    1978-01-01

    Gray rabbit brush, Chrysothamnus nauseosus (Compositae), is the dominant shrub on disturbed land surfaces on much of the Energy Research and Development Administration's Hanford Reservation in south-central Washington State. A stand of rabbit brush growing on an inactive liquid-waste-disposal crib was studied. Thirty percent of the shrubs showed low but detectable radiation levels in a field survey. The primary radionuclide was 137 Cs. The source of 137 Cs in shrubs was the gravel drain field in the crib, at least 2.4 m below the surface, which was the approximate maximum depth of penetration of rabbit brush taproots. Cesium-137 was observed in roots of certain rabbit brush plants, in the upper 1 cm of soil, and in litter beneath contaminated plants but was not detectable in soil samples taken at depths of 15, 50, 100, and 150 cm. Invertebrates associated with a contaminated shrub showed higher concentrations of 137 Cs than did wider-ranging species. Two of seven pocket mice trapped on the crib contaminated detectable amounts of 137 Cs

  5. Effects of canine parvovirus on gray wolves in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.; Goyal, S.M.

    1995-01-01

    Long-term effects of disease on wild animal population demography is not well documented. We studied a gray wolf (Canis lupus) population in a 2,060km2 area of Minnesota for 15 years to determine its response to canine parvovirus (CPV). The CPV had little effect (P gt 0.05) on wolf population size while epizootic during 1979-83. However, after CPV became enzootic, percentage of pups captured during summer-fall 1984-93 and changes in subsequent winter wolf numbers were each inversely related to the serological prevalence of CPV in wolves captured during July-November (r2 = 0.39 and 0.72, P = 0.05 and lt 0.01, respectively). The CPV antibody prevalence in adult wolves increased to 87% in 1993 (r2 = 0.28, P = 0.05). However, because population level remained stable, CPV-induced mortality appeared to compensate for other mortality factors such as starvation. We -predict that the winter wolf population will decline when CPV prevalence in adults consistently exceeds 76%. The CPV may become important in limiting wolf populations.

  6. Possibility of heat recovery from gray water in residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of waste heat from gray water can be an interesting alternative to other energy saving systems in a building, including alternative energy sources. Mainly, due to a number of advantages including independence from weather conditions, small investment outlay, lack of user support, or a slight interference with the installation system. The purpose of this article is to present the financial effectiveness of installations which provide hot, usable water to a detached house, using a Drain Water Heat Recovery (DWHR system depending on the number of system users and the various combinations of bathing time in the shower, which has an influence on the daily warm water demand in each of the considered options. The economic analysis of the adopted installation variants is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC method, which is characterized by the fact that it also includes the operating costs in addition to the capital expenditure during the entire analysis period. For each case, the necessary devices were selected and the cost of their installation was estimated.

  7. Gray matter abnormalities in patients with narcissistic personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Lars; Dziobek, Isabel; Vater, Aline; Heekeren, Hauke R; Bajbouj, Malek; Renneberg, Babette; Heuser, Isabella; Roepke, Stefan

    2013-10-01

    Despite the relevance of narcissistic personality disorder (NPD) in clinical settings, there is currently no empirical data available regarding the neurobiological correlates of NPD. In the present study, we performed a voxel-based morphometric analysis to provide initial insight into local abnormalities of gray matter (GM) volume. Structural brain images were obtained from patients with NPD (n = 17) and a sample of healthy controls (n = 17) matched regarding age, gender, handedness, and intelligence. Groups were compared with regard to global brain tissue volumes and local abnormalities of GM volume. Regions-of-interest analyses were calculated for the anterior insula. Relative to the control group, NPD patients had smaller GM volume in the left anterior insula. Independent of group, GM volume in the left anterior insula was positively related to self-reported emotional empathy. Complementary whole-brain analyses yielded smaller GM volume in fronto-paralimbic brain regions comprising the rostral and median cingulate cortex as well as dorsolateral and medial parts of the prefrontal cortex. Here we provide the first empirical evidence for structural abnormalities in fronto-paralimbic brain regions of patients with NPD. The results are discussed in the context of NPD patients' restricted ability for emotional empathy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Possibility of heat recovery from gray water in residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Aleksandra; Słyś, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Recovery of waste heat from gray water can be an interesting alternative to other energy saving systems in a building, including alternative energy sources. Mainly, due to a number of advantages including independence from weather conditions, small investment outlay, lack of user support, or a slight interference with the installation system. The purpose of this article is to present the financial effectiveness of installations which provide hot, usable water to a detached house, using a Drain Water Heat Recovery (DWHR) system depending on the number of system users and the various combinations of bathing time in the shower, which has an influence on the daily warm water demand in each of the considered options. The economic analysis of the adopted installation variants is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) method, which is characterized by the fact that it also includes the operating costs in addition to the capital expenditure during the entire analysis period. For each case, the necessary devices were selected and the cost of their installation was estimated.

  9. Risperidone versus typical antipsychotic medication for schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, R H; Joy, C B; Kennedy, E; Gilbody, S M; Song, F

    2003-01-01

    found in long-term studies (n=859, 2RCTs RR not 20% improved 0.51 CI 0.38 to 0.67 NNT 4;n=675 1RCT, RR not improved 40% 0.75 CI 0.66 to 0.84 NNT 5; n=675, 1 RCT, RR not 60% improved 0.90 CI 0.84 to 0.96, NNT 11). Risperidone was also more likely to reduce relapse at one year follow up, compared with haloperidol (n=367, 1 RCT, RR 0.64 CI 0.41 to 0.99, NNT 7). Less people allocated risperidone left studies before completion, both for short-term (n=3066, 16 RCTs, RR 0.76 CI 0.63 to 0.92, NNT 6) and long-term trials (n=1270, 4RCTs, RR 0.55 CI 0.42 to 0.73 NNT 4). For general movement disorders results favoured risperidone. People given risperidone had significantly fewer general movement disorders (including extrapyramidal side effects) than those receiving older typical antipsychotics (n=2702, 10 RCTs, RR 0.63 CI 0.56 to 0.71, NNT 3). Significantly fewer people given risperidone used antiparkinsonian drugs (n=2524, 11 RCTs, RR 0.66 CI 0.58 to 0.74, NNT 4). As regards body weight, however, four studies (n=1708) found people were more likely to gain weight if allocated risperidone compared to typical antipsychotics (RR 1.55 CI 1.25 to 1.93, NNH 3). Risperidone was no more or less likely than haloperidol to cause sexual problems such as erectile dysfunction (n=106, 2 RCTs, RR 1.55 CI 0.58 to 4.20). Finally, some results found risperidone was more likely to cause rhinitis than conventional antipsychotics (n=656, 3 RCTs, RR1.99 CI 1.24 to 3.19, NNH 3). Risperidone may be more acceptable to those with schizophrenia than older antipsychotics and have marginal benefits in terms of limited clinical improvement. Its adverse effect profile may be better than haloperidol. With the addition of more studies to this review, the publication bias evident in previous versions is no longer a significant issue. Any marginal benefits this drug may have have to be balanced against its greater cost and increased tendency to cause side effects such as weight gain. Recent important longer term

  10. MR imaging of heterotopic gray matter; Heterotopia istoty szarej mozgu w obrazie MR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kryst-Widzgowska, T.; Kozlowski, P.; Poniatowska, R. [Instytut Psychiatrii i Neurologii, Warsaw (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Six patients with heterotopic gray matter were evaluated with MR. 5 patients had history of seizures. 4 cases were suspected of the cerebral tumor. In the MR examination areas of heterotopic gray matter were found along the posterior horn of the lateral ventricle on the one side in 4 cases and bilateraly in 2 cases. In 3 cases another brain abnormalities were also detected including: hypoplasia of corpus callosum, hypoplasia of brain hemisphere, cavum septi pellucidi. MR is a modality of choice in the assessment of abnormal gray matter migration. (author). 6 refs, 4 figs.

  11. Occipital Lobe Gray Matter Volume in Male Patients with Chronic Schizophrenia: A Quantitative MRI Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onitsuka, Toshiaki; McCarley, Robert W.; Kuroki, Noriomi; Dickey, Chandlee C.; Kubicki, Marek; Demeo, Susan S.; Frumin, Melissa; Kikinis, Ron; Jolesz, Ferenc A.; Shenton, Martha E.

    2008-01-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by deficits in cognition as well as visual perception. There have, however, been few magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of the occipital lobe as an anatomically defined region of interest in schizophrenia. To examine whether or not patients with chronic schizophrenia show occipital lobe volume abnormalities, we measured gray matter volumes for both the primary visual area (PVA) and the visual association areas (VAA) using MRI based neuroanatomical landmarks and three-dimensional information. PVA and VAA gray matter volumes were measured using high-spatial resolution MRI in 25 male patients diagnosed with chronic schizophrenia and in 28 male normal controls. Chronic schizophrenia patients showed reduced bilateral VAA gray matter volume (11%), compared with normal controls, whereas patients showed no group difference in PVA gray matter volume. These results suggest that reduced bilateral VAA may be a neurobiological substrate of some of the deficits observed in early visual processing in schizophrenia. PMID:17350226

  12. Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution in America: Louis Agassiz vs. Asa Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Elaine Claire Daughetee

    1975-01-01

    Provides some background information on the contributions of Louis Agassiz and Asa Gray to the history of American science as these two men disagreed concerning the ideas in Darwin's "The Orgin of Species." (PB)

  13. Occurrence of xenobiotics in gray water and removal in three biological treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernandez Leal, L.; Vieno, N.; Temmink, B.G.; Zeeman, G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Eighteen selected xenobiotics related to personal care and household chemicals (UV-filters, fragrances, preservatives, biocides, surfactants) were measured in gray water from 32 houses and in effluents of three different biological treatment systems (aerobic, anaerobic, and combined anaerobic +

  14. An Assessment of Gray Whale Movements in Acoustically Changing Nearshore Environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mate, Bruce

    1999-01-01

    This grant helped fluid six field seasons over four years. The initial objective was to investigate the movements of gray whales in environments with varying levels of development and acoustic stimuli...

  15. Reliability of voxel gray values in cone beam computed tomography for preoperative implant planning assessment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parsa, A.; Ibrahim, N.; Hassan, B.; Motroni, A.; van der Stelt, P.; Wismeijer, D.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the reliability of cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) voxel gray value measurements using Hounsfield units (HU) derived from multislice computed tomography (MSCT) as a clinical reference (gold standard). Materials and Methods: Ten partially edentulous human mandibular cadavers

  16. New proposal of moderator temperature coefficient estimation method using gray-box model in NPP, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mori, Michitsugu; Kagami, Yuichi; Kanemoto, Shigeru; Enomoto, Mitsuhiro; Tamaoki, Tetsuo; Kawamura, Shinichiro

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to establish a new void reactivity coefficient (VRC) estimation method based on gray box modeling concept. The gray box model consists of a point kinetics model as the first principle model and a fitting model of moderator temperature kinetics. Applying Kalman filter and maximum likehood estimation algorithms to the gray box model, MTC can be estimated. The verification test is done by Monte Carlo simulation, and, it is shown that the present method gives the best estimation results comparing with the conventional methods from the viewpoints of non-biased and smallest scattering estimation performance. Furthermore, the method is verified via real plant data analysis. The reason of good performance of the present method is explained by proper definition of likelihood function based on explicit expression of observation and system noise in the gray box model. (author)

  17. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmers, Christopher C; Getz, Wayne M

    2005-04-01

    Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus) together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  18. Gray Wolves as Climate Change Buffers in Yellowstone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilmers Christopher C

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  19. A voxel-based approach to gray matter asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luders, E; Gaser, C; Jancke, L; Schlaug, G

    2004-06-01

    Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to analyze gray matter (GM) asymmetries in a large sample (n = 60) of male and female professional musicians with and without absolute pitch (AP). We chose to examine these particular groups because previous studies using traditional region-of-interest (ROI) analyses have shown differences in hemispheric asymmetry related to AP and gender. Voxel-based methods may have advantages over traditional ROI-based methods since the analysis can be performed across the whole brain with minimal user bias. After determining that the VBM method was sufficiently sensitive for the detection of differences in GM asymmetries between groups, we found that male AP musicians were more leftward lateralized in the anterior region of the planum temporale (PT) than male non-AP musicians. This confirmed the results of previous studies using ROI-based methods that showed an association between PT asymmetry and the AP phenotype. We further observed that male non-AP musicians revealed an increased leftward GM asymmetry in the postcentral gyrus compared to female non-AP musicians, again corroborating results of a previously published study using ROI-based methods. By analyzing hemispheric GM differences across our entire sample, we were able to partially confirm findings of previous studies using traditional morphometric techniques, as well as more recent, voxel-based analyses. In addition, we found some unusually pronounced GM asymmetries in our musician sample not previously detected in subjects unselected for musical training. Since we were able to validate gender- and AP-related brain asymmetries previously described using traditional ROI-based morphometric techniques, the results of our analyses support the use of VBM for examinations of GM asymmetries.

  20. Gray wolves as climate change buffers in Yellowstone.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher C Wilmers

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the mechanisms by which climate and predation patterns by top predators co-vary to affect community structure accrues added importance as humans exert growing influence over both climate and regional predator assemblages. In Yellowstone National Park, winter conditions and reintroduced gray wolves (Canis lupus together determine the availability of winter carrion on which numerous scavenger species depend for survival and reproduction. As climate changes in Yellowstone, therefore, scavenger species may experience a dramatic reshuffling of food resources. As such, we analyzed 55 y of weather data from Yellowstone in order to determine trends in winter conditions. We found that winters are getting shorter, as measured by the number of days with snow on the ground, due to decreased snowfall and increased number of days with temperatures above freezing. To investigate synergistic effects of human and climatic alterations of species interactions, we used an empirically derived model to show that in the absence of wolves, early snow thaw leads to a substantial reduction in late-winter carrion, causing potential food bottlenecks for scavengers. In addition, by narrowing the window of time over which carrion is available and thereby creating a resource pulse, climate change likely favors scavengers that can quickly track food sources over great distances. Wolves, however, largely mitigate late-winter reduction in carrion due to earlier snow thaws. By buffering the effects of climate change on carrion availability, wolves allow scavengers to adapt to a changing environment over a longer time scale more commensurate with natural processes. This study illustrates the importance of restoring and maintaining intact food chains in the face of large-scale environmental perturbations such as climate change.

  1. Neuroinflammatory component of gray matter pathology in multiple sclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Elena; Giannì, Costanza; Louapre, Céline; Treaba, Constantina A; Govindarajan, Sindhuja T; Ouellette, Russell; Loggia, Marco L; Sloane, Jacob A; Madigan, Nancy; Izquierdo-Garcia, David; Ward, Noreen; Mangeat, Gabriel; Granberg, Tobias; Klawiter, Eric C; Catana, Ciprian; Hooker, Jacob M; Taylor, Norman; Ionete, Carolina; Kinkel, Revere P; Mainero, Caterina

    2016-11-01

    In multiple sclerosis (MS), using simultaneous magnetic resonance-positron emission tomography (MR-PET) imaging with 11 C-PBR28, we quantified expression of the 18kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a marker of activated microglia/macrophages, in cortex, cortical lesions, deep gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) lesions, and normal-appearing WM (NAWM) to investigate the in vivo pathological and clinical relevance of neuroinflammation. Fifteen secondary-progressive MS (SPMS) patients, 12 relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS) patients, and 14 matched healthy controls underwent 11 C-PBR28 MR-PET. MS subjects underwent 7T T2*-weighted imaging for cortical lesion segmentation, and neurological and cognitive evaluation. 11 C-PBR28 binding was measured using normalized 60- to 90-minute standardized uptake values and volume of distribution ratios. Relative to controls, MS subjects exhibited abnormally high 11 C-PBR28 binding across the brain, the greatest increases being in cortex and cortical lesions, thalamus, hippocampus, and NAWM. MS WM lesions showed relatively modest TSPO increases. With the exception of cortical lesions, where TSPO expression was similar, 11 C-PBR28 uptake across the brain was greater in SPMS than in RRMS. In MS, increased 11 C-PBR28 binding in cortex, deep GM, and NAWM correlated with neurological disability and impaired cognitive performance; cortical thinning correlated with increased thalamic TSPO levels. In MS, neuroinflammation is present in the cortex, cortical lesions, deep GM, and NAWM, is closely linked to poor clinical outcome, and is at least partly linked to neurodegeneration. Distinct inflammatory-mediated factors may underlie accumulation of cortical and WM lesions. Quantification of TSPO levels in MS could prove to be a sensitive tool for evaluating in vivo the inflammatory component of GM pathology, particularly in cortical lesions. Ann Neurol 2016;80:776-790. © 2016 American Neurological Association.

  2. Gray matter perfusion correlates with disease severity in ALS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rule, Randall R; Schuff, Norbert; Miller, Robert G; Weiner, Michael W

    2010-03-09

    The goal of this study is to determine if regional brain perfusion, as measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI, is correlated with clinical measures of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) disease severity. The presence of such a relationship would indicate a possible role for ASL perfusion as a marker of disease severity and upper motor neuron involvement in ALS. Disease severity was assessed in 16 subjects with ALS (age 54 +/- 11) using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS) and the pulmonary function measure, forced vital capacity (FVC). Upper motor neuron involvement was assessed by testing rapid tapping of the fingers and feet. Magnetic resonance perfusion images were coregistered with structural T1-weighted MRI, corrected for partial volume effects using the structural images and normalized to a study-specific atlas. Correlations between perfusion and ALS disease severity were analyzed, using statistical parametric mapping, and including age as a factor. Analyses were adjusted for multiple clusters. ALS severity, as measured by the ALSFRS and FVC, was correlated with gray matter perfusion. This correlation was predominantly observed in the hemisphere contralateral to the more affected limbs. ALSFRS scores correlated with perfusion in the contralateral frontal and parietal lobe (p frontal lobe (p frontal lobe (p Upper motor neuron involvement, as measured by rapid finger tapping, correlated bilaterally with perfusion in the middle cingulate gyrus (p < 0.001). Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) severity is correlated with brain perfusion as measured by arterial spin labeling (ASL) perfusion. This correlation appears to be independent of brain atrophy. ASL perfusion may be a useful tool for monitoring disease progression and assessing treatment effects in ALS.

  3. The enzymatic synthesis of rubber polymer in Parthenium argentatum Gray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benedict, C.R.; Madhavan, S.; Greenblatt, G.A.; Venkatachalam, K.V.; Foster, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    Washed rubber particles isolated from stem homogenates of Parthenium argentatum Gray by ultracentrifugation and gel filtration on columns of LKB Ultrogel AcA34 contain rubber transferase which catalyzes the polymerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into rubber polymer. The polymerization reaction requires Mg 2+ isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and an allylic pyrophosphate. The K m values for Mg 2+ , isopentenyl pyrophosphate, and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate were 5.2 x 10 -4 molar, 8.3 x 10 -5 molar, and 9.6 x 10 -5 molar, respectively. The molecular characteristics of the rubber polymer synthesized from [ 14 C]isopentenyl pyrophosphate were examined by gel permeation chromatography. The peak molecular weight of the radioactive polymer increased from 70,000 in 15 minutes to 750,000 in 3 hours. The weight average molecular weight of the polymer synthesized over a 3 hour period was 1.17 x 10 6 compared to 1.49 x 10 6 for the natural rubber polymer extracted from the rubber particles. Over 90% of the in vitro formation of the rubber polymer was de novo from dimethylallyl pyrophosphate and isopentenyl pyrophosphate. Treatment of the washed rubber particles with 3-[(3-cholamidopropyl)dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate solubilized the rubber transferase. The solubilized enzyme(s) catalyzed the polymerization of isopentenyl pyrophosphate into rubber polymer with a peak molecular weight of 1 x 10 5 after 3 hours of incubation with Mg 2+ and dimethylallyl pyrophosphate. The data support the conclusion that the soluble preparation of rubber transferase is capable of catalyzing the formation of a high molecular weight rubber polymer from an allylic pyrophosphate initiator and isopentenyl pyrophosphate monomer

  4. Substance use and regional gray matter volume in individuals at high risk of psychosis

    OpenAIRE

    Stone, James; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Barker, Gareth J; McGuire, Philip K; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with an at risk mental state (ARMS) are at greatly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. Risk of transition to psychosis is associated with regionally reduced cortical gray matter volume. There has been considerable interest in the interaction between psychosis risk and substance use. In this study we investigate the relationship between alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use with gray matter volume in ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers. Twenty seven ARMS subjects and 27...

  5. Substance use and regional gray matter volume in individuals at high risk of psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, James M; Bhattacharyya, Sagnik; Barker, Gareth J; McGuire, Philip K

    2012-02-01

    Individuals with an at risk mental state (ARMS) are at greatly increased risk of developing a psychotic illness. Risk of transition to psychosis is associated with regionally reduced cortical gray matter volume. There has been considerable interest in the interaction between psychosis risk and substance use. In this study we investigate the relationship between alcohol, cannabis and nicotine use with gray matter volume in ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers. Twenty seven ARMS subjects and 27 healthy volunteers took part in the study. All subjects underwent volumetric MRI imaging. The relationship between regional gray matter volume and cannabis use, smoking, and alcohol use in controls and ARMS subjects was analysed using voxel-based morphometry. In any region where a significant relationship with drug was present, data were analysed to determine if there was any group difference in this relationship. Alcohol intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in cerebellum, cannabis intake was use was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in prefrontal cortex and tobacco intake was inversely correlated with gray matter volume in left temporal cortex. There were no significant interactions by group in any region. There is no evidence to support the hypothesis of increased susceptibility to harmful effects of drugs and alcohol on regional gray matter in ARMS subjects. However, alcohol, tobacco and cannabis at low to moderate intake may be associated with lower gray matter in both ARMS subjects and healthy volunteers-possibly representing low-level cortical damage or change in neural plasticity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 'GORGEOUS MONSTROSITY': DERRIDA'S DECONSTRUCTION AS AN ALTERNATIVE POSTMODERNIST TOOL IN ANALYSING ALASDAIR GRAY'S POOR THINGS

    OpenAIRE

    Joanna Małecka

    2009-01-01

    The article is a postmodernism interpretation of Alasdair Gray's acclaimed novel "The Poor Things". The main motifs in the novel are re-read in the light of the theories of Jacques Derrida and Ludwig Wittgenstein. At the centre of the analysis stands the intertextual and deconstructive reading of the role of the main heroine, Bella Baxter. As the novel's 'gorgeous monstrosity', Bella is a prototype construct embedded in the linguistic nature of reality. In Gray's postmodern vision, Bella embo...

  7. Differential regional gray matter volumes in patients with on-line game addiction and professional gamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Doug Hyun; Lyoo, In Kyoon; Renshaw, Perry F

    2012-04-01

    Patients with on-line game addiction (POGA) and professional video game players play video games for extended periods of time, but experience very different consequences for their on-line game play. Brain regions consisting of anterior cingulate, thalamus and occpito-temporal areas may increase the likelihood of becoming a pro-gamer or POGA. Twenty POGA, seventeen pro-gamers, and eighteen healthy comparison subjects (HC) were recruited. All magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed on a 1.5 Tesla Espree MRI scanner (SIEMENS, Erlangen, Germany). Voxel-wise comparisons of gray matter volume were performed between the groups using the two-sample t-test with statistical parametric mapping (SPM5). Compared to HC, the POGA group showed increased impulsiveness and perseverative errors, and volume in left thalamus gray matter, but decreased gray matter volume in both inferior temporal gyri, right middle occipital gyrus, and left inferior occipital gyrus, compared with HC. Pro-gamers showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus, but decreased gray matter volume in left middle occipital gyrus and right inferior temporal gyrus compared with HC. Additionally, the pro-gamer group showed increased gray matter volume in left cingulate gyrus and decreased left thalamus gray matter volume compared with the POGA group. The current study suggests that increased gray matter volumes of the left cingulate gyrus in pro-gamers and of the left thalamus in POGA may contribute to the different clinical characteristics of pro-gamers and POGA. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of Heating Time on Hardness Properties of Laser Clad Gray Cast Iron Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhafzan, B.; Aqida, S. N.; Mifthal, F.; Zulhishamuddin, A. R.; Ismail, I.

    2018-03-01

    This paper presents effect of heating time on cladded gray cast iron. In this study, the effect of heating time on cladded gray cast iron and melted gray cast iron were analysed. The gray cast iron sample were added with mixed Mo-Cr powder using laser cladding technique. The mixed Mo and Cr powder was pre-placed on gray cast iron surface. Modified layer were sectioned using diamond blade cutter and polish using SiC abrasive paper before heated. Sample was heated in furnace for 15, 30 and 45 minutes at 650 °C and cool down in room temperature. Metallographic study was conduct using inverted microscope while surface hardness properties were tested using Wilson hardness test with Vickers scale. Results for metallographic study showed graphite flakes within matrix of pearlite. The surface hardness for modified layer decreased when increased heating time process. These findings are significant to structure stability of laser cladded gray cast iron with different heating times.

  9. Gray Matter Volume Reduction Is Associated with Cognitive Impairment in Neuromyelitis Optica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Q; Zhang, N; Qin, W; Li, Y; Fu, Y; Li, T; Shao, J; Yang, L; Shi, F-D; Yu, C

    2015-10-01

    Whether gray matter impairment occurs in neuromyelitis optica is a matter of ongoing debate, and the association of gray matter impairment with cognitive deficits remains largely unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray matter volume reductions and their association with cognitive decline in patients with neuromyelitis optica. This study included 50 patients with neuromyelitis optica and 50 sex-, age-, handedness-, and education-matched healthy subjects who underwent high-resolution structural MR imaging examinations and a battery of cognitive assessments. Gray matter volume and cognitive differences were compared between the 2 groups. The correlations of the regional gray matter volume with cognitive scores and clinical variables were explored in the patients with neuromyelitis optica. Compared with healthy controls (635.9 ± 51.18 mL), patients with neuromyelitis optica (602.8 ± 51.03 mL) had a 5.21% decrease in the mean gray matter volume of the whole brain (P optica affected the frontal and temporal cortices and the right thalamus (false discovery rate correction, P optica (Alphasim correction, P optica had impairments in memory, information processing speed, and verbal fluency (P optica and is associated with cognitive impairment and disease severity in this group. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Gray whale distribution relative to benthic invertebrate biomass and abundance: Northeastern Chukchi Sea 2009-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brower, Amelia A.; Ferguson, Megan C.; Schonberg, Susan V.; Jewett, Stephen C.; Clarke, Janet T.

    2017-10-01

    The shallow continental shelf waters of the Bering and Chukchi seas are the northernmost foraging grounds of North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus). Benthic amphipods are considered the primary prey of gray whales in these waters, although no comprehensive quantitative analysis has been performed to support this assumption. Gray whale relative abundance, distribution, and behavior in the northeastern Chukchi Sea (69°-72°N, 155-169°W) were documented during aerial surveys in June-October 2009-2012. Concurrently, vessel-based benthic infaunal sampling was conducted in the area in July-August 2009-10, September 2011, and August 2012. Gray whales were seen in the study area each month that surveys were conducted, with the majority of whales feeding. Statistical analyses confirm that the highest densities of feeding gray whales were associated with high benthic amphipod abundance, primarily within 70 km of shore from Point Barrow to Icy Cape, in water whales were not seen in 40-km×40-km cells containing benthic sampling stations with 85 m-2 or fewer amphipods. Continuing broad-scale aerial surveys in the Chukchi Sea and prey sampling near feeding gray whales will be an important means to monitor and document ongoing and predicted ecosystem changes.

  11. Lack of gender effects on gray matter volumes in adolescent generalized anxiety disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Mei; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yan; He, Zhong; Su, Linyan; Li, Lingjiang

    2014-02-01

    Previous epidemiological and clinical studies have reported gender differences in prevalence and clinical features of generalized anxiety disorder (GAD). Such gender differences in clinical phenomenology suggest that the underlying neural circuitry of GAD could also be different in males and females. This study aimed to explore the possible gender effect on gray matter volumes in adolescents with GAD. Twenty-six adolescent GAD patients and 25 healthy controls participated and underwent high-resolution structural magnetic resonance scans. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) was used to investigate gray matter alterations. Our study revealed a significant diagnosis main effect in the right putamen, with larger gray matter volumes in GAD patients compared to healthy controls, and a significant gender main effect in the left precuneus/posterior cingulate cortex, with larger gray matter volumes in males compared to females. No gender-by-diagnosis interaction effect was found in this study. The relatively small sample size in this study might result in a lack of power to demonstrate gender effects on brain structure in GAD. The results suggested that there are differences in gray matter volumes between males and females, but gray matter volumes in GAD are not influenced by gender. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Relationship between Hounsfield Unit in CT Scan and Gray Scale in CBCT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tahmineh Razi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT is an imaging system which has many advantages over computed tomography (CT. In CT scan, Hounsfield Unit (HU is proportional to the degree of x-ray attenuation by the tissue. In CBCT, the degree of x-ray attenuation is shown by gray scale (voxel value. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between gray scale in CBCT and Hounsfield Unit (HU in CT scan. Materials and methods. In this descriptive study, the head of a sheep was scanned with 3 CBCT and one medical CT scanner. Gray scales and HUs were detected on images. Reconstructed data were analyzed to investigate relationship between CBCT gray scales and HUs. Results. A strong correlation between gray scales of CBCT and HUs of CT scan was determined. Conclusion. Considering the fact that gray scale in CBCT is the criteria in measurement of bone density before implant treatments, it is recommended because of the lower dose and cost compared to CT scan.

  13. Habitat selection and diurnal refugia of gray foxes in southwestern Georgia, USA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas R Deuel

    Full Text Available Understanding habitat selection of gray foxes (Urocyon cinereoargenteus is essential to evaluate their potential response to changes in land use and predator communities. Few studies have evaluated temporal habitat selection or explicitly identified habitats used by gray foxes for diurnal refugia. We used GPS collars to obtain location data for 34 gray foxes (20 males and 14 females from February 2014 to December 2015 to evaluate temporal (seasonal and diel habitat selection and selection of diurnal refugia in southwestern Georgia, USA. We analyzed habitat selection at 2 levels, selection of a core area within the home range and selection of locations within the home range. Habitat selection was non-random (P 0.05. Hardwoods, human use (i.e., areas associated with regular human activity such as buildings, lawns, parking areas, etc., and roads were selected (P 0.05. Selection of habitats for diurnal refugia did not vary seasonally or by sex (P > 0.05, with foxes selecting (P < 0.05 areas near hardwood forests, roads, agriculture, human use, pastures/food plots, and shrub scrub habitats. Gray foxes were observed on the ground while resting, and we found no evidence of gray foxes diurnally resting in trees. Our results suggest that on our study area, gray foxes are an edge species that prefer forests with a hardwood component in areas near human use and roads.

  14. Gray economy in Serbia in light of tendencies in European countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madžar Lidija

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gray economy presents the sum of all economic activities over which the modern state has no control, that is, which are on the edge of the law in the so-called grey zone. It is also the part of the economy not covered by official statistics. Therefore, the gray economy is not subject to taxation and does not contribute to the gross domestic product (GDP of the country. The aim of this paper is to present a detailed analysis of the causes and effects of this phenomenon. The paper also emphasizes the great importance of its suppression and control in modern economies. Illegal and partially legal forms of the gray economy cause tax evasion and avoiding the social security contribution payment, disrespect of valid labor standards, avoiding legal business as well as the emergence of market and structural distortions. In this paper, the problem of assessment of the gray economy is viewed through the direct and indirect measurement methods. In addition to the advantages and disadvantages, the causes of this phenomenon are set out in detail. The paper provides a comprehensive overview of ten year data on the gray economy in European countries, with concrete measures to deal with this phenomenon. The unfavorable situation of Serbian gray economy, which is worse than the European and regional average, is presented at the end of this paper.

  15. Characterizing the sponge grounds of Grays Canyon, Washington, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Abby N.; Clarke, M. Elizabeth; Fruh, Erica; Chaytor, Jason; Reiswig, Henry M.; Whitmire, Curt E.

