WorldWideScience

Sample records for gravity meter system

  1. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  2. Automated Burris gravity meter for single and continuous observation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerhard Jentzsch

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The Burris Gravity Meter™ manufactured by ZLS Corporation, Austin/Texas, USA, is based on the invention of L&R (L. LaCoste and A. Romberg: The ZLS (zero-length spring. A digital feedback system (range of about 50 mGal is used to null the beam. Now, more than 120 gravity meters of this make exist worldwide and are used successfully in exploration, volcanology, geodetic work and surveying.The sensor is made of the well-known (L&R metal-alloy zero-length spring providing a low drift characteristic. The drifts observed are comparable to L&R gravimeters and are less than 0.3 mGal per month, which is much lower than the drifts known for the fused quartz sensors.The dial is calibrated every 50 mGal over the entire 7000 mGal meter range. Since the gravity value is determined at these points, there are no periodic errors. By a fourth heater circuit temperature effects are totally avoided. The gravity meter is controlled via Bluetooth® either to a handheld computer (tablet or a notebook computer.The feedback responds with high stability and accuracy. The nulling of the beam is controlled by the UltraGrav™ control system which incorporates an inherently linear PWM (pulse-width modulated electrostatic feedback system. In order to improve the handling of the gravimeter we have developed two Windows based programs: AGESfield for single measurements and AGEScont for continuous readings. Keywords: Gravimeter, Micro-gravity measurements, Drift, Resolution, Single and continuous observations

  3. Metering Plan: Intelligent Operational Strategies Through Enhanced Metering Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pope, Jason E.

    2016-07-27

    The Sustainability Program at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has adopted a “triple-bottom-line” approach of environmental stewardship, social responsibility, and economic prosperity to its operations. Metering at PNNL works in support of all three, specifically to measure and inform building energy use and greenhouse gas emissions and minimize water use. The foundation for metering at PNNL is a core goal set, which consists of four objectives: providing accurate data without interruption, analyzing data while it is still new, providing actionable recommendations to operations management, and ensuring PNNL’s compliance with contract metering requirements. These core objectives guide the decisions that we make during annual planning and as we operate throughout the year. This 2016 edition of the Metering Plan conveys the metering practices for and vision of the Sustainability Program. Changes in this plan from the 2015 edition include updated tables and an enhanced discussion on energy tracking systems used at PNNL. This plan also discusses updated benchmarking strategies using PNNL’s graphics and analytics tool, BuildingOS by Lucid Design Group. This plan presents our progress toward the metering goals shared by all federal agencies and highlights our successful completion of metering requirements. Currently, PNNL is fully compliant with the applicable legislative and Executive Order metering requirements. PNNL’s approach to the installation of new meters will be discussed. Perhaps most importantly, this plan details the analysis techniques utilized at PNNL that rely on the endless streams of data newly available as a result of increased meter deployment over the last several years. Previous Metering Plans have documented specific meter connection schemes as PNNL focused on deploying meters in a first step toward managing energy and water use. This plan serves not only to highlight PNNL’s successful completion of agency metering goals, but

  4. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi

    2015-01-01

    suppliers, but they can also play a big role in the control of the Microgrid since the recorded power and energy profiles can be integrated in energy management systems (EMS). In addition, basic power quality (PQ) disturbance can de detected and reported by some advanced metering systems. Thus, this paper...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  5. Borehole Gravity Meter Surveys at the Waste Treatment Plant, Hanford, Washington.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacQueen, Jeffrey D.; Mann, Ethan

    2007-04-06

    Microg-LaCoste (MGL) was contracted by Pacfic Northwest National Laboratories (PNNL) to record borehole gravity density data in 3 wells at the HanfordWaste Treatment Plant (WTP) site. The survey was designed to provide highly accurate density information for use in seismic modeling. The borehole gravity meter (BHGM) tool has a very large depth of investigation (hundreds of feet) compared to other density tools so it is not influenced by casing or near welbore effects, such as washouts.

  6. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  7. 39 CFR 501.15 - Computerized Meter Resetting System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Computerized Meter Resetting System. 501.15... AND DISTRIBUTE POSTAGE EVIDENCING SYSTEMS § 501.15 Computerized Meter Resetting System. (a) Description. The Computerized Meter Resetting System (CMRS) permits customers to reset their postage meters at...

  8. Borehole gravity meter survey in drill hole USW G-4, Yucca Mountain Area, Nye County, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Healey, D.L.; Clutsom, F.G.; Glover, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    Drill hole USW G-4 was logged with the US Geological Survey borehole gravity meter (BHGM) BH-6 as part of a detailed study of the lithostratigraphic units penetrated by this hole. Because the BHGM measures a larger volume of rock than the conventional gamma-gamma density tool, it provides an independent and more accurate measurement of the in situ average bulk density of thick lithologic units. USW G-4 is an especially important hole because of its proximity to the proposed exploratory shaft at Yucca Mountain. The BHGM data were reduced to interval densities using a free-air gradient (F) of 0.3083 mGal./m (0.09397 mGal/ft) measured at the drill site. The interval densities were further improved by employing an instrument correction factor of 1.00226. This factor was determined from measurements obtained by taking gravity meter BH-6 over the Charleston Peak calibration loop. The interval density data reported herein, should be helpful for planning the construction of the proposed shaft

  9. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  10. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  11. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans [comps.

    2011-12-15

    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  12. A simple reactivity-meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, P.S.B.

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes a new version of a reactivity meter developed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (IPEN) (Brazil). The reactivity meter computes the reactor reactivity utilizing a programmable electrometer that performs the data aquisition. The software commands the main functions of the electrometer, the data acquisition, data transfer, and reactivity calculation. The necessary hardware for this reactivity meter are a programmable electrometer, a microcomputer, and interfaces for the microcomputer to communicate with the electrometer. If it is necessary, it is possible to connect a graphic register to the microcomputer. With this conventional hardware, available in any nuclear reactor facility, one can build a powerful reactivity meter. Adding to these advantages, one can use the microcomputer on-line to analyze the data, store the data on diskettes, or create graphics

  13. Optical system for a universal luminance meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1965-01-01

    There is a need for luminance meters in various fields of photometry having these characteristics: a- objective method of measurements. b. variable shape and size of measurement area. c- absence of parallax during aiming operations. d- Possibility of observing the part of the field of view to be

  14. The accuracy of self monitoring blood glucose meter systems in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Many patients were referred to Kololo polyclinic laboratory to have their blood glucose checked because the values obtained on the patients' glucose meter systems did not tally with familiar clinical signs and symptoms. This prompted an experimental set up to check glucose meter systems using a larger number of patients.

  15. How Should Blood Glucose Meter System Analytical Performance Be Assessed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, David A

    2015-08-31

    Blood glucose meter system analytical performance is assessed by comparing pairs of meter system and reference instrument blood glucose measurements measured over time and across a broad array of glucose values. Consequently, no single, complete, and ideal parameter can fully describe the difference between meter system and reference results. Instead, a number of assessment tools, both graphical (eg, regression plots, modified Bland-Altman plots, and error grid analysis) and tabular (eg, International Organization for Standardization guidelines, mean absolute difference, and mean absolute relative difference) have been developed to evaluate meter system performance. The strengths and weaknesses of these methods of presenting meter system performance data, including a new method known as Radar Plots, are described here. © 2015 Diabetes Technology Society.

  16. A Novel Smart Meter Controlling System with Dynamic IP Addresses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manembu, Pinrolinvic; Welang, Brammy; Kalua Lapu, Aditya

    2017-01-01

    Smart meters are the electronic devices for measuring energy consumption in real time. Usually, static public IP addresses are allocated to realize the point-to-point (P2P) communication and remote controlling for smart metering systems. This, however, restricts the wide deployment of smart meters......, due to the deficiency of public IP resources. This paper proposes a novel subscription-based communication architecture for the support of dynamic IP addresses and group controlling of smart meters. The paper evaluates the proposed architecture by comparing the traditional P2P architecture...

  17. Guanabara Bay and Pecem LNG flexible metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Vinicus Roberto C.; Carvalho, Gustavo L.A.; Bruel, Edson L.; Santana, Jose P.C. de; Vidal, Lud C.C.N. [PETROBRAS S.A., Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2009-12-19

    This work presents to the community the metering systems installed in the Liquefied Natural (LNG) Gas Flexible Terminals of the Pecem Port and Guanabara Bay. A brief description of the Terminals facilities and its operation is firstly made to provide a background of the systems discussed. Then, the LNG custody transfer metering system, the operational control metering system, the energy balance of the LNG transferring system and the Natural Gas custody transfer metering system - that are our systems of interest - are described in detail. It is intended to use the philosophy adopted in the Guanabara Bay and Pecem Flexible Terminals design as a standard to future installations, integrated with improvements brought by the operation experience that will be obtained in those terminals. (author)

  18. How Down is a Downbeat? Feeling Meter and Gravity in Music and Dance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Still

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The idea that metrical accent might be related to an embodied sense of "up" and "down" is implied by the terms "upbeat" and "downbeat," and is central to theories of meter as gravitational field, such as those evolved by Robert Hatten and Steve Larson. Yet as Hatten himself notes, upbeats and downbeats do not always map conveniently on to upward or downward movements in dance. Drawing on ethnographic research among trainee ballet teachers and recent theories of musical meter, this article discusses some practical and theoretical problems that arise when trying to teach about meter in the context of ballet training. It is suggested that empathic listening and perspective taking, rather than appeals to common embodied experiences of meter, may be key to developing better interdisciplinary understanding between musicians and dancers.

  19. Design and Implementation of Enhanced Smart Energy Metering System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oday A.L.A Ridha

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the design and implementation of a smart energy metering system has been developed. This system consists of two parts: billing center and a set of distributed smart energy meters. The function of smart energy meter is measuring and calculating the cost of consumed energy according to a multi-tariff scheme. This can be effectively solving the problem of stressing the electrical grid and rising consumer awareness. Moreover, smart energy meter decreases technical losses by improving power factor. The function of the billing center is to issue a consumer bill and contributes in locating the irregularities on the electrical grid (non-technical losses. Moreover, it sends the switch off command in case of the consumer bill is not paid. For implementation of smart energy meter, the microcontroller (PIC 18F45K22 is used. For communication between billing center and smart energy meters, ZigBee technology is adopted. The necessary program for smart energy meter is written in MicroC PRO, while the program for billing center is written in visual C#.

  20. Analysing Smart Metering Systems from a Consumer Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yesudas, Rani

    Many countries are deploying smart meters and Advanced Metering Infrastructure systems as part of demand management and grid modernisation efforts. Several of these projects are facing consumer resistance. The advertised benefits to the consumer appear mainly monetary but detailed analysis shows that financial benefits are hard to realise since the fixed services charges are high. Additionally, the data collected from smart meters have security and privacy implications for the consumer. These projects failed to consider end-users as an important stakeholder group during planning stages resulting in the design and roll-out of expensive systems, which do not demonstrate clear consumer benefits. The overall goal of the research reported in this thesis was to improve the smart metering system to deliver consumer benefits that increase confidence and acceptance of these projects. The smart metering system was examined from an end-user perspective for realistic insights into consumer concerns. Processes from Design Science Research methodology were utilised to conduct this research due to the utilitarian nature of the objective. Consumer segmentation was central to the proposed measures. Initially, a consumer-friendly risk analysis framework was devised, and appropriate requirement elicitation techniques were identified. Control options for smart meter data transfer and storage were explored. Various scenarios were analysed to determine consumer-friendly features in the smart metering system, including control options for smart meter data transfer and storage. Proposed functionalities (billing choices, feedback information and specific configurations to match the needs of different user segments) were studied using the Australian smart metering system. Smart meters vary in capabilities depending on the manufacturer, mode and place of deployment. The research showed that features proposed in this thesis are implementable in smart meters, by examining their applicability

  1. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    the proposed benchmark using five representative platforms: a traditional numeric computing platform (Matlab), a relational DBMS with a built-in machine learning toolkit (PostgreSQL/MADlib), a main-memory column store (“System C”), and two distributed data processing platforms (Hive and Spark/Spark Streaming......Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature......-line feature extraction and model building as well a framework for on-line anomaly detection that we propose. Second, since obtaining real smart meter data is difficult due to privacy issues, we present an algorithm for generating large realistic data sets from a small seed of real data. Third, we implement...

  2. Vertebrate gravity sensors as dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers verterbrate gravity receptors as dynamic sensors. That is, it is hypothesized that gravity is a constant force to which an acceleration-sensing system would readily adapt. Premises are considered in light of the presence of kinocilia on hair cells of vertebrate gravity sensors; differences in loading of the sensors among species; and of possible reduction in loading by inclusion of much organic material in otoconia. Moreover, organic-inorganic interfaces may confer a piezoelectric property upon otoconia, which increase the sensitivity of the sensory system to small accelerations. Comparisons with man-made accelerometers are briefly taken up.

  3. The AFGL (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) Absolute Gravity System’s Error Budget Revisted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-08

    also be induced by equipment not associated with the system. A systematic bias of 68 pgal was observed by the Istituto di Metrologia "G. Colonnetti...Laboratory Astrophysics, Univ. of Colo., Boulder, Colo. IMGC: Istituto di Metrologia "G. Colonnetti", Torino, Italy Table 1. Absolute Gravity Values...measurements were made with three Model D and three Model G La Coste-Romberg gravity meters. These instruments were operated by the following agencies

  4. Near-surface current meter array measurements of internal gravity waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, H.B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    We have developed various processing algorithms used to estimate the wave forms produced by hydrodynamic Internal Waves. Furthermore, the estimated Internal Waves are used to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) which relates the current and strain rate subsurface fields to surface scattering phenomenon imaged by radar. Following a brief discussion of LLNL`s measurement platform (a 10 sensor current meter array) we described the generation of representative current and strain rate space-time images from measured or simulated data. Then, we present how our simulation capability highlighted limitations in estimating strain rate. These limitations spurred the application of beamforming techniques to enhance our estimates, albeit at the expense of collapsing our space-time images to 1-D estimates. Finally, we discuss progress with regard to processing the current meter array data captured during the recent Loch Linnhe field trials.

  5. Seismic-induced accelerations detected by two parallel gravity meters in continuous recording with a high sampling rate at Etna volcano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stefanelli

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available We analyse a microgravity data set acquired from two spring LaCoste & Romberg gravity meters operated in parallel at the same site on Etna volcano (Italy for about two months (August – September 2005. The high sampling rate acquisition (2Hz allowed the correlation of short-lasting gravity fluctuations with seismic events. After characterizing the oscillation behavior of the meters, through the study of spectral content and the background noise level of both sequences, we recognized fluctuations in the gravity data, spanning a range of periods from 1 second to about 30 seconds dominated by components with a period of about 15 ÷ 25 seconds, during time intervals encompassing both local seismic events and large worldwide earthquakes. The data analyses demonstrate that observed earthquake-induced gravity fluctuations have some differences due to diverse spectral content of the earthquakes. When local seismic events which present high frequency content excite the meters, the correlation between the two gravity signals is poor (factor < 0.3. Vice versa, when large worldwide earthquakes occur and low frequency seismic waves dominate the ensuing seismic wavefield, the resonance frequencies of the meters are excited and they react according to more common features. In the latter case, the signals from the two instruments are strongly correlated to each other (up to 0.9. In this paper the behaviors of spring gravimeters in the frequency range of the disturbances produced by local and large worldwide earthquakes are presented and discussed.

  6. Metering revisited - innovative concepts for electrical monitoring and reporting systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stebbins, W.L.

    1993-01-01

    For the first three-quarters of this century, the monitoring of electrical power and energy has been dominated by conventional electromechanical voltmeters, ammeters, and watthour meters. Only in the last decade have solid state microprocessor-based distal devices become available for application in the commercial and industrial marketplace. These new devices perform the tasks of up to 24 conventional indicating meters for about the price of three. Communication via a RS-485 data link to a PC allows monitoring of up to 70 values including times and dates, min/max history, temperature indications, and energy management alarms. Complex waveform analysis can also be carried out for harmonic problems typically associated with adjustable speed drives that have been installed on fans and pumps for energy management savings. Since metering systems are absolutely essential to a successful Energy Management Process, consideration should be given to applying the latest in metering technology. It should be noted that meters by themselves do not save money, they only cost money to install and maintain. Proper monitoring, recording, and analysis lead to corrective actions which produce the desired result of reducing energy per unit of production or per service performed. Experience has shown that a 1 to 2% reduction can be achieved after meters are installed just by letting the users know that they are being monitored. Up to a 5% reduction can occur when the users then become proactive toward better managing of their energy. Ultimately up to 10% reduction can be achieved when metering is tied directly to the process through a PLC or DCS, in a closed loop automated process control arrangement

  7. gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...

  8. Solar system constraints on disformal gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to ℳ ∼> 100 eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology

  9. Investigation of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies for Systems with Over Centre Valves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Hansen, Rico Hjerm

    2010-01-01

    to overcome this problem, but it typically implies higher energy consumption and/or decreased control performance. With the development of robust sensors and new valve types with separate meter-in, separate meter-out control it is, however, possible to overcome these stability problems in a much more...... intelligent way, also adding increased functionality to the system. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation of different control strategies for Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control of general single axis hydraulic system with a differential cylinder and an over......-centre valve included. The paper first presents a general model of the system considered, which is experimentally verified. This is followed by a discussion of different control strategies and their implications. For each of the control strategies controllers are described, taking into account the dynamics...

  10. Discriminator/time interval meter system evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condreva, K.J.

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the evaluation of a modular prototype Discriminator/Time Interval Meter data acquisition unit as a useful tool in a digital diagnostics system. The characteristics, operation and calibration of each of the hardware components are discussed in some detail. A discussion of the system calibration, operation, and data ingestion and reduction is also given. System test results to date are given and discussed. Finally, recommendations and conclusions concerning the capabilities of the Discriminator/T.I.M. system based on test and calibration results to date are given

  11. Discriminator/time interval meter system evaluation report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Condreva, K. J.

    1976-04-12

    The purpose of this report is to discuss the evaluation of a modular prototype Discriminator/Time Interval Meter data acquisition unit as a useful tool in a digital diagnostics system. The characteristics, operation and calibration of each of the hardware components are discussed in some detail. A discussion of the system calibration, operation, and data ingestion and reduction is also given. System test results to date are given and discussed. Finally, recommendations and conclusions concerning the capabilities of the Discriminator/T.I.M. system based on test and calibration results to date are given.

  12. Development of on-board fuel metering and sensing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemanth, Y.; Manikanta, B. S. S.; Thangaraja, J.; Bharanidaran, R.

    2017-11-01

    Usage of biodiesel fuels and their blends with diesel fuel has a potential to reduce the tailpipe emissions and reduce the dependence on crude oil imports. Further, biodiesel fuels exhibit favourable greenhouse gas emission and energy balance characteristics. While fossil fuel technology is well established, the technological implications of biofuels particularly biodiesel is not clearly laid out. Hence, the objective is to provide an on-board metering control in selecting the different proportions of diesel and bio-diesel blends. An on-board fuel metering system is being developed using PID controller, stepper motors and a capacitance sensor. The accuracy was tested with the blends of propanol-1, diesel and are found to be within 1.3% error. The developed unit was tested in a twin cylinder diesel engine with biodiesel blended diesel fuel. There was a marginal increase (5%) in nitric oxide and 14% increase in smoke emission with 10% biodiesel blended diesel at part load conditions.

  13. The economics of metering systems with more than one user

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, P.

    1994-01-01

    The content of this paper is inspired by two different research areas. The first area is the theory of public utility pricing, and the second is the theory of common-pool resources. The first area is dominated by the idea of marginal-cost-pricing at least as a first-best approach. The second area focuses on goods where users are difficult to exclude and where there is subtractability (rivalness) in consumption. The degree of excludability depends on the amount of resources used to enforce exclusion. If enforcement costs are too high it might be preferable with a moderate degree of exclusion. This article focuses on the kind of goods provided form a public utility. Here, it is relatively easy to exclude consumers since they have to be connected to the system. On the other hand, it requires investments in metering systems to measure the consumption of each individual consumer. In this note three alternatives are considered and compared. The first system is one in which each consumer pays a fixed amount independent of consumption. The second system is one in which each consumer pays according to individual metering using marginal cost pricing. The third system in which several consumers (in this preliminary paper this means two) have a common metering system and in which they share the costs of consumption. This system (as the first one) tends to give an overuse of the consumed good. Therefore, an alternative pricing strategy is discussed, in which the individual consumer has the incentive to equate marginal willingness to pay to marginal costs. (au)

  14. The induction meter in electric systems with harmonic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plata C, Jose G; Carvajal Carreno, William; Castillo Sauza, Alexis

    2001-01-01

    The growing number of not lineal loads in the residential sectors, commercials and industries, are caused a strong increment in the levels of voltage distortion and of electric current, in the distribution systems, which influence in the accuracy of the of energy meter (Santander and Williams, 96). The fidelity of these instruments, it is of supreme importance from financial point of view, since their registrations are used with collection purposes, because the induction counters are the most common in our media, it becomes necessary to verify the behavior of these instruments for it sineidal operation and mainly under distorted waves conditions, which are a reflection of the current situation of the distribution systems

  15. LLNL current meter array--concept and system description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mantrom, D.D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1994-11-15

    A measurement capability using a horizontal array of 10 S4 current meters mounted on a stiff floating structure with 35 m aperture has been developed to support interpretation of radar imaging of surface effects associated with internal waves. This system has been fielded three times and most recently, has collected data alongside the sea-surface footprint of a land-fixed radar imaging ship-generated internal waves. The underlying need for this measurement capability is described. The specifications resulting from this need are presented and the engineering design and deployment procedures of the platform and systems that resulted are described The current meter data are multiplexed along with meteorological and system status data on board the floating platform and are telemetered to a shore station and on to a data acquisition system. The raw data are recorded, and are then processed to form space-time images of current and strain rate (a spatial derivative of the current field). Examples of raw and processed data associated with ship-generated internal waves are presented.

  16. Note on the directional properties of meter-scale gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peureux, Charles; Benetazzo, Alvise; Ardhuin, Fabrice

    2018-01-01

    The directional distribution of the energy of young waves is bimodal for frequencies above twice the peak frequency; i.e., their directional distribution exhibits two peaks in different directions and a minimum between. Here we analyze in detail a typical case measured with a peak frequency fp = 0.18 Hz and a wind speed of 10.7 m s-1 using a stereo-video system. This technique allows for the separation of free waves from the spectrum of the sea-surface elevation. The latter indeed tend to reduce the contrast between the two peaks and the background. The directional distribution for a given wavenumber is nearly symmetric, with the angle distance between the two peaks growing with frequency, reaching 150° at 35 times the peak wavenumber kp and increasing up to 45 kp. When considering only free waves, the lobe ratio, the ratio of oblique peak energy density over energy in the wind direction, increases linearly with the non-dimensional wavenumber k/kp, up to a value of 6 at k/kp ≃ 22, and possibly more for shorter components. These observations extend to shorter components' previous measurements, and have important consequences for wave properties sensitive to the directional distribution, such as surface slopes, Stokes drift or microseism sources.

  17. Note on the directional properties of meter-scale gravity waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Peureux

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The directional distribution of the energy of young waves is bimodal for frequencies above twice the peak frequency; i.e., their directional distribution exhibits two peaks in different directions and a minimum between. Here we analyze in detail a typical case measured with a peak frequency fp = 0.18 Hz and a wind speed of 10.7 m s−1 using a stereo-video system. This technique allows for the separation of free waves from the spectrum of the sea-surface elevation. The latter indeed tend to reduce the contrast between the two peaks and the background. The directional distribution for a given wavenumber is nearly symmetric, with the angle distance between the two peaks growing with frequency, reaching 150° at 35 times the peak wavenumber kp and increasing up to 45 kp. When considering only free waves, the lobe ratio, the ratio of oblique peak energy density over energy in the wind direction, increases linearly with the non-dimensional wavenumber k∕kp, up to a value of 6 at k∕kp ≃ 22, and possibly more for shorter components. These observations extend to shorter components' previous measurements, and have important consequences for wave properties sensitive to the directional distribution, such as surface slopes, Stokes drift or microseism sources.

  18. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa current meters are widely used for recording the current speed and such other 4 parameters by deploying them over extended period of time. Normally data are recorded on magnetic tape and after recovery of current meters, data are read...

  19. Security Challenges in Smart-Grid Metering and Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinxin Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The smart grid is a next-generation power system that is increasingly attracting the attention of government, industry, and academia. It is an upgraded electricity network that depends on two-way digital communications between supplier and consumer that in turn give support to intelligent metering and monitoring systems. Considering that energy utilities play an increasingly important role in our daily life, smart-grid technology introduces new security challenges that must be addressed. Deploying a smart grid without adequate security might result in serious consequences such as grid instability, utility fraud, and loss of user information and energy-consumption data. Due to the heterogeneous communication architecture of smart grids, it is quite a challenge to design sophisticated and robust security mechanisms that can be easily deployed to protect communications among different layers of the smart grid-infrastructure. In this article, we focus on the communication-security aspect of a smart-grid metering and control system from the perspective of cryptographic techniques, and we discuss different mechanisms to enhance cybersecurity of the emerging smart grid. We aim to provide a comprehensive vulnerability analysis as well as novel insights on the cybersecurity of a smart grid.

  20. Portable refrigerant charge meter and method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Zhiming; Abdelaziz, Omar; LaClair, Tim L.

    2017-08-08

    A refrigerant charge meter and a method for determining the actual refrigerant charge in HVAC systems are described. The meter includes means for determining an optimum refrigerant charge from system subcooling and system component parameters. The meter also includes means for determining the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge. Finally, the meter includes means for determining the actual refrigerant charge from the optimum refrigerant charge and the ratio of the actual refrigerant charge to the optimum refrigerant charge.

  1. Design and Implementation of Wireless Energy Meter System for Monitoring the Single Phase Supply

    OpenAIRE

    U. V, Prashanth B.

    2013-01-01

    Wireless energy meter is a system developed to serve as a basic single-phase energy meter with advanced functionalities such as Peak hour setting, Peak load setting Wireless reading transmission; further the system eliminates the role of a Meter Reader.

  2. Gravity-darkening in the Algol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared observations of the secondary minimum of the eclipsing system of Algol, secured recently by Nadeau et al. (1978) with the 200 in and 60 in reflectors of Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories at the effective wavelength of 10 μm, show its light curve to be distinctly dish-shaped i.e. the light diminishes relatively fast in the early stages of the eclipse, and its rate of decline slows down in advanced partial phases. This fact indicates convincingly that the light distribution over the apparent disc of Algol's late-type (contact) component is akin to that produced by the phenomenon of 'gravity-darkening' to a very pronounced degree. An analysis of Algol's infrared light curve during the secondary minimum (when its contact component undergoes eclipse by its nearly spherical mate) observed at an effective wavelength of 10μm, discloses now that the (monochromatic) coefficient of the linear law of gravity-darkening, characterizing the distribution of brightness over the apparent disc of the contact star, comes out again at least twice as large as one which would correspond to a purely radiative energy transfer of total light in the far interior of this star. No physical theory can be advanced to explain this fact - except, possibly, a hypothesis that the observed enhancement of the monochromatic coefficient tau of gravity-darkening over that appropriate for total radiation may be caused by a very wide departure of the outer layer of the respective stars from thermodynamic equilibrium. (Auth.)

  3. Design of Remote Heat-Meter System Based on Trusted Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Changgeng; Lai, Liping

    2018-03-01

    This article presents a proposal of a heat meter and remote meter reading system for the disadvantages of the hackers very easily using eavesdropping, tampering, replay attack of traditional remote meter reading system. The system selects trusted technology such as, the identity authentication, integrity verifying, and data protection. By the experiments, it is proved that the remote meter reading system of the heat meter can be used to verify the feasibility of the technology, and verify the practicability and operability of data protection technology.

  4. The British Gas Quantum Metering System for pre-payment customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, P.; Fitzpatrick, B.

    1992-01-01

    The development work leading up to the design of the Quantum Metering System is outlined. The main features of the meter including the reusable tokens, metering equipment, credit charging equipment, central controlling equipment and a portable token reader for field use are described in detail, and the two way communication of information is highlighted. (UK)

  5. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System: Task 1 Report: Document existing Fission Meter neutron IB system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-02-28

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only red/green ‘lights’ are displayed in the software. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  6. Drift data of the sea-gravity meter (SL-2) installed on the R/V Hakurei-maru; `Hakureimaru` senjo jurokei (SL-2) no drift ni tsuite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshima, M [Geological Survey of Japan, Tsukuba (Japan); Ishihara, T [Japan National Oil Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    This paper reports a rapid change in the drift of a sea-gravity meter SL-2 after 1987 and after its modification in 1993. In order to confirm the accuracy of the sea-gravity meter of the Hakurei-maru, changes in the lapse of time were summarized on the relative gravity value at the Funabashi base and on the drift rate in each voyage. The drift rates in the case of departing from and returning to Funabashi base were all less than 0.1mgal/day except the first year of 1987, which was presumably due to the growing stability of the gravimeter. The drift value of 1992 was 0.05mgal/day, producing an error of only 2mgal without drift compensation at the end of a 40 day voyage. The gravimeter after the total renewal of the control part in 1993 produced a large drift in the direction opposite to the conventional drift. The cause of these phenomena was supposed to be some kind of change in the spring property during the gap of one year; this large drift seemed to be settling down after the elapse of approximately one year. 4 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  7. Ionizing radiation detection meter systems usability evaluation. Technical memorandum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severs, Y.; Hughes, R.; Tack, D.; Bossi, L.L.M.

    2002-12-01

    In support of the Canadian Forces Nuclear Detection, Identification and Dosimetry project a usability trial of three Ionizing Radiation Detection Meter Systems (IRDMS) was conducted 18-22 June 2001 at Connaught Ranges. The systems evaluated: System 1: ANPDR 77 Operational System with PDR 77 Alpha/Beta probes and GPS (Global Positioning System) Training System; System 2: ADM 300C Operational System with ABP 100 Alpha/Beta probes and GPS Training System, and System 3: RAM R200 Operational System with PA 100M and RG12 Alpha/Beta probes and GPS Training System. Twelve military personnel (Private to Captain) determined compliance with the bid evaluation criteria. The counter-balanced study, based on a Latin square design, was divided into two assessment phases, an operational phase and a training system phase, which rotated three groups (of four participants each) concurrently through each IRDMS. Groups were trained in set-up, maintenance and operation of each bid IRDMS prior to evaluation. The operational evaluation consisted of a test/maintenance stand, an indoor/outdoor operational stand, and an indoor,/outdoor training system stand. Participants rated the utility and usability of each system, by measuring case of use/maintenance under a range of relevant operational and clothing conditions, compatibility with soldier tasks, compatibility with clothing, compatibility with equipment and operational environments, and case of learning (including an assessment of initial and refresher training implications). A 7-point Likert-like acceptability rating scale, which covered a range from completely unacceptable (1) to completely acceptable (7), was used to evaluate the measures. The combined weighted mean scores were 584.3 for System 1 (70 o /b), 682.0 for System 2 (81 %) and 756.9 for System 3 (90%) out of a total possible score of 840. Participants reported mean scores for System 1 between barely unacceptable and borderline for both indoor and outdoor operations. System 2

  8. MODELING AND DESIGN OF INNOVATIVE SMALL DIAMETER GRAVITY SEWERAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Nawrot

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents modern methods of hydraulic design of an innovative small diameter gravity sewerage system. In this system, domestic wastewater is preliminary treated in septic tanks equipped with outlet filters, thus the effluent features are similar to those of clear water. Innovative non-return valves at the outlets eliminate introduction of air to the system and thus the flows can be treated as one-phase ones. Computer codes EPANET 2 and SWMM 5.0 were applied and compared. Two flow schemes typical for the sewerage system were implemented in EPANET 2, and the third - in a slightly modified SWMM 5.0. Simulation results were validated on empirical data obtained on a laboratory physical model, consisting of four tanks of minimum volumes 600 dm3 each, connecting PE pipelines of diameters 25 mm and 36 mm and relevant sanitary fittings. Water inflows, typical for domestic wastewater outflows from single homesteads, were provided by a pump. Water flows were measured using water meters with pulse outputs, and water levels in tanks by pressure transducers. Hydraulic characteristics of filters and non-return valves were provided. Simulation results showed good agreement with the empirical data. Ranges of values of design parameters, needed for successful application of both codes, were established and discussed.

  9. Gravity Probe B data system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Norman R

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B data system, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, included flight and ground command, control, and communications software. The development was greatly facilitated, conceptually and by the transfer of key personnel, through Lockheed’s earlier flight and ground test software development for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Key design challenges included the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), the need to tune the system once on-orbit, and limited 2 Kbps real-time data rates and ground asset availability. The result was a completely integrated space vehicle and Stanford mission operations center, which successfully collected and archived 97% of the ‘guide star valid’ data to support the science analysis. Lessons learned and incorporated from the HST flight software development and on-orbit support experience, and Lockheed’s independent research and development effort, will be discussed. (paper)

  10. Remote calibration system of a smart electrical energy meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakariae Jebroni

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The need to control the power grid in real time has opened a new field of research, today researchers are trying to design electrical meters that are completely remote controlled, to create an advanced metering infrastructure. One of the most important processes in the field of measurement is the calibration of measuring instruments. The calibration process of the electrical meters was performed at laboratories. However, the new directives, now, require a regular test of accuracy. Nevertheless, moving each time on site to check the accuracy of a meter can be annoying. To solve this problem our contribution is to propose a new structure of a smart meter that integrates a calibration card, so that, this process is carried out remotely. To be able to calibrate the meter or test its accuracy, we have included an AC-AC converter powered by the electrical grid and that provides a stable voltage independent of the electrical grid in term of frequency and amplitude. The output voltage of the converter is used as the reference signal during calibration or accuracy testing. In this paper, we will present the structure of the calibration card, the study and dimensioning of the converter, as well as the control technique used to eliminate variations of the input voltage. At the end, we will present the results of simulations and experiments.

  11. Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamow, George

    2003-01-01

    A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw

  12. Optimal water meter selection system | Johnson | Water SA

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Economic/financial analysis based on an income statement together with capital budgeting techniques assist with the determination of the financial suitability of investing in a new replacement water meter. This financial analysis includes various potential income and expenditure components that will result from the ...

  13. Data system for multiplexed water-current meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, C. R.

    1977-01-01

    Flow rates at 32 flood plain locations are measured simultaneously by single digital logic unit with high noise immunity. Water flowing through pygmy current meters rotates element that closes electrical contact once every resolution, so flow rate is measured by counting number of closures in time interval.

  14. PHOTO ENCODING OF ANALOG WATER METER FOR USER ACCESS AND PAYMENT SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; MOSES A. ACQUAH; APPAH BREMANG

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents design reconfiguration of analog water meter to provide remote access to user water consumption and billing records, payments, and meter device monitoring using photo-encoding as the detecting method for water consumption, a PIC18F2423 microcontroller for data processing, and SMS (short message service) technology for data transportation. To validate the system design, an analog water meter was converted into a digital equivalent and interfaced to the cellular network to t...

  15. Lessons from wet gas flow metering systems using differential measurements devices: Testing and flow modelling results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cazin, J.; Couput, J.P.; Dudezert, C. et al

    2005-07-01

    A significant number of wet gas meters used for high GVF and very high GVF are based on differential pressure measurements. Recent high pressure tests performed on a variety of different DP devices on different flow loops are presented. Application of existing correlations is discussed for several DP devices including Venturi meters. For Venturi meters, deviations vary from 9% when using the Murdock correlation to less than 3 % with physical based models. The use of DP system in a large domain of conditions (Water Liquid Ratio) especially for liquid estimation will require information on the WLR This obviously raises the question of the gas and liquid flow metering accuracy in wet gas meters and highlight needs to understand AP systems behaviour in wet gas flows (annular / mist / annular mist). As an example, experimental results obtained on the influence of liquid film characteristics on a Venturi meter are presented. Visualizations of the film upstream and inside the Venturi meter are shown. They are completed by film characterization. The AP measurements indicate that for a same Lockhart Martinelli parameter, the characteristics of the two phase flow have a major influence on the correlation coefficient. A 1D model is defined and the results are compared with the experiments. These results indicate that the flow regime influences the AP measurements and that a better modelling of the flow phenomena is needed even for allocation purposes. Based on that, lessons and way forward in wet gas metering systems improvement for allocation and well metering are discussed and proposed. (author) (tk)

  16. Radio-controlled automatic gas meter-reading system; Releve automatique de compteur par radio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasui, M. [Osaka Gas Co., Ltd (Japan); Ishikawa, K.; Fujiwara, J. [Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan); Ichihashi, T. [Toho Gas Co., Ltd. (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    In Japan, an automatic gas meter-reading system is in operation, also incorporating the functions of monitoring for abnormalities in gas use and remote-controlled emergency gas supply shutoff. This system has been realized by linking microcomputer-controlled gas meters(It's called 'Intelligent gas mater') equipped with automatic shutoff mechanism to the gas utility company operation center via communication lines. While the present system uses cable communication lines, we of Tokyo Gas Co., Ltd., Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. and Toho Gas Co., Ltd., have jointly developed a new system based on radio communication. This paper introduces this new system. While radio-controlled meter-reading systems are used in many countries around the world solely for automatic meter reading, our recently developed system is also capable of monitoring for abnormalities in gas use and remote-controlled emergency gas supply shutoff, thanks to its almost real-time two-way communication function. The new system can serve for a period of ten years without recharging. It is also characterized by its applicability as different systems according to purposes: 1) conventional automatic meter-reading system (terminal network control unit or T-NCU), 2) large-scale radio-controlled meter-reading system, and 3) portable terminal-type radio-controlled meter-reading system. (authors)

  17. On sizing of flow meters used in customer accounting devices in district heating systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ingimundarson, Ari; Wollerstrand, J.; Arvastson, Lars

    1998-12-31

    The paper deals with accuracy problems when heat energy consumption in district heating (DH) systems is calculated by measuring the DH water flow rate and its cooling. An investigation on the influence that sizing of flow meters used has on the accuracy of DH water flow measurements in a typical DH subscriber station is presented. Furthermore the consequences of the choice of flow meter size on energy metering accuracy is studied. The goal is to determine rules leading to optimal sizing of the flow meters 9 refs, 14 figs

  18. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  19. Design and Realization of a Condition Management System for the Gateway Electrical Energy Metering Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Tang

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the construction of firm and intelligent power grid in China, it is difficult for the traditional management method of electrical energy metering device to meet the prospecting requirements. Using the computer and internet techniques to realize the information and intelligentization of the electrical energy metering management has become a necessary guarantee of improving power supply ability, marketing control, and customer service. This paper introduced a kind of large and intelligent condition management system of the gateway electrical energy metering device. The key technologies and realize process were analyzed. Moreover, a detailed description of the application modules such as the GIS smart display of metering point, the condition management of metering devices and the visual monitoring of metering point was presented. The trial operation in the selected transformer substations and the power stations of Chongqing Power Electrical Corp. indicated that, the condition management system is very open, safety and efficient. According to the data exchange with the production and scheduling platform, the system improved the efficient operation of the electrical energy metering devices. Meanwhile, combined with the real-time visual monitoring, the condition management system improved the prevention ability of electricity filching, realized the unified automatic large-scale management of electrical energy metering devices.

  20. Systems and Methods for Gravity-Independent Gripping and Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron (Inventor); Frost, Matthew A. (Inventor); Thatte, Nitish (Inventor); King, Jonathan P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for gravity independent gripping and drilling are described. The gripping device can also comprise a drill or sampling devices for drilling and/or sampling in microgravity environments, or on vertical or inverted surfaces in environments where gravity is present. A robotic system can be connected with the gripping and drilling devices via an ankle interface adapted to distribute the forces realized from the robotic system.

  1. Flow meter fault isolation in building central chilling systems using wavelet analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Youming; Hao Xiaoli; Zhang Guoqiang; Wang Shengwei

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to isolate flow meter faults in building central chilling systems. It mathematically explains the fault collinearity among the flow meters in central chilling systems and points out that the sensor validation index (SVI) used in principal component analysis (PCA) is incapable of isolating flow meter faults due to the fault collinearity. The wavelet transform is used to isolate the flow meter faults as a substitute for the SVI of PCA. This approach can identify various variations in measuring signals, such as ramp, step, discontinuity etc., due to the good property of the wavelet in local time-frequency. Some examples are given to demonstrate its ability of fault isolation for the flow meters

  2. Study on the system-level test method of digital metering in smart substation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang; Yang, Min; Hu, Juan; Li, Fuchao; Luo, Ruixi; Li, Jinsong; Ai, Bing

    2017-03-01

    Nowadays, the test methods of digital metering system in smart substation are used to test and evaluate the performance of a single device, but these methods can only effectively guarantee the accuracy and reliability of the measurement results of a digital metering device in a single run, it does not completely reflect the performance when each device constitutes a complete system. This paper introduced the shortages of the existing test methods. A system-level test method of digital metering in smart substation was proposed, and the feasibility of the method was proved by the actual test.

  3. Gravity gradiometer system for Earth Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, R.; Flokstra, F.F.; Droogendijk, H.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Flokstra, Jakob; Flokstra, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We develop a gravity gradiometer (GG) for use on planetary missions to planets like Mars and Jupiter. With some modifications this development is extended to include (airborne) applications for the Dutch exploratory industry. We adapt key technology of the space based GG for the use in an

  4. Advanced Metering Infrastructure based on Smart Meters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi

    By specifically designating penetrations rates of advanced meters and communication technologies, devices and systems, this paper introduces that the penetration of advanced metering is important for the future development of electric power system infrastructure. It examines the state of the technology and the economical benefits of advanced metering. One result of the survey is that advanced metering currently has a penetration of about six percent of total installed electric meters in the United States. Applications to the infrastructure differ by type of organization. Being integrated with emerging communication technologies, smart meters enable several kinds of features such as, not only automatic meter reading but also distribution management control, outage management, remote switching, etc.

  5. Research on the full life cycle management system of smart electric energy meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; Guo, Dingying; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Renheng, Xu

    2018-02-01

    At present, China’s smart electric energy meter life management is started from the procurement and acceptance. The related monitoring and management of the manufacturing sector has not yet been carried out. This article applies RFID technology and network cloud platform to full life cycle management system of smart electric energy meters, builds this full life cycle management system including design and manufacturing, process control, measurement and calibration testing, storage management, user acceptance, site operation, maintenance scrap and other aspects. Exploring smart electric energy meters on-line and off-line communication by the application of active RFID communication functions, and the actual functional application such as local data exchange and instrument calibration. This system provides technical supports on power demand side management and the improvement of smart electric energy meter reliability evaluation system.

  6. Tilt meters for the Alignment System of the CMS Experiment: Users Handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-01-01

    We present the instructions for the use of the electrolytic tilt meters installed in the link alignments system of the CMS experimental and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 16 refs

  7. Tilt meters for the Alignment System of the CMS Experiment: Users Handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberdi, J.; Arce, P.; Barcala, J.M.; Calvo, E.; Ferrando, A.; Josa, M.I.; Molinero, A.; Navarrete, J.; Oller, J.C.; Yuste, C.

    2007-09-27

    We present the instructions for the use of the electrolytic tilt meters installed in the link alignments system of the CMS experimental and give the Data Base to be used as a Handbook during CMS operation. (Author) 16 refs.

  8. Analytic evaluation of a new glucose meter system in 15 different critical care settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsios, John V; Ashby, Lori A; Haverstick, Doris M; Bruns, David E; Scott, Mitchell G

    2013-09-01

    Maintaining appropriate glycemic control in critically ill patients reduces morbidity and mortality. The use of point-of-care (POC) glucose devices is necessary to obtain rapid results at the patient's bedside. However, the devices should be thoroughly tested in the intended population before implementation. The use of POC glucose meters in critically ill patients has been questioned both in the literature and by regulatory agencies. The aim of this study was to determine if the ACCU-CHEK® Inform II system (Roche Diagnostics) POC glucose meter demonstrated the desired accuracy and precision, as defined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guideline POCT12-A3, in a large number of critically ill patients from multiple intensive care settings at two academic medical centers. A total of 1200 whole blood meter results from 600 patients were compared with central laboratory plasma values. Whole blood aliquots from venous samples were used to obtain duplicate meter results with the remaining sample being processed to obtain plasma for central laboratory testing within 5 min of meter testing. A total of 1185 (98.8%) of the new meter's glucose values were within ± 12.5% (± 12 mg/dl for values ≥ 100 mg/dl) of the comparative laboratory glucose values, and 1198 (99.8%) were within ± 20% (± 20 mg/dl for values meter system appears to have sufficient analytic accuracy for use in critically ill patients. © 2013 Diabetes Technology Society.

  9. A compact perspiration meter system with capacitive humidity sensor for wearable health-care applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitani, Yusuke; Miyaji, Kousuke; Kaneko, Satoshi; Uekura, Takaharu; Momose, Hideya; Johguchi, Koh

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a compact wearable perspiration meter system using a 180-nm CMOS technology. With custom chip and board design, the proposed perspiration meter, which can measure a qualitative sweating rate, is integrated into 15 × 20 mm2. From the experimental results, the capacitances of the humidity sensors with analog-to-digital converter and band-gap reference circuits can operate accurately without hysteresis. In addition, a demonstration with simulated human skin is carried out to investigate the sensor’s performance under real environments. The proposed perspiration meter can output values equivalent to a conventional meter. As a result, it is verified that the proposed system can be used as a human sweat sensor for wearable application.

  10. High-Resolution Gas Metering and Nonintrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    This thesis deals with design and implementation of a high-resolution metering system for residential natural gas meters. Detailed experimental measurements are performed on the meter to characterize and understand its measurement properties. Results from these experiments are used to develop a simple, fast and accurate technique to non-intrusively monitor the gas consumption of individual appliances in homes by resolving small amounts of gas usage. The technique is applied on an existing meter retrofitted with a module that includes a high-resolution encoder to collect gas flow data and a microprocessor to analyze and identify appliance load profiles. This approach provides a number of appealing features including low cost, easy installation and integration with automated meter reading (AMR) systems. The application of this method to residential gas meters currently deployed is also given. This is done by performing a load simulation on realistic gas loads with the aim of identifying the necessary parameters that minimize the cost and complexity of the mechanical encoder module. The primary benefits of the system are efficiency analysis, appliance health monitoring and real-time customer feedback of gas usage. Additional benefits of include the ability to detect very small leaks and theft. This system has the potential for wide scale market adoption.

  11. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    OpenAIRE

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    2013-01-01

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation co...

  12. A final report to investigate the state-of-the-art of district heating metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-06-01

    This study investigates the existing heat meters and metering schemes utilized to measure the amount of energy extracted from a district heating hot water supply by a heat exchanger in domestic applications. Various types of commercially available heat meters are tabulated, including a recently developed Dutch device which output an analogue signal proportional to the energy extracted. Discussions outline methods of potentially cost effective multimetering concepts for use in new housing and apartment applications, as well as single family dwelling units. Data retrieval systems, with potential metering/monitoring schemes are discussed, including a proposed network for remote sensing, central integrating and tabulating function applicable to multi-dwelling unit installations. 5 refs., 9 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Application of semi-active RFID power meter in automatic verification pipeline and intelligent storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    In this paper, the semi-active RFID watt-hour meter is applied to automatic test lines and intelligent warehouse management, from the transmission system, test system and auxiliary system, monitoring system, realize the scheduling of watt-hour meter, binding, control and data exchange, and other functions, make its more accurate positioning, high efficiency of management, update the data quickly, all the information at a glance. Effectively improve the quality, efficiency and automation of verification, and realize more efficient data management and warehouse management.

  14. TRL Assessment of Solar Sail Technology Development Following the 20-Meter System Ground Demonstrator Hardware Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Roy M.; Adams, Charles L.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA In-Space Propulsion Technology (ISPT) Projects Office sponsored two separate, independent solar sail system design and development demonstration activities during 2002-2005. ATK Space Systems of Goleta, CA was the prime contractor for one development team and L' Garde, Inc. of Tustin, CA was the prime contractor for the other development team. The goal of these activities was to advance the technology readiness level (TRL) of solar sail propulsion from 3 towards 6 by the year 2006. Component and subsystem fabrication and testing were completed successfully, including the ground deployment of 10-meter and 20-meter demonstration hardware systems under vacuum conditions. The deployment and structural testing of the 20-meter solar sail systems was conducted in the 30 meter diameter Space Power Facility thermal-vacuum chamber at NASA Glenn Plum Brook in April though August, 2005. This paper will present the results of the TRL assessment following the solar sail technology development activities associated with the design, development, analysis and testing of the 20-meter system ground demonstrators.