    2018-01-01

    Deep-sea sponge grounds are relatively understudied ecosystems that may provide key habitats for a large number of fish and invertebrates including commercial species. Glass sponge grounds have been discovered from the tropics to polar regions but there are only a few places with high densities of dictyonine sponges. Dictyonine glass sponges have a fused skeleton, which stays intact when they die and in some areas the accumulation of successive generations of sponges leads to the formation of reefs. In 2010 and 2016, we surveyed an area near Grays Canyon in Washington, USA, where dense aggregations of glass sponges and potential sponge reefs were discovered in 2007. Our primary aims were to make a preliminary assessment of whether the glass sponges form reefs at this location, characterize the sponge assemblage present at this site and examine associations between the sponges and commercially important species. Multibeam mapping and sub-bottom profiling indicate that the glass sponges at this site do not form reefs and are mostly attached to hard substrates. Analysis of photographs collected by an autonomous underwater vehicle and samples collected by a remotely operated vehicle guided by telepresence revealed the presence of two abundant dictyonine sponge species at this site, Heterochone calyx and Aphrocallistes vastus (mean densities = 1.43 ± 0.057 per 10 m2, max = 24 per 10 m2). We also observed a large number of non-reef-building glass sponges and various demosponges including a potentially new species in the genus Acarnus. A diverse fish assemblage was recorded at this site including eight species of rockfish. Rockfish abundance was positively related to sponge abundance. Spot prawns (Pandalus platyceros) were also abundant and were strongly associated with sponges. Despite not finding sponge reefs, this is an ecologically significant area. Further research is necessary to determine the environmental factors that give rise to the abundance of large

  16. Fractal Dimension Analysis of Subcortical Gray Matter Structures in Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guihu Zhao

    Full Text Available A failure of adaptive inference-misinterpreting available sensory information for appropriate perception and action-is at the heart of clinical manifestations of schizophrenia, implicating key subcortical structures in the brain including the hippocampus. We used high-resolution, three-dimensional (3D fractal geometry analysis to study subtle and potentially biologically relevant structural alterations (in the geometry of protrusions, gyri and indentations, sulci in subcortical gray matter (GM in patients with schizophrenia relative to healthy individuals. In particular, we focus on utilizing Fractal Dimension (FD, a compact shape descriptor that can be computed using inputs with irregular (i.e., not necessarily smooth surfaces in order to quantify complexity (of geometrical properties and configurations of structures across spatial scales of subcortical GM in this disorder. Probabilistic (entropy-based information FD was computed based on the box-counting approach for each of the seven subcortical structures, bilaterally, as well as the brainstem from high-resolution magnetic resonance (MR images in chronic patients with schizophrenia (n = 19 and age-matched healthy controls (n = 19 (age ranges: patients, 22.7-54.3 and healthy controls, 24.9-51.6 years old. We found a significant reduction of FD in the left hippocampus (median: 2.1460, range: 2.07-2.18 vs. median: 2.1730, range: 2.15-2.23, p<0.001; Cohen's effect size, U3 = 0.8158 (95% Confidence Intervals, CIs: 0.6316, 1.0, the right hippocampus (median: 2.1430, range: 2.05-2.19 vs. median: 2.1760, range: 2.12-2.21, p = 0.004; U3 = 0.8421 (CIs: 0.5263, 1, as well as left thalamus (median: 2.4230, range: 2.40-2.44, p = 0.005; U3 = 0.7895 (CIs: 0.5789, 0.9473 in schizophrenia patients, relative to healthy individuals. Our findings provide in-vivo quantitative evidence for reduced surface complexity of hippocampus, with reduced FD indicating a less complex, less regular GM surface detected in

  17. Priming effects in Haplic Luvisol after different substrate additions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogomolova, I.; Blagodatskaya, E.; Blagodatsky, S.; Kuzyakov, Y.

    2009-04-01

    Although soils contain considerable amounts of soil organic carbon (SOC), most of it is not easily available for microorganisms. Addition of various substrates to soil (for example, plant residues, root exudates) may affect SOC mineralization. The addition of mineral nutrients, especially N, may also affect C turnover and so change the mineralization rate of SOC. Such short-term changes in mineralization of organic substance of soil were termed as "priming-effects" (Bingemann et al., 1953). Priming effect leads to additional mineralization of SOC (van Elsas and van Overbeek, 1993). It has been shown that not only plant residues induce priming effects (Sauerbeck, 1966; Stemmer et al., 1999; Bell et al., 2003), but also easily available substrates such as sugars or amino acids, which are present in soil solutions and root exudates (Vasconcellos, 1994; Shen and Bartha, 1997; Hamer and Marschner, 2002). Since easily available substrates may not only accelerate SOC mineralization, but also may retard it, Kuzyakov et al. (2000) differentiated between positive and negative priming effects. It is not clear until now, how long priming effects persists in soil after substrate addition, and if they are induced every time when a substrate becomes available in soil. So, the aim of this study was to evaluate effects of glucose and plant residues on SOM decomposition, and influence of glucose on plant residues decomposition in soil. The experimental layout was designed as two factor experiment: 1) plant residues and 2) available substrate amendment. Maize shoot residues (50 mg added to 5 g soil) were 14C labeled (9•104 DPM per 5 g soil). Soil without of any plant residues served as a control for this treatment. Two levels of D (+) glucose as easily available substrates were added after three months of pre-incubation of soil samples with maize residues: 0.009 mg glucose C g-1 soil and 0.225 mg glucose C g-1 soil. The glucose was uniformly labelled with 14C (2.37•104 DPM per 5 g soil). The glucose was added together with nutrient solution, containing N, P and K. After glucose addition the soil moisture increased up to 70% WHC. Soil samples without glucose amendment were used as a control treatment. After treatment with glucose soil samples were incubated for 14 days at 22 °C. The produced CO2 was trapped in 0.45 ml of 1 M NaOH solution. The amount of evolved total CO2 was analysed by titration of an aliquot of the NaOH solution with 0.1 M HCl after precipitation of the trapped CO2 as BaCO3. The activity of 14CO2 trapped in the NaOH solution was measured with a Liquid Scintillation Counter (Microbeta, Perkin Elmer) after mixing of the aliquot NaOH solution with 0.5 ml of the scintillation cocktail Rotiszint Eco Plus. Combination of treatments with 14C labeled plant residues and 14C labeled glucose allowed calculation of (1) the effect of glucose on SOM decomposition, and (2) the effect of glucose on plant residues decomposition. The glucose was consumed within one day after addition. Similar results were obtained also in other studies (Nguyen and Honrz, 2002). The maximal rate of glucose mineralization was measured within the first day and was three times higher in soil without plant residues (43% and 15% of input for low and high glucose amount, respectively). Our estimation of the proportion of 14C-CO2 evolved from glucose was very close to that by Šantruckova et al. (2004). They found 27% of 14C evolved as CO2 after 72 h of aerobic incubation of soil with 315 µg glucose-C g-1. Twelve days after glucose addition 47.2 and 32.8% of the added glucose was mineralized to CO2 for low and high glucose amount, respectively. Both concentrations of glucose increased SOM decomposition and increased maize residue decomposition compared to the control without glucose. The apparent PE observed under C-limiting conditions after the addition of small glucose amount can be explained by the "signal" or "triggering" effect. The addition of easily available substrates such as glucose to soil can induce an extra CO2 efflux within a few hours to days after the amendment.

  18. Histogram-based adaptive gray level scaling for texture feature classification of colorectal polyps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomeroy, Marc; Lu, Hongbing; Pickhardt, Perry J.; Liang, Zhengrong

    2018-02-01

    Texture features have played an ever increasing role in computer aided detection (CADe) and diagnosis (CADx) methods since their inception. Texture features are often used as a method of false positive reduction for CADe packages, especially for detecting colorectal polyps and distinguishing them from falsely tagged residual stool and healthy colon wall folds. While texture features have shown great success there, the performance of texture features for CADx have lagged behind primarily because of the more similar features among different polyps types. In this paper, we present an adaptive gray level scaling and compare it to the conventional equal-spacing of gray level bins. We use a dataset taken from computed tomography colonography patients, with 392 polyp regions of interest (ROIs) identified and have a confirmed diagnosis through pathology. Using the histogram information from the entire ROI dataset, we generate the gray level bins such that each bin contains roughly the same number of voxels Each image ROI is the scaled down to two different numbers of gray levels, using both an equal spacing of Hounsfield units for each bin, and our adaptive method. We compute a set of texture features from the scaled images including 30 gray level co-occurrence matrix (GLCM) features and 11 gray level run length matrix (GLRLM) features. Using a random forest classifier to distinguish between hyperplastic polyps and all others (adenomas and adenocarcinomas), we find that the adaptive gray level scaling can improve performance based on the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve by up to 4.6%.

  19. Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems have substantially less brain gray matter volume.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish S Dalwani

    Full Text Available Structural neuroimaging studies have demonstrated lower regional gray matter volume in adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems. These research studies, including ours, have generally focused on male-only or mixed-sex samples of adolescents with conduct and/or substance problems. Here we compare gray matter volume between female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems and female healthy controls of similar ages.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems will show significantly less gray matter volume in frontal regions critical to inhibition (i.e. dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, conflict processing (i.e., anterior cingulate, valuation of expected outcomes (i.e., medial orbitofrontal cortex and the dopamine reward system (i.e. striatum.We conducted whole-brain voxel-based morphometric comparison of structural MR images of 22 patients (14-18 years with severe substance and conduct problems and 21 controls of similar age using statistical parametric mapping (SPM and voxel-based morphometric (VBM8 toolbox. We tested group differences in regional gray matter volume with analyses of covariance, adjusting for age and IQ at p<0.05, corrected for multiple comparisons at whole-brain cluster-level threshold.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems compared to controls showed significantly less gray matter volume in right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, medial orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, bilateral somatosensory cortex, left supramarginal gyrus, and bilateral angular gyrus. Considering the entire brain, patients had 9.5% less overall gray matter volume compared to controls.Female adolescents with severe substance and conduct problems in comparison to similarly aged female healthy controls showed substantially lower gray matter volume in brain regions involved in inhibition, conflict processing, valuation

  20. Optimized VBM in patients with Alzheimer's disease: gray matter loss and its correlation with cognitive function

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seon Hyeong; Moon, Won Jin; Chung, Eun Chul; Lee, Min Hee; Roh, Hong Gee; Park, Kwang Bo; Na, Duck Ryul

    2005-01-01

    To investigate the regional changes in gray matter volume by using optimized voxel based morphometry in the whole brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to determine its correlation with cognitive function. Nineteen patients with AD (mean mini mental state examination (MMSE) score = 20.4) and 19 age-matched control subjects (mean MMSE score 29) participated in this prospective study. T1-weighted 3D-SPGR scans were obtained for each subject. These T1-weighted images were spatially normalized into study-specific T1 template and segmented into gray matter, white matter and CSF. After the images were modulated and smoothed, all of the gray matter images were compared with control images by using voxel-wise statistical parametric test (two-sample-test). In patients with AD, total gray matter volume was significantly smaller than normal control (552 ± 39 mL vs. 632 ± 51 mL, ρ 0.001). Significant gray matter loss was seen in both the hippocampus and amygdala complexs, and the parahippocampi and frontoparietal cortices (ρ < 0.01, family wise error corrected). Left cerebral atrophy was more prominent than the right. Loss of gray matter volume in both the superior frontal gyri and left inferior temporal gyrus had a strong correlation with lower MMSE score. Optimized VBM was able to visualize pathologic changes of AD in vivo. In AD there was widespread gray matter volume loss in the frontoparietal lobes as well as the medial temporal lobes and had a strong correlation between volume loss of specific cortical areas and MMSE score

  1. In the Gray Zone in the Fragile X Gene: What are the Key Unanswered Clinical and Biological Questions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah A. Hall

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Smaller expansions (41–54 CGG repeats in the fragile X mental retardation 1 (FMR1 gene are termed "gray zone" alleles. Only recently has interest in these expansions increased due to reporting of phenotypes unique to gray zone carriers or similar to those seen in individuals with larger expansions. As minimal research has focused on gray zone expansions, this paper asks several questions related to this topic. These include the following: What is the definition of the gray zone? Is there a risk of developing neurological signs in these carriers? Are there secondary gene effects that impact gray zone alleles or a biologic advantage to carrying these repeats? How do we counsel patients with gray zone expansions? The answers to these questions will help to determine the significance of these expansions and provide needed information to the research community and clinicians.

  2. Investigation of the tensile properties of continuous steel wire-reinforced gray cast iron composite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdemir, Ahmet; Kus, Recai; Simsir, Mehmet

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → Metal matrix composite (MMC) is an important structural material. → Gray cast irons as a matrix material in MMC have more advantages than other cast irons. → Interface greatly determines the mechanical properties of MMC. → Interface formed by diffusion of carbon atoms. → While decarburizing takes place in gray cast iron, carburiszing takes place in steel near the interface. - Abstract: The aim of the present study was to improve the tensile properties of gray cast iron by reinforcing the material with a steel wire. The composite was produced by sand mold casting, and the specimens were normalized by applying heat treatments at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C, and 900 deg. C. Tension tests were conducted on gray cast iron and composite specimens, and the microstructure of the specimens was examined with an optical microscope. The fracture surface of the tension test specimens was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and graphite-free transition regions with high degrees of hardness were observed due to the diffusion of carbon from the cast iron to the steel wire. The microstructure of the transition region (fine pearlitic phase with partially dissolved graphite flakes) and the bond quality in the transition region increased the tensile properties of cast iron composites. Also, it is concluded that the tensile properties of gray cast iron increased with an increase in the normalization temperature.

  3. Non-gray gas radiation effect on mixed convection in lid driven square cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherifi, Mohammed, E-mail: production1998@yahoo.fr; Benbrik, Abderrahmane, E-mail: abenbrik@umbb.dz; Laouar-Meftah, Siham, E-mail: laouarmeftah@gmail.com [M’Hamed Bougara University, Faculty of Hydrocarbons and Chemistry, 35000 Boumerdes (Algeria); Lemonnier, Denis, E-mail: denis.lemonnier@ensma.fr [Institut Pprime, CNRS, ENSMA, University of Poitiers, Poitiers Futuroscope (France)

    2016-06-02

    A numerical study is performed to investigate the effect of non-gray radiation on mixed convection in a vertical two sided lid driven square cavity filled with air-H{sub 2}O-CO{sub 2} gas mixture. The vertical moving walls of the enclosure are maintained at two different but uniform temperatures. The horizontal walls are thermally insulated and considered as adiabatic walls. The governing differential equations are solved by a finite-volume method and the SIMPLE algorithm was adopted to solve the pressure–velocity coupling. The radiative transfer equation (RTE) is solved by the discrete ordinates method (DOM). The spectral line weighted sum of gray gases model (SLW) is used to account for non-gray radiation properties. Simulations are performed in configurations where thermal and shear forces induce cooperating buoyancy forces. Streamlines, isotherms, and Nusselt number are analyzed for three different values of Richardson’s number (from 0.1 to 10) and by considering three different medium (transparent medium, gray medium using the Planck mean absorption coefficient, and non-gray medium assumption).

  4. On the irreducible individuality of the person and the fullness of life: simon gray's smoking diaries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattison, Stephen; Heath, Iona

    2010-09-01

    This article aims to challenge and expand notions of health, health care and health promotion, particularly in relation to smoking, via a consideration of the autobiographical literary work of the English playwright, Simon Gray. Gray died in 2008, having written a series of reflective autobiographical books, The Smoking Diaries. Gray was a lifelong smoker, perpetually trying to give up his habit. This article introduces Gray's diaries and their reflections on life, death, health care and smoking. It then enquires what can be learned about contemporary health care practices and assumptions from Gray's work. Finally, it reflects on the limits of views of health and health promotion when considered in the light of a fully lived life. In the life under consideration, health care risks are very differently understood to those prevalent in the medical community. Literary approaches to thinking about smoking are thus seen to place health and health care in broader, richer, and less instrumental perspectives than those that are common amongst contemporary health professionals and institutions.

  5. Behavioral correlates of changes in hippocampal gray matter structure during acquisition of foreign vocabulary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellander, Martin; Berggren, Rasmus; Mårtensson, Johan; Brehmer, Yvonne; Wenger, Elisabeth; Li, Tie-Qiang; Bodammer, Nils C; Shing, Yee-Lee; Werkle-Bergner, Markus; Lövdén, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Experience can affect human gray matter volume. The behavioral correlates of individual differences in such brain changes are not well understood. In a group of Swedish individuals studying Italian as a foreign language, we investigated associations among time spent studying, acquired vocabulary, baseline performance on memory tasks, and gray matter changes. As a way of studying episodic memory training, the language learning focused on acquiring foreign vocabulary and lasted for 10weeks. T1-weighted structural magnetic resonance imaging and cognitive testing were performed before and after the studies. Learning behavior was monitored via participants' use of a smartphone application dedicated to the study of vocabulary. A whole-brain analysis showed larger changes in gray matter structure of the right hippocampus in the experimental group (N=33) compared to an active control group (N=23). A first path analyses revealed that time spent studying rather than acquired knowledge significantly predicted change in gray matter structure. However, this association was not significant when adding performance on baseline memory measures into the model, instead only the participants' performance on a short-term memory task with highly similar distractors predicted the change. This measure may tap similar individual difference factors as those involved in gray matter plasticity of the hippocampus. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of the tensile properties of continuous steel wire-reinforced gray cast iron composite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akdemir, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Kus, Recai [Department of Mechanical Education, Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey); Simsir, Mehmet, E-mail: msimsir@cumhuriyet.edu.tr [Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Cumhuriyet University, Kayseri Yolu 7. Km, 58140 Sivas (Turkey)

    2011-04-25

    Research highlights: {yields} Metal matrix composite (MMC) is an important structural material. {yields} Gray cast irons as a matrix material in MMC have more advantages than other cast irons. {yields} Interface greatly determines the mechanical properties of MMC. {yields} Interface formed by diffusion of carbon atoms. {yields} While decarburizing takes place in gray cast iron, carburiszing takes place in steel near the interface. - Abstract: The aim of the present study was to improve the tensile properties of gray cast iron by reinforcing the material with a steel wire. The composite was produced by sand mold casting, and the specimens were normalized by applying heat treatments at 800 deg. C, 850 deg. C, and 900 deg. C. Tension tests were conducted on gray cast iron and composite specimens, and the microstructure of the specimens was examined with an optical microscope. The fracture surface of the tension test specimens was examined with a scanning electron microscope (SEM), and graphite-free transition regions with high degrees of hardness were observed due to the diffusion of carbon from the cast iron to the steel wire. The microstructure of the transition region (fine pearlitic phase with partially dissolved graphite flakes) and the bond quality in the transition region increased the tensile properties of cast iron composites. Also, it is concluded that the tensile properties of gray cast iron increased with an increase in the normalization temperature.

  7. Regional gray matter growth, sexual dimorphism, and cerebral asymmetry in the neonatal brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilmore, John H; Lin, Weili; Prastawa, Marcel W; Looney, Christopher B; Vetsa, Y Sampath K; Knickmeyer, Rebecca C; Evans, Dianne D; Smith, J Keith; Hamer, Robert M; Lieberman, Jeffrey A; Gerig, Guido

    2007-02-07

    Although there has been recent interest in the study of childhood and adolescent brain development, very little is known about normal brain development in the first few months of life. In older children, there are regional differences in cortical gray matter development, whereas cortical gray and white matter growth after birth has not been studied to a great extent. The adult human brain is also characterized by cerebral asymmetries and sexual dimorphisms, although very little is known about how these asymmetries and dimorphisms develop. We used magnetic resonance imaging and an automatic segmentation methodology to study brain structure in 74 neonates in the first few weeks after birth. We found robust cortical gray matter growth compared with white matter growth, with occipital regions growing much faster than prefrontal regions. Sexual dimorphism is present at birth, with males having larger total brain cortical gray and white matter volumes than females. In contrast to adults and older children, the left hemisphere is larger than the right hemisphere, and the normal pattern of fronto-occipital asymmetry described in older children and adults is not present. Regional differences in cortical gray matter growth are likely related to differential maturation of sensory and motor systems compared with prefrontal executive function after birth. These findings also indicate that whereas some adult patterns of sexual dimorphism and cerebral asymmetries are present at birth, others develop after birth.

  8. Attention and Regional Gray Matter Development in Very Preterm Children at Age 12 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lean, Rachel E; Melzer, Tracy R; Bora, Samudragupta; Watts, Richard; Woodward, Lianne J

    2017-08-01

    This study examines the selective, sustained, and executive attention abilities of very preterm (VPT) born children in relation to concurrent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) measures of regional gray matter development at age 12 years. A regional cohort of 110 VPT (≤32 weeks gestation) and 113 full term (FT) born children were assessed at corrected age 12 years on the Test of Everyday Attention-Children. They also had a structural MRI scan that was subsequently analyzed using voxel-based morphometry to quantify regional between-group differences in cerebral gray matter development, which were then related to attention measures using multivariate methods. VPT children obtained similar selective (p=.85), but poorer sustained (p=.02) and executive attention (p=.01) scores than FT children. VPT children were also characterized by reduced gray matter in the bilateral parietal, temporal, prefrontal and posterior cingulate cortices, bilateral thalami, and left hippocampus; and increased gray matter in the occipital and anterior cingulate cortices (family-wise error-corrected pregional gray matter development appear to contribute, at least in part, to the poorer attentional performance of VPT children at school age. (JINS, 2017, 23, 539-550).

  9. [A voxel-based morphometric analysis of brain gray matter in online game addicts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Chuan-bo; Qian, Ruo-bing; Fu, Xian-ming; Lin, Bin; Ji, Xue-bing; Niu, Chao-shi; Wang, Ye-han

    2012-12-04

    To explore the possible brain mechanism of online game addiction (OGA) in terms of brain morphology through voxel-based morphometric (VBM) analysis. Seventeen subjects with OGA and 17 age- and gender-matched healthy controls (HC group) were recruited from Department of Psychology at our hospital during February-December 2011. The internet addiction scale (IAS) was used to measure the degree of OGA tendency. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans were performed to acquire 3-dimensional T1-weighted images. And FSL 4.1 software was employed to confirm regional gray matter volume changes. For the regions where OGA subjects showed significantly different gray matter volumes from the controls, the gray matter volumes of these areas were extracted, averaged and regressed against the scores of IAS. The OGA group had lower gray matter volume in left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), left medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), bilateral insula (INS), left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) and left supplementary motor area (SMA). Gray matter volumes of left OFC and bilateral INS showed a negative correlation with the scores of IAS (r = -0.65, r = -0.78, P online game addicts and they may be correlated with the occurrence and maintenance of OGA.

  10. Tensile strained gray tin: Dirac semimetal for observing negative magnetoresistance with Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Huaqing; Liu, Feng

    2017-05-01

    The extremely stringent requirement on material quality has hindered the investigation and potential applications of exotic chiral magnetic effect in Dirac semimetals. Here, we propose that gray tin is a perfect candidate for observing the chiral anomaly effect and Shubnikov-de-Haas (SdH) oscillation at relatively low magnetic field. Based on effective k .p analysis and first-principles calculations, we discover that gray tin becomes a Dirac semimetal under tensile uniaxial strain, in contrast to a topological insulator under compressive uniaxial strain as known before. In this newly found Dirac semimetal state, two Dirac points which are tunable by tensile [001] strains lie in the kz axis and Fermi arcs appear in the (010) surface. Due to the low carrier concentration and high mobility of gray tin, a large chiral anomaly induced negative magnetoresistance and a strong SdH oscillation are anticipated in this half of the strain spectrum. Comparing to other Dirac semimetals, the proposed Dirac semimetal state in the nontoxic elemental gray tin can be more easily manipulated and accurately controlled. We envision that gray tin provides a perfect platform for strain engineering of chiral magnetic effects by sweeping through the strain spectrum from positive to negative and vice versa.

  11. Regional gray matter abnormalities in patients with schizophrenia determined with optimized voxel-based morphometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, XiaoJuan; Yao, Li; Jin, Zhen; Chen, Kewei

    2006-03-01

    This study examined regional gray matter abnormalities across the whole brain in 19 patients with schizophrenia (12 males and 7 females), comparing with 11 normal volunteers (7 males and 4 females). The customized brain templates were created in order to improve spatial normalization and segmentation. Then automated preprocessing of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data was conducted using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). The statistical voxel based analysis was implemented in terms of two-sample t-test model. Compared with normal controls, regional gray matter concentration in patients with schizophrenia was significantly reduced in the bilateral superior temporal gyrus, bilateral middle frontal and inferior frontal gyrus, right insula, precentral and parahippocampal areas, left thalamus and hypothalamus as well as, however, significant increases in gray matter concentration were not observed across the whole brain in the patients. This study confirms and extends some earlier findings on gray matter abnormalities in schizophrenic patients. Previous behavior and fMRI researches on schizophrenia have suggested that cognitive capacity decreased and self-conscious weakened in schizophrenic patients. These regional gray matter abnormalities determined through structural MRI with optimized VBM may be potential anatomic underpinnings of schizophrenia.

  12. Gray matter network disruptions and amyloid beta in cognitively normal adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijms, Betty M; Kate, Mara Ten; Wink, Alle Meije; Visser, Pieter Jelle; Ecay, Mirian; Clerigue, Montserrat; Estanga, Ainara; Garcia Sebastian, Maite; Izagirre, Andrea; Villanua, Jorge; Martinez Lage, Pablo; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Scheltens, Philip; Sanz Arigita, Ernesto; Barkhof, Frederik

    2016-01-01

    Gray matter networks are disrupted in Alzheimer's disease (AD). It is unclear when these disruptions start during the development of AD. Amyloid beta 1-42 (Aβ42) is among the earliest changes in AD. We studied, in cognitively healthy adults, the relationship between Aβ42 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and single-subject cortical gray matter network measures. Single-subject gray matter networks were extracted from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in a sample of cognitively healthy adults (N = 185; age range 39-79, mini-mental state examination >25, N = 12 showed abnormal Aβ42 level and for 90 anatomical areas. Associations between continuous Aβ42 CSF levels and single-subject cortical gray matter network measures were tested. Smoothing splines were used to determine whether a linear or nonlinear relationship gave a better fit to the data. Lower Aβ42 CSF levels were linearly associated at whole brain level with lower connectivity density, and nonlinearly with lower clustering values and higher path length values, which is indicative of a less-efficient network organization. These relationships were specific to medial temporal areas, precuneus, and the middle frontal gyrus (all p levels can be related to gray matter networks disruptions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Different regional gray matter loss in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunchun Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Gray matter loss in the limbic structures was found in recent onset post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD patients. In the present study, we measured regional gray matter volume in trauma survivors to verify the hypothesis that stress may cause different regional gray matter loss in trauma survivors with and without recent onset PTSD. METHOD: High resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI were obtained from coal mine flood disaster survivors with (n = 10 and without (n = 10 recent onset PTSD and 20 no trauma exposed normal controls. The voxel-based morphometry (VBM method was used to measure the regional gray matter volume in three groups, the correlations of PTSD symptom severities with the gray matter volume in trauma survivors were also analyzed by multiple regression. RESULTS: Compared with normal controls, recent onset PTSD patients had smaller gray matter volume in left dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, and non PTSD subjects had smaller gray matter volume in the right pulvinar and left pallidum. The gray matter volume of the trauma survivors correlated negatively with CAPS scores in the right frontal lobe, left anterior and middle cingulate cortex, bilateral cuneus cortex, right middle occipital lobe, while in the recent onset PTSD, the gray matter volume correlated negatively with CAPS scores in bilateral superior medial frontal lobe and right ACC. CONCLUSION: The present study identified gray matter loss in different regions in recent onset PTSD and non PTSD after a single prolonged trauma exposure. The gray matter volume of left dorsal ACC associated with the development of PTSD, while the gray matter volume of right pulvinar and left pallidum associated with the response to the severe stress. The atrophy of the frontal and limbic cortices predicts the symptom severities of the PTSD.

  14. Fuzzy Matching Based on Gray-scale Difference for Quantum Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, GaoFeng; Zhou, Ri-Gui; Liu, XingAo; Hu, WenWen; Luo, Jia

    2018-05-01

    Quantum image processing has recently emerged as an essential problem in practical tasks, e.g. real-time image matching. Previous studies have shown that the superposition and entanglement of quantum can greatly improve the efficiency of complex image processing. In this paper, a fuzzy quantum image matching scheme based on gray-scale difference is proposed to find out the target region in a reference image, which is very similar to the template image. Firstly, we employ the proposed enhanced quantum representation (NEQR) to store digital images. Then some certain quantum operations are used to evaluate the gray-scale difference between two quantum images by thresholding. If all of the obtained gray-scale differences are not greater than the threshold value, it indicates a successful fuzzy matching of quantum images. Theoretical analysis and experiments show that the proposed scheme performs fuzzy matching at a low cost and also enables exponentially significant speedup via quantum parallel computation.

  15. Currency recognition using a smartphone: Comparison between color SIFT and gray scale SIFT algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iyad Abu Doush

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Banknote recognition means classifying the currency (coin and paper to the correct class. In this paper, we developed a dataset for Jordanian currency. After that we applied automatic mobile recognition system using a smartphone on the dataset using scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT algorithm. This is the first attempt, to the best of the authors knowledge, to recognize both coins and paper banknotes on a smartphone using SIFT algorithm. SIFT has been developed to be the most robust and efficient local invariant feature descriptor. Color provides significant information and important values in the object description process and matching tasks. Many objects cannot be classified correctly without their color features. We compared between two approaches colored local invariant feature descriptor (color SIFT approach and gray image local invariant feature descriptor (gray SIFT approach. The evaluation results show that the color SIFT approach outperforms the gray SIFT approach in terms of processing time and accuracy.

  16. Normal frontal lobe gray matter-white matter CT volume ratio in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.R.; Engelhart, J.; Hasso, A.N.; Hinshaw, D.B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    We attempted to establish a computed tomographic value representing the normal volume ratio of gray matter to white matter (G/W) in children in order to have a baseline for studying various developmental disorders such as white matter hypoplasia. The records of 150 children 16 years of age or younger who had normal cranial computed tomography were reviewed. From these a group of 119 were excluded for various reasons. The remaining 3 were presumed to have normal brains. Using the region of interest function for tracing gray and white matter boundaries, superior and ventral to the foramen of Munro area, measurements were determined for consecutive adjacent frontal slices. Volumes were then calculated for both gray and white matter. A volume ratio of 2.010 (sigma=0.349), G/W, was then derived from each of 31 children. The clinical value of this ratio will be determined by future investigation. (orig.)

  17. Probabilities for profitable fungicide use against gray leaf spot in hybrid maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munkvold, G P; Martinson, C A; Shriver, J M; Dixon, P M

    2001-05-01

    ABSTRACT Gray leaf spot, caused by the fungus Cercospora zeae-maydis, causes considerable yield losses in hybrid maize grown in the north-central United States and elsewhere. Nonchemical management tactics have not adequately prevented these losses. The probability of profitably using fungicide application as a management tool for gray leaf spot was evaluated in 10 field experiments under conditions of natural inoculum in Iowa. Gray leaf spot severity in untreated control plots ranged from 2.6 to 72.8% for the ear leaf and from 3.0 to 7.7 (1 to 9 scale) for whole-plot ratings. In each experiment, fungicide applications with propiconazole or mancozeb significantly reduced gray leaf spot severity. Fungicide treatment significantly (P gray leaf spot severity and yield. We used a Bayesian inference method to calculate for each experiment the probability of achieving a positive net return with one or two propiconazole applications, based on the mean yields and standard deviations for treated and untreated plots, the price of grain, and the costs of the fungicide applications. For one application, the probability ranged from approximately 0.06 to more than 0.99, and exceeded 0.50 in six of nine scenarios (specific experiment/hybrid). The highest probabilities occurred in the 1995 experiments with the most susceptible hybrid. Probabilities were almost always higher for a single application of propiconazole than for two applications. These results indicate that a single application of propiconazole frequently can be profitable for gray leaf spot management in Iowa, but the probability of a profitable application is strongly influenced by hybrid susceptibility. The calculation of probabilities for positive net returns was more informative than mean separation in terms of assessing the economic success of the fungicide applications.

  18. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjorie Dole

    Full Text Available In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution

  19. Deep gray matter demyelination detected by magnetization transfer ratio in the cuprizone model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sveinung Fjær

    Full Text Available In multiple sclerosis (MS, the correlation between lesion load on conventional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI and clinical disability is weak. This clinico-radiological paradox might partly be due to the low sensitivity of conventional MRI to detect gray matter demyelination. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR has previously been shown to detect white matter demyelination in mice. In this study, we investigated whether MTR can detect gray matter demyelination in cuprizone exposed mice. A total of 54 female C57BL/6 mice were split into one control group ( and eight cuprizone exposed groups ([Formula: see text]. The mice were exposed to [Formula: see text] (w/w cuprizone for up to six weeks. MTR images were obtained at a 7 Tesla Bruker MR-scanner before cuprizone exposure, weekly for six weeks during cuprizone exposure, and once two weeks after termination of cuprizone exposure. Immunohistochemistry staining for myelin (anti-Proteolopid Protein and oligodendrocytes (anti-Neurite Outgrowth Inhibitor Protein A was obtained after each weekly scanning. Rates of MTR change and correlations between MTR values and histological findings were calculated in five brain regions. In the corpus callosum and the deep gray matter a significant rate of MTR value decrease was found, [Formula: see text] per week ([Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] per week ([Formula: see text] respectively. The MTR values correlated to myelin loss as evaluated by immunohistochemistry (Corpus callosum: [Formula: see text]. Deep gray matter: [Formula: see text], but did not correlate to oligodendrocyte density. Significant results were not found in the cerebellum, the olfactory bulb or the cerebral cortex. This study shows that MTR can be used to detect demyelination in the deep gray matter, which is of particular interest for imaging of patients with MS, as deep gray matter demyelination is common in MS, and is not easily detected on conventional clinical MRI.

  20. Gray Matter Hypertrophy and Thickening with Obstructive Sleep Apnea in Middle-aged and Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baril, Andrée-Ann; Gagnon, Katia; Brayet, Pauline; Montplaisir, Jacques; De Beaumont, Louis; Carrier, Julie; Lafond, Chantal; L'Heureux, Francis; Gagnon, Jean-François; Gosselin, Nadia

    2017-06-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea causes intermittent hypoxemia, hemodynamic fluctuations, and sleep fragmentation, all of which could damage cerebral gray matter that can be indirectly assessed by neuroimaging. To investigate whether markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity are associated with gray matter changes among middle-aged and older individuals. Seventy-one subjects (ages, 55-76 yr; apnea-hypopnea index, 0.2-96.6 events/h) were evaluated by magnetic resonance imaging. Two techniques were used: (1) voxel-based morphometry, which measures gray matter volume and concentration; and (2) FreeSurfer (an open source software suite) automated segmentation, which estimates the volume of predefined cortical/subcortical regions and cortical thickness. Regression analyses were performed between gray matter characteristics and markers of obstructive sleep apnea severity (hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation). Subjects had few symptoms, that is, sleepiness, depression, anxiety, and cognitive deficits. Although no association was found with voxel-based morphometry, FreeSurfer revealed increased gray matter with obstructive sleep apnea. Higher levels of hypoxemia correlated with increased volume and thickness of the left lateral prefrontal cortex as well as increased thickness of the right frontal pole, the right lateral parietal lobules, and the left posterior cingulate cortex. Respiratory disturbances positively correlated with right amygdala volume, and more severe sleep fragmentation was associated with increased thickness of the right inferior frontal gyrus. Gray matter hypertrophy and thickening were associated with hypoxemia, respiratory disturbances, and sleep fragmentation. These structural changes in a group of middle-aged and older individuals may represent adaptive/reactive brain mechanisms attributed to a presymptomatic stage of obstructive sleep apnea.

  1. Insular and Hippocampal Gray Matter Volume Reductions in Patients with Major Depressive Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, Harald; Krug, Axel; Schöning, Sonja; Ohrmann, Patricia; Uhlmann, Christina; Postert, Christian; Suslow, Thomas; Heindel, Walter; Arolt, Volker; Kircher, Tilo; Dannlowski, Udo

    2014-01-01

    Background Major depressive disorder is a serious psychiatric illness with a highly variable and heterogeneous clinical course. Due to the lack of consistent data from previous studies, the study of morphometric changes in major depressive disorder is still a major point of research requiring additional studies. The aim of the study presented here was to characterize and quantify regional gray matter abnormalities in a large sample of clinically well-characterized patients with major depressive disorder. Methods For this study one-hundred thirty two patients with major depressive disorder and 132 age- and gender-matched healthy control participants were included, 35 with their first episode and 97 with recurrent depression. To analyse gray matter abnormalities, voxel-based morphometry (VBM8) was employed on T1 weighted MRI data. We performed whole-brain analyses as well as a region-of-interest approach on the hippocampal formation, anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala, correlating the number of depressive episodes. Results Compared to healthy control persons, patients showed a strong gray-matter reduction in the right anterior insula. In addition, region-of-interest analyses revealed significant gray-matter reductions in the hippocampal formation. The observed alterations were more severe in patients with recurrent depressive episodes than in patients with a first episode. The number of depressive episodes was negatively correlated with gray-matter volume in the right hippocampus and right amygdala. Conclusions The anterior insula gray matter structure appears to be strongly affected in major depressive disorder and might play an important role in the neurobiology of depression. The hippocampal and amygdala volume loss cumulating with the number of episodes might be explained either by repeated neurotoxic stress or alternatively by higher relapse rates in patients showing hippocampal atrophy. PMID:25051163

  2. Microstructural abnormalities in white and gray matter in obese adolescents with and without type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arie Nouwen

    Full Text Available Aims/hypotheses: In adults, type 2 diabetes and obesity have been associated with structural brain changes, even in the absence of dementia. Some evidence suggested similar changes in adolescents with type 2 diabetes but comparisons with a non-obese control group have been lacking. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in microstructure of gray and white matter between adolescents with type 2 diabetes, obese adolescents and healthy weight adolescents. Methods: Magnetic resonance imaging data were collected from 15 adolescents with type 2 diabetes, 21 obese adolescents and 22 healthy weight controls. Volumetric differences in the gray matter between the three groups were examined using voxel based morphology, while tract based spatial statistics was used to examine differences in the microstructure of the white matter. Results: Adolescents with type 2 diabetes and obese adolescents had reduced gray matter volume in the right hippocampus, left putamen and caudate, bilateral amygdala and left thalamus compared to healthy weight controls. Type 2 diabetes was also associated with significant regional changes in fractional anisotropy within the corpus callosum, fornix, left inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, left uncinate, left internal and external capsule. Fractional anisotropy reductions within these tracts were explained by increased radial diffusivity, which may suggest demyelination of white matter tracts. Mean diffusivity and axial diffusivity did not differ between the groups. Conclusion/interpretation: Our data shows that adolescent obesity alone results in reduced gray matter volume and that adolescent type 2 diabetes is associated with both white and gray matter abnormalities. Keywords: Type 2 diabetes, Obesity, White matter, Gray matter, Demyelination

  3. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuyuki Taki

    Full Text Available Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  4. Breakfast staple types affect brain gray matter volume and cognitive function in healthy children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Sassa, Yuko; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2010-12-08

    Childhood diet is important for brain development. Furthermore, the quality of breakfast is thought to affect the cognitive functioning of well-nourished children. To analyze the relationship among breakfast staple type, gray matter volume, and intelligence quotient (IQ) in 290 healthy children, we used magnetic resonance images and applied voxel-based morphometry. We divided subjects into rice, bread, and both groups according to their breakfast staple. We showed that the rice group had a significantly larger gray matter ratio (gray matter volume percentage divided by intracranial volume) and significantly larger regional gray matter volumes of several regions, including the left superior temporal gyrus. The bread group had significantly larger regional gray and white matter volumes of several regions, including the right frontoparietal region. The perceptual organization index (POI; IQ subcomponent) of the rice group was significantly higher than that of the bread group. All analyses were adjusted for age, gender, intracranial volume, socioeconomic status, average weekly frequency of having breakfast, and number of side dishes eaten for breakfast. Although several factors may have affected the results, one possible mechanism underlying the difference between the bread and the rice groups may be the difference in the glycemic index (GI) of these two substances; foods with a low GI are associated with less blood-glucose fluctuation than are those with a high GI. Our study suggests that breakfast staple type affects brain gray and white matter volumes and cognitive function in healthy children; therefore, a diet of optimal nutrition is important for brain maturation during childhood and adolescence.

  5. Gray and white matter distribution in dyslexia: a VBM study of superior temporal gyrus asymmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dole, Marjorie; Meunier, Fanny; Hoen, Michel

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated brain morphological signatures of dyslexia by using a voxel-based asymmetry analysis. Dyslexia is a developmental disorder that affects the acquisition of reading and spelling abilities and is associated with a phonological deficit. Speech perception disabilities have been associated with this deficit, particularly when listening conditions are challenging, such as in noisy environments. These deficits are associated with known neurophysiological correlates, such as a reduction in the functional activation or a modification of functional asymmetry in the cortical regions involved in speech processing, such as the bilateral superior temporal areas. These functional deficits have been associated with macroscopic morphological abnormalities, which potentially include a reduction in gray and white matter volumes, combined with modifications of the leftward asymmetry along the perisylvian areas. The purpose of this study was to investigate gray/white matter distribution asymmetries in dyslexic adults using automated image processing derived from the voxel-based morphometry technique. Correlations with speech-in-noise perception abilities were also investigated. The results confirmed the presence of gray matter distribution abnormalities in the superior temporal gyrus (STG) and the superior temporal Sulcus (STS) in individuals with dyslexia. Specifically, the gray matter of adults with dyslexia was symmetrically distributed over one particular region of the STS, the temporal voice area, whereas normal readers showed a clear rightward gray matter asymmetry in this area. We also identified a region in the left posterior STG in which the white matter distribution asymmetry was correlated to speech-in-noise comprehension abilities in dyslexic adults. These results provide further information concerning the morphological alterations observed in dyslexia, revealing the presence of both gray and white matter distribution anomalies and the

  6. Foods Inducing Typical Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Choe, Jung Wan; Joo, Moon Kyung; Kim, Hyo Jung; Lee, Beom Jae; Kim, Ji Hoon; Yeon, Jong Eun; Park, Jong-Jae; Kim, Jae Seon; Byun, Kwan Soo; Bak, Young-Tae

    2017-01-01

    Background/Aims Several specific foods are known to precipitate gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) symptoms and GERD patients are usually advised to avoid such foods. However, foods consumed daily are quite variable according to regions, cultures, etc. This study was done to elucidate the food items which induce typical GERD symptoms in Korean patients. Methods One hundred and twenty-six Korean patients with weekly typical GERD symptoms were asked to mark all food items that induced typic...

  7. Refined weighted sum of gray gases model for air-fuel combustion and its impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yin, Chungen

    2013-01-01

    Radiation is the principal mode of heat transfer in utility boiler furnaces. Models for radiative properties play a vital role in reliable simulations of utility boilers and simulation-based design and optimization. The weighted sum of gray gases model (WSGGM) is one of the most widely used models...... in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation of air-fuel combustion processes. It represents a reasonable compromise between an oversimplified gray gas model and a comprehensive approach addressing high-resolution dependency of radiative properties and intensity upon wavelength. The WSGGM coefficients...

  8. Improving the Calibration of Image Sensors Based on IOFBs, Using Differential Gray-Code Space Encoding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Luna Vázquez

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a fast calibration method to determine the transfer function for spatial correspondences in image transmission devices with Incoherent Optical Fiber Bundles (IOFBs, by performing a scan of the input, using differential patterns generated from a Gray code (Differential Gray-Code Space Encoding, DGSE. The results demonstrate that this technique provides a noticeable reduction in processing time and better quality of the reconstructed image compared to other, previously employed techniques, such as point or fringe scanning, or even other known space encoding techniques.

  9. An allometric scaling law between gray matter and white matter of cerebral cortex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He Jihuan

    2006-01-01

    An allometric scaling relationship between cortical white and gray volumes is derived from a general model that describes brain's remarkable efficiency and prodigious communications between brain areas. The model assumes that (1) a cell's metabolic rate depends upon cell's surface; (2) the overall basal metabolic rates of brain areas depend upon their fractal structures; (3) differential brain areas have same basal metabolic rate at slow wave sleep. The obtained allometric exponent scaling white matter to gray matter is 1.2, which is very much close to Zhang and Sejnowski's observation data

  10. Gray Matter Heterotopia, Mental Retardation, Developmental Delay, Microcephaly, and Facial Dysmorphisms in a Boy with Ring Chromosome 6: A 10-Year Follow-Up and Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shu; Wang, Zhiqing; Wei, Sisi; Liang, Jinqun; Chen, Nuan; OuYang, Haimei; Zeng, Weihong; Chen, Liying; Xie, Xunjie; Jiang, Jianhui

    2018-04-14

    Ring chromosome 6, r(6), is an extremely rare cytogenetic abnormality with clinical heterogeneity which arises typically de novo. The phenotypes of r(6) can be highly variable, ranging from almost normal to severe malformations and neurological defects. Up to now, only 33 cases have been reported in the literature. In this 10-year follow-up study, we report a case presenting distinctive facial features, severe developmental delay, and gray matter heterotopia with r(6) and terminal deletions of 6p25.3 (115426-384174, 268 kb) and 6q26-27 (168697778-170732033, 2.03 Mb) encompassing 2 and 15 candidate genes, respectively, which were detected using G-banding karyotyping, FISH, and chromosomal microarray analysis. We also analyzed the available information on the clinical features of the reported r(6) cases in order to provide more valuable information on genotype-phenotype correlations. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of gray matter heterotopia manifested in a patient with r(6) in China, and the deletions of 6p and 6q in our case are the smallest with the precise size of euchromatic material loss currently known. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Concept typicality responses in the semantic memory network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santi, Andrea; Raposo, Ana; Frade, Sofia; Marques, J Frederico

    2016-12-01

    For decades concept typicality has been recognized as critical to structuring conceptual knowledge, but only recently has typicality been applied in better understanding the processes engaged by the neurological network underlying semantic memory. This previous work has focused on one region within the network - the Anterior Temporal Lobe (ATL). The ATL responds negatively to concept typicality (i.e., the more atypical the item, the greater the activation in the ATL). To better understand the role of typicality in the entire network, we ran an fMRI study using a category verification task in which concept typicality was manipulated parametrically. We argue that typicality is relevant to both amodal feature integration centers as well as category-specific regions. Both the Inferior Frontal Gyrus (IFG) and ATL demonstrated a negative correlation with typicality, whereas inferior parietal regions showed positive effects. We interpret this in light of functional theories of these regions. Interactions between category and typicality were not observed in regions classically recognized as category-specific, thus, providing an argument against category specific regions, at least with fMRI. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 12 CFR 408.6 - Typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical classes of action. 408.6 Section 408.6 Banks and Banking EXPORT-IMPORT BANK OF THE UNITED STATES PROCEDURES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT Eximbank Implementing Procedures § 408.6 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3...

  13. 76 FR 61781 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming From the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-05

    ... gray wolf reintroductions in central Idaho and in Yellowstone National Park (YNP). The Yellowstone... Wolves to Yellowstone National Park and Central Idaho (EIS) reviewed wolf recovery in the NRM region and... Service 50 CFR Part 17 Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Removal of the Gray Wolf in Wyoming...

  14. 76 FR 54206 - Gray Portland Cement and Clinker From Japan: Final Results of the Expedited Third Sunset Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-588-815] Gray Portland Cement and... portland cement and clinker from Japan. As a result of this third sunset review, the Department finds that... initiation of the third sunset review of the antidumping duty order on gray portland cement and clinker from...

  15. 76 FR 50252 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-461 (Third Review)] Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan; Scheduling of an Expedited Five-Year Review Concerning the Antidumping Duty Order on Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan AGENCY: United States International...

  16. 77 FR 32913 - Accountability Measures for the Recreational Sector of Gray Triggerfish in the Gulf of Mexico for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 50 CFR Part 622 [Docket No. 120417412-2412-01] RIN 0648-XCO36 Accountability Measures for the Recreational Sector of Gray Triggerfish in...: NMFS implements accountability measures (AMs) for the recreational sector of gray triggerfish in the...

  17. Gray model prediction of the sea wall profile survey in the first process of Qinshan Nuclear Power Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zang Deyan

    1998-01-01

    Based on gray system theory, the information about deformation observation of the first stage Qinshan nuclear power plant is analysed and predicted as well. The gray system theory is applied to engineering prediction and a large-scale building deformation observation. It is convenient to apply the model and it a has high degree of accuracy

  18. Monitoring and impact mitigation during a 4D seismic survey near a population of gray whales off Sakhalin Island, Russia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröker, Koen Cornelis Arthur; Gailey, Glenn; Muir, Judy; Racca, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    A 4D seismic survey was conducted in 2010 near the feeding grounds of gray whales off Sakhalin Island, Russia. To minimize disruptions to the whales’ feeding activity and enhance understanding of the potential impacts of seismic surveys on gray whales Eschrichtius robustus, an extensive monitoring

  19. 75 FR 70903 - Eastern North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ... North Pacific Gray Whale; Notice of Extension of Public Comment Period on Marine Mammal Protection Act... whales (Eschrichtius robustus) as a depleted stock under the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA) and... report for Eastern North Pacific gray whales is available on the Internet at the following address: http...

  20. Association of regional gray matter volumes in the brain with disruptive behavior disorders in male and female children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalina J. Michalska

    2015-01-01

    The present findings did not replicate previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in the anterior insula, amygdala, and frontal cortex in youth with CD, but are consistent with previous findings of reduced gray matter volumes in temporal regions, particularly in girls.

  1. Killing and caching of an adult White-tailed deer, Odocoileus virginianus, by a single Gray Wolf, Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Michael E.

    2011-01-01

    A single Gray Wolf (Canis lupus) killed an adult male White-tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and cached the intact carcass in 76 cm of snow. The carcass was revisited and entirely consumed between four and seven days later. This is the first recorded observation of a Gray Wolf caching an entire adult deer.

  2. Consequential environmental and economic life cycle assessment of green and gray stormwater infrastructures for combined sewer systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ranran; Eckelman, Matthew J; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2013-10-01

    A consequential life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted to evaluate the trade-offs between water quality improvements and the incremental climate, resource, and economic costs of implementing green (bioretention basin, green roof, and permeable pavement) versus gray (municipal separate stormwater sewer systems, MS4) alternatives of stormwater infrastructure expansions against a baseline combined sewer system with combined sewer overflows in a typical Northeast US watershed for typical, dry, and wet years. Results show that bioretention basins can achieve water quality improvement goals (e.g., mitigating freshwater eutrophication) for the least climate and economic costs of 61 kg CO2 eq. and $98 per kg P eq. reduction, respectively. MS4 demonstrates the minimum life cycle fossil energy use of 42 kg oil eq. per kg P eq. reduction. When integrated with the expansion in stormwater infrastructure, implementation of advanced wastewater treatment processes can further reduce the impact of stormwater runoff on aquatic environment at a minimal environmental cost (77 kg CO2 eq. per kg P eq. reduction), which provides support and valuable insights for the further development of integrated management of stormwater and wastewater. The consideration of critical model parameters (i.e., precipitation intensity, land imperviousness, and infrastructure life expectancy) highlighted the importance and implications of varying local conditions and infrastructure characteristics on the costs and benefits of stormwater management. Of particular note is that the impact of MS4 on the local aquatic environment is highly dependent on local runoff quality indicating that a combined system of green infrastructure prior to MS4 potentially provides a more cost-effective improvement to local water quality.

  3. Climate impacts on transocean dispersal and habitat in gray whales from the Pleistocene to 2100

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Meyer, Matthias; Post, Klaas; Czechowski, Paul; Gravlund, Peter; Gaines, Cork; Rosenbaum, Howard C; Kaschner, Kristin; Turvey, Samuel T; van der Plicht, Johannes; Shapiro, Beth; Hofreiter, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Arctic animals face dramatic habitat alteration due to ongoing climate change. Understanding how such species have responded to past glacial cycles can help us forecast their response to today's changing climate. Gray whales are among those marine species likely to be strongly affected by Arctic

  4. Association Between Use of Tobacco and Age on Graying of Hair

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hair graying (canities) is a natural age‑associated feature. The rate at which an .... in different groups was made by using the Unpaired 't' test, using the statistics .... in smokers was 1.99 times higher than that in non‑smokers. (P = 0.008).

  5. Exome sequencing identifies NBEAL2 as the causative gene for gray platelet syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albers, Cornelis A.; Cvejic, Ana; Favier, Rémi; Bouwmans, Evelien E.; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Bertone, Paul; Jordan, Gregory; Kettleborough, Ross N. W.; Kiddle, Graham; Kostadima, Myrto; Read, Randy J.; Sipos, Botond; Sivapalaratnam, Suthesh; Smethurst, Peter A.; Stephens, Jonathan; Voss, Katrin; Nurden, Alan; Rendon, Augusto; Nurden, Paquita; Ouwehand, Willem H.

    2011-01-01

    Gray platelet syndrome (GPS) is a predominantly recessive platelet disorder that is characterized by mild thrombocytopenia with large platelets and a paucity of α-granules; these abnormalities cause mostly moderate but in rare cases severe bleeding. We sequenced the exomes of four unrelated

  6. Flammulated, boreal, and great gray owls in the United States: A technical conservation assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    G. D. Hayward; J. Verner

    1994-01-01

    Flammulated (Otus flammeolus), boreal (Aegolius funereus), and great gray (Strix nebulosa) owls occur over a broad portion of North America and each is designated as a "sensitive species" in four or more USDA Forest Service regions. The insectivorous flammulated owl is a neotropical migrant requiring...

  7. ELECTROPHYSIOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF MIDBRAIN PERIAQUEDUCTAL GRAY INFLUENCE ON CARDIOVASCULAR NEURONS IN THE VENTROLATERAL MEDULLA-OBLONGATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDERPLAS, J; MAES, FW; BOHUS, B

    1995-01-01

    Stimulation of sites in the rostral or caudoventral periaqueductal gray (PAG) results in substantial increases in mean blood pressure (MBP) and heart rate (HR). The efferent pathways from these PAG subregions possibly include a relay in the ventrolateral medulla oblongata (VLM), where neurons

  8. Gray matter in the brain : Differences associated with tinnitus and hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boyen, Kris; Langers, Dave R. M.; de Kleine, Emile; van Dijk, Pim

    Tinnitus, usually associated with hearing loss, is characterized by the perception of sound without an external sound source. The pathophysiology of tinnitus is poorly understood. In the present study, voxel-based morphometiy (VBM) was employed to identify gray matter differences related to hearing

  9. Navigation Conditions at Gray's Landing Locks and Dam, Monongahela River; Hydraulic Model Investigation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Wooley, Ronald

    1998-01-01

    .... The river drains an area of 7,386 square miles and drops a total of 147 ft in its 128.7-mile length. Gray's Landing Lock and Dam is a proposed replacement structure for existing Lock and Dam 7 on the Monongahela River...

  10. Sarcoptic Mange in a South American Gray Fox (Chilla Fox; Lycalopex griseus ), Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdugo, Claudio; Espinoza, Angelo; Moroni, Manuel; Valderrama, Rocio; Hernandez, Carlos

    2016-07-01

    Mange, a prevalent disease of dogs in Chile, is also a serious threat to wildlife. We report a case of sarcoptic mange in a South American gray fox or chilla fox ( Lycalopex griseus ). Further research is needed to understand the impact of mange in wildlife populations.

  11. Semi-automated uranium analysis by a modified Davies--Gray procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, G.C.

    1977-01-01

    To rapidly and reliably determine uranium in fuel materials a semi-automated implementation of the Davies-Gray uranium titration was developed. The Davies-Gray method is essentially a three step procedure. First uranium is reduced quantitatively from +6 valence to +4 valence by excess of iron (II) in strong phosphoric acid in the absence of nitrite. Prior to the uranium reduction nitrite is destroyed by addition of sulfamic acid. In the second step iron (II) is selectively oxidized to iron (III) by nitric acid in the presence of Mo (VI) catalyst. Finally after dilution to reduce phosphate concentration, the uranium is titrated to U (VI) by standard dichromate. The original sluggish colorimetric endpoint determination used by Davies and Gray is seldom used since New Brunswick Laboratory discovered that addition of vanadium (IV) just prior to titration sufficiently improves reaction rate to allow a potentiometric endpoint determination. One of the advantages of the Davies-Gray uranium titration is that it is quite specific for uranium, most common impurity elements do not interfere with the analysis, and specifically high levels of Pu, Th, and Fe are tolerated

  12. Random attractors for stochastic lattice reversible Gray-Scott systems with additive noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Li

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we prove the existence of a random attractor of the stochastic three-component reversible Gray-Scott system on infinite lattice with additive noise. We use a transformation of addition involved with Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, for proving the pullback absorbing property and the pullback asymptotic compactness of the reaction diffusion system with cubic nonlinearity.

  13. A model-based approach to preplanting risk assessment for gray leaf spot of maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, P A; Munkvold, G P

    2004-12-01

    ABSTRACT Risk assessment models for gray leaf spot of maize, caused by Cercospora zeae-maydis, were developed using preplanting site and maize genotype data as predictors. Disease severity at the dough/dent plant growth stage was categorized into classes and used as the response variable. Logistic regression and classification and regression tree (CART) modeling approaches were used to predict severity classes as a function of planting date (PD), amount of maize soil surface residue (SR), cropping sequence, genotype maturity and gray leaf spot resistance (GLSR) ratings, and longitude (LON). Models were development using 332 cases collected between 1998 and 2001. Thirty cases collected in 2002 were used to validate the models. Preplanting data showed a strong relationship with late-season gray leaf spot severity classes. The most important predictors were SR, PD, GLSR, and LON. Logistic regression models correctly classified 60 to 70% of the validation cases, whereas the CART models correctly classified 57 to 77% of these cases. Cases misclassified by the CART models were mostly due to overestimation, whereas the logistic regression models tended to misclassify cases by underestimation. Both the CART and logistic regression models have potential as management decision-making tools. Early quantitative assessment of gray leaf spot risk would allow for more sound management decisions being made when warranted.

  14. Neuropeptides predicted from the transcriptome analysis of the gray garden slug Deroceras reticulatum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray garden slug, Deroceras reticulatum (Gastropoda: Pulmonata), is one of the most common terrestrial molluscs. Studies on D. reticulatum have mainly focused on ecology and biology due to severe damages on a wide range of vegetables and field crops. However, little is known about hormonal signa...

  15. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging of gray and white matter development during normal human brain maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Pratik; Miller, Jeffrey H; Shimony, Joshua S; Philip, Joseph V; Nehra, Deepika; Snyder, Abraham Z; Conturo, Thomas E; Neil, Jeffrey J; McKinstry, Robert C

    2002-10-01

    Conventional MR imaging findings of human brain development are thought to result from decreasing water content, increasing macromolecular concentration, and myelination. We use diffusion-tensor MR imaging to test theoretical models that incorporate hypotheses regarding how these maturational processes influence water diffusion in developing gray and white matter. Experimental data were derived from diffusion-tensor imaging of 167 participants, ages 31 gestational weeks to 11 postnatal years. An isotropic diffusion model was applied to the gray matter of the basal ganglia and thalamus. A model that assumes changes in the magnitude of diffusion while maintaining cylindrically symmetric anisotropy was applied to the white matter of the corpus callosum and internal capsule. Deviations of the diffusion tensor from the ideal model predictions, due to measurement noise, were estimated by using Monte Carlo simulations. Developing gray matter of the basal ganglia and developing white matter of the internal capsule and corpus callosum largely conformed to theory, with only small departures from model predictions in older children. However, data from the thalamus substantially diverged from predicted values, with progressively larger deviations from the model with increasing participant age. Changes in water diffusion during maturation of central gray and white matter structures can largely be explained by theoretical models incorporating simple assumptions regarding the influence of brain water content and myelination, although deviations from theory increase as the brain matures. Diffusion-tensor MR imaging is a powerful method for studying the process of brain development, with both scientific and clinical applications.

  16. Two oculomotor-related areas of the brainstem project to the dorsolateral periaqueductal gray.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klop, E.M.; Mouton, Leonora J.; Holstege, Gert

    2005-01-01

    The dorsolateral column of the periaqueductal gray (PAGdl) is usually associated with defensive behavior, but how this is brought about is not yet fully understood. In order to elucidate the function of PAGdl, its afferents from the brainstem were investigated in cats. Retrograde tracing results

  17. 76 FR 76760 - Gray Portland Cement and Cement Clinker From Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-08

    ... and Cement Clinker From Japan Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... duty order on gray Portland cement and cement clinker from Japan would be likely to lead to... and Cement Clinker from Japan: Investigation No. 731- TA-461 (Third Review). By order of the...

  18. Numerical modeling of coupled heat transfer and phase transformation for solidification of the gray cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Hosseinzadeh, Azin

    2013-01-01

    In the present study the numerical model in 2D is used to study the solidification bahavior of the gray cast iron. The conventional heat transfer is coupled with the proposed micro-model to predict the amount of different phases, i.e. total austenite (c) phase, graphite (G) and cementite (C...

  19. Association Between Use of Tobacco and Age on Graying of Hair ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aims and Objectives: To determine the association between smoking, chewing tobacco (gutka), and age of individual on graying of hair. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted on 120 patients attending the Outpatient Department of the DJ College of Dental Sciences and Research, Modinagar, UP.

  20. Generation of 2.1 μm wavelength from degenerate high gray track ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 2. Generation of 2.1 m wavelength from degenerate high gray ... Proceedings of the International Workshop/Conference on Computational Condensed Matter Physics and Materials Science (IWCCMP-2015). Posted on November 27, 2015.

  1. Evaluation of Lettuce Germplasm Resistance to Gray Mold Disease for Organic Cultivations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Ki Shim

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate the resistance of 212 accessions of lettuce germplasm to gray mold disease caused by Botrytis cinerea. The lettuce germplasm were composed of five species: Lactuca sativa (193 accessions, L. sativa var. longifolia (2 accessions, L. sativa var. crispa (2 accessions, L. saligna (2 accessions, and L. serriola (1 accession; majority of these originated from Korea, Netherlands, USA, Russia, and Bulgaria. After 35 days of spray inoculation with conidial suspension (3×10⁷ conidia/ml of B. cinerea on the surface of lettuce leaves, tested lettuce germplasm showed severe symptoms of gray mold disease. There were 208 susceptible accessions to B. cinerea counted with 100% of disease incidence and four resistant accessions, IT908801, K000598, K000599, and K021055. Two moderately resistant accessions of L. sativa, K021055 and IT908801, showed 20% of disease incidence of gray mold disease at 45 days after inoculation; and two accessions of L. saligna, K000598 and K000599, which are wild relatives of lettuce germplasm with loose-leaf type, showed complete resistance to B. cinerea. These four accessions are candidates for breeding lettuce cultivars resistant to gray mold disease.

  2. Gray Matter Volume Decrease Distinguishes Schizophrenia From Bipolar Offspring During Childhood and Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugranyes, Gisela; de la Serna, Elena; Romero, Soledad; Sanchez-Gistau, Vanessa; Calvo, Anna; Moreno, Dolores; Baeza, Inmaculada; Diaz-Caneja, Covadonga M; Sanchez-Gutierrez, Teresa; Janssen, Joost; Bargallo, Nuria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2015-08-01

    There is increasing support toward the notion that schizophrenia and bipolar disorder share neurodevelopmental underpinnings, although areas of divergence remain. We set out to examine gray matter volume characteristics of child and adolescent offspring of patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder comparatively. In this 2-center study, magnetic resonance structural neuroimaging data were acquired in 198 children and adolescents (aged 6-17 years): 38 offspring of patients with schizophrenia, 77 offspring of patients with bipolar disorder, and 83 offspring of community controls. Analyses of global brain volumes and voxel-based morphometry (using familywise error correction) were conducted. There was an effect of group on total cerebral gray matter volume (F = 3.26, p = .041), driven by a decrease in offspring of patients with schizophrenia relative to offspring of controls (p = .035). At a voxel-based level, we observed an effect of group in the left inferior frontal cortex/anterior insula (F = 14.7, p bipolar disorder (p bipolar disorder and offspring of controls in either global or voxel-based gray matter volumes. This first comparative study between offspring of patients with schizophrenia and bipolar disorder suggests that gray matter volume reduction in childhood and adolescence may be specific to offspring of patients with schizophrenia; this may index a greater neurodevelopmental impact of risk for schizophrenia relative to bipolar disorder during youth. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Use of Gray code in PBIL algorithm for application in recharge of nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nast, Fernando N.; Silva, Patrick V.; Meneses, Anderson A. M.; Schirru, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    The In-Core Fuel Management Optimization (OGCIN) problem, or design optimization of Load Patterns (PCs) are denominations for the optimization problem associated with the refueling operation in a reactor nuclear. The OCGIN is considered a problem of difficult resolution, considering aspects of combinatorial optimization and calculations of analysis and physics of reactors. In order to validate algorithms for the OGCIN solution, we use benchmark problems such as the Travelling Salesman Problem (TSP), because it is considered, like OGCIN, an NP-difficult problem. In the present work, we implemented the Population-Based Incremental Learning (PBIL) algorithm with binary coding and Gray coding and applied them to the optimization of the symmetric PCV Oliver30 and Rykel48 asymmetric PCV and implemented only the Gray coding in the OGCIN application of the cycle 7 of the Angra-1 Nuclear Plant, where we compared its performance with binary coding in. The results on average were 1311 and 1327 ppm of Boron for the binary and Gray codifications respectively, emphasizing that the binary codification obtained a maximum value of 1330 ppm, while the Gray code obtained a value of 1401 ppm, showing superiority, since the Boron concentration is an indicator of the PC cycle extension

  4. Evidence for a periaqueductal gray-nucleus retroambiguus spinal cord pathway in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.; Kerstens, Lenka; Moes, M.C.; Horst, V.G.J.M. van der

    1997-01-01

    The nucleus retroambiguus in the cat has been shown to receive strong projections from the periaqueductal gray and to send fibres to distinct motoneuronal cell groups in brainstem and spinal cord. The nucleus retroambiguus plays a role in the production of vocalization and possibly copulatory

  5. 76 FR 4893 - FFP Missouri 13, LLC, Grays Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-27

    .... 13772-000] FFP Missouri 13, LLC, Grays Hydro, LLC; Notice Announcing Preliminary Permit Drawing January... Commission, or her designee, will, by random drawing, determine the filing priority for the two applicants identified in this notice. The drawing is open to the public and will be held in room 2C, the Commission...

  6. GRay: A MASSIVELY PARALLEL GPU-BASED CODE FOR RAY TRACING IN RELATIVISTIC SPACETIMES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave., Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)

    2013-11-01

    We introduce GRay, a massively parallel integrator designed to trace the trajectories of billions of photons in a curved spacetime. This graphics-processing-unit (GPU)-based integrator employs the stream processing paradigm, is implemented in CUDA C/C++, and runs on nVidia graphics cards. The peak performance of GRay using single-precision floating-point arithmetic on a single GPU exceeds 300 GFLOP (or 1 ns per photon per time step). For a realistic problem, where the peak performance cannot be reached, GRay is two orders of magnitude faster than existing central-processing-unit-based ray-tracing codes. This performance enhancement allows more effective searches of large parameter spaces when comparing theoretical predictions of images, spectra, and light curves from the vicinities of compact objects to observations. GRay can also perform on-the-fly ray tracing within general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic algorithms that simulate accretion flows around compact objects. Making use of this algorithm, we calculate the properties of the shadows of Kerr black holes and the photon rings that surround them. We also provide accurate fitting formulae of their dependencies on black hole spin and observer inclination, which can be used to interpret upcoming observations of the black holes at the center of the Milky Way, as well as M87, with the Event Horizon Telescope.