  15. Development and evaluation of an automated system for testing current meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezequiel Saretta

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Current meters are equipment widely used for estimating flow velocity in rivers and streams. Periodic calibrations of current meters are important to ensure the quality of measurements, but the required testing facilities are complex and only available in a few institutions. However, advances in electronics and automation may contribute to developing simple and reliable calibration systems. Thus, this study aimed to develop an automated system for testing current meters, which consisted of a trapezoidal channel, a step motor, a tow car and a management system, composed of a supervisory application and microprocessed modules to control the motor and the data acquisition. Evaluations of the displacement velocity showed that it matched the reference value up to 1.85 m s-1 for a vertical-axis current meter and 2.3 m s-1 for a horizontal-axis one. The developed system showed reliability during tests, for both current meter movement and data acquisition. The management of the system based on the developed modules and the supervisory application improved its user interface, turning all the procedure into a simple task.

  16. Mobile Tracking Systems Using Meter Class Reflective Telescopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sturzenbecher, K.; Ehrhorn, B.

    This paper is a discussion on the use of large reflective telescopes on mobile tracking systems with modern instrument control systems. Large optics can be defined as reflective telescopes with an aperture of at least 20 inches in diameter. New carbon composite construction techniques allow for larger, stronger, and lighter telescopes ranging from 240 pounds for a 20 inch, to 800 pounds for a 32 inch, making them ideal for mobile tracking systems. These telescopes have better light gathering capability and produce larger images with greater detail at a longer range than conventional refractive lenses. In a mobile configuration these systems provide the ability to move the observation platform to the optimal location anywhere in the world. Mounting and systems integration - We will discuss how large telescopes can be physically fit to the mobile tracking system and the integration with the tracking systems' digital control system. We will highlight the remote control capabilities. We will discuss special calibration techniques available in a modern instrument control system such as star calibration, calibration of sensors. Tracking Performance - We will discuss the impact of using large telescopes on the performance of the mobile tracking system. We will highlight the capabilities for auto-tracking and sidereal rate tracking in a mobile mount. Large optics performance - We will discuss the advantages of two-mirror Ritchey-Chrétien reflective optics which offer in-focus imaging across the spectrum, from visible to Long Wave Infrared. These zero expansion optics won't lose figure or focus during temperature changes. And the carbon composite telescope tube is thermally inert. The primary mirror is a modern lightweight "dish" mirror for low thermal mass and is center supported/self balancing. Applications - We will discuss Visible - IR Imaging requirements, Optical Rangefinders, and capabilities for special filters to increase resolution in difficult conditions such as

  17. Solar Irradiance & On Grid Solar Power Systems with Net Metering in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haleema Qamar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study of solar irradiance and scope of on-grid solar power systems with net-metering in Pakistan. Detailed analysis of solar irradiance in Pakistan is being carried out by developing the dedicated solar excel sheets. The need of on grid solar power systems for the present energy crisis in developing countries like Pakistan is also discussed. It also presents the inclination of many countries especially USA and Europe towards it. Identification of barriers for implementing on grid net metered solar power systems in Pakistan along with solutions of these barriers is carried out.

  18. Seismic attenuation system for the AEI 10 meter Prototype

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanner, A; Bergmann, G; Fricke, T; Lück, H; Mow-Lowry, C M; Strain, K A; Goßler, S; Danzmann, K; Bertolini, A

    2012-01-01

    Isolation from seismic motion is vital for vibration sensitive experiments. The seismic attenuation system (SAS) is a passive mechanical isolation system for optics suspensions. The low natural frequency of a SAS allows seismic isolation starting below 0.2 Hz. The desired isolation at frequencies above a few hertz is 70–80 dB in both horizontal and vertical degrees of freedom. An introduction to the SAS for the AEI 10 m Prototype, an overview of the mechanical design and a description of the major components are given. (paper)

  19. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2016-09-01

    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected

  20. Brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Collinucci, A; Gran, U; Roest, D; Vandoren, S; Lukierski, J; Sorokin, D

    2005-01-01

    We consider general properties of brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems. We focus on the case of 7-branes and instantons. In both cases we show that besides the standard solutions there are new deformed solutions whose charges take value in any of the three conjugacy classes of SL(2, R).

  1. One-loop renormalization of a gravity-scalar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I.Y. [Philander Smith College, Department of Applied Mathematics, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Extending the renormalizability proposal of the physical sector of 4D Einstein gravity, we have recently proposed renormalizability of the 3D physical sector of gravity-matter systems. The main goal of the present work is to conduct systematic one-loop renormalization of a gravity-matter system by applying our foliation-based quantization scheme. In this work we explicitly carry out renormalization of a gravity-scalar system with a Higgs-type potential. With the fluctuation part of the scalar field gauged away, the system becomes renormalizable through a metric field redefinition. We use dimensional regularization throughout. One of the salient aspects of our analysis is how the graviton propagator acquires the ''mass'' term. One-loop calculations lead to renormalization of the cosmological and Newton constants. We discuss other implications of our results as well: time-varying vacuum energy density and masses of the elementary particles as well as the potential relevance of Neumann boundary condition for black hole information. (orig.)

  2. One-loop renormalization of a gravity-scalar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Extending the renormalizability proposal of the physical sector of 4D Einstein gravity, we have recently proposed renormalizability of the 3D physical sector of gravity-matter systems. The main goal of the present work is to conduct systematic one-loop renormalization of a gravity-matter system by applying our foliation-based quantization scheme. In this work we explicitly carry out renormalization of a gravity-scalar system with a Higgs-type potential. With the fluctuation part of the scalar field gauged away, the system becomes renormalizable through a metric field redefinition. We use dimensional regularization throughout. One of the salient aspects of our analysis is how the graviton propagator acquires the ''mass'' term. One-loop calculations lead to renormalization of the cosmological and Newton constants. We discuss other implications of our results as well: time-varying vacuum energy density and masses of the elementary particles as well as the potential relevance of Neumann boundary condition for black hole information. (orig.)

  3. One-loop renormalization of a gravity-scalar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, I. Y.

    2017-05-01

    Extending the renormalizability proposal of the physical sector of 4D Einstein gravity, we have recently proposed renormalizability of the 3D physical sector of gravity-matter systems. The main goal of the present work is to conduct systematic one-loop renormalization of a gravity-matter system by applying our foliation-based quantization scheme. In this work we explicitly carry out renormalization of a gravity-scalar system with a Higgs-type potential. With the fluctuation part of the scalar field gauged away, the system becomes renormalizable through a metric field redefinition. We use dimensional regularization throughout. One of the salient aspects of our analysis is how the graviton propagator acquires the "mass" term. One-loop calculations lead to renormalization of the cosmological and Newton constants. We discuss other implications of our results as well: time-varying vacuum energy density and masses of the elementary particles as well as the potential relevance of Neumann boundary condition for black hole information.

  4. Shutdown reactivity meter system for nuclear fuel storage cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, M.A.

    1981-01-01

    A system for determining whether a self-sustaining neutron chain reaction (I.E., criticality) may occur as each successive nuclear fuel element is added to a liquid-filled tank. This is accomplished by determining whether a multiplication factor, k, approaches unity after each element is added to the tank in accordance with the equation: cr ( Alpha s)/(1-k) where: S is the emission rate of the neutron source; alpha is a term that reflects the detector sensitivity as well as the attenuation of the neutron between source and detector and various geometric considerations in the tank; cr is the counting rate from a neutron detector; and K is a multiplication factor of the assembly at any given time for any given element configuration

  5. Uncertainties in the Value of Bill Savings from Behind-the-Meter, Residential Photovoltaic Systems: The Roles of Electricity Market Conditions, Retail Rate Design, and Net Metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darghouth, Naim Richard

    Net metering has become a widespread policy mechanism in the U.S. for supporting customer adoption of distributed photovoltaics (PV), allowing customers with PV systems to reduce their electric bills by offsetting their consumption with PV generation, independent of the timing of the generation relative to consumption. Although net metering is one of the principal drivers for the residential PV market in the U.S., the academic literature on this policy has been sparse and this dissertation contributes to this emerging body of literature. This dissertation explores the linkages between the availability of net metering, wholesale electricity market conditions, retail rates, and the residential bill savings from behind-the-meter PV systems. First, I examine the value of the bill savings that customers receive under net metering and alternatives to net metering, and the associated role of retail rate design, based on current rates and a sample of approximately two hundred residential customers of California's two largest electric utilities. I find that the bill savings per kWh of PV electricity generated varies greatly, largely attributable to the increasing block structure of the California utilities' residential retail rates. I also find that net metering provides significantly greater bill savings than alternative compensation mechanisms based on avoided costs. However, retail electricity rates may shift as wholesale electricity market conditions change. I then investigate a potential change in market conditions -- increased solar PV penetrations -- on wholesale prices in the short-term based on the merit-order effect. This demonstrates the potential price effects of changes in market conditions, but also points to a number of methodological shortcomings of this method, motivating my usage of a long-term capacity investment and economic dispatch model to examine wholesale price effects of various wholesale market scenarios in the subsequent analysis. By developing

  6. Density meter algorithm and system for estimating sampling/mixing uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Laboratories Department at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has installed a six-place density meter with an automatic sampling device. This paper describes the statistical software developed to analyze the density of uranyl nitrate solutions using this automated system. The purpose of this software is twofold: to estimate the sampling/mixing and measurement uncertainties in the process and to provide a measurement control program for the density meter. Non-uniformities in density are analyzed both analytically and graphically. The mean density and its limit of error are estimated. Quality control standards are analyzed concurrently with process samples and used to control the density meter measurement error. The analyses are corrected for concentration due to evaporation of samples waiting to be analyzed. The results of this program have been successful in identifying sampling/mixing problems and controlling the quality of analyses

  7. Density meter algorithm and system for estimating sampling/mixing uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shine, E.P.

    1986-01-01

    The Laboratories Department at the Savannah River Plant (SRP) has installed a six-place density meter with an automatic sampling device. This paper describes the statisical software developed to analyze the density of uranyl nitrate solutions using this automated system. The purpose of this software is twofold: to estimate the sampling/mixing and measurement uncertainties in the process and to provide a measurement control program for the density meter. Non-uniformities in density are analyzed both analytically and graphically. The mean density and its limit of error are estimated. Quality control standards are analyzed concurrently with process samples and used to control the density meter measurement error. The analyses are corrected for concentration due to evaporation of samples waiting to be analyzed. The results of this program have been successful in identifying sampling/mixing problems and controlling the quality of analyses

  8. On the robustness of entanglement in analogue gravity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, D E; Friis, N; Fuentes, I; Weinfurtner, S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of generating quantum-correlated quasi-particles utilizing analogue gravity systems. The quantumness of these correlations is a key aspect of analogue gravity effects and their presence allows for a clear separation between classical and quantum analogue gravity effects. However, experiments in analogue systems, such as Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) and shallow water waves, are always conducted at non-ideal conditions, in particular, one is dealing with dispersive media at non-zero temperatures. We analyse the influence of the initial temperature on the entanglement generation in analogue gravity phenomena. We lay out all the necessary steps to calculate the entanglement generated between quasi-particle modes and we analytically derive an upper bound on the maximal temperature at which given modes can still be entangled. We further investigate a mechanism to enhance the quantum correlations. As a particular example, we analyse the robustness of the entanglement creation against thermal noise in a sudden quench of an ideally homogeneous BEC, taking into account the super-sonic dispersion relations. (paper)

  9. Solar System constraints to general f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Smith, Tristan L.; Erickcek, Adrienne L.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed that cosmic acceleration or inflation can be driven by replacing the Einstein-Hilbert action of general relativity with a function f(R) of the Ricci scalar R. Such f(R) gravity theories have been shown to be equivalent to scalar-tensor theories of gravity that are incompatible with Solar System tests of general relativity, as long as the scalar field propagates over Solar System scales. Specifically, the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameter in the equivalent scalar-tensor theory is γ=1/2, which is far outside the range allowed by observations. In response to a flurry of papers that questioned the equivalence of f(R) theory to scalar-tensor theories, it was recently shown explicitly, without resorting to the scalar-tensor equivalence, that the vacuum field equations for 1/R gravity around a spherically symmetric mass also yield γ=1/2. Here we generalize this analysis to f(R) gravity and enumerate the conditions that, when satisfied by the function f(R), lead to the prediction that γ=1/2

  10. Cadiz, California Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32 records) were gathered by Mr. Seth I. Gutman for AridTech Inc., Denver, Colorado using a Worden Prospector gravity meter. This data base...

  11. Scalar material reference systems and loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesel, K; Thiemann, T

    2015-01-01

    In the past, the possibility to employ (scalar) material reference systems in order to describe classical and quantum gravity directly in terms of gauge invariant (Dirac) observables has been emphasized frequently. This idea has been picked up more recently in loop quantum gravity with the aim to perform a reduced phase space quantization of the theory, thus possibly avoiding problems with the (Dirac) operator constraint quantization method for a constrained system. In this work, we review the models that have been studied on the classical and/or the quantum level and parametrize the space of theories considered so far. We then describe the quantum theory of a model that, to the best of our knowledge, has only been considered classically so far. This model could arguably be called the optimal one in this class of models considered as it displays the simplest possible true Hamiltonian, while at the same time reducing all constraints of general relativity. (paper)

  12. Impact of smart metering data aggregation on distribution system state estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Qipeng; Kaleshi, Dritan; Fan, Zhong; Armour, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Pseudo medium/low voltage (MV/LV) transformer loads are usually used as partial inputs to the distribution system state estimation (DSSE) in MV systems. Such pseudo load can be represented by the aggregation of smart metering (SM) data. This follows the government restriction that distribution network operators (DNOs) can only use aggregated SM data. Therefore, we assess the subsequent performance of the DSSE, which shows the impact of this restriction - it affects the voltage angle estimatio...

  13. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Wang; Jingli Shao; Frank van Steenbergen; Qiulan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS) is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the inf...

  14. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion...

  15. Transcendental Political Systems and the Gravity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Connor

    2012-01-01

    This summer I have been working on an Army Deep Futures Model project named Themis. Themis is a JPL based modeling framework that anticipates possible future states for the world within the next 25 years. The goal of this framework is to determine the likelihood that the US Army will need to intervene on behalf of the US strategic interests. Key elements that are modeled within this tool include the world structure and major decisions that are made by key actors. Each actor makes decisions based on their goals and within the constraints of the structure of the system in which they are located. In my research I have focused primarily on the effects of structures upon the decision-making processes of the actors within them. This research is a natural extension of my major program at Georgetown University, where I am studying the International Political Economy and the structures that make it up. My basic goal for this summer project was to be a helpful asset to the Themis modeling team, with any research done or processes learned constituting a bonus.

  16. Four-dimensional gravity as an almost-Poisson system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Eyo Eyo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we examine the phase space structure of a noncanonical formulation of four-dimensional gravity referred to as the Instanton representation of Plebanski gravity (IRPG). The typical Hamiltonian (symplectic) approach leads to an obstruction to the definition of a symplectic structure on the full phase space of the IRPG. We circumvent this obstruction, using the Lagrange equations of motion, to find the appropriate generalization of the Poisson bracket. It is shown that the IRPG does not support a Poisson bracket except on the vector constraint surface. Yet there exists a fundamental bilinear operation on its phase space which produces the correct equations of motion and induces the correct transformation properties of the basic fields. This bilinear operation is known as the almost-Poisson bracket, which fails to satisfy the Jacobi identity and in this case also the condition of antisymmetry. We place these results into the overall context of nonsymplectic systems.

  17. Moving base Gravity Gradiometer Survey System (GGSS) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfohl, Louis; Rusnak, Walter; Jircitano, Albert; Grierson, Andrew

    1988-04-01

    The GGSS program began in early 1983 with the objective of delivering a landmobile and airborne system capable of fast, accurate, and economical gravity gradient surveys of large areas anywhere in the world. The objective included the development and use of post-mission data reduction software to process the survey data into solutions for the gravity disturbance vector components (north, east and vertical). This document describes the GGSS equipment hardware and software, integration and lab test procedures and results, and airborne and land survey procedures and results. Included are discussions on test strategies, post-mission data reduction algorithms, and the data reduction processing experience. Perspectives and conclusions are drawn from the results.

  18. Disformal theories of gravity: from the solar system to cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakstein, Jeremy, E-mail: j.a.sakstein@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    This paper is concerned with theories of gravity that contain a scalar coupled both conformally and disformally to matter through the metric. By systematically deriving the non-relativistic limit, it is shown that no new non-linear screening mechanisms are present beyond the Vainshtein mechanism and chameleon-like screening. If one includes the cosmological expansion of the universe, disformal effects that are usually taken to be absent can be present in the solar system. When the conformal factor is absent, fifth-forces can be screened on all scales when the cosmological field is slowly-rolling. We investigate the cosmology of these models and use local tests of gravity to place new constraints on the disformal coupling and find M ∼> O(eV), which is not competitive with laboratory tests. Finally, we discuss the future prospects for testing these theories and the implications for other theories of modified gravity. In particular, the Vainshtein radius of solar system objects can be altered from the static prediction when cosmological time-derivatives are non-negligible.

  19. Disformal theories of gravity: from the solar system to cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with theories of gravity that contain a scalar coupled both conformally and disformally to matter through the metric. By systematically deriving the non-relativistic limit, it is shown that no new non-linear screening mechanisms are present beyond the Vainshtein mechanism and chameleon-like screening. If one includes the cosmological expansion of the universe, disformal effects that are usually taken to be absent can be present in the solar system. When the conformal factor is absent, fifth-forces can be screened on all scales when the cosmological field is slowly-rolling. We investigate the cosmology of these models and use local tests of gravity to place new constraints on the disformal coupling and find M ∼> O(eV), which is not competitive with laboratory tests. Finally, we discuss the future prospects for testing these theories and the implications for other theories of modified gravity. In particular, the Vainshtein radius of solar system objects can be altered from the static prediction when cosmological time-derivatives are non-negligible

  20. Thermal stress analysis of gravity support system for ITER based on ANSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shangming; Yan Xijiang; Huang Yufeng; Wang Xianzhou; Hou Binglin; Li Pengyuan; Jian Guangde; Liu Dequan; Zhou Caipin

    2009-01-01

    A method for building the finite element model of the gravity support system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was proposed according to the characteristics of the gravity support system with the cyclic symmetry. A mesh dividing method, which has high precision and an acceptable calculating scale, was used, and a three dimensional finite element model for the toroidal 20 degree sector of the gravity support system was built by using ANSYS. Meantime, the steady-state thermal analysis and thermal-structural coupling analysis of the gravity support system were performed. The thermal stress distributions and the maximal thermal stress values of all parts of the gravity support system were obtained, and the stress intensity of parts of the gravity support system was analyzed. The results of thermal stress analysis lay the solid foundation for design and improvement for gravity supports system for ITER. (authors)

  1. Influence of the operating pressure in flow metering systems using turbine meters-key factors; Influencia da pressao em sistemas de medicao de gas natural com totalizadores de volume do tipo turbina: fatores a considerar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcek, Alanna; Picanco, Marco Antonio S. [Companhia de Gas de Santa Catarina (SCGAS), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    Flow measurement is a strategic process in the Natural Gas transport and distribution industry. The diary measurement of the 43 million cubic meters consumed in Brazil is made by flow meters certified by the Rede Brasileira de Calibracao (Brazilian Calibration Network) and INMETRO. Turbine flow meters are commonly applied in high flow measurement systems. Some manufactures and authors discuss the sensibility of turbine meters to the operational conditions. The objective of this paper is to establish a discussion about the flow pressure effects in the turbine meter and the influence in measure errors. (author)

  2. The development of a metering and remote checking system using a light sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, S.Y.; Ahn, S.H.; Lee, K.J. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Corporation, Ansan (Korea); Choi, W.Y.; Lee, B.C.; Song, J.C.; Park, J.Y.; Park, J.H.; Park, K.L.; Kim, K.Y.; Kim, J.Y [Venture Korea Corporation (Korea)

    1999-12-01

    The light sensing technology developed in this project can apply all the conventional mechanical meters using only attaching a light sensor set. The technology is available to the majority of small scale consumption such as households, restaurants and offices rather than the minority of large scale consumption such as industry use. When the light sensing technology is practically in use, the expense of the remote checking system can be below 30,000 won per household, and unnecessary national loss can be prevented due to replacement of the conventional meters. If the remote checking system can be constructed using low-priced expenses, all the city gas companies can not only settle all the inconveniences of consumers due to unexpected visit of a gas meterman and communication problems in their absence fundamentally but expect economic profit such as curtailment of the expenses of inspection of meters and early retrieval of gas usage charge. Especially, by inspecting all the households in the midnight of every month simultaneously, civil petitions can be reduced by eliminating causes of bottleneck for flexible rate of natural gas, thus it is expected that general management expenses can be curtailed to a great extent. 22 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Nuon integrates fragmented IT environment with Converge 'meter-to-bill' enterprise system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnston, J.; Richmond, P. [Siemens Metering, Inc (Netherlands)

    2002-10-01

    Integration of the IT services of three large utility companies that merged into one is described. Prior to the merger each company owned its own data acquisition and billing applications and followed its own information processing and business rules. The newly formed company had the unenviable task of integrating these disparate applications into one streamlined and efficient company-wide system. A complicating factor was the earlier deregulation of the Dutch energy market which already forced vertically structured utilities to split into separate functional companies, with the result that meter and other system and logistic information was widely dispersed across multiple systems and locations. To bring order out of this chaos and to create a single company-wide integrated system Nuon partnered with Siemens to evaluate the existing system and to design a new one that would improve the situation. The new system that emerged is a cohesive, robust IT environment with many benefits. Some of these are: consolidated metering data in one open architecture environment; a fully automated interface to the SAP billing system; fully flexible and automated data reporting and validation functionality; data distribution capability throughout the organization and to energy consumers via the Internet; and fully automated data exchange capability with other market players and the System Operator.

  4. A study on multi-point gravity compensation of mirror bending system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuquan; Fu Yuan; Zhu Wanqian; Xue Song

    2011-01-01

    The sag of mirror due to gravity induces unacceptable slope errors in beamline mirror-bending system of a synchrotron radiation facility, and approaches must be found to eliminate the unwanted gravity effect. According to the beam bending theory, the multi-point gravity compensation method is applicable. Taking an example of the bent collimating mirror for the XAFS beam-line (BL14W) at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), the best position and value of the equilibrant were calculated through minimizing the gravity effect. With two, three and four points gravity compensation, slope errors were 0.179, 0.067 and 0.032 μrad,respectively, i.e.the multi-point gravity compensation is better than the two-point gravity compensation, which is used for the Phase I beamlines of SSRF. The four-point gravity compensation method reduces more slope error and stress due to four support points. (authors)

  5. Load Segmentation for Convergence of Distribution Automation and Advanced Metering Infrastructure Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pamulaparthy, Balakrishna; KS, Swarup; Kommu, Rajagopal

    2014-12-01

    Distribution automation (DA) applications are limited to feeder level today and have zero visibility outside of the substation feeder and reaching down to the low-voltage distribution network level. This has become a major obstacle in realizing many automated functions and enhancing existing DA capabilities. Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) systems are being widely deployed by utilities across the world creating system-wide communications access to every monitoring and service point, which collects data from smart meters and sensors in short time intervals, in response to utility needs. DA and AMI systems convergence provides unique opportunities and capabilities for distribution grid modernization with the DA system acting as a controller and AMI system acting as feedback to DA system, for which DA applications have to understand and use the AMI data selectively and effectively. In this paper, we propose a load segmentation method that helps the DA system to accurately understand and use the AMI data for various automation applications with a suitable case study on power restoration.

  6. Control and monitoring of electrical distribution grid using automatic meter reading systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Venancio, Antonio [EDP, Lisboa (Portugal); Loureiro, Carlos [Edinfor - Sistemas Informaticos, Porto (Portugal); Costa, Joao [INESC, Lisboa (Portugal); Rodrigues, Antonio [INETI/DEL, Lisboa (Portugal); Antunes, Jose [EID, Monte da Caparica (Portugal)

    2000-07-01

    Technological innovation undertaken in recent years led to the introduction of electronics in metering apparatus. Deregulation of electricity markets around the world is pushing players to face competition. Supply companies are thus looking for ways to improve efficiency and gain Client's preference and confidence. Taking advantage of the technological innovation, AMR and Energy Management Systems can be a vital weapon in such a competitive scenario. Providing a wide range of services, from remote metering of electricity consumption to monitoring of supply quality, these systems can arm electrical utilities with necessary tools to improve supply efficiency and customer services. Following these trends, electrical utilities around Europe and all over the world are testing AMR and Energy Management solutions, and tailoring systems to their needs and modus operandi. Based on previous experience, gained with R&D work since 1991, EDP, the Portuguese Electrical Utility, is currently working on such systems and planning field trials in several scenarios. This paper presents EDP's approach towards AMR and Energy Management Systems, describing the system architecture and services; the way interoperability with existing commercial and technical management systems is planned; how technical solutions are planned to be tested and field trials are designed. Finally, some results of the ongoing projects will be presented.

  7. Development of the Calibrator of Reactivity Meter Using PC-Based DAQ System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edison; Mariatmo, A.; Sujarwono

    2007-01-01

    The reactivity meter calibrator has been developed by applying the PC-Based DAQ System programmed using LabVIEW. The Output of the calibrator is voltage proportional to neutron density n(t) corresponding to the step reactivity change ρ 0 . The “Kalibrator meter reactivitas.vi” program calculates seven roots and coefficients of solution n(t) of Reactor Kinetic equation using the in-hour equation. Based on data of dt = t k+1 - t k and t 0 = 0 input by user, the program approximates n(t) for each time interval t k ≤ t k+1 , where k = 0, 1, 2, 3, .... by a step function n(t) = n 0 ∑ j=1 7 A j e ω j t k . Then the program commands the DAQ device to output voltage V(t) = n(t) Volt at time t. The measurement of standard reactivity with the meter reactivity showed that the maximum deviation of measured reactivity from its standard were less than 1 %. (author)

  8. Modeling update for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star dual-conjugate adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2010-07-01

    This paper describes the modeling efforts undertaken in the past couple of years to derive wavefront error (WFE) performance estimates for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), which is the facility laser guide star (LGS) dual-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The estimates describe the expected performance of NFIRAOS as a function of seeing on Mauna Kea, zenith angle, and galactic latitude (GL). They have been developed through a combination of integrated AO simulations, side analyses, allocations, lab and lidar experiments.

  9. Meters and systems for future. Meters fit for retrofitting with a communication module; Zaehler und Systeme fuer die Zukunft. Mit Kommunikationsmodul nachruestbare Zaehler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, Martin [Itron GmbH, Karlsruhe (Germany). Marketing Gas Germany; Sievers, Marco [Allmess GmbH, Oldenburg (Germany). Marketing und Vertrieb Systeme, Wasser- und Waermewirtschaft

    2011-04-18

    The contribution looks at the situation of smart meters in view of the German government's decision of 2007, which required that smart meters should be installed within a period of six years. However, there is no market-compatible strategy for their introduction, and legal regulations are still lacking. For example, the EnWG demands the obligatory installation of smart meters from 1 January 2010 only in newly constructed or extensively modernized buildings and also on the user's demand.

  10. OVERCOMING THE METER BARRIER AND THE FORMATION OF SYSTEMS WITH TIGHTLY PACKED INNER PLANETS (STIPs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boley, A. C.; Morris, M. A.; Ford, E. B.

    2014-01-01

    We present a solution to the long outstanding meter barrier problem in planet formation theory. As solids spiral inward due to aerodynamic drag, they will enter disk regions that are characterized by high temperatures, densities, and pressures. High partial pressures of rock vapor can suppress solid evaporation, and promote collisions between partially molten solids, allowing rapid growth. This process should be ubiquitous in planet-forming disks, which may be evidenced by the abundant class of Systems with Tightly packed Inner Planets discovered by the NASA Kepler Mission

  11. Developing an area-wide system for coordinated ramp meter control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-12-01

    Ramp metering has been broadly accepted and deployed as an effective countermeasure : against both recurrent and non-recurrent congestion on freeways. However, many current ramp : metering algorithms tend to improve only freeway travels using local d...

  12. Metering systems and demand-side management models applied to hybrid renewable energy systems in micro-grid configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blasques, L.C.M.; Pinho, J.T.

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a demand-side management model integrated to a metering system for hybrid renewable energy systems in micro-grid configuration. The proposal is based on the management problems verified in most of this kind of renewable hybrid systems installed in Brazil. The main idea is the implementation of a pre-paid metering system with some control functions that directly act on the consumer demand, restricting the consumption proportionally to the monthly availability of renewable energy. The result is a better distribution of the electricity consumption by month and by consumer, preventing that only one user, with larger purchasing power, consumes all the renewable energy available at some time period. The proportionality between the consumption and the renewable energy's availability has the objective to prevent a lack of energy stored and a high use of the diesel generator-set on months of low renewable potential. This paper also aims to contribute to the Brazilian regulation of renewable energy systems supplying micro-grids. - Highlights: ► Review of the Brazilian electricity regulation for small-scale isolated systems. ► Renewable systems are the most feasible option in several isolated communities. ► One proposal is to guarantee government subsidies for renewable energy systems. ► Smart electronic meters to create electricity restrictions for the consumers.

  13. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the influencing factors were analyzed, particularly the acknowledgment of farmers, the installation proportion of tube wells, the social benefits. Great achievements have been gained in the implementation, and the management targets have been achieved, including accurately metering overall irrigation groundwater production, assisting in the total amount control and quota management, reducing groundwater exploitation, and improving water use efficiency. However, shortcomings remain in the implementation process, such as single initial investment channels, imperfect policy system construction, a lack of retrieving and analyzing data, and the unbalanced development between areas. Countermeasures and suggestions for these problems are discussed in this article.

  14. The design and commissioning of cold trap purifying system of hydrogen meter sodium loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Zhaoyi; Jia Baoshan; Chen Xiaoming; Pan Fengguo

    1993-01-01

    The design feature and parameters of cold trap purifying system of hydrogen meter sodium loop and its commissioning results are reported and discussed. In order to adjust the flow easily,. the cold trap purifying system is arranged in the exit of the electromagnetic pump. It is composed of regenerator and the cold trap. The regenerator is above the cold trap. The high temperature sodium in the main-loop flows through the regenerator, in the entrance of the cold trap, its temperature is reduced to 180 degree C. After entering into the cold trap, the sodium flows to the purifying region by side, when it arrives the bottom of the trap, its temperature is reduced to 110 degree C. The cold trap is cooled by air. The temperature of the clean sodium rises nearby the main-loop's by the regenerator, and then it returns to the entrance of the electromagnetic pump. According to the commissioning results, the sodium's temperature of the cold trap could be reduced to 110 degree C by reducing the flow of the cold trap purifying system and the temperature of the main-loop, or increasing the air flow and cutting off the power supply of its heating. The authors think that the latter is more conformable with the design stipulation and with the requirement of the hydrogen meter experiment, and it can meet the requirements of the operation of the Nuclear Power Plant

  15. Strong gravity effects in accreting black-hole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzwiecki, A.

    2006-01-01

    I briefly review current status of studying effects of strong gravity in X-ray astronomy. Matter accreting onto a black hole probes the relativistic region of space-time and the high-energy radiation it produces should contain signatures of strong gravity effects. Current X-ray observations provide the evidence that the observed emission originates, in some cases, at a distance of a few gravitational radii from a black hole. Moreover, certain observations invoke interpretations favouring rapid rotation of the black hole. Some observational properties of black hole systems are supposed to result from the lack of a material surface in these objects. I consider further effects, specific for the black hole environment, which can be studied in X-ray data. Bulk motion Comptonization, which would directly reveal converging flow of matter plunging into a black hole, is unlikely to be important in formation of X-ray spectra. Similarly, Penrose processes are unlikely to give observational effects, although this issue has not been thoroughly studied so far for all plausible radiative mechanisms. (author)

  16. Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring system based on a modern kWh-meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pihala, H. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Systems

    1998-12-01

    Non-intrusive appliance load monitoring (NIALM) is a fairly new method to estimate load profiles of individual electric appliances in a small building, like a household, by monitoring the whole load at a single point with one recording device without sub-meters. Appliances have special electrical characteristics, the positive and negative active and reactive power changes during the time they are switched on or off. These changes are called events and are detected with a monitoring device called an event recorder. Different NIALM-concepts developed in Europe and in the United States are generally discussed. The NIALM-concept developed in this study is based on a 3-phase, power quality monitoring kWh-meter and unique load identification algorithms. This modern kWh-meter with a serial data bus to a laptop personal computer is used as die event recorder. The NIALM-concept of this presentation shows for the first time how a kWh-meter can be used at the same time for billing, power quality and appliance end-use monitoring. An essential part of the developed NIALM-system prototype is the software of load identification algorithms which runs in an off-line personal computer. These algorithms are able to identify, with a certain accuracy, both two-state and multi-state appliances. This prototype requires manual-setup in which the naming of appliances is performed. The results of the prototype NIALMS were verified in a large, single family detached house and they were compared to the results of other prototypes in France and the United States, although this comparison is difficult because of different supply systems, appliance stock and number of tested sites. Different applications of NIALM are discussed. Gathering of load research data, verification of DSM-programs, home automation, failure analysis of appliances and security surveillance of buildings are interesting areas of NIALM. Both utilities and customers can benefit from these applications. It is possible to

  17. CAMAC system for data acquisition on output of digital panel meter for DC voltage measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Nobuaki.

    1979-03-01

    An interface between the digital panel meter (DPM) for DC voltage measurement and the CAMAC system for T-2 experiment in JIPP (Japan Institute of Plasma Physics) was designed and produced. This panel meter is used for the purpose of monitoring the deflected electrode voltage of a 6 channel, neutral particle, energy analyzer (parallel plate electrodes, electro static type). The method of connecting the DPM to the CAMAC system is that of taking the gate pulses with the width proportional to the voltage to be measured out of the output of the DPM and counting the clock pulses. This system uses each one channel of output register, interrupting register, scaler and clock generator, and the binary digital data is obtained in the scaler, and sent to the main memory of the computer HITAC 10-2 through the CAMAC crate controller. At this time, the interface gives the output of the gate pulses with the width proportional to the DPM input voltage from the DPM BUSY output and PRINT COMMAND output, depending on the sampling pulses from the output register. The interface also gives the end pulse communicating the completion of the output of gate pulses to the interrupting register. The software is summarized in the flow chart of the program and in the program list used for the test on this data acquisition system. The features of this system are to be able to obtain the binary data directly, and to be capable of saving the number of transmission lines required for data transfer. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  18. Experiment of 200-meter superconducting DC cable system in Chubu University

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Kawahara, T.; Hamabe, M.; Watanabe, H.; Ivanov, Yu.; Sun, J.; Iiyoshi, A.

    2011-01-01

    We designed and constructed the experimental device of 200-meter superconducting DC cable system in the beginning of 2010 and did the first experiment until March, 2010, and the second experiment has been done from August to October 2010. This experimental device is called CASER-2, and the main aim of the experiment is to demonstrate high performance of DC superconducting cable system for comparing the copper cable system. Thermal contraction and expansion during the thermal cycle are discussed in the paper because if the thermal stress of the HTS tape conductor is high, the critical current of the HTS tape is reduced. Therefore, it is the first priority to keep the system in high performance and safety. We also mentioned several experiments and ideas in the paper, such as the low heat leaks of the terminal cryostat and the cryogenic pipe, and the low circulation power, energy storage function of the cable system. In this paper, we present the experimental results of the CASER-2, and discuss and estimate the performance of the system and several ideas. These discussions include the specification of the future long cable system, and show the subjects to solve for the future system.

  19. Physiological targets of artificial gravity: the sensory-motor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Clarke, A.; Bles, W.; Wuyts, F.; Paloski, W.; Clément, G.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial

  20. A comparison of sewer reticulation system design standards gravity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirdly Botswana being a dry country does not always have the water supply available and only some households have a house connection which provides enough water to flush a gravity sewer. Coupled to this is the low housing density and generally flat landscape in rural Botswana that means the conventional gravity ...

  1. Effects of Net Metering on the Use of Small-Scale Wind Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, T. L.; Pedden, M.; Gagliano, T.

    2002-11-01

    Factors such as technological advancements, steadily decreasing costs, consumer demand, and state and federal policies are combining to make wind energy the world's fastest growing energy source. State and federal policies are facilitating the growth of the domestic, large-scale wind power market; however, small-scale wind projects (those with a capacity of less than 100 kilowatts[kW]) still face challenges in many states. Net metering, also referred to as net billing, is one particular policy that states are implementing to encourage the use of small renewable energy systems. Net metering allows individual, grid-tied customers who generate electricity using a small renewable energy system to receive credit from their utility for any excess power they generate beyond what they consume. Under most state rules, residential, commercial, and industrial customers are eligible for net metering; however, some states restrict eligibility to particular customer classes. This paper illustrates how net metering programs in certain states vary considerably in terms of how customers are credited for excess power they generate; the type and size of eligible technologies and whether the utility; the state, or some other entity administers the program. This paper focuses on10 particular states where net metering policies are in place. It analyzes how the different versions of these programs affect the use of small-scale wind technologies and whether some versions are more favorable to this technology than others. The choice of citizens in some states to net meter with photovoltaics is also examined.

  2. Constraining f(R) gravity in solar system, cosmology and binary pulsar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tan; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Wen

    2018-02-01

    The f (R) gravity can be cast into the form of a scalar-tensor theory, and scalar degree of freedom can be suppressed in high-density regions by the chameleon mechanism. In this article, for the general f (R) gravity, using a scalar-tensor representation with the chameleon mechanism, we calculate the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters γ and β, the effective gravitational constant Geff, and the effective cosmological constant Λeff. In addition, for the general f (R) gravity, we also calculate the rate of orbital period decay of the binary system due to gravitational radiation. Then we apply these results to specific f (R) models (Hu-Sawicki model, Tsujikawa model and Starobinsky model) and derive the constraints on the model parameters by combining the observations in solar system, cosmological scales and the binary systems.

  3. Constraining f(R gravity in solar system, cosmology and binary pulsar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The f(R gravity can be cast into the form of a scalar–tensor theory, and scalar degree of freedom can be suppressed in high-density regions by the chameleon mechanism. In this article, for the general f(R gravity, using a scalar–tensor representation with the chameleon mechanism, we calculate the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters γ and β, the effective gravitational constant Geff, and the effective cosmological constant Λeff. In addition, for the general f(R gravity, we also calculate the rate of orbital period decay of the binary system due to gravitational radiation. Then we apply these results to specific f(R models (Hu–Sawicki model, Tsujikawa model and Starobinsky model and derive the constraints on the model parameters by combining the observations in solar system, cosmological scales and the binary systems.

  4. Metering apparatus and tariffs for electricity supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    Conference papers presented cover system economies and tariff structure with papers on pricing of electricity and new metering technologies. Other topics reviewed include metering apparatus design, electronic metering apparatus and solid phase metering technology. Meter data retrieval, bulk supply metering, test equipment and maintenance, and legal requirements and standards are discussed. (author)

  5. The Design of Integrated Information System for High Voltage Metering Lab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Yang, Yi; Xu, Guangke; Gu, Chao; Zou, Lida; Yang, Feng

    2018-01-01

    With the development of smart grid, intelligent and informatization management of high-voltage metering lab become increasingly urgent. In the paper we design an integrated information system, which automates the whole transactions from accepting instruments, make experiments, generating report, report signature to instrument claims. Through creating database for all the calibrated instruments, using two-dimensional code, integrating report templates in advance, establishing bookmarks and online transmission of electronical signatures, our manual procedures reduce largely. These techniques simplify the complex process of account management and report transmission. After more than a year of operation, our work efficiency improves about forty percent averagely, and its accuracy rate and data reliability are much higher as well.

  6. Power laws for gravity and topography of Solar System bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A.; Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.

    2017-12-01

    When a spacecraft visits a planetary body, it is useful to be able to predict its gravitational and topographic properties. This knowledge is important for determining the level of perturbations in spacecraft's motion as well as for planning the observation campaign. It has been known for the Earth that the power spectrum of gravity follows a power law, also known as the Kaula rule (Kaula, 1963; Rapp, 1989). A similar rule was derived for topography (Vening-Meinesz, 1951). The goal of this paper is to generalize the power law that can characterize the gravity and topography power spectra for bodies across a wide range of size. We have analyzed shape power spectra of the bodies that have either global shape and gravity field measured. These bodies span across five orders of magnitude in their radii and surface gravities and include terrestrial planets, icy moons and minor bodies. We have found that despite having different internal structure, composition and mechanical properties, the topography power spectrum of these bodies' shapes can be modeled with a similar power law rescaled by the surface gravity. Having empirically found a power law for topography, we can map it to a gravity power law. Special care should be taken for low-degree harmonic coefficients due to potential isostatic compensation. For minor bodies, uniform density can be assumed. The gravity coefficients are a linear function of the shape coefficients for close-to-spherical bodoes. In this case, the power law for gravity will be steeper than the power law of topography due to the factor (2n+1) in the gravity expansion (e.g. Eq. 10 in Wieczorek & Phillips, 1998). Higher powers of topography must be retained for irregularly shaped bodies, which breaks the linearity. Therefore, we propose the following procedure to derive an a priori constraint for gravity. First, a surface gravity needs to be determined assuming typical density for the relevant class of bodies. Second, the scaling coefficient of the

  7. Clean water billing monitoring system using flow liquid meter sensor and SMS gateway

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmi, F.; Hizriadi, A.; Khairani, F.; Andayani, U.; Siregar, B.

    2018-03-01

    Public clean water company (PDAM) as a public service is designed and organized to meet the needs of the community. Currently, the number of PDAM subscribers is very big and will continue to grow, but the service and facilities to customers are still done conventionally by visiting the customer’s home to record the last position of the meter. One of the problems of PDAM is the lack of disclosure of PDAM customers’ invoice because it is only done monthly. This, of course, makes PDAM customers difficult to remember the date of payment of water account. Therefore it is difficult to maintain the efficiency. The purpose of this research is to facilitate customers of PDAM water users to know the details of water usage and the time of payment of water bills easily. It also facilitates customers in knowing information related to the form of water discharge data used, payment rates, and time grace payments using SMS Gateway. In this study, Flow Liquid Meter Sensor was used for data retrieval of water flowing in the piping system. Sensors used to require the help of Hall Effect sensor that serves to measure the speed of water discharge and placed on the pipe that has the same diameter size with the sensor diameter. The sensor will take the data from the rate of water discharge it passes; this data is the number of turns of the mill on the sensor. The results of the tests show that the built system works well in helping customers know in detail the amount of water usage in a month and the bill to be paid

  8. Aircraft Fuel, Fuel Metering, Induction and Exhaust Systems (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9057.02.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    This document presents an outline for a 135-hour course designed to help the trainee gain the skills and knowledge necessary to become an aviation powerplant mechanic. The course outlines the theory of operation of various fuel systems, fuel metering, induction, and exhaust system components with an emphasis on troubleshooting, maintenance, and…

  9. Pigmentation abnormalities in systemic scleroderma examined by using a colorimeter (Choromo Meter CR-200).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, M; Kachi, H; Matubara, K; Mori, S; Kitajima, Y

    1996-03-01

    Cutaneous colors of the dorsum of the hands (A), the distal forearms (B; 5 cm from the wrists), the proximal forearm (C; proximal 1/3 from the elbow) and sternal skin region (D) in patients with systemic scleroderma (73 cases; M:F = 16:57) systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) or dermatomyositis (27 cases; M:F = 7:20) and healthy controls (HC) (36 cases; M:F = 8:28) was characterized by a XYZ colorimetric system (CIE, 1931) using a colorimeter (Choromo Meter CR-200, Minolta Camera Co. Ltd., Osaka). The index Y, which means color value shows a lower value in male HC and in patients with systemic scleroderma, especially in the more severe type with hyperpigmentation (score 5-6; the system proposed by Ishikawa) than that of female HC. The values of indices x and y, which relate to reddish (erythema with hyperpigmentation) and greenish color (pale), respectively, were higher in the exposed portion of the severe type of systemic scleroderma with hyperpigmentation, especially male and older patients, and in unexposed portions of the female group without hyperpigmentation. Histopathologically, there was prominent pigmentation in the upper dermis of the forearm in the severe type of systemic scleroderma, so that melanin quantity may be closely related to the decrease in index Y. There was no statistical significance in the value of indices Y, x and y between HC, SLE and dermatomyositis. This method may contribute not only to diagnosis of systemic scleroderma and differentiation from other collagen diseases, but also studies of clinical follow-up and effects of medication.

  10. Overload control of artificial gravity facility using spinning tether system for high eccentricity transfer orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xing-wang; Li, Ai-jun; Tian, Hao-chang; Wang, Chang-qing; Lu, Hong-shi

    2018-06-01

    As the major part of space life supporting systems, artificial gravity requires further study before it becomes mature. Spinning tether system is a good alternative solution to provide artificial gravity for the whole spacecraft other than additional devices, and its longer tether length could significantly reduce spinning velocity and thus enhance comfortability. An approximated overload-based feedback method is proposed to provide estimated spinning velocity signals for controller, so that gravity level could be accurately controlled without complicated GPS modules. System behavior in high eccentricity transfer orbits is also studied to give a complete knowledge of the spinning stabilities. The application range of the proposed method is studied in various orbit cases and spinning velocities, indicating that it is accurate and reliable for most of the mission phases especially for the final constant gravity level phase. In order to provide stable gravity level for transfer orbit missions, a sliding mode controller based on estimated angular signals is designed for closed-loop control. Numerical results indicate that the combination of overload-based feedback and sliding mode controller could satisfy most of the long-term artificial gravity missions. It is capable of forming flexible gravity environment in relatively good accuracy even in the lowest possible orbital radiuses and high eccentricity orbits of crewed space missions. The proposed scheme provides an effective tether solution for the artificial gravity construction in interstellar travel.

  11. Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharyan, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.

  12. Improved upper bounds on Kaluza-Klein gravity with current Solar System experiments and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xue-Mei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Nanjing (China); Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Space Navigation and Position Techniques, Shanghai (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)

    2015-11-15

    As an extension of previous works on classical tests of Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravity and as an attempt to find more stringent constraints on this theory, its effects on physical experiments and astronomical observations conducted in the Solar System are studied. We investigate the gravitational time delay at inferior conjunction caused by KK gravity, and use new Solar System ephemerides and the observation of Cassini to strengthen constraints on KK gravity by up to two orders of magnitude. These improved upper bounds mean that the fifth-dimensional space in the soliton case is a very flat extra dimension in the Solar System, even in the vicinity of the Sun. (orig.)

  13. Wavefront error budget development for the Thirty Meter Telescope laser guide star adaptive optics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi; Ellerbroek, Brent

    2008-07-01

    This paper describes the modeling effort undertaken to derive the wavefront error (WFE) budget for the Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS), which is the facility, laser guide star (LGS), dual-conjugate adaptive optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). The budget describes the expected performance of NFIRAOS at zenith, and has been decomposed into (i) first-order turbulence compensation terms (120 nm on-axis), (ii) opto-mechanical implementation errors (84 nm), (iii) AO component errors and higher-order effects (74 nm) and (iv) tip/tilt (TT) wavefront errors at 50% sky coverage at the galactic pole (61 nm) with natural guide star (NGS) tip/tilt/focus/astigmatism (TTFA) sensing in J band. A contingency of about 66 nm now exists to meet the observatory requirement document (ORD) total on-axis wavefront error of 187 nm, mainly on account of reduced TT errors due to updated windshake modeling and a low read-noise NGS wavefront sensor (WFS) detector. A detailed breakdown of each of these top-level terms is presented, together with a discussion on its evaluation using a mix of high-order zonal and low-order modal Monte Carlo simulations.

  14. Integration of Behind-the-Meter PV Fleet Forecasts into Utility Grid System Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoff, Thomas Hoff [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States); Kankiewicz, Adam [Clean Power Research, L.L.C., Napa, CA (United States)

    2016-02-26

    Four major research objectives were completed over the course of this study. Three of the objectives were to evaluate three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models. The fourth objective was to improve the California Independent System Operator’s (ISO) load forecasts by integrating behind-the-meter (BTM) PV forecasts. The three, new, state-of-the-art solar irradiance forecasting models included: the infrared (IR) satellite-based cloud motion vector (CMV) model; the WRF-SolarCA model and variants; and the Optimized Deep Machine Learning (ODML)-training model. The first two forecasting models targeted known weaknesses in current operational solar forecasts. They were benchmarked against existing operational numerical weather prediction (NWP) forecasts, visible satellite CMV forecasts, and measured PV plant power production. IR CMV, WRF-SolarCA, and ODML-training forecasting models all improved the forecast to a significant degree. Improvements varied depending on time of day, cloudiness index, and geographic location. The fourth objective was to demonstrate that the California ISO’s load forecasts could be improved by integrating BTM PV forecasts. This objective represented the project’s most exciting and applicable gains. Operational BTM forecasts consisting of 200,000+ individual rooftop PV forecasts were delivered into the California ISO’s real-time automated load forecasting (ALFS) environment. They were then evaluated side-by-side with operational load forecasts with no BTM-treatment. Overall, ALFS-BTM day-ahead (DA) forecasts performed better than baseline ALFS forecasts when compared to actual load data. Specifically, ALFS-BTM DA forecasts were observed to have the largest reduction of error during the afternoon on cloudy days. Shorter term 30 minute-ahead ALFS-BTM forecasts were shown to have less error under all sky conditions, especially during the morning time periods when traditional load forecasts often experience their largest

  15. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6

  16. A Scheme for the Application of Smart Message Language in a Wireless Meter Reading System

    OpenAIRE

    O. Homa Keshav; B. Abdul Rahim

    2012-01-01

    The use of wireless automation in almost all the fields of power, gas and water generation, distribution and billing has come of age. Here with the inclusion of wireless communication with the automation may lead to paradigm change in the current trend. The design presents a new methodology for avoiding the high construction and maintenance costs in the existing meter reading technology. Apart the use of wireless meter reading with network technologies has become need of the day. The designed...

  17. Effect of the Earth's inner structure on the gravity in definitions of height systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, Robert; Foroughi, Ismael; Pitoňák, Martin; Šprlák, Michal

    2017-04-01

    In context of the vertical datum unification, the geoid-to-quasi-geoid separation has been of significant interest in recent years, because most of existing local vertical datums are realized in the system of either normal or orthometric heights. Nevertheless, the normal-orthometric heights are still used in many other countries where the normal gravity values along leveling lines were adopted instead of the observed gravity. Whereas the conversion between the orthometric and normal heights is defined by means of the mean gravity disturbances (i.e. differences between the mean values of the actual and normal gravity) along the plumbline within the topography, differences between the normal and normal-orthometric heights can be described by means of the surface gravity disturbances. Since the normal gravity field does not reflect the topographic masses and actual mass density distribution inside the Earth, the definition of gravity represents a principal aspect for a realization of particular vertical datum. To address this issue in this study, we investigate effects of the Earth's inner density structure on the surface and mean gravity disturbances, and discuss their impact on the vertical datum realization. These two gravity field quantities are computed globally with a spectral resolution complete to a spherical harmonic degree 2160 using the global gravity, terrain, ice-thickness, inland bathymetry and crustal structure models. Our results reveal that both, the surface and mean gravity disturbances mostly comprise the gravitational signal of topography and masses distributed below the geoid surface. Moreover, in polar areas, a significant contribution comes from large glaciers. In contrast, the contributions of anomalous density distribution within the topography attributed to major lakes, sediments and bedrock density variations are much less pronounced. We also demonstrate that the mean gravity disturbances within the topography are significantly modified

  18. 300 GHz Imaging System with 8 Meter Stand-off Distance and One-Dimensional Synthetic Image Reconstruction for Remote Detection of Material Defects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keil, Andreas; Peuser, Jörn; Loeffler, Torsten

    2011-01-01

    An active stand-off imaging system operating at 230–320 GHz is presented. Imaging is achieved by combining a line array consisting of 8 sources and 16 detectors with a scanning cylindrical mirror system. The stand-off distance is 8 meters and the effective aperture of the system is 0.5 meters by ...

  19. Charge Meter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 4. Charge Meter: Easy Way to Measure Charge and Capacitance: Some Interesting Electrostatic Experiments. M K Raghavendra V Venkataraman. Classroom Volume 19 Issue 4 April 2014 pp 376-390 ...

  20. Context-Aware Based Efficient Training System Using Augmented Reality and Gravity Sensor for Healthcare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoksoo; Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Kang, Byong-Ho

    As augmented reality and a gravity sensor is of growing interest, siginificant developement is being made on related technology, which allows application of the technology in a variety of areas with greater expectations. In applying Context-aware to augmented reality, it can make useful programs. A traning system suggested in this study helps a user to understand an effcienct training method using augmented reality and make sure if his exercise is being done propery based on the data collected by a gravity sensor. Therefore, this research aims to suggest an efficient training environment that can enhance previous training methods by applying augmented reality and a gravity sensor.

  1. Design of optoelectronic system to meter of electrical current to the habitation house

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camas, J.; Flores, M.; Anzuelo, G.; Garcia, C.; Juarez, N.; Torres, W.; Mota, R.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we present an optoelectronic digital meter of electrical current. The development of this design is described step by step with diagram to blocks. The advantage over conventional meters of CFE (Comision Federal de electricidad) and the design proposed are analyzed. Information in the optoelectronic design is controlled by Microcontroller PIC16F877. This Microcontroller uses an external crystal as an oscillator with a 4 MHz frequency. The information is shown in a LCD (Liquid Crystal Display). In addition, to quantify the electrical current was necessary an interruption of light. (Author)

  2. The measuring system and practical uses of the universal radiation meter type TSM-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozsa, S.; Szabo, Gy.; Szem, I.; Vereczky, L.

    1980-01-01

    The industrial radiation meter in its signal conversion follows the ratemeter principle and uses pulse detectors. By its built-in zero suppression and scale extension the device makes the display of two pulses differing from each other at least by 10% and their conversion onto the output signal range of 0-20 mA possible. The information from the different measuring sections developed for industrial purposes are processed by the same device. The operation principles of and the experience gathered with the radiometer in its use in industry as density, level, thickness gauge, moisture and quantity meter and belt scales are discussed. (author)

  3. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P

    2013-01-01

    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  4. Constraining f(T) gravity in the Solar System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Lorenzo [Ministero dell' Istruzione dell' Università e della Ricerca (M.I.U.R), Viale Unità di Italia 68, 70125 Bari (Italy); Radicella, Ninfa [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, Fisciano (Italy); Ruggiero, Matteo Luca, E-mail: lorenzo.iorio@libero.it, E-mail: ninfa.radicella@sa.infn.it, E-mail: matteo.ruggiero@polito.it [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of f(T) theories of gravity, we solve the field equations for f(T)=T+α T{sup n} in the weak-field approximation and for spherical symmetry spacetime. Since f(T)=T corresponds to Teleparallel Gravity, which is equivalent to General Relativity, the non linearity of the Lagrangian are expected to produce perturbations of the general relativistic solutions, parameterized by α. Hence, we use the f(T) solutions to model the gravitational field of the Sun and exploit data from accurate radio-tracking of spacecrafts orbiting Mercury and Saturn to infer preliminary bounds on the model parameter α and on the cosmological constant Λ.

  5. Gravity Compensation Using EGM2008 for High-Precision Long-Term Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruonan Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The gravity disturbance vector is one of the major error sources in high-precision and long-term inertial navigation applications. Specific to the inertial navigation systems (INSs with high-order horizontal damping networks, analyses of the error propagation show that the gravity-induced errors exist almost exclusively in the horizontal channels and are mostly caused by deflections of the vertical (DOV. Low-frequency components of the DOV propagate into the latitude and longitude errors at a ratio of 1:1 and time-varying fluctuations in the DOV excite Schuler oscillation. This paper presents two gravity compensation methods using the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008, namely, interpolation from the off-line database and computing gravity vectors directly using the spherical harmonic model. Particular attention is given to the error contribution of the gravity update interval and computing time delay. It is recommended for the marine navigation that a gravity vector should be calculated within 1 s and updated every 100 s at most. To meet this demand, the time duration of calculating the current gravity vector using EGM2008 has been reduced to less than 1 s by optimizing the calculation procedure. A few off-line experiments were conducted using the data of a shipborne INS collected during an actual sea test. With the aid of EGM2008, most of the low-frequency components of the position errors caused by the gravity disturbance vector have been removed and the Schuler oscillation has been attenuated effectively. In the rugged terrain, the horizontal position error could be reduced at best 48.85% of its regional maximum. The experimental results match with the theoretical analysis and indicate that EGM2008 is suitable for gravity compensation of the high-precision and long-term INSs.

  6. Gravity Compensation Using EGM2008 for High-Precision Long-Term Inertial Navigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruonan; Wu, Qiuping; Han, Fengtian; Liu, Tianyi; Hu, Peida; Li, Haixia

    2016-12-18

    The gravity disturbance vector is one of the major error sources in high-precision and long-term inertial navigation applications. Specific to the inertial navigation systems (INSs) with high-order horizontal damping networks, analyses of the error propagation show that the gravity-induced errors exist almost exclusively in the horizontal channels and are mostly caused by deflections of the vertical (DOV). Low-frequency components of the DOV propagate into the latitude and longitude errors at a ratio of 1:1 and time-varying fluctuations in the DOV excite Schuler oscillation. This paper presents two gravity compensation methods using the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008), namely, interpolation from the off-line database and computing gravity vectors directly using the spherical harmonic model. Particular attention is given to the error contribution of the gravity update interval and computing time delay. It is recommended for the marine navigation that a gravity vector should be calculated within 1 s and updated every 100 s at most. To meet this demand, the time duration of calculating the current gravity vector using EGM2008 has been reduced to less than 1 s by optimizing the calculation procedure. A few off-line experiments were conducted using the data of a shipborne INS collected during an actual sea test. With the aid of EGM2008, most of the low-frequency components of the position errors caused by the gravity disturbance vector have been removed and the Schuler oscillation has been attenuated effectively. In the rugged terrain, the horizontal position error could be reduced at best 48.85% of its regional maximum. The experimental results match with the theoretical analysis and indicate that EGM2008 is suitable for gravity compensation of the high-precision and long-term INSs.

  7. Portable wireless metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, L [Powtel Monitoring Systems, Inc., Ajax, ON (Canada)

    1996-12-31

    Portable meters were discussed as alternatives to standard billing meters for temporary installations. Current, voltage and power factor at a distribution station were measured to calculate kW and kVAR, using an easy to install product that communicates live readings directly to the existing billing system. A background of situations where temporary metering is a possible alternative to regular meters was presented. Use of electronic, clamp on Electronic Recording Ammeters (ERA) and their drawbacks were discussed. An improved temporary metering solution using FM radio transmission to deliver live data to a receiving device, the Eagle Series 3500, was introduced. Improvements over previous ERA systems were discussed, including accuracy, lack of batteries, immediate confirmation of functionality, current, voltage and power factor monitoring, direct feed to billing system, line crew savings, need for only a single unit at any given site, bi-directional power flow metering, independent report storage media, and a portable voltage and P.F. diagnostic tool. Details of trial applications at the Utopia distribution station west of Barrie, ON were presented. This technology was said to be still in the testing stage, but its flexibility and economy were sonsidered to be very promising for future application.

  8. Manufacturing Challenges and Benefits When Scaling the HIAD Stacked-Torus Aeroshell to a 15 Meter Class System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanson, G. T.; Cheatwood, F. M.; Johnson, R. K.; Hughes, S. J.; Calomino, A. M.

    2016-01-01

    Over a decade of work has been conducted in the development of NASA's Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerator (HIAD) deployable aeroshell technology. This effort has included multiple ground test campaigns and flight tests culminating in the HIAD project's second generation (Gen-2) aeroshell system. The HIAD project team has developed, fabricated, and tested stacked-torus inflatable structures (IS) with flexible thermal protection systems (F-TPS) ranging in diameters from 3-6 meters, with cone angles of 60 and 70 degrees. To meet NASA and commercial near-term objectives, the HIAD team must scale the current technology up to 12-15 meters in diameter. Therefore, the HIAD project's experience in scaling the technology has reached a critical juncture. Growing from a 6-meter to a 15-meter class system will introduce many new structural and logistical challenges to an already complicated manufacturing process. Although the general architecture and key aspects of the HIAD design scale well to larger vehicles, details of the technology will need to be reevaluated and possibly redesigned for use in a 15-meter-class HIAD system. These include: layout and size of the structural webbing that transfers load throughout the IS, inflatable gas barrier design, torus diameter and braid construction, internal pressure and inflation line routing, adhesives used for coating and bonding, and F-TPS gore design and seam fabrication. The logistics of fabricating and testing the IS and the F-TPS also become more challenging with increased scale. Compared to the 6-meter aeroshell (the largest HIAD built to date), a 12-meter aeroshell has four times the cross-sectional area, and a 15-meter one has over six times the area. This means that fabrication and test procedures will need to be reexamined to account for the sheer size and weight of the aeroshell components. This will affect a variety of steps in the manufacturing process, such as: stacking the tori during assembly, stitching the

  9. BIonic system: Extraction of Lovelock gravity from a Born-Infeld-type theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Yaghoob; Sepehri, Alireza; Ghaffary, Tooraj; Ghaforyan, Hossein; Ebrahimzadeh, Majid

    It was shown that both Lovelock gravity and Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics can be obtained from low effective limit of string theory. Motivated by the mentioned unique origin of the gauge-gravity theories, we are going to find a close relation between them. In this research, we start from the Lagrangian of a BI-type nonlinear electrodynamics with an exponential form to extract the action of Lovelock gravity. We investigate the origin of Lovelock gravity in a system of branes which are connected with each other by different wormholes through a BIonic system. These wormholes are produced as due to the nonlinear electrodynamics which are emerged on the interacting branes. By approaching branes, wormholes dissolve into branes and Lovelock gravity is generated. Also, throats of some wormholes become smaller than their horizons and they transit to black holes. Generalizing calculations to M-theory, it is found that by compacting Mp-branes, Lovelock gravity changes to nonlinear electrodynamics and thus both of them have the same origin. This result is consistent with the prediction of BIonic model in string theory.

  10. Earth System Data Records of Mass Transport from Time-Variable Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, V.; Talpe, M.; Nerem, R. S.; Landerer, F. W.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite measurements of time variable gravity have revolutionized the study of Earth, by measuring the ice losses of Greenland, Antarctica and land glaciers, changes in groundwater including unsustainable losses due to extraction of groundwater, the mass and currents of the oceans and their redistribution during El Niño events, among other findings. Satellite measurements of gravity have been made primarily by four techniques: satellite tracking from land stations using either lasers or Doppler radio systems, satellite positioning by GNSS/GPS, satellite to satellite tracking over distances of a few hundred km using microwaves, and through a gravity gradiometer (radar altimeters also measure the gravity field, but over the oceans only). We discuss the challenges in the measurement of gravity by different instruments, especially time-variable gravity. A special concern is how to bridge a possible gap in time between the end of life of the current GRACE satellite pair, launched in 2002, and a future GRACE Follow-On pair to be launched in 2017. One challenge in combining data from different measurement systems consists of their different spatial and temporal resolutions and the different ways in which they alias short time scale signals. Typically satellite measurements of gravity are expressed in spherical harmonic coefficients (although expansions in terms of 'mascons', the masses of small spherical caps, has certain advantages). Taking advantage of correlations among spherical harmonic coefficients described by empirical orthogonal functions and derived from GRACE data it is possible to localize the otherwise coarse spatial resolution of the laser and Doppler derived gravity models. This presentation discusses the issues facing a climate data record of time variable mass flux using these different data sources, including its validation.

  11. Gravity-assist heat pipes for thermal control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverall, J.E.; Keddy, E.S.; Kemme, J.E.; Phillips, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    Sodium heat pipes, operating in the gravity-assist mode, have been incorporated into irradiation capsules to provide a means for establishing and controlling a desired specimen temperature. Investigations were made of new wick structures for potassium heat pipes to operate at lower temperatures and higher heat transfer rates, and a helical trough wick structure was developed with an improved heat transfer capability in the temperature range of interest. Test results of these heat pipes led to the study of a new heat pipe limit which had not previously been considered. (12 references) (U.S.)

  12. A hardware-software system for the automation of verification and calibration of oil metering units secondary equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyarnikov, A. V.; Boyarnikova, L. V.; Kozhushko, A. A.; Sekachev, A. F.

    2017-08-01

    In the article the process of verification (calibration) of oil metering units secondary equipment is considered. The purpose of the work is to increase the reliability and reduce the complexity of this process by developing a software and hardware system that provides automated verification and calibration. The hardware part of this complex carries out the commutation of the measuring channels of the verified controller and the reference channels of the calibrator in accordance with the introduced algorithm. The developed software allows controlling the commutation of channels, setting values on the calibrator, reading the measured data from the controller, calculating errors and compiling protocols. This system can be used for checking the controllers of the secondary equipment of the oil metering units in the automatic verification mode (with the open communication protocol) or in the semi-automatic verification mode (without it). The peculiar feature of the approach used is the development of a universal signal switch operating under software control, which can be configured for various verification methods (calibration), which allows to cover the entire range of controllers of metering units secondary equipment. The use of automatic verification with the help of a hardware and software system allows to shorten the verification time by 5-10 times and to increase the reliability of measurements, excluding the influence of the human factor.

  13. Detection of traveling ionospheric disturbances induced by atmospheric gravity waves using the global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.

  14. API testing program - calibration of microprocessor based flowmeters for integrated metering systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliot, Kenneth D. [Omni Flow Computers, Inc., Stafford, TX (United States)

    2005-07-01

    Microprocessor based flowmeter technologies for liquids, such as Coriolis mass meters, and Ultrasonic flowmeters hold great promise. These technologies offer many advantages, such as no rotating parts, self-diagnostic checks, which can help anticipate and warn of impending failures before they have a major impact on the measurement. These meters are substantially different though than other primary devices due to their heavy reliance on the accompanying secondary electronics. One method to prove that they are accurate would be proving the flowmeter, using a pipe prover or small volume prover (SVP), but these proving methods are designed to count 'real time' pulses from a turbine or PD meter between a known volume, they are not designed to count 'time delayed' 'manufactured pulses' from a microprocessor. There are limitations of the manufactured pulse train and it affects the ability of the flowmeter to be proved using current proving technology. The author of this paper, a chairman of an American Petroleum Institute working group, investigated how the 'microprocessor generated pulses' produced by these types of flowmeters, interacted with the existing measurement technologies in use today. Several microprocessor based flowmeter technologies have been tested, including; Ultrasonic, Coriolis, and Helical Turbine with pulse multiplying preamplifier. Wherever possible, flowmeters of various sizes, and from several vendors have been tested. A significant amount of data has been collected which sheds light into why these types of flowmeters are sometimes difficult to prove. This paper describes the API testing program, and the methodology behind it. It presents results and findings, and offers specific recommendations that may eventually be incorporated into API documents and/or standards in the future. (author)

  15. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.

    2003-07-01

    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  16. Neutron measurement in 12,13C+ 27Al system using CR-39 detectors and neutron rem meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahoo, G.S.; Tripathy, S.P.; Shanbhag, A.A.; Sunil, C.; Joshi, D.S.; Sarkar, P.K.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, neutron measurements carried out for the interaction of 60 and 67.5 MeV 12 C, 57.3 and 65 MeV 13 C ions with thick aluminium target by using CR-39 detectors and neutron rem meter is reported. Both the detector systems were irradiated at different angles viz. 0 deg, 30 deg, 60 deg, 90 deg with respect to the beam direction. The normalized track density measurements (tracks/cm 2 /projectile at 1m) in CR-39 detectors were correlated with the normalized dose equivalent values (μSv/projectile at 1m) obtained using the neutron rem meter. The track density was found to be more in case of 13 C than 12 C. However in all the cases, the track density per incident projectile was found to decrease as the angle with respect to beam direction increases, indicating non-isotropic nature of neutron emission. The ratio between measured dose equivalent in rem meter to the measured track densities in CR-39 detectors was found to be 2.8±0.2, which remains constant irrespective of the change in angle from beam direction as well as neutron spectrum, indicating a flat dose response of CR-39 detectors. (author)

  17. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akkus, B.; Anac, H.; Alsan, S.; Erk, S.

    1991-01-01

    Nowadays, various digital methods making use of microcomputers for neutron detector signals and determining the reactivity by numerical calculations are used in reactor control systems in place of classical reactivity meters. In this work, a calculation based on the ''The Time Dependent Transport Equation'' has been developed for determining the reactivity numerically. The reactivity values have been obtained utilizing a computer-based data acquisition and control system and compared with the analog reactivity meter values as well as the values calculated from the ''Inhour Equation''

  18. Actin-based gravity-sensing mechanisms in unicellular plant model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Markus; Limbach, Christoph

    2005-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and gravity-oriented polarized growth in single-celled rhizoids and protonemata of the characean algae. It is well known that the actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in these processes. Numerous actin-binding proteins control apical actin polymerization and the dynamic remodeling of the actin arrangement. An actomyosin-based system mediates the delivery and incorporation of secretory vesicles at the growing tip and coordinates the tip-high gradient of cytoplasmic free calcium which is required for local exocytosis. Additionally, the actomyosin system precisely controls the position of statoliths and, upon a change in orientation relative to the gravity vector, directs sedimenting statoliths to the confined graviperception sites of the plasma membrane where gravitropic signalling is initiated. The upward growth response of protonemata is preceded by an actin-dependent relocalization of the Ca2+-gradient to the upper flank. The downward growth response of rhizoids, however, is caused by differential growth of the opposite flankes due to a local reduction of cytoplasmic free calcium limited to the plasma membrane area where statoliths are sedimented. Thus, constant actin polymerization in the growing tip and the spatiotemporal control of actin remodeling are essential for gravity sensing and gravity-oriented polarized growth of characean rhizoids and protonemata.

  19. The development of vestibular system and related function in mammals: Impact of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eJamon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter reviews the knowledge about the adaptation to Earth gravity during the development of mammals. The impact of early exposure to altered gravity is evaluated at the level of the functions related to the vestibular system, including postural control, homeostatic regulation, and spatial memory. The hypothesis of critical periods in the adaptation to gravity is discussed. Demonstrating a critical period requires removing the gravity stimulus during delimited time windows, what is impossible to do on Earth surface. The Surgical destruction of the vestibular apparatus, and the use of mice strains with defective graviceptors have provided useful information on the consequences of missing gravity perception, and the possible compensatory mechanisms, but transitory suppression of the stimulus can only be operated during spatial flight. The rare studies on rat pups housed on board of space shuttle significantly contributed to this problem, but the use of hypergravity environment, produced by means of chronic centrifugation, is the only available tool when repeated experiments must be carried out on Earth. Even though hypergravity is sometimes considered as a mirror situation to microgravity, the two situations cannot be confused because a gravitational force is still present. The theoretical considerations that validate the paradigm of hypergravity to evaluate critical periods are discussed. The question of adaption of graviceptor is questioned from an evolutionary point of view. It is possible that graviception is hardwired, because life on Earth has evolved under the constant pressure of gravity. The rapid acquisition of motor programming by precocial mammals in minutes after birth is consistent with this hypothesis, but the slow development of motor skills in altricial species and the plasticity of vestibular perception in adults suggest that gravity experience is required for the tuning of graviceptors. The possible reasons for this

  20. GAS METERING PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, C.M.

    1957-12-31

    A liquid piston gas pump is described, capable of pumping minute amounts of gas in accurately measurable quantities. The pump consists of a flanged cylindrical regulating chamber and a mercury filled bellows. Sealed to the ABSTRACTS regulating chamber is a value and having a gas inlet and outlet, the inlet being connected by a helical channel to the bellows. A gravity check valve is in the gas outlet, so the gas passes through the inlet and the helical channel to the bellows where the pumping action as well as the metering is accomplished by the actuation of the mercury filled bellows. The gas then flows through the check valve and outlet to any associated apparatus.

  1. DANOS MECÂNICOS OCASIONADOS POR SISTEMAS DOSADORES DE SEMENTES MECHANICAL DAMAGE CAUSED BY SEED METERING SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Alcanfor Ximenes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Avaliaram-se os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados por cinco sistemas dosadores de sementes, em quatro culturas. Amostras das sementes foram coletadas antes e após passarem pelos sistemas dosadores e foram submetidas a testes de pureza, germinação e vigor. Não houve diferença entre os efeitos de danos mecânicos ocasionados pelos sistemas dosadores empregados nas sementes de milho. Para as sementes de feijão, menores efeitos foram verificados quando da utilização dos dosadores pneumático a vácuo e copo dosador. O sistema rotor acanalado causou menores danos às sementes de arroz e os sistemas disco  horizontal perfurado e copo dosador foram os que menos danificaram as sementes de soja. O sistema dosador pneumático a vácuo ocasionou o maior índice de dano mecânico nas sementes de soja.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Semeadoras; distribuidores de sementes; rotor acanalado.

    Effects of mechanical damage caused by five seed metering systems were evaluated in four crops. Seed samples were collected before and after passing through the measuring systems and submitted to tests of purity, germination and vigor. There was no difference in the level of mechanical damage caused by the metering systems used for maize seeds. For common bean seeds, minor effects were verified when using the vacuum metering disk and the feed cup. The fluted feed system showed the best performance for rice seeds, and the horizontal perforated disk and feed cup systems exhibited the best results for soybean seeds. The vacuum metering disk system caused the highest level of mechanical damage to soybean seeds.

    KEY-WORDS: Planter machine; seed distributor; fluted feed.

  2. The Solar System: a cluttered laboratory for gravity research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reasenberg, R.D.

    1982-01-01

    In the second half century following the birth of Einstein, there was rapid technological change in the approach taken for testing theories of gravitation. Visual sightings of planets have been superseded by radar observations and radio observations which now provide interplanetary distance measurements with an uncertainty equivalent to a few meters. Using delay data made possible by the Viking Mission to Mars, Shapiro's time delay test has been performed, yielding (1+γ)/2 = 1+-10 -3 . However, even if an optimistic assumption is made about further improvements in the analysis of these data, it is found that the Viking Relativity Experiment cannot be used to discriminate among currently viable theories. A second-order test is required. POINTS is a proposed astrometric satellite that could be used to perform a second-order light deflection experiment. This Earth-orbiting instrument would use two optical interferometers to measure the angular separations between pairs of stars. Deployment and use of this satellite during the 1990's is possible. (Auth.)

  3. Renormalization group fixed points of foliated gravity-matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemans, Jorn [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP),Radboud University Nijmegen,Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Platania, Alessia [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP),Radboud University Nijmegen,Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania,Via S. Sofia 63, 95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, Catania section,Via S. Sofia 64, 95123, Catania (Italy); INAF, Catania Astrophysical Observatory,Via S. Sofia 78, 95123, Catania (Italy); Saueressig, Frank [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP),Radboud University Nijmegen,Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-05-17

    We employ the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism to study the renormalization group flow of gravity minimally coupled to an arbitrary number of scalar, vector, and Dirac fields. The decomposition of the gravitational degrees of freedom into a lapse function, shift vector, and spatial metric equips spacetime with a preferred (Euclidean) “time”-direction. In this work, we provide a detailed derivation of the renormalization group flow of Newton’s constant and the cosmological constant on a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background. Adding matter fields, it is shown that their contribution to the flow is the same as in the covariant formulation and can be captured by two parameters d{sub g}, d{sub λ}. We classify the resulting fixed point structure as a function of these parameters finding that the existence of non-Gaussian renormalization group fixed points is rather generic. In particular the matter content of the standard model and its most common extensions gives rise to one non-Gaussian fixed point with real critical exponents suitable for Asymptotic Safety. Moreover, we find non-Gaussian fixed points for any number of scalar matter fields, making the scenario attractive for cosmological model building.

  4. Results from a portable Adaptive Optics system on the 1 meter telescope at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restaino, Sergio R.; Gilbreath, G. Charmaine; Payne, Don M.; Baker, Jeffrey T.; Martinez, Ty; DiVittorio, Michael; Mozurkewich, David; Friedman, Jeffrey

    2003-02-01

    In this paper we present results using a compact, portable adaptive optics system. The system was developed as a joint venture between the Naval Research Laboratory, Air Force Research Laboratory, and two small, New Mexico based-businesses. The system has a footprint of 18x24x18 inches and weighs less than 100 lbs. Key hardware design characteristics enable portability, easy mounting, and stable alignment. The system also enables quick calibration procedures, stable performance, and automatic adaptability to various pupil configurations. The system was tested during an engineering run in late July 2002 at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station one-meter telescope. Weather prevented extensive testing and the seeing during the run was marginal but a sufficient opportunity was provided for proof-of-concept, initial characterization of closed loop performance, and to start addressing some of the most pressing engineering and scientific issues.

  5. Intrusion detection system using Online Sequence Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) in advanced metering infrastructure of smart grid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuancheng; Qiu, Rixuan; Jing, Sitong

    2018-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) realizes a two-way communication of electricity data through by interconnecting with a computer network as the core component of the smart grid. Meanwhile, it brings many new security threats and the traditional intrusion detection method can't satisfy the security requirements of AMI. In this paper, an intrusion detection system based on Online Sequence Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM) is established, which is used to detecting the attack in AMI and carrying out the comparative analysis with other algorithms. Simulation results show that, compared with other intrusion detection methods, intrusion detection method based on OS-ELM is more superior in detection speed and accuracy.

  6. Quantum solitonic wave-packet of a meso-scopic system in singularity free gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoninfante, Luca; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we will discuss how to localise a quantum wave-packet due to self-gravitating meso-scopic object by taking into account gravitational self-interaction in the Schrödinger equation beyond General Relativity. In particular, we will study soliton-like solutions in infinite derivative ghost free theories of gravity, which resolves the gravitational 1 / r singularity in the potential. We will show a unique feature that the quantum spread of such a gravitational system is larger than that of the Newtonian gravity, therefore enabling us a window of opportunity to test classical and quantum properties of such theories of gravity in the near future at a table-top experiment.

  7. Gravity signals from the lithosphere in the Central European Basin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, T.; Bayer, U.; Thybo, H.; Maystrenko, Y.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Lyngsie, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the gravity signals from different depth levels in the lithosphere of the Central European Basin System (CEBS). The major elements of the CEBS are the Northern and Southern Permian Basins which include the Norwegian-Danish Basin (NDB), the North-German Basin (NGB) and the Polish Trough (PT). An up to 10 km thick sedimentary cover of Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments, hides the gravity signal from below the basin and masks the heterogeneous structure of the consolidated crust, which is assumed to be composed of domains that were accreted during the Paleozoic amalgamation of Europe. We performed a three-dimensional (3D) gravity backstripping to investigate the structure of the lithosphere below the CEBS. Residual anomalies are derived by removing the effect of sediments down to the base of Permian from the observed field. In order to correct for the influence of large salt structures, lateral density variations are incorporated. These sediment-free anomalies are interpreted to reflect Moho relief and density heterogeneities in the crystalline crust and uppermost mantle. The gravity effect of the Moho relief compensates to a large extent the effect of the sediments in the CEBS and in the North Sea. Removal of the effects of large-scale crustal inhomogeneities shows a clear expression of the Variscan arc system at the southern part of the study area and the old crust of Baltica further north-east. The remaining residual anomalies (after stripping off the effects of sediments, Moho topography and large-scale crustal heterogeneities) reveal long wavelength anomalies, which are caused mainly by density variations in the upper mantle, though gravity influence from the lower crust cannot be ruled out. They indicate that the three main subbasins of the CEBS originated on different lithospheric domains. The PT originated on a thick, strong and dense lithosphere of the Baltica type. The NDB was formed on a weakened Baltica low-density lithosphere formed during the Sveco

  8. Water velocity meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, C. W.; Smith, D. L.

    1970-01-01

    Simple, inexpensive drag sphere velocity meter with a zero to 6 ft/sec range measures steady-state flow. When combined with appropriate data acquisition system, it is suited to applications where large numbers of simultaneous measurements are needed for current mapping or velocity profile determination.

  9. Control of suspended low-gravity simulation system based on self-adaptive fuzzy PID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Qu, Jiangang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an active suspended low-gravity simulation system is proposed to follow the vertical motion of the spacecraft. Firstly, working principle and mathematical model of the low-gravity simulation system are shown. In order to establish the balance process and suppress the strong position interference of the system, the idea of self-adaptive fuzzy PID control strategy is proposed. It combines the PID controller with a fuzzy controll strategy, the control system can be automatically adjusted by changing the proportional parameter, integral parameter and differential parameter of the controller in real-time. At last, we use the Simulink tools to verify the performance of the controller. The results show that the system can reach balanced state quickly without overshoot and oscillation by the method of the self-adaptive fuzzy PID, and follow the speed of 3m/s, while simulation degree of accuracy of system can reach to 95.9% or more.

  10. Prospects for Probing Strong Gravity with a Pulsar-Black Hole System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, N.; Liu, K.; Eatough, R. P.; Kramer, M.; Cordes, J. M.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a pulsar (PSR) in orbit around a black hole (BH) is expected to provide a superb new probe of relativistic gravity and BH properties. Apart from a precise mass measurement for the BH, one could expect a clean verification of the dragging of space-time caused by the BH spin. In order to measure the quadrupole moment of the BH for testing the no-hair theorem of general relativity (GR), one has to hope for a sufficiently massive BH. In this respect, a PSR orbiting the super-massive BH in the center of our Galaxy would be the ultimate laboratory for gravity tests with PSRs. But even for gravity theories that predict the same properties for BHs as GR, a PSR-BH system would constitute an excellent test system, due to the high grade of asymmetry in the strong field properties of these two components. Here we highlight some of the potential gravity tests that one could expect from different PSR-BH systems.

  11. Petroleum system of Northwest Java basin based on gravity data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, E.

    2018-01-01

    Energy management in the upstream oil and gas sector becomes very important for the country’s energy security. The renewal of energy resources and reserves becomes necessary and is a must. In the oil and gas industry, gravity data is usually used only for regional surveys, but with the development of instrumentation technology and gravity software development, this method can be used for assessing oil and gas survey stages from exploration to production. This study was conducted to evaluate aspects of petroleum system and exploration play concept in the part of Northwest Java Basin, covering source rock deposition regions (source kitchen area, migration direction), development of reservoirs, structural and stratigraphic trap, based on gravity data. This study uses data from Bouguer gravity anomaly map by filtering process to produce a residual map depicting sedimentation basin configuration. The mapping generated 20 sedimentary basins in Java Island with the total hydrocarbon resources of 113 BBOE (Billion Barrel of Oil Equivalent). The petroleum system analysis was conducted in the Northwest Basin section. The final map produced illustrates the condition of petroleum system and play concept that can be used as exploration direction, expectedly reducing the risk of drilling failure.

  12. New design and facilities for the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements (AGrav): A support for the Establishment of a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Rülke, Axel

    2017-04-01

    After about 10 years of successful joint operation by BGI and BKG, the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements "AGrav" (see references hereafter) was under a major revision. The outdated web interface was replaced by a responsive, high level web application framework based on Python and built on top of Pyramid. Functionality was added, like interactive time series plots or a report generator and the interactive map-based station overview was updated completely, comprising now clustering and the classification of stations. Furthermore, the database backend was migrated to PostgreSQL for better support of the application framework and long-term availability. As comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) become essential to realize a precise and uniform gravity standard, the database was extended to document the results on international and regional level, including those performed at monitoring stations equipped with SGs. By this it will be possible to link different AGs and to trace their equivalence back to the key comparisons under the auspices of International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) as the best metrological realization of the absolute gravity standard. In this way the new AGrav database accommodates the demands of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System as recommended by the IAG Resolution No. 2 adopted in Prague 2015. The new database will be presented with focus on the new user interface and new functionality, calling all institutions involved in absolute gravimetry to participate and contribute with their information to built up a most complete picture of high precision absolute gravimetry and improve its visibility. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be provided by BGI to contributors to give a better traceability and facilitate the referencing of their gravity surveys. Links and references: BGI mirror site : http://bgi.obs-mip.fr/data-products/Gravity-Databases/Absolute-Gravity-data/ BKG mirror site: http

  13. StakeMeter: value-based stakeholder identification and quantification framework for value-based software systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Muhammad Imran; Ghazali, Masitah; Jawawi, Dayang N A; Bin Zaheer, Kashif

    2015-01-01

    Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS). Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ) approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called 'StakeMeter'. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error.

  14. StakeMeter: value-based stakeholder identification and quantification framework for value-based software systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Imran Babar

    Full Text Available Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS. Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called 'StakeMeter'. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error.

  15. Fission Meter Information Barrier Attribute Measurement System - NA-243 FNI/UKC FY2017 Task 1-2 Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerr, P. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Decman, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Prasad, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Castro, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2018-01-03

    An SNM attribute Information Barrier (IB) system was developed for a 2011 US/UK Exercise. The system was modified and extensively tested in a 2013-2014 US-UK Measurement Campaign. This work demonstrated rapid deployment of an IB system for potential treaty use. The system utilizes an Ortec Fission Meter neutron multiplicity counter and custom computer code. The system demonstrates a proof-of-principle automated Pu-240 mass determination with an information barrier. After a software start command is issued, the system automatically acquires and downloads data, performs an analysis, and displays the results. This system conveys the results of a Pu mass threshold measurements in a way the does not reveal sensitive information. In full IB mode, only the pass/fail result is displayed as a “Mass <= Threshold Amount” or “Mass >= Threshold Amount” as shown in Figure 4. This can easily be adapted to a red/green “lights” display similar to the Detective IB system for Pu isotopics as shown in Figure 6. In test mode, more detailed information is displayed. The code can also read in, analyze, and display results from previously acquired or simulated data. Because the equipment is commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS), the system demonstrates a low-cost short-lead-time technology for treaty SNM attribute measurements. A deployed system will likely require integration of additional authentication and tamper-indicating technologies. This will be discussed for the project in this and future progress reports.

  16. Competitiveness Level of Photovoltaic Solar Systems in Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso: Study Based on the Domestic Electric Meters Calibration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konan Lambert Amani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The mean cost price of electricity in Burkina Faso at the end of the last quarter of 2012 was 158 FCFA/kWh for a country where more than 46% of the population lives below the national poverty threshold. To look for solution to that problem, the resort to photovoltaic solar energy is justified for that country. The purpose of this study is to promote the integration of both technical and economical surveys in solar energy preliminary projects in Ouagadougou. To reach that, investigations were carried out in some households and attention was paid from the calibration of the domestic electric meters. Energy demands collected within each household allow us to design a corresponding solar kit through optimization rules. An estimate was edited and financial viability study for each household was also carried out thereafter. In this study, only households using the national electricity network calibration meter on their disadvantage favorably answered to all financial indicators and appear as the only one that could profit from such project. This work is helpful to note that photovoltaic solar energy still stays at a primitive level of competitiveness compared to conventional energy resources for small systems in Ouagadougou.

  17. Prospects for Improving Gravity-Fed Surface Irrigation Systems in Mediterranean European Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Masseroni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, most irrigation practices in Southern Europe have been based on gravity-fed surface irrigation systems. Currently, these systems remain a relevant typology in the European Union (EU member states of the Mediterranean areas, where it is often the only sustainable method for farmers due to the small size of agricultural holdings, their reduced capacity and readiness to invest and the low ratio between yield profits and irrigation costs. In the last several years, in response to European and national directives, surface irrigation has garnered increasing attention at the political and bureaucratic levels due to frequent criticisms of its postulated low efficiency and high water wastage. However, these systems commonly provide a number of ecosystem services and nature-based solutions that increase the positive externalities in different rural socio-ecological contexts and often have the potential to extend these services and provide solutions that are compatible with economical sustainability. This study aims to discuss the prospects for new practices and for the rehabilitation and modernization of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems in EU Mediterranean areas to enhance water efficiency, thus gaining both economic advantages and environmental benefits. The difficulties, stimuli for improvements and peculiarities of the irrigation water management of four rural environments located in Italy, Spain and Portugal were analyzed and compared to the current state of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems with hypothetical future improvements achievable by innovative technologies and practices. In these different case studies, the current gravity-fed surface irrigation systems have an obsolete regulatory structure; water-use efficiency is not a driving criterion for the management of the conveyance and distribution canal network, and farmers are not yet adequately encouraged to adopt more efficient gravity-fed irrigation practices

  18. Impact of fuel-dependent electricity retail charges on the value of net-metered PV applications in vertically integrated systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolaidis, Alexandros I.; Milidonis, Andreas; Charalambous, Charalambos A.

    2015-01-01

    Retail electricity charges inevitably influence the financial rationale of using net-metered photovoltaic (PV) applications since their structure as well as their level may vary significantly over the life-cycle of a customer-sited PV generation system. This subsequently introduces a further uncertainty for a ratepayer considering a net-metered PV investment. To thoroughly comprehend this uncertainty, the paper employs a top-down approach – in vertically integrated environments – to model the volatility of partially hedged electricity charges and its subsequent impact on the value of bill savings from net-metered PV systems. Besides the utility's pricing strategy and rate structures, particular emphasis is given in modeling the fossil fuel mix component that introduces a significant source of uncertainty on electricity charges and thus on the value of bill savings of net-metered, customer-sited, PV applications. - Highlights: • A top-down approach of developing traditional electricity charges is provided. • The combined effect of pricing strategies, rate structures and fuels is examined. • Fossil fuel prices can substantially affect the net metering compensation. • A financial risk assessment for net-metered PV systems is performed

  19. Loading effects on rat craniomandibular morphology: a system for gravity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranbir; Carvalho, Thais; Gerstner, Geoffrey E.

    2005-02-01

    Gravity effects on muscle and bone are a major impediment to long-term space travel. We introduce a model for studying these effects, the craniomandibular system. Some advantages of this system include: (1) craniomandibular morphology is determined by epigenetic factors including gravity, (2) relatively light forces can significantly alter its morphology, and (3) soft diet and tooth loss produce effects that are similar to those produced in lower limbs by weightlessness. In the study, implants made either of gold (experimental group) or lightweight acrylic (controls) were attached to adult rats' mandibles. After 13 weeks, the animals' skulls and mandibles were dissected. Pair-wise comparisons indicated that the experimental animals showed significantly shortened and narrowed cranial bases, and significant changes in the posterior zygomatic arch region. These results indicate that simulated macrogravity influences bone remodeling in the adult craniomandibular system.

  20. 3D inversion of full gravity gradient tensor data in spherical coordinate system using local north-oriented frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wu, Yulong; Yan, Jianguo; Wang, Haoran; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Qiu, Yue

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an inverse method for full gravity gradient tensor data in the spherical coordinate system. As opposed to the traditional gravity inversion in the Cartesian coordinate system, our proposed method takes the curvature of the Earth, the Moon, or other planets into account, using tesseroid bodies to produce gravity gradient effects in forward modeling. We used both synthetic and observed datasets to test the stability and validity of the proposed method. Our results using synthetic gravity data show that our new method predicts the depth of the density anomalous body efficiently and accurately. Using observed gravity data for the Mare Smythii area on the moon, the density distribution of the crust in this area reveals its geological structure. These results validate the proposed method and potential application for large area data inversion of planetary geological structures.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  1. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  2. Fission meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Mark S [Alamo, CA; Snyderman, Neal J [Berkeley, CA

    2012-04-10

    A neutron detector system for discriminating fissile material from non-fissile material wherein a digital data acquisition unit collects data at high rate, and in real-time processes large volumes of data directly into information that a first responder can use to discriminate materials. The system comprises counting neutrons from the unknown source and detecting excess grouped neutrons to identify fission in the unknown source.

  3. Unigrace - A Project For The Unification of Gravity Systems In Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.; Falk, R.; Erker, E.; Ruess, D.; Mäkinen, J.; Hinderer, J.; Marson, I.; Sledzinski, J.

    Because of the present trends of political and economical unification in Europe for- merly classified gravimetric data in Central Europe are becoming available. The dif- ferences, however, between gravity systems in this area are so large that they strongly affect the geoid, vertical datum definitions and height systems. It is therefore manda- tory to study system differences and to unify them. The project UNIGRACE aims at solving this problem by carrying out absolute grav- ity measurements with the most advanced technology at 17 selected sites in the coun- tries concerned. In a joint effort five European groups from Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Italy and Poland using their absolute gravimeters and partners from Bul- garia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia cooperate in selecting and/or establishing the sites and performing the measurements as well as in connecting the absolute sites to the national gravimetric networks. As a result, a unique gravity system in Central Europe will be available. The project started on Jan. 1, 1998 and till the end of 2000 all selected gravity sites have been observed twice by absolute gravimeters. From these repeated measurements the final results for this project will be presented which was granted by the European Commission.

  4. Intrusion detection system using Online Sequence Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM in advanced metering infrastructure of smart grid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuancheng Li

    Full Text Available Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI realizes a two-way communication of electricity data through by interconnecting with a computer network as the core component of the smart grid. Meanwhile, it brings many new security threats and the traditional intrusion detection method can't satisfy the security requirements of AMI. In this paper, an intrusion detection system based on Online Sequence Extreme Learning Machine (OS-ELM is established, which is used to detecting the attack in AMI and carrying out the comparative analysis with other algorithms. Simulation results show that, compared with other intrusion detection methods, intrusion detection method based on OS-ELM is more superior in detection speed and accuracy.

  5. Digital Receiver Phase Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density measurements in laser metrology of moving bodies. To illustrate part of the principle of operation of the phase meter, the figure includes a simplified block diagram of a basic singlechannel digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  6. Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, Martin Matthias

    2010-01-01

    DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further

  7. Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Martin Matthias

    2010-07-07

    DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further

  8. Microelectromechanical system gravimeters as a new tool for gravity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, Richard P.; Bramsiepe, Steven G.; Douglas, Rebecca; Hild, Stefan; Hough, James; Paul, Douglas J.; Samarelli, Antonio; Rowan, Sheila; Hammond, Giles D.

    2018-05-01

    A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gravimeter has been manufactured with a sensitivity of 40 ppb in an integration time of 1 s. This sensor has been used to measure the Earth tides: the elastic deformation of the globe due to tidal forces. No such measurement has been demonstrated before now with a MEMS gravimeter. Since this measurement, the gravimeter has been miniaturized and tested in the field. Measurements of the free-air and Bouguer effects have been demonstrated by monitoring the change in gravitational acceleration measured while going up and down a lift shaft of 20.7 m, and up and down a local hill of 275 m. These tests demonstrate that the device has the potential to be a useful field-portable instrument. The development of an even smaller device is underway, with a total package size similar to that of a smartphone. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  9. Source detection at 100 meter standoff with a time-encoded imaging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brennan, J.; Brubaker, E.; Gerling, M.; Marleau, P.; Monterial, M.

    2017-01-01

    Here, we present the design, characterization, and testing of a laboratory prototype radiological search and localization system. The system, based on time-encoded imaging, uses the attenuation signature of neutrons in time, induced by the geometrical layout and motion of the system. We have demonstrated the ability to detect a ~1 mCi 252 Cf radiological source at 100 m standoff with 90% detection efficiency and 10% false positives against background in 12 min. As a result, this same detection efficiency is met at 15 s for a 40 m standoff, and 1.2 s for a 20 m standoff.

  10. Robust Meter Network for Water Distribution Pipe Burst Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Donghwi Jung; Joong Hoon Kim

    2017-01-01

    A meter network is a set of meters installed throughout a water distribution system to measure system variables, such as the pipe flow rate and pressure. In the current hyper-connected world, meter networks are being exposed to meter failure conditions, such as malfunction of the meter’s physical system and communication system failure. Therefore, a meter network’s robustness should be secured for reliable provision of informative meter data. This paper introduces a multi-objective optimal me...