  7. Estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive neurons in the periaqueductal gray of the adult ovariectomized female cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VanderHorst, Veronique G.J.M.; Meijer, Ellie; Schasfoort, Fabienne C.; Leeuwen, Fred van; Holstege, Gert

    1998-01-01

    Anatomical and physiological studies in rodent and cat have shown that distinct parts of the midbrain periaqueductal gray (FAG) are important for the estrogen dependent, female reproductive behavior. The present study gives a detailed overview of the estrogen receptor-alpha-immunoreactive (ER-IR)

  8. Large segmental differences in the spinal projections to the periaqueductal gray in the cat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mouton, Leonora J.; VanderHorst, Veronique G.J.M.; Holstege, Gert

    1997-01-01

    The periaqueductal gray (FAG) is involved in motor activities, such as movements of the neck, back and hind limbs, cardiovascular regulation, micturition, vocalization, and mating behavior, as well as in nociception control. To accomplish these functions the FAG uses information from other parts of

  9. Comparative Chromosome Map and Heterochromatin Features of the Gray Whale Karyotype (Cetacea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulemzina, Anastasia I; Proskuryakova, Anastasia A; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Lemskaya, Natalia A; Perelman, Polina L; Graphodatsky, Alexander S

    2016-01-01

    Cetacean karyotypes possess exceptionally stable diploid numbers and highly conserved chromosomes. To date, only toothed whales (Odontoceti) have been analyzed by comparative chromosome painting. Here, we studied the karyotype of a representative of baleen whales, the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus, Mysticeti), by Zoo-FISH with dromedary camel and human chromosome-specific probes. We confirmed a high degree of karyotype conservation and found an identical order of syntenic segments in both branches of cetaceans. Yet, whale chromosomes harbor variable heterochromatic regions constituting up to a third of the genome due to the presence of several types of repeats. To investigate the cause of this variability, several classes of repeated DNA sequences were mapped onto chromosomes of whale species from both Mysticeti and Odontoceti. We uncovered extensive intrapopulation variability in the size of heterochromatic blocks present in homologous chromosomes among 3 individuals of the gray whale by 2-step differential chromosome staining. We show that some of the heteromorphisms observed in the gray whale karyotype are due to distinct amplification of a complex of common cetacean repeat and heavy satellite repeat on homologous autosomes. Furthermore, we demonstrate localization of the telomeric repeat in the heterochromatin of both gray and pilot whale (Globicephala melas, Odontoceti). Heterochromatic blocks in the pilot whale represent a composite of telomeric and common repeats, while heavy satellite repeat is lacking in the toothed whale consistent with previous studies. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Tongue and hyoid musculature and functional morphology of a neonate gray whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtius robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kienle, Sarah S; Ekdale, Eric G; Reidenberg, Joy S; Deméré, Tom A

    2015-04-01

    Little is known about the anatomy and musculature of the gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus), especially related to the anatomy of the tongue and hyoid region. The recovery of an extremely fresh head of a neonatal female gray whale provided an opportunity to conduct the first in-depth investigation of the musculoskeletal features of the tongue and hyoid apparatus. Unlike other mysticetes, the gray whale tongue is strong, muscular, and freely mobile inside the buccal cavity. In particular, the genioglossus and hyoglossus muscles are extremely large and robust making up the majority of the body of the tongue. In addition, the genioglossus had a unique position and fiber orientation in the tongue compared to other mammals. The structure of the hyoid apparatus differs between E. robustus and other mysticete species, although there are similarities among individual elements. We provide the first documentation of fungiform papillae that may be associated with taste buds in Mysticeti. The highly mobile, robust tongue and the presence of well-defined tongue and hyoid musculature are in keeping with observations of gray whale feeding that suggest this group of whales utilize oral suction to draw benthic prey into the buccal cavity. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. De novo assembling and primary analysis of genome and transcriptome of gray whale Eschrichtius robustus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskalev, Alexey А; Kudryavtseva, Anna V; Graphodatsky, Alexander S; Beklemisheva, Violetta R; Serdyukova, Natalya A; Krutovsky, Konstantin V; Sharov, Vadim V; Kulakovskiy, Ivan V; Lando, Andrey S; Kasianov, Artem S; Kuzmin, Dmitry A; Putintseva, Yuliya A; Feranchuk, Sergey I; Shaposhnikov, Mikhail V; Fraifeld, Vadim E; Toren, Dmitri; Snezhkina, Anastasia V; Sitnik, Vasily V

    2017-12-28

    Gray whale, Eschrichtius robustus (E. robustus), is a single member of the family Eschrichtiidae, which is considered to be the most primitive in the class Cetacea. Gray whale is often described as a "living fossil". It is adapted to extreme marine conditions and has a high life expectancy (77 years). The assembly of a gray whale genome and transcriptome will allow to carry out further studies of whale evolution, longevity, and resistance to extreme environment. In this work, we report the first de novo assembly and primary analysis of the E. robustus genome and transcriptome based on kidney and liver samples. The presented draft genome assembly is complete by 55% in terms of a total genome length, but only by 24% in terms of the BUSCO complete gene groups, although 10,895 genes were identified. Transcriptome annotation and comparison with other whale species revealed robust expression of DNA repair and hypoxia-response genes, which is expected for whales. This preliminary study of the gray whale genome and transcriptome provides new data to better understand the whale evolution and the mechanisms of their adaptation to the hypoxic conditions.

  12. Increased gray matter density in the parietal cortex of mathematicians: a voxel-based morphometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aydin, K; Ucar, A; Oguz, K K; Okur, O O; Agayev, A; Unal, Z; Yilmaz, S; Ozturk, C

    2007-01-01

    The training to acquire or practicing to perform a skill, which may lead to structural changes in the brain, is called experience-dependent structural plasticity. The main purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the presence of experience-dependent structural plasticity in mathematicians' brains, which may develop after long-term practice of mathematic thinking. Twenty-six volunteer mathematicians, who have been working as academicians, were enrolled in the study. We applied an optimized method of voxel-based morphometry in the mathematicians and the age- and sex-matched control subjects. We assessed the gray and white matter density differences in mathematicians and the control subjects. Moreover, the correlation between the cortical density and the time spent as an academician was investigated. We found that cortical gray matter density in the left inferior frontal and bilateral inferior parietal lobules of the mathematicians were significantly increased compared with the control subjects. Furthermore, increase in gray matter density in the right inferior parietal lobule of the mathematicians was strongly correlated with the time spent as an academician (r = 0.84; P mathematicians' brains revealed increased gray matter density in the cortical regions related to mathematic thinking. The correlation between cortical density increase and the time spent as an academician suggests experience-dependent structural plasticity in mathematicians' brains.

  13. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) is a natural definitive host for Neospora caninum

    Science.gov (United States)

    The gray wolf (Canis lupus) was found to be a new natural definitive host for Neospora caninum. This finding is based on the recovery of Neospora-like oocysts from the feces of 3 of 73 wolves from Minnesota examined at necropsy, and on successful amplification of N. caninum-specific sequences from ...

  14. 3D measurement using combined Gray code and dual-frequency phase-shifting approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Shuang; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Xiaoyang; Sun, Xiaoming; Wu, Haibin; Liu, Xin

    2018-04-01

    The combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach is a commonly used 3D measurement technique. In this technique, an error that equals integer multiples of the phase-shifted fringe period, i.e. period jump error, often exists in the absolute analog code, which can lead to gross measurement errors. To overcome this problem, the present paper proposes 3D measurement using a combined Gray code and dual-frequency phase-shifting approach. Based on 3D measurement using the combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach, one set of low-frequency phase-shifted fringe patterns with an odd-numbered multiple of the original phase-shifted fringe period is added. Thus, the absolute analog code measured value can be obtained by the combined Gray code and phase-shifting approach, and the low-frequency absolute analog code measured value can also be obtained by adding low-frequency phase-shifted fringe patterns. Then, the corrected absolute analog code measured value can be obtained by correcting the former by the latter, and the period jump errors can be eliminated, resulting in reliable analog code unwrapping. For the proposed approach, we established its measurement model, analyzed its measurement principle, expounded the mechanism of eliminating period jump errors by error analysis, and determined its applicable conditions. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that the proposed approach can effectively eliminate period jump errors, reliably perform analog code unwrapping, and improve the measurement accuracy.

  15. Parallel implementation of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices and Haralick texture features on cell architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shahbahrami, A.; Pham, T.A.; Bertels, K.L.M.

    2011-01-01

    Texture features extraction algorithms are key functions in various image processing applications such as medical images, remote sensing, and content-based image retrieval. The most common way to extract texture features is the use of Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrices (GLCMs). The GLCM contains the

  16. Rhizosphere microbiome metagenomics of gray mangroves (Avicennia marina) in the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Alzubaidy, Hanin S.; Essack, Magbubah; Malas, Tareq Majed Yasin; Bokhari, Ameerah; Motwalli, Olaa Amin; Kamanu, Frederick Kinyua; Jamhor, Suhaiza; Mokhtar, Noor Azlin; Antunes, Andre; Simoes, Marta; Alam, Intikhab; Bougouffa, Salim; Lafi, Feras Fawzi; Bajic, Vladimir B.; Archer, John A.C.

    2015-01-01

    To our knowledge, this is the first metagenomic study on the microbiome of mangroves in the Red Sea, and the first application of unbiased 454-pyrosequencing to study the rhizosphere microbiome associated with A. marina. Our results provide the first insights into the range of functions and microbial diversity in the rhizosphere and soil sediments of gray mangrove (A. marina) in the Red Sea.

  17. Isolation and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii from the gray wolf Canis lupus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known of the genetic diversity of Toxoplasma gondii circulating in wildlife. In the present study feral gray wolf (Canis lupus) from Minnesota were examined for T. gondii infection. Antibodies to T. gondii were detected in 130 (52.4%) of 248 wolves tested by the modified agglutination test...

  18. Isolation of viable neospora caninum from brains of wild gray wolves (canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neospora caninum is a common cause of abortion in cattle worldwide. Canids, including the dog and the dingo (Canis familiaris), the coyote (Canis latrans), and the gray wolf (Canis lupus) are its definitive hosts, but also can act as intermediate hosts by harbor tissue stages of the parasite that ca...

  19. Resensie-artikel: 'n ope brief aan Dorian Gray en 'n peiling van die ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The last part of the article consists of a substantiated evaluation of 'n ope brief aan Dorian Gray. It is concluded that despite evidence of creative talent, there are too many shortcomings due to questionable editorial mentorship and impetuous publishing decisions. Keywords: literary criticism, Afrikaans poetry, book reviewing, ...

  20. Generation of 2.1 m wavelength from degenerate high gray track ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-12

    Feb 12, 2014 ... Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 82; Issue 2. Generation of 2.1 m wavelength from degenerate high gray track resistant potassium titanyl phosphate optical parametric oscillator. S Verma C Mishra V Kumar M Yadav K C Bahuguna N S Vasan S P Gaba. Contributed Papers Volume ...

  1. Numerical modeling and experimental validation of microstructure in gray cast iron

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Davami, Parviz; Varahram, Naser

    2012-01-01

    To predict the amount of different phases in gray cast iron by a finite difference model (FDM) on the basis of cooling rate (R), the volume fractions of total γ phase, graphite, and cementite were calculated. The results of phase composition were evaluated to find a proper correlation with cooling...

  2. A New Subdivision Of The Rat Midbrain Periaqueductal Gray Based On Its Myeloarchitecture.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holstege, G.; Gerrits, P.O.; Croon, D.H.

    1993-01-01

    A new subdivision of the periaqueductal gray (PAG) based on its myelin content is described. Using a methacrylate-resin embedding technique for high resolution light microscopy, a myeloarchitectonic map of the normal rat PAG was made. Six main columns were distinguished. Column I is the central thin

  3. Narrative versus style: Effect of genre-typical events versus genre-typical filmic realizations on film viewers’ genre recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genre-typical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  4. Generation of typical meteorological year for different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yingni

    2010-01-01

    Accurate prediction of building energy performance requires precise information of the local climate. Typical weather year files like typical meteorological year (TMY) are commonly used in building simulation. They are also essential for numerical analysis of sustainable and renewable energy systems. The present paper presents the generation of typical meteorological year (TMY) for eight typical cities representing the major climate zones of China. The data set, which includes global solar radiation data and other meteorological parameters referring to dry bulb temperature, relative humidity, wind speed, has been analyzed. The typical meteorological year is generated from the available meteorological data recorded during the period 1995-2004, using the Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method. The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year is compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years are selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 typical months selected from the different years are used for the formulation of a TMY.

  5. Parental Praise Correlates with Posterior Insular Cortex Gray Matter Volume in Children and Adolescents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izumi Matsudaira

    Full Text Available A positive parenting style affects psychological and cognitive development in children. Neuroimaging studies revealed that a positive parenting style influenced brain structure in children. Parental praise is a concrete behavior observed in positive parenting. Although previous psychological studies revealed a positive effect of parental praise on children, little is known about the relationship between parental praise and brain structure in children. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to determine whether there was a correlation between the parental attitude towards praising their child and gray matter volume in the children (116 boys and 109 girls; mean age, 10.6 years old. We examined the correlation between regional gray matter volume and parental praise using voxel-based morphometry (VBM following magnetic resonance imaging (MRI. In addition, to confirm the positive effects of parental praise, we analyzed the correlation between the frequency of parental praise and personality traits in children. We showed that the parental attitude towards praising their child was significantly and positively correlated with the gray matter volume of the left posterior insular cortex in children. Moreover, we found a significant positive correlation between parental attitude towards praising their child and the personality traits of conscientiousness and openness to experience in the children. Prior studies said that gray matter volume in the posterior insula was correlated with empathy, and the functional connectivity between this area and the amygdala was associated with emotional regulation. Furthermore, the posterior insula relates to auditory function, and therefore, was likely involved in the processing of parental praise. Considering the possibility of experience-dependent plasticity, frequent parental praise would lead to increased posterior insular gray matter volume in children. Our study is the first to elucidate the relationship between

  6. Breastfeeding and Childhood IQ: The Mediating Role of Gray Matter Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L; Belden, Andy C; Whalen, Diana; Harms, Michael P; Barch, Deanna M

    2016-05-01

    A substantial body of literature has established the positive effect of breastfeeding on child developmental outcomes. There is increasing consensus that breastfed children have higher IQs after accounting for key variables, including maternal education, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional investigations of the effects of breastfeeding on structural brain development suggest that breastfed infants have larger whole brain, cortical, and white matter volumes. To date, few studies have related these measures of brain structure to IQ in breastfed versus nonbreastfed children in a longitudinal sample. Data were derived from the Preschool Depression Study (PDS), a prospective longitudinal study in which children and caregivers were assessed annually for 8 waves over 11 years. A subset completed neuroimaging between the ages of 9.5 and 14.11 years. A total of 148 individuals had breastfeeding data at baseline and complete data on all variables of interest, including IQ and structural neuroimaging. General linear models and process mediation models were used. Breastfed children had significantly higher IQ scores and larger whole brain, total gray matter, total cortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter volumes compared with the nonbreastfed group in models that covaried for key variables. Subcortical gray matter volume significantly mediated the association between breastfeeding and children's IQ scores. The study findings suggest that the effects of breastfeeding on child IQ are mediated through subcortical gray volume. This effect and putative mechanism is of public health significance and further supports the importance of breastfeeding in mental health promotion. Copyright © 2016 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Breastfeeding and Childhood IQ: The Mediating Role of Gray Matter Volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luby, Joan L.; Belden, Andy C.; Whalen, Diana; Harms, Michael P.; Barch, Deanna M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective A substantial body of literature has established the positive effect of breastfeeding on child developmental outcomes. There is increasing consensus that breastfed children have higher IQs after accounting for key variables, including maternal education, IQ, and socioeconomic status. Cross-sectional investigations of the effects of breastfeeding on structural brain development suggest that breastfed infants have larger whole brain, cortical, and white matter volumes. To date, few studies have related these measures of brain structure to IQ in breastfed versus nonbreastfed children in a longitudinal sample. Method Data were derived from the Preschool Depression Study (PDS), a prospective longitudinal study in which children and caregivers were assessed annually for 8 waves over 11 years. A subset completed neuroimaging between the ages of 9.5 and 14.11 years. A total of 148 individuals had breastfeeding data at baseline and complete data on all variables of interest, including IQ and structural neuroimaging. General linear models and process mediation models were used. Results Breastfed children had significantly higher IQ scores and larger whole brain, total gray matter, total cortical gray matter, and subcortical gray matter volumes compared with the nonbreastfed group in models that covaried for key variables. Subcortical gray matter volume significantly mediated the association between breast-feeding and children's IQ scores. Conclusion The study findings suggest that the effects of breastfeeding on child IQ are mediated through subcortical gray volume. This effect and putative mechanism is of public health significance and further supports the importance of breastfeeding in mental health promotion. PMID:27126850

  8. Diffuse Decreased Gray Matter in Patients with Idiopathic Craniocervical Dystonia: a Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Callegari Piccinin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Recent studies have addressed the role of structures other than the basal ganglia in the pathophysiology of craniocervical dystonia. Neuroimaging studies have attempted to identify structural abnormalities in craniocervical dystonia but a clear pattern of alteration has not been established. We performed whole brain evaluation using voxel-based morphometry to identify patterns of gray matter changes in craniocervical dystonia.Methods: We compared 27 patients with craniocervical dystonia matched in age and gender to 54 healthy controls. Voxel-based morphometry was used to compare gray matter volumes. We created a two-sample t-test corrected for subjects’ age and we tested with a level of significance of p<0.001 and false discovery rate correction (p<0.05. Results: Voxel-based morphometry demonstrated significant reductions of gray matter using p<0.001 in the cerebellar vermis IV/V, bilaterally in the superior frontal gyrus, precuneus, anterior cingulate and paracingulate, insular cortex, lingual gyrus and calcarine fissure; in the left hemisphere in the supplemementary motor area (SMA, inferior frontal gyrus, inferior parietal gyrus, temporal pole, supramarginal gyrus, rolandic operculum , hippocampus, middle occipital gyrus, cerebellar lobules IV/V, superior and middle temporal gyri; in the right hemisphere, the middle cingulate and precentral gyrus. Our study did not report any significant result using the false discovery rate correction. We also detected correlations between gray matter volume and age, disease duration, duration of botulinum toxin treatment and the Marsden-Fahn dystonia scale scores.Conclusions: We detected large clusters of gray matter changes chiefly in structures primarily involved in sensorimotor integration, motor planning, visuospatial function and emotional processing.

  9. Linking white matter and deep gray matter alterations in premanifest Huntington disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreia V. Faria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Huntington disease (HD is a fatal progressive neurodegenerative disorder for which only symptomatic treatment is available. A better understanding of the pathology, and identification of biomarkers will facilitate the development of disease-modifying treatments. HD is potentially a good model of a neurodegenerative disease for development of biomarkers because it is an autosomal-dominant disease with complete penetrance, caused by a single gene mutation, in which the neurodegenerative process can be assessed many years before onset of signs and symptoms of manifest disease. Previous MRI studies have detected abnormalities in gray and white matter starting in premanifest stages. However, the understanding of how these abnormalities are related, both in time and space, is still incomplete. In this study, we combined deep gray matter shape diffeomorphometry and white matter DTI analysis in order to provide a better mapping of pathology in the deep gray matter and subcortical white matter in premanifest HD. We used 296 MRI scans from the PREDICT-HD database. Atrophy in the deep gray matter, thalamus, hippocampus, and nucleus accumbens was analyzed by surface based morphometry, and while white matter abnormalities were analyzed in (i regions of interest surrounding these structures, using (ii tractography-based analysis, and using (iii whole brain atlas-based analysis. We detected atrophy in the deep gray matter, particularly in putamen, from early premanifest stages. The atrophy was greater both in extent and effect size in cases with longer exposure to the effects of the CAG expansion mutation (as assessed by greater CAP-scores, and preceded detectible abnormalities in the white matter. Near the predicted onset of manifest HD, the MD increase was widespread, with highest indices in the deep and posterior white matter. This type of in-vivo macroscopic mapping of HD brain abnormalities can potentially indicate when and where therapeutics could be

  10. Multimodal MEMPRAGE, FLAIR, and R2* Segmentation to Resolve Dura and Vessels from Cortical Gray Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Viviani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available While widely in use in automated segmentation approaches for the detection of group differences or of changes associated with continuous predictors in gray matter volume, T1-weighted images are known to represent dura and cortical vessels with signal intensities similar to those of gray matter. By considering multiple signal sources at once, multimodal segmentation approaches may be able to resolve these different tissue classes and address this potential confound. We explored here the simultaneous use of FLAIR and apparent transverse relaxation rates (a signal related to T2* relaxation maps and having similar contrast with T1-weighted images. Relative to T1-weighted images alone, multimodal segmentation had marked positive effects on 1. the separation of gray matter from dura, 2. the exclusion of vessels from the gray matter compartment, and 3. the contrast with extracerebral connective tissue. While obtainable together with the T1-weighted images without increasing scanning times, apparent transverse relaxation rates were less effective than added FLAIR images in providing the above mentioned advantages. FLAIR images also improved the detection of cortical matter in areas prone to susceptibility artifacts in standard MPRAGE T1-weighted images, while the addition of transverse relaxation maps exacerbated the effect of these artifacts on segmentation. Our results confirm that standard MPRAGE segmentation may overestimate gray matter volume by wrongly assigning vessels and dura to this compartment and show that multimodal approaches may greatly improve the specificity of cortical segmentation. Since multimodal segmentation is easily implemented, these benefits are immediately available to studies focusing on translational applications of structural imaging.

  11. Normalization of similarity-based individual brain networks from gray matter MRI and its association with neurodevelopment in infants with intrauterine growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalle, Dafnis; Muñoz-Moreno, Emma; Figueras, Francesc; Bargallo, Nuria; Eixarch, Elisenda; Gratacos, Eduard

    2013-12-01

    Obtaining individual biomarkers for the prediction of altered neurological outcome is a challenge of modern medicine and neuroscience. Connectomics based on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) stands as a good candidate to exhaustively extract information from MRI by integrating the information obtained in a few network features that can be used as individual biomarkers of neurological outcome. However, this approach typically requires the use of diffusion and/or functional MRI to extract individual brain networks, which require high acquisition times and present an extreme sensitivity to motion artifacts, critical problems when scanning fetuses and infants. Extraction of individual networks based on morphological similarity from gray matter is a new approach that benefits from the power of graph theory analysis to describe gray matter morphology as a large-scale morphological network from a typical clinical anatomic acquisition such as T1-weighted MRI. In the present paper we propose a methodology to normalize these large-scale morphological networks to a brain network with standardized size based on a parcellation scheme. The proposed methodology was applied to reconstruct individual brain networks of 63 one-year-old infants, 41 infants with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and 22 controls, showing altered network features in the IUGR group, and their association with neurodevelopmental outcome at two years of age by means of ordinal regression analysis of the network features obtained with Bayley Scale for Infant and Toddler Development, third edition. Although it must be more widely assessed, this methodology stands as a good candidate for the development of biomarkers for altered neurodevelopment in the pediatric population. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    South American Youth and Integration : Typical Situations and Youth ... IDRC partner the World Economic Forum is building a hub for inclusive growth ... Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and their perception of rights, democracy and regional.

  13. Portion distortion: typical portion sizes selected by young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Jaime; Byrd-Bredbenner, Carol

    2006-09-01

    The incidence of obesity has increased in parallel with increasing portion sizes of individually packaged and ready-to-eat prepared foods as well as foods served at restaurants. Portion distortion (perceiving large portion sizes as appropriate amounts to eat at a single eating occasion) may contribute to increasing energy intakes and expanding waistlines. The purpose of this study was to determine typical portion sizes that young adults select, how typical portion sizes compare with reference portion sizes (based in this study on the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act's quantities of food customarily eaten per eating occasion), and whether the size of typical portions has changed over time. Young adults (n=177, 75% female, age range 16 to 26 years) at a major northeastern university. Participants served themselves typical portion sizes of eight foods at breakfast (n=63) or six foods at lunch or dinner (n=62, n=52, respectively). Typical portion-size selections were unobtrusively weighed. A unit score was calculated by awarding 1 point for each food with a typical portion size that was within 25% larger or smaller than the reference portion; larger or smaller portions were given 0 points. Thus, each participant's unit score could range from 0 to 8 at breakfast or 0 to 6 at lunch and dinner. Analysis of variance or t tests were used to determine whether typical and reference portion sizes differed, and whether typical portion sizes changed over time. Mean unit scores (+/-standard deviation) were 3.63+/-1.27 and 1.89+/-1.14, for breakfast and lunch/dinner, respectively, indicating little agreement between typical and reference portion sizes. Typical portions sizes in this study tended to be significantly different from those selected by young adults in a similar study conducted 2 decades ago. Portion distortion seems to affect the portion sizes selected by young adults for some foods. This phenomenon has the potential to hinder weight loss, weight maintenance, and

  14. Effects of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arciuli, Joanne; Cupples, Linda

    2003-01-01

    The experiments reported here were designed to investigate the influence of stress typicality during speeded grammatical classification of disyllabic English words by native and non-native speakers. Trochaic nouns and iambic gram verbs were considered to be typically stressed, whereas iambic nouns and trochaic verbs were considered to be atypically stressed. Experiments 1a and 2a showed that while native speakers classified typically stressed words individual more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during differences reading, there were no overall effects during classification of spoken stimuli. However, a subgroup of native speakers with high error rates did show a significant effect during classification of spoken stimuli. Experiments 1b and 2b showed that non-native speakers classified typically stressed words more quickly and more accurately than atypically stressed words during reading. Typically stressed words were classified more accurately than atypically stressed words when the stimuli were spoken. Importantly, there was a significant relationship between error rates, vocabulary size and the size of the stress typicality effect in each experiment. We conclude that participants use information about lexical stress to help them distinguish between disyllabic nouns and verbs during speeded grammatical classification. This is especially so for individuals with a limited vocabulary who lack other knowledge (e.g., semantic knowledge) about the differences between these grammatical categories.

  15. Toddlers' categorization of typical and scrambled dolls and cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heron, Michelle; Slaughter, Virginia

    2008-09-01

    Previous research has demonstrated discrimination of scrambled from typical human body shapes at 15-18 months of age [Slaughter, V., & Heron, M. (2004). Origins and early development of human body knowledge. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 69]. In the current study 18-, 24- and 30-month-old infants were presented with four typical and four scrambled dolls in a sequential touching procedure, to assess the development of explicit categorization of human body shapes. Infants were also presented with typical and scrambled cars, allowing comparison of infants' categorization of scrambled and typical exemplars in a different domain. Spontaneous comments regarding category membership were recorded. Girls categorized dolls and cars as typical or scrambled at 30 months, whereas boys only categorized the cars. Earliest categorization was for typical and scrambled cars, at 24 months, but only for boys. Language-based knowledge, coded from infants' comments, followed the same pattern. This suggests that human body knowledge does not have privileged status in infancy. Gender differences in performance are discussed.

  16. Gray matter morphological anomalies in the cerebellar vermis in first-episode schizophrenia patients with cognitive deficits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jingjuan; Zhou, Li; Cui, Chunlei; Liu, Zhening; Lu, Jie

    2017-11-22

    Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early schizophrenia. However, the pathological foundations underlying cognitive deficits are still unknown. The present study examined the association between gray matter density and cognitive deficits in first-episode schizophrenia. Structural magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was performed in 34 first-episode schizophrenia patients and 21 healthy controls. Patients were divided into two subgroups according to working memory task performance. The three groups were well matched for age, gender, and education, and the two patient groups were also further matched for diagnosis, duration of illness, and antipsychotic treatment. Voxel-based morphometric analysis was performed to estimate changes in gray matter density in first-episode schizophrenia patients with cognitive deficits. The relationships between gray matter density and clinical outcomes were explored. Patients with cognitive deficits were found to have reduced gray matter density in the vermis and tonsil of cerebellum compared with patients without cognitive deficits and healthy controls, decreased gray matter density in left supplementary motor area, bilateral precentral gyrus compared with patients without cognitive deficits. Classifier results showed GMD in cerebellar vermis tonsil cluster could differentiate SZ-CD from controls, left supplementary motor area cluster could differentiate SZ-CD from SZ-NCD. Gray matter density values of the cerebellar vermis cluster in patients groups were positively correlated with cognitive severity. Decreased gray matter density in the vermis and tonsil of cerebellum may underlie early psychosis and serve as a candidate biomarker for schizophrenia with cognitive deficits.

  17. Eye, nose, hair, and throat: external anatomy of the head of a neonate gray whale (Cetacea, Mysticeti, Eschrichtiidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berta, Annalisa; Ekdale, Eric G; Zellmer, Nicholas T; Deméré, Thomas A; Kienle, Sarah S; Smallcomb, Meghan

    2015-04-01

    Information is scarce on gray whale (Eschrichtius robustus) anatomy and that of mysticetes in general. Dissection of the head of a neonatal gray whale revealed novel anatomical details of the eye, blowhole, incisive papilla with associated nasopalatine ducts, sensory hairs, and throat grooves. Compared to a similar sized right whale calf, the gray whale eyeball is nearly twice as long. The nasal cartilages of the gray whale, located between the blowholes, differ from the bowhead in having accessory cartilages. A small, fleshy incisive papilla bordered by two blind nasopalatine pits near the palate's rostral tip, previously undescribed in gray whales, may be associated with the vomeronasal organ, although histological evidence is needed for definitive identification. Less well known among mysticetes are the numerous elongated, stiff sensory hairs (vibrissae) observed on the gray whale rostrum from the ventral tip to the blowhole and on the mandible. These hairs are concentrated on the chin, and those on the lower jaw are arranged in a V-shaped pattern. We confirm the presence of two primary, anteriorly converging throat grooves, confined to the throat region similar to those of ziphiid and physeteroid odontocetes. A third, shorter groove occurs lateral to the left primary groove. The throat grooves in the gray whale have been implicated in gular expansion during suction feeding. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Avaliação experimental do escoamento e da erosão num Luvissolo Háplico de Mértola: impactos da fertilização em pastagens Experimental evaluation of runoff and erosion in an Haplic Luvisol of Mértola: impacts of fertilization in pastures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Martins

    2007-07-01

    ensaios A e B, nos 3 anos, sendo mais elevados na modalidade sem fertilização.In a experimental area located in a hillside of Mértola region, Alentejo, with an Haplic Luvisol (FAO, 2001 and a mean slope of 15%, soil loss by erosion and surface runoff after rainfall occurrence were evaluated in small erosion plots, from October 2001 until June 2004, in 3 field experiments (A, B, and D with a sown pasture mixture under different fertilization treatments. The experiments A (improved pasture and B (sown pasture were established in 1997, but the experiment D (sown pasture was only installed in 2001. The sown mixture consisted of ryegrass, cocksfoot, some clover species, bisserula, and bird’s foot. In both experiments A and B, the erosion plots (4 × 1 m² were superimposed on 6 plots. These experiments had three treatments (1 - without fertilization, 5 - inorganic fertilization; 7 - organic fertilization (8 t/ha of urban sewage sludge - SS applied in 1997, plus inorganic fertilizer in the beginning of each growing period and two replications. In D experiment, the erosion plots were also superimposed on 6 large plots with three SS application rates (L0 = 0, L1 = 12, and L2 = 24 t/ha and two replications. In each erosion plot, the volume of discharged water was measured and the amount of sediments was estimated when the infiltration capacity was exceeded by the amount of the rainfall occurring for one or several consecutive days of rainfall. The lowest observed runoff coefficient corresponded to the SS treatment, in B experiment. The highest values of that coefficient were reached at the treatment without fertilization in both A and B experiments. In D experiment, all treatments showed low values, between 0.07 and 0.10. The lowest soil loss values in the 3 years occurred in experiments A and B for the treatment with 8 t/ha of SS. In the experiment D, the highest values of soil loss were observed at the plots with L0 treatment.

  19. Food and Wine Tourism: an Analysis of Italian Typical Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to focus the specific role of local food productions in spite of its relationship with tourism sector to valorization and promotion of the territorial cultural heritage. The modern agriculture has been and, in the recent years, several specific features are emerging referring to different territorials areas. Tourist would like to have a complete experience consumption of a destination, specifically to natural and cultural heritage and genuine food. This contribute addresses the topics connected to the relationship between typical productions system and tourism sector to underline the competitive advantages to local development. The typical productions are Designation of Protected Origin (Italian DOP, within wine certifications DOCG and DOC and Typical Geographical Indication (IGP and wine’s IGT. The aim is an analysis of the specialization of these kinds of production at Italian regional scale. The implication of the work has connected with defining a necessary and appropriate value strategies based on marketing principles in order to translate the benefit of typical productions to additional value for the local system. Thus, the final part of the paper describes the potential dynamics with the suitable accommodation typology of agriturismo and the typical production system of Italian Administrative Regions.

  20. Early Freezing of Gait: Atypical versus Typical Parkinson Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abraham Lieberman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In 18 months, 850 patients were referred to Muhammad Ali Parkinson Center (MAPC. Among them, 810 patients had typical Parkinson disease (PD and 212 had PD for ≤5 years. Among the 212 patients with early PD, 27 (12.7% had freezing of gait (FOG. Forty of the 850 had atypical parkinsonism. Among these 40 patients, all of whom had symptoms for ≤5 years, 12 (30.0% had FOG. FOG improved with levodopa in 21/27 patients with typical PD but did not improve in the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism. FOG was associated with falls in both groups of patients. We believe that FOG unresponsive to levodopa in typical PD resembles FOG in atypical parkinsonism. We thus compared the 6 typical PD patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa plus the 12 patients with atypical parkinsonism with the 21 patients with typical PD responsive to levodopa. We compared them by tests of locomotion and postural stability. Among the patients with FOG unresponsive to levodopa, postural stability was more impaired than locomotion. This finding leads us to believe that, in these patients, postural stability, not locomotion, is the principal problem underlying FOG.

  1. Generation of a typical meteorological year for Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Apple L.S.; Chow, T.T.; Fong, Square K.F.; Lin, John Z.