  11. Microelectromechanical system gravimeters as a new tool for gravity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, Richard P; Bramsiepe, Steven G; Douglas, Rebecca; Hild, Stefan; Hough, James; Paul, Douglas J; Samarelli, Antonio; Rowan, Sheila; Hammond, Giles D

    2018-05-28

    A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gravimeter has been manufactured with a sensitivity of 40 ppb in an integration time of 1 s. This sensor has been used to measure the Earth tides: the elastic deformation of the globe due to tidal forces. No such measurement has been demonstrated before now with a MEMS gravimeter. Since this measurement, the gravimeter has been miniaturized and tested in the field. Measurements of the free-air and Bouguer effects have been demonstrated by monitoring the change in gravitational acceleration measured while going up and down a lift shaft of 20.7 m, and up and down a local hill of 275 m. These tests demonstrate that the device has the potential to be a useful field-portable instrument. The development of an even smaller device is underway, with a total package size similar to that of a smartphone.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  12. Development of computer-aided design system of elastic sensitive elements of automatic metering devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalinkina, M. E.; Kozlov, A. S.; Labkovskaia, R. I.; Pirozhnikova, O. I.; Tkalich, V. L.; Shmakov, N. A.

    2018-05-01

    The object of research is the element base of devices of control and automation systems, including in its composition annular elastic sensitive elements, methods of their modeling, calculation algorithms and software complexes for automation of their design processes. The article is devoted to the development of the computer-aided design system of elastic sensitive elements used in weight- and force-measuring automation devices. Based on the mathematical modeling of deformation processes in a solid, as well as the results of static and dynamic analysis, the calculation of elastic elements is given using the capabilities of modern software systems based on numerical simulation. In the course of the simulation, the model was a divided hexagonal grid of finite elements with a maximum size not exceeding 2.5 mm. The results of modal and dynamic analysis are presented in this article.

  13. A 1.4 meter electron curing system for the finishing of sheet wood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    French, D.; Quintal, B.S.; Nablo, S.V.

    1981-01-01

    The advantages of high performance electron curable clear and pigmented topcoats, suitable for both wood and paper application, have been known for some time. Since 1978, great progress has also been made in the application of this technology to laminating for the flexible web converting industry. The combination of these systems with a single electron curing station offers the opportunity for 'single-pass' finishing of laminated board which performs both the lamination and topcoat steps in-line. A system is described which is used for the simultaneous laminating and topcoating of printed paper or vinyl to board. The performance specifications of both the curing unit, and of typical topcoats and adhesives used with this system, will be discussed. The provisions required for inerting and venting of the processor zone when using these 100% reactive coatings will also be presented. (author)

  14. Modification of the gravity model and application to the metropolitan Seoul subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Park, Jong Soo; Choi, M Y

    2012-08-01

    The Metropolitan Seoul Subway system is examined through the use of the gravity model. Exponents describing the power-law dependence on the time distance between stations are obtained, which reveals a universality for subway lines of the same topology. In the short (time) distance regime the number of passengers between stations does not grow with the decrease in the distance, thus deviating from the power-law behavior. It is found that such reduction in passengers is well described by the Hill function. Further, temporal fluctuations in the passenger flow data, fitted to the gravity model modified by the Hill function, are analyzed to reveal the Yule-type nature inherent in the structure of Seoul.

  15. Simple prescription for computing the interparticle potential energy for D-dimensional gravity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayël-Neto, José; Barone, F E; Herdy, Wallace

    2015-01-01

    A straightforward prescription for computing the D-dimensional potential energy of gravitational models, which is strongly based on the Feynman path integral, is built up. Using this method, the static potential energy for the interaction of two masses is found in the context of D-dimensional higher-derivative gravity models, and its behavior is analyzed afterwards in both ultraviolet and infrared regimes. As a consequence, two new gravity systems in which the potential energy is finite at the origin, respectively, in D = 5 and D = 6, are found. Since the aforementioned prescription is equivalent to that based on the marriage between quantum mechanics (to leading order, i.e., in the first Born approximation) and the nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory, and bearing in mind that the latter relies basically on the calculation of the nonrelativistic Feynman amplitude (M NR ), a trivial expression for computing M NR is obtained from our prescription as an added bonus. (paper)

  16. Peak potential meter applied to X-ray tubes in mammal radiography systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schiabel, Homero; Frere, Annie F.; Andreeta, Jose P.

    1989-01-01

    It is of a great importance to identify accurately the real peak potential (or simply, KVp) applied to a X-ray tube purposed to medical diagnosis, since it defines the beam energetic quality in terms of photons penetration power. Mainly in mammographic systems. it is of fundamental relevance the KVp accurate measurement because the soft tissues involved in this kind of examination provides different absorption - and, hence, clear contrast on mammographic film - just in a very restrict energetic range. Thus a device to measure KVp with adequate accuracy in mammographic units, using the basic principles of scintillation detection, was developed. This system is therefore composed of a NaI(Tl) crystal which is a X-ray sensor - replacing radiographic films which usually are a source of errors in these measurements - , a photo multiplier tube and changed into amplified electric pulses. Finally the electronic circuit, after adequate pulses treatment, shows instantaneously the actual KVp value in the test on displays. (author)

  17. Harnessing Big Data to Represent 30-meter Spatial Heterogeneity in Earth System Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, N.; Shevliakova, E.; Malyshev, S.; Van Huijgevoort, M.; Milly, C.; Sulman, B. N.

    2016-12-01

    Terrestrial land surface processes play a critical role in the Earth system; they have a profound impact on the global climate, food and energy production, freshwater resources, and biodiversity. One of the most fascinating yet challenging aspects of characterizing terrestrial ecosystems is their field-scale (˜30 m) spatial heterogeneity. It has been observed repeatedly that the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles at multiple temporal and spatial scales have deep ties to an ecosystem's spatial structure. Current Earth system models largely disregard this important relationship leading to an inadequate representation of ecosystem dynamics. In this presentation, we will show how existing global environmental datasets can be harnessed to explicitly represent field-scale spatial heterogeneity in Earth system models. For each macroscale grid cell, these environmental data are clustered according to their field-scale soil and topographic attributes to define unique sub-grid tiles. The state-of-the-art Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory (GFDL) land model is then used to simulate these tiles and their spatial interactions via the exchange of water, energy, and nutrients along explicit topographic gradients. Using historical simulations over the contiguous United States, we will show how a robust representation of field-scale spatial heterogeneity impacts modeled ecosystem dynamics including the water, energy, and biogeochemical cycles as well as vegetation composition and distribution.

  18. Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribet, G E

    2005-01-01

    Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)

  19. Improving a 1 meter telescope in order to follow giant planets in a pro-am collaboration. Next step : an affordable adaptive optic system.=

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dauvergne, J.-L.; Colas, F.; Delcroix, M.; Lecacheux, J.

    2017-09-01

    We already have very good result with the 1 meter telescope of Pic du Midi. Our goal is to have more and more people in the team in order to make a survey has long as possible of Jupiter, Uranus and Neptune. The next step is an OA system, we want to make it work on the 1 meter telescope and also make it available on the market to help other observatories to produce high resolution images of the solar system with middle size telescopes.

  20. Development and Function of the Mouse Vestibular System in the Absence of Gravity Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, Debra J.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that was tested in this research was that the absence of gravity perception, such as would occur in space, would affect the development and function of the vestibular and central nervous systems. Further, we postulated that these effects would be more significant at specific stages of post-natal development of the animal. We also proposed the use of molecular genetic approaches that would provide important information as to the hierarchy of gene function during the development and subsequent function of the vestibular system. The tilted (tlt) mutant mouse has been characterized as lacking the ability to provide sensory input to the gravity receptors. The tlt/tlt mutant mice were a particularly attractive model for the study of vestibular function since the primary defect was limited to the receptor part of the vestibular system, and there were no detectable abnormal phenotypes in other organ systems. The goal of the proposed studies was to assess immediate and delayed effects of the lack of gravity perception on the vestibular system. Particular attention was paid to characterizing primarily affected periods of vestibular morphogenesis, and to identifying downstream genetic pathways that are altered in the CNS of the tlt/tlt mutant mouse. The specific aims were: (1) to characterize the postnatal morphogenesis of the CNS in the tlt mutant mouse, using detailed morphometric analysis of isolated vestibular ganglia and brain tissue at different stages of postnatal development and assessment of apoptotic cell death; (2) to examine the expression of selected genes implicated by mutational analysis to be important in vestibular development or function by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry in the mutant mice; and (3) to identify other genes involved in vestibular development and function, using differential cloning strategies to isolate genes whose expression is changed in the mutant versus normal vestibular system.

  1. GRACE, time-varying gravity, Earth system dynamics and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, B.; Bonin, J. A.; Chambers, D. P.; Riva, R. E. M.; Sasgen, I.; Wahr, J.

    2014-11-01

    Continuous observations of temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field have recently become available at an unprecedented resolution of a few hundreds of kilometers. The gravity field is a product of the Earth's mass distribution, and these data—provided by the satellites of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE)—can be used to study the exchange of mass both within the Earth and at its surface. Since the launch of the mission in 2002, GRACE data has evolved from being an experimental measurement needing validation from ground truth, to a respected tool for Earth scientists representing a fixed bound on the total change and is now an important tool to help unravel the complex dynamics of the Earth system and climate change. In this review, we present the mission concept and its theoretical background, discuss the data and give an overview of the major advances GRACE has provided in Earth science, with a focus on hydrology, solid Earth sciences, glaciology and oceanography.

  2. GRACE, time-varying gravity, Earth system dynamics and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, B; Bonin, J A; Chambers, D P; Riva, R E M; Sasgen, I; Wahr, J

    2014-01-01

    Continuous observations of temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field have recently become available at an unprecedented resolution of a few hundreds of kilometers. The gravity field is a product of the Earth's mass distribution, and these data—provided by the satellites of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE)—can be used to study the exchange of mass both within the Earth and at its surface. Since the launch of the mission in 2002, GRACE data has evolved from being an experimental measurement needing validation from ground truth, to a respected tool for Earth scientists representing a fixed bound on the total change and is now an important tool to help unravel the complex dynamics of the Earth system and climate change. In this review, we present the mission concept and its theoretical background, discuss the data and give an overview of the major advances GRACE has provided in Earth science, with a focus on hydrology, solid Earth sciences, glaciology and oceanography. (review article)

  3. Calibration Curve of Neutron Moisture Meter for Sandy Soil under Drip Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abd El- Moniem M.; Gendy, R. W.; Bedaiwy, M. N.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a neutron calibration curve in order to be able to use the neutron probe in sandy soils under drip irrigation systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Soil and Water Department of the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority. Three replicates were used along the lateral lines of the drip irrigation system. For each dripper, ten neutron access tubes were installed to 100-cm depth at distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm from the dripper location around the drippers on the lateral line, as well as between lateral lines. The neutron calibrations were determined at 30, 45, and 60-cm depths. Determining coefficients as well as t-test in pairs were employed to detect the accuracy of the calibrations. Results indicated that in order for the neutron calibration curve to express the whole wet area around the emitter; three-access tubes must be installed at distances of 5, 15, and 25 cm from the emitter. This calibration curve will be correlating the average count ratio (CR) at the studied soil depth of the three locations (5, 15, and 25-cm distances from the emitter) to the average moisture content (θ) for this soil depth of the entire wetted area. This procedure should be repeated at different times in order to obtain different θ and C.R values, so that the regression equation of calibration curve at this soil depth can be obtained. To determine the soil moisture content, the average CR of the three locations must be taken and substituted into the regression equation representing the neutron calibration curve. Results taken from access tubes placed at distances of 15 cm from the emitter, showed good agreement with the average calibration curve both for the 45- and the 60-cm depths, suggesting that the 15-cm distance may provide a suitable substitute for the simultaneous use of the three different distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm. However, the obtained results show also that the neutron calibration curves of the 30-cm depth for

  4. Energy efficiency actions related to the rollout of smart meters for small consumers, application to the Austrian system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olmos, Luis; Ruester, Sophia; Liong, Siok-Jen; Glachant, Jean-Michel

    2011-01-01

    Smart meters (SM) may provide large benefits to all stakeholders by providing the information required to implement certain sets of demand response actions. Benefits produced by SM related actions depend on the features of these actions, the system and the targeted consumer group. We first lay out an analytical framework to analyze the application of Demand Response (DR) actions. Based on this framework, we describe a way to determine the response of domestic load in a system to the implementation of DR actions. We propose determining the overall change in the consumption behavior of domestic load based on previously obtained estimates of the peak load and overall consumption reduction for different types of consumers in different types of systems resulting from the application of each set of actions. We have carried out a comprehensive literature review to provide here such estimates. We apply the analytical framework and methodology developed to characterize the reaction of consumers in the Austrian system to different SM related actions. Finally, we provide guidelines on which DR actions to implement in this system and how to implement them. The use of advanced indirect feedback on consumption behavior, critical peak prices and simple time-of-use tariffs is advocated. -- Highlights: → System and consumer features determine households' potential benefits from a Demand Response (DR) action. → Consumers' perception of the net benefits of actions determines their actual reaction. → Consumers' reaction can be characterized by their peak load and consumption reduction. → DR actions implemented should be accepted and understood by all stakeholders involved.

  5. Application of microwave cell system in calibration of electromagnetic field meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Kassem, I.

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this work is to improve radiation measurements of electromagnetic field (EMF) through realizing tests and calibrations of measurement devices by intercomparison within the microwaves (MW) range according to EMF wave cell properties. Actually, the calibration facility in electromagnetic field is not available in Syria; therefore, realizing an experimental system for electromagnetic field radiometer calibration is very important at national level. This study showed the possibility of using EMF wave cell in intercomparison of electromagnetic field radiometers in order to achieve a direct calibration via standard radiometer. The EMF wave cell properties were studied and the homogeneity of its EMF was tested using the EF Cube probe. Results showed that the field homogeneity inside the cell is good and the variation of electric field strength, within the comparison position, is less than 10% of measured values. It was recognized that the probe form and dimensions influence the comparison results; and measurement results showed that it's possible to achieve comparison in the working domain of EMF wave cell (10 - 3000 MHz) with a relative deviation of result values between 10% and 30% according to the measurement device and frequency range. Development of comparison process in order to obtain accurate results needs to improve mechanical supports of tested probes and to introduce a correction factor related to studied probe form and dimensions. From another side, it is better to carry out measurements at frequencies around the central frequency, and not close to frequency range borders, of the EMF wave cell working frequency domain. (author)

  6. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    OpenAIRE

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko; Anthony A. Olaomi

    2014-01-01

    Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and elimina...

  7. Core-satellite populations and seasonality of water meter biofilms in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Fangqiong; Hwang, Chiachi; LeChevallier, Mark W; Andersen, Gary L; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) harbor the microorganisms in biofilms and suspended communities, yet the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution have been studied mainly in the suspended communities. This study examined the diversity of biofilms in an urban DWDS, its relationship with suspended communities and its dynamics. The studied DWDS in Urbana, Illinois received conventionally treated and disinfected water sourced from the groundwater. Over a 2-year span, biomass were sampled from household water meters (n=213) and tap water (n=20) to represent biofilm and suspended communities, respectively. A positive correlation between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and occupancy was observed. Examined under a 'core-satellite' model, the biofilm community comprised 31 core populations that encompassed 76.7% of total 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequences. The biofilm communities shared with the suspended community highly abundant and prevalent OTUs, which related to methano-/methylotrophs (i.e., Methylophilaceae and Methylococcaceae) and aerobic heterotrophs (Sphingomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae), yet differed by specific core populations and lower diversity and evenness. Multivariate tests indicated seasonality as the main contributor to community structure variation. This pattern was resilient to annual change and correlated to the cyclic fluctuations of core populations. The findings of a distinctive biofilm community assemblage and methano-/methyltrophic primary production provide critical insights for developing more targeted water quality monitoring programs and treatment strategies for groundwater-sourced drinking water systems.

  8. StakeMeter: Value-Based Stakeholder Identification and Quantification Framework for Value-Based Software Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babar, Muhammad Imran; Ghazali, Masitah; Jawawi, Dayang N. A.; Zaheer, Kashif Bin

    2015-01-01

    Value-based requirements engineering plays a vital role in the development of value-based software (VBS). Stakeholders are the key players in the requirements engineering process, and the selection of critical stakeholders for the VBS systems is highly desirable. Based on the stakeholder requirements, the innovative or value-based idea is realized. The quality of the VBS system is associated with the concrete set of valuable requirements, and the valuable requirements can only be obtained if all the relevant valuable stakeholders participate in the requirements elicitation phase. The existing value-based approaches focus on the design of the VBS systems. However, the focus on the valuable stakeholders and requirements is inadequate. The current stakeholder identification and quantification (SIQ) approaches are neither state-of-the-art nor systematic for the VBS systems. The existing approaches are time-consuming, complex and inconsistent which makes the initiation process difficult. Moreover, the main motivation of this research is that the existing SIQ approaches do not provide the low level implementation details for SIQ initiation and stakeholder metrics for quantification. Hence, keeping in view the existing SIQ problems, this research contributes in the form of a new SIQ framework called ‘StakeMeter’. The StakeMeter framework is verified and validated through case studies. The proposed framework provides low-level implementation guidelines, attributes, metrics, quantification criteria and application procedure as compared to the other methods. The proposed framework solves the issues of stakeholder quantification or prioritization, higher time consumption, complexity, and process initiation. The framework helps in the selection of highly critical stakeholders for the VBS systems with less judgmental error. PMID:25799490

  9. The Auto control System Based on InTouch Configuration software for High-gravity Oil Railway Tank Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides automatic design for high-gravity oil railway tank feeding system of some refinery uses distributive control system. The system adopts the automatic system of Modicon TSX Quantum or PLC as monitor and control level and uses a PC-based plat form as principal computer running on the Microsoft Windows2000. An automatic control system is developed in the environment of InTouch configuration software. This system implements automatic high-gravity oil tank feeding with pump controlling function. And it combines automatic oil feeding controlling, pump controlling and tank monitoring function to implement the automation of oil feeding with rations and automatic control.

  10. Analysis of an innovative solar water desalination system using gravity induced vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayhan, T.; Al-Madani, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the theoretical analysis, design and appropriate models of a new desalination system using gravity induced vacuum. The system utilizes natural means (gravity and atmospheric pressure) to create a vacuum under which water can be rapidly evaporated at much lower temperatures with less energy than conventional techniques. This technique is developed to overcome water storage, in the areas where good solar radiation (or waste heat sources) and sea water (or waste water sources). The developed system consists of an evaporator connected to condenser by means of a vacuum tank. The vapour produced in the evaporator is driven to condenser through the vacuum tank, where it condenses and collected as a product. Vacuum equivalent to 7 kPa (abs) or less can be created depending on ambient temperature of Bahrain climatic conditions. The effect of various operating conditions, namely water levels in condensation and evaporating columns on the system performance were studied. The theoretical analysis and preliminary experimental results show that the performance of this system depends on the condensation temperature

  11. An Evaluation of a Dual Coriolis Meter System for In-Line Monitoring of Suspended Solids Concentrations in Radioactive Slurries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hylton, T.D.

    2000-01-01

    quickly to counteract conditions that could lead to pipeline pluggage (e.g., backflushing the pipeline with water). One of the highest priorities is to determine the concentration of suspended solids in each of the slurries. In the project described in this report, two Coriolis meters were used simultaneously to create a suspended solids monitoring system that would provide accurate results with high precision. One Coriolis meter was used to measure the density of the slurry, while the other meter was used to measure the density of the carrier fluid (i.e., after filtration to remove the solid particles). The suspended solids concentration was then calculated from the density relationships between the slurry, the carrier fluid, and the dry solid particles. The latter density was determined by laboratory analysis and was assumed to be constant throughout the periods that grab samples were collected

  12. Trade-FDI Linkages in a System of Gravity Equations for German Regional Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Alecke, Björn; Untiedt, Gerhard

    We analyse the nature of German trade-FDI linkages within the EU27 based on a simultaneous equation gravity approach for imports, exports, in- and outward FDI stocks.We adopt both a Hausman-Taylor (1981) IV approach (3SLS-GMM) and rival non-IV estimation (the system extension to the Fixed Effects...... substitutive links between trade flows and outward FDI in line with earlier empirical evidence for Germany. Building upon German state level data we are also able to analyse the sensitivity of the results for regional sub-samples. The latter disaggregation hints at structural differences among the trade...

  13. FEM static analysis for the ITER gravity support system under the combined action of the dead weight and seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shangming; Yan Xijiang; Mo Chunhua; Hou Binglin; Li Pengyuan; Jian Guangde; Liu Dequan; Zhou Caipin

    2010-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the gravity support system of ITER, a finite element static analysis method of the system was proposed. ANSYS was applied to built the three dimensional model of the system. A mesh dividing method,which has high precision and an acceptable calculating scale, was used. After the mesh of the model had been divided, the contact elements were defined on interfaces between volumes. The finite element static analysis of the gravity support system under the dead weight and seismic loads was performed. The stress distributions and the maximal stress values of all parts of the gravity support system were obtained, and the stress strength of the parts was analyzed. The results showed that the maximum stresses of the TF leg, the flexible-plate, the ring support and the support column occur respectively on the joint of TF leg and equivalent toroidal shell, at the corner of the weld joint of the flexible-plate and its lower flange, on the joint of the upper transverse plane and internal stiffening rib of the ring support, and on the support column's upper transverse plane. These maximum stresses are smaller than their respective allowable stress limits. All parts of the gravity support system have enough mechanical strength according to the ASME See. III-NF Code. The results of static analysis lay the solid foundation for the design and improvement of the gravity supports system of ITER. (authors)

  14. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.

    2008-11-15

    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  15. Numerical Models of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity: Brain Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; David, Tim

    2003-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is presented to model the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Models required for CFD simulation relevant to major hemodynamic issues are introduced such as non-Newtonian flow models governed by red blood cells, a model for arterial wall motion due to fluid-wall interactions, a vascular bed model for outflow boundary conditions, and a model for auto-regulation mechanism. The three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with these models are solved iteratively using the pseudocompressibility method and dual time stepping. Moving wall boundary conditions from the first-order fluid-wall interaction model are used to study the influence of arterial wall distensibility on flow patterns and wall shear stresses during the heart pulse. A vascular bed modeling utilizing the analogy with electric circuits is coupled with an auto-regulation algorithm for multiple outflow boundaries. For the treatment of complex geometry, a chimera overset grid technique is adopted to obtain connectivity between arterial branches. For code validation, computed results are compared with experimental data for steady and unsteady non-Newtonian flows. Good agreement is obtained for both cases. In sin-type Gravity Benchmark Problems, gravity source terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effect of gravitational variation on the human circulatory system. This computational approach is then applied to localized blood flows through a realistic carotid bifurcation and two Circle of Willis models, one using an idealized geometry and the other model using an anatomical data set. A three- dimensional anatomical Circle of Willis configuration is reconstructed from human-specific magnetic resonance images using an image segmentation method. The blood flow through these Circle of Willis models is simulated to provide means for studying gravitational effects on the brain

  16. A bridge between unified cosmic history by f( R)-gravity and BIonic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Capozziello, Salvatore; Setare, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the cosmological deceleration-acceleration transition redshift in f( R) gravity has been considered in order to address consistently the problem of cosmic evolution. It is possible to show that the deceleration parameter changes sign at a given redshift according to observational data. Furthermore, a f( R) gravity cosmological model can be constructed in brane-antibrane system starting from the very early universe and accounting for the cosmological redshift at all phases of cosmic history, from inflation to late time acceleration. Here we propose a f( R) model where transition redshifts correspond to inflation-deceleration and deceleration-late time acceleration transitions starting froma BIon system. At the point where the universe was born, due to the transition of k black fundamental strings to the BIon configuration, the redshift is approximately infinity and decreases with reducing temperature (z˜ T2). The BIon is a configuration in flat space of a universe-brane and a parallel anti-universe-brane connected by a wormhole. This wormhole is a channel for flowing energy from extra dimensions into our universe, occurring at inflation and decreasing with redshift as z˜ T^{4+1/7}. Dynamics consists with the fact that the wormhole misses its energy and vanishes as soon as inflation ends and deceleration begins. Approaching two universe branes together, a tachyon is originated, it grows up and causes the formation of a wormhole. We show that, in the framework of f( R) gravity, the cosmological redshift depends on the tachyonic potential and has a significant decrease at deceleration-late time acceleration transition point (z˜ T^{2/3}). As soon as today acceleration approaches, the redshift tends to zero and the cosmological model reduces to the standard Λ CDM cosmology.

  17. GRACE, time-varying gravity, Earth system dynamics and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, B.; Bonin, J.A.; Chambers, D.P.; Riva, R.E.M.; Sasgen, I.; Wahr, J.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous observations of temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field have recently become available at an unprecedented resolution of a few hundreds of kilometers. The gravity field is a product of the Earth's mass distribution, and these data—provided by the satellites of the Gravity

  18. Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) real-time controller preliminary architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerley, Dan; Smith, Malcolm; Dunn, Jennifer; Herriot, Glen; Véran, Jean-Pierre; Boyer, Corinne; Ellerbroek, Brent; Gilles, Luc; Wang, Lianqi

    2016-08-01

    The Narrow Field Infrared Adaptive Optics System (NFIRAOS) is the first light Adaptive Optics (AO) system for the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT). A critical component of NFIRAOS is the Real-Time Controller (RTC) subsystem which provides real-time wavefront correction by processing wavefront information to compute Deformable Mirror (DM) and Tip/Tilt Stage (TTS) commands. The National Research Council of Canada - Herzberg (NRC-H), in conjunction with TMT, has developed a preliminary design for the NFIRAOS RTC. The preliminary architecture for the RTC is comprised of several Linux-based servers. These servers are assigned various roles including: the High-Order Processing (HOP) servers, the Wavefront Corrector Controller (WCC) server, the Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server, the Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server, and additional testing and spare servers. There are up to six HOP servers that accept high-order wavefront pixels, and perform parallelized pixel processing and wavefront reconstruction to produce wavefront corrector error vectors. The WCC server performs low-order mode processing, and synchronizes and aggregates the high-order wavefront corrector error vectors from the HOP servers to generate wavefront corrector commands. The Telemetry Engineering Display (TED) server is the RTC interface to TMT and other subsystems. The TED server receives all external commands and dispatches them to the rest of the RTC servers and is responsible for aggregating several offloading and telemetry values that are reported to other subsystems within NFIRAOS and TMT. The TED server also provides the engineering GUIs and real-time displays. The Persistent Telemetry Storage (PTS) server contains fault tolerant data storage that receives and stores telemetry data, including data for Point-Spread Function Reconstruction (PSFR).

  19. Core-satellite populations and seasonality of water meter biofilms in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Fangqiong

    2015-08-07

    © 2015 International Society for Microbial Ecology Drinking water distribution systems (DWDSs) harbor the microorganisms in biofilms and suspended communities, yet the diversity and spatiotemporal distribution have been studied mainly in the suspended communities. This study examined the diversity of biofilms in an urban DWDS, its relationship with suspended communities and its dynamics. The studied DWDS in Urbana, Illinois received conventionally treated and disinfected water sourced from the groundwater. Over a 2-year span, biomass were sampled from household water meters (n=213) and tap water (n=20) to represent biofilm and suspended communities, respectively. A positive correlation between operational taxonomic unit (OTU) abundance and occupancy was observed. Examined under a ‘core-satellite’ model, the biofilm community comprised 31 core populations that encompassed 76.7% of total 16 S rRNA gene pyrosequences. The biofilm communities shared with the suspended community highly abundant and prevalent OTUs, which related to methano-/methylotrophs (i.e., Methylophilaceae and Methylococcaceae) and aerobic heterotrophs (Sphingomonadaceae and Comamonadaceae), yet differed by specific core populations and lower diversity and evenness. Multivariate tests indicated seasonality as the main contributor to community structure variation. This pattern was resilient to annual change and correlated to the cyclic fluctuations of core populations. The findings of a distinctive biofilm community assemblage and methano-/methyltrophic primary production provide critical insights for developing more targeted water quality monitoring programs and treatment strategies for groundwater-sourced drinking water systems.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 7 August 2015; doi:10.1038/ismej.2015.136.

  20. Structural interpretation of El Hierro (Canary Islands) rifts system from gravity inversion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Maza, S.; Montesinos, F. G.; Martí, J.; Arnoso, J.; Calvo, M.; Borreguero, A.

    2017-08-01

    Recent volcanism in El Hierro Island is mostly concentrated along three elongated and narrow zones which converge at the center of the island. These zones with extensive volcanism have been identified as rift zones. The presence of similar structures is common in many volcanic oceanic islands, so understanding their origin, dynamics and structure is important to conduct hazard assessment in such environments. There is still not consensus on the origin of the El Hierro rift zones, having been associated with mantle uplift or interpreted as resulting from gravitational spreading and flank instability. To further understand the internal structure and origin of the El Hierro rift systems, starting from the previous gravity studies, we developed a new 3D gravity inversion model for its shallower layers, gathering a detailed picture of this part of the island, which has permitted a new interpretation about these rifts. Previous models already identified a main central magma accumulation zone and several shallower high density bodies. The new model allows a better resolution of the pathways that connect both levels and the surface. Our results do not point to any correspondence between the upper parts of these pathways and the rift identified at the surface. Non-clear evidence of progression toward deeper parts into the volcanic system is shown, so we interpret them as very shallow structures, probably originated by local extensional stresses derived from gravitational loading and flank instability, which are used to facilitate the lateral transport of magma when it arrives close to the surface.

  1. Connected magma plumbing system between Cerro Negro and El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua revealed by gravity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Patricia; Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-11-01

    Cerro Negro, near León, Nicaragua is a young, relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan. Multiple explosive eruptions have deposited significant amounts of ash on León and the surrounding rural communities. While a number of studies investigate the geochemistry and stress regime of the volcano, subsurface structures have only been studied by diffuse soil gas surveys. These studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring volcanic features. To address these questions, we collected 119 gravity measurements around Cerro Negro volcano in an attempt to delineate deep structures at the volcano. The resulting complete Bouguer anomaly map revealed local positive gravity anomalies (wavelength 0.5 to 2 km, magnitude +4 mGal) and regional positive (10 km wavelength, magnitudes +10 and +8 mGal) and negative (12 and 6 km wavelength, magnitudes -18 and -13 mGal) Bouguer anomalies. Further analysis of these gravity data through inversion has revealed both local and regional density anomalies that we interpret as intrusive complexes at Cerro Negro and in the Nicaraguan Volcanic Arc. The local density anomalies at Cerro Negro have a density of 2700 kg m-3 (basalt) and are located between -250 and -2000 m above sea level. The distribution of recovered density anomalies suggests that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping an interconnected magma plumbing system beneath El Hoyo, Cerro La Mula, and Cerro Negro, and more than seven other proximal volcanic features, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest cone of a Cerro Negro-El Hoyo volcanic complex.

  2. Application of model MTS5 dew-point meter in gas sampling and analyzing system of HTR-10

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Jiang; Li Zhihui

    2010-01-01

    The feature of humidity detector to measure the content of water in pure helium of main loop of reactor was discussed, and the circumstances using Al 2 O 3 moisture sensor to measure the content of water in helium on-line were introduced. During those few years, the dew-point meter has sufficed to measure the content of water in the helium gas during the running of the reactor. On the other hand, excursion can happen when the instrument running. Demarcate must be made periodically to improve the veracity of the meter. (authors)

  3. Absolute gravity measurements in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zumberge, M. A.; Sasagawa, G.; Kappus, M.

    1986-08-01

    An absolute gravity meter that determines the local gravitational acceleration by timing a freely falling mass with a laser interferometer has been constructed. The instrument has made measurements at 11 sites in California, four in Nevada, and one in France. The uncertainty in the results is typically 10 microgal. Repeated measurements have been made at several of the sites; only one shows a substantial change in gravity.

  4. Smart meter status report from Toronto

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Brien, D.

    2006-01-01

    An update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering program was presented. Electricity demand is expected to keep increasing, and there is presently insufficient generation to match supply needs in Ontario. The smart metering program was introduced to aid in the Ontario government's energy conservation strategy, as well as to address peak supply problems that have led to power outages. It is expected that the smart metering program will reduce provincial peak supply by 5 per cent, as the meters support both time-of-use rates and critical peak pricing. Over 800,000 smart meters will be supplied to customers by 2007, and all 4.3 million homes in Toronto will have a smart meter by 2010. In order to meet targets for 2010, the utility will continue to install more 15,000 meters each month for the next 4 years. While the Ontario government has planned and coordinated the rollout and developed smart metering specifications and standards, Toronto Hydro is responsible for the purchase, installation, operation and maintenance of the meters. Advance testing of each meter is needed to ensure billing accuracy, and customer education on meter use is also. The complexity of the metering program has led the utility to establish a rigid project management process. Customer education pilot program are currently being conducted. Experience gained during the earlier phases of the program have enabled the utility to select appropriate metering systems based on density, topography and physical conditions. Project expenditures have been within budget due to improved project estimating and planning. The metering program has been conducted in tandem with the utility's peakSAVER program, a residential and small commercial load control program that has been successful in reducing summer peak demand by cycling air conditioners without causing discomfort. It was concluded that the utility will continue with its mass deployment of smart meters, and is currently preparing its call center to handled

  5. LH2 tank pressure control by thermodynamic vent system (TVS) at zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Huang, Y. H.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, J. Y.; Li, P.; Sun, P. J.

    2017-02-01

    Thermodynamic vent system (TVS) is employed for pressure control of propellant tanks at zero gravity. An analytical lumped parameter model is developed to predict pressure variation in an 18.09 m3 liquid hydrogen tank equipped with TVS. Mathematical simulations are carried out assuming tank is filled up to 75% volume (liquid mass equals to 945 kg) and is subjected to heat flux of 0.76 W/m2. Tank pressure controls at 165.5-172.4, 165.5-179.3 and 165.5-182.2 kPa are compared with reference to number of vent cycles, vent duration per cycle and loss of hydrogen. Analysis results indicate that the number of vent cycles significantly decreases from 62 to 21 when tank pressure control increases from 6.9 to 20.4 kPa. Also, duration of vent cycle increases from 63 to 152 and cycle duration decreases from 3920 to 3200 s. Further, the analysis result suggests that LH2 evaporation loss per day decreases from 0.17 to 0.14%. Based on the results of analysis, TVS is found effective in controlling the propellant tank pressure in zero gravity.

  6. Gravity-driven membrane system for secondary wastewater effluent treatment: Filtration performance and fouling characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yiran; Fortunato, Luca; Jeong, Sanghyun; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is one of the promising membrane bioreactor (MBR) configurations. It operates at an ultra-low pressure by gravity, requiring a minimal energy. The objective of this study was to understand the performance of GDM filtration system and characterize the biofouling formation on a flat sheet membrane. This submerged GDM reactor was operated at constant gravitational pressure in treating of two different concentrations of secondary wastewater effluent. Morphology of biofilm layer was acquired by an in-situ and on-line optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning in a fixed position at regular intervals. The thickness and roughness calculated from OCT images were related to the variation of flux, fouling resistance and permeate quality. At the end of experiment, fouling was quantified by total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was also applied for biofouling morphology observation. The biofouling formed on membrane surface was mostly removed by physical cleaning confirmed by contact angle measurement before and after cleaning. This demonstrated that fouling on the membrane under ultra-low pressure operation was highly reversible. The superiority and sustainability of GDM in both flux maintaining and long-term operation with production of high quality effluent was demonstrated.

  7. Application of the spherical harmonic gravity model in high precision inertial navigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Xiangyun

    2016-01-01

    The spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) may, in general, be considered as a suitable alternative to the normal gravity model (NGM), because it represents the Earth’s gravitational field more accurately. However, the high-resolution SHM has never been used in current inertial navigation systems (INSs) due to its extremely complex expression. In this paper, the feasibility and accuracy of a truncated SHM are discussed for application in a real-time free-INS with a precision demand better than 0.8 nm h −1 . In particular, the time and space complexity are analyzed mathematically to verify the feasibility of the SHM. Also, a test on a typical navigation computer shows a storable range of cut-off degrees. To further evaluate the appropriate degree and accuracy of the truncated SHM, analyses of covariance and truncation error are proposed. Finally, a SHM of degree 12 is demonstrated to be the appropriate model for routine INSs in the precision range of 0.4–0.75 nm h −1 . Flight simulations and road tests show its outstanding performance over the traditional NGM. (paper)

  8. Gravity-driven membrane system for secondary wastewater effluent treatment: Filtration performance and fouling characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yiran

    2017-04-21

    Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is one of the promising membrane bioreactor (MBR) configurations. It operates at an ultra-low pressure by gravity, requiring a minimal energy. The objective of this study was to understand the performance of GDM filtration system and characterize the biofouling formation on a flat sheet membrane. This submerged GDM reactor was operated at constant gravitational pressure in treating of two different concentrations of secondary wastewater effluent. Morphology of biofilm layer was acquired by an in-situ and on-line optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning in a fixed position at regular intervals. The thickness and roughness calculated from OCT images were related to the variation of flux, fouling resistance and permeate quality. At the end of experiment, fouling was quantified by total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was also applied for biofouling morphology observation. The biofouling formed on membrane surface was mostly removed by physical cleaning confirmed by contact angle measurement before and after cleaning. This demonstrated that fouling on the membrane under ultra-low pressure operation was highly reversible. The superiority and sustainability of GDM in both flux maintaining and long-term operation with production of high quality effluent was demonstrated.

  9. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10-100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50-90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10-50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet.

  10. Testing of a Spray-Bar Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System for Upper Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lak, Tibor; Flachbart, Robin; Nguyen, Han; Martin, James

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a fundamental technology need that involves practically all uses of subcritical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule- Thomson (J-T) valve to extract then-nal energy from the propellant. In a cooperative effort, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (N4HTB) was used to test a unique "spray bar" TVS system developed by Boeing. A schematic of this system is included in Figure 1. The system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it radially into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the spray bar heat exchanger element, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. Figure 2 is a plot of ullage pressure (P4) and liquid vapor pressure (PSAI) versus time. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. The primary advantage of the

  11. Dynamics of axial symmetric system in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Manzoor, Rubab

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of an axial reflection symmetric model in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity for anisotropic fluid. We formulate hydrodynamical equations and discuss oscillations using a time-dependent perturbation for both spin-dependent and spin-independent cases. The expressions of the frequency, the total energy density, and the equation of motion of the oscillating model are obtained. We study the instability of the oscillating models in weak approximations. It is found that the oscillations and stability of the model depend upon the dark energy source along with anisotropy and reflection effects. We conclude that the axial reflection system remains stable for stiffness parameter Γ = 1, collapses for Γ > 1, and becomes unstable for 0 < Γ < 1. (orig.)

  12. Opto-mechanical design and gravity-deformation analysis on optical telescope in laser communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sen; Du, Jindan; Song, Yiwei; Gao, Tianyu; Zhang, Daqing; Wang, Yongzhi

    2017-11-01

    In space laser communication, optical antennas are one of the main components and the precision of optical antennas is very high. In this paper, it is based on the R-C telescope and it is carried out that the design and simulation of optical lens and supporting truss, according to the parameters of the systems. And a finite element method (FEM) was used to analyze the deformation of the optical lens. Finally, the Zernike polynomial was introduced to fit the primary mirror with a diameter of 250mm. The objective of this study is to determine whether the wave-front aberration of the primary mirror can meet the imaging quality. The results show that the deterioration of the imaging quality caused by the gravity deformation of primary and secondary mirrors. At the same time, the optical deviation of optical antenna increase with the diameter of the pupil.

  13. Dynamics of axial symmetric system in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Manzoor, Rubab [University of Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-06-15

    This paper investigates the dynamics of an axial reflection symmetric model in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity for anisotropic fluid. We formulate hydrodynamical equations and discuss oscillations using a time-dependent perturbation for both spin-dependent and spin-independent cases. The expressions of the frequency, the total energy density, and the equation of motion of the oscillating model are obtained. We study the instability of the oscillating models in weak approximations. It is found that the oscillations and stability of the model depend upon the dark energy source along with anisotropy and reflection effects. We conclude that the axial reflection system remains stable for stiffness parameter Γ = 1, collapses for Γ > 1, and becomes unstable for 0 < Γ < 1. (orig.)

  14. Gravity model improvement using the DORIS tracking system on the SPOT 2 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Patel, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    A high-precision radiometric satellite tracking system, Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite system (DORIS), has recently been developed by the French space agency, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). DORIS was designed to provide tracking support for missions such as the joint United States/French TOPEX/Poseidon. As part of the flight testing process, a DORIS package was flown on the French SPOT 2 satellite. A substantial quantity of geodetic quality tracking data was obtained on SPOT 2 from an extensive international DORIS tracking network. These data were analyzed to assess their accuracy and to evaluate the gravitational modeling enhancements provided by these data in combination with the Goddard Earth Model-T3 (GEM-T3) gravitational model. These observations have noise levels of 0.4 to 0.5 mm/s, with few residual systematic effects. Although the SPOT 2 satellite experiences high atmospheric drag forces, the precision and global coverage of the DORIS tracking data have enabled more extensive orbit parameterization to mitigate these effects. As a result, the SPOT 2 orbital errors have been reduced to an estimated radial accuracy in the 10-20 cm RMS range. The addition of these data, which encompass many regions heretofore lacking in precision satellite tracking, has significantly improved GEM-T3 and allowed greatly improved orbit accuracies for Sun-synchronous satellites like SPOT 2 (such as ERS 1 and EOS). Comparison of the ensuing gravity model with other contemporary fields (GRIM-4C2, TEG2B, and OSU91A) provides a means to assess the current state of knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. Thus, the DORIS experiment on SPOT 2 has provided a strong basis for evaluating this new orbit tracking technology and has demonstrated the important contribution of the DORIS network to the success of the TOPEX/Poseidon mission.

  15. Interdisciplinary semantic model for managing the design of a steam-assisted gravity drainage tooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leitch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex engineering systems often require extensive coordination between different expert areas in order to avoid costly design iterations and rework. Cyber-physics system (CPS engineering methods could provide valuable insights to help model these interactions and optimize the design of such systems. In this work, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD, a complex oil extraction process that requires deep understanding of several physical-chemical phenomena, is examined whereby the complexities and interdependencies of the system are explored. Based on an established unified feature modeling scheme, a software modeling framework is proposed to manage the design process of the production tools used for SAGD oil extraction. Applying CPS methods to unify complex phenomenon and engineering models, the proposed CPS model combines effective simulation with embedded knowledge of completion tooling design in order to optimize reservoir performance. The system design is expressed using graphical diagrams of the unified modelling language (UML convention. To demonstrate the capability of this system, a distributed research group is described, and their activities coordinated using the described CPS model.

  16. Portable wireless metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiPaola, L

    1996-12-31

    Electric utilities often face situations where conventional distribution station billing meters have been removed from service. This paper presents an innovative alternative to traditional solutions to the temporary billing situation such as the use of clamp-on devices called electronic recording ammeters. It examines how Ontario Hydro is measuring current, voltage, and power factor at a distribution station to calculate kilowatts and kVAR using an easy-to-install product that communicates its live readings directly to an existing billing system. The devices used for the measurements can be easily attached to a power line with a hotstick and contain a special core which senses current flow and powers appropriate electronics, which digitizes voltage and current data and transmits it via low-power FM radio for subsequent data storage and processing. The paper includes results of field trials and outlines the advantages of using the device.

  17. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)

    2007-10-15

    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  18. SAGD production optimization : combination of ESP and multiphase metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinguet, B.G.; Guerra, E.; Drever, C. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-07-01

    Many commercial oil reservoirs in Canada are completed using electric submersible pumps (ESP) due to low reservoir pressures and extra heavy oils and bitumens. This paper presented details of an optimization process for steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) wells. The process used ESP and a multiphase flow meter (MFM) based on Vx technology. The MFM was based on a Venturi and nuclear fraction meter combination that was engineered to measure the steam phases during SAGD processes. The technology was designed to measure total mass or total volumetric flow rates as well as oil, water and gas in producing wells. Length fractions of oil, water, and gas were calculated based on the attenuation of Gamma-rays as they passed through the Venturi section. Production was optimized in real time using the frequency control of the pump to improve oil flow rates. The results of field tests showed that the optimization process resulted in longer life cycles for the ESP. It was concluded that use of the meter results in changes to lift system operating parameters at the well site as well as improved monitoring during the workflow process. 3 refs., 1 tab., 11 figs.

  19. Towards systems biology of the gravity response of higher plants -multiscale analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, Klaus; Aubry, D.; Bensch, M.; Schmidt, T.; Ronneberger, O.; Neu, C.; Li, X.; Wang, H.; Santos, F.; Wang, B.; Paponov, I.; Ditengou, F. A.; Teale, W. T.; Volkmann, D.; Baluska, F.; Nonis, A.; Trevisan, S.; Ruperti, B.; Dovzhenko, A.

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development. Up to now, little is known about the molecular organisation of the signal transduction cascades and networks which co-ordinate gravity perception and response. By using an integrated systems biological approach, a systems analysis of gravity perception and the subsequent tightly-regulated growth response is planned in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This approach will address questions such as: (i) what are the components of gravity signal transduction pathways? (ii) what are the dynamics of these components? (iii) what is their spatio-temporal regulation in different tis-sues? Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model-we use root growth to obtain insights in the gravity response. New techniques enable identification of the individual genes affected by grav-ity and further integration of transcriptomics and proteomics data into interaction networks and cell communication events that operate during gravitropic curvature. Using systematic multiscale analysis we have identified regulatory networks consisting of transcription factors, the protein degradation machinery, vesicle trafficking and cellular signalling during the gravire-sponse. We developed approach allowing to incorporate key features of the root system across all relevant spatial and temporal scales to describe gene-expression patterns and correlate them with individual gene and protein functions. Combination of high-resolution microscopy and novel computational tools resulted in development of the root 3D model in which quantitative descriptions of cellular network properties and of multicellular interactions important in root growth and gravitropism can be integrated for the first time.

  20. Characterising East Antarctic Lithosphere and its Rift Systems using Gravity Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; Golynsky, A. V. Sasha; Rogozhina, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Since the International Geophysical Year (1957), a view has prevailed that East Antarctica has a relatively homogeneous lithospheric structure, consisting of a craton-like mosaic of Precambrian terranes, stable since the Pan-African orogeny ~500 million years ago (e.g. Ferracioli et al. 2011). Recent recognition of a continental-scale rift system cutting the East Antarctic interior has crystallised an alternative view of much more recent geological activity with important implications. The newly defined East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) (Ferraccioli et al. 2011) appears to extend from at least the South Pole to the continental margin at the Lambert Rift, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. New analysis of RadarSat data by Golynsky & Golynsky (2009) indicates that further rift zones may form widely distributed extension zones within the continent. A pilot study (Vaughan et al. 2012), using a newly developed gravity inversion technique (Chappell & Kusznir 2008) with existing public domain satellite data, shows distinct crustal thickness provinces with overall high average thickness separated by thinner, possibly rifted, crust. Understanding the nature of crustal thickness in East Antarctica is critical because: 1) this is poorly known along the ocean-continent transition, but is necessary to improve the plate reconstruction fit between Antarctica, Australia and India in Gondwana, which will also better define how and when these continents separated; 2) lateral variation in crustal thickness can be used to test supercontinent reconstructions and assess the effects of crystalline basement architecture and mechanical properties on rifting; 3) rift zone trajectories through East Antarctica will define the geometry of zones of crustal and lithospheric thinning at plate-scale; 4) it is not clear why or when the crust of East Antarctica became so thick and elevated, but knowing this can be used to test models of

  1. Low Cost Digital Vibration Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, W Vance; Geist, Jon

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the development of a low cost, digital Micro Electro Mechanical System (MEMS) vibration meter that reports an approximation to the RMS acceleration of the vibration to which the vibration meter is subjected. The major mechanical element of this vibration meter is a cantilever beam, which is on the order of 500 µm in length, with a piezoresistor deposited at its base. Vibration of the device in the plane perpendicular to the cantilever beam causes it to bend, which produces a measurable change in the resistance of a piezoresistor. These changes in resistance along with a unique signal-processing scheme are used to determine an approximation to the RMS acceleration sensed by the device.

  2. The Thirty-Meter Telescope

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2016-01-27

    Jan 27, 2016 ... The Thirty-Meter Telescope international observatory will enable transformational observations over the full cosmic timeline all the way from the first luminous objects in the Universe to the planets and moons of our own solar system. To realize its full scientific potential, TMT will be equipped with a powerful ...

  3. Massive Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    de Rham, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...

  4. Global detailed gravimetric geoid. [based on gravity model derived from satellite tracking and surface gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincent, S.; Marsh, J. G.

    1973-01-01

    A global detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-4 gravity model derived from satellite and surface gravity data and surface 1 deg-by-1 deg mean free air gravity anomaly data. The accuracy of the geoid is + or - 2 meters on continents, 5 to 7 meters in areas where surface gravity data are sparse, and 10 to 15 meters in areas where no surface gravity data are available. Comparisons have been made with the astrogeodetic data provided by Rice (United States), Bomford (Europe), and Mather (Australia). Comparisons have also been carried out with geoid heights derived from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.

  5. Digital temperature meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glowacki, S

    1982-01-01

    Digital temperature meter for precise temperature measurements is presented. Its parts such as thermostat, voltage-frequency converter and digital frequency meter are described. Its technical parameters such as temperature range 50degC-700degC, measurement precision 1degC, measurement error +-1degC are given. (A.S.).

  6. Radioisotope conveyor ash meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savelov, V.D.

    1994-01-01

    Radioisotope conveyor ash meter realizes persistent measuring of ashiness of coal and products of its enrichment on the belt conveyor without contact. The principle of ash meter acting is based on functional dependence of the gamma radiation flows backscattering intensity of radioisotope sources from the ash volume content in the controlled fuel. Facility consists from the ashiness transducer and the processing and control device

  7. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  8. Ultrasonic flow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lötters, Joost Conrad; Snijders, G.J.; Volker, A.W.F.

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to an ultrasonic flow meter comprising a flow tube for the fluid whose flow rate is to be determined. The flow meter comprises a transmitting element for emitting ultrasonic waves, which is provided on the outer jacket of the flow tube. A receiving element, which is provided on

  9. Gravity-Based Precise Cell Manipulation System Enhanced by In-Phase Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Mizoue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a gravity-based system capable of generating high-resolution pressure for precise cell manipulation or evaluation in a microfluidic channel. While the pressure resolution of conventional pumps for microfluidic applications is usually about hundreds of pascals as the resolution of their feedback sensors, precise cell manipulation at the pascal level cannot be done. The proposed system successfully achieves a resolution of 100 millipascals using water head pressure with an in-phase noise cancelation mechanism. The in-phase mechanism aims to suppress the noises from ambient vibrations to the system. The proposed pressure system is tested with a microfluidic platform for pressure validation. The experimental results show that the in-phase mechanism effectively reduces the pressure turbulence, and the pressure-driven cell movement matches the theoretical simulations. Preliminary experiments on deformability evaluation with red blood cells under incremental pressures of one pascal are successfully performed. Different deformation patterns are observed from cell to cell under precise pressure control.

  10. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  11. Investigation and Comparison of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Skoubo, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    In the later years, there has been an increased focus on new valve types, which yield the possibility to do Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control. This includes both digital valves, but proportional valves with separate metering spools and build in pressure sensors are also emerging....... The possibility to independently control the meter-in and meter-out side not only increase the functionality of the system, but also opens up for better performance and/or lowered energy consumption. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation and comparison of what may be obtained using...

  12. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  13. Cancer-meter: measure and cure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kashyap, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Birendra Kumar; Banerjee, Amitabh

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents a theory and system on "Cancer-Meter'. This idea came through the statement that "cancer is curable if it is measurable". The Cancer-Meter proves that it is possible. This paper proposes the cancer-meter in two ways, theoretical and electronically, as per the measurement and treatment. By the mathematics, first part is defined but the second part is based on computer programming, electrical and electronics. Thus, the cancer-meter is a programmed-electrical-electronic device which measures and cures the cancer both.

  14. An object-oriented model of the cardiopulmonary system with emphasis on the gravity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong Ngo; Herranz, Silvia Briones; Misgeld, Berno; Vollmer, Thomas; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a novel comprehensive model of the cardiopulmonary system with emphasis on perfusion and ventilation distribution along the vertical thorax axis under the gravity effect. By using an object-oriented environment, the complex physiological system can be represented by a network of electrical, lumped-element compartments. The lungs are divided into three zones: upper, middle, and lower zone. Blood flow increases with the distance from the apex to the base of the lungs. The upper zone is characterized by a complete collapse of the pulmonary capillary vasculature; thus, there is no flow in this zone. The second zone has a "waterfall effect" where the blood flow is determined by the difference between the pulmonary-arterial and alveolar pressures. At resting position, the upper lobes of the lungs are more expanded than the middle and lower lobes. However, during spontaneous breathing, ventilation is nonuniform with more air entering the lower lobes than the middle and upper lobes. A simulative model of the complete system is developed which shows results in good agreement with the literature.

  15. Spray Bar Zero-Gravity Vent System for On-Orbit Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Martin, J. J.; Hedayat, A.; Fazah, M.; Lak, T.; Nguyen, H.; Bailey, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    During zero-gravity orbital cryogenic propulsion operations, a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure control without propellant resettling. In this case, a longitudinal spray bar mixer system, coupled with a Joule-Thompson (J-T) valve and heat exchanger, was evaluated in a series of TVS tests using the 18 cu m multipurpose hydrogen test bed. Tests performed at fill levels of 90, 50, and 25 percent, coupled with heat tank leaks of about 20 and 50 W, successfully demonstrated tank pressure control within a 7-kPa band. Based on limited testing, the presence of helium constrained the energy exchange between the gaseous and liquid hydrogen (LH2) during the mixing cycles. A transient analytical model, formulated to characterize TVS performance, was used to correlate the test data. During self-pressurization cycles following tank lockup, the model predicted faster pressure rise rates than were measured; however, once the system entered the cyclic self-pressurization/mixing/venting operational mode, the modeled and measured data were quite similar. During a special test at the 25-percent fill level, the J-T valve was allowed to remain open and successfully reduced the bulk LH2 saturation pressure from 133 to 70 kPa in 188 min.

  16. Absolute Gravity Datum in the Age of Cold Atom Gravimeters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childers, V. A.; Eckl, M. C.

    2014-12-01

    The international gravity datum is defined today by the International Gravity Standardization Net of 1971 (IGSN-71). The data supporting this network was measured in the 1950s and 60s using pendulum and spring-based gravimeter ties (plus some new ballistic absolute meters) to replace the prior protocol of referencing all gravity values to the earlier Potsdam value. Since this time, gravimeter technology has advanced significantly with the development and refinement of the FG-5 (the current standard of the industry) and again with the soon-to-be-available cold atom interferometric absolute gravimeters. This latest development is anticipated to provide improvement in the range of two orders of magnitude as compared to the measurement accuracy of technology utilized to develop ISGN-71. In this presentation, we will explore how the IGSN-71 might best be "modernized" given today's requirements and available instruments and resources. The National Geodetic Survey (NGS), along with other relevant US Government agencies, is concerned about establishing gravity control to establish and maintain high order geodetic networks as part of the nation's essential infrastructure. The need to modernize the nation's geodetic infrastructure was highlighted in "Precise Geodetic Infrastructure, National Requirements for a Shared Resource" National Academy of Science, 2010. The NGS mission, as dictated by Congress, is to establish and maintain the National Spatial Reference System, which includes gravity measurements. Absolute gravimeters measure the total gravity field directly and do not involve ties to other measurements. Periodic "intercomparisons" of multiple absolute gravimeters at reference gravity sites are used to constrain the behavior of the instruments to ensure that each would yield reasonably similar measurements of the same location (i.e. yield a sufficiently consistent datum when measured in disparate locales). New atomic interferometric gravimeters promise a significant

  17. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Copie, M.; Valantic, B.

    1978-01-01

    Digital reactivity meters (DRM) are mostly used as measuring instruments, e.g. for calibration of control rods, and there are only a few cases of their incorporation into the control systems of the reactors. To move in this direction there is more development work needed. First of all, fast algorithms are needed for inverse kinetics equations to relieve the computer for more important tasks of reactor model solving in real time. The next problem, currently under investigation, is the incorporation of the reactor thermal-hydraulic model into the DRM so that it can be used in the power range. Such an extension of DHM allows presentation not only of the instantaneous reactivity of the system, but also the inserted reactivity can be estimated from the temperature reactivity feed-backs. One of the applications of this concept is the anomalous digital reactivity monitor (ADRN) as part of the reactor protection system. As a solution of the first problem, a fast algorithm for solving the inverse kinetics equations has been implemented in the off-line program RODCAL on CDC 1700 computer and tested for its accuracy by performing different control rod calibrations on the reactor TRIGA

  18. A Combined Gravity Compensation Method for INS Using the Simplified Gravity Model and Gravity Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zeyang

    2018-05-14

    In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS's solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method.

  19. PPN-limit of Fourth Order Gravity inspired by Scalar-Tensor Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Capozziello, S.; Troisi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the {\\it dynamical} equivalence between higher order gravity and scalar-tensor gravity the PPN-limit of fourth order gravity is discussed. We exploit this analogy developing a fourth order gravity version of the Eddington PPN-parameters. As a result, Solar System experiments can be reconciled with higher order gravity, if physical constraints descending from experiments are fulfilled.

  20. Synergistic action of gravity and temperature on the motor system within the lifespan: a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meigal, Alexander Yu

    2013-03-01

    Here we describe GATO (gravity, age, thermoregulation, and oxygenation) hypothesis (or a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis) which we suggest to explain synergistic effect of these factors on the motor system. Taken separately, microgravity (in spaceflight, G~0), the early age, heat and hypoxia exert identical effect on the motor system. We posit that synergy of these factors originate from their synchronicity during intrauterine immersion (analog microgravity) of the fetus in warm hypoxic condition. We further postulate three successive motor adaptive strategies, driven lifelong by gravity as the key factor. The first by age, fetal/microgravity (FM)-strategy, induced by the intrauterine immersion of the fetus, is based on domination of fast type muscle fibers. After birth, thought to be analog for landing from orbit, newborn is subjected to combined influence of cooler ambient temperature, normoxia, and 1G Earth gravity, which cooperatively form a slower GE-strategy. Eventually, healthy ageing results in further domination of slow type muscle fibers that forms the slowest (SL)-strategy. Our hypothesis implies that specific sensory conditions may substitute for each other owing to their synergistic action on the motor system. According to GATO hypothesis heating and hypoxia may be considered as "pro-microgravity" factors, while cold and hyperoxia - as "pro-gravity" ones. As such, cold may act as a partial "surrogate" for gravity, estimated as ~0.2G. That may have potential to elaborate countermeasures for muscle atrophy in astronauts either on-board in long-term spaceflight or for post-flight rehabilitation. Based on GATO hypothesis, predictions on muscle remodeling caused by illumination, sound/noise, and gravidity are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Near-surface gravity actuated pipe (GAP{sup TM}) system for Brazilian deepwater fluid transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromage, Lionel; Brown, Paul A. [SBM Offshore (Monaco)

    2009-12-19

    The recent discovery of new deep water and ultra-deep water oil and gas fields offshore Brazil, including pre-salt reservoirs, has become a focal point for field development Operators and Contractors. The aggressive nature of fluids (sour, high density) in combination with deeper waters implies potential flow assurance issues. These issues challenge riser and pipeline technology to find cost effective solutions for hydrocarbon fluid transfer in field development scenarios involving phased tied-back. The near-surface GAP{sup TM}, system (Gravity Actuated Pipe{sup TM}), which has been in operation for more than two years on the Kikeh field offshore Malaysia in 1325 m of water between a Dry Tree Unit (SPAR) and a turret-moored FPSO, is considered to meet these challenges since such a product is quasi independent of water depth and takes advantage of being near surface to optimize flow assurance. Furthermore the GAP{sup TM} has undergone technical upgrades when compared to the Kikeh project in order to make it suitable for the more hostile met ocean conditions offshore Brazil. This paper presents the design features, the construction and assembly plans in Brazil and the offshore installation of a GAP fluid transfer system for operation in Brazilian deep waters. (author)

  2. Optimum Design of Gravity Retaining Walls Using Charged System Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the optimum design retaining walls, as one of the familiar types of the retaining walls which may be constructed of stone masonry, unreinforced concrete, or reinforced concrete. The material cost is one of the major factors in the construction of gravity retaining walls therefore, minimizing the weight or volume of these systems can reduce the cost. To obtain an optimal seismic design of such structures, this paper proposes a method based on a novel meta-heuristic algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the Coulomb's and Gauss’s laws of electrostatics in physics, and it is called charged system search (CSS. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this algorithm, an example is utilized. Comparing the results of the retaining wall designs obtained by the other methods illustrates a good performance of the CSS. In this paper, we used the Mononobe-Okabe method which is one of the pseudostatic approaches to determine the dynamic earth pressure.

  3. Timing system design and tests for the Gravity Probe B relativity mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J; Keiser, G M; Ohshima, Y; Shestople, P; Lockhart, J M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the timing system design and tests for the NASA/Stanford Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. The primary clock of GP-B, called the 16f o clock, was an oven-controlled crystal oscillator that produced a 16.368 MHz master frequency 3 . The 16f o clock and the 10 Hz data strobe, which was divided down from the 16f o clock, provided clock signals to all GP-B components and synchronized the data collection, transmission, and processing. The sampled data of science signals were stamped with the vehicle time, a counter of the 10 Hz data strobe. The time latency between the time of data sampling and the stamped vehicle time was compensated in the ground data processing. Two redundant global positioning system receivers onboard the GP-B satellite supplied an external reference for time transfer between the vehicle time and coordinated universal time (UTC), and the time conversion was established in the ground preprocessing of the telemetry timing data. The space flight operation showed that the error of time conversion between the vehicle time and UTC was less than 2 μs. Considering that the constant timing offsets were compensated in the ground processing of the GP-B science data, the time latency between the effective sampling time of GP-B science signals and the stamped vehicle time was verified to within 1 ms in the ground tests. (paper)

  4. Estimating thermal maturity in the Eagle Ford Shale petroleum system using gas gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Basin-wide datasets that provide information on the geochemical properties of petroleum systems, such as source rock quality, product composition, and thermal maturity, are often difficult to come by or assemble from publically available data. When published studies are available and include these kinds of properties, they generally have few sampling locations and limited numbers and types of analyses. Therefore, production-related data and engineering parameters can provide useful proxies for geochemical properties that are often widely available across a play and in some states are reported in publically available or commercial databases. Gas-oil ratios (GOR) can be calculated from instantaneous or cumulative production data and can be related to the source rock geochemical properties like kerogen type (Lewan and Henry, 1999) and thermal maturity (Tian et al., 2013; U.S. Energy Information Administration [EIA], 2014). Oil density or specific gravity (SG), often reported in American Petroleum Institute units (°API = 141.5 /SG – 131.5), can also provide information on source rock thermal maturity, particularly when combined with GOR values in unconventional petroleum systems (Nesheim, 2017).

  5. ORNL Pocket Meter Program: internal operating procedures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, C.D.; Miller, J.H.; Dunsmore, M.R.

    1984-12-01

    The ORNL Pocket Meter Program is designed for auditing the approximate photon radiation exposure of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) radiation workers. Although pocket meters are considered to be a secondary personnel dosimetry system at ORNL, they are valuable indicators of unplanned exposures if proper procedures are followed for testing, calibrating, deploying, wearing, processing, and recording data. 4 figures, 1 table

  6. The AFGL (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) Absolute Gravity Measuring System. A Final Report and Operating/Maintenance Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-28

    Acceleration of Gravit , Ph. D. Thesis, Princeton University, Prion, NJ 12,"% %% %. LA -T of the reflectors is dropped and the number of optical fringes is...system which, as described in Reference 9, is a Chamber -Within -A -Chamber direct free-fall system; and the Istituto de Metrologia "G. Colonnetti" (IMGC...Report, AD No. 783313, Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, la 4. Faller, J. E. (1967) The precision measurement of the acceleration of gravity, Science

  7. Conformal Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, G.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)

  8. Multi-Sensor Calibration of Low-Cost Magnetic, Angular Rate and Gravity Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lüken

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new calibration procedure for low-cost nine degrees-of-freedom (9DOF magnetic, angular rate and gravity (MARG sensor systems, which relies on a calibration cube, a reference table and a body sensor network (BSN. The 9DOF MARG sensor is part of our recently-developed “Integrated Posture and Activity Network by Medit Aachen” (IPANEMA BSN. The advantage of this new approach is the use of the calibration cube, which allows for easy integration of two sensor nodes of the IPANEMA BSN. One 9DOF MARG sensor node is thereby used for calibration; the second 9DOF MARG sensor node is used for reference measurements. A novel algorithm uses these measurements to further improve the performance of the calibration procedure by processing arbitrarily-executed motions. In addition, the calibration routine can be used in an alignment procedure to minimize errors in the orientation between the 9DOF MARG sensor system and a motion capture inertial reference system. A two-stage experimental study is conducted to underline the performance of our calibration procedure. In both stages of the proposed calibration procedure, the BSN data, as well as reference tracking data are recorded. In the first stage, the mean values of all sensor outputs are determined as the absolute measurement offset to minimize integration errors in the derived movement model of the corresponding body segment. The second stage deals with the dynamic characteristics of the measurement system where the dynamic deviation of the sensor output compared to a reference system is Sensors 2015, 15 25920 corrected. In practical validation experiments, this procedure showed promising results with a maximum RMS error of 3.89°.

  9. Multi-sensor calibration of low-cost magnetic, angular rate and gravity systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüken, Markus; Misgeld, Berno J E; Rüschen, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-10-13

    We present a new calibration procedure for low-cost nine degrees-of-freedom (9DOF) magnetic, angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensor systems, which relies on a calibration cube, a reference table and a body sensor network (BSN). The 9DOF MARG sensor is part of our recently-developed "Integrated Posture and Activity Network by Medit Aachen" (IPANEMA) BSN. The advantage of this new approach is the use of the calibration cube, which allows for easy integration of two sensor nodes of the IPANEMA BSN. One 9DOF MARG sensor node is thereby used for calibration; the second 9DOF MARG sensor node is used for reference measurements. A novel algorithm uses these measurements to further improve the performance of the calibration procedure by processing arbitrarily-executed motions. In addition, the calibration routine can be used in an alignment procedure to minimize errors in the orientation between the 9DOF MARG sensor system and a motion capture inertial reference system. A two-stage experimental study is conducted to underline the performance of our calibration procedure. In both stages of the proposed calibration procedure, the BSN data, as well as reference tracking data are recorded. In the first stage, the mean values of all sensor outputs are determined as the absolute measurement offset to minimize integration errors in the derived movement model of the corresponding body segment. The second stage deals with the dynamic characteristics of the measurement system where the dynamic deviation of the sensor output compared to a reference system is Sensors 2015, 15 25920 corrected. In practical validation experiments, this procedure showed promising results with a maximum RMS error of 3.89°.

  10. Asymptotic safety of higher derivative quantum gravity non-minimally coupled with a matter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-08-01

    We study asymptotic safety of models of the higher derivative quantum gravity with and without matter. The beta functions are derived by utilizing the functional renormalization group, and non-trivial fixed points are found. It turns out that all couplings in gravity sector, namely the cosmological constant, the Newton constant, and the R 2 and R μν 2 coupling constants, are relevant in case of higher derivative pure gravity. For the Higgs-Yukawa model non-minimal coupled with higher derivative gravity, we find a stable fixed point at which the scalar-quartic and the Yukawa coupling constants become relevant. The relevant Yukawa coupling is crucial to realize the finite value of the Yukawa coupling constants in the standard model.

  11. Insights into the Earth System mass variability from CSR-RL05 GRACE gravity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettadpur, S.

    2012-04-01

    The next-generation Release-05 GRACE gravity field data products are the result of extensive effort applied to the improvements to the GRACE Level-1 (tracking) data products, and to improvements in the background gravity models and processing methodology. As a result, the squared-error upper-bound in RL05 fields is half or less than the squared-error upper-bound in RL04 fields. The CSR-RL05 field release consists of unconstrained gravity fields as well as a regularized gravity field time-series that can be used for several applications without any post-processing error reduction. This paper will describe the background and the nature of these improvements in the data products, and provide an error characterization. We will describe the insights these new series offer in measuring the mass flux due to diverse Hydrologic, Oceanographic and Cryospheric processes.

  12. Your Glucose Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Medical Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... 164KB) En Español Basic Facts 7 Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter ...

  13. Location Accuracy of INS/Gravity-Integrated Navigation System on the Basis of Ocean Experiment and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hubiao; Wu, Lin; Chai, Hua; Bao, Lifeng; Wang, Yong

    2017-12-20

    An experiment comparing the location accuracy of gravity matching-aided navigation in the ocean and simulation is very important to evaluate the feasibility and the performance of an INS/gravity-integrated navigation system (IGNS) in underwater navigation. Based on a 1' × 1' marine gravity anomaly reference map and multi-model adaptive Kalman filtering algorithm, a matching location experiment of IGNS was conducted using data obtained using marine gravimeter. The location accuracy under actual ocean conditions was 2.83 nautical miles (n miles). Several groups of simulated data of marine gravity anomalies were obtained by establishing normally distributed random error N ( u , σ 2 ) with varying mean u and noise variance σ 2 . Thereafter, the matching location of IGNS was simulated. The results show that the changes in u had little effect on the location accuracy. However, an increase in σ 2 resulted in a significant decrease in the location accuracy. A comparison between the actual ocean experiment and the simulation along the same route demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed simulation method and quantitative analysis results. In addition, given the gravimeter (1-2 mGal accuracy) and the reference map (resolution 1' × 1'; accuracy 3-8 mGal), location accuracy of IGNS was up to reach ~1.0-3.0 n miles in the South China Sea.

  14. Hydrogen meter prooftesting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCown, J.J.; Mettler, G.W.

    1976-04-01

    Two diffusion type hydrogen meters have been tested on the Prototype Applications Loop (PAL). The ANL designed unit was used to monitor hydrogen in sodium during FFTF startup and over a wide range of hydrogen concentrations resulting from chemical additions to the sodium and cover gas. A commercially available meter was added and its performance compared with the ANL unit. Details of the test work are described

  15. A Universal Velocity Dispersion Profile for Pressure Supported Systems: Evidence for MONDian Gravity across Seven Orders of Magnitude in Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durazo, R.; Hernandez, X.; Sánchez, S. F. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264 C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Sodi, B. Cervantes [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-03-10

    For any MONDian extended theory of gravity where the rotation curves of spiral galaxies are explained through a change in physics rather than the hypothesis of dark matter, a generic dynamical behavior is expected for pressure supported systems: an outer flattening of the velocity dispersion profile occurring at a characteristic radius, where both the amplitude of this flat velocity dispersion and the radius at which it appears are predicted to show distinct scalings with the total mass of the system. By carefully analyzing the dynamics of globular clusters and elliptical galaxies, we are able to significantly extend the astronomical diversity of objects in which MONDian gravity has been tested, from spiral galaxies to the much larger mass range covered by pressure supported systems. We show that a universal projected velocity dispersion profile accurately describes various classes of pressure supported systems, and further, that the expectations of extended gravity are met across seven orders of magnitude in mass. These observed scalings are not expected under dark matter cosmology, and would require particular explanations tuned at the scales of each distinct astrophysical system.

  16. Recent progress in mesospheric gravity wave studies using nightglow imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Michael J.; Pendleton Junior, William R.; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Zhao, Yucheng; Olsen, Chris; Babu, Hema Karnam Surendra [Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, Utah (United States); Medeiros, Amauri F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Unidade Academica de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Takahashi, Hisao, E-mail: mtaylor@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: wpen@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: dominiquepautet@gmail.com, E-mail: yucheng@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: cmellob@gmail.com, E-mail: hema_sb@rediffmail.com, E-mail: afragoso@df.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: hisaotak@laser.inpe.br [INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    A variety of optical remote sensing techniques have now revealed a rich spectrum of wave activity in the upper atmosphere. Many of these perturbations, with periodicities ranging from {approx} 5 min to many hours and horizontal scales of a few tens of km to several thousands km, are due to freely propagating atmospheric gravity waves and forced tidal oscillations. Passive optical observations of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region ( {approx} 80-100 km) are facilitated by several naturally occurring, vertically distinct nightglow layers. This paper describes the use of state-of-the-art ground-based CCD imaging techniques to detect these waves in intensity and temperature. All-sky (180 deg ) image measurements are used to illustrate the characteristics of small-scale, short period ( < 1 hour) waves and to investigate their seasonal propagation and momentum impact on the MLT region. These results are then contrasted with measurements of mesospheric temperature made using a new temperature mapping imaging system capable of determining induced temperature amplitudes of a large range of wave motions and investigating night-to-night and seasonal variability in mesospheric temperature. (author)

  17. Inertia–gravity wave radiation from the elliptical vortex in the f -plane shallow water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko, E-mail: nori@phys-h.keio.ac.jp [Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Department of Physics, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Inertia–gravity wave (IGW) radiation from the elliptical vortex is investigated in the f -plane shallow water system. The far field of IGW is analytically derived for the case of an almost circular Kirchhoff vortex with a small aspect ratio. Cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry appears at finite values of the Rossby number (Ro) caused by the source originating in the Coriolis acceleration. While the intensity of IGWs from the cyclone monotonically decreases as f increases, that from the anticyclone increases as f increases for relatively smaller f and has a local maximum at intermediate f . A numerical experiment is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain. The numerical results agree quite well with the analytical ones for elliptical vortices with small aspect ratios, implying that the derived analytical forms are useful for the verification of the numerical model. For elliptical vortices with larger aspect ratios, however, significant deviation from the analytical estimates appears. The intensity of IGWs radiated in the numerical simulation is larger than that estimated analytically. The reason is that the source of IGWs is amplified during the time evolution because the shape of the vortex changes from ideal ellipse to elongated with filaments. Nevertheless, cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry similar to the analytical estimate appears in all the range of aspect ratios, suggesting that this asymmetry is a robust feature. (paper)

  18. High-resolution simulations of unstable cylindrical gravity currents undergoing wandering and splitting motions in a rotating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Albert; Wu, Ching-Sen

    2018-02-01

    High-resolution simulations of unstable cylindrical gravity currents when wandering and splitting motions occur in a rotating system are reported. In this study, our attention is focused on the situation of unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents when the ratio of Coriolis to inertia forces is larger, namely, 0.5 ≤ C ≤ 2.0, in comparison to the stable ones when C ≤ 0.3 as investigated previously by the authors. The simulations reproduce the major features of the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents observed in the laboratory, i.e., vortex-wandering or vortex-splitting following the contraction-relaxation motion, and good agreement is found when compared with the experimental results on the outrush radius of the advancing front and on the number of bulges. Furthermore, the simulations provide energy budget information which could not be attained in the laboratory. After the heavy fluid is released, the heavy fluid collapses and a contraction-relaxation motion is at work for approximately 2-3 revolutions of the system. During the contraction-relaxation motion of the heavy fluid, the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents behave similar to the stable ones. Towards the end of the contraction-relaxation motion, the dissipation rate in the system reaches a local minimum and a quasi-geostrophic equilibrium state is reached. After the quasi-geostrophic equilibrium state, vortex-wandering or vortex-splitting may occur depending on the ratio of Coriolis to inertia forces. The vortex-splitting process begins with non-axisymmetric bulges and, as the bulges grow, the kinetic energy increases at the expense of decreasing potential energy in the system. The completion of vortex-splitting is accompanied by a local maximum of dissipation rate and a local maximum of kinetic energy in the system. A striking feature of the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents is the persistent upwelling and downwelling motions, which are observed for both the

  19. Integrating Unified Gravity Wave Physics into the NOAA Next Generation Global Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, J. C.; Yudin, V.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Akmaev, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Unified Gravity Wave Physics (UGWP) project for the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) is a NOAA collaborative effort between the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), Environemntal Modeling Center (EMC) and the University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CU-CIRES) to support upgrades and improvements of GW dynamics (resolved scales) and physics (sub-grid scales) in the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS)†. As envisioned the global climate, weather and space weather models of NEMS will substantially improve their predictions and forecasts with the resolution-sensitive (scale-aware) formulations planned under the UGWP framework for both orographic and non-stationary waves. In particular, the planned improvements for the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of NEMS are: calibration of model physics for higher vertical and horizontal resolution and an extended vertical range of simulations, upgrades to GW schemes, including the turbulent heating and eddy mixing due to wave dissipation and breaking, and representation of the internally-generated QBO. The main priority of the UGWP project is unified parameterization of orographic and non-orographic GW effects including momentum deposition in the middle atmosphere and turbulent heating and eddies due to wave dissipation and breaking. The latter effects are not currently represented in NOAA atmosphere models. The team has tested and evaluated four candidate GW solvers integrating the selected GW schemes into the NGGPS model. Our current work and planned activity is to implement the UGWP schemes in the first available GFS/FV3 (open FV3) configuration including adapted GFDL modification for sub-grid orography in GFS. Initial global model results will be shown for the operational and research GFS configuration for spectral and FV3 dynamical cores. †http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/index.php?branch=NEMS

  20. DC electrostatic gyro suspension system for the Gravity Probe B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Huei

    1994-12-01

    The Gravity Probe B experiment is a satellite-based experiment primarily designed to test two aspects of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by observing the spin axis drift of near-perfect gyroscopes in a 650-km circular polar orbit. The goal of this experiment is to measure the drift angles to an accuracy of 0.3 milli-arcsec after one year in orbit. As a result, electrostatically suspended free-spinning gyroscopes operating at a very low temperature became the final choice for their ultra-low Newtonian torque-induced drift rate. The Conventional AC current-driven suspension system faces two fundamental difficulties for ground gyro testing. Field emission causes rotor charging and arcing with an imperfect electrode or rotor surfaces because the electric field intensity needed to support a solid rotor in the 1-g field is more than 107 V/m. The system not only becomes unstable at a high rotor charge, which can be more than 500 volts, but may also lose control in case of arcing. Both the high voltage AC suspension signal and the high frequency (1 MHz) signal for rotor position sensing interfere with the superconducting SQUID magnetometer for spin axis readout through inductive coupling. These problems were resolved by using DC voltage to generate a suspension force and a low frequency position sensor. In addition to the Input/Output linearization algorithm developed to remove the system nonlinearity for global stability and dynamic performance, we also minimized the electric field intensity to reduce rotor charging. Experimental results verified the desired global stability and satisfactory dynamic performance. The problem of rotor charging is virtually eliminated. More importantly, the DC system is compatible with the SQUID readout system in the Science Mission configuration. Consequently, experiments in low magnetic field at a sub-micro-gauss level for SQUID design verification and trapped flux distribution study were finally realizable in ground environment

  1. Mechanical properties of electron beam welds of 316LN austenitic steels at low temperature for ITER gravity support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.Y.; Huo, B.L.; Kuai, K.W.

    2007-01-01

    The gravity support system in ITER not only sustains magnet system, the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, but also endures several large forces, such as electromagnetic force, thermal load and seismic loads. Based on the ITER design report, the maximum displacement of the gravity support system is estimated to be 32 mm in radial direction at the top flange of the flexible plates during the TF coil cool down from room temperature to 80 k. Welds are located in the peak stress region and subject to cyclic loads in the top flange is a potential problem. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the welds are extremely important for this system. 316LN austenitic stainless steel has been selected as the gravity support structure materials. However, there is still lack of the related mechanical data of the welding components of 316LN stainless steel at present. In this study, we are systematically investigated the mechanical properties of the welding components at low temperature. (authors)

  2. Influence of yearlong training on the state of cardiovascular, autonomic nervous system and physical performance in female 400 meters runners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. L. Mikhalyuk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the research – identification and comparison of heart rate variability, central hemodynamics and physical performance in 400 meters runners from the III category to masters of sports of international class (MSIC in the annual cycle of the training process. Materials and methods. The study included 22 female athletes, 400 meters runners between the ages of 14 and 27 years (mean age – 16.8 ± 0.67 years, running experience – from 2 to 13 years (average – 4.4 ± 0.68 years in the preparatory and competitive periods. Body length and weight of athletes were 167.9 ± 0.91 cm and 52.5 ± 0.98 kg, respectively. For the analysis of the autonomic regulation of cardiac activity mathematical methods of HRV analysis were used. Analysis and evaluation of periodic components of heart rate were carried out by means of the research of spectral parameters of autocorrelation functions. Determination of physical performance was carried out under the practical standard on the cycle ergometer. It was established that in high class sportswomen (n=12 and ones with qualifications of the II–III category (n=10 in the competitive period there were strengthening of parasympathetic effects of ANS, transformation of eukinetic circulation type (CT into hypokinetic CT and absence of sportswomen with hyperkinetic CT. In high class sportswomen there were significant increase of the relative value of physical working capacity (PWC170/kg by 12.33% and tendency to increase of index of functional state (IFS by 9.46%, in sportswomen with qualifications of II–III category PWC170/kg significantly increased by 19.26%, and IFS by 17.87%. Correlation analysis conducted in both periods in the group and separately in high class sportswomen and ones with qualifications of II–III category found the relationship indicating that the increase of PWC170/kg and IFS is associated with the prevalence of hypokinetic CT and parasympathetic ANS influences. In the competitive period

  3. Dynamical Studies of N-Body Gravity and Tidal Dissipation in the TRAPPIST-1 Star System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Michael; Kuettel, Donald H.; Stebler, Shane T.; Udrea, Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    To date, we have discovered a total of 2,729 planetary systems that contain more than 3,639 known exoplanets [1]. A majority of these are defined as compact systems, containing multiple exoplanets within 0.25 AU of the central star. It has been shown that tightly packed exoplanets avoid colliding due to long-term resonance-induced orbit stability [2]. However, due to extreme proximity, these planets experience intense gravitational forces from each other that are unprecedented within our own solar system, which makes the existence of exomoons doubtful. We present the results of an initial study evaluating dynamical stability of potential exomoons within such highly compact systems.This work is baselined around TRAPPIST-1, an ultra-cool dwarf star that hosts seven temperate terrestrial planets, three of which are in the habitable zone, orbiting within 0.06 AU [3]. N-body simulations place a grid of test particles varying semi-major axis, eccentricity, and inclination around the three habitable zone planets. We find that most exomoons with semi-major axes less than half the Hill sphere of their respective planet are stable over 10 kyrs, with several stable over 300 kyrs.However, in compact systems, tidal influences from other planets can compete with tidal effects from the primary planet, resulting in possible instabilities and massive amounts of tidal dissipation. We investigate these effects with a large grid search that incorporates exomoon radius, tidal quality factor and a range of planet rigidities. Results of simulations that combine n-body gravity effects with both planetary and satellite tides are presented and contrasted with n-body results. Finally, we examine long-term stability (> 1Myrs) of the stable subset of test particles from the n-body simulation with the addition of tidal dissipation, to determine if exomoons can survive around planets e, f, and g in the TRAPPIST-1 system.[1] Schneider (2017). The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. http

  4. Customer-economics of residential photovoltaic systems (Part 1): The impact of high renewable energy penetrations on electricity bill savings with net metering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darghouth, Naïm R.; Barbose, Galen; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the US are often compensated at the customer's underlying retail electricity rate through net metering. Given the uncertainty in future retail rates and the inherent links between rates and the customer–economics of behind-the-meter PV, there is growing interest in understanding how potential changes in rates may impact the value of bill savings from PV. In this article, we first use a production cost and capacity expansion model to project California hourly wholesale electricity market prices under two potential electricity market scenarios, including a reference and a 33% renewables scenario. Second, based on the wholesale electricity market prices generated by the model, we develop retail rates (i.e., flat, time-of-use, and real-time pricing) for each future scenario based on standard retail rate design principles. Finally, based on these retail rates, the bill savings from PV is estimated for 226 California residential customers under two types of net metering, for each scenario. We find that high renewable penetrations can drive substantial changes in residential retail rates and that these changes, together with variations in retail rate structures and PV compensation mechanisms, interact to place substantial uncertainty on the future value of bill savings from residential PV. - Highlights: • We investigate the impact of high renewables on customer economics of solar. • We model three types of residential retail electricity rates. • Based on the rates, we calculate the bill savings from photovoltaic (PV) generation. • High renewables penetration can lead to lower bill savings with time-varying rates. • There is substantial uncertainty in the future bill savings from residential PV

  5. A Scalable Smart Meter Data Generator Using Spark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Danalachi, Sergiu

    2017-01-01

    Today, smart meters are being used worldwide. As a matter of fact smart meters produce large volumes of data. Thus, it is important for smart meter data management and analytics systems to process petabytes of data. Benchmarking and testing of these systems require scalable data, however, it can ...

  6. Hydro Ottawa achieves Smart Meter milestone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2008-01-01

    As Ontario's second largest municipal electricity company, Hydro Ottawa serves more than 285,000 residential and business customers in the city of Ottawa and the village of Casselman. Since 2006, the utility has installed more than 230,000 Smart Meters throughout its service territory in an effort to provide better services to its customers. This initiative represents the largest operational advanced metering infrastructure network in Canada. This move was necessary before time-of-use rates can be implemented in Ottawa. The Smart Meters deliver data wirelessly to Hydro Ottawa's Customer Information System for billing and eliminating manual readings. The Smart Meters are designed to promote more efficient use of electricity. The Government of Ontario has passed legislation requiring the installation of Smart Meters throughout the province by the end of 2010

  7. Adaption of the power distribution system to a sustainable energy system - Smart meters and intelligent nets; Anpassning av elnaeten, till ett uthaalligt energisystem - Smarta maetare och intelligenta naet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bollen, Math

    2010-11-15

    The conversion of the energy system towards sustainability is a major challenge for society. The conversion includes a large-scale introduction of renewable electricity and the electrification of transport. Adaptations of the grid are needed in order to cope with this development: - Facilitate an increased introduction of renewable electricity; - Enabling power reduction at peak load; - Improve incentives for energy efficiency; - Creating conditions for more active purchasers of electricity. Security of supply must be high, although the new production affects the electricity grid in a different way than today. Therefore, new technical solutions, a so-called smart grid, is necessary in order to, inter alia, prevent congestion and over voltages, but also to enhance the operational safety in general. There is new technology that can help adjust the grid in an efficient and flexible way. Intelligent networks, or smart grids, is the collection of new technology, function and regulatory framework in the electricity market, etc. that cost-effectively facilitate introduction and utilization of renewable electricity generation, leading to reduced energy consumption, contributes to power reduction in peak load and creates conditions for active electricity customers. Sweden is one of the countries that score high in terms of active electricity customers and feedback of consumption for electricity customers. There is a direct consequence of introduction of the metering reform and installation of the AMR, in which Sweden was one of the first countries in Europe. As for modern technology to increase transmission capacity of transmission networks such as HVDC and FACTS technology, Sweden is a world leader. This technology will play an important role in enabling large-scale use of renewable electricity generation on European level. The investigation has resulted in the following proposals: - A knowledge platform created to be collect and disseminate relevant knowledge of research

  8. Digital reactivity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Zongbing

    1996-02-01

    The importance and the usual methods of reactivity measurement in a nuclear reactor are presented. Emphasis is put upon the calculation principle, software and hardware components, main specifications, application, as well as the features of the digital reactivity meter. The test results of operation in various reactors shown that the meter possess the following features: high accuracy, short response time, low output noise, high resolution, wide measuring range, simple and flexible to operate, high stability and reliability. In addition, the reactivity meter can save the measuring data automatically and have a perfect capability of self-verifying. It not only meet the requirement of the reactivity measurement in nuclear power plant, but also can be applied to various types of reactors. (1 tab.)

  9. Equilibrium points and associated periodic orbits in the gravity of binary asteroid systems: (66391) 1999 KW4 as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

    2018-04-01

    The motion of a massless particle in the gravity of a binary asteroid system, referred as the restricted full three-body problem (RF3BP), is fundamental, not only for the evolution of the binary system, but also for the design of relevant space missions. In this paper, equilibrium points and associated periodic orbit families in the gravity of a binary system are investigated, with the binary (66391) 1999 KW4 as an example. The polyhedron shape model is used to describe irregular shapes and corresponding gravity fields of the primary and secondary of (66391) 1999 KW4, which is more accurate than the ellipsoid shape model in previous studies and provides a high-fidelity representation of the gravitational environment. Both of the synchronous and non-synchronous states of the binary system are considered. For the synchronous binary system, the equilibrium points and their stability are determined, and periodic orbit families emanating from each equilibrium point are generated by using the shooting (multiple shooting) method and the homotopy method, where the homotopy function connects the circular restricted three-body problem and RF3BP. In the non-synchronous binary system, trajectories of equivalent equilibrium points are calculated, and the associated periodic orbits are obtained by using the homotopy method, where the homotopy function connects the synchronous and non-synchronous systems. Although only the binary (66391) 1999 KW4 is considered, our methods will also be well applicable to other binary systems with polyhedron shape data. Our results on equilibrium points and associated periodic orbits provide general insights into the dynamical environment and orbital behaviors in proximity of small binary asteroids and enable the trajectory design and mission operations in future binary system explorations.

  10. Nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...

  11. Hot-wire air flow meter for gasoline fuel-injection system. Calculation of air mass in cylinder during transient condition; Gasoline funsha system yo no netsusenshiki kuki ryuryokei. Kato untenji no cylinder juten kukiryo no keisan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyama, Y [Hitachi Car Engineering, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Nishimura, Y; Osuga, M; Yamauchi, T [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-10-01

    Air flow characteristics of hot-wire air flow meters for gasoline fuel-injection systems with supercharging and exhaust gas recycle during transient conditions were investigated to analyze a simple method for calculating air mass in cylinder. It was clarified that the air mass in cylinder could be calculated by compensating for the change of air mass in intake system by using aerodynamic models of intake system. 3 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Conducted interference on smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyer, Cornelis H.A.; Leferink, Frank

    2017-01-01

    The increasing conducted interference caused by modern electronic equipment is causing more problems for electronic, or static, energy meters. These meters are called smart meters when equipped with a communication link, and are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. It is known that

  13. Using a Gravity Model to Predict Circulation in a Public Library System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottensmann, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development of a gravity model based upon principles of spatial interaction to predict the circulation of libraries in the Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library (Indiana). The model effectively predicted past circulation figures and was tested by predicting future library circulation, particularly for a new branch library.…

  14. Massive gravity from bimetric gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the subtle relationship between massive gravity and bimetric gravity, focusing particularly on the manner in which massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure is more delicate than currently appreciated. Specifically, this limiting procedure should not unnecessarily constrain the background metric, which must be externally specified by the theory of massive gravity itself. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit, leading to additional constraints besides the one set of equations of motion naively expected. Thus, since solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statement is not necessarily true, there is no complete continuity in the parameter space of the theory. In particular, we study the massive cosmological solutions which are continuous in the parameter space, showing that many interesting cosmologies belong to this class. (paper)

  15. Carbon activity meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.; Krankota, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    A carbon activity meter utilizing an electrochemical carbon cell with gaseous reference electrodes having particular application for measuring carbon activity in liquid sodium for the LMFBR project is described. The electrolyte container is electroplated with a thin gold film on the inside surface thereof, and a reference electrode consisting of CO/CO 2 gas is used. (U.S.)

  16. The evolution of Brown-York quasilocal energy as due to evolution of Lovelock gravity in a system of M0-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Rahaman, Farook; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh

    Recently, it has been suggested in [S. Chakraborty and N. Dadhich, Brown-York quasilocal energy in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity and black hole horizons, J. High Energ. Phys. 12 (2015) 003.] that the Brown-York mechanism can be used to measure the quasilocal energy in Lovelock gravity. We have used this method in a system of M0-branes and show that the Brown-York energy evolves in the process of birth and growth of Lovelock gravity. This can help us to predict phenomenological events which are emerged as due to dynamical structure of Lovelock gravity in our universe. In this model, first, M0-branes join each other and form an M3-brane and an anti-M3-branes connected by an M2-brane. This system is named BIon. Universes and anti-universes live on M3-branes and M2 plays the role of wormhole between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M3’s and nonlinear massive gravities like Lovelock massive gravity emerges and grows. By closing M3-branes, BIon evolves and wormhole between branes makes a transition to black hole. During this stage, Brown-York energy increases and shrinks to large values at the colliding points of branes. By approaching M3-branes towards each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are produced. To remove these states, M3-branes compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, anti-gravity is created which leads to getting away of branes from each other. Also, the Lovelock gravity disappears and its energy forms a new M2 between M3-branes. By getting away of branes from each other, Brown-York energy decreases and shrinks to zero.

  17. The gravity field and GGOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sideris, M.G.; Shum, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    The gravity field of the earth is a natural element of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). Gravity field quantities are like spatial geodetic observations of potential very high accuracy, with measurements, currently at part-per-billion (ppb) accuracy, but gravity field quantities are also...... unique as they can be globally represented by harmonic functions (long-wavelength geopotential model primarily from satellite gravity field missions), or based on point sampling (airborne and in situ absolute and superconducting gravimetry). From a GGOS global perspective, one of the main challenges...... is to ensure the consistency of the global and regional geopotential and geoid models, and the temporal changes of the gravity field at large spatial scales. The International Gravity Field Service, an umbrella "level-2" IAG service (incorporating the International Gravity Bureau, International Geoid Service...

  18. Gravity gradiometry difference measurement as a tool for monitoring pumping and injection; forward modeling results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Creed, R.; Edwards, A.

    1997-01-01

    Gravity gradiometry forward models have been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL) that can characterize gravity gradient changes with the development of a cone of depression or injection mound in water table aquifers. Difference measurements at long time intervals reduce delayed drainage effects and eliminate the need for determining an initial density structure. Qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the gradient signal to determine changes in groundwater distribution with injection or pumping may be possible, particularly if the time varying nature of the signal is of interest. Gravity gradiometer instruments (such as the Gravity Gradient Survey System) have progressed to the point where the complete second order gravity gradient tensor can be measured with an instrument noise level of less than 1 Eotvos (0.1 microgals/meter). Modeling indicates direct gravity measurements for the injection mound perched aquifier case could produce similar signal to noise ratios. However gravity gradients provide 5 independent measurements and due to the common mode nature of the instruments are less susceptible to other effects (tide, latitude, elevation, etc.). The gradients also provide a sharper image of the edge of the anomaly. The systematic identification and removal of specific retention, rainfall and subsidence or uplift effects may be required to make gradiometry difference imaging practical for field use

  19. Sensitivity of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to the complexity of aquifer systems for monitoring of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katpatal, Yashwant B.; Rishma, C.; Singh, Chandan K.

    2018-05-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is aimed at assessment of groundwater storage under different terrestrial conditions. The main objective of the presented study is to highlight the significance of aquifer complexity to improve the performance of GRACE in monitoring groundwater. Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, central India, was selected as the study area for analysis, since the region comprises a simple aquifer system in the western region and a complex aquifer system in the eastern region. Groundwater-level-trend analyses of the different aquifer systems and spatial and temporal variation of the terrestrial water storage anomaly were studied to understand the groundwater scenario. GRACE and its field application involve selecting four pixels from the GRACE output with different aquifer systems, where each GRACE pixel encompasses 50-90 monitoring wells. Groundwater storage anomalies (GWSA) are derived for each pixel for the period 2002 to 2015 using the Release 05 (RL05) monthly GRACE gravity models and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) land-surface models (GWSAGRACE) as well as the actual field data (GWSAActual). Correlation analysis between GWSAGRACE and GWSAActual was performed using linear regression. The Pearson and Spearman methods show that the performance of GRACE is good in the region with simple aquifers; however, performance is poorer in the region with multiple aquifer systems. The study highlights the importance of incorporating the sensitivity of GRACE in estimation of groundwater storage in complex aquifer systems in future studies.