    2006-01-01

    Weather data can vary significantly from year to year. There is a need to derive typical meteorological year (TMY) data to represent the long-term typical weather condition over a year, which is one of the crucial factors for successful building energy simulation. In this paper, various types of typical weather data sets including the TMY, TMY2, WYEC, WYEC2, WYEC2W, WYEC2T and IWEC were reviewed. The Finkelstein-Schafer statistical method was applied to analyze the hourly measured weather data of a 25-year period (1979-2003) in Hong Kong and select representative typical meteorological months (TMMs). The cumulative distribution function (CDF) for each year was compared with the CDF for the long-term composite of all the years in the period for four major weather indices including dry bulb temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed and solar radiation. Typical months for each of the 12 calendar months from the period of years were selected by choosing the one with the smallest deviation from the long-term CDF. The 12 TMMs selected from the different years were used for formulation of a TMY for Hong Kong

  2. Surface-based reconstruction and diffusion MRI in the assessment of gray and white matter damage in multiple sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caffini, Matteo; Bergsland, Niels; LaganÃ, Marcella; Tavazzi, Eleonora; Tortorella, Paola; Rovaris, Marco; Baselli, Giuseppe

    2014-03-01

    Despite advances in the application of nonconventional MRI techniques in furthering the understanding of multiple sclerosis pathogenic mechanisms, there are still many unanswered questions, such as the relationship between gray and white matter damage. We applied a combination of advanced surface-based reconstruction and diffusion tensor imaging techniques to address this issue. We found significant relationships between white matter tract integrity indices and corresponding cortical structures. Our results suggest a direct link between damage in white and gray matter and contribute to the notion of gray matter loss relating to clinical disability.

  3. Determination of insecticidal activity of Heliopsis longipes A. Gray Blake, an endemic plant of Guanajuato state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Hernández Morales

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Mosquitoes are involved in transmission of infectious diseases like malaria which affect human health, causing economic losses due to expensive treatments and job incapacity of patients. Strategies to minimize transmission of this disease are the employ of chemical insecticides that are excellent methods to reduce insect populations; however it causes deleterious effects on human health and environmental damage. Therefore is necessary to explore harmless alternatives, such as plant extracts which are potential source of natural insecticides. In this work we evaluated insecticidal properties of Heliopsis longipes A. Gray Blake against third instar larvae of Anopheles albimanus, malaria vector. Results showed that H.longipes A. Gray Blake has insecticide properties to control insect involved in malaria transmission.

  4. Facebook usage on smartphones and gray matter volume of the nucleus accumbens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Christian; Markowetz, Alexander; Blaszkiewicz, Konrad; Andone, Ionut; Lachmann, Bernd; Sariyska, Rayna; Trendafilov, Boris; Eibes, Mark; Kolb, Julia; Reuter, Martin; Weber, Bernd; Markett, Sebastian

    2017-06-30

    A recent study has implicated the nucleus accumbens of the ventral striatum in explaining why online-users spend time on the social network platform Facebook. Here, higher activity of the nucleus accumbens was associated with gaining reputation on social media. In the present study, we touched a related research field. We recorded the actual Facebook usage of N=62 participants on their smartphones over the course of five weeks and correlated summary measures of Facebook use with gray matter volume of the nucleus accumbens. It appeared, that in particular higher daily frequency of checking Facebook on the smartphone was robustly linked with smaller gray matter volumes of the nucleus accumbens. The present study gives additional support for the rewarding aspects of Facebook usage. Moreover, it shows the feasibility to include real life behavior variables in human neuroscientific research. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Molecular and Evolutionary History of Melanism in North American Gray Wolves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Tovi M.; vonHoldt, Bridgett M.; Candille, Sophie I.; Musiani, Marco; Greco, Claudia; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.; Padhukasahasram, Badri; Randi, Ettore; Leonard, Jennifer A.; Bustamante, Carlos D.; Ostrander, Elaine A.; Tang, Hua; Wayne, Robert K.; Barsh, Gregory S.

    2010-01-01

    Morphological diversity within closely related species is an essential aspect of evolution and adaptation. Mutations in the Melanocortin 1 receptor (Mc1r) gene contribute to pigmentary diversity in natural populations of fish, birds, and many mammals. However, melanism in the gray wolf, Canis lupus, is caused by a different melanocortin pathway component, the K locus, that encodes a beta-defensin protein that acts as an alternative ligand for Mc1r. We show that the melanistic K locus mutation in North American wolves derives from past hybridization with domestic dogs, has risen to high frequency in forested habitats, and exhibits a molecular signature of positive selection. The same mutation also causes melanism in the coyote, Canis latrans, and in Italian gray wolves, and hence our results demonstrate how traits selected in domesticated species can influence the morphological diversity of their wild relatives. PMID:19197024

  6. Object permanence in domestic dogs (Canis lupus familiaris) and gray wolves (Canis lupus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiset, Sylvain; Plourde, Vickie

    2013-05-01

    Recent evidence suggests that phylogenetic constraints exerted on dogs by the process of domestication have altered the ability of dogs to represent the physical world and the displacement of objects. In this study, invisible (Experiment 1) and visible (Experiment 2) displacement problems were administered to determine whether domestic dogs' and gray wolves' cognitive capacities to infer the position of a hidden object differ. The results revealed that adult dogs and wolves performed similarly in searching for disappearing objects: Both species succeeded the visible displacement tasks but failed the invisible displacement problems. We conclude that physical cognition for finding hidden objects in domestic dogs and gray wolves is alike and unrelated to the process of domestication.

  7. Normal gray and white matter volume after weight restoration in adolescents with anorexia nervosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lázaro, Luisa; Andrés, Susana; Calvo, Anna; Cullell, Clàudia; Moreno, Elena; Plana, M Teresa; Falcón, Carles; Bargalló, Núria; Castro-Fornieles, Josefina

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether treated, weight-stabilized adolescents with anorexia nervosa (AN) present brain volume differences in comparison with healthy controls. Thirty-five adolescents with weight-recovered AN and 17 healthy controls were assessed by means of psychopathology scales and magnetic resonance imaging. Axial three-dimensional T1-weighted images were obtained in a 1.5 Tesla scanner and analyzed using optimized voxel-based morphometry (VBM). There were no significant differences between controls and weight-stabilized AN patients with regard to global volumes of either gray or white brain matter, or in the regional VBM study. Differences were not significant between patients with psychopharmacological treatment and without, between those with amenorrhea and without, as well as between patients with restrictive versus purgative AN. The present findings reveal no global or regional gray or white matter abnormalities in this sample of adolescents following weight restoration. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Selection of halophilic bacteria for biological control of tomato gray mould caused by Botrytis cinerea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imane BERRADA

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In Morocco, tomato gray mould caused by Botrytis cinerea Pers: Fr. is a serious threat for postharvest storage of tomatoes. Fifteen halophilic bacteria were evaluated for their antagonistic activity against B. cinerea: 11 Gram positive strains assigned to the genera Bacillus (9, Jeotgalibacillus (1 and Planococcus (1 and four Gram negative strains assigned to the genera Salinivibrio (1, Vibrio (2 and Photobacterium (1. In in vitro screening, 12 antifungal isolates secreted diffusible compounds, hydrolytic enzymes or volatile compounds. In vivo screening of the isolates, Bacillus safensis CCMM B582 and Bacillus oceanisediminis CCMM B584 showed permanent antagonistic activity on tomato fruits, with 100% inhibition of B. cinerea after 7 days. These two strains may offer potential for biological control of tomato gray mould.

  9. The 21st LH Gray Conference (June 4-6, 2008)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, C. M. L. [Univ. of Manchester (United Kingdom); Martin, C. J. [Gartnavel Royal Hospital, Glasgow (United Kingdom); Sutton, D. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom); Wright, E. G. [Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee (United Kingdom)

    2009-01-12

    The 21st LH Gray Conference, organised by the LH Gray Trust with the Society for Radiological Protection, brought together international experts in radiobiology, epidemiology and risk assessment, and scientists involved in diagnostic and therapeutic radiation exposure. The meeting - held in Edinburgh, Scotland 4-6 June 2008 - aimed to raise awareness, educate and share knowledge of important issues in radiation protection. A distinguished group of speakers discussed topics which included: non-targeted effects of radiation, exposure to high natural background radiation, non-cancer effects in Japanese bomb survivors, lessons learnt from Chernobyl, radiation in the workplace, biokinetic modelling, uncertainties in risk estimation, issues in diagnostic medical exposures, lessons leant from the polonium-210 incidence and how the radiobiology-radiation oncology community is needed to help society prepare for potential future acts of radiation terrorism. The conference highlighted the importance, relevance and topicality of radiobiology today.

  10. A novel quantum LSB-based steganography method using the Gray code for colored quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, Shahrokh; Farzadnia, Ehsan

    2017-10-01

    As one of the prevalent data-hiding techniques, steganography is defined as the act of concealing secret information in a cover multimedia encompassing text, image, video and audio, imperceptibly, in order to perform interaction between the sender and the receiver in which nobody except the receiver can figure out the secret data. In this approach a quantum LSB-based steganography method utilizing the Gray code for quantum RGB images is investigated. This method uses the Gray code to accommodate two secret qubits in 3 LSBs of each pixel simultaneously according to reference tables. Experimental consequences which are analyzed in MATLAB environment, exhibit that the present schema shows good performance and also it is more secure and applicable than the previous one currently found in the literature.

  11. Segmentation of brain parenchymal regions into gray matter and white matter with Alzheimer's disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokunaga, Chiaki; Yoshiura, Takashi; Yamashita, Yasuo; Magome, Taiki; Honda, Hiroshi; Arimura, Hidetaka; Toyofuku, Fukai; Ohki, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    It is very difficult and time consuming for neuroradiologists to estimate the degree of cerebral atrophy based on the volume of cortical regions etc. Our purpose of this study was to develop an automated segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions with Alzheimer's disease (AD) in three-dimensional (3D) T1-weighted MR images. Our proposed method consisted of extraction of a brain parenchymal region based on a brain model matching and segmentation of the brain parenchyma into gray and white matter regions based on a fuzzy c-means (FCM) algorithm. We applied our proposed method to MR images of the whole brains obtained from 9 cases, including 4 clinically AD cases and 5 control cases. The mean volume percentage of a cortical region (41.7%) to a brain parenchymal region in AD patients was smaller than that (45.2%) in the control subjects (p=0.000462). (author)

  12. Differentiating Patients with Parkinson's Disease from Normal Controls Using Gray Matter in the Cerebellum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Ling-Li; Xie, Liang; Shen, Hui; Luo, Zhiguo; Fang, Peng; Hou, Yanan; Tang, Beisha; Wu, Tao; Hu, Dewen

    2017-02-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders in the world. Previous studies have focused on the basal ganglia and cerebral cortices. To date, the cerebellum has not been systematically investigated in patients with PD. In the current study, 45 probable PD patients and 40 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging, and we used support vector machines combining with voxel-based morphometry to explore the cerebellar structural changes in the probable PD patients relative to healthy controls. The results revealed that the gray matter alterations were primarily located within the cerebellar Crus I, implying a possible important role of this region in PD. Furthermore, the gray matter alterations in the cerebellum could differentiate the probable PD patients from healthy controls with accuracies of more than 95 % (p cerebellum in the clinical diagnosis of PD.

  13. Effect of Experimental Thyrotoxicosis on Brain Gray Matter: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Göbel, Anna; Heldmann, Marcus; Göttlich, Martin; Dirk, Anna-Luise; Brabant, Georg; Münte, Thomas F

    2015-09-01

    Hyper-as well hypothyroidism have an effect on behavior and brain function. Moreover, during development thyroid hormones influence brain structure. This study aimed to demonstrate an effect of experimentally induced hyperthyroidism on brain gray matter in healthy adult humans. High-resolution 3D T1-weighted images were acquired in 29 healthy young subjects prior to as well as after receiving 250 µg of T4 per day for 8 weeks. Voxel-based morphometry analysis was performed using Statistical Parametric Mapping 8 (SPM8). Laboratory testing confirmed the induction of hyperthyroidism. In the hyperthyroid condition, gray matter volumes were increased in the right posterior cerebellum (lobule VI) and decreased in the bilateral visual cortex and anterior cerebellum (lobules I-IV) compared to the euthyroid condition. Our study provides evidence that short periods of hyperthyroidism induce distinct alterations in brain structures of cerebellar regions that have been associated with sensorimotor functions as well as working memory in the literature.

  14. A Rolling Element Bearing Fault Diagnosis Approach Based on Multifractal Theory and Gray Relation Theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jingchao; Cao, Yunpeng; Ying, Yulong; Li, Shuying

    2016-01-01

    Bearing failure is one of the dominant causes of failure and breakdowns in rotating machinery, leading to huge economic loss. Aiming at the nonstationary and nonlinear characteristics of bearing vibration signals as well as the complexity of condition-indicating information distribution in the signals, a novel rolling element bearing fault diagnosis method based on multifractal theory and gray relation theory was proposed in the paper. Firstly, a generalized multifractal dimension algorithm was developed to extract the characteristic vectors of fault features from the bearing vibration signals, which can offer more meaningful and distinguishing information reflecting different bearing health status in comparison with conventional single fractal dimension. After feature extraction by multifractal dimensions, an adaptive gray relation algorithm was applied to implement an automated bearing fault pattern recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed method can identify various bearing fault types as well as severities effectively and accurately.

  15. Intrinsic gray-matter connectivity of the brain in adults with autism spectrum disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecker, Christine; Ronan, Lisa; Feng, Yue; Daly, Eileen; Murphy, Clodagh; Ginestet, Cedric E; Brammer, Michael; Fletcher, Paul C; Bullmore, Edward T; Suckling, John; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Williams, Steve; Loth, Eva; Murphy, Declan G M

    2013-08-06

    Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are a group of neurodevelopmental conditions that are accompanied by atypical brain connectivity. So far, in vivo evidence for atypical structural brain connectivity in ASD has mainly been based on neuroimaging studies of cortical white matter. However, genetic studies suggest that abnormal connectivity in ASD may also affect neural connections within the cortical gray matter. Such intrinsic gray-matter connections are inherently more difficult to describe in vivo but may be inferred from a variety of surface-based geometric features that can be measured using magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we present a neuroimaging study that examines the intrinsic cortico-cortical connectivity of the brain in ASD using measures of "cortical separation distances" to assess the global and local intrinsic "wiring costs" of the cortex (i.e., estimated length of horizontal connections required to wire the cortex within the cortical sheet). In a sample of 68 adults with ASD and matched controls, we observed significantly reduced intrinsic wiring costs of cortex in ASD, both globally and locally. Differences in global and local wiring cost were predominantly observed in fronto-temporal regions and also significantly predicted the severity of social and repetitive symptoms (respectively). Our study confirms that atypical cortico-cortical "connectivity" in ASD is not restricted to the development of white-matter connections but may also affect the intrinsic gray-matter architecture (and connectivity) within the cortical sheet. Thus, the atypical connectivity of the brain in ASD is complex, affecting both gray and white matter, and forms part of the core neural substrates underlying autistic symptoms.

  16. Gray matter anomalies in pedophiles with and without a history of child sexual offending

    OpenAIRE

    Schiffer, B; Amelung, T; Pohl, A; Kaergel, C; Tenbergen, G; Gerwinn, H; Mohnke, S; Massau, C; Matthias, W; Wei?, S; Marr, V; Beier, K M; Walter, M; Ponseti, J; Kr?ger, T H C

    2017-01-01

    Pedophilia is a psychiatric disorder that is inter-related with but distinct from child sexual offending (CSO). Neural alterations reportedly contribute to both pedophilia and CSO, but until now, no study has distinguished the brain structural anomalies associated with pedophilia from those specifically associated with CSO in pedophilic men. Using high-resolution T1-weighted brain images and voxel-based morphometry, we analyzed the gray matter (GM) volume of the following 219 men recruited at...

  17. Sexually dimorphic aggression indicates male gray wolves specialize in pack defense against conspecific groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A; Mech, L David; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W

    2017-03-01

    Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves (Canis lupus) intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior. We observed 292 inter-pack aggressive interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300days of observation) in order to determine the role of both sexes, and the influence of pack, age, and other traits on aggression. We recorded the behaviors and characteristics of all individuals present during the interactions (n=534 individuals) and which individuals participated in each step (i.e. chase, attack, kill, flight) of the interaction. Overall, all wolves were more likely to chase rivals if they outnumbered their opponent, suggesting packs accurately assess their opponent's size during encounters and individuals adjust their behavior based on relative pack size. Males were more likely than females to chase rival packs and gray-colored wolves were more aggressive than black-colored wolves. Male wolves and gray-colored wolves also recorded higher cortisol levels than females and black-colored wolves, indicating hormonal support for more intense aggressive behavior. Further, we found a positive correlation between male age and probability of chasing, while age-specific participation for females remained constant. Chasing behavior was influenced by the sex of lone intruders, with males more likely to chase male intruders. This difference in behavior suggests male and female wolves may have different strategies and motivations during inter-pack aggressive interactions related to gray wolf mating systems. A division of labor between pack members concerning resource and territory defense suggests selection for specific traits related

  18. Dance Experience and Associations with Cortical Gray Matter Thickness in the Aging Population

    OpenAIRE

    Porat, Shai; Goukasian, Naira; Hwang, Kristy S.; Zanto, Theodore; Do, Triet; Pierce, Jonathan; Joshi, Shantanu; Woo, Ellen; Apostolova, Liana G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We investigated the effect dance experience may have on cortical gray matter thickness and cognitive performance in elderly participants with and without mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Methods: 39 cognitively normal and 48 MCI elderly participants completed a questionnaire regarding their lifetime experience with music, dance, and song. Participants identified themselves as either dancers or nondancers. All participants received structural 1.5-tesla MRI scans and detailed clin...

  19. Functionally Selective Signaling for Morphine and Fentanyl Antinociception and Tolerance Mediated by the Rat Periaqueductal Gray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, Michael M.; Reid, Rachel A.; Saville, Kimber A.

    2014-01-01

    Functionally selective signaling appears to contribute to the variability in mechanisms that underlie tolerance to the antinociceptive effects of opioids. The present study tested this hypothesis by examining the contribution of G protein-coupled receptor kinase (GRK)/Protein kinase C (PKC) and C-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation on both the expression and development of tolerance to morphine and fentanyl microinjected into the ventrolateral periaqueductal gray of the rat. Microinjection of morphine or fentanyl into the periaqueductal gray produced a dose-dependent increase in hot plate latency. Microinjection of the non-specific GRK/PKC inhibitor Ro 32-0432 into the periaqueductal gray to block mu-opioid receptor phosphorylation enhanced the antinociceptive effect of morphine but had no effect on fentanyl antinociception. Microinjection of the JNK inhibitor SP600125 had no effect on morphine or fentanyl antinociception, but blocked the expression of tolerance to repeated morphine microinjections. In contrast, a microinjection of Ro 32-0432 blocked the expression of fentanyl, but not morphine tolerance. Repeated microinjections of Ro 32-0432 blocked the development of morphine tolerance and inhibited fentanyl antinociception whether rats were tolerant or not. Repeated microinjections of SP600125 into the periaqueductal gray blocked the development of tolerance to both morphine and fentanyl microinjections. These data demonstrate that the signaling molecules that contribute to tolerance vary depending on the opioid and methodology used to assess tolerance (expression vs. development of tolerance). This signaling difference is especially clear for the expression of tolerance in which JNK contributes to morphine tolerance and GRK/PKC contributes to fentanyl tolerance. PMID:25503060

  20. Local gray level S-curve transformation - A generalized contrast enhancement technique for medical images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gandhamal, Akash; Talbar, Sanjay; Gajre, Suhas; Hani, Ahmad Fadzil M; Kumar, Dileep

    2017-04-01

    Most medical images suffer from inadequate contrast and brightness, which leads to blurred or weak edges (low contrast) between adjacent tissues resulting in poor segmentation and errors in classification of tissues. Thus, contrast enhancement to improve visual information is extremely important in the development of computational approaches for obtaining quantitative measurements from medical images. In this research, a contrast enhancement algorithm that applies gray-level S-curve transformation technique locally in medical images obtained from various modalities is investigated. The S-curve transformation is an extended gray level transformation technique that results into a curve similar to a sigmoid function through a pixel to pixel transformation. This curve essentially increases the difference between minimum and maximum gray values and the image gradient, locally thereby, strengthening edges between adjacent tissues. The performance of the proposed technique is determined by measuring several parameters namely, edge content (improvement in image gradient), enhancement measure (degree of contrast enhancement), absolute mean brightness error (luminance distortion caused by the enhancement), and feature similarity index measure (preservation of the original image features). Based on medical image datasets comprising 1937 images from various modalities such as ultrasound, mammograms, fluorescent images, fundus, X-ray radiographs and MR images, it is found that the local gray-level S-curve transformation outperforms existing techniques in terms of improved contrast and brightness, resulting in clear and strong edges between adjacent tissues. The proposed technique can be used as a preprocessing tool for effective segmentation and classification of tissue structures in medical images. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. A New Approach for Deep Gray Matter Analysis Using Partial-Volume Estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnier, Guillaume; Kober, Tobias; Schluep, Myriam; Du Pasquier, Renaud; Krueger, Gunnar; Meuli, Reto; Granziera, Cristina; Roche, Alexis

    2016-01-01

    The existence of partial volume effects in brain MR images makes it challenging to understand physio-pathological alterations underlying signal changes due to pathology across groups of healthy subjects and patients. In this study, we implement a new approach to disentangle gray and white matter alterations in the thalamus and the basal ganglia. The proposed method was applied to a cohort of early multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and healthy subjects to evaluate tissue-specific alterations related to diffuse inflammatory or neurodegenerative processes. Forty-three relapsing-remitting MS patients and nineteen healthy controls underwent 3T MRI including: (i) fluid-attenuated inversion recovery, double inversion recovery, magnetization-prepared gradient echo for lesion count, and (ii) T1 relaxometry. We applied a partial volume estimation algorithm to T1 relaxometry maps to gray and white matter local concentrations as well as T1 values characteristic of gray and white matter in the thalamus and the basal ganglia. Statistical tests were performed to compare groups in terms of both global T1 values, tissue characteristic T1 values, and tissue concentrations. Significant increases in global T1 values were observed in the thalamus (p = 0.038) and the putamen (p = 0.026) in RRMS patients compared to HC. In the Thalamus, the T1 increase was associated with a significant increase in gray matter characteristic T1 (p = 0.0016) with no significant effect in white matter. The presented methodology provides additional information to standard MR signal averaging approaches that holds promise to identify the presence and nature of diffuse pathology in neuro-inflammatory and neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Style and non-style in anatomical illustration: From Renaissance Humanism to Henry Gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemp, Martin

    2010-02-01

    Style is a familiar category for the analysis of art. It is less so in the history of anatomical illustration. The great Renaissance and Baroque picture books of anatomy illustrated with stylish woodcuts and engravings, such as those by Charles Estienne, Andreas Vesalius and Govard Bidloo, showed figures in dramatic action in keeping with philosophical and theological ideas about human nature. Parallels can be found in paintings of the period, such as those by Titian, Michelangelo and Hans Baldung Grien. The anatomists also claimed to portray the body in an objective manner, and showed themselves as heroes of the discovery of human knowledge. Rembrandt's painting of Dr Nicholas Tulp is the best-known image of the anatomist as hero. The British empirical tradition in the 18th century saw William Cheselden and William Hunter working with techniques of representation that were intended to guarantee detailed realism. The ambition to portray forms life-size led to massive volumes, such as those by Antonio Mascagni. John Bell, the Scottish anatomist, criticized the size and pretensions of the earlier books and argued for a plain style adapted to the needs of teaching and surgery. Henry Gray's famous Anatomy of 1858, illustrated by Henry Vandyke Carter, aspired to a simple descriptive mode of functional representation that avoided stylishness, resulting in a style of its own. Successive editions of Gray progressively saw the replacement of Gray's method and of all his illustrations. The 150th anniversary edition, edited by Susan Standring, radically re-thinks the role of Gray's book within the teaching of medicine.

  3. Migrations of California gray whales tracked by oxygen-18 variations in their epizoic barnacles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Killingley, J.S.

    1980-01-01

    Barnacles attached to the California gray whale have oxygen isotope compositions that serve as a record of changing ocean temperatures as the whale migrates between arctic and subtropical waters. The isotopic values for the barnacles can be used to track whale migrations and to reconstruct the recent movements of beached whales. The method may be useful for tracing the movements of other animals, living or fossil, and for reconstructing the voyages of ancient ships

  4. The Gay Artist as Tragic Hero in The Picture of Dorian Gray

    OpenAIRE

    Alley, Henry

    2009-01-01

    In his article "The Gay Artist as Tragic Hero in The Picture of Dorian Gray" Henry M. Alley discusses the central artistic figure in Oscar Wilde's novel, Basil Hallward. As the novel's tragic protagonist, he commands the most pity and fear and serves as the most dynamic member of the dramatis personae. Alley contextualizes his discussion within Aristotle's Poetics, contemporary criticism, as well as Wilde's own comments. In addition, Alley looks at Hallward's attempt to hide or censor his gay...

  5. Altered Gray Matter Volume and White Matter Integrity in College Students with Mobile Phone Dependence

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yongming; Zou, Zhiling; Song, Hongwen; Xu, Xiaodan; Wang, Huijun; d?Oleire Uquillas, Federico; Huang, Xiting

    2016-01-01

    Mobile phone dependence (MPD) is a behavioral addiction that has become an increasing public mental health issue. While previous research has explored some of the factors that may predict MPD, the underlying neural mechanisms of MPD have not been investigated yet. The current study aimed to explore the microstructural variations associated with MPD as measured with functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI). Gray matter volume (GMV) and white matter (WM) integrity [four indices: fractional ...

  6. Sexually dimorphic aggression indicates male gray wolves specialize in pack defense against conspecific groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy, Kira A.; Mech, L. David; MacNulty, Daniel R; Stahler, Daniel R.; Smith, Douglas W.

    2017-01-01

    Aggression directed at conspecific groups is common among gregarious, territorial species, and for some species such as gray wolves (Canis lupus) intraspecific strife is the leading cause of natural mortality. Each individual in a group likely has different measures of the costs and benefits associated with a group task, such as an aggressive attack on another group, which can alter motivation and behavior. We observed 292 inter-pack aggressive interactions in Yellowstone National Park between 1 April 1995 and 1 April 2011 (>5300 days of observation) in order to determine the role of both sexes, and the influence of pack, age, and other traits on aggression. We recorded the behaviors and characteristics of all individuals present during the interactions (n = 534 individuals) and which individuals participated in each step (i.e. chase, attack, kill, flight) of the interaction. Overall, all wolves were more likely to chase rivals if they outnumbered their opponent, suggesting packs accurately assess their opponent’s size during encounters and individuals adjust their behavior based on relative pack size. Males were more likely than females to chase rival packs and gray-colored wolves were more aggressive than black-colored wolves. Male wolves and gray-colored wolves also recorded higher cortisol levels than females and black-colored wolves, indicating hormonal support for more intense aggressive behavior. Further, we found a positive correlation between male age and probability of chasing, while age-specific participation for females remained constant. Chasing behavior was influenced by the sex of lone intruders, with males more likely to chase male intruders. This difference in behavior suggests male and female wolves may have different strategies and motivations during inter-pack aggressive interactions related to gray wolf mating systems. A division of labor between pack members concerning resource and territory defense suggests selection for specific traits

  7. A Parallel Algorithm for Connected Component Labelling of Gray-scale Images on Homogeneous Multicore Architectures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niknam, Mehdi; Thulasiraman, Parimala; Camorlinga, Sergio

    2010-01-01

    Connected component labelling is an essential step in image processing. We provide a parallel version of Suzuki's sequential connected component algorithm in order to speed up the labelling process. Also, we modify the algorithm to enable labelling gray-scale images. Due to the data dependencies in the algorithm we used a method similar to pipeline to exploit parallelism. The parallel algorithm method achieved a speedup of 2.5 for image size of 256 x 256 pixels using 4 processing threads.

  8. Progressive gray matter reduction of the superior temporal gyrus during transition to psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Wood, Stephen J; Yung, Alison R; Soulsby, Bridget; McGorry, Patrick D; Suzuki, Michio; Kawasaki, Yasuhiro; Phillips, Lisa J; Velakoulis, Dennis; Pantelis, Christos

    2009-04-01

    Longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown progressive gray matter reduction in the superior temporal gyrus during the earliest phases of schizophrenia. It is unknown whether these progressive processes predate the onset of psychosis. To examine gray matter reduction of the superior temporal gyrus over time in individuals at risk for psychosis and in patients with first-episode psychosis. Cross-sectional and longitudinal comparisons. Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation Clinic and Early Psychosis Preventions and Intervention Centre. Thirty-five ultrahigh-risk individuals (of whom 12 later developed psychosis [UHRP] and 23 did not [UHRNP]), 23 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP), and 22 control subjects recruited from the community. Volumes of superior temporal subregions (planum polare, Heschl gyrus, planum temporale, and rostral and caudal regions) were measured at baseline and follow-up (mean, 1.8 years) and were compared across groups. In cross-sectional comparisons, only the FEP group had significantly smaller planum temporale and caudal superior temporal gyrus than other groups at baseline, whereas male UHRP subjects also had a smaller planum temporale than controls at follow-up. In longitudinal comparison, UHRP and FEP patients showed significant gray matter reduction (approximately 2%-6% per year) in the planum polare, planum temporale, and caudal region compared with controls and/or UHRNP subjects. The FEP patients also exhibited progressive gray matter loss in the left Heschl gyrus (3.0% per year) and rostral region (3.8% per year), which were correlated with the severity of delusions at follow-up. A progressive process in the superior temporal gyrus precedes the first expression of florid psychosis. These findings have important implications for underlying neurobiologic features of emerging psychotic disorders and emphasize the importance of early intervention during or before the first episode of psychosis.

  9. MIA - a free and open source software for gray scale medical image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wöllny, Gert; Kellman, Peter; Ledesma Carbayo, María Jesús; Skinner, Matthew M.; Hublin, Jean-Jaques; Hierl, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Background Gray scale images make the bulk of data in bio-medical image analysis, and hence, the main focus of many image processing tasks lies in the processing of these monochrome images. With ever improving acquisition devices, spatial and temporal image resolution increases, and data sets become very large. Various image processing frameworks exists that make the development of new algorithms easy by using high level programming languages or visual programming. These frameworks are also a...

  10. Gene by Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal Gray Matter in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alia-Klein, N.; Alia-Klein, N.; Parvaz, M.A.; Woicik, P.A.; Konova, A.; Maloney, T.; Shumay, E.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Biegon, A.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2010-12-05

    Chronic cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. We therefore examined variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype in cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy controls.

  11. Spatial Resolution of the ECE for JET Typical Parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tribaldos, V.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to obtain estimations of the spatial resolution of the electron cyclotron emission (ECE) phenomena for the typical plasmas found in JET tokamak. The analysis of the spatial resolution of the ECE is based on the underlying physical process of emission and a working definition is presented and discussed. In making these estimations a typical JET pulse is being analysed taking into account the magnetic configuration, the density and temperature profiles, obtained with the EFIT code and from the LIDAR diagnostic. Ray tracing simulations are performed for a Maxwellian plasma taking into account the antenna pattern. (Author) 5 refs

  12. Typicality effects in artificial categories: is there a hemisphere difference?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, L G; Chiarello, C

    1990-07-01

    In category classification tasks, typicality effects are usually found: accuracy and reaction time depend upon distance from a prototype. In this study, subjects learned either verbal or nonverbal dot pattern categories, followed by a lateralized classification task. Comparable typicality effects were found in both reaction time and accuracy across visual fields for both verbal and nonverbal categories. Both hemispheres appeared to use a similarity-to-prototype matching strategy in classification. This indicates that merely having a verbal label does not differentiate classification in the two hemispheres.

  13. Determination of illuminants representing typical white light emitting diodes sources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jost, S.; Ngo, M.; Ferrero, A.

    2017-01-01

    is to develop LED-based illuminants that describe typical white LED products based on their Spectral Power Distributions (SPDs). Some of these new illuminants will be recommended in the update of the CIE publication 15 on colorimetry with the other typical illuminants, and among them, some could be used......Solid-state lighting (SSL) products are already in use by consumers and are rapidly gaining the lighting market. Especially, white Light Emitting Diode (LED) sources are replacing banned incandescent lamps and other lighting technologies in most general lighting applications. The aim of this work...... to complement the CIE standard illuminant A for calibration use in photometry....

  14. An Integrated Environmental Assessment of Green and Gray Infrastructure Strategies for Robust Decision Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal-Campos, Arturo; Fu, Guangtao; Butler, David; Moore, Andrew

    2015-07-21

    The robustness of a range of watershed-scale "green" and "gray" drainage strategies in the future is explored through comprehensive modeling of a fully integrated urban wastewater system case. Four socio-economic future scenarios, defined by parameters affecting the environmental performance of the system, are proposed to account for the uncertain variability of conditions in the year 2050. A regret-based approach is applied to assess the relative performance of strategies in multiple impact categories (environmental, economic, and social) as well as to evaluate their robustness across future scenarios. The concept of regret proves useful in identifying performance trade-offs and recognizing states of the world most critical to decisions. The study highlights the robustness of green strategies (particularly rain gardens, resulting in half the regret of most options) over end-of-pipe gray alternatives (surface water separation or sewer and storage rehabilitation), which may be costly (on average, 25% of the total regret of these options) and tend to focus on sewer flooding and CSO alleviation while compromising on downstream system performance (this accounts for around 50% of their total regret). Trade-offs and scenario regrets observed in the analysis suggest that the combination of green and gray strategies may still offer further potential for robustness.