  20. Using Gravity Assists in the Earth-moon System as a Gateway to the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrath, Tim; Lantoine, Gregory; Landau, Damon; Grebow, Dan; Strange, Nathan; Wilson, Roby; Sims, Jon

    2012-01-01

    For spacecraft departing the Earth - Moon system, lunar flybys can significantly increase the hype rbolic escape energy (C3, in km 2 /sec 2 ) for a modest increase in flight time. Within 2 months, lunar flybys can produce a C3 of 2. Over 4 - 6 months, lunar flybys alone can increase the C3 to 4.5, or they can provide for additional periapsis burns to increase the C3 from 2 -3 to 10 or more, suitable for planetary missions. A lunar flyby departure can be followed by additional ? -V (such as that efficiently provided by a low thrust system, eg. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)) to raise the Earth - relative velocity (at a ratio of more than 2:1) before a subsequent Earth flyby, which redirects that velocity to a more di stant target, all within not much more than a year. This paper describes the applicability of lunar flybys for different flight times and propulsi on systems, and illustrates this with instances of past usage and future possibilities. Examples discussed i nclude ISEE - 3, Nozomi, STEREO, 2018 Mars studies (which showed an 8% payload increase), and missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs). In addition, the options for the achieving the initial lunar flyby are systematically discussed, with a view towards their p ractical use with in a compact launch period. In particular, we show that launches to geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) as a secondary payload provide a feasible means of obtaining a lunar flyby for an acceptable cost, even for SEP systems that cannot ea sily deliver large ? - Vs at periapsis. Taken together, these results comprise a myriad of options for increasing the mission performance, by the efficient use of lunar flybys within an acceptable extension of the flight time.

  1. Development of new experimental platform 'MARS'-Multiple Artificial-gravity Research System-to elucidate the impacts of micro/partial gravity on mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Yumoto, Akane; Shimomura, Michihiko; Kobayashi, Hiroe; Morita, Hironobu; Shimbo, Miki; Hamada, Michito; Kudo, Takashi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Shirakawa, Masaki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2017-09-07

    This Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency project focused on elucidating the impacts of partial gravity (partial g) and microgravity (μg) on mice using newly developed mouse habitat cage units (HCU) that can be installed in the Centrifuge-equipped Biological Experiment Facility in the International Space Station. In the first mission, 12 C57BL/6 J male mice were housed under μg or artificial earth-gravity (1 g). Mouse activity was monitored daily via downlinked videos; μg mice floated inside the HCU, whereas artificial 1 g mice were on their feet on the floor. After 35 days of habitation, all mice were returned to the Earth and processed. Significant decreases were evident in femur bone density and the soleus/gastrocnemius muscle weights of μg mice, whereas artificial 1 g mice maintained the same bone density and muscle weight as mice in the ground control experiment, in which housing conditions in the flight experiment were replicated. These data indicate that these changes were particularly because of gravity. They also present the first evidence that the addition of gravity can prevent decreases in bone density and muscle mass, and that the new platform 'MARS' may provide novel insights on the molecular-mechanisms regulating biological processes controlled by partial g/μg.

  2. Gravity brake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lujan, Richard E.

    2001-01-01

    A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.

  3. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barceló Carlos

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  4. Quantum Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, Enrique

    2004-01-01

    Gravitons should have momentum just as photons do; and since graviton momentum would cause compression rather than elongation of spacetime outside of matter; it does not appear that gravitons are compatible with Swartzchild's spacetime curvature. Also, since energy is proportional to mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the energy of matter is proportional to gravity. The energy of matter could thus contract space within matter; and because of the inter-connectedness of space, cause the...

  5. Comparison of cumulative dissipated energy delivered by active-fluidic pressure control phacoemulsification system versus gravity-fluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Salinas, Roberto; Garza-Leon, Manuel; Saenz-de-Viteri, Manuel; Solis-S, Juan C; Gulias-Cañizo, Rosario; Quiroz-Mercado, Hugo

    2017-08-22

    To compare the cumulative dissipated energy (CDE), aspiration time and estimated aspiration fluid utilized during phacoemulsification cataract surgery using two phacoemulsification systems . A total of 164 consecutive eyes of 164 patients undergoing cataract surgery, 82 in the active-fluidics group and 82 in the gravity-fluidics group were enrolled in this study. Cataracts graded NII to NIII using LOCS II were included. Each subject was randomly assigned to one of the two platforms with a specific configuration: the active-fluidics Centurion ® phacoemulsification system or the gravity-fluidics Infiniti ® Vision System. CDE, aspiration time (AT) and the mean estimated aspiration fluid (EAF) were registered and compared. A mean age of 68.3 ± 9.8 years was found (range 57-92 years), and no significant difference was evident between both groups. A positive correlation between the CDE values obtained by both platforms was verified (r = 0.271, R 2  = 0.073, P = 0.013). Similarly, a significant correlation was evidenced for the EAF (r = 0.334, R 2  = 0.112, P = 0.046) and AT values (r = 0.156, R 2  = 0.024, P = 0.161). A statistically significantly lower CDE count, aspiration time and estimated fluid were obtained using the active-fluidics configuration when compared to the gravity-fluidics configuration by 19.29, 12.10 and 9.29%, respectively (P = 0.001, P Infiniti ® IP system for NII and NIII cataracts.

  6. Metrological control of instruments, equipment and measurement system for ultrasonic meters of flow; Controle metrologico de instrumentos, equipamentos e sistema de medicao para medidores ultra-sonicos de vazao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palacios, Oscar de

    2004-07-01

    Following the actual tendency to obtaining greater precision in Natural Gas measurement, in the past few years the use of Ultrasonic Flow Meters as Custody Transfer applications has grown significantly. There are several units currently operating in Brazil. The legislation for model approval, measure system certification and periodical metrological control of the above mentioned equipment, is currently under elaboration final stage. It was placed under public inquire through the 'Portaria 037' of 2004 of INMETRO, which proposes the authorization to perform the Metrological control by the Operator, once it has a quality system implemented according NBR ISO 9001-2000 and/or ISO 17025. This paper describes the verification procedure adopted by most of ultrasonic meters manufacturers. It also describes the application of the procedure for create the 'Metrological Control System of the Measurement System' of a 12'' Ultrasonic Meter installed and operating, with 3 years operation's data. (author)

  7. Gravity Search Algorithm hybridized Recursive Least Square method for power system harmonic estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santosh Kumar Singh

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new hybrid method based on Gravity Search Algorithm (GSA and Recursive Least Square (RLS, known as GSA-RLS, to solve the harmonic estimation problems in the case of time varying power signals in presence of different noises. GSA is based on the Newton’s law of gravity and mass interactions. In the proposed method, the searcher agents are a collection of masses that interact with each other using Newton’s laws of gravity and motion. The basic GSA algorithm strategy is combined with RLS algorithm sequentially in an adaptive way to update the unknown parameters (weights of the harmonic signal. Simulation and practical validation are made with the experimentation of the proposed algorithm with real time data obtained from a heavy paper industry. A comparative performance of the proposed algorithm is evaluated with other recently reported algorithms like, Differential Evolution (DE, Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO, Bacteria Foraging Optimization (BFO, Fuzzy-BFO (F-BFO hybridized with Least Square (LS and BFO hybridized with RLS algorithm, which reveals that the proposed GSA-RLS algorithm is the best in terms of accuracy, convergence and computational time.

  8. Core-satellite populations and seasonality of water meter biofilms in a metropolitan drinking water distribution system

    KAUST Repository

    Ling, Fangqiong; Hwang, Chiachi; LeChevallier, Mark W; Andersen, Gary L; Liu, Wen-Tso

    2015-01-01

    -/methyltrophic primary production provide critical insights for developing more targeted water quality monitoring programs and treatment strategies for groundwater-sourced drinking water systems.The ISME Journal advance online publication, 7 August 2015; doi:10.1038

  9. Development of a High Resolution, Real Time, Distribution-Level Metering System and Associated Visualization, Modeling, and Data Analysis Functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bank, J.; Hambrick, J.

    2013-05-01

    NREL is developing measurement devices and a supporting data collection network specifically targeted at electrical distribution systems to support research in this area. This paper describes the measurement network which is designed to apply real-time and high speed (sub-second) measurement principles to distribution systems that are already common for the transmission level in the form of phasor measurement units and related technologies.

  10. Gamma absorption meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dincklage, R.D. von.

    1984-01-01

    The absorption meter consists of a radiation source, a trough for the absorbing liquid and a detector. It is characterized by the fact that there is a foil between the detector and the trough, made of a material whose binding energy of the K electrons is a little greater than the energy of the photons emitted by the radiation source. The source of radiation and foil are replaceable. (orig./HP) [de

  11. VLP seismicity from resonant modes of acoustic-gravity waves in a conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, C.; Prochnow, B. N.; OReilly, O. J.; Dunham, E. M.; Karlstrom, L.

    2016-12-01

    Oscillation of magma in volcanic conduits connected to cracks (dikes and sills) has been suggested as an explanation for very long period (VLP) seismic signals recorded at active basaltic volcanoes such as. Kilauea, Hawaii, and Erebus, Antarctica. We investigate the VLP seismicity using a linearized model for waves in and associated eigenmodes of a coupled conduit-crack system filled with multiphase magma, an extension of the Karlstrom and Dunham (2016) model for acoustic-gravity waves in volcanic conduits. We find that the long period surface displacement (as recorded on broadband seismometers) is dominated by opening/closing of the crack rather than the deformation of the conduit conduit walls. While the fundamental eigenmode is sensitive to the fluid properties and the geometry of the magma plumbing system, a closer scrutiny of various resonant modes reveals that the surface displacement is often more sensitive to higher modes. Here we present a systematic analysis of various long period acoustic-gravity wave resonant modes of a coupled conduit-crack system that the surface displacement is most sensitive to. We extend our previous work on a quasi-one-dimensional conduit model with inviscid magma to a more general axisymmetric conduit model that properly accounts for viscous boundary layers near the conduit walls, based on the numerical method developed by Prochnow et al. (submitted to Computers and Fluids, 2016). The surface displacement is dominated by either the fundamental or higher eigenmodes, depending on magma properties and the geometry of conduit and crack. An examination of the energetics of these modes reveals the complex interplay of different restoring forces (magma compressibility in the conduit, gravity, and elasticity of the crack) driving the VLP oscillations. Both nonequilibrium bubble growth and resorption and viscosity contribute to the damping of VLP signals. Our models thus provide a means to infer properties of open-vent basaltic volcanoes

  12. Performance analysis of a GPS Interferometric attitude determination system for a gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft. M.S. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, John C.

    1995-01-01

    The performance of an unaided attitude determination system based on GPS interferometry is examined using linear covariance analysis. The modelled system includes four GPS antennae onboard a gravity gradient stabilized spacecraft, specifically the Air Force's RADCAL satellite. The principal error sources are identified and modelled. The optimal system's sensitivities to these error sources are examined through an error budget and by varying system parameters. The effects of two satellite selection algorithms, Geometric and Attitude Dilution of Precision (GDOP and ADOP, respectively) are examined. The attitude performance of two optimal-suboptimal filters is also presented. Based on this analysis, the limiting factors in attitude accuracy are the knowledge of the relative antenna locations, the electrical path lengths from the antennae to the receiver, and the multipath environment. The performance of the system is found to be fairly insensitive to torque errors, orbital inclination, and the two satellite geometry figures-of-merit tested.

  13. EMMNet: Sensor Networking for Electricity Meter Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Ting Lin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  14. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang

    2010-01-01

    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  15. Identification of active fault using analysis of derivatives with vertical second based on gravity anomaly data (Case study: Seulimeum fault in Sumatera fault system)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hududillah, Teuku Hafid; Simanjuntak, Andrean V. H.; Husni, Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    Gravity is a non-destructive geophysical technique that has numerous application in engineering and environmental field like locating a fault zone. The purpose of this study is to spot the Seulimeum fault system in Iejue, Aceh Besar (Indonesia) by using a gravity technique and correlate the result with geologic map and conjointly to grasp a trend pattern of fault system. An estimation of subsurface geological structure of Seulimeum fault has been done by using gravity field anomaly data. Gravity anomaly data which used in this study is from Topex that is processed up to Free Air Correction. The step in the Next data processing is applying Bouger correction and Terrin Correction to obtain complete Bouger anomaly that is topographically dependent. Subsurface modeling is done using the Gav2DC for windows software. The result showed a low residual gravity value at a north half compared to south a part of study space that indicated a pattern of fault zone. Gravity residual was successfully correlate with the geologic map that show the existence of the Seulimeum fault in this study space. The study of earthquake records can be used for differentiating the active and non active fault elements, this gives an indication that the delineated fault elements are active.

  16. MULTICHANNEL DISTRIBUTION METER: A VERITABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    eobe

    Usually, commercial home owners preferred the installation of one or few .... communication (GSM) based solution were presented. The authors ... meters. The proposed meters in their work uses .... The most probable data entry component to ...

  17. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, ...

  18. Net metering study of switching effects on electromechanical meters[Report prepared for the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Overberghe, L. [Measurement Canada, London, ON (Canada)

    2006-03-03

    The feasibility of introducing net metering in the electricity sector was evaluated with particular reference to a project administered by Measurement Canada and Electro-Federation Canada (MicroPower Connect) in collaboration with Natural Resources Canada. The objective of the Measurement Canada Electricity Net Metering Project is to identify and eliminate the barriers introduced by the Electricity and Gas Inspection Act regarding the introduction of net metering. The purpose was to design a device that would allow rotation reversal in a residential electromechanical single phase meter. The device should approximate any fluctuations found in a typical net metering system. A series of tests were conducted to understand the influences, on errors, of forward-to-reverse and reverse-to-forward transitions, specifically to find evidence of error migration and mechanical stress. The project was designed to find and measure the effects of forward reverse switching on an electromechanical meter resulting from a change in energy flow. Twenty metres were calibrated in the forward direction in series from light load to high load. Power factor was not adjustable. Test points were then applied in both the forward and reverse directions. The exercise yielded individual errors which were aggregated to show average found errors after 3,000 transitions. Small shifts in errors were apparent and there was no evidence to support a disk flutter theory. refs., tabs., figs.

  19. A Small-Satellite Demonstrator for Generating Artificial Gravity in Space via a Tethered System

    OpenAIRE

    Mazzoleni, Andre; Hoffman, John

    2002-01-01

    It is well-known that prolonged exposure in humans to a microgravity environment leads to significant loss of bone and muscle mass; this presents a formidable obstacle to human exploration of space, particularly for missions requiring travel times of several months or more, such as a 6 to 9mon th trip to Mars. Artificial gravity may be produced by spinning a spacecraft about its center of mass, but since the g– force generated by rotation is equal to “omega-squared times r” (where omega is it...

  20. Solitons in Newtonian gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetz, G.

    1988-01-01

    It is shown that the plane-wave solutions for the equations governing the motion of a self-gravitating isothermal fluid in Newtonian hydrodynamics are generated by a sine-Gordon equation which is solvable by an 'inverse scattering' transformation. A transformation procedure is outlined by means of which one can construct solutions of the gravity system out of a pair of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation, which are interrelated via an auto-Baecklund transformation. In general the solutions to the gravity system are obtained in a parametric representation in terms of characteristic coordinates. All solutions of the gravity system generated by the one-and two-soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation can be constructed explicitly. These might provide models for the evolution of flat structures as they are predicted to arise in the process of galaxy formation. (author)

  1. Smart meter incorporating UWB technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khan, T.A.; Khan, A.B.; Babar, M.; Taj, T.A.

    2014-01-01

    Smart Meter is a key element in the evolving concept of Smart Grid, which plays an important role in interaction between the consumer and the supplier. In general, the smart meter is an intelligent digital energy meter that measures the consumption of electrical energy and provides other additional

  2. Net metering: zero electricity bill

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangi, A.; Khan, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Worldwide move towards renewable energy sources, environmental concerns and decentralization of the power sector have made net metering an attractive option for power generation at small scale. This paper discusses the net metering, economical issues of renewable sources in Pakistan, technical aspects, installation suitability according to varying terrain, existing utility rules and formulation of legislation for net metering making it economically attractive. (author)

  3. Good standards for smart meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenkamp, R.A.; Huitema, G.B.

    2012-01-01

    This paper examines what lessons can be learned from the rollout of smart meters in the Netherlands to improve the European smart meter standardization. This study is based on the case of the Dutch meter rollout which preparations started in 2005 but finally was delayed until 2011 by governmental

  4. Integration of micro-gravity and geodetic data to constrain shallow system mass changes at Krafla Volcano, N Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Zeeuw-van Dalfsen, Elske; Rymer, Hazel; Williams-Jones, Glyn; Sturkell, Erik; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2006-04-01

    New and previously published micro-gravity data are combined with InSAR data, precise levelling and GPS measurements to produce a model for the processes operating at Krafla volcano, 20 years after its most recent eruption. The data have been divided into two periods: from 1990 to 1995 and from 1996 to 2003 and show that the rate of deflation at Krafla is decaying exponentially. The net micro-gravity change at the centre of the caldera is shown, using the measured free air gradient, to be -85 μGal for the first and -100 μGal for the second period. After consideration of the effects of water extraction by the geothermal power station within the caldera, the net gravity decreases are -73±17 μGal for the first and -65±17 μGal for the second period. These decreases are interpreted in terms of magma drainage. Following a Mogi point source model, we calculate the mass decrease to be ˜2×1010 kg/year reflecting a drainage rate of ˜0.23 m3/s, similar to the ˜0.13 m3/s drainage rate previously found at Askja volcano, N. Iceland. Based on the evidence for deeper magma reservoirs and the similarity between the two volcanic systems, we suggest a pressure-link between Askja and Krafla at deeper levels (at the lower crust or the crust-mantle boundary). After the Krafla fires, co-rifting pressure decrease of a deep source at Krafla stimulated the subsequent inflow of magma, eventually affecting conditions along the plate boundary in N. Iceland, as far away as Askja. We anticipate that the pressure of the deeper reservoir at Krafla will reach a critical value and eventually magma will rise from there to the shallow magma chamber, possibly initiating a new rifting episode. We have demonstrated that by examining micro-gravity and geodetic data, our knowledge of active volcanic systems can be significantly improved.

  5. Design and performance of a one square meter proportional counter system for hard X-ray astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; La Padula, C.D.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, F.; Ubertini, P.

    1983-01-01

    A versatile balloon borne hard X-ray experiment with a very large area (approx.= 1.1 m 2 ) and high spectral resolution has been developed for the study of the hard X-ray sources in the energy range 20-180 keV. The telescope consists of four multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) that have a geometrical sensitive area of 2700 cm 2 each. The detector system has a sensitivity of approx.= 10 -5 photons cm -2 s -1 keV -1 during a typical balloon observation. A background rate of approx.= 3 x 10 -4 counts cm -2 s -1 keV -1 was observed in the operative energy range at 2.4 gm/cm 2 ceiling altitude and geographic latitude of 38 0 N. The design details, fabrication and flight performance of the instrument are briefly discussed with reference to the effectiveness of background reduction and other test parameters. (orig.)

  6. Performance of the Zeeman analyzer system of the McDonald Observatory 2.7 meter telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogt, S. S.; Tull, R. G.; Kelton, P. W.

    1980-01-01

    The paper describes a multichannel photoelectric Zeeman analyzer at the coude spectrograph of the McDonald 2.7 m reflector. A comparison of Lick and McDonald observations of HD 153882 reveals no significant difference in slopes or zero points of the two magnetic fields indicating that the systematic scale difference of 30-40% is probably instrumental in origin. Observations of the magnetic variable beta Cor Bor revealed a more nearly sinusoidal magnetic curve with less internal scatter than the photographically determined field measures of the Lick and Mauna Kea Zeeman systems. Investigation of periodicity in the secularly varying magnetic minima of beta Cor Bor did not yield evidence of previously noted periodicities other than that expected from the time structure of the data sampling.

  7. Use of neutron scattering meter to detect soil moisture distribution under trickle irrigation system in sandy soil of inshas, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-moniem, M.; El-gendy, R.W.; Gadalla, A.M.; Hamdy, A.; Zeedan, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the soil moisture distribution under different quantities of irrigation water in cultivated sandy soil with squash, using drip irrigation system. This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Three rates of applied irrigation water (100, 75 and 50 % ETc) were used. Three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distances from the emitter between drippers and laterals lines) were chosen to measure soil moisture contents (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that the maximum width, in onion shape of water distribution under drip irrigation system, was at 45 cm depth at 0 site. From the study of soil moisture distribution, the overlapping between each two neighbor drippers played a good role in increasing soil moisture content at the 25 site rather than the rest sites. Water distribution was affected with plant location within the wet area as well as the used irrigation water quantities. Water distribution between drippers and laterals did not differ much approximately. The highest soil moisture depletion was at 12.5 site (between drippers) for 100 and 75 % ETc rather than the rest treatments. 100 % ETc treatment introduced the highest soil moisture depletion in the first stage of plant growth season for the three sites (between drippers and laterals). In the last stage of plant growth season, water re-distribution phenomena resulted from the changeable total hydraulic potential, which played important role for interpretation of results

  8. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, T.R.; Ross, H.H.

    1976-01-01

    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to ensure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit. The system was designed for readout of a fluorescence analyzer for uranium analysis

  9. A radon meter chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsson, R.

    1990-01-01

    The meter consists of a cylindrical house with two openings, at the ends, one of which is equipped with an alpha particle detector and the other covered with a metal net. The house is manufactured in an isolating material e.g. plastic, with a metallic layer applied to all internal surfaces. The metallic layer and net are kept at a positive electric potential, compared to the alpha detector, in order to attract the radon daughters to the detector and achieve a high efficiency. (L.E.)

  10. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...

  11. Wuhan University Deep-space Orbit Determination and Gravity Recovery System(WUDOGS and Its Application Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YE Mao

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available WUDOGS(Wuhan University deep-space orbit determination and gravity recovery system is a software system designed for deep spacecraft precise orbit determination and planetary gravity recovery, developed independently at Wuhan University. WUDOGS now has the function for Lunar and Mars spacecraft precision orbit determination. Its design pattern and main function are briefly introduced. The cross verification test(CVT between WUDOGS and state of the art planetary precise orbit determination software GEODYN-Ⅱ are elaborated. The results show that:①for orbit propagation, with all the same forces and other configuration, the predicted orbit difference in R,T,N directions are less than 0.3 mm for one month arc, 5×10-3 mm for 2 days arc, compared with GEODYN-Ⅱ;②the difference RMS of computed values of observables for two-way range and two-way range rate is at levels of 0.06 mm and 0.002 mm/s respectively;③for Chinese Chang'E-1 POD, the reconstructed orbit difference between WUDOGS and GEODYN-Ⅱ is at 2 cm level, for ESA MEX POD, the reconstructed orbit difference between WUDOGS and ESA is at 25 m level. Current developing situation of WUDOGS and comparison with international research level show that WUDOGS has a good application prospect, which will be important for meeting the demand of Chinese future planetary exploration and the development of deep space spacecraft POD software.

  12. Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.

  13. Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. F. McKenzie

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.

  14. Design and performance of a one square meter proportional counter system for hard X-ray astronomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazzano, A.; Boccaccini, L.; La Padula, C.D.; Mastropietro, M.; Patriarca, R.; Polcaro, F.; Ubertini, P. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale); Manchanda, R.K. (Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Frascati (Italy). Lab. di Astrofisica Spaziale; Tata Inst. of Fundamental Research, Bombay (India))

    1983-09-01

    A versatile balloon borne hard X-ray experiment with a very large area (approx.= 1.1 m/sup 2/) and high spectral resolution has been developed for the study of the hard X-ray sources in the energy range 20-180 keV. The telescope consists of four multiwire proportional chambers (MWPC) that have a geometrical sensitive area of 2700 cm/sup 2/ each. The detector system has a sensitivity of approx.= 10/sup -5/ photons cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ keV/sup -1/ during a typical balloon observation. A background rate of approx.= 3 x 10/sup -4/ counts cm/sup -2/ s/sup -1/ keV/sup -1/ was observed in the operative energy range at 2.4 gm/cm/sup 2/ ceiling altitude and geographic latitude of 38/sup 0/N. The design details, fabrication and flight performance of the instrument are briefly discussed with reference to the effectiveness of background reduction and other test parameters.

  15. FY 1998 report on the verification survey of geothermal survey technology, etc./Development of the reservoir fluctuation survey method (Summary). Theme 2. Development of the gravity survey method; 1998 nendo chinetsu tansa gijutsu nado kensho chosa choryuso hendo tansaho kaihatsu hokokusho (yoyaku). 2. Juryoku tansaho kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    As to the construction of a network system for gravity measurement, the continued observation of groundwater level was carried out as a 24-hour observation by setting water-level gauges at 10 wells. At one of the wells (No. 5), the 24-hour continued measurement was conducted for gravity as well as groundwater level. At the 9 wells except No. 5 well, the traveling measurement of gravity was made. In relation to the gravity measurement, the periodic measurement of three times a year was conducted at 138 measuring points. And at the same time, the elevation at measuring point was asked by a combination of GPS measuring and level measuring. Concerning the borehole gravity meter, the existing gravity calculation program was revised, and the model calculation of borehole gravity values was made. In the analysis/evaluation, as to the gravity fluctuation analysis, relations were studied between the groundwater level fluctuation and gravity fluctuation. Also conducted were study of effects of the unsaturated zone density fluctuation on gravity and selection of a measuring method of the soil water content saturation degree. In regard to the study of the precise gravity measuring method, the vertical gravity gradient was measured, and the correction method was studied. Further, the development was made of tidal models which are adaptable to the Yanaizu-Nishiyama area. (NEDO)

  16. Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices in the f-plane shallow water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices is investigated numerically in a rotating shallow water system in order to focus on cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry at different values of the Rossby number (Ro). A numerical study is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain to estimate the gravity wave flux with high accuracy. Continuous gravity wave radiation is observed in three stages of vortical flows: co-rotating of the vortices, merging of the vortices, and unsteady motion of the merged vortex. A cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry appears at all stages at smaller Ro (≤20). Gravity waves from anticyclones are always larger than those from cyclones and have a local maximum at smaller Ro (∼2) compared with that for an idealized case of a co-rotating vortex pair with a constant rotation rate. The source originating in the Coriolis acceleration has a key role in cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry in gravity waves. An additional important factor is that at later stages, the merged axisymmetric anticyclone rotates faster than the elliptical cyclone due to the effect of the Rossby deformation radius, since a rotation rate higher than the inertial cutoff frequency is required to radiate gravity waves

  17. Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices in the f-plane shallow water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko, E-mail: nori@phys-h.keio.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2015-12-15

    Inertia-gravity wave radiation from the merging of two co-rotating vortices is investigated numerically in a rotating shallow water system in order to focus on cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry at different values of the Rossby number (Ro). A numerical study is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain to estimate the gravity wave flux with high accuracy. Continuous gravity wave radiation is observed in three stages of vortical flows: co-rotating of the vortices, merging of the vortices, and unsteady motion of the merged vortex. A cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry appears at all stages at smaller Ro (≤20). Gravity waves from anticyclones are always larger than those from cyclones and have a local maximum at smaller Ro (∼2) compared with that for an idealized case of a co-rotating vortex pair with a constant rotation rate. The source originating in the Coriolis acceleration has a key role in cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry in gravity waves. An additional important factor is that at later stages, the merged axisymmetric anticyclone rotates faster than the elliptical cyclone due to the effect of the Rossby deformation radius, since a rotation rate higher than the inertial cutoff frequency is required to radiate gravity waves.

  18. Gravity model improvement investigation. [improved gravity model for determination of ocean geoid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siry, J. W.; Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.; Vonbun, F. F.

    1973-01-01

    This investigation was undertaken to improve the gravity model and hence the ocean geoid. A specific objective is the determination of the gravity field and geoid with a space resolution of approximately 5 deg and a height resolution of the order of five meters. The concept of the investigation is to utilize both GEOS-C altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data to achieve the gravity model improvement. It is also planned to determine the geoid in selected regions with a space resolution of about a degree and a height resolution of the order of a meter or two. The short term objectives include the study of the gravity field in the GEOS-C calibration area outlined by Goddard, Bermuda, Antigua, and Cape Kennedy, and also in the eastern Pacific area which is viewed by ATS-F.

  19. Cosmological tests of modified gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koyama, Kazuya

    2016-04-01

    We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.

  20. Gravity and Magnetic Anomaly Interpretations and 2.5D Cross-Section Models over the Border Ranges Fault System and Aleutian Subduction Zone, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankhemthong, N.; Doser, D. I.; Baker, M. R.; Kaip, G.; Jones, S.; Eslick, B. E.; Budhathoki, P.

    2011-12-01

    Quaternary glacial covers and lack of dense geophysical data on the Kenai Peninsula cause a location and geometry of the Border Ranges fault system (BRFS) within a recent forearc-accretionary boundary of Aleutian subduction zone in southern Alaska are unclear. Using new ~1,300 gravity collections within the Anchorage and Kenai Peninsula regions complied with prior 1997 gravity and aeromagnetic data help us better imaging these fault and the subduction structures. Cook Inlet forearc basin is corresponded by deep gravity anomaly lows; basin boundaries are characterized by a strong gravity gradient, where are considered to be traces of Border Ranges fault system on the east and Castle Mountain and Bruin Bay fault system on the west and northwest of the forearc basin respectively. Gravity anomaly highs over accreted rocks generally increase southeastward to the Aleutian trench, but show a gravity depression over the Kenai Mountains region. The lineament between gravity high and low in the same terrenes over the Kenai Peninsula is may be another evidence to determine the Southern Edge of the Yakutat Microplate (SEY) as inferred by Eberhart-Phillips et al. (2006). Our 2.5-D models illustrate the main fault of the BRFS dips steeply toward the west with a downslip displacement. Gravity and Magnetic anomaly highs, on the east of the BRFS, probably present a slice of the ultramafic complex emplaced by faults along the boundary of the forearc basin and accretionary wedge terranes. Another magnetic high beneath the basin in the southern forearc basin support a serpentiznied body inferred by Saltus et al. (2001), with a decreasing size toward the north. Regional density-gravity models show the Pacific subducting slab beneath the foreacre-arc teranes with a gentle and flatted dip where the subducting plate is located in north of SEY and dips more steeply where it is located on the south of SEY. The gravity depression over the accreted terrene can be explained by a density low

  1. Simulating Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipinos, Savas

    2010-01-01

    This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…

  2. Cellular gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)

    1999-01-01

    textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on

  3. 3D gravity modeling of the Corrientes province (NE Argentina) and its importance to the Guarani Aquifer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mira, Andrés; Gómez Dacal, María Laura; Tocho, Claudia; Vives, Luis

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a geological model of Corrientes province (Argentina) based on Bouguer gravity anomaly data, obtained in 2073 measurement points. To build the model, the IGMAS + interactive program was used. Two areas of approximately 135,000 km2 were modeled in this study. The selection of these areas was based on the sectors where the largest number of gravity anomaly measurements was made and other type of data was available to perform the parameterization (i.e, lithology profiles in boreholes, seismic profiles and audio-magnetotelluric AMT soundings). The initial geological configuration proposed was composed by four layers: basement, sediments (Paleozoic-Lower Cretaceous), basalts (Serra Geral Group, Lower Cretaceous) and post-basaltic sediments. The result shows a basement compartmentalized in structural blocks separated by large faults. The connection of Asunción and Río Grande Arches is confirmed along a structural high that crosses Corrientes province from SE to NW. The basaltic layer shows lateral changes in its thickness, due to faulting, almost disappearing on the NW of Corrientes. This structural configuration has a special hydrogeological importance because it produces the rise of the Guaraní Aquifer System sedimentary series near the surface and the intense fracture network makes this area prone to local recharge and regional discharge.

  4. Is Gravity an Entropic Force?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Gao

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable connections between gravity and thermodynamics seem to imply that gravity is not fundamental but emergent, and in particular, as Verlinde suggested, gravity is probably an entropic force. In this paper, we will argue that the idea of gravity as an entropic force is debatable. It is shown that there is no convincing analogy between gravity and entropic force in Verlinde’s example. Neither holographic screen nor test particle satisfies all requirements for the existence of entropic force in a thermodynamics system. Furthermore, we show that the entropy increase of the screen is not caused by its statistical tendency to increase entropy as required by the existence of entropic force, but in fact caused by gravity. Therefore, Verlinde’s argument for the entropic origin of gravity is problematic. In addition, we argue that the existence of a minimum size of spacetime, together with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle in quantum theory, may imply the fundamental existence of gravity as a geometric property of spacetime. This may provide a further support for the conclusion that gravity is not an entropic force.

  5. Public space and ecology in Medellin: of the indexes of square meters for inhabitant, to the system of urban green spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Velez Restrepo, Luis Anibal

    2002-01-01

    This paper constitutes a critic for green urban areas management from the landscape ecology perspective. In the context of urban public space as a reference, the decree No.1504 (1998) about urban public space in the Colombian land planning, and the agreement No.62 (1999) for the Medellin land planning 2000-2010. In the first part the conceptual limitations (from the ecological point of view) of both the decree and land planning in relation lo green areas and city-nature relationships, are highlighted. Green areas are being treated, in fact, as accessory to the urban public spaces and nowadays constitute a functionally disarticulated complex. In the second part the Medellin land planning is examined in detail to show the above-mentioned limitations especially in the absence of an ecological perspective of the urban landscape together with a lack of articulation of private open spaces and green areas. In the third part the new environmental functions of urban green areas are considered, as well as the importance of taking into account and making feasible the interactions among them, under an ecological functioning perspective. Further than an index of square meters per inhabitant. A system of green urban areas and management policies oriented to a greater naturalization are needed. The last part suggests ways of incorporating ecological criteria to the urban environmental management to the urban public space and of course to the planning and management of Medellin urban green areas and its metropolitan area

  6. Radiation dose rate meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kronenberg, S.; Siebentritt, C.R.

    1981-01-01

    A combined dose rate meter and charger unit therefor which does not require the use of batteries but on the other hand produces a charging potential by means of a piezoelectric cylinder which is struck by a manually triggered hammer mechanism. A tubular type electrometer is mounted in a portable housing which additionally includes a geiger-muller (Gm) counter tube and electronic circuitry coupled to the electrometer for providing multi-mode operation. In one mode of operation, an rc circuit of predetermined time constant is connected to a storage capacitor which serves as a timed power source for the gm tube, providing a measurement in terms of dose rate which is indicated by the electrometer. In another mode, the electrometer indicates individual counts

  7. Case study in Venezuela : performance of multiphase meter in extra heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marin, A. [Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela); Bornia, O.; Pinguet, B. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2008-10-15

    The performance of a multiphase meter that combines Venturi and multi energy gamma rays was investigated during operation in an extra heavy oil field in Venezuela. The Orocual field in Monagas is one of the most diverse oilfields in Venezuela. It produces gas condensate, light and medium oil and has recently started to produce from a heavy and extra-heavy oil reservoir, with a gravity between 8.6 and 11 API and a viscosity range from 6 Pa.s to more than 20 Pa.s at line conditions. Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) is currently using cold production systems in this field. PDVSA attempted to estimate the liquid flow rate using conventional storage tanks but was unable to evaluate the gas production in such an environment of low GOR with emulsion, large amounts of foam and high viscosity. Since the density of heavy oil is close to the density of water, gravity separation cannot be applied. Also, since heavy oil is very viscous, proper separation requires a long retention time, which is not feasible in terms of space or economy. In addition, gas bubbles could not flow freely and remained as a gas phase trapped inside the liquid, resulting in an overestimation of some of the liquid flow rate. In order to measure the field's oil, water and gas flow rates, PDVSA tried several multiphase meters but found that a Venturi and multi energy gamma ray combination was the only solution able to accurately measure multiphase flow in its extra heavy oil. A test demonstrated that, compared to a tank system, the overall uncertainty of the Venturi combination was better than 2 per cent. This extended the operating envelope for PDVSA for using this multiphase metering technology, providing the capability to monitor and optimize in real-time the production in this extra heavy oil field. 15 refs., 10 figs.

  8. Solar System constraints on massless scalar-tensor gravity with positive coupling constant upon cosmological evolution of the scalar field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, David; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-09-01

    Scalar-tensor theories of gravity modify general relativity by introducing a scalar field that couples nonminimally to the metric tensor, while satisfying the weak-equivalence principle. These theories are interesting because they have the potential to simultaneously suppress modifications to Einstein's theory on Solar System scales, while introducing large deviations in the strong field of neutron stars. Scalar-tensor theories can be classified through the choice of conformal factor, a scalar that regulates the coupling between matter and the metric in the Einstein frame. The class defined by a Gaussian conformal factor with a negative exponent has been studied the most because it leads to spontaneous scalarization (i.e. the sudden activation of the scalar field in neutron stars), which consequently leads to large deviations from general relativity in the strong field. This class, however, has recently been shown to be in conflict with Solar System observations when accounting for the cosmological evolution of the scalar field. We here study whether this remains the case when the exponent of the conformal factor is positive, as well as in another class of theories defined by a hyperbolic conformal factor. We find that in both of these scalar-tensor theories, Solar System tests are passed only in a very small subset of coupling parameter space, for a large set of initial conditions compatible with big bang nucleosynthesis. However, while we find that it is possible for neutron stars to scalarize, one must carefully select the coupling parameter to do so, and even then, the scalar charge is typically 2 orders of magnitude smaller than in the negative-exponent case. Our study suggests that future work on scalar-tensor gravity, for example in the context of tests of general relativity with gravitational waves from neutron star binaries, should be carried out within the positive coupling parameter class.

  9. Diagnosis of cystic fibrosis with chloride meter (Sherwood M926S chloride analyzer®) and sweat test analysis system (CFΔ collection system®) compared to the Gibson Cooke method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emiralioğlu, Nagehan; Özçelik, Uğur; Yalçın, Ebru; Doğru, Deniz; Kiper, Nural

    2016-01-01

    Sweat test with Gibson Cooke (GC) method is the diagnostic gold standard for cystic fibrosis (CF). Recently, alternative methods have been introduced to simplify both the collection and analysis of sweat samples. Our aim was to compare sweat chloride values obtained by GC method with other sweat test methods in patients diagnosed with CF and whose CF diagnosis had been ruled out. We wanted to determine if the other sweat test methods could reliably identify patients with CF and differentiate them from healthy subjects. Chloride concentration was measured with GC method, chloride meter and sweat test analysis system; also conductivity was determined with sweat test analysis system. Forty eight patients with CF and 82 patients without CF underwent the sweat test, showing median sweat chloride values 98.9 mEq/L with GC method, 101 mmol/L with chloride meter, 87.8 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. In non-CF group, median sweat chloride values were 16.8 mEq/L with GC method, 10.5 mmol/L with chloride meter, and 15.6 mmol/L with sweat test analysis system. Median conductivity value was 107.3 mmol/L in CF group and 32.1 mmol/L in non CF group. There was a strong positive correlation between GC method and the other sweat test methods with a statistical significance (r=0.85) in all subjects. Sweat chloride concentration and conductivity by other sweat test methods highly correlate with the GC method. We think that the other sweat test equipments can be used as reliably as the classic GC method to diagnose or exclude CF.

  10. How to use your peak flow meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak ... 2014:chap 55. National Asthma Education and Prevention Program website. How to use a peak flow meter. ...

  11. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isham, C.

    1989-01-01

    Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)

  12. Quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.

    1984-01-01

    This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981

  13. A mathematical model to optimize the drain phase in gravity-based peritoneal dialysis systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akonur, Alp; Lo, Ying-Cheng; Cizman, Borut

    2010-01-01

    Use of patient-specific drain-phase parameters has previously been suggested to improve peritoneal dialysis (PD) adequacy. Improving management of the drain period may also help to minimize intraperitoneal volume (IPV). A typical gravity-based drain profile consists of a relatively constant initial fast-flow period, followed by a transition period and a decaying slow-flow period. That profile was modeled using the equation VD(t) = (V(D0) - Q(MAX) x t) xphi + (V(D0) x e(-alphat)) x (1 - phi), where V(D)(t) is the time-dependent dialysate volume; V(D0), the dialysate volume at the start of the drain; Q(MAX), the maximum drain flow rate; alpha, the exponential drain constant; and phi, the unit step function with respect to the flow transition. We simulated the effects of the assumed patient-specific maximum drain flow (Q(MAX)) and transition volume (psi), and the peritoneal volume percentage when transition occurs,for fixed device-specific drain parameters. Average patient transport parameters were assumed during 5-exchange therapy with 10 L of PD solution. Changes in therapy performance strongly depended on the drain parameters. Comparing 400 mL/85% with 200 mL/65% (Q(MAX/psi), drain time (7.5 min vs. 13.5 min) and IPV (2769 mL vs. 2355 mL) increased when the initial drain flow was low and the transition quick. Ultrafiltration and solute clearances remained relatively similar. Such differences were augmented up to a drain time of 22 minutes and an IPV of more than 3 L when Q(MAX) was 100 mL/min. The ability to model individual drain conditions together with water and solute transport may help to prevent patient discomfort with gravity-based PD. However, it is essential to note that practical difficulties such as displaced catheters and obstructed flow paths cause variability in drain characteristics even for the same patient, limiting the clinical applicability of this model.

  14. Contravariant gravity on Poisson manifolds and Einstein gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaneko, Yukio; Watamura, Satoshi; Muraki, Hisayoshi

    2017-01-01

    A relation between gravity on Poisson manifolds proposed in Asakawa et al (2015 Fortschr. Phys . 63 683–704) and Einstein gravity is investigated. The compatibility of the Poisson and Riemann structures defines a unique connection, the contravariant Levi-Civita connection, and leads to the idea of the contravariant gravity. The Einstein–Hilbert-type action yields an equation of motion which is written in terms of the analog of the Einstein tensor, and it includes couplings between the metric and the Poisson tensor. The study of the Weyl transformation reveals properties of those interactions. It is argued that this theory can have an equivalent description as a system of Einstein gravity coupled to matter. As an example, it is shown that the contravariant gravity on a two-dimensional Poisson manifold can be described by a real scalar field coupled to the metric in a specific manner. (paper)

  15. 77 FR 40586 - Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ...-01] Draft NIST Interagency Report (NISTIR) 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... Technology (NIST) seeks comments on Draft NISTIR 7823, Advanced Metering Infrastructure Smart Meter... conformance test requirements for the firmware upgradeability process for the Advanced Metering Infrastructure...

  16. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur

    2016-02-01

    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  17. Analysis of Spring Development and Gravity Flow System to Capture Water for Local Communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adiningrum Cita

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Springs as water sources are relatively inexpensive but highly susceptible to contamination since they are fed by shallow groundwater. Proper spring development helps protect the water from contamination. This study presents an analysis and design of spring development including the type of broncaptering/collecting wall, the dimension for the spring box and the conduction line. In addition, a guideline on “Springwater Construction” published by the Ministry of Public Works has been used in this design. A concentrated spring in Wates, Magelang, Central Java is used as a case study. The design calls for the collection of water from a spring using sets of broncaptering and a spring box, then piping it by gravity a distance of 5.1 kilometers to Van Lith Senior High School. Analysis was done using a manual calculation, which is subsequently compared to the result of HYDROFLO 3 software. Results show that the spring with a flow rate of 0.12 litre/s (manual and 0.17 litre/s (software will be collected into a 5 m3 volume of spring box. The spring box with a +543 m water surface elevation is being supplied to Van Lith +384 m ground elevation using a uniform PVC pipelines with a ¾ inch of diameter.

  18. Research on Operation Assessment Method for Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Huang, Rui; Shen, Liman; chen, Hao; Xiong, Dezhi; Xiao, Xiangqi; Liu, Mouhai; Xu, Renheng

    2018-03-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  19. A Method of Evaluating Operation of Electric Energy Meter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiangqun; Li, Tianyang; Cao, Fei; Chu, Pengfei; Zhao, Xinwang; Huang, Rui; Liu, Liping; Zhang, Chenglin

    2018-05-01

    The existing electric energy meter rotation maintenance strategy regularly checks the electric energy meter and evaluates the state. It only considers the influence of time factors, neglects the influence of other factors, leads to the inaccuracy of the evaluation, and causes the waste of resources. In order to evaluate the running state of the electric energy meter in time, a method of the operation evaluation of the electric energy meter is proposed. The method is based on extracting the existing data acquisition system, marketing business system and metrology production scheduling platform that affect the state of energy meters, and classified into error stability, operational reliability, potential risks and other factors according to the influencing factors, based on the above basic test score, inspecting score, monitoring score, score of family defect detection. Then, according to the evaluation model according to the scoring, we evaluate electric energy meter operating state, and finally put forward the corresponding maintenance strategy of rotation.

  20. Wanted: competitive metering infrastructure. Metering must be automated in a high grade; Gesucht: wettbewerbsfaehige Metering-Infrastruktur. Metering muss hochgradig automatisiert werden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller-Elschner, C. [T-Systems Enterprise Services GmbH, Bonn (Germany). Business Development und Marketing

    2008-04-21

    Accurate on-time consumption metering and data transmission are increasingly important as energy markets are being deregulated. Measuring and information systems combine measurements with intelligent modules for automatic transmission of consumption information. A meaningful cost-benefit comparision results only when the total system is considered. Telecommunication companies as ICT service systems and service sectors can do a clear contribution to the total system. (orig./GL)

  1. Two-channel neutron boron meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yongqing; Yin Guowei; Chai Songshan; Deng Zhaoping; Zhou Bin

    1993-09-01

    The two-channel neutron boron meter is a continuous on-line measuring device to measure boron concentration of primary cooling liquid of reactors. The neutron-leakage-compensation method is taken in the measuring mechanism. In the primary measuring configuration, the mini-boron-water annulus and two-channel and central calibration loop are adopted. The calibration ring and constant-temperature of boron-water can be remotely controlled by secondary instruments. With the microcomputer data processing system the boron concentration is automatically measured and calibrated in on-line mode. The meter has many advantages such as high accuracy, fast response, multi-applications, high reliability and convenience

  2. A multivariate mixed model system for wood specific gravity and moisture content of planted loblolly pine stands in the southern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finto Antony; Laurence R. Schimleck; Alex Clark; Richard F. Daniels

    2012-01-01

    Specific gravity (SG) and moisture content (MC) both have a strong influence on the quantity and quality of wood fiber. We proposed a multivariate mixed model system to model the two properties simultaneously. Disk SG and MC at different height levels were measured from 3 trees in 135 stands across the natural range of loblolly pine and the stand level values were used...

  3. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie

    2015-01-01

    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40–180 km h −1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology. (paper)

  4. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C; Frijns, A J H; Mandamparambil, R; Zevenbergen, M A G; den Toonder, J M J

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30-250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  5. An evaporation based digital microflow meter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nie, C.; Frijns, A.J.H.; Mandamparambil, R.; Zevenbergen, M.A.G.; Toonder, den J.M.J.

    2015-01-01

    In this work, we present a digital microflow meter operating in the range 30–250 nl min-1 for water. The principle is based on determining the evaporation rate of the liquid via reading the number of wetted pore array structures in a microfluidic system, through which continuous evaporation takes

  6. Effect of operation parameters on the flux stabilization of gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration system for decentralized water supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaobin; Ding, An; Qu, Fangshu; Jia, Ruibao; Chang, Haiqing; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Bin; Li, Guibai; Liang, Heng

    2016-08-01

    A pilot-scale gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration system under low gravitational pressure without any pre-treatment, backwash, flushing, or chemical cleaning was carried out to investigate the effect of operation parameters (including operation pressure, aeration mode, and intermittent filtration) on the effluent quality and permeability development. The results revealed that GDM system exhibited an efficient performance for the removal of suspended substances and organic compounds. The stabilization of flux occurred and the average values of stable flux were 6.6, 8.1, and 8.6 Lm(-2) h(-1) for pressures of 65, 120, and 200 mbar, respectively. In contrast, flux stabilization was not observed under continuous and intermittent aeration conditions. However, aeration (especially continuous aeration) was effective to improve flux and alleviate membrane fouling during 1-month operation. Moreover, intermittent filtration would influence the stabilization of permeate flux, resulting in a higher stable flux (ranging from 6 to 13 Lm(-2) h(-1)). The stable flux significantly improved with the increase of intermittent period. Additionally, GDM systems exhibited an efficient recovery of flux after simple physical cleaning and the analyses of resistance reversibility demonstrated that most of the total resistance was hydraulic reversible resistance (50-75 %). Therefore, it is expected that the results of this study can develop strategies to increase membrane permeability and reduce energy consumption in GDM systems for decentralized water supply.

  7. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2015-01-01

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utilities improve the management of energy and services, and help customers save money. As this regard, the paper focuses on building an innovative software solution to streamline smart meter data analytic, aiming at dealing......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  8. Proceedings of the 2006 smart metering conference and expo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-01-01

    Ontario's smart metering program was launched as part of a general demand response management strategy to improve energy conservation in the province. Smart metering will help consumers to control their electricity bills through conservation and demand response, and will allow consumers to better manage their energy consumption and use it more effectively during cheaper, off-peak times of day. Smart metering systems measure how much electricity a customer uses on an hourly basis, and data is transferred daily to local electricity distributors. Toronto Hydro will have close to 200,000 smart meters installed by the end of 2006. By 2010, Toronto will be North America's largest urban centre to have made the full transition to smart metering technology across its entire base. This conference provided an update of Toronto Hydro's smart metering project, as well as details of their demand response program. Presentations were given by a variety of experts in information technology as well as electric power industry leaders North American demand and response metering strategies were reviewed, as well as various initiatives in advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). Security risks associated with smart metering environments were reviewed. An evaluation of the current regulatory environment was presented along with a discussion of smart metering standards and compatibility issues. New metering technologies were presented as well as various associated demand side management tools. Smart metering pilot programs and initiatives were discussed, and best practices in smart metering were evaluated. Twenty-nine presentations were given at the conference, 13 of which have been indexed separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs

  9. Noncommutative gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schupp, P.

    2007-01-01

    Heuristic arguments suggest that the classical picture of smooth commutative spacetime should be replaced by some kind of quantum / noncommutative geometry at length scales and energies where quantum as well as gravitational effects are important. Motivated by this idea much research has been devoted to the study of quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetimes. More recently the focus has started to shift back to gravity in this context. We give an introductory overview to the formulation of general relativity in a noncommutative spacetime background and discuss the possibility of exact solutions. (author)

  10. Advanced Metering Installations – A Perspective from Federal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earni, Shankar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area

    2016-05-02

    This report is intended to provide guidance to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies to highlight some of the existing practices related to advanced building metering systems. This study identified some of the existing actions related to advanced meter data and proposes how advanced metered data can be employed to develop robust cost effective measurement and verification (M&V) strategies. This report proposes an integrated framework on how advanced meter data can be used to identify energy conservation opportunities and to develop proactive M&V strategies to ensure that the savings for energy projects are being realized. This information will help improve metering, feedback, and dashboard implementations for reducing energy use at DOE facilities, based on lessons learned from various advanced metering implementations.

  11. Field estimates of gravity terrain corrections and Y2K-compatible method to convert from gravity readings with multiple base stations to tide- and long-term drift-corrected observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plouff, Donald

    2000-01-01

    Gravity observations are directly made or are obtained from other sources by the U.S. Geological Survey in order to prepare maps of the anomalous gravity field and consequently to interpret the subsurface distribution of rock densities and associated lithologic or geologic units. Observations are made in the field with gravity meters at new locations and at reoccupations of previously established gravity "stations." This report illustrates an interactively-prompted series of steps needed to convert gravity "readings" to values that are tied to established gravity datums and includes computer programs to implement those steps. Inasmuch as individual gravity readings have small variations, gravity-meter (instrument) drift may not be smoothly variable, and acommodations may be needed for ties to previously established stations, the reduction process is iterative. Decision-making by the program user is prompted by lists of best values and graphical displays. Notes about irregularities of topography, which affect the value of observed gravity but are not shown in sufficient detail on topographic maps, must be recorded in the field. This report illustrates ways to record field notes (distances, heights, and slope angles) and includes computer programs to convert field notes to gravity terrain corrections. This report includes approaches that may serve as models for other applications, for example: portrayal of system flow; style of quality control to document and validate computer applications; lack of dependence on proprietary software except source code compilation; method of file-searching with a dwindling list; interactive prompting; computer code to write directly in the PostScript (Adobe Systems Incorporated) printer language; and high-lighting the four-digit year on the first line of time-dependent data sets for assured Y2K compatibility. Computer source codes provided are written in the Fortran scientific language. In order for the programs to operate, they first

  12. TRACG prediction of gravity-driven cooling system response in the SBWR/GIST facility LOCA tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alamgir, M.; Andersen, J.G.M.; Yang, A.I.; Shiralkar, B.S.

    1990-01-01

    General Electric (BE) Nuclear Energy has initiated work on technology programs in support of the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) plants under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Work has been performed under the advanced boiling water reactor (ABWT) design verification program and the simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) program. The objective of the SBWR program is to develop the key features of a simplified reactor design. The gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) is an important feature of the SBWR design. The main objectives of the GDCS test program at GE were to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the GDCS concept by performing a section-scaled integrated systems test of the SBWR design and to provide a data base to qualify the TRACG computer code for use in SBWR accident analysis. This paper describes the qualification of TRACG for GDCS applications. The calculational capability and analytical models of TRACG are tested by performing assessment analysis for five loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) tests in the GDCS Integrated Systems Test (GIST) facility. The results of the qualification comparisons are presented and TRACG application ranges are discussed

  13. Mobile metering. Efficient charging infrastructure. Charging stations in the public, semi-public and private room; Mobile Metering. Effiziente Ladeinfrastruktur. Ladepunkte im oeffentlichen, halboeffentlichen und privaten Raum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoerhammer, Marcus; Zayer, Peter [Voltaris GmbH, Merzig (Germany); Hechtfischer, Knut; Pawlitschek, Frank [Ubitricity Gesellschaft fuer Verteilte Energiesysteme mbH, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-01-28

    Mobile metering shifts the power metering and data communication from the stationary charging stationary into the charger cable or into the vehicle - and thus creates a mobile metering point. Thus, the charging stations are reduced to technically simple system sockets. These system sockets do not cause current expenses and make the charging infrastructure affordable and economically viable.

  14. Community Net Energy Metering: How Novel Policies Expand Benefits of Net Metering to Non-Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, James; Varnado, Laurel

    2009-04-01

    As interest in community solutions to renewable energy grows, more states are beginning to develop policies that encourage properties with more than one meter to install shared renewable energy systems. State net metering policies are evolving to allow the aggregation of multiple meters on a customer’s property and to dissolve conventional geographical boundaries. This trend means net metering is expanding out of its traditional function as an enabling incentive to offset onsite customer load at a single facility. This paper analyzes community net energy metering (CNEM) as an emerging vehicle by which farmers, neighborhoods, and municipalities may more easily finance and reap the benefits of renewable energy. Specifically, it aims to compare and contrast the definition of geographical boundaries among different CNEM models and examine the benefits and limitations of each approach. As state policies begin to stretch the geographic boundaries of net metering, they allow inventive solutions to encourage renewable energy investment. This paper attempts to initiate the conversation on this emerging policy mechanism and offers recommendations for further development of these policies.

  15. Revealing household characteristics from smart meter data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckel, Christian; Sadamori, Leyna; Staake, Thorsten; Santini, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Utilities are currently deploying smart electricity meters in millions of households worldwide to collect fine-grained electricity consumption data. We present an approach to automatically analyzing this data to enable personalized and scalable energy efficiency programs for private households. In particular, we develop and evaluate a system that uses supervised machine learning techniques to automatically estimate specific “characteristics” of a household from its electricity consumption. The characteristics are related to a household's socio-economic status, its dwelling, or its appliance stock. We evaluate our approach by analyzing smart meter data collected from 4232 households in Ireland at a 30-min granularity over a period of 1.5 years. Our analysis shows that revealing characteristics from smart meter data is feasible, as our method achieves an accuracy of more than 70% over all households for many of the characteristics and even exceeds 80% for some of the characteristics. The findings are applicable to all smart metering systems without making changes to the measurement infrastructure. The inferred knowledge paves the way for targeted energy efficiency programs and other services that benefit from improved customer insights. On the basis of these promising results, the paper discusses the potential for utilities as well as policy and privacy implications. - Highlights: • Many household characteristics can be automatically inferred from smart meter data. • We develop a system to infer employment status and number of occupants, for instance. • We evaluate our system analyzing data collected from 4232 households in Ireland. • The insights enable personalized and scalable efficiency campaigns for utilities. • Energy efficiency measures must be complemented by privacy protection

  16. Performance evaluation of injection metering systems Avaliação do desempenho de sistemas de injeção de defensivos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulisses R. Antuniassi

    2002-04-01

    Full Text Available A method for measuring the performance of agricultural injection metering systems was developed and used to assess the characteristics of three commercial system designs. Steady-state characteristics were measured using both colored dyes and salt as tracers. Dynamic response characteristics were determined by measuring salt concentration downstream of the injection point by monitoring electrical conductivity of the spray solution. Salt added to a viscous test liquid changed viscosity slightly only at low shear rates and it is concluded that this liquid is appropriate for use in evaluation tests with injection systems. Results from tests with 2 systems specifically designed for operation with agricultural sprayers gave a linear response with both water and the viscous test liquids and no evidence of dose pulsation in the delivered spray liquid. A system using a single-acting water driven piston had a performance that was dependent upon viscosity and that gave substantial dose pulsation. When injecting on the pressure side of the pump, response times for both increasing and decreasing dose levels were in the order of 3.2 s. When injecting on the input side of the pump, response times were greater and very dependant upon the total flow rate of the delivery system.Um método para se medir o desempenho de sistemas de injeção de defensivos foi desenvolvido e usado para se avaliar as características de três sistemas disponíveis no mercado. A manutenção de doses constantes foi avaliada utilizando-se corantes e sais como traçantes. A resposta dinâmica a mudanças de dose foi determinada através da medição da concentração de sal na calda após o ponto de injeção, através do monitoramento da condutividade elétrica da solução. A adição de sal em uma solução viscosa-padrão teve pouca influência em sua viscosidade, concluindo-se que o líquido é apropriado para testes com sistemas de injeção de defensivos. Resultados de testes com

  17. Smart metering - energy data management at every meter point; Smart Metering - Energiedatenmanagement an jedem Zaehlpunkt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller-Giessbach, D.; Kiel, E. [LogicaCMG, Muenchen (Germany)

    2007-09-15

    The demise of monopolistic structures in the German energy market has also led to a change of perspective on metering. New requirements have to be met. Even in mass processing jobs such as meter reading it is no longer sufficient to simply read consumption data off a technically reliable meter or have customers do this themselves in preparation of billing. Currently used meters were not designed with a mind to demand management, environmental protection through energy conservation, changes in consumer behaviour or new service offers. This has been recognised in many European countries since the beginning of the present decade. The traditional task of metering is developing into a more comprehensive energy data management that takes account of the needs of customers, energy suppliers and regulatory requirements.

  18. And what if gravity is intrinsically quantic?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziaeepour, Houri

    2009-01-01

    Since the early days of search for a quantum theory of gravity the attempts have been mostly concentrated on the quantization of an otherwise classical system. The two most contentious candidate theories of gravity, string theory and quantum loop gravity are based on a quantum field theory - the latter is a quantum field theory of connections on a SU(2) group manifold and the former is a quantum field theory in two dimensional spaces. Here we argue that there is a very close relation between quantum mechanics (QM) and gravity. Without gravity, QM becomes ambiguous. We consider this observation as the evidence for an intrinsic relation between these fundamental laws of nature. We suggest a quantum role and definition for gravity in the context of a quantum Universe, and present a preliminary formulation for gravity in a system with a finite number of particles.

  19. Beyond revenue metering -- a new age for automatic meter reading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chebra, R. J. [RJC Consulting L.L.C., PQ (Canada)

    2002-10-01

    Advanced metering, data management, and communications possibilities of automated meter reading are explored. Applications in the area of demand side management, including load reduction, peak shaving and load shifting, new tariff structures based on the 'time of use incentive/penalty' approach, and information grade metering are emphasized. Based on trends and expectations, it is predicted that AMR will continue to experience rapid growth and deployment as new services are made available to the mass market. For example, technological advances will enable the industry to make 'time of use metering ' more attractive and beneficial to residential consumers, and embedded intelligence will make it possible to achieve more holistic energy environments.

  20. Southern Africa Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data base (14,559 records) was received in January 1986. Principal gravity parameters include elevation and observed gravity. The observed gravity values are...

  1. NGS Absolute Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...

  2. Concept Design of a Gravity Core Cooling Tank as a Passive Residual Heat Removal System for a Research Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwonyeong; Chi, Daeyoung; Kim, Seong Hoon; Seo, Kyoungwoo; Yoon, Juhyeon

    2014-01-01

    A core downward flow is considered to use a plate type fuel because it is benefit to install the fuel in the core. If a flow inversion from a downward to upward flow in the core by a natural circulation is introduced within a high heat flux region of residual heat, the fuel fails instantly due to zero flow. Therefore, the core downward flow should be sufficiently maintained until the residual heat is in a low heat flux region. In a small power research reactor, inertia generated by a flywheel of the PCP can maintain a downward flow shortly and resolve the problem of a flow inversion. However, a high power research reactor more than 10 MW should have an additional method to have a longer downward flow until a low heat flux. Usually, other research reactors have selected an active residual heat removal system as a safety class. But, an active safety system is difficult to design and expensive to construct. A Gravity Core Cooling Tank (GCCT) beside the reactor pool with a Residual Heat Removal Pipe connecting two pools was developed and designed preliminarily as a passive residual heat removal system for an open-pool type research reactor. It is very simple to design and cheap to construct. Additionally, a non-safety, but active residual heat removal system is applied with the GCCT. It is a Pool Water Cooling and Purification System. It can improve the usability of the research reactor by removing the thermal waves, and purify the reactor pool, the Primary Cooling System, and the GCCT. Moreover, it can reduce the pool top radiation level

  3. Comparison of three different fat graft preparation methods: gravity separation, centrifugation, and simultaneous washing with filtration in a closed system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Cohen, Steven R; Hicok, Kevin C; Shanahan, Rob K; Strem, Brian M; Yu, Johnson C; Arm, Douglas M; Fraser, John K

    2013-04-01

    Successful long-term volume retention of an autologous fat graft is problematic. The presence of contaminating cells, tumescent fluid, and free lipid in the graft contributes to disparate outcomes. Better preparation methods for the fat graft before transplantation may significantly improve results. Subcutaneous fat from 22 donors was divided and processed using various graft preparation methods: (1) no manipulation control, (2) gravity separation, (3) Coleman centrifugation, and (4) simultaneous washing with filtration using a commercially available system (Puregraft; Cytori Therapeutics, Inc., San Diego, Calif.). Fat grafts from various preparation methods were examined for free lipid, aqueous liquid, viable tissue, and blood cell content. Adipose tissue viability was determined by measuring glycerol release after agonist induction of lipolysis. All test graft preparation methods exhibited significantly less aqueous fluid and blood cell content compared with the control. Grafts prepared by washing with filtration exhibited significantly reduced blood cell and free lipid content, with significantly greater adipose tissue viability than other methods. Washing with filtration within a closed system produces a fat graft with higher tissue viability and lower presence of contaminants compared with grafts prepared by alternate methods.

  4. Force characteristic analysis of a magnetic gravity compensator with annular magnet array for magnetic levitation positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yiheng; Kou, Baoquan; Liu, Peng; Zhang, He; Xing, Feng; Yang, Xiaobao

    2018-05-01

    Magnetic levitation positioning system (MLPS) is considered to be the state of the art in inspection and manufacturing systems in vacuum. In this paper, a magnetic gravity compensator with annular magnet array (AMA-MGC) for MLPS is proposed. Benefiting from the double-layer annular Halbach magnet array on the stator, the proposed AMA-MGC possesses the advantages of symmetrical force, high force density and small force fluctuation. Firstly, the basic structure and operation principle of the AMA-MGC are introduced. Secondly, the basic characteristics of the AMA-MGC such as magnetic field distribution, levitation force, parasitic force and parasitic torque are analyzed by the three-dimensional finite element analysis (3-D FEA). Thirdly, the influence of structural parameters on force density and force fluctuation is investigated, which is conductive to the design and optimization of the AMA-MGC. Finally, a prototype of the AMA-MGC is constructed, and the experiment shows good agreement with the 3-D FEA results.

  5. Energy Theft in the Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLaughlin, Stephen; Podkuiko, Dmitry; McDaniel, Patrick

    Global energy generation and delivery systems are transitioning to a new computerized "smart grid". One of the principle components of the smart grid is an advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). AMI replaces the analog meters with computerized systems that report usage over digital communication interfaces, e.g., phone lines. However, with this infrastructure comes new risk. In this paper, we consider adversary means of defrauding the electrical grid by manipulating AMI systems. We document the methods adversaries will use to attempt to manipulate energy usage data, and validate the viability of these attacks by performing penetration testing on commodity devices. Through these activities, we demonstrate that not only is theft still possible in AMI systems, but that current AMI devices introduce a myriad of new vectors for achieving it.

  6. Investigating water meter performance in developing countries: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of water losses in distribution systems are the main challenge that water utilities in developing countries currently face. The water meter is an essential tool for both the utility and the customers to measure and monitor consumption. When metering is inefficient and coupled with low tariffs, the financial ...

  7. The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering | State, Local,

    Science.gov (United States)

    and Tribal Governments | NREL The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering The Solar Energy Trifecta: Solar + Storage + Net Metering February 12, 2018 by Benjamin Mow Massachusetts (DPU) seeking an advisory ruling on the eligibility of pairing solar-plus-storage systems with current

  8. A wireless mesh communication protocol for smart-metering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelen, D.J.M.; Kempen, van G.M.P.; Hoogstraten, van F.; Liotta, A.

    2012-01-01

    Worldwide there has been increasing interest over the past few years for so-called "Smart Meters", in academia, governments and in industry. Such smart-metering systems need a way to communicate the collected data reliably and cost efficiently to the back-office for analysis. Several competing

  9. Development and Testing of Infrared Water Current Meter | Ezenne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Continuous monitoring of the river flow is essential for assessing water availability. River flow velocity is crucial to simulate discharge hydrographs of water in the hydrological system.This study developed a digital water current meter with infrared. The infrared current meter was tested using Ebonyi River at Obollo-Etiti and ...

  10. GEODYNAMIC WAVES AND GRAVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Vikulin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available  Gravity phenomena related to the Earth movements in the Solar System and through the Galaxy are reviewed. Such movements are manifested by geological processes on the Earth and correlate with geophysical fields of the Earth. It is concluded that geodynamic processes and the gravity phenomena (including those of cosmic nature are related.  The state of the geomedium composed of blocks is determined by stresses with force moment and by slow rotational waves that are considered as a new type of movements [Vikulin, 2008, 2010]. It is shown that the geomedium has typical rheid properties [Carey, 1954], specifically an ability to flow while being in the solid state [Leonov, 2008]. Within the framework of the rotational model with a symmetric stress tensor, which is developed by the authors [Vikulin, Ivanchin, 1998; Vikulin et al., 2012a, 2013], such movement of the geomedium may explain the energy-saturated state of the geomedium and a possibility of its movements in the form of vortex geological structures [Lee, 1928]. The article discusses the gravity wave detection method based on the concept of interactions between gravity waves and crustal blocks [Braginsky et al., 1985]. It is concluded that gravity waves can be recorded by the proposed technique that detects slow rotational waves. It is shown that geo-gravitational movements can be described by both the concept of potential with account of gravitational energy of bodies [Kondratyev, 2003] and the nonlinear physical acoustics [Gurbatov et al., 2008]. Based on the combined description of geophysical and gravitational wave movements, the authors suggest a hypothesis about the nature of spin, i.e. own moment as a demonstration of the space-time ‘vortex’ properties.  

  11. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pirat, P.

    2010-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  12. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor

    2016-06-01

    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  13. Service-oriented advanced metering infrastructure for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhang, L.

    2011-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) enables smart grids to involve power consumers in the business process of power generation transmission, distribution and consumption. However, the participant of consumers challenges the current power systems with system integration and cooperation and

  14. Service-oriented advanced metering infrastructure for smart grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, S.; Lukkien, J.J.; Zhang, L.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) enables smart grids to involve power consumers in the business process of power generation, transmission, distribution and consumption. However, the participant of consumers challenges the current power systems with system integration and cooperation and

  15. Wireless transmission of metering data from a photovoltaic solar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The data from direct cable connection was highly reliable because data ... aggregated solar home systems instead of establishing grid connected solar farms. ... Key words: PV solar home system, DC power meter, GSM, data adaptor software ...

  16. Zero-gravity movement studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badler, N. I.; Fishwick, P.; Taft, N.; Agrawala, M.

    1985-01-01

    The use of computer graphics to simulate the movement of articulated animals and mechanisms has a number of uses ranging over many fields. Human motion simulation systems can be useful in education, medicine, anatomy, physiology, and dance. In biomechanics, computer displays help to understand and analyze performance. Simulations can be used to help understand the effect of external or internal forces. Similarly, zero-gravity simulation systems should provide a means of designing and exploring the capabilities of hypothetical zero-gravity situations before actually carrying out such actions. The advantage of using a simulation of the motion is that one can experiment with variations of a maneuver before attempting to teach it to an individual. The zero-gravity motion simulation problem can be divided into two broad areas: human movement and behavior in zero-gravity, and simulation of articulated mechanisms.

  17. Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Smolin, Lee

    2010-01-01

    We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.

  18. Development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system suitable for use in zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misselhorn, J. E.; Witz, S.; Hartung, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    The development of a laboratory prototype water quality monitoring system for use in the evaluation of candidate water recovery systems and for study of techniques for measuring potability parameters is reported. Sensing techniques for monitoring of the most desirable parameters are reviewed in terms of their sensitivities and complexities, and their recommendations for sensing techniques are presented. Rationale for selection of those parameters to be monitored (pH, specific conductivity, Cr(+6), I2, total carbon, and bacteria) in a next generation water monitor is presented along with an estimate of flight system specifications. A master water monitor development schedule is included.

  19. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)

    2012-07-01

    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  20. Gravity as a thermodynamic phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Moustos, Dimitris

    2017-01-01

    The analogy between the laws of black hole mechanics and the laws of thermodynamics led Bekenstein and Hawking to argue that black holes should be considered as real thermodynamic systems that are characterised by entropy and temperature. Black hole thermodynamics indicates a deeper connection between thermodynamics and gravity. We review and examine in detail the arguments that suggest an interpretation of gravity itself as a thermodynamic theory.

  1. Fuel cell membrane hydration and fluid metering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Daniel O.; Walsh, Michael M.

    1999-01-01

    A hydration system includes fuel cell fluid flow plate(s) and injection port(s). Each plate has flow channel(s) with respective inlet(s) for receiving respective portion(s) of a given stream of reactant fluid for a fuel cell. Each injection port injects a portion of liquid water directly into its respective flow channel in order to mix its respective portion of liquid water with the corresponding portion of the stream. This serves to hydrate at least corresponding part(s) of a given membrane of the corresponding fuel cell(s). The hydration system may be augmented by a metering system including flow regulator(s). Each flow regulator meters an injecting at inlet(s) of each plate of respective portions of liquid into respective portion(s) of a given stream of fluid by corresponding injection port(s).

  2. Processing Marine Gravity Data Around Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y.; Choi, K.; Kim, Y.; Ahn, Y.; Chang, M.

    2008-12-01

    In Korea currently 4 research ships are under operating in Korea, after the first research vessel equipped shipborne gravity meter was introduced in 1990s. These are Onnuri(launch 1991) of KORDI(Korea Ocean Research & Development Institute), Haeyang2000(launch 1996), Badaro1(launch 2002) of NORI(National Oceanographic Research Institute) and Tamhae2(launch 1997) of KIGAM(Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources). Those of research vessel, Haeyang2000 have observed marine gravity data over 150,000 points each year from year 1996 to year 2003. Haeyang2000, about 2,500 tons, is unable to operate onshore so NORI has constructed another 600 tons research ship Badaro1 that has observed marine gravity data onshore since year 2002. Haeyang2000 finished observing marine gravity data offshore within Korean territorial waters until year 2003. Currently Badaro1 is observing marine gravity data onshore. These shipborne gravity data will be very useful and important on geodesy and geophysics research also those data can make a contribution to developing these studies. In this study NORI's shipbrne gravity data from 1996 to 2007 has been processed for fundamental data to compute Korean precise geoid. Marine gravity processing steps as followed. 1. Check the time sequence, latitude and longitude position, etc. of shipborne gravity data 2. Arrangement of the tide level below the pier and meter drift correction of each cruise. 3. Elimination of turning points. 4. The time lag correction. 5. Computation of RV's velocities, Heading angles and the Eötvös correction. 6. Kalman filtering of GPS navigation data using cross-over points. 7. Cross-over correction using least square adjustment. About 2,058,000 points have been processed with NORI's marine gravity data from 1996 to 2007 in this study. The distribution of free-air anomalies was -41.0 mgal to 136.0 mgal(mean 8.90mgal) within Korean territorial waters. The free-air anomalies processed with the marine gravity data are

  3. Check and evaluation system on heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of china based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Wu Yong; Zhu Neng

    2009-01-01

    Heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China is organized and implemented in a large scale by local government in 15 provinces of North China with the unified guidance and control of central government. Firstly, this paper introduced the target of energy-saving reformation of existing residential buildings in North China and the importance of check and evaluation on this target, then pointed out the necessity of building up an evaluation system for energy-saving retrofit. According to the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), three-grade evaluation system was built up for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China. Also, based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) theory, post-evaluation thought and successful degree evaluation method, a mathematical model was established. Finally, a set of scientific method for evaluating heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China systematically, scientifically, comprehensively and objectively was created.

  4. Life History Responses and Feeding Behavior of Microcrustacea in Altered Gravity - Applicability in Bioregenerative Life Support Systems (BLSS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jessica; Schoppmann, Kathrin; Laforsch, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Manned space missions, as for example to the planet Mars, are a current objective in space exploration. During such long-lasting missions, aquatic bioregenerative life support systems (BLSS) could facilitate independence of resupply from Earth by regenerating the atmosphere, purifying water, producing food and processing waste. In such BLSS, microcrustaceans could, according to their natural role in aquatic ecosystems, link oxygen liberating, autotrophic algae and higher trophic levels, such as fish. However, organisms employed in BLSS will be exposed to high acceleration (hyper- g) during launch of spacecrafts as well as to microgravity (μ g) during space travel. It is thus essential that these organisms survive, perform and reproduce under altered gravity conditions. In this study we present the first data in this regard for the microcrustaceas Daphnia magna and Heterocypris incongruens. We found that after hyper- g exposure (centrifugation) approximately one third of the D. magna population died within one week (generally indicating that possible belated effects have to be considered when conducting and interpreting experiments during which hyper- g occurs). However, suchlike and even higher losses could be countervailed by the surviving daphnids' unaltered high reproductive capacity. Furthermore, we can show that foraging and feeding behavior of D. magna (drop tower) and H. incongruens (parabolic flights) are rarely altered in μ g. Our results thus indicate that both species are suitable candidates for BLSS utilized in space.

  5. Gravity insensitive inventory control device for a two-phase flow system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bland, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    A liquid inventory control device is described for a flow system where the liquid changes phase to a vapor and back and a pitot pump separates vapor from liquid and pumps the liquid to a component of the flow system comprising: a liquid storage device for storing liquid under pressure, a tube positioned within the pitot pump and in open communication with the liquid storage device, and the tube having an opening positioned within the pitot pump at a location to establish a desired liquid level in the pitot pump and at which level the pressure at the pitot tube inlet will equal the liquid pressure at the liquid storage device

  6. Fouling in gravity driven Point-of-Use drinking water treatment systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chawla, Charu; Zwijnenburg, A.; Kemperman, Antonius J.B.; Nijmeijer, Dorothea C.

    2017-01-01

    This paper describes fouling in simulated Point-of-Use (PoU) systems based on low pressure hollow fiber ultrafiltration membranes. Various operational configurations such as recirculation of feed, discontinuous vs. continuous filtration, and inside/out vs. outside/in were compared to study their

  7. Tensor Galileons and gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatzistavrakidis, Athanasios [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Khoo, Fech Scen [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen,Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany); Roest, Diederik [Van Swinderen Institute for Particle Physics and Gravity, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Schupp, Peter [Department of Physics and Earth Sciences, Jacobs University Bremen,Campus Ring 1, 28759 Bremen (Germany)

    2017-03-13

    The particular structure of Galileon interactions allows for higher-derivative terms while retaining second order field equations for scalar fields and Abelian p-forms. In this work we introduce an index-free formulation of these interactions in terms of two sets of Grassmannian variables. We employ this to construct Galileon interactions for mixed-symmetry tensor fields and coupled systems thereof. We argue that these tensors are the natural generalization of scalars with Galileon symmetry, similar to p-forms and scalars with a shift-symmetry. The simplest case corresponds to linearised gravity with Lovelock invariants, relating the Galileon symmetry to diffeomorphisms. Finally, we examine the coupling of a mixed-symmetry tensor to gravity, and demonstrate in an explicit example that the inclusion of appropriate counterterms retains second order field equations.

  8. Uniform discretizations: a quantization procedure for totally constrained systems including gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campiglia, Miguel [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Igua 4225, esq. Mataojo, Montevideo (Uruguay); Di Bartolo, Cayetano [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Simon BolIvar, Aptdo. 89000, Caracas 1080-A (Venezuela); Gambini, Rodolfo [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Igua 4225, esq. Mataojo, Montevideo (Uruguay); Pullin, Jorge [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, LA 70803-4001 (United States)

    2007-05-15

    We present a new method for the quantization of totally constrained systems including general relativity. The method consists in constructing discretized theories that have a well defined and controlled continuum limit. The discrete theories are constraint-free and can be readily quantized. This provides a framework where one can introduce a relational notion of time and that nevertheless approximates in a well defined fashion the theory of interest. The method is equivalent to the group averaging procedure for many systems where the latter makes sense and provides a generalization otherwise. In the continuum limit it can be shown to contain, under certain assumptions, the 'master constraint' of the 'Phoenix project'. It also provides a correspondence principle with the classical theory that does not require to consider the semiclassical limit.

  9. Cosmological evolution and Solar System consistency of massive scalar-tensor gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Pirey Saint Alby, Thibaut Arnoulx; Yunes, Nicolás

    2017-09-01

    The scalar-tensor theory of Damour and Esposito-Farèse recently gained some renewed interest because of its ability to suppress modifications to general relativity in the weak field, while introducing large corrections in the strong field of compact objects through a process called scalarization. A large sector of this theory that allows for scalarization, however, has been shown to be in conflict with Solar System observations when accounting for the cosmological evolution of the scalar field. We here study an extension of this theory by endowing the scalar field with a mass to determine whether this allows the theory to pass Solar System constraints upon cosmological evolution for a larger sector of coupling parameter space. We show that the cosmological scalar field goes first through a quiescent phase, similar to the behavior of a massless field, but then it enters an oscillatory phase, with an amplitude (and frequency) that decays (and grows) exponentially. We further show that after the field enters the oscillatory phase, its effective energy density and pressure are approximately those of dust, as expected from previous cosmological studies. Due to these oscillations, we show that the scalar field cannot be treated as static today on astrophysical scales, and so we use time-dependent perturbation theory to compute the scalar-field-induced modifications to Solar System observables. We find that these modifications are suppressed when the mass of the scalar field and the coupling parameter of the theory are in a wide range, allowing the theory to pass Solar System constraints, while in principle possibly still allowing for scalarization.

  10. Hardware Design for a Fixed-Wing Airborne Gravity Measurement System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-22

    worldwide navigation system currently available that is sufficiently accurate for deter- mining Eotvos correction in airborne gravimetry is the Global...better in defining the strength of precipitation . The radar display is compact enough to be mounted on the cockpit, thus giving the pilots better...of the proposed AGMS version 3 MISCELLANEOUS AIRCRAFT CONSIDERATIONS Autopilot One of the most important considerations in airborne gravimetry is

  11. Optical Mass Gauging System for Measuring Liquid Levels in a Reduced Gravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullenberger, Ryan M.; Munoz, Wesley M.; Lyon, Matt P.; Vogel, Kenny; Yalin, Azer P.; Korman, Valentin; Polzin, Kurt A.

    2010-01-01

    A compact and rugged fiber-coupled liquid volume sensor designed for flight on a sounding rocket platform is presented. The sensor consists of a Mach-Zehnder interferometer capable of measuring the amount of liquid contained in a tank under any gravitational conditions, including a microgravity environment, by detecting small changes in the index of refraction of the gas contained within a sensing region. By monitoring changes in the interference fringe pattern as the system undergoes a small compression provided by a piston, the ullage volume of a tank can be directly measured allowing for a determination of the liquid volume. To demonstrate the technique, data are acquired using two tanks containing different volumes of liquid, which are representative of the levels of liquid in a tank at different time periods during a mission. The two tanks are independently exposed to the measurement apparatus, allowing for a determination of the liquid level in each. In a controlled, laboratory test of the unit, the system demonstrated a capability of measuring a liquid level in an individual tank of 10.53 mL with a 2% error. The overall random uncertainty for the flight system is higher than that one test, at +/- 1.5 mL.

  12. Optimal Design of Gravity Pipeline Systems Using Genetic Algorithm and Mathematical Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    maryam rohani

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the optimal design of pipeline systems has become increasingly important in the water industry. In this study, the two methods of genetic algorithm and mathematical optimization were employed for the optimal design of pipeline systems with the objective of avoiding the water hammer effect caused by valve closure. The problem of optimal design of a pipeline system is a constrained one which should be converted to an unconstrained optimization problem using an external penalty function approach in the mathematical programming method. The quality of the optimal solution greatly depends on the value of the penalty factor that is calculated by the iterative method during the optimization procedure such that the computational effort is simultaneously minimized. The results obtained were used to compare the GA and mathematical optimization methods employed to determine their efficiency and capabilities for the problem under consideration. It was found that the mathematical optimization method exhibited a slightly better performance compared to the GA method.

  13. Quantum gravity and quantum cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    Papantonopoulos, Lefteris; Siopsis, George; Tsamis, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Quantum gravity has developed into a fast-growing subject in physics and it is expected that probing the high-energy and high-curvature regimes of gravitating systems will shed some light on how to eventually achieve an ultraviolet complete quantum theory of gravity. Such a theory would provide the much needed information about fundamental problems of classical gravity, such as the initial big-bang singularity, the cosmological constant problem, Planck scale physics and the early-time inflationary evolution of our Universe.   While in the first part of this book concepts of quantum gravity are introduced and approached from different angles, the second part discusses these theories in connection with cosmological models and observations, thereby exploring which types of signatures of modern and mathematically rigorous frameworks can be detected by experiments. The third and final part briefly reviews the observational status of dark matter and dark energy, and introduces alternative cosmological models.   ...

  14. Topological gravity with minimal matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Keke

    1991-01-01

    Topological minimal matter, obtained by twisting the minimal N = 2 supeconformal field theory, is coupled to two-dimensional topological gravity. The free field formulation of the coupled system allows explicit representations of BRST charge, physical operators and their correlation functions. The contact terms of the physical operators may be evaluated by extending the argument used in a recent solution of topological gravity without matter. The consistency of the contact terms in correlation functions implies recursion relations which coincide with the Virasoro constraints derived from the multi-matrix models. Topological gravity with minimal matter thus provides the field theoretic description for the multi-matrix models of two-dimensional quantum gravity. (orig.)

  15. A method for separating Antarctic postglacial rebound and ice mass balance using future ICESat Geoscience Laser Altimeter System, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment, and GPS satellite data

    OpenAIRE

    Velicogna, Isabella; Wahr, John

    2002-01-01

    Measurements of ice elevation from the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS) aboard the Ice, Cloud, and Land Elevation Satellite can be combined with time-variable geoid measurements from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission to learn about ongoing changes in polar ice mass and viscoelastic rebound of the lithosphere under the ice sheet. We estimate the accuracy in recovering the spatially varying ice mass trend and postglacial rebound signals for Antarctica...

  16. On High-Frequency Topography-Implied Gravity Signals for a Height System Unification Using GOCE-Based Global Geopotential Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grombein, Thomas; Seitz, Kurt; Heck, Bernhard

    2017-03-01

    National height reference systems have conventionally been linked to the local mean sea level, observed at individual tide gauges. Due to variations in the sea surface topography, the reference levels of these systems are inconsistent, causing height datum offsets of up to ±1-2 m. For the unification of height systems, a satellite-based method is presented that utilizes global geopotential models (GGMs) derived from ESA's satellite mission Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE). In this context, height datum offsets are estimated within a least squares adjustment by comparing the GGM information with measured GNSS/leveling data. While the GNSS/leveling data comprises the full spectral information, GOCE GGMs are restricted to long wavelengths according to the maximum degree of their spherical harmonic representation. To provide accurate height datum offsets, it is indispensable to account for the remaining signal above this maximum degree, known as the omission error of the GGM. Therefore, a combination of the GOCE information with the high-resolution Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008) is performed. The main contribution of this paper is to analyze the benefit, when high-frequency topography-implied gravity signals are additionally used to reduce the remaining omission error of EGM2008. In terms of a spectral extension, a new method is proposed that does not rely on an assumed spectral consistency of topographic heights and implied gravity as is the case for the residual terrain modeling (RTM) technique. In the first step of this new approach, gravity forward modeling based on tesseroid mass bodies is performed according to the Rock-Water-Ice (RWI) approach. In a second step, the resulting full spectral RWI-based topographic potential values are reduced by the effect of the topographic gravity field model RWI_TOPO_2015, thus, removing the long to medium wavelengths. By using the latest GOCE GGMs, the impact of topography

  17. Solar system and equivalence principle constraints on f(R) gravity by the chameleon approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capozziello, Salvatore; Tsujikawa, Shinji

    2008-01-01

    We study constraints on f(R) dark energy models from solar system experiments combined with experiments on the violation of the equivalence principle. When the mass of an equivalent scalar field degree of freedom is heavy in a region with high density, a spherically symmetric body has a thin shell so that an effective coupling of the fifth force is suppressed through a chameleon mechanism. We place experimental bounds on the cosmologically viable models recently proposed in the literature that have an asymptotic form f(R)=R-λR c [1-(R c /R) 2n ] in the regime R>>R c . From the solar system constraints on the post-Newtonian parameter γ, we derive the bound n>0.5, whereas the constraints from the violations of the weak and strong equivalence principles give the bound n>0.9. This allows a possibility to find the deviation from the Λ-cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model. For the model f(R)=R-λR c (R/R c ) p with 0 -10 , which shows that this model is hardly distinguishable from the ΛCDM cosmology

  18. Characteristics of an immobilized yeast cell system using very high gravity for the fermentation of ethanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Hairui; Yu, Jianliang; Zhang, Xu; Tan, Tianwei

    2012-09-01

    The characteristics of ethanol production by immobilized yeast cells were investigated for both repeated batch fermentation and continuous fermentation. With an initial sugar concentration of 280 g/L during the repeated batch fermentation, more than 98% of total sugar was consumed in 65 h with an average ethanol concentration and ethanol yield of 130.12 g/L and 0.477 g ethanol/g consumed sugar, respectively. The immobilized yeast cell system was reliable for at least 10 batches and for a period of 28 days without accompanying the regeneration of Saccharomyces cerevisiae inside the carriers. The multistage continuous fermentation was carried out in a five-stage column bioreactor with a total working volume of 3.75 L. The bioreactor was operated for 26 days at a dilution rate of 0.015 h(-1). The ethanol concentration of the effluent reached 130.77 g/L ethanol while an average 8.18 g/L residual sugar remained. Due to the high osmotic pressure and toxic ethanol, considerable yeast cells died without regeneration, especially in the last two stages, which led to the breakdown of the whole system of multistage continuous fermentation.

  19. Miniaturised Gravity Sensors for Remote Gravity Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, R. P.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Hough, J.; Paul, D. J.; Rowan, S.; Samarelli, A.; Hammond, G.

    2016-12-01

    Gravimetry lets us see the world from a completely different perspective. The ability to measure tiny variations in gravitational acceleration (g), allows one to see not just the Earth's gravitational pull, but the influence of smaller objects. The more accurate the gravimeter, the smaller the objects one can see. Gravimetry has applications in many different fields: from tracking magma moving under volcanoes before eruptions; to locating hidden tunnels. The top commercial gravimeters weigh tens of kg and cost at least $100,000, limiting the situations in which they can be used. By contrast, smart phones use a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) accelerometer that can measure the orientation of the device. These are not nearly sensitive or stable enough to be used for the gravimetry but they are cheap, light-weight and mass-producible. At Glasgow University we have developed a MEMS device with both the stability and sensitivity for useful gravimetric measurements. This was demonstrated by a measurement of the Earth tides - the first time this has been achieved with a MEMS sensor. A gravimeter of this size opens up the possiblility for new gravity imaging modalities. Thousands of gravimeters could be networked over a survey site, storing data on an SD card or communicating wirelessly to a remote location. These devices could also be small enough to be carried by a UAVs: airborne gravity surveys could be carried out at low altitude by mulitple UAVs, or UAVs could be used to deliver ground based gravimeters to remote or inaccessible locations.

  20. A gravity independent biological grey water treatment system for space applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nashashibi, Majda'midhat

    2002-09-01

    Biological treatment of grey water in space presents serious challenges, stemming mainly from microgravity conditions. The major concerns are phase separation and mass transfer limitations. To overcome solid-liquid phase separation, novel immobilized cell packed bed (ICPB) bioreactors have been developed to treat synthetic grey water. Packed bed bioreactors provide a unique environment for attached microbial growth resulting in high biomass concentrations, which greatly enhance process efficiency with substantial reductions in treatment time and reactor volume. To overcome the gas-liquid phase separation and mass transfer limitations, an oxygenation module equipped with tubular membranes has been developed to deliver bubble-less oxygen under pressure. The selected silicone membranes are hydrophobic, non-porous and oxygen selective. Oxygen dissolves in the walls of the membranes and then diffuses into the water without forming bubbles. Elevated pressures maintain all gaseous by-products in solution and provide high dissolved oxygen concentrations within the system. The packing media are lightweight, inexpensive polyethylene terephthalate (PET) flakes that have large specific surface area, act as a filter for solids and yield highly tortuous flow paths thereby increasing the contact time between the biomass and contaminants. Tests on both pressurized and ambient pressure ICPB bioreactors revealed organic carbon removal efficiencies over 90%. Despite the high ammonia level in the influent, nitrification occured in both the ambient pressure and pressurized nitrification bioreactors at efficiencies of 80% and 60%, respectively. Biomass yield was approximately 0.20 g volatile suspended solids per gram of grey water-COD processed in the pressurized bioreactor. The biomass yield of such novel aerobic ICPB systems is comparable to that of anaerobic processes. These efficient systems produce minimal amounts of biomass compared to other aerobic processes, making them less

  1. Smart Metering. Synergies within medium voltage automation; Synergien durch Smart Metering. Automatisierung auf Mittelspannungsebene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maas, Peter [IDS GmbH, Ettlingen (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Transparent interdivisional system solutions are an indispensable and decisive precondition for the optimization of business processes. The implementation of a Smart Metering solution does not only provide data for billing purposes, but also renders important data for network operation. Synergies can be achieved through the use of a common infrastructure which covers both the needs of Smart Metering and network operation. An open architecture of the solution allows for the future integration of further services of the domains Smart Grid and Smart Home. (orig.)

  2. Energy saving by smart metering with consumption feedback; Energieeinsparung durch Smart Metering mit Verbrauchs-Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Patrick [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany); Friedrich, Malte [Institut fuer Soziologische Meinungsforschung (IsoMe), Berlin (Germany); Kerber-Clasen, Stefan [Institut fuer Sozialforschung und Sozialwirtschaft e.V., Saarbruecken (Germany); Frey, Guenther

    2012-08-15

    While the German legislative, e.g. in the EnWG (Power Industry Act) assumes that electricity consumption metering will contribute to energy conservation in any case, many studies have arrived at a different contribution: Only a combination of consumption metering and direct feedback methods will result in significant energy savings. A recent research project (''Moderne Energiesparsysteme fuer Haushalte'') analysed an energy conservation system of this type. The findings will provide socio-economic insight into the background of successful energy conservation, and they will show how feedback methods can be optimised.

  3. The Planck Constant, the International System of Units, and the 2012 North American Watt Balance Absolute Gravity Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, D. B.

    2012-12-01

    As outlined in Resolution 1 of the 24th Meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM) on the future revision of the International System of Units (SI) [1], the current four SI base units the kilogram, the ampere, the kelvin and the mole, will be redefined in terms of invariants of nature. The new definitions will be based on fixed numerical values of the Planck constant (h), the elementary charge (e), the Boltzmann constant (k), and the Avogadro constant (NA), respectively. While significant progress has been made towards providing the necessary experimental results for the redefinition, some disagreement among the relevant data remain. Among the set of discrepant data towards the redefinition of the SI are the determinations of the Planck constant from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) watt balance [2] and the recent result from the National Research Council Canada (NRC) watt balance [3], with the discrepancy of roughly 2.5 parts in 107 being significantly outside the reported uncertainties. Of major concern is that the watt balance experiment is seen as a key component of a mise en pratique for the new kilogram definition, once such a redefinition takes place. The basic operational principle of a watt balance relates the Planck constant to mass, length, and time through h = mgvC, where m is the mass of an artifact mass standard, g is the local acceleration of gravity, v is a velocity, and C is a combination of frequencies and scalar constants. With the total uncertainty goal for the watt balance on the order of a few parts in 108, g needs to be determined at the location of the mass standard to parts in 109 such that its uncertainty is negligible in the final watt balance result. NIST and NRC have formed a collaborative effort to reconcile the relevant discrepant data and provide further progress towards preparing and testing a mise en pratique for the new kilogram definition. As an initial step, direct comparisons of

  4. The Cause of Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Byrne, Michael

    1999-01-01

    Einstein said that gravity is an acceleration like any other acceleration. But gravity causes relativistic effects at non-relativistic speeds; so gravity could have relativistic origins. And since the strong force is thought to cause most of mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the strong force is therefore also proportional to gravity. The strong force could thus cause relativistic increases of mass through the creation of virtual gluons; along with a comparable contraction of space ar...

  5. Measuring gravity change caused by water storage variations: Performance assessment under controlled conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Lars; Lund, Sanne; Andersen, Ole Baltazar

    2011-01-01

    Subsurface water content is an important state variable in hydrological systems. Established methods to measure subsurface water content have a small support scale which causes scaling problems in many applications. Time-lapse relative gravimetry can give an integrated measure of soil water storage...... changes over tens to hundreds of cubic meters. The use of time-lapse gravimetry in hydrology has until recent years been limited by the large efforts required to obtain precise and accurate gravity data at the 1μGal (10−8ms−2) scale. A typical modern relative gravimeter, the Scintrex CG-5, has...... lead to a loss of accuracy. As a performance test of a CG-5 for applications of time-lapse gravity in hydrology, we have measured the change in water storage in an indoor basin. The experiment was designed to resemble a field application, e.g. a pumping test, a forced infiltration experiment...

  6. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee; Muzakkir, Amir

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr −1 ). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr −1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr

  7. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail: nur-aira@nm.gov.my; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  8. Active Response Gravity Offload and Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dungan, Larry K. (Inventor); Valle, Paul S. (Inventor); Bankieris, Derek R. (Inventor); Lieberman, Asher P. (Inventor); Redden, Lee (Inventor); Shy, Cecil (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A variable gravity field simulator can be utilized to provide three dimensional simulations for simulated gravity fields selectively ranging from Moon, Mars, and micro-gravity environments and/or other selectable gravity fields. The gravity field simulator utilizes a horizontally moveable carriage with a cable extending from a hoist. The cable can be attached to a load which experiences the effects of the simulated gravity environment. The load can be a human being or robot that makes movements that induce swinging of the cable whereby a horizontal control system reduces swinging energy. A vertical control system uses a non-linear feedback filter to remove noise from a load sensor that is in the same frequency range as signals from the load sensor.

  9. Microprocessor controlled digital period meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keefe, D.J.; McDowell, W.P.; Rusch, G.K.