  15. Prediction of oxy-coal combustion through an optimized weighted sum of gray gases model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kangwanpongpan, Tanin; Corrêa da Silva, Rodrigo; Krautz, Hans Joachim

    2012-01-01

    Oxy-fuel combustion is considered as one of promising options for carbon dioxide capture in future coal power plants. Currently models available in CFD codes fail to predict accurately the radiative heat transfer in oxy-fuel cases due to higher pressure of carbon dioxide and water vapor. This paper concerns numerical investigation applying three band formulations aiming an accurate prediction of radiative properties. The radiative heat transfer is calculated by discrete ordinate method coupled with a weighted sum of gray gases model. The first case relates to the domain-based approach using air-fired parameters. In the last two cases, the optimized parameters of 3 and 4 gray gases fitted to oxy-fired conditions are implemented through a non-gray gases approach. Results applying these set of parameters are evaluated through a comparison with experimental data. Discrepancies between the predicted and measured velocity and O 2 concentration are found mainly close to the burner due to shortcomings of the turbulence model and inaccurate thermochemical closure. The gas flame temperatures are better predicted by the optimized parameters for oxy-fuel conditions, which are considerably lower than the values calculated by the air-fired parameters. Similar trends are observed when the radiative heat fluxes at the lateral wall are compared.

  16. 3D shape recovery from image focus using gray level co-occurrence matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmood, Fahad; Munir, Umair; Mehmood, Fahad; Iqbal, Javaid

    2018-04-01

    Recovering a precise and accurate 3-D shape of the target object utilizing robust 3-D shape recovery algorithm is an ultimate objective of computer vision community. Focus measure algorithm plays an important role in this architecture which convert the color values of each pixel of the acquired 2-D image dataset into corresponding focus values. After convolving the focus measure filter with the input 2-D image dataset, a 3-D shape recovery approach is applied which will recover the depth map. In this document, we are concerned with proposing Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix along with its statistical features for computing the focus information of the image dataset. The Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix quantifies the texture present in the image using statistical features and then applies joint probability distributive function of the gray level pairs of the input image. Finally, we quantify the focus value of the input image using Gaussian Mixture Model. Due to its little computational complexity, sharp focus measure curve, robust to random noise sources and accuracy, it is considered as superior alternative to most of recently proposed 3-D shape recovery approaches. This algorithm is deeply investigated on real image sequences and synthetic image dataset. The efficiency of the proposed scheme is also compared with the state of art 3-D shape recovery approaches. Finally, by means of two global statistical measures, root mean square error and correlation, we claim that this approach -in spite of simplicity generates accurate results.

  17. Obesity Associated Cerebral Gray and White Matter Alterations Are Interrelated in the Female Brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Mueller

    Full Text Available Obesity is known to affect the brain's gray matter (GM and white matter (WM structure but the interrelationship of such changes remains unclear. Here we used T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in combination with voxel-based morphometry (VBM and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI with tract-based spatial statistics (TBSS to assess the relationship between obesity-associated alterations of gray matter density (GMD and anisotropic water diffusion in WM, respectively. In a small cohort of lean to obese women, we confirmed previous reports of obesity-associated alterations of GMD in brain regions involved in executive control (i.e., dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, DLPFC and habit learning (i.e., dorsal striatum. Gray matter density alterations of the DLPFC were negatively correlated with radial diffusivity in the entire corpus callosum. Within the genu of the corpus callosum we found a positive correlation with axial diffusivity. In posterior region and inferior areas of the body of the corpus callosum, axial diffusivity correlated negatively with altered GMD in the dorsal striatum. These findings suggest that, in women, obesity-related alterations of GMD in brain regions involved in executive control and habit learning might relate to alterations of associated WM fiber bundles within the corpus callosum.

  18. Hand Vein Images Enhancement Based on Local Gray-level Information Histogram

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on the Histogram equalization theory, this paper presents a novel concept of histogram to realize the contrast enhancement of hand vein images, avoiding the lost of topological vein structure or importing the fake vein information. Firstly, we propose the concept of gray-level information histogram, the fundamental characteristic of which is that the amplitudes of the components can objectively reflect the contribution of the gray levels and information to the representation of image information. Then, we propose the histogram equalization method that is composed of an automatic histogram separation module and an intensity transformation module, and the histogram separation module is a combination of the proposed prompt multiple threshold procedure and an optimum peak signal-to-noise (PSNR calculation to separate the histogram into small-scale detail, the use of the intensity transformation module can enhance the vein images with vein topological structure and gray information preservation for each generated sub-histogram. Experimental results show that the proposed method can achieve extremely good contrast enhancement effect.

  19. Gray and white matter correlates of the Big Five personality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Privado, Jesús; Román, Francisco J; Saénz-Urturi, Carlota; Burgaleta, Miguel; Colom, Roberto

    2017-05-04

    Personality neuroscience defines the scientific study of the neurobiological basis of personality. This field assumes that individual differences in personality traits are related with structural and functional variations of the human brain. Gray and white matters are structural properties considered separately in previous research. Available findings in this regard are largely disparate. Here we analyze the relationships between gray matter (cortical thickness (CT), cortical surface area (CSA), and cortical volume) and integrity scores obtained after several white matter tracts connecting different brain regions, with individual differences in the personality traits comprised by the Five-Factor Model (extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, neuroticism, and openness to experience). These psychological and biological data were obtained from young healthy women. The main findings showed statistically significant associations between occipital CSA variations and extraversion, as well as between parietal CT variations and neuroticism. Regarding white matter integrity, openness showed positive correlations with tracts connecting posterior and anterior brain regions. Therefore, variations in discrete gray matter clusters were associated with temperamental traits (extraversion and neuroticism), whereas long-distance structural connections were related with the dimension of personality that has been associated with high-level cognitive processes (openness). Copyright © 2017 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hyla chrysoscelis (Cope’s gray treefrog) x Hyla cinerea (green treefrog): putative natural hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glorioso, Brad M.; Waddle, J. Hardin; Jenkins, Jill A.; Olivier, Heather M.; Layton, Rebekah R.

    2015-01-01

    Naturally–occurring hybrid treefrogs have been occasionally found in the eastern United States. However, these hybrids are almost always between members of the same species group. On 10 Jun 2014, at 2145 h, we located an individual making an unusual advertisement call along Bayou Manual Road in Sherburne Wildlife Management Area in the Atchafalaya Basin of south-central Louisiana, USA, and brought it back to the laboratory for further study. Physically, the treefrog appeared intermediate between a Green Treefrog and a Cope’s Gray Treefrog, which are members of different species groups. Call analysis also showed the individual to be intermediate between the two putative parental species. Flow cytometry was used to estimate the total genome size from nuclei of whole blood cells, and also determined the individual to be intermediate of the putative parental species. Despite vocalizing for mates, the hybrid did not appear to have viable spermatozoa, and was likely the result of an anomalous mis-mating event between a male Cope’s Gray Treefrog and a female Green Treefrog. To our knowledge, natural hybrids between a Cope’s Gray Treefrog and a Green Treefrog have not been previously reported.

  1. Mitochondrial and nuclear genetic variation across calving lagoons in Eastern North Pacific gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, S Elizabeth; Ramirez, Sergio Flores; Nigenda, Sergio; Ramirez, Jorge Urbán; Bracho, Lorenzo Rojas; Palumbi, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of population structure in cetaceans is critical for preserving and managing breeding habitat, particularly when habitat is not uniformly protected. Most eastern gray whales return to their major breeding range each winter along the Pacific coast of Baja California, Mexico, concentrating in 3 major calving lagoons, but it is unknown whether genetic differences exist between lagoons. Previous photo-identification studies and genetic studies suggest that gray whales may return to their natal lagoons to breed, potentially resulting in the buildup of genetic differences. However, an earlier genetic study used only one genetic marker and did not include samples from Bahia Magdalena, a major calving lagoon not currently designated as a wildlife refuge. To expand on this previous study, we collected genetic data from the mitochondrial control region (442 bp) and 9 microsatellite markers from 112 individuals across all 3 major calving lagoons. Our data suggest that migration rates between calving lagoons are high but that a small but significant departure from panmixia exists between Bahia Magdalena and Laguna San Ignacio (Fisher's Exact test, P 10% per generation). In addition, microsatellite data showed evidence of a severe population bottleneck. Eastern gray whales are still recovering from the impacts of whaling on their breeding grounds, and these populations should be protected and monitored for future genetic changes.

  2. Abnormal gray matter volume and impulsivity in young adults with Internet gaming disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deokjong; Namkoong, Kee; Lee, Junghan; Jung, Young-Chul

    2017-09-08

    Reduced executive control is one of the central components of model on the development and maintenance of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Among the various executive control problems, high impulsivity has consistently been associated with IGD. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis with diffeomorphic anatomical registration by using an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) to investigate the relationship of gray matter abnormalities to impulsivity in IGD. Thirty-one young male adults whose excessive Internet gaming began in early adolescence, and 30 age-matched male healthy controls were examined. IGD subjects showed smaller gray matter volume (GMV) in brain regions implicated in executive control, such as the anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary motor area. The GMVs in the anterior cingulate cortex and the supplementary motor area were negatively correlated with self-reporting scales of impulsiveness. IGD subjects also exhibited smaller GMV in lateral prefrontal and parietal cortices comprising the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and the left inferior parietal lobule when compared with healthy controls. The GMVs in the left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex were negatively correlated with lifetime usage of Internet gaming. These findings suggest that gray matter abnormalities in areas related to executive control may contribute to high impulsivity of young adults with IGD. Furthermore, alterations in the prefrontal cortex were related with long-term excessive Internet gaming during adolescence. © 2017 Society for the Study of Addiction.

  3. Measurement of the body composition of living gray seals by hydrogen isotope dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reilly, J.J.; Fedak, M.A.

    1990-01-01

    The body composition of living gray seals (Halichoerus grypus) can be accurately predicted from a two-step model that involves measurement of total body water (TBW) by 2 H or 3 H dilution and application of predictive relationships between body components and TBW that were derived empirically by slaughter chemical analysis. TBW was overestimated by both 2 HHO and 3 HHO dilution; mean overestimates were 2.8 +/- 0.9% (SE) with 2H and 4.0 +/- 0.6% with 3 H. The relationships for prediction of total body fat (TBF), protein (TBP), gross energy (TBGE), and ash (TBA) were as follows: %TBF = 105.1 - 1.47 (%TBW); %TBP = 0.42 (%TBW) - 4.75; TBGE (MJ) = 40.8 (mass in kg) - 48.5 (TBW in kg) - 0.4; and TBA (kg) = 0.1 - 0.008 (mass in kg) + 0.05 (TBW in kg). These relationships are applicable to gray seals of both sexes over a wide range of age and body conditions, and they predict the body composition of gray seals more accurately than the predictive equations derived from ringed seals (Pusa hispida) and from the equation of Pace and Rathbun, which has been reported to be generally applicable to mammals

  4. New perspective on the pathophysiology of panic: merging serotonin and opioids in the periaqueductal gray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.G. Graeff

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Panic disorder patients are vulnerable to recurrent panic attacks. Two neurochemical hypotheses have been proposed to explain this susceptibility. The first assumes that panic patients have deficient serotonergic inhibition of neurons localized in the dorsal periaqueductal gray matter of the midbrain that organize defensive reactions to cope with proximal threats and of sympathomotor control areas of the rostral ventrolateral medulla that generate most of the neurovegetative symptoms of the panic attack. The second suggests that endogenous opioids buffer normal subjects from the behavioral and physiological manifestations of the panic attack, and their deficit brings about heightened suffocation sensitivity and separation anxiety in panic patients, making them more vulnerable to panic attacks. Experimental results obtained in rats performing one-way escape in the elevated T-maze, an animal model of panic, indicate that the inhibitory action of serotonin on defense is connected with activation of endogenous opioids in the periaqueductal gray. This allows reconciliation of the serotonergic and opioidergic hypotheses of panic pathophysiology, the periaqueductal gray being the fulcrum of serotonin-opioid interaction.

  5. The Paranormal in Jane Jensen’s “Gray Matter”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavel Nosachev

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The main research issue of this article is to determine the extent to which Western esotericism influences the formation of computer game plots. The methodological framework is the occultural bricolage theory (C. Partridge. This article looks at how the paranormal is represented in the game “Gray Matter”, created by J. Jensen. Jensen has always used occult bricolage as the main method for creating her games, but in “Gray Matter” this method is perfected. Although the game plot is built around paranormal events, they are not given any unambiguous interpretation; their status is the main question of the game. There are three answers to this question. The first answer is the beliefs of Sam Everett, a girl magician who does not believe in the supernatural. The second answer is the research of Dr. Styles, a neurobiologist convinced that the mind is an energy that can be objectified after death. The third answer is the theory of Dr. Ramusskin, a psi-phenomena specialist, who believes that super-abilities are real, and that spirits and the afterlife exist. It is the last answer that Jensen promotes in creating the game. The basis of “Gray matter” is a bricolage of Stephen King, the works of the Society for Psychical Research, works on parapsychology and the debates around psi-phenomena in neuropsychology.

  6. Directional wave and temperature data from nine buoys in Gray's Harbor, Washington, 1994-2002 (NODC Accession 0000756)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Wave data were collected from 9 buoys in Grays Harbor, Washington, from 01 January 1994 to 24 July 2002. Data were collected as part of the Coastal Data Information...

  7. Determining the Number of Colors or Gray Levels in an Image Using Approximate Bayes Factors: The Pseudolikelihood Information Criterion (PLIC)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stanford, Derek C; Raftery, Adrian E

    2001-01-01

    .... This is motivated by medical and satellite image segmentation, and may also be useful for color and gray scale image quantization, the display and storage of computer-generated holograms, and the use...

  8. Neutron physical investigations on the use of burnable poisons and gray absorber rods in large pressurized water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brosche, C.; Katinger, T.; Kollmar, W.; Thieme, K.; Wagner, M.R.

    1977-11-01

    Methods and results of neutron physics calculations are described using burnable poisons and gray absorber rods in large PWR's. Calculated and measured values are compared, the effort for programming has been guessed. (orig.) [de

  9. AFSC/NMML: Shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific gray whale stock from central California, 1967 - 2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) has conducted shore-based counts of the Eastern North Pacific stock of gray whales (Eschrichtius robustus) 26 years from...

  10. Voxel-based comparison of whole brain gray matter of patients with mild Alzheimer's disease with normal aging volunteers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xie Sheng; Wu Hongkun; Xiao Jiangxi; Wang Yinhua; Jiang Xuexiang

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To detect gray matter abnormalities of whole brain in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease (AD) by voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods: Thirteen patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and sixteen normal aging volunteers underwent 3D SPGR scanning. For every subject, data was transferred to PC to be normalized, segmented and smoothed using SPM99. Non-dependent samples T-tests were conducted to compare gray matter' density voxel to voxel between the two groups. Results Significant reductions in gray matter density were found in the bilateral hippocampi and nucleus amygdalae, bilateral insulae, bilateral medial thalami, bilateral rectus gyri, right superior temporal gyms, right caudate nucleus, fight prefrontal lobe, right basal forebrain and portions of right occipital lobe. Conclusion: VBM reveals significant gray matter' reductions of numeral cortices in mild Alzheimer's disease. It can be a useful method to evaluate the anatomical changes in the progress of the disease. (authors)

  11. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  12. Gendered Perceptions of Typical Engineers across Specialties for Engineering Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Margaret S.; Bryan, Kimberley K.

    2018-01-01

    Young women do not choose to be engineers nearly as often as young men, and they tend to cluster in particular specialties when they do. We examine these patterns and the role of gender schemas as applied to perceptions of typical engineers in understanding the choices that women make in terms of engineering specialties. We use Part 1 of two waves…

  13. The Roots of Disillusioned American Dream in Typical American

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    古冬华

    2016-01-01

    Typical American is one of Gish Jen’s notable novels catching attention of the American literary circle. The motif of disillusioned American dream can be seen clearly through the experiences of three main characters. From perspectives of the consumer culture and cultural conflicts, this paper analyzes the roots of the disillusioned American dream in the novel.

  14. Analogical Reasoning Ability in Autistic and Typically Developing Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsanyi, Kinga; Holyoak, Keith J.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies (e.g. Dawson et al., 2007) have reported that autistic people perform in the normal range on the Raven Progressive Matrices test, a formal reasoning test that requires integration of relations as well as the ability to infer rules and form high-level abstractions. Here we compared autistic and typically developing children, matched…

  15. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mun, Sung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Radiology, Catholic University of Daegu College of Medicine, Daegu 712-702 (Korea, Republic of); Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Suk Jung [Department of Radiology, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Busan 614-735 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Eun Yoon [Department of Pathology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul 135-710 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast.

  16. Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physico-chemical properties and fertility status of some typic plinthaquults in bauchi loval government area of Bauchi state, Nigeria. S Mustapha. Abstract. No Abstract. IJOTAFS Vol. 1 (2) 2007: pp. 120-124. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  17. Spectra of conditionalization and typicality in the multiverse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhar, Feraz

    2016-02-01

    An approach to testing theories describing a multiverse, that has gained interest of late, involves comparing theory-generated probability distributions over observables with their experimentally measured values. It is likely that such distributions, were we indeed able to calculate them unambiguously, will assign low probabilities to any such experimental measurements. An alternative to thereby rejecting these theories, is to conditionalize the distributions involved by restricting attention to domains of the multiverse in which we might arise. In order to elicit a crisp prediction, however, one needs to make a further assumption about how typical we are of the chosen domains. In this paper, we investigate interactions between the spectra of available assumptions regarding both conditionalization and typicality, and draw out the effects of these interactions in a concrete setting; namely, on predictions of the total number of species that contribute significantly to dark matter. In particular, for each conditionalization scheme studied, we analyze how correlations between densities of different dark matter species affect the prediction, and explicate the effects of assumptions regarding typicality. We find that the effects of correlations can depend on the conditionalization scheme, and that in each case atypicality can significantly change the prediction. In doing so, we demonstrate the existence of overlaps in the predictions of different "frameworks" consisting of conjunctions of theory, conditionalization scheme and typicality assumption. This conclusion highlights the acute challenges involved in using such tests to identify a preferred framework that aims to describe our observational situation in a multiverse.

  18. 7 CFR 632.52 - Identifying typical classes of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... § 632.52 Identifying typical classes of action. (a) The RFO will analyze the environmental assessment of....12. These actions are determined by a limited environmental assessment that reasonably identifies the... 632.52 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATURAL RESOURCES...

  19. Characteristics of typical Pierce guns for PPM focused TWTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, R.; Puri, M.P.

    1989-01-01

    The performance of typical moderate perveance Pierce type electron guns which are used in periodic permanent magnet focused traveling wave tubes are described with regard to adaptation for use in electron beam ion sources. The results of detailed electron trajectory computations for one particular gun design are presented

  20. Human Behavior, Learning, and the Developing Brain: Typical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coch, Donna, Ed.; Fischer, Kurt W., Ed.; Dawson, Geraldine, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    This volume brings together leading authorities from multiple disciplines to examine the relationship between brain development and behavior in typically developing children. Presented are innovative cross-sectional and longitudinal studies that shed light on brain-behavior connections in infancy and toddlerhood through adolescence. Chapters…

  1. Breast Metastases from Extramammary Malignancies: Typical and Atypical Ultrasound Features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mun, Sung Hee; Ko, Eun Young; Han, Boo-Kyung; Shin, Jung Hee; Kim, Suk Jung; Cho, Eun Yoon

    2014-01-01

    Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies are uncommon. The most common sources are lymphomas/leukemias and melanomas. Some of the less common sources include carcinomas of the lung, ovary, and stomach, and infrequently, carcinoid tumors, hypernephromas, carcinomas of the liver, tonsil, pleura, pancreas, cervix, perineum, endometrium and bladder. Breast metastases from extramammary malignancies have both hematogenous and lymphatic routes. According to their routes, there are common radiological features of metastatic diseases of the breast, but the features are not specific for metastases. Typical ultrasound (US) features of hematogenous metastases include single or multiple, round to oval shaped, well-circumscribed hypoechoic masses without spiculations, calcifications, or architectural distortion; these masses are commonly located superficially in subcutaneous tissue or immediately adjacent to the breast parenchyma that is relatively rich in blood supply. Typical US features of lymphatic breast metastases include diffusely and heterogeneously increased echogenicities in subcutaneous fat and glandular tissue and a thick trabecular pattern with secondary skin thickening, lymphedema, and lymph node enlargement. However, lesions show variable US features in some cases, and differentiation of these lesions from primary breast cancer or from benign lesions is difficult. In this review, we demonstrate various US appearances of breast metastases from extramammary malignancies as typical and atypical features, based on the results of US and other imaging studies performed at our institution. Awareness of the typical and atypical imaging features of these lesions may be helpful to diagnose metastatic lesions of the breast

  2. Typical School Day Experiences of Indian Children in Different Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaya, N.; Malar, G.

    2003-01-01

    Notes that India has experienced conditions that have lead to significant illiteracy, but that commitment to education can be found in lesser-known parts of India today. Profiles three schools in Tamil Nadu and describes a typical school day for a student with special needs, a student in a tribal setting, and a student in a rural setting. (TJQ)

  3. Typical and Atypical Dementia Family Caregivers: Systematic and Objective Comparisons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Linda O.; Martindale-Adams, Jennifer; Burns, Robert; Graney, Marshall J.; Zuber, Jeffrey

    2011-01-01

    This systematic, objective comparison of typical (spouse, children) and atypical (in-law, sibling, nephew/niece, grandchild) dementia family caregivers examined demographic, caregiving and clinical variables. Analysis was of 1,476 caregivers, of whom 125 were atypical, from the Resources for Enhancing Alzheimer's Caregivers Health (REACH I and II)…

  4. Foraging and feeding ecology of the gray wolf (Canis lupus): lessons from Yellowstone National Park, Wyoming, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahler, Daniel R; Smith, Douglas W; Guernsey, Debra S

    2006-07-01

    The foraging and feeding ecology of gray wolves is an essential component to understanding the role that top carnivores play in shaping the structure and function of terrestrial ecosystems. In Yellowstone National Park (YNP), predation studies on a highly visible, reintroduced population of wolves are increasing our understanding of this aspect of wolf ecology. Wolves in YNP feed primarily on elk, despite the presence of other ungulate species. Patterns of prey selection and kill rates in winter have varied seasonally each year from 1995 to 2004 and changed in recent years as the wolf population has become established. Wolves select elk based on their vulnerability as a result of age, sex, and season and therefore kill primarily calves, old cows, and bulls that have been weakened by winter. Summer scat analysis reveals an increased variety in diet compared with observed winter diets, including other ungulate species, rodents, and vegetation. Wolves in YNP hunt in packs and, upon a successful kill, share in the evisceration and consumption of highly nutritious organs first, followed by major muscle tissue, and eventually bone and hide. Wolves are adapted to a feast-or-famine foraging pattern, and YNP packs typically kill and consume an elk every 2-3 d. However, wolves in YNP have gone without fresh meat for several weeks by scavenging off old carcasses that consist mostly of bone and hide. As patterns of wolf density, prey density, weather, and vulnerability of prey change, in comparison with the conditions of the study period described here, we predict that there will also be significant changes in wolf predation patterns and feeding behavior.

  5. The associations between regional gray matter structural changes and changes of cognitive performance in control groups of intervention studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikaru eTakeuchi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In intervention studies of cognitive training, the challenging cognitive tests, which were used as outcome measures, are generally completed in more than a few hours. Here, utilizing the control groups’ data from three 1-week intervention studies in which young healthy adult subjects underwent a wide range of cognitive tests and T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI before and after the intervention period, we investigated how regional gray matter (GM density (rGMD of the subjects changed through voxel-based morphometry (VBM. Statistically significant increases in rGMD were observed in the anatomical cluster that mainly spread around the bilateral dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC and the right superior frontal gyrus (rSFG. Moreover, mean rGMD within this cluster changes were significantly and positively correlated with performance changes in the Stroop task, and tended to positively correlate with performance changes in a divergent thinking task. Affected regions are considered to be associated with performance monitoring (dACC and manipulation of the maintained information including generating associations (rSFG, and both are relevant to the cognitive functions measured in the cognitive tests. Thus, the results suggest that even in the groups of the typical control group in intervention studies including those of the passive one, experimental or non-experimental factors can result in an increase in the regional GM structure and form the association between such neural changes and improvements related to these cognitive tests. These results suggest caution toward the experimental study designs without control groups.

  6. Morphological and molecular analysis of Fusarium lateritium, the cause of gray necrosis of hazelnut fruit in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, S; Santori, A; Wajnberg, E; Castagnone-Sereno, P; Luongo, L; Belisario, A

    2011-06-01

    Fusarium lateritium is a globally distributed plant pathogen. It was recently reported as the causal agent of nut gray necrosis (NGN) on hazelnut. Isolate characterization within F. lateritium was undertaken to investigate how morphological and molecular diversity was associated with host and geographic origin. Morphological studies combined with inter-simple-sequence repeat (ISSR) analysis, and phylogenetic analyses using translation elongation factor 1α (TEF-1α), β-tubulin genes, and nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences were conducted to resolve relationships among 32 F. lateritium isolates from NGN-affected hazelnut fruit, and 14 from other substrates or 8 from other hosts than hazelnut. Colonies of F. lateritium from hazelnut showed dark grayish-olive differing from the orange-yellow color of all other isolates from other hosts. Generally, isolates from NGN-affected fruit failed to produce sporodochia on carnation leaf agar. The influence of host and substrate on the genetic structure of F. lateritium was supported by ISSR and analyzed with principal coordinates analysis. A relationship between hazelnut and genetic variation was inferred. Phylogenetic analysis of ITS provided limited resolution while TEF-1α and β-tubulin analyses allowed a clear separation between the European and non-European F. lateritium isolates retrieved from GenBank, regardless of host. Though morphological traits of F. lateritium isolates from hazelnut were generally uniform in defining a typical morphogroup, they were not yet phylogenetically defined. In contrast, the typology related to slimy deep orange cultures, due to spore mass, grouped clearly separated from the other F. lateritium isolates and revealed a congruence between morphology and phylogeny.

  7. Typical load shapes for six categories of Swedish commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noren, C.

    1997-01-01

    In co-operation with several Swedish electricity suppliers, typical load shapes have been developed for six categories of commercial buildings located in the south of Sweden. The categories included in the study are: hotels, warehouses/grocery stores, schools with no kitchen, schools with kitchen, office buildings, health, health buildings. Load shapes are developed for different mean daily outdoor temperatures and for different day types, normally standard weekdays and standard weekends. The load shapes are presented as non-dimensional normalized 1-hour load. All measured loads for an object are divided by the object`s mean load during the measuring period and typical load shapes are developed for each category of buildings. Thus errors were kept lower as compared to use of W/m{sup 2}-terms. Typical daytime (9 a.m. - 5 p.m.) standard deviations are 7-10% of the mean values for standard weekdays but during very cold or warm weather conditions, single objects can deviate from the typical load shape. On weekends, errors are higher and depending on very different activity levels in the buildings, it is difficult to develop weekend load shapes with good accuracy. The method presented is very easy to use for similar studies and no building simulation programs are needed. If more load data is available, a good method to lower the errors is to make sure that every category only consists of objects with the same activity level, both on weekdays and weekends. To make it easier to use the load shapes, Excel load shape workbooks have been developed, where it is even possible to compare typical load shapes with measured data. 23 refs, 53 figs, 20 tabs

  8. Changes in the white-gray matter density difference in computed tomography associated with maturation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Setsuko; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Kazuko

    1980-01-01

    The attenuation of the x-ray beam in infantile brain tissue is markedly lower than in adults, so the CT image in infants, particularly in the newborn, seems to indicate demyelinating diseases. Therefore, the evaluation of nonpathological scans of infants and adults was performed in order to establish baseline numerical data on white and gray matter differentiation associated with maturation. One hundred and nine normal cases with no motion artifacts were selected. The age distribution was from 39 weeks to 40 years, as shown in Fig. 1. The Hitachi CT-H 250 tomograph was used for all the patient scans. The x-ray tube was operated at 120 kV and 30 mA. The thickness of each slice was 10 mm. The patients were scanned parallel with the canthomeatal line. The CT numbers are displayed on the EMI scale, in which water is zero and bone is +500. The mean CT numbers and the standard deviation were calculated by means of a computer on a horizontal plane through the pineal body; the following regions were selected for computation: White matter: preventricular frontal area. 44 mm 2 (36 pixels). Gray matter: head of the caudate nucleus and the thalamus. 24 mm 2 (20 pixels). The mean CT number for white matter was 13.5 +- 0.5 in the newborn and 16.8 +- 0.4 in adults. These numbers increased very rapidly during the 2nd month after birth and reached the adult value by 13 years. On the other hand, the mean CT number for gray matter was 15.6 +- 0.6 in the newborn and 19.7 +- 0.4 in adults. These numbers increased only gradually after birth and reached maximum value at 20 years, These results are probably due to a decrease in the water content per unit of volume and an increase in brain solids (protein, RNA and myelin) rather than to a decrease in the extracellular space associated with maturation. The difference between the average white and gray value was also studied. The white-gray difference was lowest (1.6 units) at 2 months and highest (2.9 units) in adults. (author)

  9. Testing the effectiveness of an acoustic deterrent for gray whales along the Oregon coast

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagerquist, Barbara [Oregon State University Marine Mammal Institute; Winsor, Martha [Oregon State University Marine Mammal Institute; Mate, Bruce [Oregon State University Marine Mammal Institute

    2012-12-31

    This study was conducted to determine whether a low-powered sound source could be effective at deterring gray whales from areas that may prove harmful to them. With increased interest in the development of marine renewal energy along the Oregon coast the concern that such development may pose a collision or entanglement risk for gray whales. A successful acoustic deterrent could act as a mitigation tool to prevent harm to whales from such risks. In this study, an acoustic device was moored on the seafloor in the pathway of migrating gray whales off Yaquina Head on the central Oregon coast. Shore-based observers tracked whales with a theodolite (surveyor’s tool) to accurately locate whales as they passed the headland. Individual locations of different whales/whale groups as well as tracklines of the same whale/whale groups were obtained and compared between times with the acoustic device was transmitting and when it was off. Observations were conducted on 51 d between January 1 and April 15, 2012. A total of 143 individual whale locations were collected for a total of 243 whales, as well as 57 tracklines for a total of 142 whales. Inclement weather and equipment problems resulted in very small sample sizes, especially during experimental periods, when the device was transmitting. Because of this, the results of this study were inconclusive. We feel that another season of field testing is warranted to successfully test the effectiveness of the deterrent, but recommend increasing the zone of influence to 3 km to ensure the collection of adequate sample sizes. Steps have been taken to acquire the necessary federal research permit modification to authorize the increased zone of influence and to modify the acoustic device for the increased power. With these changes we are confident we will be able to determine whether the deterrent is effective at deflecting gray whales. A successful deterrent device may serve as a valuable mitigation tool to protect gray whales, and

  10. Topology of genetic associations between regional gray matter volume and intellectual ability: Evidence for a high capacity network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlken, Marc M; Brouwer, Rachel M; Mandl, René C W; Hedman, Anna M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Haren, Neeltje E M; Kahn, René S; Hulshoff Pol, Hilleke E

    2016-01-01

    Intelligence is associated with a network of distributed gray matter areas including the frontal and parietal higher association cortices and primary processing areas of the temporal and occipital lobes. Efficient information transfer between gray matter regions implicated in intelligence is thought to be critical for this trait to emerge. Genetic factors implicated in intelligence and gray matter may promote a high capacity for information transfer. Whether these genetic factors act globally or on local gray matter areas separately is not known. Brain maps of phenotypic and genetic associations between gray matter volume and intelligence were made using structural equation modeling of 3T MRI T1-weighted scans acquired in 167 adult twins of the newly acquired U-TWIN cohort. Subsequently, structural connectivity analyses (DTI) were performed to test the hypothesis that gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability form a densely connected core. Gray matter regions associated with intellectual ability were situated in the right prefrontal, bilateral temporal, bilateral parietal, right occipital and subcortical regions. Regions implicated in intelligence had high structural connectivity density compared to 10,000 reference networks (p=0.031). The genetic association with intelligence was for 39% explained by a genetic source unique to these regions (independent of total brain volume), this source specifically implicated the right supramarginal gyrus. Using a twin design, we show that intelligence is genetically represented in a spatially distributed and densely connected network of gray matter regions providing a high capacity infrastructure. Although genes for intelligence have overlap with those for total brain volume, we present evidence that there are genes for intelligence that act specifically on the subset of brain areas that form an efficient brain network. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Differential vulnerability of gray matter and white matter to intrauterine growth restriction in preterm infants at 12 months corrected age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Nelly; Junqué, Carme; Figueras, Francesc; Sanz-Cortes, Magdalena; Bargalló, Núria; Arranz, Angela; Donaire, Antonio; Figueras, Josep; Gratacos, Eduard

    2014-01-30

    Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) is associated with a high risk of abnormal neurodevelopment. Underlying neuroanatomical substrates are partially documented. We hypothesized that at 12 months preterm infants would evidence specific white-matter microstructure alterations and gray-matter differences induced by severe IUGR. Twenty preterm infants with IUGR (26-34 weeks of gestation) were compared with 20 term-born infants and 20 appropriate for gestational age preterm infants of similar gestational age. Preterm groups showed no evidence of brain abnormalities. At 12 months, infants were scanned sleeping naturally. Gray-matter volumes were studied with voxel-based morphometry. White-matter microstructure was examined using tract-based spatial statistics. The relationship between diffusivity indices in white matter, gray matter volumes, and perinatal data was also investigated. Gray-matter decrements attributable to IUGR comprised amygdala, basal ganglia, thalamus and insula bilaterally, left occipital and parietal lobes, and right perirolandic area. Gray-matter volumes positively correlated with birth weight exclusively. Preterm infants had reduced FA in the corpus callosum, and increased FA in the anterior corona radiata. Additionally, IUGR infants had increased FA in the forceps minor, internal and external capsules, uncinate and fronto-occipital white matter tracts. Increased axial diffusivity was observed in several white matter tracts. Fractional anisotropy positively correlated with birth weight and gestational age at birth. These data suggest that IUGR differentially affects gray and white matter development preferentially affecting gray matter. At 12 months IUGR is associated with a specific set of structural gray-matter decrements. White matter follows an unusual developmental pattern, and is apparently affected by IUGR and prematurity combined. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Interim Feasibility Report and Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Grays Harbor, Chehalis and Hoquiam Rivers, Washington, Channel Improvements for Navigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-06-01

    community depends on the continued descent of organic materials from the overlying waters for nourishment. The Dungeness crab ( Cancer magister) is an...immediately north and south of Grays Harbor. EIS-34 o Crabs. Dungeness crabs ( Cancer magister) are abundant in Grays Harbor, though most are smaller...Cooper Cultural Resources Mama Seattle District, Evaluation Corps of Engineers Endangered Species Brunner Seattle District, Evaluation Corps of Engineers

  13. Differences in neurotransmitter systems of ventrolateral periaqueductal gray between the micturition reflex and nociceptive regulation : An in vivo microdialysis study

    OpenAIRE

    Kitta, Takeya; Mitsui, Takahiko; Kanno, Yukiko; Chiba, Hiroki; Moriya, Kimihiko; Yoshioka, Mitsuhiro; Shinohara, Nobuo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To elucidate the possible involvement of glutamate and serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine) neurons in the ventrolateral midbrain periaqueductal gray during noxious stimulation. Methods: The study was carried out by evoking a noxious stimulation by acetic acid in an animal model of cystitis. Changes in glutamate and 5-hydroxytryptamine in the periaqueductal gray during the micturition reflex and acetic acid-induced cystitis were determined using in vivo microdialysis combined with cyst...

  14. Narrative versus Style : Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization

  15. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Maslenikov, O.R.; Schewe, E.C.

    1985-01-01

    The seismic response of a typical shear structure in a commercial nuclear power plant was investigated for a series of site and foundation conditions using best estimate and design procedures. The structure selected is a part of the Zion AFT complex which is a connected group of reinforced concrete shear wall buildings, typical of nuclear power plant structures. Comparisons between best estimate responses quantified the effects of placing the structure on different sites and founding it in different manners. Calibration factors were developed by comparing simplified SSI design procedure responses to responses calculated by best estimate procedures. Nineteen basic cases were analyzed - each case was analyzed for ten earthquakes targeted to the NRC R.G. 1.60 design response spectra. The structure is a part of the Zion auxiliary-fuel handling turbine building (AFT) complex to the Zion nuclear power plants. (orig./HP)

  16. Analysis of typical meteorological years in different climates of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Liu; Lam, Joseph C.; Liu, Jiaping

    2007-01-01

    Typical meteorological years (TMYs) for 60 cities in the five major climatic zones (severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, hot summer and warm winter, mild) in China were investigated. Long term (1971-2000) measured weather data such as dry bulb and dew point temperatures, wind speed and global solar radiation were gathered and analysed. A total of seven climatic indices were used to select the 12 typical meteorological months (TMMs) that made up the TMY for each city. In general, the cumulative distribution functions of the TMMs selected tended to follow their long term counterparts quite well. There was no persistent trend in any particular years being more representative than the others, though 1978 and 1982 tended to be picked most often. This paper presents the work and its findings. Future work on the assessment of TMYs in building energy simulation is also discussed

  17. Memory for radio advertisements: the effect of program and typicality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Luengo, Beatriz; Luna, Karlos; Migueles, Malen

    2013-01-01

    We examined the influence of the type of radio program on the memory for radio advertisements. We also investigated the role in memory of the typicality (high or low) of the elements of the products advertised. Participants listened to three types of programs (interesting, boring, enjoyable) with two advertisements embedded in each. After completing a filler task, the participants performed a true/false recognition test. Hits and false alarm rates were higher for the interesting and enjoyable programs than for the boring one. There were also more hits and false alarms for the high-typicality elements. The response criterion for the advertisements embedded in the boring program was stricter than for the advertisements in other types of programs. We conclude that the type of program in which an advertisement is inserted and the nature of the elements of the advertisement affect both the number of hits and false alarms and the response criterion, but not the accuracy of the memory.

  18. Verbal communication skills in typical language development: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Camila Mayumi; Bretanha, Andreza Carolina; Bozza, Amanda; Ferraro, Gyovanna Junya Klinke; Lopes-Herrera, Simone Aparecida

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate verbal communication skills in children with typical language development and ages between 6 and 8 years. Participants were 10 children of both genders in this age range without language alterations. A 30-minute video of each child's interaction with an adult (father and/or mother) was recorded, fully transcribed, and analyzed by two trained researchers in order to determine reliability. The recordings were analyzed according to a protocol that categorizes verbal communicative abilities, including dialogic, regulatory, narrative-discursive, and non-interactive skills. The frequency of use of each category of verbal communicative ability was analyzed (in percentage) for each subject. All subjects used more dialogical and regulatory skills, followed by narrative-discursive and non-interactive skills. This suggests that children in this age range are committed to continue dialog, which shows that children with typical language development have more dialogic interactions during spontaneous interactions with a familiar adult.

  19. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2017-04-15

    This paper presents the radiation shielding model of a typical PWR (CNPP-II) at Chashma, Pakistan. The model was developed using Monte Carlo N Particle code [2], equipped with ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross section libraries. This model was applied to calculate the neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in the radial direction at core mid plane. The simulated results were compared with the reference results of Shanghai Nuclear Engineering Research and Design Institute (SNERDI).

  20. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A. [Department of Physics, Brown University,Providence, RI 02912 (United States)

    2016-01-14

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  1. Typical event horizons in AdS/CFT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avery, Steven G.; Lowe, David A.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the construction of local bulk operators in a black hole background dual to a pure state in conformal field theory. The properties of these operators in a microcanonical ensemble are studied. It has been argued in the literature that typical states in such an ensemble contain firewalls, or otherwise singular horizons. We argue this conclusion can be avoided with a proper definition of the interior operators.

  2. Lipoma arborescens: Comparison of typical and atypical disease presentations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howe, B.M.; Wenger, D.E.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To determine whether the aetiology differed between typical cases of lipoma arborescens with unilateral knee involvement and atypical cases involving joints other than the knee, polyarticular disease, and disease outside of the knee joint. Materials and methods: Cases of lipoma arborescens involving the knee joint were evaluated for the distribution of the disease and severity of degenerative arthritis. Joints other than the knee were evaluated for the presence and severity of degenerative arthritis, and the distribution was classified as either intra-articular, extra-articular, or both. Clinical history was reviewed for patient age at presentation, a history of inflammatory arthritis, diabetes mellitus, and known steroid use. Fisher's exact test was used to determine whether there was a statistically significant difference between typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Results: Lipoma arborescens was identified in 45 joints in 39 patients. Twenty-eight patients were classified as “typical” and 11 patients had “atypical” disease. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Conclusion: Twenty-eight percent of patients in the present study had atypical presentation of lipoma arborescens with multifocal lipoma arborescens or disease in joints other than the knee. There was no significant difference in age at presentation, presence of degenerative arthritis, or known inflammatory arthritis when comparing typical and atypical presentations of the disease. Of the 39 patients, only three had no evidence of degenerative arthritis, which suggests that many cases of lipoma arborescens are secondary to chronic reactive change in association with degenerative arthritis

  3. Theory of Mind experience sampling in typical adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Lauren; Coffey, Anna; Povinelli, Daniel J; Pruett, John R

    2013-09-01

    We explored the frequency with which typical adults make Theory of Mind (ToM) attributions, and under what circumstances these attributions occur. We used an experience sampling method to query 30 typical adults about their everyday thoughts. Participants carried a Personal Data Assistant (PDA) that prompted them to categorize their thoughts as Action, Mental State, or Miscellaneous at approximately 30 pseudo-random times during a continuous 10-h period. Additionally, participants noted the direction of their thought (self versus other) and degree of socializing (with people versus alone) at the time of inquiry. We were interested in the relative frequency of ToM (mental state attributions) and how prominent they were in immediate social exchanges. Analyses of multiple choice answers suggest that typical adults: (1) spend more time thinking about actions than mental states and miscellaneous things, (2) exhibit a higher degree of own- versus other-directed thought when alone, and (3) make mental state attributions more frequently when not interacting (offline) than while interacting with others (online). A significant 3-way interaction between thought type, direction of thought, and socializing emerged because action but not mental state thoughts about others occurred more frequently when participants were interacting with people versus when alone; whereas there was an increase in the frequency of both action and mental state attributions about the self when participants were alone as opposed to socializing. A secondary analysis of coded free text responses supports findings 1-3. The results of this study help to create a more naturalistic picture of ToM use in everyday life and the method shows promise for future study of typical and atypical thought processes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis and Comparison of Typical Models within Distribution Network Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Hans Jacob; Larsen, Allan; Madsen, Oli B.G.

    This paper investigates the characteristics of typical optimisation models within Distribution Network Design. During the paper fourteen models known from the literature will be thoroughly analysed. Through this analysis a schematic approach to categorisation of distribution network design models...... for educational purposes. Furthermore, the paper can be seen as a practical introduction to network design modelling as well as a being an art manual or recipe when constructing such a model....

  5. Rural Tourism and Local Development: Typical Productions of Lazio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Maria Olivieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The local development is based on the integration of the tourism sector with the whole economy. The rural tourism seems to be a good occasion to analyse the local development: consumption of "tourist products" located in specific local contexts. Starting from the food and wine supply chain and the localization of typical productions, the aim of the present work will be analyse the relationship with local development, rural tourism sustainability and accommodation system, referring to Lazio. Which are the findings to create tourism local system based on the relationship with touristic and food and wine supply chain? Italian tourism is based on accommodation system, so the whole consideration of the Italian cultural tourism: tourism made in Italy. The touristic added value to specific local context takes advantage from the synergy with food and wine supply chain: made in Italy of typical productions. Agritourism could be better accommodation typology to rural tourism and to exclusivity of consumption typical productions. The reciprocity among food and wine supply chain and tourism provides new insights on the key topics related to tourism development and to the organization of geographical space as well and considering its important contribution nowadays to the economic competitiveness.

  6. Typically Female Features in Hungarian Shopping Tourism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Michalkó

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Although shopping has been long acknowledged as a major tourist activity, the extent and characteristics of shopping tourism have only recently become the subject of academic research and discussion. As a contribution to this field of knowledge, the paper presents the characteristics of shopping tourism in Hungary, and discusses the typically female features of outbound Hungarian shopping tourism. The research is based on a survey of 2473 Hungarian tourists carried out in 2005. As the findings of the study indicate, while female respondents were altogether more likely to be involved in tourist shopping than male travellers, no significant difference was experienced between the genders concerning the share of shopping expenses compared to their total travel budget. In their shopping behaviour, women were typically affected by price levels, and they proved to be both more selfish and more altruistic than men by purchasing more products for themselves and for their family members. The most significant differences between men and women were found in their product preferences as female tourists were more likely to purchase typically feminine goods such as clothes, shoes, bags and accessories, in the timing of shopping activities while abroad, and in the information sources used by tourists, since interpersonal influences such as friends’, guides’ and fellow travellers’ recommendations played a higher role in female travellers’ decisions.

  7. A structural MRI study: gray matter changes in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy patients with different seizure types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-hao XIAO

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective To observe gray matter volume changes and evaluate the relation between gray matter changes and duration of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE patients with different seizure types. Methods A total of 40 patients with mTLE, including 20 with partial seizures (mTLE-PS group and 20 with secondarily generalized seizures (mTLE-sGS group, and 20 sex- and age-matched healthy volunteers (control group were recruited. T1-three-dimensional magnetization-prepared rapid gradient echo (T1-3D-MPRAGE was scanned for voxel.based morphometry (VBM. Bilateral frontal lobes and thalami were selected as regions of interest (ROIs to compare gray matter volume of brain regions among 3 groups. Spearman rank correlation analysis was used to evaluate the correlation between gray matter volume of brain regions and duration. Results There were significant differences in gray matter volumes in bilateral superior frontal gyri, right middle frontal gyrus, right medial frontal gyrus, right angular gyrus, right middle temproral gyrus, right hippocampus, bilateral thalami and bilateral cerebellar hemispheres among 3 groups (P < 0.01, for all; FWE correction. Compared with control group, gray matter volumes in bilateral superior frontal gyri, bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, right middle temproral gyrus, right hippocampus and right thalamus in mTLE-PS group were significantly decreased (P < 0.01, for all; FWE correction. Compared with control group, gray matter volumes in bilateral superior frontal gyri, bilateral thalami, bilateral cerebellar hemispheres, right angular gyrus, right middle temporal gyrus and right hippocampus in mTLE-sGS group were significantly decreased (P < 0.01, for all; FWE correction. Compared with mTLE-PS group, gray matter volumes in bilateral superior frontal gyri, bilateral thalami, right medial frontal gyrus and right gyrus rectus in mTLE-sGS group were significantly reduced (P < 0.01, for all; FWE correction. Gray matter volumes in left

  8. Narrative versus Style: Effect of Genre Typical Events versus Genre Typical Filmic Realizations on Film Viewers' Genre Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Visch, V.; Tan, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated whether film viewers recognize four basic genres (comic, drama, action and nonfiction) on the basis of genre-typical event cues or of genretypical filmic realization cues of events. Event cues are similar to the narrative content of a film sequence, while filmic realization cues are similar to stylistic surface cues of a film sequence. It was predicted that genre recognition of short film fragments is cued more by filmic realization cues than by event cues. The results...

  9. Life-cycle Economic and Environmental Effects of Green, Gray and Hybrid Stormwater Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes-Draut, J. R.; Taptich, M. N.; Horvath, A.

    2016-12-01

    Cities throughout the U.S. are seeking efficient ways to manage stormwater for many reasons, including flood control, pollution management, water supply augmentation and to prepare for a changing climate. Traditionally, cities have relied primarily on gray infrastructure, namely sewers, storage and treatment facilities. In these systems, urban runoff, its volume increasing as impervious surfaces expand, is channeled to a wastewater plant where it is mixed with raw sewage prior to treatment or it is discharged, generally untreated, to local water bodies. These facilities are inflexible and expensive to build and maintain. Many systems are deteriorating and/or approaching, if not exceeding, their design capacity. Increasingly, more innovative approaches that integrate stormwater management into the natural environment and that make sense at both local and regional scales are sought. Identifying the best stormwater solution will require evaluating the life-cycle economic costs associated with these alternatives, including costs associated with construction, operation, and maintenance including regulatory and permitting costs, financing, as well as other indirect costs (e.g., avoided wastewater processing or system capacity expansion, increased property value) and non-economic co-benefits (i.e, aesthetics, habitat provision). Beyond conventional life-cycle costing, applying life-cycle assessment (LCA) will contribute to more holistic and sustainable decision-making. LCA can be used to quantitatively track energy use, greenhouse gas emissions, and other environmental effects associated with constructing, operating, and maintaining green and gray infrastructure, including supply chain contributions. We will present the current state of knowledge for implementing life-cycle costing and LCA into stormwater management decisions for green, gray and hybrid infrastructure.

  10. Gene x Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal Gray Matter in Cocaine Addiction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alia-Klein, N.; Parvaz, M.A.; Woicik, P.A.; Konova, A.B.; Maloney, T.; Shumay, E.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Biegon, A.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-01-01

    Long-term cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine-receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. The objective is to examine variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the genotype of the monoamine oxidase A gene, MAOA, in men with cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy male controls. Forty individuals with CUD and 42 controls who underwent magnetic resonance imaging to assess GMV and were genotyped for the MAOA polymorphism (categorized as high- and low-repeat alleles). The impact of cocaine addiction on GMV, tested by (1) comparing the CUD group with controls, (2) testing diagnosis x MAOA interactions, and (3) correlating GMV with lifetime cocaine, alcohol, and cigarette smoking, and testing their unique contribution to GMV beyond other factors. The results are: (1) Individuals with CUD had reductions in GMV in the orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and temporal cortex and the hippocampus compared with controls; (2) The orbitofrontal cortex reductions were uniquely driven by CUD with low- MAOA genotype and by lifetime cocaine use; and (3) The GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was driven by lifetime alcohol use beyond the genotype and other pertinent variables. Long-term cocaine users with the low-repeat MAOA allele have enhanced sensitivity to gray matter loss, specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex, indicating that this genotype may exacerbate the deleterious effects of cocaine in the brain. In addition, long-term alcohol use is a major contributor to gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and is likely to further impair executive function and learning in cocaine addiction.

  11. Gray matter volume and rapid decision-making in major depressive disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, Masayuki; Matsuo, Koji; Nakashima, Mami; Matsubara, Toshio; Harada, Kenichiro; Egashira, Kazuteru; Masaki, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Kanji; Watanabe, Yoshifumi

    2014-01-03

    Reduced motivation and blunted decision-making are key features of major depressive disorder (MDD). Patients with MDD show abnormal decision-making when given negative feedback regarding a reward. The brain mechanisms underpinning this behavior remain unclear. In the present study, we examined the association between rapid decision-making with negative feedback and brain volume in MDD. Thirty-six patients with MDD and 54 age-, sex- and IQ-matched healthy subjects were studied. Subjects performed a rapid decision-making monetary task in which participants could make high- or low-risk choices. We compared between the 2 groups the probability that a high-risk choice followed negative feedback. In addition, we used voxel-based morphometry (VBM) to compare between group differences in gray matter volume, and the correlation between the probability for high-risk choices and brain volume. Compared to the healthy group, the MDD group showed significantly lower probabilities for high-risk choices following negative feedback. VBM analysis revealed that the MDD group had less gray matter volume in the right medial prefrontal cortex and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) compared to the healthy group. The right OFC volume was negatively correlated with the probability that a high-risk choice followed negative feedback in patients with MDD. We did not observe these trends in healthy subjects. Patients with MDD show reduced motivation for monetary incentives when they were required to make rapid decisions following negative feedback. We observed a correlation between this reduced motivation and gray matter volume in the medial and ventral prefrontal cortex, which suggests that these brain regions are likely involved in the pathophysiology of aberrant decision-making in MDD. © 2013.

  12. Exercise Effects on the Course of Gray Matter Changes Over 70 Days of Bed Rest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppelmans, V.; Ploutz-Snyder, L.; DeDios, Y. E.; Wood, S. J.; Reuter-Lorenz, P. A.; Kofman, I.; Bloomberg, J. J.; Mulavara, A. P.; Seidler, R. D.

    2014-01-01

    Long duration spaceflight affects posture control, locomotion, and manual control. The microgravity environment is an important causal factor for spaceflight induced sensorimotor changes through direct effects on peripheral changes that result from reduced vestibular stimulation and body unloading. Effects of microgravity on sensorimotor function have been investigated on earth using bed rest studies. Long duration bed rest serves as a space-flight analogue because it mimics microgravity in body unloading and bodily fluid shifts. It has been hypothesized that the cephalad fluid shift that has been observed in microgravity could potentially affect central nervous system function and structure, and thereby indirectly affect sensorimotor or cognitive functioning. Preliminary results of one of our ongoing studies indeed showed that 70 days of long duration head down-tilt bed rest results in focal changes in gray matter volume from pre-bed rest to various time points during bed rest. These gray matter changes that could reflect fluid shifts as well as neuroplasticity were related to decrements in motor skills such as maintenance of equilibrium. In consideration of the health and performance of crewmembers both inand post-flight we are currently conducting a study that investigates the potential preventive effects of exercise on gray matter and motor performance changes that we observed over the course of bed rest. Numerous studies have shown beneficial effects of aerobic exercise on brain structure and cognitive performance in healthy and demented subjects over a large age range. We therefore hypothesized that an exercise intervention in bed rest could potentially mitigate or prevent the effects of bed rest on the central nervous system. Here we present preliminary outcomes of our study.

  13. Multimodal evidence of regional midcingulate gray matter volume underlying conflict monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad A. Parvaz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional neuroimaging studies have long implicated the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC in conflict monitoring, but it is not clear whether its structural integrity (i.e., the gray matter volume influences its conflict monitoring function. In this multimodal study, we used T1-weighted MRI scans as well as event-related potentials (ERPs to test whether the MCC gray matter volume is associated with the electrocortical marker (i.e., No-go N200 ERP component of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals. The specificity of such a relationship in health was determined in two ways: by (A acquiring the same data from individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD, known to have deficits in executive function including behavioral monitoring; and (B acquiring the P300 ERP component that is linked with attention allocation and not specifically with conflict monitoring. Twenty-five (39.1 ± 8.4 years; 8 females healthy individuals and 25 (42.7 ± 5.9 years; 6 females individuals with CUD underwent a rewarded Go/No-go task during which the ERP data was collected, and they also underwent a structural MRI scan. The whole brain regression analysis showed a significant correlation between MCC structural integrity and the well-known ERP measure of conflict monitoring (N200, but not the P300 in healthy individuals, which was absent in CUD who were characterized by reduced MCC gray matter volume, N200 abnormalities as well as reduced task accuracy. In individuals with CUD instead, the N200 amplitude was associated with drug addiction symptomatology. These results show that the integrity of MCC volume is directly associated with the electrocortical correlates of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals, and such an association breaks down in psychopathologies that impact these brain processes. Taken together, this MCC–N200 association may serve as a biomarker of improved behavioral monitoring processes in diseased populations.

  14. Multimodal evidence of regional midcingulate gray matter volume underlying conflict monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaz, Muhammad A; Maloney, Thomas; Moeller, Scott J; Malaker, Pias; Konova, Anna B; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have long implicated the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) in conflict monitoring, but it is not clear whether its structural integrity (i.e., the gray matter volume) influences its conflict monitoring function. In this multimodal study, we used T1-weighted MRI scans as well as event-related potentials (ERPs) to test whether the MCC gray matter volume is associated with the electrocortical marker (i.e., No-go N200 ERP component) of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals. The specificity of such a relationship in health was determined in two ways: by (A) acquiring the same data from individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD), known to have deficits in executive function including behavioral monitoring; and (B) acquiring the P300 ERP component that is linked with attention allocation and not specifically with conflict monitoring. Twenty-five (39.1 ± 8.4 years; 8 females) healthy individuals and 25 (42.7 ± 5.9 years; 6 females) individuals with CUD underwent a rewarded Go/No-go task during which the ERP data was collected, and they also underwent a structural MRI scan. The whole brain regression analysis showed a significant correlation between MCC structural integrity and the well-known ERP measure of conflict monitoring (N200, but not the P300) in healthy individuals, which was absent in CUD who were characterized by reduced MCC gray matter volume, N200 abnormalities as well as reduced task accuracy. In individuals with CUD instead, the N200 amplitude was associated with drug addiction symptomatology. These results show that the integrity of MCC volume is directly associated with the electrocortical correlates of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals, and such an association breaks down in psychopathologies that impact these brain processes. Taken together, this MCC-N200 association may serve as a biomarker of improved behavioral monitoring processes in diseased populations.

  15. Gray, White Matter Concentration Changes and Their Correlation with Heterotopic Neurons in Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tae, Woo Suk; Joo, Eun Yun; Kim, Sung Tae; Hong, Seung Bong [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-02-15

    To identify changes in gray and white matter concentrations (GMC, WMC), and their relation to heterotopic neuron numbers in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (mTLE). The gray matter or white matter concentrations of 16 left and 15 right mTLE patients who achieved an excellent surgical outcome were compared with those of 24 healthy volunteers for the left group and with 23 healthy volunteers for the right group, by optimized voxel-based morphometry using unmodulated and modulated images. A histologic count of heterotopic neurons was obtained in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe originating from the patients' surgical specimens. In addition, the number of heterotopic neurons were tested to determine if there was a correlation with the GMC or WMC. The GMCs of the left and right mTLE groups were reduced in the ipsilateral hippocampi, bilateral thalami, precentral gyri, and in the cerebellum. The WMCs were reduced in the ipsilateral white matter of the anterior temporal lobe, bilateral parahippocampal gyri, and internal capsules, but increased in the pons and bilateral precentral gyri. The heterotopic neuron counts in the left mTLE group showed a positive correlation (r = 0.819, p < 0.0001) with GMCs and a negative correlation (r = - 0.839, p < 0.0001) with WMCs in the white matter of the anterior temporal lobe. The present study shows the abnormalities of the cortico-thalamo- hippocampal network including a gray matter volume reduction in the anterior frontal lobes and an abnormality of brain tissue concentration in the pontine area. Furthermore, heterotopic neuron numbers were significantly correlated with GMC or WMC in the left white matter of anterior temporal lobe.

  16. Multimodal evidence of regional midcingulate gray matter volume underlying conflict monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parvaz, Muhammad A.; Maloney, Thomas; Moeller, Scott J.; Malaker, Pias; Konova, Anna B.; Alia-Klein, Nelly; Goldstein, Rita Z.

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies have long implicated the mid-cingulate cortex (MCC) in conflict monitoring, but it is not clear whether its structural integrity (i.e., the gray matter volume) influences its conflict monitoring function. In this multimodal study, we used T1-weighted MRI scans as well as event-related potentials (ERPs) to test whether the MCC gray matter volume is associated with the electrocortical marker (i.e., No-go N200 ERP component) of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals. The specificity of such a relationship in health was determined in two ways: by (A) acquiring the same data from individuals with cocaine use disorder (CUD), known to have deficits in executive function including behavioral monitoring; and (B) acquiring the P300 ERP component that is linked with attention allocation and not specifically with conflict monitoring. Twenty-five (39.1 ± 8.4 years; 8 females) healthy individuals and 25 (42.7 ± 5.9 years; 6 females) individuals with CUD underwent a rewarded Go/No-go task during which the ERP data was collected, and they also underwent a structural MRI scan. The whole brain regression analysis showed a significant correlation between MCC structural integrity and the well-known ERP measure of conflict monitoring (N200, but not the P300) in healthy individuals, which was absent in CUD who were characterized by reduced MCC gray matter volume, N200 abnormalities as well as reduced task accuracy. In individuals with CUD instead, the N200 amplitude was associated with drug addiction symptomatology. These results show that the integrity of MCC volume is directly associated with the electrocortical correlates of conflict monitoring in healthy individuals, and such an association breaks down in psychopathologies that impact these brain processes. Taken together, this MCC–N200 association may serve as a biomarker of improved behavioral monitoring processes in diseased populations. PMID:24918068

  17. The relation between gray matter morphology and divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janna Cousijn

    Full Text Available Adolescence and early adulthood are developmental time periods during which creative cognition is highly important for adapting to environmental changes. Divergent thinking, which refers to generating novel and useful solutions to open-ended problems, has often been used as a measure of creative cognition. The first goal of this structural neuroimaging study was to elucidate the relationship between gray matter morphology and performance in the verbal (AUT; alternative uses task and visuo-spatial (CAT; creative ability test domain of divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. The second goal was to test if gray matter morphology is related to brain activity during AUT performance. Neural and behavioral data were combined from a cross-sectional study including 25 adolescents aged 15-17 and 20 young adults aged 25-30. Brain-behavior relationships were assessed without a priori location assumptions and within areas that were activated during an AUT-scanner task. Gray matter volume and cortical thickness were not significantly associated with verbal divergent thinking. However, visuo-spatial divergent thinking (CAT originality and fluency was positively associated with cortical thickness of the right middle temporal gyrus and left brain areas including the superior frontal gyrus and various occipital, parietal, and temporal areas, independently of age. AUT brain activity was not associated with cortical thickness. The results support an important role of a widespread brain network involved in flexible visuo-spatial divergent thinking, providing evidence for a relation between cortical thickness and visuo-spatial divergent thinking in adolescents and young adults. However, studies including visuo-spatial divergent thinking tasks in the scanner are warranted.

  18. Effects of saturation and contrast polarity on the figure-ground organization of color on gray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresp-Langley, Birgitta; Reeves, Adam

    2014-01-01

    Poorly saturated colors are closer to a pure gray than strongly saturated ones and, therefore, appear less "colorful."Color saturation is effectively manipulated in the visual arts for balancing conflicting sensations and moods and for inducing the perception of relative distance in the pictorial plane. While perceptual science has proven quite clearly that the luminance contrast of any hue acts as a self-sufficient cue to relative depth in visual images, the role of color saturation in such figure-ground organization has remained unclear. We presented configurations of colored inducers on gray "test" backgrounds to human observers. Luminance and saturation of the inducers was uniform on each trial, but varied across trials. We ran two separate experimental tasks. In the relative background brightness task, perceptual judgments indicated whether the apparent brightness of the gray test background contrasted with, assimilated to, or appeared equal (no effect) to that of a comparison background with the same luminance contrast. Contrast polarity and its interaction with color saturation affected response proportions for contrast, assimilation and no effect. In the figure-ground task, perceptual judgments indicated whether the inducers appeared to lie in front of, behind, or in the same depth with the background. Strongly saturated inducers produced significantly larger proportions of foreground effects indicating that these inducers stand out as figure against the background. Weakly saturated inducers produced significantly larger proportions of background effects, indicating that these inducers are perceived as lying behind the backgrounds. We infer that color saturation modulates figure-ground organization, both directly by determining relative inducer depth, and indirectly, and in interaction with contrast polarity, by affecting apparent background brightness. The results point toward a hitherto undocumented functional role of color saturation in the genesis of

  19. Gray matter volume reduction in rostral middle frontal gyrus in patients with chronic schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kikinis, Z; Fallon, J H; Niznikiewicz, M; Nestor, P; Davidson, C; Bobrow, L; Pelavin, P E; Fischl, B; Yendiki, A; McCarley, R W; Kikinis, R; Kubicki, M; Shenton, M E

    2010-11-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) is a brain region that has figured prominently in studies of schizophrenia and working memory, yet the exact neuroanatomical localization of this brain region remains to be defined. DLPFC primarily involves the superior frontal gyrus and middle frontal gyrus (MFG). The latter, however is not a single neuroanatomical entity but instead is comprised of rostral (anterior, middle, and posterior) and caudal regions. In this study we used structural MRI to develop a method for parcellating MFG into its component parts. We focused on this region of DLPFC because it includes BA46, a region involved in working memory. We evaluated volume differences in MFG in 20 patients with chronic schizophrenia and 20 healthy controls. Mid-rostral MFG (MR-MFG) was delineated within the rostral MFG using anterior and posterior neuroanatomical landmarks derived from cytoarchitectonic definitions of BA46. Gray matter volumes of MR-MFG were then compared between groups, and a significant reduction in gray matter volume was observed (p<0.008), but not in other areas of MFG (i.e., anterior or posterior rostral MFG, or caudal regions of MFG). Our results demonstrate that volumetric alterations in MFG gray matter are localized exclusively to MR-MFG. 3D reconstructions of the cortical surface made it possible to follow MFG into its anterior part, where other approaches have failed. This method of parcellation offers a more precise way of measuring MR-MFG that will likely be important in further documentation of DLPFC anomalies in schizophrenia. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Gene x Disease Interaction on Orbitofrontal Gray Matter in Cocaine Addiction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alia-Klein, N.; Alia-Klein, N.; Parvaz, M.A.; Woicik, P.A.; Konova, A.B.; Maloney, T.; Shumay, E.; Wang, R.; Telang, F.; Biegon, A.; Wang, G.-J.; Fowler, J.S.; Tomasi, D.; Volkow, N.D.; Goldstein, R.Z.

    2011-03-07

    Long-term cocaine use has been associated with structural deficits in brain regions having dopamine-receptive neurons. However, the concomitant use of other drugs and common genetic variability in monoamine regulation present additional structural variability. The objective is to examine variations in gray matter volume (GMV) as a function of lifetime drug use and the genotype of the monoamine oxidase A gene, MAOA, in men with cocaine use disorders (CUD) and healthy male controls. Forty individuals with CUD and 42 controls who underwent magnetic resonance imaging to assess GMV and were genotyped for the MAOA polymorphism (categorized as high- and low-repeat alleles). The impact of cocaine addiction on GMV, tested by (1) comparing the CUD group with controls, (2) testing diagnosis x MAOA interactions, and (3) correlating GMV with lifetime cocaine, alcohol, and cigarette smoking, and testing their unique contribution to GMV beyond other factors. The results are: (1) Individuals with CUD had reductions in GMV in the orbitofrontal, dorsolateral prefrontal, and temporal cortex and the hippocampus compared with controls; (2) The orbitofrontal cortex reductions were uniquely driven by CUD with low- MAOA genotype and by lifetime cocaine use; and (3) The GMV in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus was driven by lifetime alcohol use beyond the genotype and other pertinent variables. Long-term cocaine users with the low-repeat MAOA allele have enhanced sensitivity to gray matter loss, specifically in the orbitofrontal cortex, indicating that this genotype may exacerbate the deleterious effects of cocaine in the brain. In addition, long-term alcohol use is a major contributor to gray matter loss in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and hippocampus, and is likely to further impair executive function and learning in cocaine addiction.

  1. Structured Light Based 3d Scanning for Specular Surface by the Combination of Gray Code and Phase Shifting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yujia; Yilmaz, Alper

    2016-06-01

    Surface reconstruction using coded structured light is considered one of the most reliable techniques for high-quality 3D scanning. With a calibrated projector-camera stereo system, a light pattern is projected onto the scene and imaged by the camera. Correspondences between projected and recovered patterns are computed in the decoding process, which is used to generate 3D point cloud of the surface. However, the indirect illumination effects on the surface, such as subsurface scattering and interreflections, will raise the difficulties in reconstruction. In this paper, we apply maximum min-SW gray code to reduce the indirect illumination effects of the specular surface. We also analysis the errors when comparing the maximum min-SW gray code and the conventional gray code, which justifies that the maximum min-SW gray code has significant superiority to reduce the indirect illumination effects. To achieve sub-pixel accuracy, we project high frequency sinusoidal patterns onto the scene simultaneously. But for specular surface, the high frequency patterns are susceptible to decoding errors. Incorrect decoding of high frequency patterns will result in a loss of depth resolution. Our method to resolve this problem is combining the low frequency maximum min-SW gray code and the high frequency phase shifting code, which achieves dense 3D reconstruction for specular surface. Our contributions include: (i) A complete setup of the structured light based 3D scanning system; (ii) A novel combination technique of the maximum min-SW gray code and phase shifting code. First, phase shifting decoding with sub-pixel accuracy. Then, the maximum min-SW gray code is used to resolve the ambiguity resolution. According to the experimental results and data analysis, our structured light based 3D scanning system enables high quality dense reconstruction of scenes with a small number of images. Qualitative and quantitative comparisons are performed to extract the advantages of our new

  2. White versus gray matter function as seen on neuropsychological testing following bone marrow transplant for acute leukemia in childhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fiona S Anderson

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Fiona S Anderson1, Alicia S Kunin-Batson1, Joanna L Perkins2, K Scott Baker31Divisions of Pediatric Clinical Neuroscience; 2Department of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology, Children’s Hospitals and Clinics, Minneapolis, MN, USA and 3Hematology/Oncology/BMT, Department of Pediatrics, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN, USAAbstract: Current theory suggests that neurocognitive late effects of treatments for childhood cancer such as difficulties with attention, processing speed and visual-motor ability are the result of white matter damage. Neuroimaging studies have produced a variety of white matter findings. However, although white matter is thought to be differentially affected, previous studies have not demonstrated a discrepancy between white and gray matter function. The present study included 36 children treated for childhood leukemia with hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HCT. Their performance on neurocognitive measures traditionally thought to measure white matter was compared to performance on measures thought to measure gray matter function. Composite white and gray matter standard scores were created based on neuropsychological measures that individuals with known white or gray matter damage perform poorly. As predicted, composite white matter scores (mean = 98.1 were significantly lower (t = 2.26, p = 0.03 than composite gray matter scores (mean = 102.5. Additionally, as gray matter performance increased, the difference between gray and white matter scores increased (R = 0.353, p = 0.035. Overall, the results of this study support the current theory that white matter damage is responsible for the more subtle neurocognitive late effects resulting from treatment for childhood leukemia.Keywords: late effects of cancer treatment, leukemia, neuropsychology, white matter, brain function

  3. Global and regional associations of smaller cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait in older people.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele L Callisaya

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Gait impairments increase with advancing age and can lead to falls and loss of independence. Brain atrophy also occurs in older age and may contribute to gait decline. We aimed to investigate global and regional relationships of cerebral gray and white matter volumes with gait speed, and its determinants step length and cadence, in older people. METHODS: In a population-based study, participants aged >60 years without Parkinson's disease or brain infarcts underwent magnetic resonance imaging and gait measurements using a computerized walkway. Linear regression was used to study associations of total gray and white matter volumes with gait, adjusting for each other, age, sex, height and white matter hyperintensity volume. Other covariates considered in analyses included weight and vascular disease history. Voxel-based morphometry was used to study regional relationships of gray and white matter with gait. RESULTS: There were 305 participants, mean age 71.4 (6.9 years, 54% male, mean gait speed 1.16 (0.22 m/s. Smaller total gray matter volume was independently associated with poorer gait speed (p = 0.001 and step length (p<0.001, but not cadence. Smaller volumes of cortical and subcortical gray matter in bilateral regions important for motor control, vision, perception and memory were independently associated with slower gait speed and shorter steps. No global or regional associations were observed between white matter volume and gait independent of gray matter volume, white matter hyperintensity volume and other covariates. CONCLUSION: Smaller gray matter volume in bilaterally distributed brain networks serving motor control was associated with slower gait speed and step length, but not cadence.

  4. Optimized VBM in patients with Alzheimer's disease: gray matter loss and its correlation with cognitive function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seon Hyeong; Moon, Won Jin; Chung, Eun Chul; Lee, Min Hee; Roh, Hong Gee; Park, Kwang Bo; Na, Duck Ryul [Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    To investigate the regional changes in gray matter volume by using optimized voxel based morphometry in the whole brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD) and to determine its correlation with cognitive function. Nineteen patients with AD (mean mini mental state examination (MMSE) score = 20.4) and 19 age-matched control subjects (mean MMSE score 29) participated in this prospective study. T1-weighted 3D-SPGR scans were obtained for each subject. These T1-weighted images were spatially normalized into study-specific T1 template and segmented into gray matter, white matter and CSF. After the images were modulated and smoothed, all of the gray matter images were compared with control images by using voxel-wise statistical parametric test (two-sample-test). In patients with AD, total gray matter volume was significantly smaller than normal control (552 {+-} 39 mL vs. 632 {+-} 51 mL, {rho} 0.001). Significant gray matter loss was seen in both the hippocampus and amygdala complexs, and the parahippocampi and frontoparietal cortices ({rho} < 0.01, family wise error corrected). Left cerebral atrophy was more prominent than the right. Loss of gray matter volume in both the superior frontal gyri and left inferior temporal gyrus had a strong correlation with lower MMSE score. Optimized VBM was able to visualize pathologic changes of AD in vivo. In AD there was widespread gray matter volume loss in the frontoparietal lobes as well as the medial temporal lobes and had a strong correlation between volume loss of specific cortical areas and MMSE score.

  5. The FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Hopper, T. [Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-05-01

    The FBI has recently adopted a standard for the compression of digitized 8-bit gray-scale fingerprint images. The standard is based on scalar quantization of a 64-subband discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by Huffman coding. Novel features of the algorithm include the use of symmetric boundary conditions for transforming finite-length signals and a subband decomposition tailored for fingerprint images scanned at 500 dpi. The standard is intended for use in conjunction with ANSI/NBS-CLS 1-1993, American National Standard Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint Information, and the FBI`s Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

  6. The FBI wavelet/scalar quantization standard for gray-scale fingerprint image compression

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, J.N.; Brislawn, C.M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)); Hopper, T. (Federal Bureau of Investigation, Washington, DC (United States))

    1993-01-01

    The FBI has recently adopted a standard for the compression of digitized 8-bit gray-scale fingerprint images. The standard is based on scalar quantization of a 64-subband discrete wavelet transform decomposition of the images, followed by Huffman coding. Novel features of the algorithm include the use of symmetric boundary conditions for transforming finite-length signals and a subband decomposition tailored for fingerprint images scanned at 500 dpi. The standard is intended for use in conjunction with ANSI/NBS-CLS 1-1993, American National Standard Data Format for the Interchange of Fingerprint Information, and the FBI's Integrated Automated Fingerprint Identification System.

  7. Checking Fine and Gray subdistribution hazards model with cumulative sums of residuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Jianing; Scheike, Thomas; Zhang, Mei Jie

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Fine and Gray (J Am Stat Assoc 94:496–509, 1999) proposed a semi-parametric proportional regression model for the subdistribution hazard function which has been used extensively for analyzing competing risks data. However, failure of model adequacy could lead to severe bias in parameter...... estimation, and only a limited contribution has been made to check the model assumptions. In this paper, we present a class of analytical methods and graphical approaches for checking the assumptions of Fine and Gray’s model. The proposed goodness-of-fit test procedures are based on the cumulative sums...

  8. NOTE - Genetic control of resistance to gray leaf spot of maize in tropical germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Humberto de Brito

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study was to assess the nature and magnitude of gene effects for resistance to Cercospora leaf spot. A randomized block design with three replications was used. The data were obtained at the plant level by assessing the disease severity. The data were analyzed per experiment, using the average data per plot. A dominant-additive genetic model without epistasis was considered, with estimation of the components of means and variance. The genetic control of resistance to gray leaf spot is polygenic with predominance of the additive effects. Dominance was observed in a few small-effect loci and high heritability values.

  9. Single application prophylaxis against gray mold in pot rose and pelargonium with Ulocladium atrum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yohalem, D S; Paaske, K; Kristensen, K

    2007-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to clarify the optimal dose and timing of single applications of Ulocladium atrum for control of gray mold on pot rose and pelargonium under conditions similar to those found in commercial greenhouses. In general, application of the antagonist 1-d prior to infestation...... with conidia of Botrytis cinerea was more effective than application after the infection period. For pot rose, the minimum effective dose when compared to the fungicide fenhexamid was 106 conidia ml-1 and persisted for up to 21-d in direct comparison to the fungicide. The effect of pre-emptive application...

  10. CNNs flag recognition preprocessing scheme based on gray scale stretching and local binary pattern

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Qian; Qu, Zhiyi; Hao, Kun

    2017-07-01

    Flag is a rather special recognition target in image recognition because of its non-rigid features with the location, scale and rotation characteristics. The location change can be handled well by the depth learning algorithm Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs), but the scale and rotation changes are quite a challenge for CNNs. Since it has good rotation and gray scale invariance, the local binary pattern (LBP) is combined with grayscale stretching and CNNs to make LBP and grayscale stretching as CNNs pretreatment, which can not only significantly improve the efficiency of flag recognition, but can also evaluate the recognition effect through ROC, accuracy, MSE and quality factor.

  11. The Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus in the state of Guerrero, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epifanio Blancas-Calva

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We recorded the Blue-gray Tanager (Thraupis episcopus on the southeastern coastal plain of the state of Guerrero, Mexico, in urban areas with cover of scattered trees of native and introduced species. The current range known for this taxon comprises lowlands of eastern Mexico, from south-central Nuevo Leon to the Yucatan peninsula, including eastern Oaxaca and the Pacific slope on the coastal plain of Chiapas. However, there are no published previous records of the species in Guerrero. Possibly T. episcopus is a species that has expanded its range in episodes of active dispersal.

  12. Aestheticism and decadentism in Wilde and Huysmans’ dandies: Portraits of Dorian Gray and Des Esseintes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enéias Farias Tavares

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, I will discuss the figuration of the dandy character in the field of literary production. Initially I discuss its origin during the nineteenth century in French and English contexts. In order to understand this characterization, I will analyze the characterization of the characters of the novels À rebours by J. K. Huysmans and The Picture of Dorian Gray, by Oscar Wilde. As a methodology I intend to search in the field of literary studies which are the formative elements of the dandy in the works of the above mentioned authors.

  13. Extinguishing a learned response in a free-ranging gray wolf (Canis lupus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David

    2017-01-01

    A free-ranging Gray Wolf (Canis lupus), habituated to human presence (the author) on Ellesmere Island, Canada, learned to anticipate experimental feeding by a human, became impatient, persistent, and bold and exhibited stalking behaviour toward the food source. Only after the author offered the wolf about 90 clumps of dry soil over a period of 45 minutes in three bouts, did the wolf give up this behaviour. To my knowledge, this is the first example of extinguishing a learned response in a free-ranging wolf and provides new insight into the learning behaviour of such animals.

  14. Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Beek, Martijn van; Skewes, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    density in lower brain stem regions of experienced meditators compared with age-matched nonmeditators. Our findings show that long-term practitioners of meditation have structural differences in brainstem regions concerned with cardiorespiratory control. This could account for some......Extensive practice involving sustained attention can lead to changes in brain structure. Here, we report evidence of structural differences in the lower brainstem of participants engaged in the long-term practice of meditation. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter...

  15. Regional volumes and spatial volumetric distribution of gray matter in the gender dysphoric brain.

    OpenAIRE

    Hoekzema, Elseline; Schagen, Sebastian E. E.; Kreukels, Baudewijntje P. C.; Veltman, Dick J.; Cohen-Kettenis, Peggy T.; Delemarre-van de Waal, Henriette; Bakker, Julie

    2015-01-01

    The sexual differentiation of the brain is primarily driven by gonadal hormones during fetal development. Leading theories on the etiology of gender dysphoria (GD) involve deviations herein. To examine whether there are signs of a sex-atypical brain development in GD, we quantified regional neural gray matter (GM) volumes in 55 female-to-male and 38 male-to-female adolescents, 44 boys and 52 girls without GD and applied both univariate and multivariate analyses. In girls, more GM volume was o...

  16. Speed control of boiler feed water pump turbine based on gray correlation compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yun Long; Wang, Di; Zhou, Hai Chun [Northeast Dianli UniversityJilin (China)

    2017-01-15

    One of the most important controlled parameters of thermal power units is the boiler drum water level. Disturbances of feed water flow rate could cause instability of the drum water level. This study proposes the Gray correlation compensation (GCC) control technology for the Boiler feed water pump turbine (BFPT) to solve this problem. Simulation results indicate that the GCC controller outperforms the traditional proportional-integral-derivative controller when it encounters different disturbances. Furthermore, the GCC controller can rapidly switch to the high-pressure steam source to ensure that the drum water level is in the secure range during steam source switching of the BFPT.

  17. Long-term meditation is associated with increased gray matter density in the brain stem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard-Poulsen, Peter; Beek, Martijn van; Skewes, Joshua

    2009-01-01

    Extensive practice involving sustained attention can lead to changes in brain structure. Here, we report evidence of structural differences in the lower brainstem of participants engaged in the long-term practice of meditation. Using magnetic resonance imaging, we observed higher gray matter...... density in lower brain stem regions of experienced meditators compared with age-matched nonmeditators. Our findings show that long-term practitioners of meditation have structural differences in brainstem regions concerned with cardiorespiratory control. This could account for some...... of the cardiorespiratory parasympathetic effects and traits, as well as the cognitive, emotional, and immunoreactive impact reported in several studies of different meditation practices....

  18. Relationship between snow depth and gray wolf predation on white-tailed deer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, M.E.; Mech, L.D.

    1986-01-01

    Survival of 203 yearling and adult white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) was monitored for 23,441 deer days from January through April 1975-85 in northeastern Minnesota. Gray wolf (Canis lupus) predation was the primary mortality cause, and from year to year during this period, the mean predation rate ranged from 0.00 to 0.29. The sum of weekly snow depths/month explained 51% of the variation in annual wolf predation rate, with the highest predation during the deepest snow.

  19. Helianthus debilis Nuttall subsp. cucumerifolius (Torrey & A. Gray Heiser (Asteraceae, a Newly Naturalized Plant in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yen-Hsueh Tseng

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available We document the naturalization of the New World Helianthus debilis Nuttall subsp. cucumerifolius (Torrey & A. Gray Heiser in central Taiwan. A taxonomic treatment, line drawings, and color photographs of this species from the wild are provided to aid in identification. This represents the first report of Helianthus species in Taiwan. The colony of H. debilis subsp. cucumerifolius was first observed in Taiwan in 1999. During our field survey in 2007 we witnessed the significant range expansion though the coast of Changhua County. The potential of H. debilis subsp. cucumerifolius to become an invasive species in Taiwan is worthy of attention.

  20. Buffer zones of territories of gray wolves as regions of intraspecific strife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    1994-01-01

    The locations of 22 territorial gray wolves (Canis lupus) killed by conspecifics in northeastern Minnesota were analyzed in a study involving radio-telemetry from 1968 through 1992. Twenty-three percent of the wolves were killed precisely on the borders of their estimated territories; 41%, within 1.0 km (16% of the radius of their mean-estimated territory) inside or outside the estimated edge; 91%, within 3.2 km inside or outside (50% of the radius of their mean-estimated territory) of the estimated edge. This appears to be the first report of intraspecific mortality of mammals along territorial boundaries.

  1. QR code based noise-free optical encryption and decryption of a gray scale image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Shuming; Zou, Wenbin; Li, Xia

    2017-03-01

    In optical encryption systems, speckle noise is one major challenge in obtaining high quality decrypted images. This problem can be addressed by employing a QR code based noise-free scheme. Previous works have been conducted for optically encrypting a few characters or a short expression employing QR codes. This paper proposes a practical scheme for optically encrypting and decrypting a gray-scale image based on QR codes for the first time. The proposed scheme is compatible with common QR code generators and readers. Numerical simulation results reveal the proposed method can encrypt and decrypt an input image correctly.

  2. Ways of distinguishing epigenetic types of gray-colored rocks in sheet-infiltration deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasulova, S.D.; Yashunskii, Yu.V.

    1994-01-01

    At an infiltration deposit of uranium in Upper-Cretaceous sandy-clay alluvial deposits (Central Kyzylkum), six stages of postsedimentation epigenetic transformations were distinguished. The genesis of altered rocks was determined mostly by mineralogical methods. A new methodological technique is suggested, which calls for analysis of the textural, structural, and mineral correspondence of ferruginous components of gray-colored and oxidized rocks in the region of their contact and makes it possible to typify epigenetic changes in conditions of repeated change in the direction of geochemical processes

  3. Del ciborg a la realidad aumentada. coloquio Gray - Mentor - Figueroa - Sarriera

    OpenAIRE

    Sádaba Rodríguez, Igor; Gordo López, Ángel Juan

    2010-01-01

    La publicación en 1985 del Manifiesto ciborg, de Donna Haraway, tuvo un efecto explosivo en los estudios de ciencia, tecnología y sociedad. Sirvió como catalizador de una ruptura definitiva y largamente augurada con los estudios de historia y filosofía y de la ciencia tradicionales y supuso una apertura a territorios conceptuales novedosos, en los que se entreveraban la informática, la filosofía, la teoría literaria, la semiótica o la ciencia ficción. Chris H. Gray, Heidi Sarriera-Figueroa y ...

  4. Measuring adult literacy students' reading skills using the Gray Oral Reading Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Daphne; Pae, Hye Kyeong; Morris, Robin D; Calhoon, Mary Beth; Nanda, Alice O

    2009-12-01

    There are not enough reading tests standardized on adults who have very low literacy skills, and therefore tests standardized on children are frequently administered. This study addressed the complexities and problems of using a test normed on children to measure the reading comprehension skills of 193 adults who read at approximately third through fifth grade reading grade equivalency levels. Findings are reported from an analysis of the administration of Form A of the Gray Oral Reading Tests-Fourth Edition (Wiederholt & Bryant, 2001a, b). Results indicated that educators and researchers should be very cautious when interpreting test results of adults who have difficulty reading when children's norm-referenced tests are administered.

  5. Dysphonia Severity Index in Typically Developing Indian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pebbili, Gopi Kishore; Kidwai, Juhi; Shabnam, Srushti

    2017-01-01

    Dysphonia is a variation in an individual's quality, pitch, or loudness from the voice characteristics typical of a speaker of similar age, gender, cultural background, and geographic location. Dysphonia Severity Index (DSI) is a recognized assessment tool based on a weighted combination of maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter (%) of an individual. Although dysphonia in adults is accurately evaluated using DSI, standard reference values for school-age children have not been studied. This study aims to document the DSI scores in typically developing children (8-12 years). A total of 42 typically developing children (8-12 years) without complaint of voice problem on the day of testing participated in the study. DSI was computed by substituting the raw scores of substituent parameters: maximum phonation time, highest frequency, lowest intensity, and jitter% using various modules of CSL 4500 software. The average DSI values obtained in children were 2.9 (1.23) and 3.8 (1.29) for males and females, respectively. DSI values are found to be significantly higher (P = 0.027) for females than those for males in Indian children. This could be attributed to the anatomical and behavioral differences among females and males. Further, pubertal changes set in earlier for females approximating an adult-like physiology, thereby leading to higher DSI values in them. The mean DSI value obtained for male and female Indian children can be used as a preliminary reference data against which the DSI values of school-age children with dysphonia can be compared. Copyright © 2017 The Voice Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A generalized window energy rating system for typical office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tian, Cheng; Chen, Tingyao; Yang, Hongxing; Chung, Tse-ming [Research Center for Building Environmental Engineering, Department of Building Services Engineering, The Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hong Kong (China)

    2010-07-15

    Detailed computer simulation programs require lengthy inputs, and cannot directly provide an insight to relationship between the window energy performance and the key window design parameters. Hence, several window energy rating systems (WERS) for residential houses and small buildings have been developed in different countries. Many studies showed that utilization of daylight through elaborate design and operation of windows leads to significant energy savings in both cooling and lighting in office buildings. However, the current WERSs do not consider daylighting effect, while most of daylighting analyses do not take into account the influence of convective and infiltration heat gains. Therefore, a generalized WERS for typical office buildings has been presented, which takes all primary influence factors into account. The model includes embodied and operation energy uses and savings by a window to fully reflect interactions among the influence parameters. Reference locations selected for artificial lighting and glare control in the current common simulation practice may cause uncompromised conflicts, which could result in over- or under-estimated energy performance. Widely used computer programs, DOE2 and ADELINE, for hourly daylighting and cooling simulations have their own weaknesses, which may result in unrealistic or inaccurate results. An approach is also presented for taking the advantages of the both programs and avoiding their weaknesses. The model and approach have been applied to a typical office building of Hong Kong as an example to demonstrate how a WERS in a particular location can be established and how well the model can work. The energy effect of window properties, window-to-wall ratio (WWR), building orientation and lighting control strategies have been analyzed, and can be indicated by the localized WERS. An application example also demonstrates that the algebraic WERS derived from simulation results can be easily used for the optimal design of

  7. Benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, William F; Vázquez, Diego P; Chacoff, Natacha P

    2010-05-01

    Mutualisms provide benefits to interacting species, but they also involve costs. If costs come to exceed benefits as population density or the frequency of encounters between species increases, the interaction will no longer be mutualistic. Thus curves that represent benefits and costs as functions of interaction frequency are important tools for predicting when a mutualism will tip over into antagonism. Currently, most of what we know about benefit and cost curves in pollination mutualisms comes from highly specialized pollinating seed-consumer mutualisms, such as the yucca moth-yucca interaction. There, benefits to female reproduction saturate as the number of visits to a flower increases (because the amount of pollen needed to fertilize all the flower's ovules is finite), but costs continue to increase (because pollinator offspring consume developing seeds), leading to a peak in seed production at an intermediate number of visits. But for most plant-pollinator mutualisms, costs to the plant are more subtle than consumption of seeds, and how such costs scale with interaction frequency remains largely unknown. Here, we present reasonable benefit and cost curves that are appropriate for typical pollinator-plant interactions, and we show how they can result in a wide diversity of relationships between net benefit (benefit minus cost) and interaction frequency. We then use maximum-likelihood methods to fit net-benefit curves to measures of female reproductive success for three typical pollination mutualisms from two continents, and for each system we chose the most parsimonious model using information-criterion statistics. We discuss the implications of the shape of the net-benefit curve for the ecology and evolution of plant-pollinator mutualisms, as well as the challenges that lie ahead for disentangling the underlying benefit and cost curves for typical pollination mutualisms.

  8. SSI response of a typical shear wall structure. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, J.J.; Schewe, E.C.; Maslenikov, O.R.

    1984-04-01

    The Simplified Methods project of the US NRC-funded Seismic Safety Margins Research Program (SSMRP) has as its goal the development of a methodology to perform routine seismic probabilistic risk assessments of commercial nuclear power plants. The study reported here develops calibration factors to relate best estimate response to design values accounting for approximations and simplifications in SSI analysis procedures. Nineteen cases were analyzed and in-structure response compared. The structure of interest was a typical shear wall structure. 6 references, 44 figures, 22 tables

  9. Typical exposure of children to EMF: exposimetry and dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valic, Blaz; Kos, Bor; Gajsek, Peter

    2015-01-01

    A survey study with portable exposimeters, worn by 21 children under the age of 17, and detailed measurements in an apartment above a transformer substation were carried out to determine the typical individual exposure of children to extremely low- and radio-frequency (RF) electromagnetic field. In total, portable exposimeters were worn for >2400 h. Based on the typical individual exposure the in situ electric field and specific absorption rate (SAR) values were calculated for an 11-y-old female human model. The average exposure was determined to be low compared with ICNIRP reference levels: 0.29 μT for an extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic field and 0.09 V m -1 for GSM base stations, 0.11 V m -1 for DECT and 0.10 V m -1 for WiFi; other contributions could be neglected. However, some of the volunteers were more exposed: the highest realistic exposure, to which children could be exposed for a prolonged period of time, was 1.35 μT for ELF magnetic field and 0.38 V m -1 for DECT, 0.13 V m -1 for WiFi and 0.26 V m -1 for GSM base stations. Numerical calculations of the in situ electric field and SAR values for the typical and the worst-case situation show that, compared with ICNIRP basic restrictions, the average exposure is low. In the typical exposure scenario, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.03 % and the RF exposure <0.001 % of the corresponding basic restriction. In the worst-case situation, the extremely low frequency exposure is <0.11 % and the RF exposure <0.007 % of the corresponding basic restrictions. Analysis of the exposures and the individual's perception of being exposed/ unexposed to an ELF magnetic field showed that it is impossible to estimate the individual exposure to an ELF magnetic field based only on the information provided by the individuals, as they do not have enough knowledge and information to properly identify the sources in their vicinity. (authors)

  10. The Compositions: Biodegradable Material - Typical Resin, as Moulding Sands’ Binders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Major-Gabryś K.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents possibility of using biodegradable materials as parts of moulding sands’ binders based on commonly used in foundry practice resins. The authors focus on thermal destruction of binding materials and thermal deformation of moulding sands with tested materials. All the research is conducted for the biodegradable material and two typical resins separately. The point of the article is to show if tested materials are compatible from thermal destruction and thermal deformation points of view. It was proved that tested materials characterized with similar thermal destruction but thermal deformation of moulding sands with those binders was different.

  11. Monte Carlo based radial shield design of typical PWR reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gul, Anas; Khan, Rustam; Qureshi, M. Ayub; Azeem, Muhammad Waqar; Raza, S.A. [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Stummer, Thomas [Technische Univ. Wien (Austria). Atominst.

    2016-11-15

    Neutron and gamma flux and dose equivalent rate distribution are analysed in radial and shields of a typical PWR type reactor based on the Monte Carlo radiation transport computer code MCNP5. The ENDF/B-VI continuous energy cross-section library has been employed for the criticality and shielding analysis. The computed results are in good agreement with the reference results (maximum difference is less than 56 %). It implies that MCNP5 a good tool for accurate prediction of neutron and gamma flux and dose rates in radial shield around the core of PWR type reactors.

  12. Lipomatosis of the sciatic nerve: typical and atypical MRI features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Bernadette Zhi Ying; Amrami, Kimberly K.; Wenger, Doris E.; Dyck, P. James B.; Scheithauer, Bernd W.; Spinner, Robert J.

    2006-01-01

    Lipomatosis of nerve, also known as fibrolipomatous hamartoma, is a rare condition of nerve, usually affecting the median nerve. The MRI appearance is characteristic. We describe two cases of lipomatosis of nerve involving the sciatic nerve, an extremely unusual location for this lesion, in patients with sciatic neuropathy. These cases share the typical features previously described in the literature for other nerves, but also contain atypical features not previously highlighted, relating to the variability in distribution and extent of the fatty deposition. Recognition of the MRI appearance of this entity is important in order to avoid unnecessary attempts at surgical resection of this lesion. (orig.)

  13. Characterising mechanical transmission wire ropes’ typical failure modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Espejo

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The National University of Colombia’s Engineering School’s AFIS research group has helped several public and private institutions during the last five years in analysing the causes of failures presented in elevation and trans- port machinery leading to expensive consequences and even the loss of life. A group of typical wire rope failure modes have been identified, along with their common causes. These are presented in this work to offer help to our industry’s engineers and technicians, allowing them to identify possible risk situations in their routine work regarding the wire ropes which they use and approaches for carrying out wire rope failure analysis.

  14. Typical IAEA operations at a fuel fabrication plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsy, S.

    1984-01-01

    The IAEA operations performed at a typical Fuel Fabrication Plant are explained. To make the analysis less general the case of Low Enriched Uranium (LEU) Fuel Fabrication Plants is considered. Many of the conclusions drawn from this analysis could be extended to other types of fabrication plants. The safeguards objectives and goals at LEU Fuel Fabrication Plants are defined followed by a brief description of the fabrication process. The basic philosophy behind nuclear material stratification and the concept of Material Balance Areas (MBA's) and Key Measurement Points (KMP's) is explained. The Agency operations and verification methods used during physical inventory verifications are illustrated

  15. Working memory training improves reading processes in typically developing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loosli, Sandra V; Buschkuehl, Martin; Perrig, Walter J; Jaeggi, Susanne M

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate whether a brief cognitive training intervention results in a specific performance increase in the trained task, and whether there are transfer effects to other nontrained measures. A computerized, adaptive working memory intervention was conducted with 9- to 11-year-old typically developing children. The children considerably improved their performance in the trained working memory task. Additionally, compared to a matched control group, the experimental group significantly enhanced their reading performance after training, providing further evidence for shared processes between working memory and reading.

  16. Assessment of the quality seen in a restaurant typical theme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Alves Pinheiro

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available To ensure the satisfaction of external customers it is necessary to know their needs. In this perspective, these work objectives assess the perception of quality by the customer outside of a restaurant located in the a restaurant typical theme located in the square of food “Bodódromo” the city of Petrolina/Pe. For both this was a case study, using the model servqual, Parasuraman et al (1985, for removal of information. The results indicated a need for improvement in the services provided by the restaurant.

  17. Hydrogen deflagration simulations under typical containment conditions for nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanez, J., E-mail: jorge.yanez@kit.edu [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Kotchourko, A.; Lelyakin, A. [Institute for Energy and Nuclear Technology, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Kaiserstrasse 12, 76131 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2012-09-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Lean H{sub 2}-air combustion experiments highly relevant to typical NPP simulated. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Analyzed effect of temperature, concentration of H{sub 2}, and steam concentration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Similar conditions and H{sub 2} concentration yielded different combustion regimes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Flame instabilities (FIs) were the effect driving divergences. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Model developed for acoustic FI in simulations. Agreement experiments obtained. - Abstract: This paper presents the modeling of low-concentration hydrogen deflagrations performed with the recently developed KYLCOM model specially created to perform calculations in large scale domains. Three experiments carried out in THAI facility (performed in the frames of international OECD THAI experimental program) were selected to be analyzed. The tests allow studying lean mixture hydrogen combustion at normal ambient, elevated temperature and superheated and saturated conditions. The experimental conditions considered together with the facility size and shape grant a high relevance degree to the typical NPP containment conditions. The results of the simulations were thoroughly compared with the experimental data, and the comparison was supplemented by the analysis of the combustion regimes taking place in the considered tests. Results of the analysis demonstrated that despite the comparatively small difference in mixture properties, three different combustion regimes can be definitely identified. The simulations of one of the cases required of the modeling of the acoustic-parametric instability which was carefully undertaken.

  18. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faghihi, F.; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile 239 Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m 2 ) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate 239 Pu production rate. Produced 239 Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, 239 Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type

  19. Plutonium-239 production rate study using a typical fusion reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faghihi, F. [Research Center for Radiation Protection, Shiraz University, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], E-mail: faghihif@shirazu.ac.ir; Havasi, H.; Amin-Mozafari, M. [Department of Nuclear Engineering, School of Engineering, Shiraz University, 71348-51154 Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    The purpose of the present paper is to compute fissile {sup 239}Pu material by supposed typical fusion reactor operation to make the fuel requirement for other purposes (e.g. MOX fissile fuel, etc.). It is assumed that there is a fusion reactor has a cylindrical geometry and uses uniformly distributed deuterium-tritium as fuel so that neutron wall load is taken at 10(MW)/(m{sup 2}) . Moreover, the reactor core is surrounded by six suggested blankets to make best performance of the physical conditions described herein. We determined neutron flux in each considered blanket as well as tritium self-sufficiency using two groups neutron energy and then computation is followed by the MCNP-4C code. Finally, material depletion according to a set of dynamical coupled differential equations is solved to estimate {sup 239}Pu production rate. Produced {sup 239}Pu is compared with two typical fission reactors to find performance of plutonium breeding ratio in the case of the fusion reactor. We found that 0.92% of initial U is converted into fissile Pu by our suggested fusion reactor with thermal power of 3000 MW. For comparison, {sup 239}Pu yield of suggested large scale PWR is about 0.65% and for LMFBR is close to 1.7%. The results show that the fusion reactor has an acceptable efficiency for Pu production compared with a large scale PWR fission reactor type.

  20. Daily intakes of naturally occurring radioisotopes in typical Korean foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Min-Seok; Lin Xiujing; Lee, Sun Ah; Kim, Wan; Kang, Hee-Dong; Doh, Sih-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Lee, Dong-Myung

    2008-01-01

    The concentrations of naturally occurring radioisotopes ( 232 Th, 228 Th, 230 Th, 228 Ra, 226 Ra, and 40 K) in typical Korean foods were evaluated. The daily intakes of these radioisotopes were calculated by comparing concentrations in typical Korean foods and the daily consumption rates of these foods. Daily intakes were as follows: 232 Th, 0.00-0.23; 228 Th, 0.00-2.04; 230 Th, 0.00-0.26; 228 Ra, 0.02-2.73; 226 Ra, 0.01-4.37 mBq/day; and 40 K, 0.01-5.71 Bq/day. The total daily intake of the naturally occurring radioisotopes measured in this study from food was 39.46 Bq/day. The total annual internal dose resulting from ingestion of radioisotopes in food was 109.83 μSv/y, and the radioisotope with the highest daily intake was 40 K. These values were same level compiled in other countries