    1980-01-01

    A microprocessor controlled digital period meter has been developed and tested operationally on a reactor at Argonne National Laboratory. The principle of operation is the mathematical relationship between asymptotic periods and pulse counting circuitry. This relationship is used to calculate and display the reactor periods over a range of /plus or minus/1 second to /plus or minus/999 seconds. The time interval required to update each measurement automatically varies from 8 seconds at the lowest counting rates to 2 seconds at higher counting rates. The paper will describe hardware and software design details and show the advantages of this type of Period Meter over the conventional circuits. 1 ref

  10. An estimation of the height system bias parameter N (0) using least squares collocation from observed gravity and GPS-levelling data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadiq, Muhammad; Tscherning, Carl C.; Ahmad, Zulfiqar

    2009-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of gravity anomaly and precise levelling in conjunction with GPS-Levelling data for the computation of a gravimetric geoid and an estimate of the height system bias parameter N-o for the vertical datum in Pakistan by means of least squares collocation technique...... covariance parameters has facilitated to achieve gravimetric height anomalies in a global geocentric datum. Residual terrain modeling (RTM) technique has been used in combination with the EGM96 for the reduction and smoothing of the gravity data. A value for the bias parameter N-o has been estimated...... with reference to the local GPS-Levelling datum that appears to be 0.705 m with 0.07 m mean square error. The gravimetric height anomalies were compared with height anomalies obtained from GPS-Levelling stations using least square collocation with and without bias adjustment. The bias adjustment minimizes...

  11. Comparison of the Effect of Horizontal Vibrations on Interfacial Waves in a Two-Layer System of Inviscid Liquids to Effective Gravity Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimenova, Anastasiya V.; Goldobin, Denis S.; Lyubimova, Tatyana P.

    2018-02-01

    We study the waves at the interface between two thin horizontal layers of immiscible liquids subject to high-frequency tangential vibrations. Nonlinear governing equations are derived for the cases of two- and three-dimensional flows and arbitrary ratio of layer thicknesses. The derivation is performed within the framework of the long-wavelength approximation, which is relevant as the linear instability of a thin-layers system is long-wavelength. The dynamics of equations is integrable and the equations themselves can be compared to the Boussinesq equation for the gravity waves in shallow water, which allows one to compare the action of the vibrational field to the action of the gravity and its possible effective inversion.

  12. Radion and holographic brane gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Sugumi; Soda, Jiro

    2002-01-01

    The low energy effective theory for the Randall-Sundrum two-brane system is investigated with an emphasis on the role of the nonlinear radion in the brane world. The equations of motion in the bulk are solved using a low energy expansion method. This allows us, through the junction conditions, to deduce the effective equations of motion for gravity on the brane. It is shown that the gravity on the brane world is described by a quasi-scalar-tensor theory with a specific coupling function ω(Ψ)=3Ψ/2(1-Ψ) on the positive tension brane and ω(Φ)=-3Φ/2(1+Φ) on the negative tension brane, where Ψ and Φ are nonlinear realizations of the radion on the positive and negative tension branes, respectively. In contrast with the usual scalar-tensor gravity, the quasi-scalar-tensor gravity couples with two kinds of matter; namely, the matter on both positive and negative tension branes, with different effective gravitational coupling constants. In particular, the radion disguised as the scalar fields Ψ and Φ couples with the sum of the traces of the energy-momentum tensor on both branes. In the course of the derivation, it is revealed that the radion plays an essential role in converting the nonlocal Einstein gravity with generalized dark radiation to local quasi-scalar-tensor gravity. For completeness, we also derive the effective action for our theory by substituting the bulk solution into the original action. It is also shown that quasi-scalar-tensor gravity works as a hologram at low energy in the sense that the bulk geometry can be reconstructed from the solution of quasi-scalar-tensor gravity

  13. Early Effects of Altered Gravity Environments on Plant Cell Growth and Cell Proliferation: Characterization of Morphofunctional Nucleolar Types in an Arabidopsis Cell Culture System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manzano, Ana I.; Herranz, Raúl; Manzano, Aránzazu [Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain); Loon, Jack J. W. A. van [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery/Oral Pathology, Dutch Experiment Support Center, VU University Medical Center, Amsterdam (Netherlands); Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), Amsterdam (Netherlands); ESA-ESTEC, TEC-MMG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Medina, F. Javier, E-mail: fjmedina@cib.csic.es [Centro de Investigaciones Biológicas (CSIC), Madrid (Spain)

    2016-02-05

    Changes in the cell growth rate of an in vitro cellular system in Arabidopsis thaliana induced by short exposure to an altered gravity environment have been estimated by a novel approach. The method consisted of defining three structural nucleolar types which are easy and reliable indicators of the ribosome biogenesis activity and, consequently, of protein biosynthesis, a parameter strictly correlated to cell growth in this cellular system. The relative abundance of each nucleolar type was statistically assessed in different conditions of gravity. Samples exposed to simulated microgravity for 200 min showed a significant decrease in nucleolar activity compared to 1g controls, whereas samples exposed to hypergravity (2g) for the same period showed nucleolar activity slightly increased. These effects could be considered as an early cellular response to the environmental alteration, given the short duration of the treatment. The functional significance of the structural data was validated by a combination of several different well-known parameters, using microscopical, flow cytometry, qPCR, and proteomic approaches, which showed that the decreased cell growth rate was decoupled from an increased cell proliferation rate under simulated microgravity, and the opposite trend was observed under hypergravity. Actually, not all parameters tested showed the same quantitative changes, indicating that the response to the environmental alteration is time-dependent. These results are in agreement with previous observations in root meristematic cells and they show the ability of plant cells to produce a response to gravity changes, independently of their integration into plant organs.

  14. Low gravity containerless processing of immiscible gold rhodium alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, J. Barry

    1986-01-01

    Under normal one-g conditions immiscible alloys segregate extensively during solidification due to sedementation of the more dense of the immiscible liquid phases. However, under low-g conditions it should be possible to form a dispersion of the two immiscible liquids and maintain this dispersed structure during solidification. Immiscible (hypermonotectic) gold-rhodium alloys were processed in the Marshall Space Flight Center 105 meter drop tube in order to investigate the influence of low gravity, containerless solidification on their microstructure. Hypermonotectic alloys composed of 65 atomic % rhodium exhibited a tendency for the gold rich liquid to wet the outer surface of the containerless processed samples. This tendency led to extensive segregation in several cases. However, well dispersed microstructures consisting of 2 to 3 micron diameter rhodium-rich spheres in a gold-rich matrix were produced in 23.4 atomic % rhodium alloys. This is one of the best dispersions obtained in research on immiscible alloy-systems to data.

  15. A workflow for SHPs regulatory compliance in the wholesale market metering system; Workflow para adequacao regulatoria da medicao de faturamento em PCHs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Danilo Ulisses Soares; Vidal, Fernando de Moura; Mariano, Alex [Way2 Servicos de Tecnologia S.A., Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: way2@way2.com.br

    2011-07-15

    CCEE regulatory compliance is a critical and necessary process to the beginning of the commercial operation of generation plants. Even when this stage is completed, the small-team nature of a PCH work crew, their rushed work pace and typical turnover on the matter of their role at the plant make difficult the task of monitoring the demands and processes, which increases the penalty risk. The current article analyses CCEE commercial procedures (PdCs) and ONS Network Procedures, emphasizing activities and workflow which are in compliancy to regulation. Primarily the asset registering process is described in details, from project elaboration and approval until CCEE final validation. After that, the article summarizes all criteria for penalties application regarding wholesale energy metering compliance, missing data and audit channel Unavailability. Besides that, there is a focus on a workflow definition in order to mitigate penalties risk. (author)

  16. Increased water contamination and grow-out Pekin duck mortality when raised with water troughs compared to pin-metered water lines using a United States management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, A.; Porter, A. L.; Alenciks, E.; Frazier, K.; Best, A. A.; Fraley, S. M.; Fraley, G. S.

    2016-01-01

    Controversy has developed as to whether or not pin-metered water lines or water troughs are more appropriate for Pekin ducks. We hypothesized that water troughs would show improved duck body conditions and environmental quality compared to pin-metered water lines. To test this hypothesis, we housed ducks in 2 barns, one with water lines and one with water troughs. Water troughs were constructed to meet RSPCA guidelines for number and density of ducks and with recently described verandas. Ducks were divided into 4 pens per barn (n = 1,000 ducks/pen). The study was then repeated (n = 8 pens per water source) in a cross-over design so the barns each contained the opposite water source to the first experiment. We scored the ducks’ body condition using an established scoring rubric and analyzed using SAS Proc GLM-Mix as binomial data. Ducks housed with water troughs showed higher (thus worse condition; P duck mortality using a Student t test for both water sources each week. We found that the water troughs showed higher iron (P Ducks housed with water troughs used greater (P = 0.001) volumes of water compared to ducks housed with water lines. Ducks with water troughs also showed a greater percent (P = 0.008) mortality at all ages compared to ducks with water lines. These data suggest that water troughs may not be beneficial for duck welfare and could adversely impact both environment and duck or human health. PMID:26769272

  17. Strike-slip tectonics and Quaternary basin formation along the Vienna Basin fault system inferred from Bouguer gravity derivatives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salcher, B. C.; Meurers, B.; Smit, J.; Decker, K.; HöLzel, M.; Wagreich, M.

    2012-01-01

    The Vienna Basin at the transition between the Alpine and Carpathian belt hosts a number of large Pleistocene sub-basins forming along an active continental scale strike-slip fault (Vienna Basin strike-slip fault). We utilize first-order derivatives from industrial Bouguer gravity data to unravel

  18. Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS 3 vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.

  19. Using the Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm (MSAA) for Solving the Large Linear System of Equations Related to Global Gravity Field Recovery up to Degree and Order 120

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, A.; Sharifi, M. A.; Amjadiparvar, B.

    2010-05-01

    The GRACE mission has substantiated the low-low satellite-to-satellite tracking (LL-SST) concept. The LL-SST configuration can be combined with the previously realized high-low SST concept in the CHAMP mission to provide a much higher accuracy. The line of sight (LOS) acceleration difference between the GRACE satellite pair is the mostly used observable for mapping the global gravity field of the Earth in terms of spherical harmonic coefficients. In this paper, mathematical formulae for LOS acceleration difference observations have been derived and the corresponding linear system of equations has been set up for spherical harmonic up to degree and order 120. The total number of unknowns is 14641. Such a linear equation system can be solved with iterative solvers or direct solvers. However, the runtime of direct methods or that of iterative solvers without a suitable preconditioner increases tremendously. This is the reason why we need a more sophisticated method to solve the linear system of problems with a large number of unknowns. Multiplicative variant of the Schwarz alternating algorithm is a domain decomposition method, which allows it to split the normal matrix of the system into several smaller overlaped submatrices. In each iteration step the multiplicative variant of the Schwarz alternating algorithm solves linear systems with the matrices obtained from the splitting successively. It reduces both runtime and memory requirements drastically. In this paper we propose the Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm (MSAA) for solving the large linear system of gravity field recovery. The proposed algorithm has been tested on the International Association of Geodesy (IAG)-simulated data of the GRACE mission. The achieved results indicate the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm in solving the linear system of equations from accuracy and runtime points of view. Keywords: Gravity field recovery, Multiplicative Schwarz Alternating Algorithm, Low

  20. Cosmological acceleration. Dark energy or modified gravity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bludman, S.

    2006-05-01

    We review the evidence for recently accelerating cosmological expansion or ''dark energy'', either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity), without any constituent Dark Energy. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low curvature. The vacuum symmetry of any Robertson-Walker universe then characterizes Dark Gravity as low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity. The dynamics of either kind of ''dark energy'' cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion history alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine tuned cosmological constant, but also allow nearly static Dark Energy or gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish between static and ''dynamic'' ''dark energy''. But, cosmologically distinguishing the Concordance Model ΛCDM from modified gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati low-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined observations in the solar system (Lue and Starkman) or at the intermediate Vainstein scale (Iorio) in isolated galaxy clusters. Dark Energy's epicyclic character, failure to explain the original Cosmic Coincidence (''Why so small now?'') without fine tuning, inaccessibility to laboratory or solar system tests, along with braneworld theories, now motivate future precision solar system, Vainstein-scale and cosmological-scale studies of Dark Gravity. (Orig.)

  1. Cosmological acceleration. Dark energy or modified gravity?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bludman, S

    2006-05-15

    We review the evidence for recently accelerating cosmological expansion or ''dark energy'', either a negative pressure constituent in General Relativity (Dark Energy) or modified gravity (Dark Gravity), without any constituent Dark Energy. If constituent Dark Energy does not exist, so that our universe is now dominated by pressure-free matter, Einstein gravity must be modified at low curvature. The vacuum symmetry of any Robertson-Walker universe then characterizes Dark Gravity as low- or high-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity. The dynamics of either kind of ''dark energy'' cannot be derived from the homogeneous expansion history alone, but requires also observing the growth of inhomogeneities. Present and projected observations are all consistent with a small fine tuned cosmological constant, but also allow nearly static Dark Energy or gravity modified at cosmological scales. The growth of cosmological fluctuations will potentially distinguish between static and ''dynamic'' ''dark energy''. But, cosmologically distinguishing the Concordance Model {lambda}CDM from modified gravity will require a weak lensing shear survey more ambitious than any now projected. Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati low-curvature modifications of Einstein gravity may also be detected in refined observations in the solar system (Lue and Starkman) or at the intermediate Vainstein scale (Iorio) in isolated galaxy clusters. Dark Energy's epicyclic character, failure to explain the original Cosmic Coincidence (''Why so small now?'') without fine tuning, inaccessibility to laboratory or solar system tests, along with braneworld theories, now motivate future precision solar system, Vainstein-scale and cosmological-scale studies of Dark Gravity. (Orig.)

  2. Arrival metering fuel consumption analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Arrival metering is a method of time-based traffic management that is used by the Federal Aviation Administration to plan and manage streams of arrival traffic during periods of : high demand at busy airports. The Traffic Management Advisor is an aut...

  3. Rate meter design and construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peon Aguirre, R.; Fonseca Araujo, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    An electric diagram is proposed to build a geiger detector Rate Meter, to count gamma radiation and X ray. This idea was made up with the prototype construction which has a five scales analogue display (100, 300, 1000, 3000 and 10000 c/s). (Author)

  4. Smart Metering Guide. Energy Saving and the Customer. Edition 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kester, J.C.P. (ed.) [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, Petten (Netherlands); Gonzalez Burgos, M.J. (ed.) [Endesa Ingenieria, Madrid (Spain); Parsons, J. (ed.) [British Electrotechnical and Allied Manufacturers Association BEAMA, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-11-15

    Smart metering can provide the foundations for a radically different approach to energy reduction schemes. However, the implementation of smart metering is a complex undertaking and its success depends on getting many factors right, from technology choice to how the information is presented to final customers. Making the expected reduction in energy consumption depends on achieving a positive reaction from final customers. Maintaining and increasing these savings will need the engagement of Energy Retailers, energy agencies and others. This Guide has been produced to bring together the lessons learnt from smart metering systems and trials, targeted on the promotion of End Use Energy Efficiency. The aim is to assist those groups who are considering implementing smart metering for this purpose and to maximise the benefits arising from those implementations. . The main target audience for the Guide are utilities, ESCO's and service providers across Europe. In most countries these are the parties investing in the smart metering systems and providing the smart metering services. In addition to these, governments, regulators, consumer bodies and energy agencies, as well as suppliers and system integrators, will also find valuable information in the Guide. As the subtitle of the Guide indicates, the focus of this Guide is on the application of smart metering for delivering energy saving. Making the expected reduction in energy consumption depends on achieving a positive reaction from final customers. In general, the successful provision of smart metering services is highly dependent on the right involvement of the energy final customer. This guide is not a ready-to-go manual for the installation of a specific type of smart metering system. Rather, the authors have tried to give the reader an insight into some of the complexities of the whole implementation process of smart metering systems. Also the guide is impartial regarding different technologies unless there is

  5. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  6. Smart metering gateway works as Smart Home Energy Manager; Smart Metering Gateway als Smart Home Energy Manager

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walter, Klaus-Dieter [SSV Software Systems GmbH, Hannover (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The installation of smart meters together with real time consumption data visualization doesn't help to save energy CO2 emissions. With regards to refinancing options, the situation in Germany has been quite different since the middle of last year for buildings equipped with a photovoltaic system. If a heat pump system is also present, intelligent energy use in conjunction with smart meters can save considerable amounts of money. A Smart Home Energy Manager (SHEM) automates the energy saving. (orig.)

  7. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  8. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janota, Aleš; Holečko, Peter; Gregor, Michal; Hruboš, Marián

    2017-12-01

    Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA) can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  9. Ramp - Metering Algorithms Evaluated within Simplified Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janota Aleš

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Freeway networks reach their limits, since it is usually impossible to increase traffic volumes by indefinitely extending transport infrastructure through adding new traffic lanes. One of the possible solutions is to use advanced intelligent transport systems, particularly ramp metering systems. The paper shows how two particular algorithms of local and traffic-responsive control (Zone, ALINEA can be adapted to simplified conditions corresponding to Slovak freeways. Both control strategies are modelled and simulated using PTV Vissim software, including the module VisVAP. Presented results demonstrate the properties of both control strategies, which are compared mutually as well as with the initial situation in which no control strategy is applied

  10. The gravity apple tree

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldama, Mariana Espinosa

    2015-01-01

    The gravity apple tree is a genealogical tree of the gravitation theories developed during the past century. The graphic representation is full of information such as guides in heuristic principles, names of main proponents, dates and references for original articles (See under Supplementary Data for the graphic representation). This visual presentation and its particular classification allows a quick synthetic view for a plurality of theories, many of them well validated in the Solar System domain. Its diachronic structure organizes information in a shape of a tree following similarities through a formal concept analysis. It can be used for educational purposes or as a tool for philosophical discussion. (paper)

  11. Flow Boiling Critical Heat Flux in Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mudawar, Issam; Zhang, Hui; Hasan, Mohammad M.

    2004-01-01

    This study provides systematic method for reducing power consumption in reduced gravity systems by adopting minimum velocity required to provide adequate CHF and preclude detrimental effects of reduced gravity . This study proves it is possible to use existing 1 ge flow boiling and CHF correlations and models to design reduced gravity systems provided minimum velocity criteria are met

  12. Methodology of calibration for nucleonic multiphase meter technology for SAGD extra heavy oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinguet, B.; Pechard, P.; Guerra, E. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada); Arendo, V.; Shaffer, M.; Contreras, J. [Total, Paris (France)

    2008-10-15

    The challenges facing bitumen metering in steam assisted gravity drainage operations were discussed with reference to high operating temperatures, steam pressure in the gas phase, foaming, emulsion and small density differences between bitumen and produced water. A metering tool that can deal with these operating constraints was presented. The multiphase meter (MFM) uses a multi-energy gamma ray (nuclear fraction) meter together with a venturi tube to provide accurate monitoring and optimization of oil, water, gas and steam production. This paper presented the specific strengths of the MFM with emphasis on its ability to correctly meter the liquid/gas phases depending on the calibration method and operating measurement range. The paper presented a study of the main parameters which could influence the measurement associated with this technology. The study was based on practical and simulated data and evaluated the impact of changes in each parameter. The purpose of the paper was to improve the understanding of this technology and how to apply it to bitumen metering and provide a guideline of the technology for future users in the oil industry. It described the combination venturi-nucleonic measurement parameters, such as mass flow rate; fraction meter; solution triangle of the fraction meter; primary and secondary output; fluid properties information; and uncertainty associated to any technology. A sensitivity analysis study to identify the dependency to some key fluid parameters was also described. It was concluded that MFM can be used in a stand-alone configuration. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 22 figs.

  13. Born–Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sepehri, Alireza, E-mail: alireza.sepehri@uk.ac.ir [Faculty of Physics, Shahid Bahonar University, P.O. Box 76175, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born–Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge

  14. Born–Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2016-01-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born–Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between

  15. Born-Infeld extension of Lovelock brane gravity in the system of M0-branes and its application for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in BIonic superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza

    2016-07-01

    Recently, some authors (Cruz and Rojas, 2013 [1]) have constructed a Born-Infeld type action which may be written in terms of the Lovelock brane Lagrangians for a given dimension p. We reconsider their model in M-theory and study the process of birth and growth of nonlinear spinor and bosonic gravity during the construction of Mp-branes. Then, by application of this idea to BIonic system, we construct a BIonic superconductor in the background of nonlinear gravity. In this model, first, M0-branes link to each other and build an M5-brane and an anti-M5-brane connected by an M2-brane. M0-branes are zero dimensional objects that only scalars are attached to them. By constructing higher dimensional branes from M0-branes, gauge fields are produced. Also, if M0-branes don't link to each other completely, the symmetry of system is broken and fermions are created. The curvature produced by fermions has the opposite sign the curvature produced by gauge fields. Fermions on M5-branes and M2 plays the role of bridge between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M5's and nonlinear bosonic and spinor gravities are produced. By closing M5-branes towards each other, coupling of two identical fermions on two branes to each other causes that the square mass of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are created. For removing these tachyons, M5-branes compact, the sign of gravity between branes reverses, anti-gravity is produced which causes that branes and identical fermions get away from each other. This is the reason for the emergence of Pauli exclusion principle in Bionic system. Also, the spinor gravity vanishes and its energy builds a new M2 between M5-branes. We obtain the resistivity in this system and find that its value decreases by closing M5 branes to each other and shrinks to zero at colliding point of branes. This idea has different applications. For example, in cosmology, universes are located on M5-branes and M2-brane has the role of bridge between

  16. Quantum W3 gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoutens, K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY

    1991-11-01

    We briefly review some results in the theory of quantum W 3 gravity in the chiral gauge. We compare them with similar results in the analogous but simpler cases of d = 2 induced gauge theories and d = 2 induced gravity

  17. Urine specific gravity test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...

  18. Andes 1997 Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Andes gravity data (6,151 records) were compiled by Professor Gotze and the MIGRA Group. This data base was received in April, 1997. Principal gravity...

  19. DNAG Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) gravity grid values, spaced at 6 km, were used to produce the Gravity Anomaly Map of North America (1987; scale...

  20. Gravity wave astronomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinheiro, R.

    1979-01-01

    The properties and production of gravitational radiation are described. The prospects for their detection are considered including the Weber apparatus and gravity-wave telescopes. Possibilities of gravity-wave astronomy are noted

  1. Northern Oklahoma Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (710 records) were compiled by Professor Ahern. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters include latitude,...

  2. Idaho State Gravity Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (24,284 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...

  3. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.

    2015-12-01

    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  4. Bringing Gravity to Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norsk, P.; Shelhamer, M.

    2016-01-01

    This panel will present NASA's plans for ongoing and future research to define the requirements for Artificial Gravity (AG) as a countermeasure against the negative health effects of long-duration weightlessness. AG could mitigate the gravity-sensitive effects of spaceflight across a host of physiological systems. Bringing gravity to space could mitigate the sensorimotor and neuro-vestibular disturbances induced by G-transitions upon reaching a planetary body, and the cardiovascular deconditioning and musculoskeletal weakness induced by weightlessness. Of particular interest for AG during deep-space missions is mitigation of the Visual Impairment Intracranial Pressure (VIIP) syndrome that the majority of astronauts exhibit in space to varying degrees, and which presumably is associated with weightlessness-induced fluid shift from lower to upper body segments. AG could be very effective for reversing the fluid shift and thus help prevent VIIP. The first presentation by Dr. Charles will summarize some of the ground-based and (very little) space-based research that has been conducted on AG by the various space programs. Dr. Paloski will address the use of AG during deep-space exploration-class missions and describe the different AG scenarios such as intra-vehicular, part-of-vehicle, or whole-vehicle centrifugations. Dr. Clement will discuss currently planned NASA research as well as how to coordinate future activities among NASA's international partners. Dr. Barr will describe some possible future plans for using space- and ground-based partial-G analogs to define the relationship between physiological responses and G levels between 0 and 1. Finally, Dr. Stenger will summarize how the human cardiovascular system could benefit from intermittent short-radius centrifugations during long-duration missions.

  5. Strings and quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vega, H.J. de

    1990-01-01

    One of the main challenges in theoretical physics today is the unification of all interactions including gravity. At present, string theories appear as the most promising candidates to achieve such a unification. However, gravity has not completely been incorporated in string theory, many technical and conceptual problems remain and a full quantum theory of gravity is still non-existent. Our aim is to properly understand strings in the context of quantum gravity. Attempts towards this are reviewed. (author)

  6. Venus gravity anomalies and their correlations with topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjogren, W. L.; Bills, B. G.; Birkeland, P. W.; Esposito, P. B.; Konopliv, A. R.; Mottinger, N. A.; Ritke, S. J.; Phillips, R. J.

    1983-01-01

    This report provides a summary of the high-resolution gravity data obtained from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter radio tracking data. Gravity maps, covering a 70 deg latitude band through 360 deg of longitude, are displayed as line-of-sight and vertical gravity. Topography converted to gravity and Bouguer gravity maps are also shown in both systems. Topography to gravity ratios are made over several regions of the planet. There are markedly different ratios for the Aphrodite area as compared to the Beta and Atla areas.

  7. Geometric Liouville gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La, H.

    1992-01-01

    A new geometric formulation of Liouville gravity based on the area preserving diffeo-morphism is given and a possible alternative to reinterpret Liouville gravity is suggested, namely, a scalar field coupled to two-dimensional gravity with a curvature constraint

  8. Covariant w∞ gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the notion of higher-spin covariance in w∞ gravity. We show how a recently proposed covariant w∞ gravity action can be obtained from non-chiral w∞ gravity by making field redefinitions that introduce new gauge-field components with corresponding new gauge transformations.

  9. Induced quantum conformal gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novozhilov, Y.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.

    1988-11-01

    Quantum gravity is considered as induced by matter degrees of freedom and related to the symmetry breakdown in the low energy region of a non-Abelian gauge theory of fundamental fields. An effective action for quantum conformal gravity is derived where both the gravitational constant and conformal kinetic term are positive. Relation with induced classical gravity is established. (author). 15 refs

  10. Quantum Gravity Phenomenology

    OpenAIRE

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni

    2003-01-01

    Comment: 9 pages, LaTex. These notes were prepared while working on an invited contribution to the November 2003 issue of Physics World, which focused on quantum gravity. They intend to give a non-technical introduction (accessible to readers from outside quantum gravity) to "Quantum Gravity Phenomenology"

  11. Gravity is Geometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKeown, P. K.

    1984-01-01

    Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)

  12. Improving a maximum horizontal gradient algorithm to determine geological body boundaries and fault systems based on gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kha, Tran; Van Vuong, Hoang; Thanh, Do Duc; Hung, Duong Quoc; Anh, Le Duc

    2018-05-01

    The maximum horizontal gradient method was first proposed by Blakely and Simpson (1986) for determining the boundaries between geological bodies with different densities. The method involves the comparison of a center point with its eight nearest neighbors in four directions within each 3 × 3 calculation grid. The horizontal location and magnitude of the maximum values are found by interpolating a second-order polynomial through the trio of points provided that the magnitude of the middle point is greater than its two nearest neighbors in one direction. In theoretical models of multiple sources, however, the above condition does not allow the maximum horizontal locations to be fully located, and it could be difficult to correlate the edges of complicated sources. In this paper, the authors propose an additional condition to identify more maximum horizontal locations within the calculation grid. This additional condition will improve the method algorithm for interpreting the boundaries of magnetic and/or gravity sources. The improved algorithm was tested on gravity models and applied to gravity data for the Phu Khanh basin on the continental shelf of the East Vietnam Sea. The results show that the additional locations of the maximum horizontal gradient could be helpful for connecting the edges of complicated source bodies.

  13. Squid based beam current meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuchnir, M.

    1983-01-01

    A SQUID based beam current meter has the capability of measuring the current of a beam with as little as 30 x 155 antiprotons (with a signal to noise ratio of 2). If low noise dc current is used to cancel most of the beam or an up-down counter is used to count auto-resets this sensitivity will be available at any time in the acumulation process. This current meter will therefore be a unique diagnostic tool for optimizing the performance of several Tev I components. Besides requiring liquid helium it seems that its only drawback is not to follow with the above sensitivity a sudden beam change larger than 16 μA, something that could be done using a second one in a less sensitive configuration

  14. Solid state semiconductor detectorized survey meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okamoto, Eisuke; Nagase, Yoshiyuki; Furuhashi, Masato

    1987-01-01

    Survey meters are used for measurement of gamma ray dose rate of the space and the surface contamination dencity that the atomic energy plant and the radiation facility etc. We have recently developed semiconductor type survey meter (Commercial name: Compact Survey Meter). This survey meter is a small-sized dose rate meter with excellent function. The special features are using semiconductor type detector which we have developed by our own technique, stablar wide range than the old type, long life, and easy to carry. Now we introduce the efficiency and the function of the survey meter. (author)

  15. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-11-01

    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  16. Gravity sensing using Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlippert, D.; Wodey, E.; Meiners, C.; Tell, D.; Schubert, C.; Ertmer, W.; Rasel, E. M.

    2017-12-01

    Very Long Baseline Atom Interferometry (VLBAI) has applications in high-accuracy absolute gravimetry, gravity-gradiometry, and for tests of fundamental physics. Thanks to the quadratic scaling of the phase shift with increasing free evolution time, extending the baseline of atomic gravimeters from tens of centimeters to meters puts resolutions of 10-13g and beyond in reach.We present the design and progress of key elements of the VLBAI-test stand: a dual-species source of Rb and Yb, a high-performance two-layer magnetic shield, and an active vibration isolation system allowing for unprecedented stability of the mirror acting as an inertial reference. We envisage a vibration-limited short-term sensitivity to gravitational acceleration of 1x10-8 m/s-2Hz-1/2 and up to a factor of 25 improvement when including additional correlation with a broadband seismometer. Here, the supreme long-term stability of atomic gravity sensors opens the route towards competition with superconducting gravimeters. The operation of VLBAI as a differential dual-species gravimeter using ultracold mixtures of Yb and Rb atoms enables quantum tests of the universality of free fall (UFF) at an unprecedented level of <10-13, potentially surpassing the best experiments to date.

  17. Scale-invariant gravity: geometrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, Edward; Barbour, Julian; Foster, Brendan; Murchadha, Niall O

    2003-01-01

    We present a scale-invariant theory, conformal gravity, which closely resembles the geometrodynamical formulation of general relativity (GR). While previous attempts to create scale-invariant theories of gravity have been based on Weyl's idea of a compensating field, our direct approach dispenses with this and is built by extension of the method of best matching w.r.t. scaling developed in the parallel particle dynamics paper by one of the authors. In spatially compact GR, there is an infinity of degrees of freedom that describe the shape of 3-space which interact with a single volume degree of freedom. In conformal gravity, the shape degrees of freedom remain, but the volume is no longer a dynamical variable. Further theories and formulations related to GR and conformal gravity are presented. Conformal gravity is successfully coupled to scalars and the gauge fields of nature. It should describe the solar system observations as well as GR does, but its cosmology and quantization will be completely different

  18. [A study on the relation between stomatognathic system and the systemic condition, concerning the influence of experimental occlusal interference on upright posture, particularly on gravity fluctuation and the antigravity muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyata, T

    1990-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to reveal the relation between stomatognathic system and the systemic condition. In the present study, experimental occlusal interference was given to the first molar on main mastication side of 6 healthy subjects and the influence on the upright posture was evaluated through simultaneous measurements of changes in activity of antigravity muscles via electromyography, other than the measurement of loci of the gravity fluctuation for stabilograph before and after the interference was provided. The following results were obtained, 1. Loci of gravity fluctuation 1) All parameters tended increase 24 hours after the interference was provided. 2) The decreasing trend was noted 24 hours after the interference was removed. 3) At one week after the interference was removed all analysis items tended to restore to the normal range. 2. Activity of antigravity muscles In some of the subjects, the muscular activity showed the same trend as the changes of analysis items of gravity fluctuation. 3. The above results suggest that the evaluation of the loci of the gravity fluctuation may be helpful to assess the therapeutic effect of malocclusion.

  19. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    2016-01-01

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data...

  20. Scales of gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory

    2002-01-01

    We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework

  1. Preliminary results of absolute and high-precision gravity measurements at the Nevada Test Site and vicinity, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zumberge, M.A.; Harris, R.N.; Oliver, H.W.; Sasagawa, G.S.; Ponce, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Absolute gravity measurements were made at 4 sites in southern Nevada using the absolute gravity free-fall apparatus. Three of the sites are located on the Nevada Test Site at Mercury, Yucca Pass, and in northern Jackass Flats. The fourth site is at Kyle Canyon ranger station near Charleston Park where observed gravity is 216.19 mGal lower than at Mercury. Although there is an uncertainty of about 0.02 mGal in the absolute measured values, their gravity differences are considered accurate to about 0.03 mGal. Therefore, the absolute measurements should provide local control for the calibration of gravity meters between Mercury and Kyle Canyon ranger station to about 1 to 2 parts in 10,000. The average gravity differences between Mercury and Kyle Canyon obtained using LaCoste and Romberg gravity meters is 216.13 mGal, 0.06 mGal lower, or 3 parts in 10,000 lower than using the absolute gravity meter. Because of the discrepancy between the comparison of the absolute and relative gravity meters, more absolute and relative gravity control in southern Nevada, as well as the Mt. Hamilton area where the LaCoste and Romberg instruments were calibrated, is needed. Multiple gravity meter ties were also made between each of the four absolute stations to nearby base stations located on bedrock. These stations were established to help monitor possible real changes in gravity at the absolute sites that could result from seasonal variations in the depth to the water table or other local mass changes. 8 refs., 16 figs., 7 tabs

  2. Cross-cultural differences in meter perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalender, Beste; Trehub, Sandra E; Schellenberg, E Glenn

    2013-03-01

    We examined the influence of incidental exposure to varied metrical patterns from different musical cultures on the perception of complex metrical structures from an unfamiliar musical culture. Adults who were familiar with Western music only (i.e., simple meters) and those who also had limited familiarity with non-Western music were tested on their perception of metrical organization in unfamiliar (Turkish) music with simple and complex meters. Adults who were familiar with Western music detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with simple meter but not in Turkish music with complex meter. Adults with some exposure to non-Western music that was unmetered or metrically complex detected meter-violating changes in Turkish music with both simple and complex meters, but they performed better on patterns with a simple meter. The implication is that familiarity with varied metrical structures, including those with a non-isochronous tactus, enhances sensitivity to the metrical organization of unfamiliar music.

  3. Net metering in British Columbia : white paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, T.

    2003-01-01

    Net metering was described as being the reverse registration of an electricity customer's revenue meter when interconnected with a utility's grid. It is a provincial policy designed to encourage small-distributed renewable power generation such as micro-hydro, solar energy, fuel cells, and larger-scale wind energy. It was noted that interconnection standards for small generation is an important issue that must be addressed. The British Columbia Utilities Commission has asked BC Hydro to prepare a report on the merits of net metering in order to support consultations on a potential net metering tariff application by the utility. This report provides information on net metering with reference to experience in other jurisdictions with net metering, and the possible costs and benefits associated with net metering from both a utility and consumer perspective. Some of the barriers and policy considerations for successful implementation of net metering were also discussed. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Versatile operation meter for nuclear information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Yong; Xiao Yabin; Wang Shuyuan; Shu Jingfang; Di Shaoliang; Wu Hongbin

    1995-01-01

    This paper states a low-cost, small-volume, multi-function, reproducible and new model intelligent nuclear electronic meter. It's hardware and Software were detailed and the 137 Cs spectrum with this meter was presented

  5. Calibration of dose meters used in radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    This manual is a practical guide, not a comprehensive textbook, to the instrumentation and procedures necessary to calibrate a radiation dose meter used in clinical practice against a secondary standard dose meter

  6. Smart meter data: Balancing consumer privacy concerns with legitimate applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, Eoghan; Richardson, Ian; Thomson, Murray

    2012-01-01

    Smart meters are being rolled out in large numbers throughout the world, with proponents claiming they are a critical step in the transition to a low-carbon economy. Yet there are significant unresolved negative reactions to smart meters, principally based on the concern that smart meters might be used to infer the private activities that occur within a dwelling. Though smart meter data is classified as personal data, and as such protected under existing data protection frameworks in the EU, there are relevant exceptions, notably where the data is required for legitimate applications associated with the performance of 'regulated duties'. This paper contributes to this debate by examining the data requirements for some of the proposed applications of smart meter data within the electricity supply industry, and investigates whether the use of personal data can be minimized or even avoided. The discussion includes system balancing, demand reduction, demand response and distribution network operation and planning, and indicates that, for most of these applications, the requirements for personal data can indeed be minimized. 'Privacy friendly' alternatives are discussed. - Highlights: ▶ Current smart meter systems provide a strong indication of occupancy. ▶ This will have important implications for external and internal home privacy. ▶ Personal data requirements within legitimate applications are discussed. ▶ 'Privacy friendly' techniques are suggested that minimize the use of personal data. ▶ Distribution network operator has strongest claim for data from each household.

  7. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Rodney Stewart; Stuart White; Candice Moy; Ariane Liu; Pierre Mukheibir; Damien Giurco; Thomas Boyle

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering) has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been ...

  8. Gravity Defied From Potato Asteroids to Magnetised Neutron Stars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Left to itself, gravity wouldpull everything together, and the Universe would be nothingbut a gigantic black hole. Nature throws almost every bit ofphysics – rotation, magnetic field, heat, quantum effects andso on, at gravity to escape such a fate. In this series of articles,we shall explore systems where the eternal pull of gravity ...

  9. On physical states in 2d (topological) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouwknegt, P.; McCarthy, J.; Pilch, K.

    1993-01-01

    We review the BRST computation of physical states in various 2d gravity theories. First we discuss the cohomology relevant for 2d gravity coupled to c ≤ 1 conformal matter. We then use these results to compute the cohomology of a c=26 βγ-system, i.e. restricted 2d topological gravity. We also comment on the cohomology for the complete 2d topological gravity. (author). 39 refs

  10. Einstein gravity emerging from quantum weyl gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zee, A.

    1983-01-01

    We advocate a conformal invariant world described by the sum of the Weyl, Dirac, and Yang-Mills action. Quantum fluctuations bring back Einstein gravity so that the long-distance phenomenology is as observed. Formulas for the induced Newton's constant and Eddington's constant are derived in quantized Weyl gravity. We show that the analogue of the trace anomaly for the Weyl action is structurally similar to that for the Yang-Mills action

  11. Measuring the Change in Water Table with Gravity Methods - a Controlled Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, S; Christiansen, Lars; Andersen, O. B.

    2009-01-01

    Gravity changes linearly with the change in soil water content. With the GRACE satellite mission the interest for ground-based gravity methods in hydrology has gained new attention. Time-lapse gravity data have the potential to constrain hydrological model parameters in a calibration scheme....... The greatest potential is seen for specific yield. The gravity signal from hydrology is small (10^-8 m/s^2 level) and the application of ground-based methods is mainly limited by the sensitivity of available instruments. In order to demonstrate the ability of the Scintrex CG-5 gravity meter to detect a change...... in water content, a controlled experiment was set up in 30 m by 20 m basin. The water table was lowered 0.69 m within 1½ hours and the corresponding gravity signal measured using two different approaches: a time series measurements at one location and a gravity network measurement including four points...

  12. Completely contained and remotely operated digital density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goergen, C.R.

    1979-10-01

    A completely contained and remotely operated density determination system having unique features was designed, fabricated, and installed at the Savannah River Plant. The system, based on a Mettler calculating digital density meter, provides more precise and accurate results than the falling drop technique for measuring densities. The system is fast, simple, easy to operate, and has demonstrated both reliability and durability

  13. Gravity Cues Embedded in the Kinematics of Human Motion Are Detected in Form-from-Motion Areas of the Visual System and in Motor-Related Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cignetti, Fabien; Chabeauti, Pierre-Yves; Menant, Jasmine; Anton, Jean-Luc J J; Schmitz, Christina; Vaugoyeau, Marianne; Assaiante, Christine

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated the cortical areas engaged in the perception of graviceptive information embedded in biological motion (BM). To this end, functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to assess the cortical areas active during the observation of human movements performed under normogravity and microgravity (parabolic flight). Movements were defined by motion cues alone using point-light displays. We found that gravity modulated the activation of a restricted set of regions of the network subtending BM perception, including form-from-motion areas of the visual system (kinetic occipital region, lingual gyrus, cuneus) and motor-related areas (primary motor and somatosensory cortices). These findings suggest that compliance of observed movements with normal gravity was carried out by mapping them onto the observer's motor system and by extracting their overall form from local motion of the moving light points. We propose that judgment on graviceptive information embedded in BM can be established based on motor resonance and visual familiarity mechanisms and not necessarily by accessing the internal model of gravitational motion stored in the vestibular cortex.

  14. Time-lapse gravity and levelling in the sinkhole-endangered urban area of Bad Frankenhausen, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobe, Martin; Gabriel, Gerald; Weise, Adelheid; Krawczyk, Charlotte; Vogel, Detlef

    2017-04-01

    gravity differences are in the range of 2-7 µGal, depending on the gravity meter, and this leads to a significance of the correction for hydrological influences. Another challenge comes from anthropogenic activities. For example, the influence of urban development near one of our gravity stations provides ca. 10 µGal. The gravity acceleration changes in the range of 0 to 15 µGal over a timespan of three years. A subsidence of 0 to 15 mm is found from levelling at the gravity stations in the sinkhole-related areas of Bad Frankenhausen, mainly around the leaning spire. We show the feasibility of the time-lapse gravity method by observing the mass loss in subrosion-dominated areas. Gravity measurements in addition to levelling may be useful to improve the knowledge about local surface deformation. Both methods could be part of an early recognition system for sinkholes.

  15. Methods for removal of unwanted signals from gravity time-series: Comparison using linear techniques complemented with analysis of system dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valencio, Arthur; Grebogi, Celso; Baptista, Murilo S.

    2017-10-01

    The presence of undesirable dominating signals in geophysical experimental data is a challenge in many subfields. One remarkable example is surface gravimetry, where frequencies from Earth tides correspond to time-series fluctuations up to a thousand times larger than the phenomena of major interest, such as hydrological gravity effects or co-seismic gravity changes. This work discusses general methods for the removal of unwanted dominating signals by applying them to 8 long-period gravity time-series of the International Geodynamics and Earth Tides Service, equivalent to the acquisition from 8 instruments in 5 locations representative of the network. We compare three different conceptual approaches for tide removal: frequency filtering, physical modelling, and data-based modelling. Each approach reveals a different limitation to be considered depending on the intended application. Vestiges of tides remain in the residues for the modelling procedures, whereas the signal was distorted in different ways by the filtering and data-based procedures. The linear techniques employed were power spectral density, spectrogram, cross-correlation, and classical harmonics decomposition, while the system dynamics was analysed by state-space reconstruction and estimation of the largest Lyapunov exponent. Although the tides could not be completely eliminated, they were sufficiently reduced to allow observation of geophysical events of interest above the 10 nm s-2 level, exemplified by a hydrology-related event of 60 nm s-2. The implementations adopted for each conceptual approach are general, so that their principles could be applied to other kinds of data affected by undesired signals composed mainly by periodic or quasi-periodic components.

  16. Smart Metering. Technological, economic and legal aspects. 2. ed.; Smart Metering. Technologische, wirtschaftliche und juristische Aspekte des Smart Metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koehler-Schute, Christiana (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    Smart metering comprises more than just meter technology, and the use of information and communication technologies is indispensable. Processes, roles and business models must be reconsidered as further challenges arise in the context of smart metering. For one, there is the operator of the metering points. Secondly, there is the end user who is in the role of an active market partner. Further, there is smart metering as a basic technology, e.g. for smart grids and smart homes. In spite of the need for action, many utilities are reluctant to introduce smart metering. Reasons for this are the cost, a lack of defined standards, and an unclear legal situation. On the other hand, smart metering offers potential for grids and distribution that should be made use of. The authors discuss all aspects of the subject. The point out the chances and limitations of smart metering and present their own experience. [German] Smart Metering geht weit ueber die Zaehlertechnologie hinaus und der Einsatz von Informations- und Kommunikationstechnologien ist unabdingbar. Damit einhergehend muessen Prozesse, Rollen und auch Geschaeftsmodelle neu durchdacht werden. Denn weitere Herausforderungen stehen im direkten Zusammenhang mit Smart Metering. Das ist zum einen die Rolle des Messstellenbetreibers / Messdienstleisters. Das ist zum anderen der Endnutzer, dem die Rolle des aktiven Marktpartners zugedacht wird. Das ist des Weiteren das Smart Metering als Basistechnologie beispielsweise fuer Smart Grid und Smart Home. Trotz des Handlungsdrucks stehen viele Unternehmen der Energiewirtschaft dem Smart Metering zurueckhaltend gegenueber. Drei gewichtige Gruende werden ins Feld gefuehrt: die Kostenfrage, nicht definierte Standards und die in vielen Bereichen ungeklaerte Gesetzeslage. Demgegenueber bietet das Smart Metering Potenziale fuer Netz und Vertrieb, die es zu nutzen gilt. Die Autoren setzen sich in ihren Beitraegen mit diesen Themen auseinander, zeigen Chancen, aber auch Grenzen des

  17. Fundamental principles of rotary displacement meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, J. [Schlumberger Industries, Owenton, KY (United States)

    1995-12-01

    The gas meter exists to continually and accurately measure the volume of gas supplied over the complete flow range of the load. In effect the gas meter serves as the {open_quotes}cash register{close_quotes} of the gas industry; its accurate and dependable performance ensures fair dealings for both the supplier and the user. An investment both in and of itself, the gas meter should be chosen as a function of its usefullness both over the short term and the long term. Thus in addition to initial cost, one must take into account various associated factors, costs and benefits, including the following: Design Characteristics Application, suitability, Meter features and options, Operation constraints, Installation, Service and maintenance, Repair and replacement, Life expectancy, Compatibility with complimentary products, Correcting devices, Remote reading capabilities, Data generation and gathering, Upgradeabilty. This paper will look at one positive displacement meter, the Rotary meter, and address the fundamentals principals of the technology as well as looking at some of the benefits derived from its application. Rotary positive displacement meters were introduced at the end of last century. Used primarily for metering transmission sized loads, the meters` measuring capabilities have extended to cover nearly all areas of distribution with exception of domestic applications. Rotary meters are available in rated capacities from 800 cfh to 102,000 cfh and operating pressures from 175 PSIG to 1440 PSIG. The use of rotary meters on load ranges in the 800 to 10,000 cfh category has increased and is replacing the use of diaphragm meters because of the smaller relative size of rotaries, and improvements in rangeabilities in the last few years. Turbine meters are usually the meter of choice on loads over 16,000 cfh unless a meter with high rangeability is required because of varying load characteristics, in which case a large foot mounted rotary might still be selected.

  18. Advanced Utility Metering; Period of Performance: April 23, 2002 - September 22, 2002

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2003-09-01

    In support of federal agencies considering the approach to utility metering appropriate for their facilities, the U.S. Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program offers this publication as an overview of options in metering technology, system architecture, implementation, and relative costs. It provides advanced metering systems information to help potential users specify, acquire, use, and expand systems. It also addresses basic security issues and provides case studies and information resources.

  19. Characterization of radiofrequency field emissions from smart meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tell, Richard A; Kavet, Robert; Mezei, Gabor

    2013-01-01

    This study presents measurement data that describe radiofrequency emission levels and patterns from smart meters (rated nominally at 1 W) currently deployed in Pacific Gas and Electric Company's service territory in northern California. The smart meters in our investigation could not be set to operate continuously and required a Field Service Unit to induce short periods of emitted fields. To obtain peak field data under both laboratory and ambient conditions, a spectrum analyzer scanned across the 83 transmitting channels between 902 and 928 MHz used by the smart meter on a random frequency-hopping basis. To obtain data describing temporal emission patterns, the analyzer operated in scope mode. Duty cycle was estimated using transmit data acquired by the system operator from over 88,000 m. Instantaneous peak fields at 0.3 m in front of the meters were no more than 15% of the US Federal Communications Commission (FCC) exposure limit for the general public, and 99.9% of the meters operated with a duty cycle of 1.12% or less during the sampling period. In a sample of measurements in six single-detached residences equipped with individual smart meters, no interior measurement of peak field exceeded 1% of the FCC's general public exposure limit.

  20. Data reduction and tying in regional gravity surveys—results from a new gravity base station network and the Bouguer gravity anomaly map for northeastern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime

    2006-12-01

    Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys