WorldWideScience

Sample records for gravity irrigation systems

  1. Prospects for Improving Gravity-Fed Surface Irrigation Systems in Mediterranean European Contexts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Masseroni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, most irrigation practices in Southern Europe have been based on gravity-fed surface irrigation systems. Currently, these systems remain a relevant typology in the European Union (EU member states of the Mediterranean areas, where it is often the only sustainable method for farmers due to the small size of agricultural holdings, their reduced capacity and readiness to invest and the low ratio between yield profits and irrigation costs. In the last several years, in response to European and national directives, surface irrigation has garnered increasing attention at the political and bureaucratic levels due to frequent criticisms of its postulated low efficiency and high water wastage. However, these systems commonly provide a number of ecosystem services and nature-based solutions that increase the positive externalities in different rural socio-ecological contexts and often have the potential to extend these services and provide solutions that are compatible with economical sustainability. This study aims to discuss the prospects for new practices and for the rehabilitation and modernization of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems in EU Mediterranean areas to enhance water efficiency, thus gaining both economic advantages and environmental benefits. The difficulties, stimuli for improvements and peculiarities of the irrigation water management of four rural environments located in Italy, Spain and Portugal were analyzed and compared to the current state of the gravity-fed surface irrigation systems with hypothetical future improvements achievable by innovative technologies and practices. In these different case studies, the current gravity-fed surface irrigation systems have an obsolete regulatory structure; water-use efficiency is not a driving criterion for the management of the conveyance and distribution canal network, and farmers are not yet adequately encouraged to adopt more efficient gravity-fed irrigation practices

  2. Influential aspects of glacial resource for establishing Kuhl system (gravity flow irrigation) in the Hindu Kush, Karakoram and Himalaya ranges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashraf, Arshad; Iqbal, Ayesha

    2018-04-27

    The meltwater components play an important role in the hydrological regime of the Hindu Kush, Karakorum and Himalaya (HKH) region, in terms of high demand of water for food and fiber from snow and glacial resource. The communities of Himalayan mountains are facing challenges of food security owing to lack of the resource information for meeting their water requirements. In this study, suitability index approach was adopted to assess glacier resource potential for establishing kuhl irrigation system in HKH ranges of Pakistan. The basis of indexing is glacier accessibility and water yield potential of the glacial resource for irrigation estimated in terms of number and ice reserve of the glaciers. The suitability index was found good for about 1.4% glaciers constituting about 80% of the total ice reserves of the HKH region. Medium suitability constitutes about 36.1% glaciers with 12.6% of the total ice reserves, while low suitability was assessed for about 60% glaciers containing 1.5% ice reserves only. Maximum unit glacial reserve was estimated for Shigar basin, i.e., 1.44 km 3 , and among HKH ranges, 0.46 km 3 for the Karakoram range. A regular monitoring of the glacial resource would prove helpful in assessing vulnerability of this resource to climate change in the high Himalayan region in future. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. An improved delivery system for bladder irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moslemi, Mohammad K; Rajaei, Mojtaba

    2010-10-05

    Occasionally, urologists may see patients requiring temporary bladder irrigation at hospitals without stocks of specialist irrigation apparatus. One option is to transfer the patient to a urology ward, but often there are outstanding medical issues that require continued specialist input. Here, we describe an improved system for delivering temporary bladder irrigation by utilizing readily available components and the novel modification of a sphygmomanometer blub. This option is good for bladder irrigation in patients with moderate or severe gross hematuria due to various causes. In this prospective study from March 2007 to April 2009, we used our new system in eligible cases. In this system, an irrigant bag with 1 L of normal saline was suspended 80 cm above the indwelled 3-way Foley catheter, and its drainage tube was inserted into the irrigant port of the catheter. To increase the flow rate of the irrigant system, we inserted a traditional sphygmomanometer bulb at the top of the irrigant bag. This closed system was used for continuous bladder irrigation (CBI) in patients who underwent open prostatectomy, transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), or transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB). This high-pressure system is also used for irrigation during cystourethroscopy, internal urethrotomy, and transurethral lithotripsy. Our 831 eligible cases were divided into two groups: group 1 were endourologic cases and group 2 were open prostatectomy, TURP, and TURB cases. The maximum and average flow rates were evaluated. The efficacy of our new system was compared prospectively with the previous traditional system used in 545 cases. In group 1, we had clear vision at the time of endourologic procedures. The success rate of this system was 99.5%. In group 2, the incidence of clot retention decreased two fold in comparison to traditional gravity-dependent bladder flow system. These changes were statistically significant (P = 0.001). We did not observe any adverse

  4. Optimized Subsurface Irrigation System: The Future of Sugarcane Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. H. J. P. Gunarathna

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate change may harm the growth and yield of sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum L. without the introduction of appropriate irrigation facilities. Therefore, new irrigation methods should be developed to maximize water use efficiency and reduce operational costs. OPSIS (optimized subsurface irrigation system is a new solar-powered automatic subsurface irrigation system that creates a phreatic zone below crop roots and relies on capillarity to supply water to the root zone. It is designed for upland crops such as sugarcane. We investigated the performance of OPSIS for irrigating sugarcane and evaluated its performance against sprinkler irrigation under subtropical conditions. We conducted field experiments in Okinawa, Japan, over the period from 2013 to 2016 and took measurements during spring- and summer-planted main crops and two ratoon crops of the spring-planted crop. Compared with sprinkler irrigation, OPSIS produced a significantly higher fresh cane yield, consumed less irrigation water and provided a higher irrigation water use efficiency. We conclude that OPSIS could be adopted as a sustainable solution to sugarcane irrigation in Okinawa and similar environments.

  5. GSM BASED IRRIGATION CONTROL AND MONITORING SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    GODFREY A. MILLS; STEPHEN K. ARMOO; AGYEMAN K. ROCKSON; ROBERT A. SOWAH; MOSES A. ACQUAH

    2013-01-01

    Irrigated agriculture is one of the primary water consumers in most parts of the world. With developments in technology, efforts are being channeled into automation of irrigation systems to facilitate remote control of the irrigation system and optimize crop production and cost effectiveness. This paper describes an on-going work on GSM based irrigation monitoring and control systems. The objective of the work is to provide an approach that helps farmers to easily access, manage and regulate ...

  6. Automated borehole gravity meter system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.

    1984-01-01

    An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity

  7. Modernisation Strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines: Balanac and Sta. Maria River Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, M.L.F.

    2017-01-01

    This book examines the nature and impact of irrigation system rehabilitation on increasing the actual area irrigated by the publicly funded canal irrigation systems of the Philippines. It proposes a system diagnosis approach for the development of a more appropriate and climate-smart irrigation

  8. Condensation irrigation a system for desalination and irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindblom, J.; Nordell, B

    2006-01-01

    condensation irrigation is a system for both desalination and irrigation. The principles is that humidified air is let into an underground horizontal pipe system, where the air is cooled by the ground and humidity falls out as fresh water. The humidification could e.g. be achieved by evaporation of seawater in solar stills or any other heat source. By using drainage pipes for underground air transportation the water percolates into the soil, thereby irrigating the land. This study focuses on drinking water production, which means that humid air is led into plan pipes where the condensed water is collected at the pipe endings. Numerical simulations gave a study-state diurnal mean water production of 1.8 kg per meter of pipe over a 50 m pipe. Shorter pipes result in a greater mean production rate. Since the heat transfer of drainage pipes would be greater, current study indicates that condensation irrigation is a promising method for desalination and irrigation. Performed studies in condensation irrigation started at LTU in 2003. Current paper reports the initial theoretical work on the system.(Author)

  9. performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at mambilla

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    ratio (DPR), irrigation productivity (IP), labour requirements and water quality. Standard procedure was ... The exchangeable cations analysis of Kakara irrigation ... Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation. 1. INTRODUCTION.

  10. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  11. The effects of irrigation and fertilization on specific gravity of loblolly pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. R. Love-Myers; Alexander Clark; L. R. Schimleck; P. M. Dougherty; R. F. Daniels

    2010-01-01

    The effects of two treatments, irrigation and fertilization, were examined on specific gravity (SG)-related wood properties of loblolly pine trees (Pinus taeda L.) grown in Scotland County, North Carolina. The effects on the core as a whole, on the juvenile core, on the mature core, and from year to year were all analyzed. The results indicate that fertilization...

  12. Drip irrigation using a PLC based adaptive irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Shahidian, S.; Serralheiro, R. P.; Teixeira, J. L.; Santos, F. L.; Oliveira, M. R. G.; Costa, J. L.; Toureiro, C.; Haie, Naim; Machado, R. M.

    2009-01-01

    Most of the water used by man goes to irrigation. A major part of this water is used to irrigate small plots where it is not feasible to implement full-scale Evapotranspiration based irrigation controllers. During the growth season crop water needs do not remain constant and varies depending on the canopy, growth stage and climate conditions such as temperature, wind, relative humidity and solar radiation. Thus, it is necessary to find an economic irrigation controller that can adapt the dail...

  13. Decision support system for surface irrigation design

    OpenAIRE

    Gonçalves, José M.; Pereira, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The SADREG decision support system was developed to help decision makers in the process of design and selection of farm surface irrigation systems to respond to requirements of modernization of surface irrigation—furrow, basin, and border irrigation. It includes a database, simulation models, user-friendly interfaces, and multicriteria analysis models. SADREG is comprised of two components: design and selection. The first component applies database information, and through several si...

  14. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-06-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  15. Automated Irrigation System for Greenhouse Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivagami, A.; Hareeshvare, U.; Maheshwar, S.; Venkatachalapathy, V. S. K.

    2018-03-01

    The continuous requirement for the food needs the rapid improvement in food production technology. The economy of food production is mainly dependent on agriculture and the weather conditions, which are isotropic and thus we are not able to utilize the whole agricultural resources. The main reason is the deficiency of rainfall and paucity in land reservoir water. The continuous withdrawal water from the ground reduces the water level resulting in most of the land to come under the arid. In the field of cultivation, use of appropriate method of irrigation plays a vital role. Drip irrigation is a renowned methodology which is very economical and proficient. When the conventional drip irrigation system is followed, the farmer has to tag along the irrigation timetable, which is different for diverse crops. The current work makes the drip irrigation system an automated one, thereby the farmer doesn't want to follow any timetable since the sensor senses the soil moisture content and based on it supplies the water. Moreover the practice of economical sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project as an inexpensive product, which can be bought even by an underprivileged farmer. The current project is best suited for places where water is limited and has to be used in limited quantity.

  16. Modernisation strategy for National Irrigation Systems in the Philippines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delos Reyes, Mona Liza Fortunado

    2017-01-01

    The performance of publicly funded canal irrigation systems or more commonly called national irrigation systems (NIS) in the Philippines remained below expectations despite considerable system rehabilitation and improvement efforts. The continued suboptimal performances were attributed to

  17. Performance of arthroscopic irrigation systems assessed with automatic blood detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuijthof, G. J. M.; de Vaal, M. M.; Sierevelt, I. N.; Blankevoort, L.; van der List, M. P. J.

    2011-01-01

    During arthroscopies, bleeding episodes occur as a result of tissue damage. Irrigation systems assist in minimizing these disturbances. The performance of three arthroscopic irrigation systems in clearing bleeding episodes was evaluated objectively. One surgeon performed 99 shoulder arthroscopies

  18. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2017-04-02

    Apr 2, 2017 ... Many methods have been described and sensors developed to manage irrigation ... time, and automated irrigation systems based on crop water needs can .... output components, and a software program for decision support.

  19. Control system design for concrete irrigation channels

    OpenAIRE

    Strecker, Timm; Aamo, Ole Morten; Cantoni, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Concrete channels find use at the periphery of irrigation networks, for expansion and to replace small earthen channels given the relative ease of maintenance and elimination of seepage losses. In design, it is important to account for control system performance when dimensioning the channel infrastructure. In this paper, the design of a distributed controller is investigated in terms managing water-levels, and thereby the depth profile (i.e., amount of concrete) needed to support peak flow l...

  20. Soil and water management in spate irrigation systems in Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadera, M.T.

    2001-01-01

    Spate irrigation has been practised over 100 years in the Red Sea coastal zone of Eritrea such as the Sheeb area. Main problem of the spate irrigation system is water shortage caused by irregular rainfall in the highlands of Eritrea and breaching of the irrigation structures by destructive

  1. Sediment Transport Model for a Surface Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damodhara R. Mailapalli

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Controlling irrigation-induced soil erosion is one of the important issues of irrigation management and surface water impairment. Irrigation models are useful in managing the irrigation and the associated ill effects on agricultural environment. In this paper, a physically based surface irrigation model was developed to predict sediment transport in irrigated furrows by integrating an irrigation hydraulic model with a quasi-steady state sediment transport model to predict sediment load in furrow irrigation. The irrigation hydraulic model simulates flow in a furrow irrigation system using the analytically solved zero-inertial overland flow equations and 1D-Green-Ampt, 2D-Fok, and Kostiakov-Lewis infiltration equations. Performance of the sediment transport model was evaluated for bare and cropped furrow fields. The results indicated that the sediment transport model can predict the initial sediment rate adequately, but the simulated sediment rate was less accurate for the later part of the irrigation event. Sensitivity analysis of the parameters of the sediment module showed that the soil erodibility coefficient was the most influential parameter for determining sediment load in furrow irrigation. The developed modeling tool can be used as a water management tool for mitigating sediment loss from the surface irrigated fields.

  2. Performing drip irrigation by the farmer managed Seguia Khrichfa irrigation system, Morocco

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooij, van der S.

    2016-01-01

    Drip irrigation is represented in literature and agricultural policies as a modern and water saving technology. Because this technology is often associated with ‘modern’ agriculture and development, it seems out-of-place in ‘traditional’ farmer managed irrigation systems (FMIS). Thinking along

  3. Online decision support system for surface irrigation management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenchao; Cui, Yuanlai

    2017-04-01

    Irrigation has played an important role in agricultural production. Irrigation decision support system is developed for irrigation water management, which can raise irrigation efficiency with few added engineering services. An online irrigation decision support system (OIDSS), in consist of in-field sensors and central computer system, is designed for surface irrigation management in large irrigation district. Many functions have acquired in OIDSS, such as data acquisition and detection, real-time irrigation forecast, water allocation decision and irrigation information management. The OIDSS contains four parts: Data acquisition terminals, Web server, Client browser and Communication system. Data acquisition terminals are designed to measure paddy water level, soil water content in dry land, ponds water level, underground water level, and canals water level. A web server is responsible for collecting meteorological data, weather forecast data, the real-time field data, and manager's feedback data. Water allocation decisions are made in the web server. Client browser is responsible for friendly displaying, interacting with managers, and collecting managers' irrigation intention. Communication system includes internet and the GPRS network used by monitoring stations. The OIDSS's model is based on water balance approach for both lowland paddy and upland crops. Considering basic database of different crops water demands in the whole growth stages and irrigation system engineering information, the OIDSS can make efficient decision of water allocation with the help of real-time field water detection and weather forecast. This system uses technical methods to reduce requirements of user's specialized knowledge and can also take user's managerial experience into account. As the system is developed by the Browser/Server model, it is possible to make full use of the internet resources, to facilitate users at any place where internet exists. The OIDSS has been applied in

  4. Modeling irrigation behavior in groundwater systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Timothy; Brozović, Nicholas; Butler, Adrian P.

    2014-08-01

    Integrated hydro-economic models have been widely applied to water management problems in regions of intensive groundwater-fed irrigation. However, policy interpretations may be limited as most existing models do not explicitly consider two important aspects of observed irrigation decision making, namely the limits on instantaneous irrigation rates imposed by well yield and the intraseasonal structure of irrigation planning. We develop a new modeling approach for determining irrigation demand that is based on observed farmer behavior and captures the impacts on production and water use of both well yield and climate. Through a case study of irrigated corn production in the Texas High Plains region of the United States we predict optimal irrigation strategies under variable levels of groundwater supply, and assess the limits of existing models for predicting land and groundwater use decisions by farmers. Our results show that irrigation behavior exhibits complex nonlinear responses to changes in groundwater availability. Declining well yields induce large reductions in the optimal size of irrigated area and irrigation use as constraints on instantaneous application rates limit the ability to maintain sufficient soil moisture to avoid negative impacts on crop yield. We demonstrate that this important behavioral response to limited groundwater availability is not captured by existing modeling approaches, which therefore may be unreliable predictors of irrigation demand, agricultural profitability, and resilience to climate change and aquifer depletion.

  5. Size and stochasticity in irrigated social-ecological systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puy, Arnald; Muneepeerakul, Rachata; Balbo, Andrea L.

    2017-03-01

    This paper presents a systematic study of the relation between the size of irrigation systems and the management of uncertainty. We specifically focus on studying, through a stylized theoretical model, how stochasticity in water availability and taxation interacts with the stochastic behavior of the population within irrigation systems. Our results indicate the existence of two key population thresholds for the sustainability of any irrigation system: or the critical population size required to keep the irrigation system operative, and N* or the population threshold at which the incentive to work inside the irrigation system equals the incentives to work elsewhere. Crossing irretrievably leads to system collapse. N* is the population level with a sub-optimal per capita payoff towards which irrigation systems tend to gravitate. When subjected to strong stochasticity in water availability or taxation, irrigation systems might suffer sharp population drops and irreversibly disintegrate into a system collapse, via a mechanism we dub ‘collapse trap’. Our conceptual study establishes the basis for further work aiming at appraising the dynamics between size and stochasticity in irrigation systems, whose understanding is key for devising mitigation and adaptation measures to ensure their sustainability in the face of increasing and inevitable uncertainty.

  6. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    OpenAIRE

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation management practices in irrigation systems in Nepal. In this respect, this study aimed to understand the social, administrative and political processes involved in the social and institutional chang...

  7. LOW COST SMART SOLAR POWERED AUTOMATIC IRRIGATION SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Hinsermu Alemayehu*, Kena Likassa

    2016-01-01

    In developing countries Photovoltaic energy can find many applications in agriculture, providing electrical energy in various cases, particularly OFF grid and desert area. Today Modern irrigation methods in developing country are needed to fulfill the food demands. Although in these countries Ethiopia, there are many diesel engine operated and rare solar operated water pumps for irrigation; but due to the running cost of diesel and capital cost of photovoltaic irrigation system. So Photovolta...

  8. Development of Solar Powered Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdelkerim, A I; Eusuf, M M R Sami; Salami, M J E; Aibinu, A; Eusuf, M A

    2013-01-01

    Development of a solar powered irrigation system has been discussed in this paper. This system would be SCADA-based and quite useful in areas where there is plenty of sunshine but insufficient water to carry out farming activities, such as rubber plantation, strawberry plantation, or any plantation, that requires frequent watering. The system is powered by solar system as a renewable energy which uses solar panel module to convert Sunlight into electricity. The development and implementation of an automated SCADA controlled system that uses PLC as a controller is significant to agricultural, oil and gas monitoring and control purpose purposes. In addition, the system is powered by an intelligent solar system in which solar panel targets the radiation from the Sun. Other than that, the solar system has reduced energy cost as well as pollution. The system is equipped with four input sensors; two soil moisture sensors, two level detection sensors. Soil moisture sensor measures the humidity of the soil, whereas the level detection sensors detect the level of water in the tank. The output sides consist of two solenoid valves, which are controlled respectively by two moistures sensors

  9. Yield response and economics of shallow subsurface drip irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field tests were conducted using shallow subsurface drip irrigation (S3DI) on cotton (Gossypium hirsutum, L.), corn (Zea mays, L.), and peanut (Arachis hypogeae, L.) in rotation to investigate yield potential and economic sustainability of this irrigation system technique over a six year period. Dri...

  10. Performance evaluation of sprinkler irrigation system at Mambilla ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in discharge can also be adjusted via use of uniform laterals, risers, and nozzles. This study further recommends an incorporation of a soil and water laboratory for the company to aid in monitoring the soil and water quality of the irrigation area. Keywords: Tea, irrigation System, Performance Evaluation ...

  11. Performance evaluation of a center pivot variable rate irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variable Rate Irrigation (VRI) for center pivots offers potential to match specific application rates to non-uniform soil conditions along the length of the lateral. The benefit of such systems is influenced by the areal extent of these variations and the smallest scale to which the irrigation syste...

  12. Quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted at the Research and Experimental Station, Faculty of Agriculture, Ain Shams University at Shalakan, Kalubia Governorate, Egypt, to evaluate the effect of two irrigation systems (trickle and modified furrow irrigation) and five maize (M)-cowpea (C) intercropping patterns (sole M-30, sole M-15, ridge ...

  13. Vertebrate gravity sensors as dynamic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, M. D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper considers verterbrate gravity receptors as dynamic sensors. That is, it is hypothesized that gravity is a constant force to which an acceleration-sensing system would readily adapt. Premises are considered in light of the presence of kinocilia on hair cells of vertebrate gravity sensors; differences in loading of the sensors among species; and of possible reduction in loading by inclusion of much organic material in otoconia. Moreover, organic-inorganic interfaces may confer a piezoelectric property upon otoconia, which increase the sensitivity of the sensory system to small accelerations. Comparisons with man-made accelerometers are briefly taken up.

  14. Energy savings potential from energy-conserving irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Patton, W.P.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.

    1982-11-01

    This report systematically compares, within a consistent framework, the technical and economic characteristics of energy-conserving irrigation systems with those of conventional irrigation systems and to determine total energy savings. Levelized annual costs of owning and operating both energy-conserving and conventional irrigation systems have been developed and compared for all 17 states to account for the differences in energy costs and irrigation conditions in each state. Market penetration of energy-conserving systems is assessed for those systems having lower levelized annual costs than conventional systems performing the same function. Annual energy savings were computed by matching the energy savings per system with an assumed maximum market penetration of 100 percent in those markets where the levelized annual costs of energy-conserving systems are lower than the levelized annual costs of conventional systems.

  15. Response of potato to drip and gun irrigation systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Plauborg, Finn

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate effects of different irrigation and N fertilization regimes by gun irrigation and drip-fertigation on potato production, and subsequently optimize the supply of water and N fertilizer to the growth condition of the specific season and minimize nitrate......-fertigation system (DFdsNds) and two gun irrigation systems (GIdsN120 and GIaN120) to display the differences on growth, yield and water use efficiency of potato. All treatments were irrigated according to model simulated soil water content. For fertilization all treatments received a basic dressing at planting of P......, K, Mg and micronutrients, and in addition 120 kg N/ha in the gun irrigated treatments and 36 kg N/ha in the drip-fertigated. For the latter, portion of 20 kg N/ha was applied whenever plant N concentration approached a critical value as simulated by the Daisy model. As a result differences in soil...

  16. System contemplations for precision irrigation in agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, Martin J. W.

    2017-04-01

    This communication contemplates political, biological and technical aspects for efficient and profitable irrigation in sustainable agriculture. A standard for irrigation components is proposed. The need for many, and three-dimensionally distributed, soil measurement points is explained, thus enabling the control of humidity in selected layers of earth. Combined wireless and wired data transmission is proposed. Energy harvesting and storage together with mechanical sensor construction are discussed.

  17. Year-Round Irrigation Schedule for a Tomato–Maize Rotation System in Reservoir-Based Irrigation Schemes in Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ephraim Sekyi-Annan

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving irrigation management in semi-arid regions of Sub-Saharan Africa is crucial to respond to increasing variability in rainfall and overcome deficits in current irrigation schemes. In small-scale and medium-scale reservoir-based irrigation schemes in the Upper East region of Ghana, we explored options for improving the traditional, dry season irrigation practices and assessed the potential for supplemental irrigation in the rainy season. The AquaCrop model was used to (i assess current water management in the typical tomato-maize rotational system; (ii develop an improved irrigation schedule for dry season cultivation of tomato; and (iii determine the requirement for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season under different climate scenarios. The improved irrigation schedule for dry season tomato cultivation would result in a water saving of 130–1325 mm compared to traditional irrigation practices, accompanied by approximately a 4–14% increase in tomato yield. The supplemental irrigation of maize would require 107–126 mm of water in periods of low rainfall and frequent dry spells, and 88–105 mm in periods of high rainfall and rare dry spells. Therefore, year-round irrigated crop production may be feasible, using water saved during dry season tomato cultivation for supplemental irrigation of maize in the rainy season.

  18. gravity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...

  19. Automated irrigation systems for wheat and tomato crops in arid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed that the water use efficiency (WUE) and irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) were typically higher in the AIS than in the conventional irrigation control system (CIS). Under the AIS treatment, the WUE and IWUE values were 1.64 and 1.37 k·gm-3 for wheat, and 7.50 and 6.50 kg·m-3 for tomato crops; ...

  20. Solar system constraints on disformal gravity theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ip, Hiu Yan; Schmidt, Fabian; Sakstein, Jeremy

    2015-01-01

    Disformal theories of gravity are scalar-tensor theories where the scalar couples derivatively to matter via the Jordan frame metric. These models have recently attracted interest in the cosmological context since they admit accelerating solutions. We derive the solution for a static isolated mass in generic disformal gravity theories and transform it into the parameterised post-Newtonian form. This allows us to investigate constraints placed on such theories by local tests of gravity. The tightest constraints come from preferred-frame effects due to the motion of the Solar System with respect to the evolving cosmological background field. The constraints we obtain improve upon the previous solar system constraints by two orders of magnitude, and constrain the scale of the disformal coupling for generic models to ℳ ∼> 100 eV. These constraints render all disformal effects irrelevant for cosmology

  1. Analytical Solution for Optimum Design of Furrow Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiwan, M. E.

    1996-05-01

    An analytical solution for the optimum design of furrow irrigation systems is derived. The non-linear calculus optimization method is used to formulate a general form for designing the optimum system elements under circumstances of maximizing the water application efficiency of the system during irrigation. Different system bases and constraints are considered in the solution. A full irrigation water depth is considered to be achieved at the tail of the furrow line. The solution is based on neglecting the recession and depletion times after off-irrigation. This assumption is valid in the case of open-end (free gradient) furrow systems rather than closed-end (closed dike) systems. Illustrative examples for different systems are presented and the results are compared with the output obtained using an iterative numerical solution method. The final derived solution is expressed as a function of the furrow length ratio (the furrow length to the water travelling distance). The function of water travelling developed by Reddy et al. is considered for reaching the optimum solution. As practical results from the study, the optimum furrow elements for free gradient systems can be estimated to achieve the maximum application efficiency, i.e. furrow length, water inflow rate and cutoff irrigation time.

  2. Sustainable management after irrigation system transfer : experiences in Colombia - the RUT irrigation district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Urrutia Cobo, N.

    2006-01-01

    Colombiais a tropical country located in South America. It has a total area of 114 million ha. In Colombia two irrigation sectors are distinguished: the small-scale irrigation and the large-scale irrigation sector. The small-scale irrigation sector is developed on lands

  3. Irrigation System through Intelligent Agents Implemented with Arduino Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo SALAZAR

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The water has become in recent years a valuable and increasingly scarce. Its proper use in agriculture has demanded incorporate new technologies, mainly in the area of ICT. In this paper we present a smart irrigation system based on multi-agent architecture using fuzzy logic. The architecture incorporates different types of intelligent agents that an autonomous way monitor and are responsible for deciding if required enable / disable the irrigation system. This project proposes a real and innovative solution to the problem of inadequate water use with current irrigation systems employed in agricultural projects. This article presents the different technologies used, their adaptation to the solution of the problem and briefly discusses the first results obtained.

  4. Ring Irrigation System (RIS design through customer preference representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Infandra I.Z.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In agricultural field, irrigation is one of the most interesting considerations affecting the rate of plant growth and development. Micro-irrigation as the dripping or sprinkle method is one of the irrigation types that applies the small amount of water for fulfilling the humidity requirement. The most important factors affecting the demand of water for plants are soil conditions and effect of climatic factors. With less human labour required, to improve the irrigation method from the recent days, analyzing water used or water permeation automatically through the soil moisture has been raised as the interesting topic. Proposed in this research is the ring irrigation system (RIS which is introduced as an alternative channel for emitters that drip water directly onto the soil at the plant’s root zone where the soil conditions before and after watering can be quickly detected by the sensors. This RIS can be used for the potted plant, green house, or other small farm fields. Product design and development (PDD is applied in this research for assisting the designer to understand and create the RIS prototype properly according to the customer’s requirements where the suggested functions obtained will be added and tested.

  5. Normative structures, collaboration and conflict in irrigation; a case study of the Pillaro North Canal Irrigation System, Ecuadorian Highlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Hoogesteger

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes conflict and collaboration and their relation to normative structures based on a case study of the history and external interventions of the Píllaro North Canal Irrigation System in the Ecuadorian Highlands. It does so by using Ostrom’s framework for analyzing the sustainability of socio-ecological systems together with an analysis of the normative structures that define the governance systems through which the interactions in irrigation systems are mediated. I argue that the external interventions by the state and NGOs imposed a new governance system that undermined the existing normative structures and related organizations, leading to internal conflicts. The case study suggests that a reformulation of irrigation policies and state intervention methodologies in user managed supra-community irrigation systems in the Andes could lead to higher levels of cooperation.

  6. Influence of big power motors for irrigation of electric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, M.; Gialuca, V.; Trombetta, O.R.

    1988-01-01

    The evolution of rural electrification in CPFL - Companhia Paulista de Forca e Luz, Sao Paulo State, Brazil, and the influence of big power motors installation for irrigation in electric system are shown. Considerations about rural market, energy consumption, planning of distribution and transmission line and some calculations are also presented. (author)

  7. Control of soil moisture with radio frequency in a photovoltaic-powered drip irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    DURSUN, Mahir; ÖZDEN, Semih

    2015-01-01

    Solar-powered irrigation systems are becoming increasingly widespread. However, the initial setup costs of these systems are very high. To reduce these costs, both the energy usage and the prevention of losses from irrigation systems are very important. In this study, a drip irrigation control system of 1000 dwarf cherry trees was controlled using soil moisture sensors in order to prevent excessive water consumption and energy losses in a solar-powered irrigation system. The control sys...

  8. Automation of irrigation systems to control irrigation applications and crop water use efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agricultural irrigation management to slow water withdrawals from non-replenishing quality water resources is a global endeavor and vital to sustaining irrigated agriculture and dependent rural economies. Research in site-specific irrigation management has shown that water use efficiency, and crop p...

  9. Phosphorus distribution in sandy soil profile under drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Gendy, R.W.; Rizk, M.A.; Abd El Moniem, M.; Abdel-Aziz, H.A.; Fahmi, A.E.

    2009-01-01

    This work aims at to studying the impact of irrigation water applied using drip irrigation system in sandy soil with snap bean on phosphorus distribution. This experiment was carried out in soils and water research department farm, nuclear research center, atomic energy authority, cairo, Egypt. Snap bean was cultivated in sandy soil and irrigated with 50,37.5 and 25 cm water in three water treatments represented 100, 75 and 50% ETc. Phosphorus distribution and direction of soil water movement had been detected in three sites on the dripper line (S1,S2 and S3 at 0,12.5 and 25 cm distance from dripper). Phosphorus fertilizer (super phosphate, 15.5% P 2 O 5 in rate 300 kg/fed)was added before cultivation. Neutron probe was used to detect the water distribution and movement at the three site along soil profile. Soil samples were collected before p-addition, at end developing, mid, and late growth stages to determine residual available phosphorus. The obtained data showed that using 50 cm water for irrigation caused an increase in P-concentration till 75 cm depth in the three sites of 100% etc treatment, and covered P-requirements of snap bean for all growth stages. As for 37.5 and 25 cm irrigation water cannot cover all growth stages for P-requirements of snap bean. It could be concluded that applied irrigation water could drive the residual P-levels till 75 cm depth in the three sites. Yield of the crop had been taken as an indicator as an indicator profile. Yield showed good response according to water quantities and P-transportation within the soil profile

  10. Optimal Design and Operation of Permanent Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oron, Gideon; Walker, Wynn R.

    1981-01-01

    Solid-set pressurized irrigation system design and operation are studied with optimization techniques to determine the minimum cost distribution system. The principle of the analysis is to divide the irrigation system into subunits in such a manner that the trade-offs among energy, piping, and equipment costs are selected at the minimum cost point. The optimization procedure involves a nonlinear, mixed integer approach capable of achieving a variety of optimal solutions leading to significant conclusions with regard to the design and operation of the system. Factors investigated include field geometry, the effect of the pressure head, consumptive use rates, a smaller flow rate in the pipe system, and outlet (sprinkler or emitter) discharge.

  11. A rule-based smart automated fertilization and irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousif, Musab El-Rashid; Ghafar, Khairuddin; Zahari, Rahimi; Lim, Tiong Hoo

    2018-04-01

    Smart automation in industries has become very important as it can improve the reliability and efficiency of the systems. The use of smart technologies in agriculture have increased over the year to ensure and control the production of crop and address food security. However, it is important to use proper irrigation systems avoid water wastage and overfeeding of the plant. In this paper, a Smart Rule-based Automated Fertilization and Irrigation System is proposed and evaluated. We propose a rule based decision making algorithm to monitor and control the food supply to the plant and the soil quality. A build-in alert system is also used to update the farmer using a text message. The system is developed and evaluated using a real hardware.

  12. Gravity-darkening in the Algol system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopal, Z.

    1979-01-01

    Infrared observations of the secondary minimum of the eclipsing system of Algol, secured recently by Nadeau et al. (1978) with the 200 in and 60 in reflectors of Mount Wilson and Palomar Observatories at the effective wavelength of 10 μm, show its light curve to be distinctly dish-shaped i.e. the light diminishes relatively fast in the early stages of the eclipse, and its rate of decline slows down in advanced partial phases. This fact indicates convincingly that the light distribution over the apparent disc of Algol's late-type (contact) component is akin to that produced by the phenomenon of 'gravity-darkening' to a very pronounced degree. An analysis of Algol's infrared light curve during the secondary minimum (when its contact component undergoes eclipse by its nearly spherical mate) observed at an effective wavelength of 10μm, discloses now that the (monochromatic) coefficient of the linear law of gravity-darkening, characterizing the distribution of brightness over the apparent disc of the contact star, comes out again at least twice as large as one which would correspond to a purely radiative energy transfer of total light in the far interior of this star. No physical theory can be advanced to explain this fact - except, possibly, a hypothesis that the observed enhancement of the monochromatic coefficient tau of gravity-darkening over that appropriate for total radiation may be caused by a very wide departure of the outer layer of the respective stars from thermodynamic equilibrium. (Auth.)

  13. An integrated crop and hydrologic modeling system to estimate hydrologic impacts of crop irrigation demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.T. McNider; C. Handyside; K. Doty; W.L. Ellenburg; J.F. Cruise; J.R. Christy; D. Moss; V. Sharda; G. Hoogenboom; Peter Caldwell

    2015-01-01

    The present paper discusses a coupled gridded crop modeling and hydrologic modeling system that can examine the benefits of irrigation and costs of irrigation and the coincident impact of the irrigation water withdrawals on surface water hydrology. The system is applied to the Southeastern U.S. The system tools to be discussed include a gridded version (GriDSSAT) of...

  14. Irrigation ponds: Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Bin; MAO Zhi; BROWN Larry; CHEN XiuHong; PENG LiYuan; WANG JianZhang

    2009-01-01

    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and un-recycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China.With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious.Traditional ir-rigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e.the capacity of irri-gation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality im-provement, how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irriga-tion and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning.Pond is an important irrigation facil-ity in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use.Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treat-ment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system.To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site.The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water.Other issues, e.g.how to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  15. Irrigation ponds:Possibility and potentials for the treatment of drainage water from paddy fields in Zhanghe Irrigation System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BROWN; Larry

    2009-01-01

    Excessive application of fertilizers and pesticides as well as discharge of undecontaminated and unrecycled waste of livestock and poultry into farmland has caused serious non-point source pollution (NSP) of farmland in China. With the traditional mode of irrigation and drainage in rice-based irrigation systems, the pollution of farmland drainage water has become more and more serious. Traditional irrigation and drainage systems only focus on issues concerning water quantity, i.e. the capacity of irrigation in drought and drainage in waterlogging period, yet have no requirement on water quality improvement. how to clean the water quality of farmland drainage through remodeling the existing irrigation and drainage systems has a very important realistic meaning. Pond is an important irrigation facility in rice-based irrigation systems in southern China, which has the functions of not only a storage of water from canals but also collections of surface runoffs and farmland drainage for recycling use. Such water storage features of pond provide the possibility and potential capacity for drainage water treatment by managing such features as treatment basins as the growth of aquatic plants as well as living of fishes, batrachia and microorganisms in pond forms a soil-plant-microorganism ecological system. To explore the potential capacity of pond for drainage water nutrient reduction, the Zhanghe Irrigation System of Hubei, a typical "melon-on-the-vine" system in southern China is selected as the research site. The results of pond survey and field experiments demonstrate that plenty of ponds are suitable for collecting and cleaning paddy field drainage, and the ponds are favorable in reducing N, P nutrients in the drainage water. Other issues, e.g. how to maximize such capacity and what strategies should be sought to make existing treatment basins hydraulically more efficient, are also discussed.

  16. Web/smart phone based control and feedback systems for irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of the internet and mobile devices in the control and feedback of irrigation systems is reviewed. This role is placed in the larger context of four distinct components required for irrigation management, including 1. the control panel; 2. remote control; 3. soil, plant, and weather (SPW) se...

  17. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    controllers, centralized and site-specific sensor inputs, leak detection sensors, and the use of harvested water (i.e., rainwater and air condition water ...include ET functionality with soil moisture sensor, and leak detection via flow meter. ESTCP Final Report Smart Water Conservation System 58... leakage . The minimum static pressure was not achieved because tank water levels were less than 10 feet in the selected low profile tank.) Adjust break

  18. Gravity Probe B data system description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, Norman R

    2015-01-01

    The Gravity Probe B data system, developed, integrated, and tested by Lockheed Missiles and Space Company, and later Lockheed Martin Corporation, included flight and ground command, control, and communications software. The development was greatly facilitated, conceptually and by the transfer of key personnel, through Lockheed’s earlier flight and ground test software development for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Key design challenges included the tight mission timeline (17 months, 9 days of on-orbit operation), the need to tune the system once on-orbit, and limited 2 Kbps real-time data rates and ground asset availability. The result was a completely integrated space vehicle and Stanford mission operations center, which successfully collected and archived 97% of the ‘guide star valid’ data to support the science analysis. Lessons learned and incorporated from the HST flight software development and on-orbit support experience, and Lockheed’s independent research and development effort, will be discussed. (paper)

  19. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-01

    ht ly M or e W or kl oa d; 5 -M or e W or kl oa d; 6 -S ig ni fic an lty M or...install the water harvesting and pump system was captured from the contractor cost proposal. 7.1.3 Water Cost Water purchased from the Port Hueneme Water...818) 737-2734 KDuke@valleycrest.com Contractor Tom Santoianni 1205 Mill Rd. Bldg. 1430 Public Works, Ventura (805) 982-4075 Tom.Santoianni@navy.mil Energy Manager

  20. Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Gamow, George

    2003-01-01

    A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw

  1. An experimental study on the grape orchard: Effects comparison of two irrigation systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadbhane Sharad J.

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Table grape (Vitis vinifera cultivars is a major cash crop in the Nashik district of India, which requires irrigation water throughout the year as per demand instantly. Canal irrigation is the adopted irrigation systems in the study area, but canal irrigation has got several serious disadvantages, such as mismatching rotation schedules and crop water demands, water allotment system and restrictions on the use of efficient irrigation methods. The storing the canal water in the farm pond instead of directly applying to the field using the free flooding method is alternate solution to overcome the disadvantages of the canal irrigation system. Once the canal water storing in the pond, it increases the possibilities to use the advance irrigation system like drip, subsurface, sprinkler etc. to enhance water use efficiency. The comparative study between the canal water directly applying for the field and canal water storing in the farm pond then use for irrigation, executed through the field experiments carried out on the grape orchard during a period April 2013 to March 2016. Results have been evaluated based on grape yield, water-productivity, berry size, and biomass. Water productivity (kg·m-3 with respect to water delivery to crop through the pond irrigation method was found 37% higher than the canal irrigation method during the study period. Based on the results, this study recommended the use of the farm pond to store the canal water and use it as per crop demand using advance irrigation systems.

  2. Go Grey - A Laundry to Landscape Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajmohan, S.

    2017-12-01

    California residents have dealt with severe drought and high water bills for the few past years[1]. The objective of our project is to use the concept of greywater irrigation to build a low cost, adaptable, and easy to install irrigation system to collect the greywater from the washing machine and use it to water the plants. This system can reduce a household's water usage, extend the life of a septic system, and save time on watering plants by recycling the water from the washing machine. Our simple system requires PVC pipes, a three-way water diverter (valve), a mesh coffee filter, and a water (rain) barrel. The water from the washing machine travels through the three-way valve, which diverts it either to the garden or to the sewer. The PVC pipes lead outside to the garden, where the water barrel is located. The water goes through the mesh coffee filter that is attached on top of the barrel, so that lint and other impurities can be filtered out. The water collected in the barrel will travel through drip irrigation or through a hose to directly water the roots of the plants. This fully functional greywater system was successfully constructed and tested through various trails. We used a Kenmore standard 4.5 cubic feet front load high efficiency washer which uses less water compared to the traditional washers and measured the water collected in water barrel after each wash. Irrespective of the size of the load, the amount of water collected from each wash remained almost the same.. However, we collected enough grey water from each washer load to fill the rain barrel and water the plants in the garden. We were able apply the concept of greywater irrigation successfully to build our own low cost, adaptable, and easy to install greywater system that can be used in any household to water plants in the garden. Our system recycles the water from the washer instead of just wasting it thereby reducing a household's water usage and water bill especially during the time of

  3. On the waterfront : water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a South Indian canal irrigation system

    OpenAIRE

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed harvests and famines in the past. A large scale irrigation system was constructed to solve these problems. The system is operational since 1953 and was completed in 1968. The area to be irrigated ...

  4. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, P.E.; Li, H.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Liu, J.; Yan, J.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel optimization procedure for photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • An hourly simulation model is the basis of the optimization procedure. • The effectiveness of the new optimization approach has been tested to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availability of groundwater resources and the effect of water supply on crop yield, but also the investment cost of photovoltaic water pumping system and the revenue from crop sale. A simulation model, which combines the dynamics of photovoltaic water pumping system, groundwater level, water supply, crop water demand and crop yield, is employed during the optimization. To prove the effectiveness of the new optimization approach, it has been applied to an existing photovoltaic water pumping system. Results show that the optimal configuration can guarantee continuous operations and lead to a substantial reduction of photovoltaic array size and consequently of the investment capital cost and the payback period. Sensitivity studies have been conducted to investigate the impacts of the prices of photovoltaic modules and forage on the optimization. Results show that the water resource is a determinant factor

  5. Real-time drought forecasting system for irrigation managment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceppi, Alessandro; Ravazzani, Giovanni; Corbari, Chiara; Masseroni, Daniele; Meucci, Stefania; Pala, Francesca; Salerno, Raffaele; Meazza, Giuseppe; Chiesa, Marco; Mancini, Marco

    2013-04-01

    In recent years frequent periods of water scarcity have enhanced the need to use water more carefully, even in in European areas traditionally rich of water such as the Po Valley. In dry periods, the problem of water shortage can be enhanced by conflictual use of water such as irrigation, industrial and power production (hydroelectric and thermoelectric). Further, over the last decade the social perspective on this issue is increasing due to climate change and global warming scenarios which come out from the last IPCC Report. The increased frequency of dry periods has stimulated the improvement of irrigation and water management. In this study we show the development and implementation of the real-time drought forecasting system Pre.G.I., an Italian acronym that stands for "Hydro-Meteorological forecast for irrigation management". The system is based on ensemble prediction at long range (30 days) with hydrological simulation of water balance to forecast the soil water content in every parcel over the Consorzio Muzza basin. The studied area covers 74,000 ha in the middle of the Po Valley, near the city of Lodi. The hydrological ensemble forecasts are based on 20 meteorological members of the non-hydrostatic WRF model with 30 days as lead-time, provided by Epson Meteo Centre, while the hydrological model used to generate the soil moisture and water table simulations is the rainfall-runoff distributed FEST-WB model, developed at Politecnico di Milano. The hydrological model was validated against measurements of latent heat flux and soil moisture acquired by an eddy-covariance station. Reliability of the forecasting system and its benefits was assessed on some cases-study occurred in the recent years.

  6. Closed chamber globe stabilization and needle capsulorhexis using irrigation hand piece of bimanual irrigation and aspiration system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai Harminder K

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prerequisites for a good capsulorhexis include a deep, well maintained anterior chamber, globe stabilization and globe manipulation. This helps to achieve a capsulorhexis of optimal size, shape and obtain the best possible position for a red glow under retroillumination. We report the use of irrigation handpiece of bimanual irrigation aspiration system to stabilize the globe, maintain a deep anterior chamber and manipulate the globe to a position of optimal red reflex during needle capsulorhexis in phacoemulsification. Methods Two side ports are made with 20 G MVR 'V' lance knife (Alcon, USA. The irrigation handpiece with irrigation on is introduced into the anterior chamber through one side port and the 26-G cystitome (made from 26-G needle is introduced through the other. The capsolurhexis is completed with the needle. Results Needle capsulorhexis with this technique was used in 30 cases of uncomplicated immature senile cataracts. 10 cases were done under peribulbar anaesthesia and 20 under topical anaesthesia. A complete capsulorhexis was achieved in all cases. Conclusion The irrigating handpiece maintains deep anterior chamber, stabilizes the globe, facilitates pupillary dilatation, and helps in maintaining the eye in the position with optimal red reflex during needle capsulorhexis. This technique is a safe and effective way to perform needle capsulorhexis.

  7. Ring Irrigation System (RIS) design through customer preference representation

    OpenAIRE

    Ridwan Infandra I.Z.; Rianmora Suchada; Werawatganon Siwat

    2018-01-01

    In agricultural field, irrigation is one of the most interesting considerations affecting the rate of plant growth and development. Micro-irrigation as the dripping or sprinkle method is one of the irrigation types that applies the small amount of water for fulfilling the humidity requirement. The most important factors affecting the demand of water for plants are soil conditions and effect of climatic factors. With less human labour required, to improve the irrigation method from the recent ...

  8. Automatic aeroponic irrigation system based on Arduino’s platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montoya, A. P.; Obando, F. A.; Morales, J. G.; Vargas, G.

    2017-06-01

    The recirculating hydroponic culture techniques, as aeroponics, has several advantages over traditional agriculture, aimed to improve the efficiently and environmental impact of agriculture. These techniques require continuous monitoring and automation for proper operation. In this work was developed an automatic monitored aeroponic-irrigation system based on the Arduino’s free software platform. Analog and digital sensors for measuring the temperature, flow and level of a nutrient solution in a real greenhouse were implemented. In addition, the pH and electric conductivity of nutritive solutions are monitored using the Arduino’s differential configuration. The sensor network, the acquisition and automation system are managed by two Arduinos modules in master-slave configuration, which communicate one each other wireless by Wi-Fi. Further, data are stored in micro SD memories and the information is loaded on a web page in real time. The developed device brings important agronomic information when is tested with an arugula culture (Eruca sativa Mill). The system also could be employ as an early warning system to prevent irrigation malfunctions.

  9. Effect of Irrigation with Reclaimed Water on Fruit Characteristics and Photosynthesis of Olive Trees under Two Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashrafi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Olive (Olea europaea L. trees are mainly cultivated in the Mediterranean area and are grown for their oil or processed as table olives. Despite the fact that olive is known to be resistant to drought conditions due to its anatomical, physiological, and biochemical adaptations to drought stress, reports indicate that the olive can be adversely affected by drought stress, which has a negative effect on the growth of olive trees. In the absence of adequate supplies of water, the demand for water can be met by using improved irrigation methods or by using reclaimed water (RW. Reports have shown that recycled water has been used successfully for irrigating olive orchards with no negative effects on plant growth.Attention has been paid to reclaimed water as one of the most significant available water resources used in agriculture around large cities in arid and semi-arid regions. On the other hand, irrigation efficiency is low and does not meet the demands of farmers.In order to investigate the possibility of irrigating olive orchards with subsurface leakage irrigation (SLI in application of reclaimed water, an experiment was carried out with the aim of investigating the effect of reclaimed water on photosynthetic indices and morphological properties of olive fruit. Materials and Methods: Research was conducted using a split-plot experimental design with two factors (irrigation system and water quality on the campus of Isfahan University of Technology in Isfahan, Iran, on a sandy-clay soil with a pH of 7.5 and electrical conductivity (EC of 2.48 dSm-1.PVC leaky tubes were used for the SLI system. The SLI system was installed 40 cm from the crown of each tree at a depth of 30 - 40 cm.At the end of the experiment fruit yield, weight per fruit, volume, length and firmness were calculated. A portable gas exchange system (Li-6400., LICOR, Lincoln, NE, USA was used to measure the net rate photosynthesis (A, the internal partial pressure CO2

  10. The Application of Drip Irrigation System on Tomato (Lycopersicum Esculentum Mill)

    OpenAIRE

    Setyaningrum, Diah Ayu

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to analyze the performance of drip irrigation systems, determine performance of tomato treated under the irrigation systems.Field research was conducted at the Laboratory of Land and Water Resources Engineering; and at the Laboratory ofintegrated field, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Lampung in August 2013 to December 2013.Irrigation systems consisted of main componens: water supplies, Polythilene lateral tube, and emitters. Emitter on every pot, were made of Polythile...

  11. An analysis of solar energy and irrigation systems in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Senol, Ramazan

    2012-01-01

    Pumping water is considered a common need all around the world. Standalone PV technologies are being increasingly used for midsize pumping applications. PV powered pumping systems offer simplicity, reliability, and low maintenance for irrigation systems. PV powered pump is particularly appropriate for water supply in remote areas where no electricity grid is available. In this paper, the technical and economical feasibility of photovoltaic pumping of water in Turkey has been studied. Here, the study has focused on small and medium-size mobile applications using energy and water-conserving forms of drip irrigation to apple orchard on up to 0.5 ha of land in Eğirdir District. Life cycle cost (LCC) method has been applied to determine the economic life of the PV modules, and the diesel pumping in Turkey taken as 25 years. - Highlights: ► In this paper, a water pumping system with mobile PV power station examined. ► The technical and economical feasibility of photovoltaic pumping in Turkey was studied. ► Here the study focused on small and medium-size mobile applications. ► LCC method applied to determine the economic life of the PV modules, and the diesel pumping in Turkey.

  12. A comprehensive guide for designing more efficient irrigation systems with respect to application control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaddam, Issam; Schuetze, Niels

    2017-04-01

    The worldwide water scarcity problems are expected to aggravate due to the increasing population and the need to produce more food. Irrigated agriculture is considered the highest consumer of fresh water resources with a rate exceeds 70% of global consumption. Consequently, an improvement in the efficiency of all irrigation methods, such as furrow or drip irrigation, becomes more necessary and urgent. Therefore, a more precise knowledge about soil water distribution in the root zone and the water balance components is required. For this purpose and as a part of the SAPHIR project (Saxonian Platform for high Performance Irrigation), a 2D simulation- based study was performed with virtual field conditions. The study investigates the most important design parameters of many irrigation systems, such as irrigation intensity and duration, and shows there influence on the water distribution efficiency. Furthermore, three main soil textures are used to test the impact of the soil hydraulic properties on irrigation effectiveness. A numerous number of irrigation scenarios of each irrigation system was simulated using HYDRUS 2D. Thereafter, the results were digitally calculated, compiled and made available online in the so called "Irrigation Atlases". The irrigation atlases provide graphical results of the soil moisture and pressure head distributions in the root zone. Moreover, they contain detailed information of the water balance for all simulated scenarios. The most studies evaluate the irrigation water demands on local, regional or global scales and for that an efficient water distribution is required. In this context, the irrigation atlases can serve as a valuable tool for the implementation of planned irrigation measures.

  13. The Impact of Regular and Periodic Irrigation on the Fertility and Productivity of an Ordinary Chernozem of the Azov Irrigation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchedrin, V. N.

    2016-02-01

    The effect of regular and periodic irrigation on the fertility and productivity of an ordinary chernozem cultivated under different conditions within the same cereal-fodder crop rotation is discussed. The investigation object is located in the area of the Azov irrigation system on the second terrace of the Don River in Rostov oblast. Irrigation water for the system is taken from the Veselovsk water reservoir. Its salinity is 1.7-2.1 g/dm3, and the salt composition is sulfate-sodium. The field experiments were performed in 2006-2013 on three experimental plots. Two of them were regularly irrigated; the third plot was periodically irrigated with alternation of 2-year-long periods with and without irrigation. Our study proved that periodic irrigation could be applied in the chernozemic zone. This new irrigation mode contributes to the preservation of the natural soil-forming process and stops the development of unfavorable processes typical of the lands irrigated with water of inadequate quality. In eight years of cultivation of the ordinary chernozem with periodic irrigation, the soil humus content increased by 10% (from 3.80 to 4.15%), and the yield reached 66.0 t/ha of fodder units. This was 9% higher than the yield obtained upon regular irrigation without agroameliorative measures and 12% lower than the yield upon regular irrigation in combination with soil-protective measures. Our data suggest that periodic irrigation is promising for the chernozemic zone, because it ensures lower water loads and preservation of the irrigated chernozems.

  14. A review of sustainable solar irrigation systems for Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammed Wazed, S.; Hughes, B.R.; O’Connor, D.; Kaiser Calautit, J.

    2018-01-01

    This investigation focused on the research undertaken on solar photovoltaic (PV) and solar thermal technologies for pumping water generally for irrigation of remote rural farms specifically considering the Sub-Saharan African region. Solar PV systems have been researched extensively for irrigation purposes due to the rise in Oil prices and the upscaling in commercialisation of PV technology. Based on the literature the most effective PV system is presented for the irrigation of a small scare ...

  15. Crop and Irrigation Management Systems under Greenhouse Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro García-Caparrós

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants of Ruscus aculeatus, known as “butcher’s broom”, Maytenus senegalensis, known as “confetti tree”, and Juncus acutus, known as “spiny rush” were grown in pots with a mixture of sphagnum peat-moss and Perlite in order to determine the effect and evolution over time of three water use systems on plant growth, water saving and nutrient uptake. These were an open system (irrigated with standard nutrient solution and two closed systems (blended-water (drainage water blended with water of low electrical conductivity (EC and sequential reuse of drainage (sequential-reuse water, over a period of 8 weeks. Irrigation with blended- and sequential-reuse-water increased the biomass of all three species at the end of the experiment, compared to the open system. Overall, sequential-reuse-water treatment maximised biomass production. The application of blended- and sequential-reuse-water allowed savings of 17% of water in comparison to the open system. Regarding Cl, NO3− and H2PO4− loads, there was a removal of 5%, 32% and 32%; respectively in the blended-water treatment and 15%, 17% and 17% in the sequential-reuse water treatment compared to the open system. For the cation loads (Na+, K+, Ca2+ and Mg2+ in these water treatments there was a removal of 10%, 32%, 7% and 18% respectively in the blended-water treatment, and 17%, 22%, 17% and 18% respectively in the sequential-reuse treatment, compared to the open system.

  16. Water reuse and cost-benefit of pumping at different spatial levels in a rice irrigation system in UPRIIS, Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafeez, M. M.; Bouman, B. A. M.; Van de Giesen, N.; Mushtaq, S.; Vlek, P.; Khan, S.

    As agricultural water resources in Asia become increasingly scarce, the irrigation efficiency of rice must be improved. However, in this region there is very limited information available about water use efficiency across spatial levels in irrigation systems. This study quantifies the volume of water reuse and its related cost-benefits at five different spatial levels, ranging from 1500 ha to 18,000 ha, under gravity-fed irrigation system in Upper Pumpanga River Integrated Irrigation System (UPRIIS), Philippines. The major sources of water reuse are considered, namely groundwater pumping, pumping from creeks, combined use and irrigation supplies from check dams. The volume of water available from all four sources of water reuse was quantified through extensive measurements. Production functions were developed to quantify water-yield relationships and to measure the economic value of water reuse. This study was conducted during the dry season of 2001, which existed from 19 November 2000 until 18 May 2001. The water reuse by pumping and check dams was 7% and 22% of the applied surface water at District 1 level. The reuse of surface water through check dams increased linearly with 4.6 Mm 3 per added 1000 ha. Similarly, the total amount of reused water from pumping is equivalent to 30% of the water lost through rice evapotranspiration during the dry season 2001. The results showed that water reuse plays a dominant role in growing a rice crop during the dry season. The result showed no difference in pumping costs between the creek (US0.011/m 3) and shallow pumps (US0.012/m 3). The marginal value of productivity (MVP) of water reuse from creek (US0.044/m 3) was slightly higher than the water reuse through the pumping ground water (US0.039/m 3). Results also indicated that the total volume pumped per ha (m 3/ha) was ranging from 0.39 to 6.93 m 3/ha during the dry season. The results clearly indicate that the quantification of amount of water reuse is very crucial for

  17. Effect of Artificial Gravity: Central Nervous System Neurochemical Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Robert A.; D'Amelio, Fernando; Eng, Lawrence F.

    1997-01-01

    The major objective of this project was to assess chemical and morphological modifications occurring in muscle receptors and the central nervous system of animals subjected to altered gravity (2 x Earth gravity produced by centrifugation and simulated micro gravity produced by hindlimb suspension). The underlying hypothesis for the studies was that afferent (sensory) information sent to the central nervous system by muscle receptors would be changed in conditions of altered gravity and that these changes, in turn, would instigate a process of adaptation involving altered chemical activity of neurons and glial cells of the projection areas of the cerebral cortex that are related to inputs from those muscle receptors (e.g., cells in the limb projection areas). The central objective of this research was to expand understanding of how chronic exposure to altered gravity, through effects on the vestibular system, influences neuromuscular systems that control posture and gait. The project used an approach in which molecular changes in the neuromuscular system were related to the development of effective motor control by characterizing neurochemical changes in sensory and motor systems and relating those changes to motor behavior as animals adapted to altered gravity. Thus, the objective was to identify changes in central and peripheral neuromuscular mechanisms that are associated with the re-establishment of motor control which is disrupted by chronic exposure to altered gravity.

  18. Projected energy and water consumption of Pacific Northwest irrigation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, L. D.; Hellickson, M. L.; Schmisseur, W. E.; Shearer, M. N.

    1978-10-01

    A computer model has been developed to predict present and future regional water, energy, labor, and capital requirements of irrigated agricultural production in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The energy requirements calculated were on-farm pumping, and total energies. Total energies are the combined energies of on-farm pumping, manufacture, and installation. Irrigation system selections and modifications were based on an economic analysis utilizing the following input parameters: water, energy, labor, and capital costs and requirements; groundwater and surface water pumping lifts; improved application efficiencies; and pumping plant efficiencies. Major conclusions and implications of this analysis indicate that: as water application efficiencies increases additional quantities of water will not become available to other users; an overall increase in water application efficiencies resulted in decreases in gross water applications and increases in overall on-farm pumping and total energy consumptions; more energy will be consumed as pumping and total energies than will be conserved through decreased diversion pumping energy requirements; pump-back and similar technologies have the potential of both increasing application efficiencies and energy conservation; and the interrelationships understood between applying water in quantities greater than required for crop consumptive use and leaching, and late season in-steam flow augmentation and/or aquifer recharge are not well understood, and sound policy decisions concerning agricultural use of water and energy cannot be made until these interrelationships are better understood.

  19. Computer-Aided Design System Development of Fixed Water Distribution of Pipe Irrigation System

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou , Mingyao; Wang , Susheng; Zhang , Zhen; Chen , Lidong

    2010-01-01

    International audience; It is necessary to research a cheap and simple fixed water distribution device according to the current situation of the technology of low-pressure pipe irrigation. This article proposed a fixed water distribution device with round table based on the analysis of the hydraulic characteristics of low-pressure pipe irrigation systems. The simulation of FLUENT and GAMBIT software conducted that the flow of this structure was steady with a low head loss comparing to other t...

  20. Intervention processes and irrigation institutions : sustainability of farmer managed irrigation systems in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pant, D.R.

    2000-01-01

    With the support from various donors, His Majesty's Government of Nepal has implemented support programmes with a view to transform water availability, improve production, and increase the institutional capabilities of farmers to develop and sustain efficient, fair and reliable irrigation

  1. Systems and Methods for Gravity-Independent Gripping and Drilling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parness, Aaron (Inventor); Frost, Matthew A. (Inventor); Thatte, Nitish (Inventor); King, Jonathan P. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for gravity independent gripping and drilling are described. The gripping device can also comprise a drill or sampling devices for drilling and/or sampling in microgravity environments, or on vertical or inverted surfaces in environments where gravity is present. A robotic system can be connected with the gripping and drilling devices via an ankle interface adapted to distribute the forces realized from the robotic system.

  2. Design and implementation of expert decision system in Yellow River Irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuping, Wang; Bingbing, Lei; Jie, Pan

    2018-03-01

    How to make full use of water resources in the Yellow River irrigation is a problem needed to be solved urgently. On account of the different irrigation strategies in various growth stages of wheat, this paper proposes a novel irrigation expert decision system basing on fuzzy control technique. According to the control experience, expert knowledge and MATLAB simulation optimization, we obtain the irrigation fuzzy control table stored in the computer memory. The controlling irrigation is accomplished by reading the data from fuzzy control table. The experimental results show that the expert system can be used in the production of wheat to achieve timely and appropriate irrigation, and ensure that wheat growth cycle is always in the best growth environment.

  3. Multiple-use Management of Irrigation Systems: Technical Constraints and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowing, J.; Li, Q.; Mayilswami, C.; Gunawardhana, K.

    It is now widely recognised that many irrigation systems, originally planned only for irrigation supply, are de facto multiple-use systems. However, the importance of non- irrigation uses (such as bathing, laundry, livestock watering and fishing), to the liveli- hoods of the rural poor has generally been ignored. This has significant implications for irrigation engineers, water resources managers and other decision-makers. An im- proved understanding of competition and complementarity between these uses and irrigation demands is essential for effective multiple-use management of irrigation systems.This paper presents a study of multiple-use management, where the focus is on integrating aquaculture within irrigation systems with and without secondary storage. The Lower Bhavani scheme in South India and Mahaweli System H in Sri- Lanka were selected as representative smallholder irrigation schemes: - The Lower Bhavani scheme comprises a 200km contour canal serving a command area of 78,500ha. Apart from the main dam, there are no storage structures within the irriga- tion system. - Mahaweli System H comprises a command area of 43,000ha served by three main canals. The feature of particular interest in this scheme is the large number of secondary storage structures (known locally as tanks), which are in- tegrated within the canal network. It is apparent from these two sites and from studies elsewhere that non-irrigation uses are important to the livelihoods of the local peo- ple, but these uses are largely opportunistic. The failure to give explicit recognition to non-irrigation uses has important implications for assessments of economic per- formance and water productivity of irrigation systems. However, any attempt to give proper recognition to these alternative uses also has implication for irrigation project management. This paper describes a detailed study of water management in the two irrigation systems. The method of investigation involves in-depth studies in

  4. Matching soil salinization and cropping systems in communally managed irrigation schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malota, Mphatso; Mchenga, Joshua

    2018-03-01

    Occurrence of soil salinization in irrigation schemes can be a good indicator to introduce high salt tolerant crops in irrigation schemes. This study assessed the level of soil salinization in a communally managed 233 ha Nkhate irrigation scheme in the Lower Shire Valley region of Malawi. Soil samples were collected within the 0-0.4 m soil depth from eight randomly selected irrigation blocks. Irrigation water samples were also collected from five randomly selected locations along the Nkhate River which supplies irrigation water to the scheme. Salinity of both the soil and the irrigation water samples was determined using an electrical conductivity (EC) meter. Analysis of the results indicated that even for very low salinity tolerant crops (ECi water was suitable for irrigation purposes. However, root-zone soil salinity profiles depicted that leaching of salts was not adequate and that the leaching requirement for the scheme needs to be relooked and always be adhered to during irrigation operation. The study concluded that the crop system at the scheme needs to be adjusted to match with prevailing soil and irrigation water salinity levels.

  5. Research on monitoring system of water resources in irrigation region based on multi-agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, T H; Wang, D S

    2012-01-01

    Irrigation agriculture is the basis of agriculture and rural economic development in China. Realizing the water resource information of irrigated area will make full use of existing water resource and increase benefit of irrigation agriculture greatly. However, the water resource information system of many irrigated areas in our country is not still very sound at present, it lead to the wasting of a lot of water resources. This paper has analyzed the existing water resource monitoring system of irrigated areas, introduced the Multi-Agent theories, and set up a water resource monitoring system of irrigated area based on multi-Agent. This system is composed of monitoring multi-Agent federal, telemetry multi-Agent federal, and the Communication Network GSM between them. It can make full use of good intelligence and communication coordination in the multi-Agent federation interior, improve the dynamic monitoring and controlling timeliness of water resource of irrigated area greatly, provide information service for the sustainable development of irrigated area, and lay a foundation for realizing high information of water resource of irrigated area.

  6. Comparative antibacterial efficacies of hydrodynamic and ultrasonic irrigation systems in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachovan, Georg; Schiffner, Ulrich; Altenhof, Saskia; Guentsch, Arndt; Pfister, Wolfgang; Eick, Sigrun

    2013-09-01

    To ensure root canal treatment success, endodontic microbiota should be efficiently reduced. The in vitro bactericidal effects of a hydrodynamic system and a passive ultrasonic irrigation system were compared. Single-rooted extracted teeth (n = 250) were contaminated with suspensions of Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, mixed aerobic cultures, or mixed anaerobic cultures. First, the antibacterial effects of the hydrodynamic system (RinsEndo), a passive ultrasonic irrigation system (Piezo smart), and manual rinsing with 0.9% NaCl (the control) were compared. Colony-forming units were counted. Second, the 2 systems were used with 1.5% sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) alone or NaOCl + 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX). The colony-forming units in the treated and untreated roots were determined during a period of 5 days. Both irrigation systems reduced bacterial numbers more effectively than manual rinsing (P irrigation reduced bacterial counts significantly better than hydrodynamic irrigation (P = .042). The NaOCl + CHX combination was more effective than NaOCl alone for both systems (P irrigation was more effective with NaOCl + CHX than the passive ultrasonic irrigation system. Both irrigation systems, when combined with NaOCl + CHX, removed bacteria from root canals. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Gated or ungated : water control in government-built irrigation systems : comparative research in Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pradhan, T.M.S.

    1996-01-01


    The control, allocation and distribution, of water is the core process of an irrigation system. It is the process by which the available water is divided and distributed to the smaller irrigation units within the system, which in turn is distributed further down to the individual water

  8. Developing a hybrid solar/wind powered irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Some small scale irrigation systems (powered by wind or solar do not require subsidies, but this paper discusses ways to achieve an economical renewable energy powered center pivot irrigation system for crops in the Great Plains. By adding a solar-photovoltaic (PV) array together with a wind...

  9. Gravity gradiometer system for Earth Exploration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuperus, R.; Flokstra, F.F.; Droogendijk, H.; Wiegerink, Remco J.; Flokstra, Jakob; Flokstra, Jan

    2009-01-01

    We develop a gravity gradiometer (GG) for use on planetary missions to planets like Mars and Jupiter. With some modifications this development is extended to include (airborne) applications for the Dutch exploratory industry. We adapt key technology of the space based GG for the use in an

  10. Technical Evaluation of Sprinkler Irrigation Systems which were Implemented in Tea Fields of the Guilan Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    kourosh majdsalimi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Designing and management of sprinkler irrigation systems depend on the situation and location of its implementation and often rely on professional and long-term tests (9. Having a good irrigation system depends on knowledge of the relationship between soil, water, plants, irrigation scheduling, the required amount of irrigation water to the water-holding capacity of soil, climate and plant growth (6.The less use of sprinkler irrigation systems and less performed research projects in the Guilan province, lack of correct design parameters due to shortage of the required parameters for local and regional planning, has led to reliance on charts and tables. Therefore, planning water resources cannot be performed well and with accurate details. According to many researchers (8, the technical evaluation should be a regular and short-term process to review the problems and possible performance of irrigation systems. Merriam and Keller (10 defined the assessment of an irrigation system analysis, based on field measurements in real terms during the normal work of the system. Therefore, to develop these systems over the next few years, it is essential to evaluate the use of irrigation systems and review the performance of existing problems and utilizing the results to improve it. The aim of this study was to assess the current status of implemented irrigation systems in the tea plantations of Guilan and evaluate their performance. Materials and Methods: In this study, six classic sprinkler irrigation systems in tea fields of Guilan province were evaluated during two years. Sprinkler irrigation systems of semi-portable, solid-set and solid-set (hand-move sprinkler were selected randomly. To evaluate this irrigation systems, Christiansen’s uniformity coefficient (CU, distribution uniformity (DU, potential application efficiency of low-quarter (PELQ and application efficiency of low-quarter (AELQ in the form of trial blocks were estimated by

  11. AgIIS, Agricultural Irrigation Imaging System, design and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberland, Julio Andres

    Remote sensing is a tool that is increasingly used in agriculture for crop management purposes. A ground-based remote sensing data acquisition system was designed, constructed, and implemented to collect high spatial and temporal resolution data in irrigated agriculture. The system was composed of a rail that mounts on a linear move irrigation machine, and a small cart that runs back and forth on the rail. The cart was equipped with a sensors package that measured reflectance in four discrete wavelengths (550 nm, 660 nm, 720 nm, and 810 nm, all 10 nm bandwidth) and an infrared thermometer. A global positioning system and triggers on the rail indicated cart position. The data was postprocessed in order to generate vegetation maps, N and water status maps and other indices relevant for site-specific crop management. A geographic information system (GIS) was used to generate images of the field on any desired day. The system was named AgIIS (A&barbelow;gricultural I&barbelow;rrigation I&barbelow;maging S&barbelow;ystem). This ground based remote sensing acquisition system was developed at the Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering Department at the University of Arizona in conjunction with the U.S. Water Conservation Laboratory in Phoenix, as part of a cooperative study primarily funded by the Idaho National Environmental and Engineering Laboratory. A second phase of the study utilized data acquired with AgIIS during the 1999 cotton growing season to model petiole nitrate (PNO3 -) and total leaf N. A latin square experimental design with optimal and low water and optimal and low N was used to evaluate N status under water and no water stress conditions. Multivariable models were generated with neural networks (NN) and multilinear regression (MLR). Single variable models were generated from chlorophyll meter readings (SPAD) and from the Canopy Chlorophyll Content Index (CCCI). All models were evaluated against observed PNO3- and total leaf N levels. The NN models

  12. Understanding water delivery performance in a large-scale irrigation system in Peru

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, J.M.C.

    2005-01-01

    During a two-year field study the performance of the water delivery was evaluated in a large-scale irrigation system on the north coast of Peru. Flow measurements were carried out along the main canals, along two secondary canals, and in two tertiary blocks in the Chancay-Lambayeque irrigation

  13. Nitrogen management impacts nitrous oxide emissions under varying cotton irrigation systems in the American Desert Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irrigation of food and fiber crops worldwide continues to increase. Nitrogen (N) from fertilizers is a major source of the potent greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O) in irrigated cropping systems. Nitrous oxide emissions data are scarce for crops in the arid Western US. The objective of these studies...

  14. Bricolage as innovation: opening the black box of drip irrigation systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Zwarteveen, M.; Kuper, M.

    2014-01-01

    In Morocco, many farmers enthusiastically use drip irrigation. However, few drip irrigation systems conform to engineering standards. In a process they refer to as bricolage, farmers modify and adapt standard designs, thus creating their own technical standards. We document three instances of

  15. Bricolage as innovation: opening the black box of Drip Irrigation Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Zwarteveen, M.Z.; Kuper, M.

    2014-01-01

    In Morocco, many farmers enthusiastically use drip irrigation. However, few drip irrigation systems conform to engineering standards. In a process they refer to as bricolage, farmers modify and adapt standard designs, thus creating their own technical standards. We document three instances of

  16. Greenhouse irrigation control system design based on ZigBee and fuzzy PID technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Bing; Yang, Qiliang; Liu, Kenan; Li, Peiqing; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Qijian

    In order to achieve the water demand information accurately detect of the greenhouse crop and its precision irrigation automatic control, this article has designed a set of the irrigated control system based on ZigBee and fuzzy PID technology, which composed by the soil water potential sensor, CC2530F256 wireless microprocessor, IAR Embedded Workbench software development platform. And the time of Irrigation as the output .while the amount of soil water potential and crop growth cycle as the input. The article depended on Greenhouse-grown Jatropha to verify the object, the results show that the system can irrigate timely and appropriately according to the soil water potential and water demend of the different stages of Jatropha growth , which basically meet the design requirements. Therefore, the system has broad application prospects in the amount of greenhouse crop of fine control irrigation.

  17. Automated Irrigation System using Weather Prediction for Efficient Usage of Water Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susmitha, A.; Alakananda, T.; Apoorva, M. L.; Ramesh, T. K.

    2017-08-01

    In agriculture the major problem which farmers face is the water scarcity, so to improve the usage of water one of the irrigation system using drip irrigation which is implemented is “Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms” (AISPF). But this method has some drawbacks which can be improved and here we are with a method called “Automated irrigation system using weather prediction for efficient usage of water resources’ (AISWP), it solves the shortcomings of AISPF process. AISWP method helps us to use the available water resources more efficiently by sensing the moisture present in the soil and apart from that it is actually predicting the weather by sensing two parameters temperature and humidity thereby processing the measured values through an algorithm and releasing the water accordingly which is an added feature of AISWP so that water can be efficiently used.

  18. Agro-ecology and irrigation technology : comparative research on farmer-managed irrigation systems in the Mid-hills of Nepal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parajuli, U.N.

    1999-01-01

    Design and management of irrigation infrastructure in farmer managed irrigation systems (FMISs) are strongly influenced by social and agro-ecological conditions of an area. This thesis analyzes the elements of social and agro-ecological conditions in FMISs in the mid-hills of Nepal and

  19. The Effect of Irrigation and Nitrogen on Growth Attributes and Chlorophyll Content of Garlic in Line Source Sprinkler Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    rahim motalebifard

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: With 12 million tons production per year, garlic is the fourth important crop in world. In addition to its medical value, it has been used in food industry. The Hamedan province with 1900 ha cultivation area and 38 percent of production is one of the most important garlic area productions in Iran. Few studies on water use and management of garlic exist in the world. Garlic is very sensitive to water deficit especially in tubers initiation and ripening periods. The current research was done because of scarce research on garlic production under water deficit condition in Iran and importance of plant nutrition and nutrients especially nitrogen on garlic production under stressful conditions. Nitrogen is necessary and important element for increasing the yield and quality of garlic. Application of nitrogen increases the growth trend of garlic such as number of leaves, leaf length and plant body. Reports have shown that garlic has high nitrogen requirement, particularly in the early stages of growth. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted for evaluating the combined effects of nitrogen and irrigation on the yield and quality of garlic (Allium sativumL.. The study was performed as a split-block based on randomized complete blocks design with factors of irrigation at four levels (0-3(normal irrigation, 3-6 (slight water deficit, 6-9 (moderate water deficit and 9-12 (sever water deficit meters distance from main line source sprinkler system, nitrogen at four levels (0, 50,100 and 150 kg nitrogen per ha using three replications and line source sprinkler irrigation system. The total water of irrigation levels was measured by boxes that were fixed in meddle of each plot. The statistical analysis of results were performed using themethod described by Hanks (1980. The chlorophyll index was measured using the chlorophyll meter 502 (Minolta, Spain. The chlorophyll a and bwas measured by the method described by Arnon (1946 and Gross (1991

  20. Structuring properties of irrigation systems : Understanding relations between humans and hydraulics through modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    Irrigation systems were clearly important in ancient times in supplying crops with water. This requires physical distribution facilities and socio-political arrangements to coordinate between actors. Resulting systems are highly diverse, and are being studied extensively within archeology and

  1. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  2. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib; Moghadas, Davood; Jadoon, Aurangzeb; Missimer, Thomas M.; Al-Mashharawi, Samir K.; McCabe, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    -Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water

  3. Ruling by canal: Governance and system-level design characteristics of large scale irrigation infrastructure in India and Uzbekistan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.; Veldwisch, G.J.A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between governance regime and large-scale irrigation system design by investigating three cases: 1) protective irrigation design in post-independent South India; 2) canal irrigation system design in Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan, as implemented in the USSR period,

  4. Effect of different irrigation systems on root growth of maize and cowpea plants in sandy soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noha A. Mahgoub

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted at the Experimental Farm, Faculty of Agriculture, Suez Canal University to study the influence of different irrigation systems on root length density and specific root length of maize and cowpea plants cultivated in sandy soil. Three irrigation systems (Surface, drip and sprinkler irrigation were used in this study. The NPK fertilizers were applied as recommended doses for maize and cowpea. Root samples were collected from the soil profile below one plant (maize and cowpea which was irrigated by the three irrigation systems by using an iron box (30 cm× 20 cm which is divided into 24 small boxes each box is (5× 5 × 5 cm. At surface irrigation, root length density of cowpea reached to soil depth 30-40cm with lateral distances 5-10 cm and 15-20 cm. Vertical distribution of root length density of maize was increased with soil depth till 20-25 cm, and then it decreased till soil depth 35-40cm. Under drip irrigation, root length density of cowpea increased horizontally from 0-5cm to 10-15cm then it decreased till soil depth 25-30 cm and below this depth root length density disappeared. For the root length density and specific root length of maize under drip irrigation, the data showed that root length density and specific root length decreased with increasing in soil depth. The root length density of cowpea under sprinkler irrigation at 0-5cm disappeared from horizontal distance at 25-30 cm. The data showed that root length density of maize under sprinkler irrigation was higher at the soil top layers 0-5 cm and 5-10 cm than other layers from 10-40 cm.

  5. Distribution of the root system of peach palm under drip irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano da Silva Lopes

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The incorporation of technologies has resulted in increased productivity and the more rational management of peach palm, with irrigation being an important tool for certain regions. Thus, studies leading to proper crop management are extremely important, such as the estimate of the effective depth of the root system, which is indispensable for proper irrigation management. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of different irrigation depths, as applied by drip irrigation, on the distribution of the root system of peach palm. This experiment was conducted in Ilha Solteira, São Paulo State, Brazil, with drip irrigation, with the two systems (flow of 0.0023 m3 h-1 consisting of four irrigation treatments corresponding to 0, 50, 100 and 150% of Class ‘A’ pan evaporation. After five years, an analysis of the Bactris gasipaes root system was performed at a distance of 0.0, 0.5 and 1.0 meters from the trunk, collecting sampling at two depths (0.0 to 0.3 m and 0.3 to 0.6 m via the auger method (volumetric analysis. We concluded that the effective depth of the root system used for irrigation management should be a maximum of 0.3 meters.

  6. Improvements in irrigation system modelling when using remotely sensed ET for calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Opstal, J. D.; Neale, C. M. U.; Lecina, S.

    2014-10-01

    Irrigation system modelling is often used to aid decision-makers in the agricultural sector. It gives insight on the consequences of potential management and infrastructure changes. However, simulating an irrigation district requires a considerable amount of input data to properly represent the system, which is not easily acquired or available. During the simulation process, several assumptions have to be made and the calibration is usually performed only with flow measurements. The advancement of estimating evapotranspiration (ET) using remote sensing is a welcome asset for irrigation system modelling. Remotely-sensed ET can be used to improve the model accuracy in simulating the water balance and the crop production. This study makes use of the Ador-Simulation irrigation system model, which simulates water flows in irrigation districts in both the canal infrastructure and on-field. ET is estimated using an energy balance model, namely SEBAL, which has been proven to function well for agricultural areas. The seasonal ET by the Ador model and the ET from SEBAL are compared. These results determine sub-command areas, which perform well under current assumptions or, conversely, areas that need re-evaluation of assumptions and a re-run of the model. Using a combined approach of the Ador irrigation system model and remote sensing outputs from SEBAL, gives great insights during the modelling process and can accelerate the process. Additionally cost-savings and time-savings are apparent due to the decrease in input data required for simulating large-scale irrigation areas.

  7. Early irrigation systems in southeastern Arizona: the ostracode perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palacios-Fest, Manuel R.; Mabry, Jonathan B.; Nials, Fred; Holmlund, James P.; Miksa, Elizabeth; Davis, Owen K.

    2001-10-01

    For the first time, the Early Agricultural Period (1200 BC-150 AD) canal irrigation in the Santa Cruz River Valley, southeastern Arizona, is documented through ostracode paleoecology. Interpretations based on ostracode paleoecology and taphonomy are supported by anthropological, sedimentological, geomorphological, and palynological information, and were used to determine the environmental history of the northern Tucson Basin during the time span represented by the sequence of canals at Las Capas (site AZ AA:12:753 ASM). We also attempt to elucidate based on archaeological artifacts if the Hohokam or a previous civilization built the canals. Between 3000 and 2400 radiocarbon years BP, at least three episodes of canal operation are defined by ostracode assemblages and pollen records. Modern (mid-late 20th century) canals supported no ostracodes, probably because of temporally brief canal operation from local wells. Three stages of water management are well defined during prehistoric canal operation. Ostracode faunal associations indicate that prehistoric peoples first operated their irrigation systems in a simple, 'opportunistic' mode (diversion of ephemeral flows following storms), and later in a complex, 'functional' mode (carefully timed diversions of perennial flows). The geomorphological reconstruction indicates that these canals had a minimum length of 1.1 km, and were possibly twice as long. The hydraulic reconstruction of these canals suggests that they had similar gradients (0.05-0.1%) to later prehistoric canals in the same valley. Discharges were also respectable. When flowing at bank-full, the largest canal provided an acre-foot of water in about 2.3 h; when flowing half-full (probably a more realistic assumption), it produced an acre-foot of water in about 8.6 h. Palynological records of the oldest canals (here identified as Features 3 and 4; 3000-2500 years BP) indicate they were used temporarily, since riparian vegetation did not grow consistently in

  8. The effect of four different irrigation systems in the removal of a root canal sealer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grischke, J; Müller-Heine, A; Hülsmann, M

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the efficiency of sonic, ultrasonic, and hydrodynamic devices in the removal of a root canal sealer from the surface and from simulated irregularities of root canals. Fifty-three root canals with two standardized grooves in the apical and coronal parts of longitudinally split roots were covered with AH Plus root canal sealer. Compared were the effects of (control) syringe irrigation, (1) CanalBrush, (2) passive ultrasonic irrigation, (3) EndoActivator, and (4) RinsEndo on the removal of the sealer. The specimens were divided into four groups (N = 12) and one control group (N = 5) via randomization. The amount of remaining sealer in the root canal irregularities was evaluated under a microscope using a 4-grade scoring system, whereas the remaining sealer on the root canal surface was evaluated with a 7-grade scoring system. Passive ultrasonic irrigation is more effective than the other tested irrigation systems or syringe irrigation in removing sealer from root canal walls (p irrigation shows a superior effect on sealer removal from the root canal surface during endodontic retreatment. Cleaning of lateral grooves seems not to be possible with one of the techniques investigated. Incomplete removal of root canal sealer during re-treatment may cause treatment failure. Passive Ultrasonic irrigation seems to be the most effective system to remove sealer from a root canal.

  9. Design of Remote Monitoring System of Irrigation based on GSM and ZigBee Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao xi, Zheng; Fang, Zhao; Shuaifei, Shao

    2018-03-01

    To solve the problems of low level of irrigation and waste of water resources, a remote monitoring system for farmland irrigation based on GSM communication technology and ZigBee technology was designed. The system is composed of sensors, GSM communication module, ZigBee module, host computer, valve and so on. The system detects and closes the pump and the electromagnetic valve according to the need of the system, and transmits the monitoring information to the host computer or the user’s Mobile phone through the GSM communication network. Experiments show that the system has low power consumption, friendly man-machine interface, convenient and simple. It can monitor agricultural environment remotely and control related irrigation equipment at any time and place, and can better meet the needs of remote monitoring of farmland irrigation.

  10. Developing a Hybrid Solar/Wind Powered Drip Irrigation System for Dragon Fruit Yield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widiastuti, I.; Wijayanto, D. S.

    2017-03-01

    Irrigation operations take a large amount of water and energy which impact to total costs of crop production. Development of an efficient irrigation supplying precise amount of water and conserving the use of energy can have benefits not only by reducing the operating costs but also by enhancing the farmland productivity. This article presents an irrigation method that promotes sustainable use of water and energy appropriate for a developing tropical country. It proposes a drip irrigation system supported by a combined solar-wind electric power generation system for efficient use of water in dragon fruit cultivation. The electric power generated is used to drive a water pump filling a storage tank for irrigating a 3000 m2 dragon fruit yield in Nguntoronadi, Wonogiri, Indonesia. In designing the irrigation system, the plant’s water requirement was identified based on the value of reference evapotranspiration of the area. A cost/benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the economic feasibility of the proposed scheme. The installation of this solar and wind drip irrigation helps provide sufficient quantity of water to each plant using renewable energy sources which reduce dependence on fossil fuel.

  11. A catchment-scale irrigation systems model for sugarcane Part 1 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2008-03-28

    Mar 28, 2008 ... Keywords: ACRUCane, irrigation systems, water management, crop modelling, hydrology, water ... vide all the necessary decision support information in an inte- .... Root growth is simulated using a methodology described by.

  12. Water sensors with cellular system eliminate tail water drainage in alfalfa irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajat Saha

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the largest consumer of water among all crops in California. It is generally flood-irrigated, so any system that decreases runoff can improve irrigation efficiency and conserve water. To more accurately manage the water flow at the tail (bottom end of the field in surface-irrigated alfalfa crops, we developed a system that consists of wetting-front sensors, a cellular communication system and a water advance model. This system detects the wetting front, determines its advance rate and generates a cell-phone alert to the irrigator when the water supply needs to be cut off, so that tail water drainage is minimized. To test its feasibility, we conducted field tests during the 2008 and 2009 alfalfa growing seasons. The field experiments successfully validated the methodology, producing zero tail water drainage.

  13. Optimal design of pressurized irrigation systems. Application cases (Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Mireya Lapo Pauta

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research completed with the intention of finding the most economical solution in the design of pressurized irrigation networks, while efficiently meet service delivery. A systematic methodology is proposed that combines two optimization techniques through a “hybrid method” in, which linear programming, nonlinear programming and genetic algorithms are fused. The overall formulations of the problem of optimal dimensioning consist of minimizing an objective function constituted through the associated cost of the pipes that form the network. This methodology was implemented in three networks a fictitious irrigation and two irrigation networks (Tuncarta and Cariyacu located in the cities of Loja and Chimborazo which yielded optimal design  solutions. Finally different scenarios were simulated in both models to obtain an overview of the operation of the hydraulic variables

  14. Nitrogen dynamics in the soil-plant system under deficit and partial root-zone drying irrigation strategies in potatoes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shahnazari, Ali; Ahmadi, Seyed Hamid; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2008-01-01

    Experiments were conducted in lysimeters with sandy soil under an automatic rain-out shelter to study the effects of subsurface drip irrigation treatments, full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and partial root-zone drying (PRD), on nitrogen (N) dynamics in the soil-plant system of potatoes...

  15. Novel approach to evaluate the dynamic variation of wind drift and evaporation losses under moving irrigation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sayed-Hossein Sadeghi; Troy R. Peters; Mohammad Z. Amini; Sparkle L. Malone; Hank W. Loescher

    2015-01-01

    The increased need for water and food security requires the development of new approaches to save water through irrigation management strategies, particularly for center pivot irrigation. To do so entails monitoring of the dynamic variation in wind drift and evaporation losses (WDELs) of irrigation systems under different weather conditions and for relatively long time...

  16. Proposed Fuzzy-NN Algorithm with LoRaCommunication Protocol for Clustered Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotirios Kontogiannis

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Modern irrigation systems utilize sensors and actuators, interconnected together as a single entity. In such entities, A.I. algorithms are implemented, which are responsible for the irrigation process. In this paper, the authors present an irrigation Open Watering System (OWS architecture that spatially clusters the irrigation process into autonomous irrigation sections. Authors’ OWS implementation includes a Neuro-Fuzzy decision algorithm called FITRA, which originates from the Greek word for seed. In this paper, the FITRA algorithm is described in detail, as are experimentation results that indicate significant water conservations from the use of the FITRA algorithm. Furthermore, the authors propose a new communication protocol over LoRa radio as an alternative low-energy and long-range OWS clusters communication mechanism. The experimental scenarios confirm that the FITRA algorithm provides more efficient irrigation on clustered areas than existing non-clustered, time scheduled or threshold adaptive algorithms. This is due to the FITRA algorithm’s frequent monitoring of environmental conditions, fuzzy and neural network adaptation as well as adherence to past irrigation preferences.

  17. A compact to revitalise large-scale irrigation systems: A ‘theory of change’ approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A. Lankford

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In countries with transitional economies such as those found in South Asia, large-scale irrigation systems (LSIS with a history of public ownership account for about 115 million ha (Mha or approximately 45% of their total area under irrigation. In terms of the global area of irrigation (320 Mha for all countries, LSIS are estimated at 130 Mha or 40% of irrigated land. These systems can potentially deliver significant local, regional and global benefits in terms of food, water and energy security, employment, economic growth and ecosystem services. For example, primary crop production is conservatively valued at about US$355 billion. However, efforts to enhance these benefits and reform the sector have been costly and outcomes have been underwhelming and short-lived. We propose the application of a 'theory of change' (ToC as a foundation for promoting transformational change in large-scale irrigation centred upon a 'global irrigation compact' that promotes new forms of leadership, partnership and ownership (LPO. The compact argues that LSIS can change by switching away from the current channelling of aid finances controlled by government irrigation agencies. Instead it is for irrigators, closely partnered by private, public and NGO advisory and regulatory services, to develop strong leadership models and to find new compensatory partnerships with cities and other river basin neighbours. The paper summarises key assumptions for change in the LSIS sector including the need to initially test this change via a handful of volunteer systems. Our other key purpose is to demonstrate a ToC template by which large-scale irrigation policy can be better elaborated and discussed.

  18. Effects of artificial gravity on the cardiovascular system: Computational approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz Artiles, Ana; Heldt, Thomas; Young, Laurence R.

    2016-09-01

    Artificial gravity has been suggested as a multisystem countermeasure against the negative effects of weightlessness. However, many questions regarding the appropriate configuration are still unanswered, including optimal g-level, angular velocity, gravity gradient, and exercise protocol. Mathematical models can provide unique insight into these questions, particularly when experimental data is very expensive or difficult to obtain. In this research effort, a cardiovascular lumped-parameter model is developed to simulate the short-term transient hemodynamic response to artificial gravity exposure combined with ergometer exercise, using a bicycle mounted on a short-radius centrifuge. The model is thoroughly described and preliminary simulations are conducted to show the model capabilities and potential applications. The model consists of 21 compartments (including systemic circulation, pulmonary circulation, and a cardiac model), and it also includes the rapid cardiovascular control systems (arterial baroreflex and cardiopulmonary reflex). In addition, the pressure gradient resulting from short-radius centrifugation is captured in the model using hydrostatic pressure sources located at each compartment. The model also includes the cardiovascular effects resulting from exercise such as the muscle pump effect. An initial set of artificial gravity simulations were implemented using the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) Compact-Radius Centrifuge (CRC) configuration. Three centripetal acceleration (artificial gravity) levels were chosen: 1 g, 1.2 g, and 1.4 g, referenced to the subject's feet. Each simulation lasted 15.5 minutes and included a baseline period, the spin-up process, the ergometer exercise period (5 minutes of ergometer exercise at 30 W with a simulated pedal cadence of 60 RPM), and the spin-down process. Results showed that the cardiovascular model is able to predict the cardiovascular dynamics during gravity changes, as well as the expected

  19. quixotic coupling between irrigation system and maize-cowpea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    number row-1 and maize grain yield, respectively. The ridge ... Key Words: Furrow irrigation, water use efficiency, Zea mays. RÉSUMÉ ... important in arid and semi-arid regions, with ... as maize) canopy is not able to intercept all the solar radiation during the growth period. ... Intercropping maize and legumes considerably ...

  20. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigant using hand and rotary systems: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghivari, Sheetal B; Kubasad, Girish C; Chandak, Manoj G; Akarte, NR

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate and compare the amount of debris and irrigant extruded quantitatively by using two hand and rotary nickel–titanium (Ni–Ti) instrumentation techniques. Materials and Methods: Eighty freshly extracted mandibular premolars having similar canal length and curvature were selected and mounted in a debris collection apparatus. After each instrument change, 1 ml of distilled water was used as an irrigant and the amount of irrigant extruded was measured using the Meyers and Montgomery method. After drying, the debris was weighed using an electronic microbalance to determine its weight. Statistical analysis used: The data was analyzed statistically to determine the mean difference between the groups. The mean weight of the dry debris and irrigant within the group and between the groups was calculated by the one-way ANOVA and multiple comparison (Dunnet D) test. Results: The step-back technique extruded a greater quantity of debris and irrigant in comparison to other hand and rotary Ni–Ti systems. Conclusions: All instrumentation techniques extrude debris and irrigant, it is prudent on the part of the clinician to select the instrumentation technique that extrudes the least amount of debris and irrigant, to prevent a flare-up phenomena. PMID:21814364

  1. Brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, E; Collinucci, A; Gran, U; Roest, D; Vandoren, S; Lukierski, J; Sorokin, D

    2005-01-01

    We consider general properties of brane solutions of gravity-dilaton-axion systems. We focus on the case of 7-branes and instantons. In both cases we show that besides the standard solutions there are new deformed solutions whose charges take value in any of the three conjugacy classes of SL(2, R).

  2. One-loop renormalization of a gravity-scalar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, I.Y. [Philander Smith College, Department of Applied Mathematics, Little Rock, AR (United States)

    2017-05-15

    Extending the renormalizability proposal of the physical sector of 4D Einstein gravity, we have recently proposed renormalizability of the 3D physical sector of gravity-matter systems. The main goal of the present work is to conduct systematic one-loop renormalization of a gravity-matter system by applying our foliation-based quantization scheme. In this work we explicitly carry out renormalization of a gravity-scalar system with a Higgs-type potential. With the fluctuation part of the scalar field gauged away, the system becomes renormalizable through a metric field redefinition. We use dimensional regularization throughout. One of the salient aspects of our analysis is how the graviton propagator acquires the ''mass'' term. One-loop calculations lead to renormalization of the cosmological and Newton constants. We discuss other implications of our results as well: time-varying vacuum energy density and masses of the elementary particles as well as the potential relevance of Neumann boundary condition for black hole information. (orig.)

  3. One-loop renormalization of a gravity-scalar system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, I.Y.

    2017-01-01

    Extending the renormalizability proposal of the physical sector of 4D Einstein gravity, we have recently proposed renormalizability of the 3D physical sector of gravity-matter systems. The main goal of the present work is to conduct systematic one-loop renormalization of a gravity-matter system by applying our foliation-based quantization scheme. In this work we explicitly carry out renormalization of a gravity-scalar system with a Higgs-type potential. With the fluctuation part of the scalar field gauged away, the system becomes renormalizable through a metric field redefinition. We use dimensional regularization throughout. One of the salient aspects of our analysis is how the graviton propagator acquires the ''mass'' term. One-loop calculations lead to renormalization of the cosmological and Newton constants. We discuss other implications of our results as well: time-varying vacuum energy density and masses of the elementary particles as well as the potential relevance of Neumann boundary condition for black hole information. (orig.)

  4. One-loop renormalization of a gravity-scalar system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, I. Y.

    2017-05-01

    Extending the renormalizability proposal of the physical sector of 4D Einstein gravity, we have recently proposed renormalizability of the 3D physical sector of gravity-matter systems. The main goal of the present work is to conduct systematic one-loop renormalization of a gravity-matter system by applying our foliation-based quantization scheme. In this work we explicitly carry out renormalization of a gravity-scalar system with a Higgs-type potential. With the fluctuation part of the scalar field gauged away, the system becomes renormalizable through a metric field redefinition. We use dimensional regularization throughout. One of the salient aspects of our analysis is how the graviton propagator acquires the "mass" term. One-loop calculations lead to renormalization of the cosmological and Newton constants. We discuss other implications of our results as well: time-varying vacuum energy density and masses of the elementary particles as well as the potential relevance of Neumann boundary condition for black hole information.

  5. Participatory Rural Appraisal for Diagnostic Analysis of spate irrigation systems in Raya Valley, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Castelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Spate irrigation is a complex and unique form of water management, which represent the main source of irrigation water in semi-arid river catchments. Water is diverted from seasonal rivers by using diversion structures made by stones, earth and brushwood, located within the river bed. The modernisation of spate irrigation realised in Raya Valley (northern Ethiopia resulted in disappointing performances. One of the main reasons for this failure was the poor consideration of the characteristics of seasonal catchments and local communities’ needs and preferences. Local farmers, who showed a deep knowledge of the river system, were involved only at the level of consultation. The aim of this research was to develop a participatory Diagnostic Analysis (DA for a traditional non-modernised spate irrigation system in Raya Valley, in order to involve local farmers within the development process, and to build a solid knowledge basis for effective improvements. A Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA of the Harosha spate irrigation system was undertaken. PRA techniques focusing on spatial, temporal, socio-economical and spatiotemporal aspects of the system were performed with local farmers in order to identify and rank main problems and constraints to development. Farmers recognised the need of more resistant diversion structures and gabion walls for the stabilisation of the river bank. The involvement of farmers also helped to highlight that not only irrigation-related problems, but also flood-related problems threaten agricultural production and rural livelihoods. Rather than an irrigation system approach, an approach integrating irrigation development and flood risk mitigation is suggested for framing future development strategies.

  6. Using hydraulic modeling to simulate human interactions with water resources in an Omani irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xanthopoulou, Themis; Ertsen, Maurits; Düring, Bleda; Kolen, Jan

    2017-04-01

    In the dry Southern Oman, more than a thousand years ago, a large water system that connected the mountain mass with the coastal region was constructed. Its length (up to 30 km) and the fact that the coastal region has a rich groundwater aquifer create confusion as to why the system was initially built. Nonetheless, it was abandoned a couple of centuries later only to be partially revived by small farming communities in the 17th to 18th century. The focus of our research is one of the irrigation systems that used the water conveyed from the large water system. Not much is known about these small irrigation systems functioning in the Wadi Al Jizzi of the greater Sohar region. There are no written records and we can only make guesses about the way the systems were managed based on ethnographical studies and the traditional Omani techniques. On the other hand, the good preservation state of the canals offers a great opportunity for hydraulic reconstruction of irrigation events. More than that, the material remains suggest and at the same time limit the ways in which humans interacted with the system and the water resources of the region. All irrigation activities and some daily activities had to be realized through the canal system and only if the canal system permits it these actions would have been feasible. We created a conceptual model of irrigation that includes the human agent and feedback mechanisms through hydraulics and then we simulated irrigation events using the Sobek software. Scenarios and sensibility analysis were used to address the unknown aspects of the system. Our research yielded insights about the way the farming community interacted with the larger water system, the levels of co-ordination and co-operation required for successful irrigation and the predisposition of conflict and power relations.

  7. SWAT application in intensive irrigation systems: Model modification, calibration and validation

    OpenAIRE

    Dechmi, Farida; Burguete, Javier; Skhiri, Ahmed

    2012-01-01

    The Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a well established, distributed, eco-hydrologic model. However, using the study case of an agricultural intensive irrigated watershed, it was shown that all the model versions are not able to appropriately reproduce the total streamflow in such system when the irrigation source is outside the watershed. The objective of this study was to modify the SWAT2005 version for correctly simulating the main hydrological processes. Crop yield, total streamfl...

  8. Impact of the Invasion of Modern Irrigation Systems in the Oasis of Lahmar, South Western Algeria

    OpenAIRE

    Cherif Rezzoug; Boualem Emini; Saed Hamoudi

    2016-01-01

    For centuries, the oasis dwellers of the Algerian Sahara exploit the groundwater through the use of traditional techniques such as foggaras (traditional technique of irrigation in the Algerian southwest), and wells of chadouf (pendulum wells). In the oasis of Lahmar, in Southwest Algeria, the farmers use foggaras (known by the name of foggaras ain - foggaras of source) to irrigate their fields. Nowadays though, due to the indiscriminate use of modern systems (boreholes and pump...

  9. Impact of different irrigation systems on water quality in peri-urban areas of Gujarat, India

    OpenAIRE

    Vangani, Ruchi; Saxena, Deepak; Gerber, Nikolaus; Mavalankar, Dileep; von Braun, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The ever-growing population of India, along with the increasing competition for water for productive uses in different sectors - especially irrigated agriculture and related local water systems and drainage - poses a challenge in an effort to improve water quality and sanitation. In rural and peri-urban settings, where agriculture is one of the main sources of livelihood, the type of water use in irrigated agriculture has complex interactions with drinking water and sanitation. In particular,...

  10. On the robustness of entanglement in analogue gravity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruschi, D E; Friis, N; Fuentes, I; Weinfurtner, S

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the possibility of generating quantum-correlated quasi-particles utilizing analogue gravity systems. The quantumness of these correlations is a key aspect of analogue gravity effects and their presence allows for a clear separation between classical and quantum analogue gravity effects. However, experiments in analogue systems, such as Bose–Einstein condensates (BECs) and shallow water waves, are always conducted at non-ideal conditions, in particular, one is dealing with dispersive media at non-zero temperatures. We analyse the influence of the initial temperature on the entanglement generation in analogue gravity phenomena. We lay out all the necessary steps to calculate the entanglement generated between quasi-particle modes and we analytically derive an upper bound on the maximal temperature at which given modes can still be entangled. We further investigate a mechanism to enhance the quantum correlations. As a particular example, we analyse the robustness of the entanglement creation against thermal noise in a sudden quench of an ideally homogeneous BEC, taking into account the super-sonic dispersion relations. (paper)

  11. Solar System constraints to general f(R) gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiba, Takeshi; Smith, Tristan L.; Erickcek, Adrienne L.

    2007-01-01

    It has been proposed that cosmic acceleration or inflation can be driven by replacing the Einstein-Hilbert action of general relativity with a function f(R) of the Ricci scalar R. Such f(R) gravity theories have been shown to be equivalent to scalar-tensor theories of gravity that are incompatible with Solar System tests of general relativity, as long as the scalar field propagates over Solar System scales. Specifically, the parameterized post-Newtonian (PPN) parameter in the equivalent scalar-tensor theory is γ=1/2, which is far outside the range allowed by observations. In response to a flurry of papers that questioned the equivalence of f(R) theory to scalar-tensor theories, it was recently shown explicitly, without resorting to the scalar-tensor equivalence, that the vacuum field equations for 1/R gravity around a spherically symmetric mass also yield γ=1/2. Here we generalize this analysis to f(R) gravity and enumerate the conditions that, when satisfied by the function f(R), lead to the prediction that γ=1/2

  12. Economic optimization of photovoltaic water pumping systems for irrigation

    OpenAIRE

    Campana, Pietro Elia; Li, Hailong; Zhang, J.; Liu, J.; Yan, Jinyue

    2015-01-01

    Photovoltaic water pumping technology is considered as a sustainable and economical solution to provide water for irrigation, which can halt grassland degradation and promote farmland conservation in China. The appropriate design and operation significantly depend on the available solar irradiation, crop water demand, water resources and the corresponding benefit from the crop sale. In this work, a novel optimization procedure is proposed, which takes into consideration not only the availabil...

  13. Fruit yield and root system distribution of 'Tommy Atkins' mango under different irrigation regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo R. dos Santos

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the fruit yield and the distribution of 'Tommy Atkins' mango root system under different irrigation regimes in the semiarid region of Bahia. The experimental design was completely randomized with five treatments and three replicates: 1 - Irrigation supplying 100% of ETc in phases I, II and III; 2 - Regulated deficit irrigation (RDI supplying 50% of ETc in phase I (beginning of flowering to early fruit growth; 3 - RDI supplying 50% ETc in phase II (start of expansion until the beginning of physiological maturity; 4 - RDI supplying 50% ETc in phase III (physiological mature fruits; 5 - No irrigation during all three phases. The regulated deficit irrigation supplying 50% of the ETc during phase I and II provided larger root length density of 'Tommy Atkins' mango. Regardless of management strategy, the roots were developed in all evaluated soil volume and the highest density is concentrated from 0.50 to 1.50 m distance from the trunk and in 0.20 to 0.90 m depth in the soil, that suggests this region to be the best place for fertilizer application as well for soil water sensor placement. The application of RDI during fruit set does not influence either root distribution or production. Root system and crop production is significantly reduced under no irrigation conditions.

  14. Converting Surface Irrigation to Pressurized Irrigation Systems and its Effecton Yield of OrangeTrees (Case Study:North of Khouzestan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Khorramian

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: North of the Khouzestan is one of the most important citrus production center. Usually border irrigation is used to irrigate citrus in this area. This system has generally low application efficiency. Several investigations in other arid region have demonstrated in addition to improved irrigation efficiency with low-volume pressurized irrigation systems, citrus trees have adapted with these new irrigation systems. However limited information exists on the performance of mature orchards converted from border surface irrigation to pressurized irrigation systems. Therefore, the current research was conducted to evaluate the feasibility of converting surface irrigation to pressurized irrigation systems on mature citrus trees in climate conditions of North Khouzestan. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted during three years at Safiabad Agricultural Research Center to evaluate the yield of citrus trees and the quality of fruits for two Marss and Valencia varieties which grow 7 years previously with surface irrigation and converted to pressurized irrigation systems. The treatments consisted of six irrigation methods including Overhead sprinkle irrigation (OHSI, Under tree sprinkle irrigation(UTSI, Trickle irrigation(TI(six 8 L/h Netafim emitters, Microjet irrigation (MI(two 180 microjet were located under canopy near of the trunk at opposite sides of trunk,Bubbler irrigation(BI(a single located under the canopy of each treeandSurface irrigation(SI method.Soil texture was clay loam well drained without salinity(ECe=0.69ds m-1, with 1.25 percent organic carbon. The experimental design was completely randomized design. The trees were irrigated during spring and summer seasons. For calculating irrigation water depth in TI, MI and BI systems, daily evaporation from a class A evaporation pan of the Safiabad weather station (nearby the experimental field was collected, and evapotranspiration of the citrus trees was calculated applying a

  15. Scalar material reference systems and loop quantum gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giesel, K; Thiemann, T

    2015-01-01

    In the past, the possibility to employ (scalar) material reference systems in order to describe classical and quantum gravity directly in terms of gauge invariant (Dirac) observables has been emphasized frequently. This idea has been picked up more recently in loop quantum gravity with the aim to perform a reduced phase space quantization of the theory, thus possibly avoiding problems with the (Dirac) operator constraint quantization method for a constrained system. In this work, we review the models that have been studied on the classical and/or the quantum level and parametrize the space of theories considered so far. We then describe the quantum theory of a model that, to the best of our knowledge, has only been considered classically so far. This model could arguably be called the optimal one in this class of models considered as it displays the simplest possible true Hamiltonian, while at the same time reducing all constraints of general relativity. (paper)

  16. 21 CFR 880.2420 - Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Personal Use Monitoring Devices § 880.2420 Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems. (a) Identification. An electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion systems is a device used to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Electronic monitor for gravity flow infusion...

  17. Linked hydrologic and social systems that support resilience of traditional irrigation communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, A.; Guldan, S.; Boykin, K.; Cibils, A.; Gonzales, M.; Hurd, B.; Lopez, S.; Ochoa, C.; Ortiz, M.; Rivera, J.; Rodriguez, S.; Steele, C.

    2015-01-01

    Southwestern US irrigated landscapes are facing upheaval due to water scarcity and land use conversion associated with climate change, population growth, and changing economics. In the traditionally irrigated valleys of northern New Mexico, these stresses, as well as instances of community longevity in the face of these stresses, are apparent. Human systems have interacted with hydrologic processes over the last 400 years in river-fed irrigated valleys to create linked systems. In this study, we ask if concurrent data from multiple disciplines could show that human-adapted hydrologic and socioeconomic systems have created conditions for resilience. Various types of resiliencies are evident in the communities. Traditional local knowledge about the hydrosocial cycle of community water management and ability to adopt new water management practices is a key response to disturbances such as low water supply from drought. Livestock producers have retained their irrigated land by adapting: changing from sheep to cattle and securing income from outside their livestock operations. Labor-intensive crops decreased as off-farm employment opportunities became available. Hydrologic resilience of the system can be affected by both human and natural elements. We find, for example, that there are multiple hydrologic benefits of traditional irrigation system water seepage: it recharges the groundwater that recharges rivers, supports threatened biodiversity by maintaining riparian vegetation, and ameliorates impacts of climate change by prolonging streamflow hydrographs. Human decisions to transfer water out of agriculture or change irrigation management, as well as natural changes such as long-term drought or climate change, can result in reduced seepage and the benefits it provides. We have worked with the communities to translate the multidisciplinary dimensions of these systems into a common language of causal loop diagrams, which form the basis for modeling future scenarios to

  18. Transcendental Political Systems and the Gravity Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lock, Connor

    2012-01-01

    This summer I have been working on an Army Deep Futures Model project named Themis. Themis is a JPL based modeling framework that anticipates possible future states for the world within the next 25 years. The goal of this framework is to determine the likelihood that the US Army will need to intervene on behalf of the US strategic interests. Key elements that are modeled within this tool include the world structure and major decisions that are made by key actors. Each actor makes decisions based on their goals and within the constraints of the structure of the system in which they are located. In my research I have focused primarily on the effects of structures upon the decision-making processes of the actors within them. This research is a natural extension of my major program at Georgetown University, where I am studying the International Political Economy and the structures that make it up. My basic goal for this summer project was to be a helpful asset to the Themis modeling team, with any research done or processes learned constituting a bonus.

  19. Ruling by canal: Governance and system-level design characteristics of large scale irrigation infrastructure in India and Uzbekistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Mollinga

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the relationship between governance regime and large-scale irrigation system design by investigating three cases: 1 protective irrigation design in post-independent South India; 2 canal irrigation system design in Khorezm Province, Uzbekistan, as implemented in the USSR period, and 3 canal design by the Madras Irrigation and Canal Company, as part of an experiment to do canal irrigation development in colonial India on commercial terms in the 1850s-1860s. The mutual shaping of irrigation infrastructure design characteristics on the one hand and management requirements and conditions on the other has been documented primarily at lower, within-system levels of the irrigation systems, notably at the level of division structures. Taking a 'social construction of technology' perspective, the paper analyses the relationship between technological structures and management and governance arrangements at irrigation system level. The paper finds qualitative differences in the infrastructural configuration of the three irrigation systems expressing and facilitating particular forms of governance and rule, differences that matter for management and use, and their effects and impacts.

  20. Four-dimensional gravity as an almost-Poisson system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ita, Eyo Eyo

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we examine the phase space structure of a noncanonical formulation of four-dimensional gravity referred to as the Instanton representation of Plebanski gravity (IRPG). The typical Hamiltonian (symplectic) approach leads to an obstruction to the definition of a symplectic structure on the full phase space of the IRPG. We circumvent this obstruction, using the Lagrange equations of motion, to find the appropriate generalization of the Poisson bracket. It is shown that the IRPG does not support a Poisson bracket except on the vector constraint surface. Yet there exists a fundamental bilinear operation on its phase space which produces the correct equations of motion and induces the correct transformation properties of the basic fields. This bilinear operation is known as the almost-Poisson bracket, which fails to satisfy the Jacobi identity and in this case also the condition of antisymmetry. We place these results into the overall context of nonsymplectic systems.

  1. Moving base Gravity Gradiometer Survey System (GGSS) program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfohl, Louis; Rusnak, Walter; Jircitano, Albert; Grierson, Andrew

    1988-04-01

    The GGSS program began in early 1983 with the objective of delivering a landmobile and airborne system capable of fast, accurate, and economical gravity gradient surveys of large areas anywhere in the world. The objective included the development and use of post-mission data reduction software to process the survey data into solutions for the gravity disturbance vector components (north, east and vertical). This document describes the GGSS equipment hardware and software, integration and lab test procedures and results, and airborne and land survey procedures and results. Included are discussions on test strategies, post-mission data reduction algorithms, and the data reduction processing experience. Perspectives and conclusions are drawn from the results.

  2. Disformal theories of gravity: from the solar system to cosmology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakstein, Jeremy, E-mail: j.a.sakstein@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)

    2014-12-01

    This paper is concerned with theories of gravity that contain a scalar coupled both conformally and disformally to matter through the metric. By systematically deriving the non-relativistic limit, it is shown that no new non-linear screening mechanisms are present beyond the Vainshtein mechanism and chameleon-like screening. If one includes the cosmological expansion of the universe, disformal effects that are usually taken to be absent can be present in the solar system. When the conformal factor is absent, fifth-forces can be screened on all scales when the cosmological field is slowly-rolling. We investigate the cosmology of these models and use local tests of gravity to place new constraints on the disformal coupling and find M ∼> O(eV), which is not competitive with laboratory tests. Finally, we discuss the future prospects for testing these theories and the implications for other theories of modified gravity. In particular, the Vainshtein radius of solar system objects can be altered from the static prediction when cosmological time-derivatives are non-negligible.

  3. Disformal theories of gravity: from the solar system to cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakstein, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    This paper is concerned with theories of gravity that contain a scalar coupled both conformally and disformally to matter through the metric. By systematically deriving the non-relativistic limit, it is shown that no new non-linear screening mechanisms are present beyond the Vainshtein mechanism and chameleon-like screening. If one includes the cosmological expansion of the universe, disformal effects that are usually taken to be absent can be present in the solar system. When the conformal factor is absent, fifth-forces can be screened on all scales when the cosmological field is slowly-rolling. We investigate the cosmology of these models and use local tests of gravity to place new constraints on the disformal coupling and find M ∼> O(eV), which is not competitive with laboratory tests. Finally, we discuss the future prospects for testing these theories and the implications for other theories of modified gravity. In particular, the Vainshtein radius of solar system objects can be altered from the static prediction when cosmological time-derivatives are non-negligible

  4. Thermal stress analysis of gravity support system for ITER based on ANSYS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shangming; Yan Xijiang; Huang Yufeng; Wang Xianzhou; Hou Binglin; Li Pengyuan; Jian Guangde; Liu Dequan; Zhou Caipin

    2009-01-01

    A method for building the finite element model of the gravity support system for International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) was proposed according to the characteristics of the gravity support system with the cyclic symmetry. A mesh dividing method, which has high precision and an acceptable calculating scale, was used, and a three dimensional finite element model for the toroidal 20 degree sector of the gravity support system was built by using ANSYS. Meantime, the steady-state thermal analysis and thermal-structural coupling analysis of the gravity support system were performed. The thermal stress distributions and the maximal thermal stress values of all parts of the gravity support system were obtained, and the stress intensity of parts of the gravity support system was analyzed. The results of thermal stress analysis lay the solid foundation for design and improvement for gravity supports system for ITER. (authors)

  5. Irrigation Training Manual. Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems [and] Irrigation Reference Manual. A Technical Reference to Be Used with the Peace Corps Irrigation Training Manual T0076 in the Selection, Planning, Design, Operation, and Management of Small-Scale Irrigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, LeRoy; And Others

    This resource for trainers involved in irrigated agriculture training for Peace Corps volunteers consists of two parts: irrigation training manual and irrigation reference manual. The complete course should fully prepare volunteers serving as irrigation, specialists to plan, implement, evaluate and manage small-scale irrigation projects in arid,…

  6. SWAT application in intensive irrigation systems: Model modification, calibration and validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechmi, Farida; Burguete, Javier; Skhiri, Ahmed

    2012-11-01

    SummaryThe Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) is a well established, distributed, eco-hydrologic model. However, using the study case of an agricultural intensive irrigated watershed, it was shown that all the model versions are not able to appropriately reproduce the total streamflow in such system when the irrigation source is outside the watershed. The objective of this study was to modify the SWAT2005 version for correctly simulating the main hydrological processes. Crop yield, total streamflow, total suspended sediment (TSS) losses and phosphorus load calibration and validation were performed using field survey information and water quantity and quality data recorded during 2008 and 2009 years in Del Reguero irrigated watershed in Spain. The goodness of the calibration and validation results was assessed using five statistical measures, including the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE). Results indicated that the average annual crop yield and actual evapotranspiration estimations were quite satisfactory. On a monthly basis, the values of NSE were 0.90 (calibration) and 0.80 (validation) indicating that the modified model could reproduce accurately the observed streamflow. The TSS losses were also satisfactorily estimated (NSE = 0.72 and 0.52 for the calibration and validation steps). The monthly temporal patterns and all the statistical parameters indicated that the modified SWAT-IRRIG model adequately predicted the total phosphorus (TP) loading. Therefore, the model could be used to assess the impacts of different best management practices on nonpoint phosphorus losses in irrigated systems.

  7. Formation of nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during chlorine disinfection of wastewater effluents prior to use in irrigation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivanoglu-Mantas, Elif; Hawley, Elisabeth L; Deeb, Rula A; Sedlak, David L

    2006-01-01

    The probable human carcinogen nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) is produced when wastewater effluent is disinfected with chlorine. In systems where wastewater effluent is used for landscape or crop irrigation, relatively high chlorine doses (i.e., up to 2,000,mg-min/L) are often used to ensure adequate disinfection and to minimize biofouling in the irrigation system. To assess the formation of NDMA in such systems, samples were collected from several locations in full-scale wastewater treatment systems and their associated irrigation systems. Up to 460 ng/L of NDMA was produced in full-scale systems in which chloramines were formed when wastewater effluent was disinfected with chlorine in the presence of ammonia. Less than 20 ng/L of NDMA was produced in systems that used free chlorine (i.e., HOCl/OCl(-)) for disinfection in the absence of ammonia. The production of NDMA in ammonia-containing systems was correlated with the concentration of NDMA precursors in the wastewater effluent and the overall dose of chlorine applied. Much of the NDMA formation occurred in chlorine contact basins or in storage basins where water that contained chloramines was held after disinfection. When landscape or crop irrigation is practiced with ammonia-containing wastewater effluent, NDMA production can be controlled by use of lower chlorine doses or by application of alternative disinfectants.

  8. On the waterfront : water distribution, technology and agrarian change in a South Indian canal irrigation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.

    1998-01-01

    This book discusses water distribution in the Tungabhadra Left Bank Canal irrigation system in Raichur district, Karnataka, India. The system is located in interior South India, where rainfall is limited (approximately 600 mm annually) and extremely variable. The region suffered from failed

  9. KAJIAN ASET NIRWUJUD DALAM MANAJEMEN SISTEM IRIGASI Study on Intangible Assets in Irrigation System Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nugroho Tri Waskitho

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The research aimed at studying on intangible assets at irrigation system management. The research method consisted oftwo stages. The first stage was data collecting which was done by questionnaire and interview on management of Water Use Associations (WUA in Mejing irrigation system in Bantul, Sapon irrigation system in Kulon Progo, Yogyakarta, and Molek irrigation system in Malang, East Java. The second stage was data analysis which was done using ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System.The research result indicated that knowledge management falls into four main components: (i learning organization, (ii principle of organization, (iii policy and strategy of organization, and (iv information and communication technology which are integrated for controlling intangible assets in irrigation system. Intangible assets consisted of human capital, structural capital, and relation capital which are integrated for controlling performance of irrigation system. Knowledge management in Mejing and Sapon irrigation systems were in moderate-good condition (3.81 in1-5 scale and in Molek irrigation system was poor (2.37. Intangible assets in Mejing, Sapon, and Molek irrigation systems were in moderate-good condition (3.61. Effectiveness of performance in Sapon, Mejing, and Molek irrigation systems were very good (0.89-0.95 and were very potential to develop. Each irrigation system had different priorities ABSTRAK Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengkaji kondisi aset nirwujud dalam manajemen sistem irigasi ditinjau dari manajemenpengetahuan. Metode penelitian terdiri dari dua tahap. Tahap pertama adalah pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan kuesioner dan wawancara dengan pengurus Perkumpulan Petani Pemakai Air (P3A di Daerah Irigasi (DI Mejing di kabupaten Bantul, dan DI Sapon di kabupaten Kulon Progo, propinsi Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta, dan DI Molek di kabupaten Malang, Jawa Timur. Tahap kedua adalah analisa data yang dilakukan dengan ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro

  10. Yield-scaled global warming potential of two irrigation management systems in a highly productive rice system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvana Tarlera

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Water management impacts both methane (CH4 and nitrous oxide (N2O emissions from rice paddy fields. Although controlled irrigation is one of the most important tools for reducing CH4emission in rice production systems it can also increase N2O emissions and reduce crop yields. Over three years, CH4 and N2O emissions were measured in a rice field in Uruguay under two different irrigation management systems, using static closed chambers: conventional water management (continuous flooding after 30 days of emergence, CF30; and an alternative system (controlled deficit irrigation allowing for wetting and drying, AWDI. AWDI showed mean cumulative CH4 emission values of 98.4 kg CH4 ha−1, 55 % lower compared to CF30, while no differences in nitrous oxide emissions were observed between treatments ( p > 0.05. No yield differences between irrigation systems were observed in two of the rice seasons ( p > 0.05 while AWDI promoted yield reduction in one of the seasons ( p< 0.05. When rice yield and greenhouse gases (GHG emissions were considered together, the AWDI irrigation system allowed for lower yield-scaled total global warming potential (GWP. Higher irrigation water productivity was achieved under AWDI in two of the three rice seasons. These findings suggest that AWDI could be an option for reducing GHG emissions and increasing irrigation water productivity. However, AWDI may compromise grain yield in certain years, reflecting the importance of the need for fine tuning of this irrigation strategy and an assessment of the overall tradeoff between relationships in order to promote its adoption by farmers.

  11. Assess the potential of solar irrigation systems for sustaining pasture lands in arid regions - A case study in Northwestern China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Yingdong; Liu, Jiahong; Wang, Hao; Liu, Miao

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We figured out the appropriate indicators for solar irrigation. → We analyzed the economic benefits of solar irrigation system. → The geographic allocation of grasslands suitable for solar irrigation in Qinghai province is presented. → The appropriate region for solar irrigation is also discussed. → The problems and countermeasures of PV pumping irrigation are considered. - Abstract: The combined impact of global climate change and increasing human activities has led to the severe deterioration of grasslands in China. Using the solar irrigation systems is an effective way for sustaining pasture lands in arid regions. A solar irrigation system is the device that uses the solar cell from the sun's radiation to generate electricity for driving the pump. And photovoltaic pump consists of an array of photovoltaic cells and pumps water from a well or reservoir for irrigation. Although ecologists and organizations constantly work and find ways to conserve grasslands through irrigation systems that use solar energy, issues on water resources are not yet thoroughly discussed. This paper takes into account the main factors in the study of water resources, including precipitation and groundwater, to analyze the feasibility of using a photovoltaic (PV) pumping irrigation. The appropriate area for such a PV pumping irrigation in Qinghai Province is also presented. The results show that the grasslands appropriate for PV pumping cover about 8.145 million ha, accounting for 22.3% of the grasslands in the entire province. Finally, the problems and countermeasures of PV pumping irrigation, including the impact on regional water balance, groundwater level and highland permafrost, are also considered.

  12. Carbon and water fluxes and footprints in tropical agricultural systems under rainfed and irrigated conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M. S.; Lathuilliere, M. J.; Morillas, L.; Dalmagro, H. J.; D'Acunha, B.; Kim, Y.; Suarez, A.; Couto, E. G.

    2017-12-01

    In this talk, we will summarize results obtained using three tropical agricultural water observatories in Guanacaste, Costa Rica and Mato Grosso, Brazil. These flux towers and associated sensors enable detailed assessments of carbon use and water use efficiencies for crops under rain-fed and irrigated conditions. In addition to directly assessing water consumption from crops via eddy covariance, determination of water footprints and water use efficiencies using sensors and integrating it with remotely sensed data make it possible to (i) evaluate and compare different irrigation systems used in the study regions (drip, pivot and flood irrigation), (ii) assess the effect of irrigation over the local water balance to identify vulnerabilities associated with intensive water extraction for irrigation, and (iii) study the effect of inter-annual water availability fluctuations on crop water use. We conclude by comparing volumetric water footprints for crops, their carbon footprints, and water and carbon use efficiencies of crops produced under business-as-usual and alternative soil and water management scenarios.

  13. Integral Management of Irrigation Water in Intensive Horticultural Systems of Almería

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Garcia-Caparros

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The development of intensive horticulture in Almería, with a huge increase in greenhouse surface area, is related to three essential factors: climatic characteristics, groundwater use and mulching sandy soil. The purpose of the present paper is to draw a picture of the integral management of water irrigation in the intensive horticultural systems in the region, by identifying the most significant water resource contributions and alternative water resources. Results indicate that the use of groundwater for the irrigation of horticultural crops in the greenhouses presents a high degree of overexploitation of the aquifers, but due to the continuous search for alternative water resources, such as desalinated and reclaimed water, as well as in-depth knowledge of the integral management of water irrigation through automated fertigation and localized irrigation systems, the current status of the water resources could be sustainable. Moreover, being conscious of the pollution generated by agricultural leachates, the horticultural system of Almería is implementing complementary sustainable systems such as recirculation, cascade cropping systems and phytodepuration for the reuse of the leachate. Considering all these factors, it can be concluded that the intensive horticultural system is on the right path towards respecting the environment and being sustainable in terms of water use.

  14. Irrigation in endodontic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basrani, Bettina

    2011-01-01

    The primary endodontic treatment goal is to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal system. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are discussed and new delivery systems are introduced.

  15. Re-engineering closing watersheds: The negotiated expansion of a dam-based irrigation system in Bolivia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rocha Lopez, R.F.; Vincent, L.F.; Rap, E.R.

    2015-01-01

    The expansion of the Totora Khocha dam-based irrigation system in the Pucara watershed is a case of planned re-engineering of a closing watershed. This article shows how, when irrigation systems expand in space and across boundaries to capture new water, they also involve new claims by existing and

  16. Never look a gift horse in the mouth or should you? Upgrading the Hare irrigation system in Southern Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wegerich, K.; Dubale, T.; Bruins, B.

    2008-01-01

    The upgrading of the Hare Irrigation System was a joint undertaking of the governments of Ethiopia and the People's Republic of China. After completion of the primary and the secondary canals, farmers refused to take over responsibility of the system. Existing literature on the Hare Irrigation

  17. IRRIGATION USING SOLAR PUMP

    OpenAIRE

    Prof. Nitin P.Choudhary*1 & Ms. Komal Singne2

    2017-01-01

    In this report the described design of a PV and soil moisture sensor based automated irrigation system is introduced. This project aims to provide a human friendly, economical and automated water pumping system which eliminates the problems of over irrigation and helps in irrigation water optimization and manage it in accordance with the availability of water. Our project not only tries to modernize the irrigation practices and ensure the optimum yield by carefully fulfilling the requirements...

  18. Simulated optimization of crop yield through irrigation system design and operation based on the spatial variability of soil hydrodynamic properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurovich, L.; Stern, J.; Ramos, R.

    1983-01-01

    Spatial autocorrelation and kriging techniques were applied to soil infiltrability data from a 20 hectare field, to separate homogeneous irrigation units. Border irrigation systems were designed for each unit and combinations of units by using DESIGN, a computer model based on soil infiltrability and hydraulics of surface water flow, which enables optimal irrigation systems to be designed. Water depths effectively infiltrated at different points along the irrigation run were determined, and the agronomic irrigation efficiency of the unit evaluated. A modification of Hanks' evapotranspiration model, PLANTGRO, was used to evaluate plant growth, relative crop yield and soil-water economy throughout the growing season, at several points along each irrigation unit. The effect of different irrigation designs on total field yield and total water used for irrigation was evaluated by integrating yield values corresponding to each point, volume and inflow time during each irrigation. For relevant data from winter wheat grown in the central area of Chile during 1981, simulation by an interactive and sequentially recurrent use of DESIGN and PLANTGRO models, was carried out. The results obtained indicate that, when a field is separated into homogeneous irrigation units on the basis of the spatial variability of soil infiltrability and the border irrigation systems are designed according to soil characteristics, both a significant yield increase and less water use can be obtained by comparison with other criteria of field zonification for irrigation management. The use of neutrometric determinations to assess soil-water content during the growing season, as a validation of the results obtained in this work, is discussed. (author)

  19. Impact of the Invasion of Modern Irrigation Systems in the Oasis of Lahmar, South Western Algeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherif Rezzoug

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available For centuries, the oasis dwellers of the Algerian Sahara exploit the groundwater through the use of traditional techniques such as foggaras (traditional technique of irrigation in the Algerian southwest, and wells of chadouf (pendulum wells. In the oasis of Lahmar, in Southwest Algeria, the farmers use foggaras (known by the name of foggaras ain - foggaras of source to irrigate their fields. Nowadays though, due to the indiscriminate use of modern systems (boreholes and pumps to procure water for irrigation and urban consumption, over-exploitation and drying off of water sources have been one the rise while traditional techniques are becoming day by day out of service and, what is more, palm groves have almost completely disappeared.

  20. Adubarroz: a brazilian experience for fertilization and liming recommendation of irrigated rice via computational system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Campos Carmona

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Recommendations for fertilizing irrigated rice in southern Brazil have been constantly evolving over years. In this process, the influence of factors such as the development cycle of varieties and sowing period increased. Thus, computational tools that take these and others important aspects into account can potentiate the fertilization response of rice. This study describes the computer program "ADUBARROZ". The software provides recommendations of fertilizer rates and liming requirements of irrigated rice, based on information entered by the user. The system takes various factors that regulate the crop response to fertilization into account. A final report is established with the graphical representation of input management over time.

  1. A study on multi-point gravity compensation of mirror bending system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Fuquan; Fu Yuan; Zhu Wanqian; Xue Song

    2011-01-01

    The sag of mirror due to gravity induces unacceptable slope errors in beamline mirror-bending system of a synchrotron radiation facility, and approaches must be found to eliminate the unwanted gravity effect. According to the beam bending theory, the multi-point gravity compensation method is applicable. Taking an example of the bent collimating mirror for the XAFS beam-line (BL14W) at Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility (SSRF), the best position and value of the equilibrant were calculated through minimizing the gravity effect. With two, three and four points gravity compensation, slope errors were 0.179, 0.067 and 0.032 μrad,respectively, i.e.the multi-point gravity compensation is better than the two-point gravity compensation, which is used for the Phase I beamlines of SSRF. The four-point gravity compensation method reduces more slope error and stress due to four support points. (authors)

  2. On the Waterfront. Water Distribution, Technology and Agrarian Change in a South Indian Canal Irrigation System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mollinga, P.P.

    2003-01-01

    This book analyses the struggle over water in a large-scale irrigation system in Raichur District, Karnataka, South India. It looks at water control as a simultaneously technical, managerial and socio-political process. The triangle of accommodation of different categories of farmers (head-enders

  3. The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-update

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Middle Eastern Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems Project (MERIMIS) was formulated at a meeting of experts from the region in Jordan in 2003. Funded by the U.S. Department of State, it is a cooperative regional project bringing together participants from Israel, Jordan, Palestini...

  4. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic – Aerobic system for irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abu-Ghunmi, L.N.A.H.; Zeeman, G.; Fayyad, M.; Lier, van J.B.

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant

  5. The history of the construction of main state irrigation systems in the postwar period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Chepurda

    2017-03-01

    It was established that the construction of large public irrigation systems in Ukraine started in 1951 stated that hydro construction that unfolded in the south of Ukraine, opened prospects to final elimination of the impact of drought and dry winds, the prospects for an unprecedented economic prosperity of the area.

  6. A low cost microcontroller-based automated irrigation system for two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Maintaining soil water level is a necessary and pre-requisite for optimum crops production. Water is the essential elements for proper growth of crops in its optimum level; however its excessiveness should be avoided. Since irrigation is a dominant consumer of water, there must be a system which regulates the level of water ...

  7. Normative structures, collaboration and conflict in irrigation; a case study of the Píllaro North Canal Irrigation System, Ecuadorian Highlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogesteger van Dijk, J.D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes conflict and collaboration and their relation to normative structures based on a case study of the history and external interventions of the Píllaro North Canal Irrigation System in the Ecuadorian Highlands. It does so by using Ostrom’s framework for analyzing the sustainability

  8. Effectiveness of various irrigation activation protocols and the self-adjusting file system on smear layer and debris removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çapar, İsmail Davut; Aydinbelge, Hale Ari

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to evaluate smear layer generation and residual debris after using self-adjusting file (SAF) or rotary instrumentation and to compare the debris and smear layer removal efficacy of the SAF cleaning/shaping irrigation system against final agitation techniques. One hundred and eight maxillary lateral incisor teeth were randomly divided into nine experimental groups (n = 12), and root canals were prepared using ProTaper Universal rotary files, with the exception of the SAF instrumentation group. During instrumentation, root canals were irrigated with a total of 16 mL of 5% NaOCl. For final irrigation, rotary-instrumented groups were irrigated with 10 mL of 17% EDTA and 10 mL of 5% NaOCl using different irrigation agitation regimens (syringe irrigation with needles, NaviTip FX, manual dynamic irrigation, CanalBrush, EndoActivator, EndoVac, passive ultrasonic irrigation (PUI), and SAF irrigation). In the SAF instrumentation group, root canals were instrumented for 4 min at a rate of 4 mL/min with 5% NaOCl and received a final flush with same as syringe irrigation with needles. The surface of the root dentin was observed using a scanning electron microscope. The SAF instrumentation group generated less smear layer and yielded cleaner canals compared to rotary instrumentation. The EndoActivator, EndoVac, PUI, and SAF irrigation groups increased the efficacy of irrigating solutions on the smear layer and debris removal. The SAF instrumentation yielded cleaner canal walls when compared to rotary instrumentation. None of the techniques completely removed the smear layer from the root canal walls. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Limiting nutrient emission from a cut rose closed system by high-flux irrigation and low nutrient concentrations?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baas, R.; Berg, van der D.

    2004-01-01

    A two-year project was aimed at decreasing nutrient emission from closed nutrient systems by using high irrigation rates in order to allow lower EC levels in the presence of accumulated Na and Cl. Experimental variables were growing media, irrigation frequencies, EC and NaCl concentrations for cut

  10. Integrated water-crop-soil-management system for evaluating the quality of irrigation water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Sentis, I.

    1983-01-01

    The authors make use of an independent balance of the salts and ions present in the water available for irrigation, based on the residence times in the soil solution that are allowed by solubility limits and drainage conditions, to develop an efficient system for evaluating the quality of such water which combines the factors: water, crop, soil and management. The system is based on the principle that such quality depends not only on the concentration and composition of the salts dissolved in the water, but also on existing possibilities and limitations in using and managing it in respect of the soil and crops, with allowance for the crop's tolerance of salinity, drainage conditions and hydrological properties of the soils, climate and current or potential practices for the management of the irrigation. If this system is used to quantify approximately the time behaviour of the concentration and composition of the salts in the soil solution, it is possible not only to predict the effects on soil, crops and drainage water, but also to evaluate the various combinations of irrigation water, soil, crops and management and to select the most suitable. It is also useful for fairly accurately diagnosing current problems of salinity and for identifying alternatives and possibilities for reclamation. Examples of its use for these purposes in Venezuela are presented with particular reference to the diagnosis of the present and future development of ''salino-sodic'' and ''sodic'' soils by means of low-salt irrigation water spread over agricultural soils with very poor drainage in a sub-humid or semi-arid tropical climate. The authors also describe the use of radiation techniques for gaining an understanding of the relations between the factors making up the system and for improving the quantitative evaluations required to diagnose problems and to select the best management methods for the available irrigation water. (author)

  11. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  12. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Do Guen Yoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6. The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply.

  13. Reclaimed water as a reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes: distribution system and irrigation implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole L Fahrenfeld

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Treated wastewater is increasingly being reused to achieve sustainable water management in arid regions. The objective of this study was to quantify the distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs in recycled water, particularly after it has passed through the distribution system, and to consider point-of-use implications for soil irrigation. Three separate reclaimed wastewater distribution systems in the western U.S. were examined. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR was used to quantify ARGs corresponding to resistance to sulfonamides (sul1, sul2, macrolides (ermF, tetracycline (tet(A, tet(O, glycopeptides (vanA, and methicillin (mecA, in addition to genes present in waterborne pathogens Legionella pneumophila (Lmip, Escherichia coli (gadAB, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ecfx, gyrB. In a parallel lab study, the effect of irrigating an agricultural soil with secondary, chlorinated, or dechlorinated wastewater effluent was examined in batch microcosms. A broader range of ARGs were detected after the reclaimed water passed through the distribution systems, highlighting the importance of considering bacterial re-growth and the overall water quality at the point of use. Screening for pathogens with qPCR indicated presence of Lmip and gadAB genes, but not ecfx or gyrB. In the lab study, chlorination was observed to reduce 16S rRNA and sul2 gene copies in the wastewater effluent, while dechlorination had no apparent effect. ARGs levels did not change with time in soil slurries incubated after a single irrigation event with any of the effluents. However, when irrigated repeatedly with secondary wastewater effluent (not chlorinated or dechlorinated, elevated levels of sul1 and sul2 were observed. This study suggests that reclaimed water may be an important reservoir of ARGs, especially at the point of use, and that attention should be directed towards the fate of ARGs in irrigation water and the implications for human health.

  14. Making the user visible: analysing irrigation practices and farmers’ logic to explain actual drip irrigation performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benouniche, M.; Kuper, M.; Hammani, A.; Boesveld, H.

    2014-01-01

    The actual performance of drip irrigation (irrigation efficiency, distribution uniformity) in the field is often quite different from that obtained in experimental stations. We developed an approach to explain the actual irrigation performance of drip irrigation systems by linking measured

  15. Reduced Nitrous Oxide Emissions in Tomato Cropping Systems under Drip Irrigation and Fertigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, T.; Suddick, E. C.; Six, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    In California, agriculture and forestry account for 8% of the total greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, of which 50% is accounted for by nitrous oxide (N2O). Furrow irrigation and high temperatures in the Central Valley, together with conventional fertilization, are ideal for the production of food, but also N2O. These conditions lead to high N2O fluxes, but also mean there is great potential to reduce N2O emissions by optimizing fertilizer use and irrigation practices. Improving fertilizer use by better synchronizing nitrogen (N) availability and crop demand can reduce N losses and fertilizer costs. Smaller, more frequent fertilizer applications can increase the synchrony between available soil N and crop N uptake. Fertigation allows for more control over how much N is being added and can therefore allow for better synchrony throughout the growing season. In our study, we determined how management practices, such as fertilization, irrigation, tillage and harvest, affect direct N2O emissions in typical tomato cropping systems. We evaluated two contrasting irrigation managements and their associated fertilizer application method, i.e. furrow irrigation and knife injection versus drip irrigation and fertigation. Across two tomato-growing seasons, we found that shifts in fertilizer and irrigation water management directly affect GHG emissions. Seasonal N2O fluxes were 3.4 times lower under drip versus furrow irrigation. In 2010, estimated losses of fertilizer N as N2O were 0.60 ± 0.06 kg N2O-N ha-1 yr-1 in the drip system versus 2.06 ± 0.11 N2O-N kg ha-1 yr-1 in the furrow system, which was equivalent to 0.29% and 0.87% of the added fertilizer, respectively. Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions were also lower in the drip system (2.21 ± 0.16 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1) than the furrow system (4.65 ± 0.23 Mg CO2-C ha-1 yr-1). Soil mineral N, dissolved organic carbon and soil moisture also varied between the two systems and correlated positively with N2O and CO2 emissions, depending

  16. Wastewater retreatment and reuse system for agricultural irrigation in rural villages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minyoung; Lee, Hyejin; Kim, Minkyeong; Kang, Donghyeon; Kim, Dongeok; Kim, YoungJin; Lee, Sangbong

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes and continuous population growth increase water demands that will not be met by traditional water resources, like surface and ground water. To handle increased water demand, treated municipal wastewater is offered to farmers for agricultural irrigation. This study aimed to enhance the effluent quality from worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages, retreat effluent to meet water quality criteria for irrigation, and assess any health-related and environmental impacts from using retreated wastewater irrigation on crops and in soil. We developed the compact wastewater retreatment and reuse system (WRRS), equipped with filters, ultraviolet light, and bubble elements. A pilot greenhouse experiment was conducted to evaluate lettuce growth patterns and quantify the heavy metal concentration and pathogenic microorganisms on lettuce and in soil after irrigating with tap water, treated wastewater, and WRRS retreated wastewater. The purification performance of each WRRS component was also assessed. The study findings revealed that existing worn-out sewage treatment facilities in rural villages could meet the water quality criteria for treated effluent and also reuse retreated wastewater for crop growth and other miscellaneous agricultural purposes.

  17. [Responses of antioxidation system of Cynodon dactylon to recirculated landfill leachate irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruyi; He, Pinjing; Shao, Liming; Zhang, Bin; Li, Guojian

    2005-05-01

    With pot experiment, this paper studied the membrane lipid peroxidation and the variations of antioxidation system in Cynodon dactylon under recirculated landfill leachate irrigation. The results showed that when irrigated with low dilution ratio ( 25%), there existed an obvious negative fect on Cynodon dactylon, i.e., the chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased, while cell membrane permeability and MDA and H2O2 contents increased, which meant that the membrane lipid peroxidation was accelerated. The contents antioxidants AsA, GSH and Car also showed the similar trend, i.e., they increased with increasing leachate dilution ratio when irrigated with low dilution ratio leachate, but decreased under medium or high dilution ratio leachate irrigation. Among three test anti-oxidative enzymes, SOD and POD activities showed a similar change test antioxidants, and POD activity was more sensitive, while CAT activity was on the contrary. The contents test antioxidants and the activities of SOD and POD were negatively and significantly correlated to MDA content, indicating that they might play an important role in preventing Cynodon dactylon from cell membrane lipid peroxdation.

  18. Monitoring of the humus status of soils of the Ingulets irrigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozovitsii, P. S.

    2012-03-01

    The results of long-term studies (1957-2007) of the changes in the morphology of soil profiles and in the reserves and fractional composition of the humus in the soils of the Ingulets irrigation system are discussed. After 50 years of irrigation, the boundaries of the genetic horizons shifted downward by 15-30 cm. The redistribution of the humus took place: its content decreased to a low level in the plow layer of the irrigated and rainfed soils and significantly increased in the layer of 60-100 cm so that the reserves of humus in the layer of 0-100 cm somewhat increased and corresponded to a moderate level. The distribution of humus in the soil profiles was characterized by the gradual lowering down the soil profile. The concentration of nitrogen in the humus of the irrigated southern chernozems was very low. The degree of humification of the soil organic matter was high. The humus was of the humate type in the upper horizons and of the fulvate-humate type in the lower horizons.

  19. Behavior, balance and distribution of sediments within irrigation systems. Application to Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vabre, Alexandre

    2000-01-01

    This PhD work is part of a research program between Cemagref, CEA and IWMI. It aims at studying the sediment deposition phenomena in irrigation Systems of Pakistan. Indeed, many Systems are subject to an excessive sediment deposition that widely disturbs their functioning. A pragmatic approach of the problem is chosen, and the sediment deposition description is realized through global methods. This choice is done in order to allow the developed methods and tools to be utilized directly by the irrigation managers. A global numerical modeling method (GSM) is proposed. It lies on classical laws of sediment transport but a new formalism is proposed for the expression of the deposition. It's a relationship between the sediment trapping efficiency of a reach and its sediment transport capacity. Also, criteria are defined for the definition of homogeneous reaches in the system. An outline of GSM is implemented on a sediment deposition data set of an actual System in Pakistan (Jamrao). A measurement campaign using radio-activable tracers is then carried out on this site to complete the GSM working data set Also, such a campaign with it only is a description method of the deposition phenomena in the irrigation System. The strength of the modeling approach laws is then tested on another case study of irrigation System in Pakistan (Chashma). The results are very much encouraging because the GSM model could be calibrated and validated on several actual deposition trends with quite moderate errors for such a tool. Also, the constituted data set from the tracer campaign was found minimum and sufficient to implement the GSM. Moreover, it has been possible to use the GSM for irrigation management applications. A design criterion for stable canals is proposed. And the GSM has allowed to identify an hydraulic operational scenario on an irrigation System that decreases the deposition. The perspectives of this work are to test the GSM approach on other data sets and then to

  20. Strong gravity effects in accreting black-hole systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niedzwiecki, A.

    2006-01-01

    I briefly review current status of studying effects of strong gravity in X-ray astronomy. Matter accreting onto a black hole probes the relativistic region of space-time and the high-energy radiation it produces should contain signatures of strong gravity effects. Current X-ray observations provide the evidence that the observed emission originates, in some cases, at a distance of a few gravitational radii from a black hole. Moreover, certain observations invoke interpretations favouring rapid rotation of the black hole. Some observational properties of black hole systems are supposed to result from the lack of a material surface in these objects. I consider further effects, specific for the black hole environment, which can be studied in X-ray data. Bulk motion Comptonization, which would directly reveal converging flow of matter plunging into a black hole, is unlikely to be important in formation of X-ray spectra. Similarly, Penrose processes are unlikely to give observational effects, although this issue has not been thoroughly studied so far for all plausible radiative mechanisms. (author)

  1. Apical negative pressure irrigation versus syringe irrigation: a systematic review of cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantinidi, E; Psimma, Z; Chávez de Paz, L E; Boutsioukis, C

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review and critically analyse the published data on the treatment outcome (primary outcome) and on the cleaning and disinfection of root canals (secondary outcomes) achieved by negative pressure irrigation as compared to syringe irrigation. An electronic search was conducted in EMBASE, LILACS, PubMed, SciELO, Scopus and Web of Knowledge using both free-text keywords and controlled vocabulary. Additional studies were sought through hand searching of endodontic journals and of the relevant chapters of endodontic textbooks. No language restriction was imposed. The retrieved studies were screened by two reviewers according to predefined criteria. Included studies were critically appraised and the extracted data were arranged in tables. The electronic search and hand search retrieved 489 titles. One clinical study and 14 in vitro studies were finally included in the review; none of these studies assessed treatment outcome, four studies assessed the antimicrobial effect, seven studies evaluated the removal of pulp tissue remnants, and four studies investigated the removal of hard tissue debris or both hard tissue debris and pulp tissue remnants. Poor standardization and description of the protocols was evident. Inconclusive results were reported about the cleaning and disinfection accomplished by the two irrigation methods. Negative pressure irrigation was more effective under certain conditions when compared to suboptimal syringe irrigation; however, the variability of the protocols hindered quantitative synthesis. There is insufficient evidence to claim general superiority of any one of these methods. The level of the available evidence is low, and the conclusions should be interpreted with caution. © 2016 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mya Su Kyi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area falls 21-58-30 N Latitude and 96-5-0 E Longitude of Mandalay. The PV system sizing was made in such a way that it was capable of irrigation one acre of Asparagus plot with a daily water requirement of 25mday.

  3. Spatio-temporal estimation of consumptive water use for assessment of irrigation system performance and management of water resources in irrigated Indus Basin, Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usman, M.; Liedl, R.; Awan, U. K.

    2015-06-01

    Reallocation of water resources in any irrigation scheme is only possible by detailed assessment of current irrigation performance. The performance of the Lower Chenab Canal (LCC) irrigation system in Pakistan was evaluated at large spatial and temporal scales. Evaporative Fraction (EF) representing the key element to assess the three very important performance indicators of equity, adequacy and reliability, was determined by the Surface Energy Balance Algorithm (SEBAL) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) images. Spatially based estimations were performed at irrigation subdivisions, lower and upper LCC and, whole LCC scales, while temporal scales covered months, seasons and years for the study period from 2005 to 2012. Differences in consumptive water use between upper and lower LCC were estimated for different crops and possible water saving options were explored. The assessment of equitable water distribution indicates smaller coefficients of variation and hence less inequity within each subdivision except Sagar (0.08) and Bhagat (0.10). Both adequacy and reliability of water resources are found lower during kharif as compared to rabi with variation from head to tail reaches. Reliability is quite low from July to September and in February/March. This is mainly attributed to seasonal rainfalls. Average consumptive water use estimations indicate almost doubled water use (546 mm) in kharif as compared to (274 mm) in rabi with significant variability for different cropping years. Crop specific consumptive water use reveals rice and sugarcane as major water consumers with average values of 593 mm and 580 mm, respectively, for upper and lower LCC, followed by cotton and kharif fodder. The water uses for cotton are 555 mm and 528 mm. For kharif fodder, corresponding values are 525 mm and 494 mm for both regions. Based on the differences in consumptive water use, different land use land cover change scenarios were evaluated with regard to savings

  4. Possibilities for conservation and efficiency of irrigation systems in hydropower; Possibilidades de conservacao e eficientizacao hidroenergetica em sistemas de irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viana, Augusto Nelson Carvalho; Ricardo, Mateus [Universidade Federal de Itajuba (UNIFEI), MG (Brazil). Grupo de Energia], emails: augusto@unifei.edu.br, mateus@unifei.edu.br

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents a literature review on efficiency and conservation of electricity and water in irrigation systems, focusing on the pumping systems used for that purpose. It's made an introduction to the theory about pumping systems and irrigation, which provides the conceptual basis for the understanding of the technologies and best practices on conservation and rational use of water and electricity presented in the paper development. (author)

  5. Grey water treatment in a series anaerobic--aerobic system for irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Ghunmi, Lina; Zeeman, Grietje; Fayyad, Manar; van Lier, Jules B

    2010-01-01

    This study aims at treatment of grey water for irrigation, focusing on a treatment technology that is robust, simple to operate and with minimum energy consumption. The result is an optimized system consisting of an anaerobic unit operated in upflow mode, with a 1 day operational cycle, a constant effluent flow rate and varying liquid volume. Subsequent aerobic step is equipped with mechanical aeration and the system is insulated for sustaining winter conditions. The COD removal achieved by the anaerobic and aerobic units in summer and winter are 45%, 39% and 53%, 64%, respectively. Sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactor has a concentration of 168 and 8 mg VSL(-1), respectively. Stability of sludge in the anaerobic and aerobic reactors is 80% and 93%, respectively, based on COD. Aerobic effluent quality, except for pathogens, agrees with the proposed irrigation water quality guidelines for reclaimed water in Jordan.

  6. Culinary and pressure irrigation water system hydroelectric generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christiansen, Cory [Water Works Engineers, Pleasant Grove City, UT (United States)

    2016-01-29

    Pleasant Grove City owns and operates a drinking water system that included pressure reducing stations (PRVs) in various locations and flow conditions. Several of these station are suitable for power generation. The City evaluated their system to identify opportunities for power generation that can be implemented based on the analysis of costs and prediction of power generation and associated revenue. The evaluation led to the selection of the Battle Creek site for development of a hydro-electric power generating system. The Battle Creek site includes a pipeline that carries spring water to storage tanks. The system utilizes a PRV to reduce pressure before the water is introduced into the tanks. The evaluation recommended that the PRV at this location be replaced with a turbine for the generation of electricity. The system will be connected to the utility power grid for use in the community. A pelton turbine was selected for the site, and a turbine building and piping system were constructed to complete a fully functional power generation system. It is anticipated that the system will generate approximately 440,000 kW-hr per year resulting in $40,000 of annual revenue.

  7. Integral Management of Irrigation Water in Intensive Horticultural Systems of Almería

    OpenAIRE

    Pedro Garcia-Caparros; Juana Isabel Contreras; Rafael Baeza; Maria Luz Segura; Maria Teresa Lao

    2017-01-01

    The development of intensive horticulture in Almería, with a huge increase in greenhouse surface area, is related to three essential factors: climatic characteristics, groundwater use and mulching sandy soil. The purpose of the present paper is to draw a picture of the integral management of water irrigation in the intensive horticultural systems in the region, by identifying the most significant water resource contributions and alternative water resources. Results indicate that the use of gr...

  8. Smart Water Conservation System for Irrigated Landscape. ESTCP Cost and Performance Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    irrigation practices (timer based and manual watering systems) that are no longer sustainable given the limited water supplies in many U.S. locations and...Areas that have high local water costs or limited water supply options may also benefit from water harvesting. The implementation of smart ET...in potable water use. Smart ET controllers with centralized and site-specific sensor inputs, such as ET gauge, rain, soil moisture, and leak

  9. Irrigation, Planting Date And Intra-Row Spacing Effects On Soybean Grown Under Dry Farming Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ismail, A. M. A. [احمد محمد علي اسماعيل; Khalifa, F. M.

    1987-01-01

    Two soybean cultivars (Glycine maxima (L) Merr.) differing in maturity period, leaf size and stem height were sown five times at fortnight intervals during the rainy season at four intra—row spacings under supplementary irrigation at one site and under rainfed conditions at another site in the central rainlands of Sudan. Cultivars responded differently to the system of production. Sowing date and moisture availability were the main factors controlling soybean production. The late maturing cul...

  10. SCADA system with predictive controller applied to irrigation canals

    OpenAIRE

    Figueiredo, João; Botto, Miguel; Rijo, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    This paper applies a model predictive controller (MPC) to an automatic water canal with sensors and actuators controlled by a network (programmable logic controller), and supervised by a SCADA system (supervisory control and a data acquisition). This canal is composed by a set of distributed sub-systems that control the water level in each canal pool, constrained by discharge gates (control variables) and water off-takes (disturbances). All local controllers are available through an industria...

  11. Hydraulic performance evaluation of pressure compensating (pc) emitters and micro-tubing for drip irrigation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangrio, A.G.; Asif, M.; Jahangir, I.

    2013-01-01

    Drip irrigation system is necessary for those areas, where the water scarcity issues are present. The present study was conducted at the field station of Climate Change, Alternate Energy and Water Resources Institute (CAEWRI), National Agricultural Research Center (NARC), Islamabad, during 2013, regarding drip irrigation system. Drip irrigation system depends on uniform emitter application flow. All the emitters were tested and replicated thrice at pressure head (34 to 207Kpa) with an increment of 34 Kpa. The minimum and maximum discharges were 1.32 - 3.52, 3.36 - 5.42, and 43.22 - 100.99 Lph, with an average of 2.42, 4.63 and 73.66 Lph, for Bow Smith, RIS and Micro-tubing, respectively. It indicates that more than 90% of emission uniformity (EU) and uniformity coefficient (CU) for all Emitters, which shows excellent water application with least standard deviation, ranging 0.12 to 2.37, throughout the operating pressure heads in all emitters. An average coefficient of variation (CV) of all emitters were behaving less than 0.07, indicating an excellent class at all operating pressure heads between 34 to 207 Kpa. Moreover, the relationship of discharge and pressure of emitters indicates that discharge increased with the increase of pressure head. The Q-H curve plays key role in the selection of emitters. (author)

  12. Physiological targets of artificial gravity: the sensory-motor system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groen, E.L.; Clarke, A.; Bles, W.; Wuyts, F.; Paloski, W.; Clément, G.

    2007-01-01

    This chapter describes the pros and cons of artificial gravity applications in relation to human sensory-motor functioning in space. Spaceflight creates a challenge for sensory-motor functions that depend on gravity, which include postural balance, locomotion, eye-hand coordination, and spatial

  13. A comparison of sewer reticulation system design standards gravity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirdly Botswana being a dry country does not always have the water supply available and only some households have a house connection which provides enough water to flush a gravity sewer. Coupled to this is the low housing density and generally flat landscape in rural Botswana that means the conventional gravity ...

  14. A Solar Energy Powered Autonomous Wireless Actuator Node for Irrigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Lajara, Rafael; Alberola, Jorge; Pelegr?-Sebasti?, Jos?

    2010-01-01

    The design of a fully autonomous and wireless actuator node ("wEcoValve mote") based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is presented. The system allows remote control (open/close) of a 3-lead magnetic latch solenoid, commonly used in drip irrigation systems in applications such as agricultural areas, greenhouses, gardens, etc. The very low power consumption of the system in conjunction with the low power consumption of the valve, only when switching positions, allows the system to be solar powered...

  15. Constraining f(R) gravity in solar system, cosmology and binary pulsar systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tan; Zhang, Xing; Zhao, Wen

    2018-02-01

    The f (R) gravity can be cast into the form of a scalar-tensor theory, and scalar degree of freedom can be suppressed in high-density regions by the chameleon mechanism. In this article, for the general f (R) gravity, using a scalar-tensor representation with the chameleon mechanism, we calculate the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters γ and β, the effective gravitational constant Geff, and the effective cosmological constant Λeff. In addition, for the general f (R) gravity, we also calculate the rate of orbital period decay of the binary system due to gravitational radiation. Then we apply these results to specific f (R) models (Hu-Sawicki model, Tsujikawa model and Starobinsky model) and derive the constraints on the model parameters by combining the observations in solar system, cosmological scales and the binary systems.

  16. Constraining f(R gravity in solar system, cosmology and binary pulsar systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Liu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The f(R gravity can be cast into the form of a scalar–tensor theory, and scalar degree of freedom can be suppressed in high-density regions by the chameleon mechanism. In this article, for the general f(R gravity, using a scalar–tensor representation with the chameleon mechanism, we calculate the parametrized post-Newtonian parameters γ and β, the effective gravitational constant Geff, and the effective cosmological constant Λeff. In addition, for the general f(R gravity, we also calculate the rate of orbital period decay of the binary system due to gravitational radiation. Then we apply these results to specific f(R models (Hu–Sawicki model, Tsujikawa model and Starobinsky model and derive the constraints on the model parameters by combining the observations in solar system, cosmological scales and the binary systems.

  17. Irrigation water management: Basic principles and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ella, Victor B.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation defines the term, irrigation, as well as explains the common methods of irrigation in attempt to define the fundamental principles needed to wisely design an irrigation system. It outlines a typical drip irrigation set-up, and discusses management of an irrigation system, including water volume application suggestions. LTRA-5 (Agroforestry and Sustainable Vegetable Production)

  18. MODELING AND DESIGN OF INNOVATIVE SMALL DIAMETER GRAVITY SEWERAGE SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Nawrot

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents modern methods of hydraulic design of an innovative small diameter gravity sewerage system. In this system, domestic wastewater is preliminary treated in septic tanks equipped with outlet filters, thus the effluent features are similar to those of clear water. Innovative non-return valves at the outlets eliminate introduction of air to the system and thus the flows can be treated as one-phase ones. Computer codes EPANET 2 and SWMM 5.0 were applied and compared. Two flow schemes typical for the sewerage system were implemented in EPANET 2, and the third - in a slightly modified SWMM 5.0. Simulation results were validated on empirical data obtained on a laboratory physical model, consisting of four tanks of minimum volumes 600 dm3 each, connecting PE pipelines of diameters 25 mm and 36 mm and relevant sanitary fittings. Water inflows, typical for domestic wastewater outflows from single homesteads, were provided by a pump. Water flows were measured using water meters with pulse outputs, and water levels in tanks by pressure transducers. Hydraulic characteristics of filters and non-return valves were provided. Simulation results showed good agreement with the empirical data. Ranges of values of design parameters, needed for successful application of both codes, were established and discussed.

  19. A Wireless Low Power Valve Controller for Drip Irrigation Control Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haijiang Tai

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Drip irrigation control systems in fields generally include a large number of sensors and valves; controlling these devices efficiently can be achieved by using distributed irrigation control (DIC, which has the advantages of reduced wiring and piping costs and easier installation and maintenance. In this study, a wireless low power valve controller for drip irrigation control systems was developed and tested. The specific tasks included the controller design (hardware and software, energy consumption tests, and field tests. The controller uses the highly integrated JN5139 module, which is based on IEEE802.15.4, for hardware design; low power consumption sleep algorithms for software design; and two alkaline batteries for supply of power to the valve controller. Results of laboratory and field tests show continuous working days of the valve controller powered by two alkaline batteries are at least 3 months under different sleep periods and frequencies of valve control. The controller described here is characterized as reliable, low cost, easy to install, and having low power consumption.

  20. FEATURES OF MINERAL NUTRITION FOR TOMATO PLANTS WITH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM IN OPEN FIELD CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. M. Akhmetova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Dagestan is the largest region with irrigation system of agriculture in Russia. Irrigated lands provide 70% of total plant production. The field cultivation is carried on arable land in plain region of the republic. The drip irrigation as an ecologically safe technology for watering is regarded as major means for vegetable production farming. This approach maintains the propitious level of water and air in the soil without surface and deep drainage of irrigating water. These irrigated lands are expected to be used first of all for valuable and profitable crops such as tomato that is a leading crop in Dagestan. The experimental work was carried out at OOO ‘Dagagrocomplex’, Aleksandro-Nevskoye, in Tarumovskiy region. The aim of the study was to determinate the optimal dose of mineral fertilizers and the way of their application to improve the productivity without quality loss. The complex analysis of the technology for tomato production under drip irrigation through nontransplanting culture showed its high efficiency, because volume and quality of yield directly depended on soil moisture and precise supporting of mineral nutrition rates. The maximal yield of tomato fruits, 88.7-94.5 t/ha was observed with once mineral fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60 with soil humidity 70-80% (field moisture capacity, and also at the dose of N180P135K60 with basic application of N100 in nutrition rate. The result of the study showed that the optimization of two factors, namely soil water rate and mineral nutrition, enabled to produce additionally 39.2 t/ha. It was shown the tight connection between yielding and its quality; when yielding 95 t/ha, the increased contents of dry matter to 7.01%, sugar to 3.8% vitamin C to 18.46% were noticed. The high quality of produced output was supported by pre-watering threshold of moisture at 75-80% (field moisture capacity, when once fertilizer application at a dose of N180P135K60. 

  1. Design and Management of Irrigation Systems Diseño y Manejo de Sistemas de Riego

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo A Holzapfel

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Irrigation systems should be a relevant agent to give solutions to the increasing demand of food, and to the development, sustainability and productivity of the agricultural sector. The design, managing, and operation of irrigation systems are crucial factors to achieve an efficient use of the water resources and the success in the production of crops and orchards. The aim of this paper is to analyze knowledge and investigations that enable to identify the principal criteria and processes that allow improving the design and managing of the irrigation systems, based on the basic concept that they facilitate to develop agriculture more efficient and sustainable. The design and managing of irrigation systems must have its base in criteria that are relevant, which implies to take into account agronomic, soil, hydraulic, economic, energetic, and environmental factors. The optimal design and managing of irrigation systems at farm level is a factor of the first importance for a rational use of water, economic development of the agriculture and its environmental sustainability.Los sistemas de riego deberían ser un agente relevante para dar soluciones a la demanda creciente de alimentos, y el desarrollo, sustentabilidad y productividad del sector agrícola. El diseño, manejo, y operación de los sistemas de riego son factores cruciales para lograr un uso eficiente de los recursos hídricos y el éxito en la producción de cultivos y frutales. El objetivo de este artículo fue analizar conocimientos e investigaciones que permitan identificar los principales criterios y procesos para mejorar el diseño y manejo de los sistemas de riego, basados en el concepto básico de desarrollar una agricultura más eficiente y sostenible. El diseño y manejo de los sistemas de riego deben tener su base en criterios que sean relevantes, lo que implica considerar aspectos agronómicos, de suelo, hidráulicos, económicos, energéticos, y ambientales. El diseño y

  2. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant using two new reciprocating and one continuous rotation single file systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudutt Nayak

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems.Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20 were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One and one rotary (One Shape single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant.The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05. Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05.Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.

  3. Evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant using two new reciprocating and one continuous rotation single file systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Gurudutt; Singh, Inderpreet; Shetty, Shashit; Dahiya, Surya

    2014-05-01

    Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants during cleaning and shaping of the root canal is one of the main causes of periapical inflammation and postoperative flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to quantitatively measure the amount of debris and irrigants extruded apically in single rooted canals using two reciprocating and one rotary single file nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Sixty human mandibular premolars, randomly assigned to three groups (n = 20) were instrumented using two reciprocating (Reciproc and Wave One) and one rotary (One Shape) single-file nickel-titanium systems. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant with traditional needle irrigation delivery system. Eppendorf tubes were used as test apparatus for collection of debris and irrigant. The volume of extruded irrigant was collected and quantified via 0.1-mL increment measure supplied on the disposable plastic insulin syringe. The liquid inside the tubes was dried and the mean weight of debris was assessed using an electronic microbalance. The data were statistically analysed using Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann Whitney U test with Bonferroni adjustment. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The Reciproc file system produced significantly more debris compared with OneShape file system (P0.05). Extrusion of irrigant was statistically insignificant irrespective of the instrument or instrumentation technique used (P >0.05). Although all systems caused apical extrusion of debris and irrigant, continuous rotary instrumentation was associated with less extrusion as compared with the use of reciprocating file systems.

  4. Power laws for gravity and topography of Solar System bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ermakov, A.; Park, R. S.; Bills, B. G.

    2017-12-01

    When a spacecraft visits a planetary body, it is useful to be able to predict its gravitational and topographic properties. This knowledge is important for determining the level of perturbations in spacecraft's motion as well as for planning the observation campaign. It has been known for the Earth that the power spectrum of gravity follows a power law, also known as the Kaula rule (Kaula, 1963; Rapp, 1989). A similar rule was derived for topography (Vening-Meinesz, 1951). The goal of this paper is to generalize the power law that can characterize the gravity and topography power spectra for bodies across a wide range of size. We have analyzed shape power spectra of the bodies that have either global shape and gravity field measured. These bodies span across five orders of magnitude in their radii and surface gravities and include terrestrial planets, icy moons and minor bodies. We have found that despite having different internal structure, composition and mechanical properties, the topography power spectrum of these bodies' shapes can be modeled with a similar power law rescaled by the surface gravity. Having empirically found a power law for topography, we can map it to a gravity power law. Special care should be taken for low-degree harmonic coefficients due to potential isostatic compensation. For minor bodies, uniform density can be assumed. The gravity coefficients are a linear function of the shape coefficients for close-to-spherical bodoes. In this case, the power law for gravity will be steeper than the power law of topography due to the factor (2n+1) in the gravity expansion (e.g. Eq. 10 in Wieczorek & Phillips, 1998). Higher powers of topography must be retained for irregularly shaped bodies, which breaks the linearity. Therefore, we propose the following procedure to derive an a priori constraint for gravity. First, a surface gravity needs to be determined assuming typical density for the relevant class of bodies. Second, the scaling coefficient of the

  5. Distribution Of 15N Fertilizer Added To Sandy Soil Under Drip Irrigation System As Affected By Irrigation Frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GADALLA, A.M.; GALAL, Y.G.M.; EL-GENDY, R.W.; ISMAIL, M.M.; EL-DEGWY, S.M.; KASSAB, M.F.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron moisture meter and stable nitrogen isotope ( 15 N) were used to follow horizontal and vertical water movement and N-fertilizer added to soil before and after irrigation. The data indicated that soil moisture distribution and values of total hydraulic potential depend on soil moisture content. Characterization of nitrogen in soil for all sites around the emitter indicated spatial variability with different soil depths due to leaching and volatilization processes. Moreover, water movement and flow direction greatly were characterized by active evaporation depth which was 30 cm.

  6. Set Up of an Automatic Water Quality Sampling System in Irrigation Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuel Heinz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a high-resolution automatic sampling system for continuous in situ measurements of stable water isotopic composition and nitrogen solutes along with hydrological information. The system facilitates concurrent monitoring of a large number of water and nutrient fluxes (ground, surface, irrigation and rain water in irrigated agriculture. For this purpose we couple an automatic sampling system with a Wavelength-Scanned Cavity Ring Down Spectrometry System (WS-CRDS for stable water isotope analysis (δ2H and δ18O, a reagentless hyperspectral UV photometer (ProPS for monitoring nitrate content and various water level sensors for hydrometric information. The automatic sampling system consists of different sampling stations equipped with pumps, a switch cabinet for valve and pump control and a computer operating the system. The complete system is operated via internet-based control software, allowing supervision from nearly anywhere. The system is currently set up at the International Rice Research Institute (Los Baños, The Philippines in a diversified rice growing system to continuously monitor water and nutrient fluxes. Here we present the system’s technical set-up and provide initial proof-of-concept with results for the isotopic composition of different water sources and nitrate values from the 2012 dry season.

  7. Design of a micro-irrigation system based on the control volume method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chasseriaux G.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A micro-irrigation system design based on control volume method using the back step procedure is presented in this study. The proposed numerical method is simple and consists of delimiting an elementary volume of the lateral equipped with an emitter, called « control volume » on which the conservation equations of the fl uid hydrodynamicʼs are applied. Control volume method is an iterative method to calculate velocity and pressure step by step throughout the micro-irrigation network based on an assumed pressure at the end of the line. A simple microcomputer program was used for the calculation and the convergence was very fast. When the average water requirement of plants was estimated, it is easy to choose the sum of the average emitter discharge as the total average fl ow rate of the network. The design consists of exploring an economical and effi cient network to deliver uniformly the input fl ow rate for all emitters. This program permitted the design of a large complex network of thousands of emitters very quickly. Three subroutine programs calculate velocity and pressure at a lateral pipe and submain pipe. The control volume method has already been tested for lateral design, the results from which were validated by other methods as fi nite element method, so it permits to determine the optimal design for such micro-irrigation network

  8. A California Statewide App to Simulate Fate of Nitrate in Irrigated Agricultural System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, E.; Walkinshaw, M.; Harter, T.; O'Geen, A. T.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater resources are very important for California's economic development and environmental sustainability. Nitrate is by far the most widespread anthropogenic groundwater pollutant in California's mostly alluvial groundwater basins. Major sources are synthetic fertilizer and dairy manure, but also septic systems and urban wastewater effluent. Here, we evaluate agricultural soils in California according to their risk for nitrate leaching. We conducted over 1 million numerical simulations taking into account the effect of climate, crop type, irrigation and fertilization management scenarios across all 4,568 agricultural soil profiles occurring in California. The assessment was done solving 1-D Richards equation and the advection-dispersion equation numerically. This study is focused on the complex water and nitrate dynamics occurring at the shallow vadose zone (rootzone). The results of this study allow the construction of state-wide maps which can be used for the identification of high-risk regions and the design of agricultural nutrient management policy. We investigate how pollution risk can be minimized by adopting simple irrigation and fertilization methods. Furthermore, we show that these methods are more effective for the most permeable soil profiles along with high demanding crops in terms of fertilization amount and irrigation water. We also present how seasonal (winter) climate conditions contribute on nitrate leaching.

  9. Multi-Stream Saline-Jet Dissection Using a Simple Irrigation System Defines Difficult Tissue Planes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Philip CH

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Single-stream hydro-jet dissection is increasingly used in various laparoscopic procedures, but its use requires special equipment. We describe a simple method for using an irrigation system for saline-jet tissue dissection as a useful adjunct prior to adhesiolysis. Material and Methods: Intraabdominal adhesions prolong laparoscopic procedures, because tissue planes are difficult to identify. We performed multi-jet saline dissection (MSSJ) between 2000 and 2009 in more than 500 patients during laparoscopy involving hernias, gallbladders, appendices, and intestinal obstructions. We use a standard suction irrigation probe, which is attached to a 1-liter saline bag with an inflatable cuff around to create a pressure of 250mm Hg to 300mm Hg. In effect, this is the standard setup generally used for irrigation. After using saline dissection, tissue planes can be better defined and the structures can then be separated. Result and Discussion: Using this method, we have successfully identified tissue planes in spite of dense adhesions, and our conversion rates to open have been reduced dramatically. This method is relatively safer than other modalities of tissue dissection, such as diathermy, ultrasonic, blunt or sharp dissection. The disadvantage is that with tissues saturated with saline it becomes more difficult to use diathermy hemostasis. Care has to be exercised in monitoring the temperature and volume of the fluid used. PMID:20529528

  10. Design and Installation of Irrigation System for the Expansion of Sugar cane- Industries in Ahvaz, IRAN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afshari, E.; Afshari, S.

    2005-12-01

    This paper presents achievements of a twelve years ongoing project expansion of sugar cane- industries as a major agricultural development in Ahvaz, IRAN. The entire project is divided in to seven units and each unit provides irrigation water for 30,000 acres of sugar cane farms in Ahwaz. Absou Inc. is one of the consulting firms that is in charge of design and overseeing installation of irrigation system as well as the development of lands for sugar-cane cultivation at one of the units, called Farabi unit .In general, the mission of project is to Pump fresh water from Karoon River and direct it to the sugar cane farm for irrigation. In particular, the task of design and installation include, (1) build a pumping station at Karoon River with capacity of 1271 ft3/sec, (2) transfer water by main channel from Karoon rive to the farm site 19 miles (3) install a secondary pumping stations which direct water from main channel to drainage pipes and provides water for local farms (4) build a secondary channels which carries water with pipe lines with total length of 42 miles and diameter of 16 to 32 inch. (5) install drainage pump stations and collectors (6) level the ground surface and prepare it for irrigation (7) build railroad for carrying sugar canes (23 miles). Thus far, more than 15,000 acres of farm in Farabi unit is under sugar cane cultivation. The presentation will illustrate more details about different aspects of the project including design, installation and construction phases.

  11. Study Of Solar PV Sizing Of Water Pumping System For Irrigation Of Asparagus

    OpenAIRE

    Mya Su Kyi; Lu Maw; Hla Myo Tun

    2015-01-01

    The motivation for this system come from the countries where economy is depended on agriculture and the climatic conditions lead to lack of rains. The farmers working in the farm lands are dependent on the rains and bore wells. Even if the farm land has a water-pump manual involvement by farmers is required to turn the pump onoff when on earth needed. This paper presents design and calculation analysis of efficient Solar PV water pumping system for irrigation of Asparagus. The study area fall...

  12. Overload control of artificial gravity facility using spinning tether system for high eccentricity transfer orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gou, Xing-wang; Li, Ai-jun; Tian, Hao-chang; Wang, Chang-qing; Lu, Hong-shi

    2018-06-01

    As the major part of space life supporting systems, artificial gravity requires further study before it becomes mature. Spinning tether system is a good alternative solution to provide artificial gravity for the whole spacecraft other than additional devices, and its longer tether length could significantly reduce spinning velocity and thus enhance comfortability. An approximated overload-based feedback method is proposed to provide estimated spinning velocity signals for controller, so that gravity level could be accurately controlled without complicated GPS modules. System behavior in high eccentricity transfer orbits is also studied to give a complete knowledge of the spinning stabilities. The application range of the proposed method is studied in various orbit cases and spinning velocities, indicating that it is accurate and reliable for most of the mission phases especially for the final constant gravity level phase. In order to provide stable gravity level for transfer orbit missions, a sliding mode controller based on estimated angular signals is designed for closed-loop control. Numerical results indicate that the combination of overload-based feedback and sliding mode controller could satisfy most of the long-term artificial gravity missions. It is capable of forming flexible gravity environment in relatively good accuracy even in the lowest possible orbital radiuses and high eccentricity orbits of crewed space missions. The proposed scheme provides an effective tether solution for the artificial gravity construction in interstellar travel.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using four rotary instrumentation systems: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaveni, S Aspalli; Balakoti, K Reddy; Smita, Karan; Ratnakar, P; Satish, S V; Aravind, T

    2013-11-01

    The apical extrusion of infected debris may have the potential to disrupt the balance between microbial aggression and host defense, resulting in incidents of acute inflammation. During preparation, irrigants and debris, such as bacteria, dentin filings and necrotic tissue may be extruded into the periradicular region leading to periapical inflammation and postoperative flare ups. Using an instrumentation technique that minimizes apical extrusion would be beneficial to both the practitioner and patient. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the weight of debris and volume of irrigant extruded apically from extracted teeth in vitro after endodontic instrumentation using four different rotary root canal instrumentation systems. Four groups of each 20 extracted mandibular premolars were instrumented using one of the four systems: ProTaper Universal (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland)), Hero-shaper (MicroMega, Besancon, France), RaCe (FKG Dentaire, La-Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) and K3 (SybronEndo, West Collins, CA). Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen during instrumentation were collected in preweighed test tubes. Volume of irrigant extruded was noted. The containers were stored in incubator at 70° for two days to evaporate the moisture. Weight of dry debris was noted. Data was analyzed using Kruskall-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test at a significance of 0.001. The results indicated that all of the instrumentation systems tested caused measurable apical extrusion of debris and irrigants. Higher extrusion was observed with Protaper system which was statistically significant with Hero-Shaper, RaCe and K3 systems. There were no statistical differences between Hero-shaper, K3 and RaCe systems (p < 0.05). All instrumentation techniques apically extruded debris and irrigant. However, Hero-shaper, K3 and RaCe systems produced less extruded debris and irrigant than the Protaper system.

  14. Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocharyan, A. A.

    2009-01-01

    We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.

  15. A Quantitative Socio-hydrological Characterization of Water Security in Large-Scale Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqi, A.; Muhammad, A.; Wescoat, J. L., Jr.

    2017-12-01

    Large-scale, legacy canal systems, such as the irrigation infrastructure in the Indus Basin in Punjab, Pakistan, have been primarily conceived, constructed, and operated with a techno-centric approach. The emerging socio-hydrological approaches provide a new lens for studying such systems to potentially identify fresh insights for addressing contemporary challenges of water security. In this work, using the partial definition of water security as "the reliable availability of an acceptable quantity and quality of water", supply reliability is construed as a partial measure of water security in irrigation systems. A set of metrics are used to quantitatively study reliability of surface supply in the canal systems of Punjab, Pakistan using an extensive dataset of 10-daily surface water deliveries over a decade (2007-2016) and of high frequency (10-minute) flow measurements over one year. The reliability quantification is based on comparison of actual deliveries and entitlements, which are a combination of hydrological and social constructs. The socio-hydrological lens highlights critical issues of how flows are measured, monitored, perceived, and experienced from the perspective of operators (government officials) and users (famers). The analysis reveals varying levels of reliability (and by extension security) of supply when data is examined across multiple temporal and spatial scales. The results shed new light on evolution of water security (as partially measured by supply reliability) for surface irrigation in the Punjab province of Pakistan and demonstrate that "information security" (defined as reliable availability of sufficiently detailed data) is vital for enabling water security. It is found that forecasting and management (that are social processes) lead to differences between entitlements and actual deliveries, and there is significant potential to positively affect supply reliability through interventions in the social realm.

  16. Improved upper bounds on Kaluza-Klein gravity with current Solar System experiments and observations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Xue-Mei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Nanjing (China); Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Space Navigation and Position Techniques, Shanghai (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)

    2015-11-15

    As an extension of previous works on classical tests of Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravity and as an attempt to find more stringent constraints on this theory, its effects on physical experiments and astronomical observations conducted in the Solar System are studied. We investigate the gravitational time delay at inferior conjunction caused by KK gravity, and use new Solar System ephemerides and the observation of Cassini to strengthen constraints on KK gravity by up to two orders of magnitude. These improved upper bounds mean that the fifth-dimensional space in the soliton case is a very flat extra dimension in the Solar System, even in the vicinity of the Sun. (orig.)

  17. An Interactive Real-time Decision Support System for Leachate Irrigation on Evapotranspiration Landfill Covers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Landfill disposal is still the most common and economical practice for municipal solid waste in most countries. However, heavily polluted leachate generated by excess rainwater percolating through the landfill waste is the major drawback of this practice. Evapotranspiration (ET) cover systems are increasingly being used as alternative cover systems to minimize percolation by evapotranspiration. Leachate recirculation is one of the least expensive options for leachate treatment. The combination of ET cover systems and leachate recirculation can be an economical and environment-friendly practice for landfill leachate management. An interactive real-time decision support system is being developed to better manage leachate irrigation using historical and forecasting weather data, and real time soil moisture data. The main frame of this system includes soil water modules, and plant-soil modules. An inverse simulation module is also included to calibrate certain parameters based on observed data when necessary. It would be an objectives-oriented irrigation management tool to minimize landfill operation costs and negative environmental impacts.

  18. Water Governance and Adaptation to Disturbances in Irrigated Semi-Arid Agricultural Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, T. P.; McCord, P. F.; McBride, L.; Gower, D.; Caylor, K. K.

    2013-12-01

    Climate and other physical drivers of environmental systems are modifying the global availability of water for irrigation. At the same time population growth is placing an increased demand on water resources as local municipalities promote agricultural production as a mechanism to support human welfare and development. Substantial has research focused on household-level agricultural decision-making and adaptation. But equally important are institutional dynamics, or the rules implemented to allocate water resources across different user groups. Previous work has identified design principles for common-pool resource systems that tend to lead to sustained governance regimes. Likewise, past research has addressed the issue of "institutional fit", or locally adapted governance arrangements characterized through governance structure. However, much of the complexity behind institutional dynamics and adaptive capacity lies in the translation of data to information to knowledge, and how this sequence contributes to effective cross-scale water management and decision-making - an arena that has arguably received less attention in the water management literature. We investigate the interplay between governance regimes, data/information and institutional dynamics in irrigation systems in semi-arid regions of Kenya. In particular, we articulate the role of knowledge and data in institutional dynamics at multiple levels of analysis. How do users at different decision-making levels incorporate social and hydrological information in water governance? What data is needed to develop the information and knowledge users need for effective management? While governance structure is certainly a critical component of water management systems - we emphasize the interplay between the data-information-knowledge sequence and institutional dynamics. We present findings from household and manager-level surveys examining irrigation practices and the institutions designed to equitably allocate

  19. Antibacterial Efficacy of Calcium Hypochlorite with Vibringe Sonic Irrigation System on Enterococcus faecalis: An In Vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumani, Aysin; Guvenmez, Hatice Korkmaz; Yilmaz, Sehnaz; Yoldas, Oguz; Kurklu, Zeliha Gonca Bek

    2016-01-01

    Aim. The purpose of this study was to compare the in vitro efficacy of calcium hypochlorite (Ca[OCl]2) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) associated with sonic (Vibringe) irrigation system in root canals which were contaminated with Enterococcus faecalis. Material and Methods. The root canals of 84 single-rooted premolars were enlarged up to a file 40, autoclaved, inoculated with Enterococcus faecalis, and incubated for 21 days. The samples were divided into 7 groups according to the irrigation protocol: G0: no treatment; G1: distilled water; G2: 2.5% NaOCl; G3: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2; G4: distilled water with sonic activation; G5: 2.5% NaOCl with sonic activation; and G6: 2.5% Ca(OCl)2 with sonic activation. Before and after decontamination procedures microbiological samples were collected and the colony-forming units were counted and the percentages of reduction were calculated. Results. Distilled water with syringe irrigation and sonic activation groups demonstrated poor antibacterial effect on Enterococcus faecalis compared to other experimental groups (p irrigation systems with Ca(OCl)2 and NaOCl. Conclusion. The antimicrobial property of Ca(OCl)2 has been investigated and compared with that of NaOCl. Both conventional syringe irrigation and sonic irrigation were found effective at removing E. faecalis from the root canal of extracted human teeth. PMID:27218106

  20. Relationship between pure Schistosoma haematobium infection in Upper Egypt and irrigation systems. Part 1: methods of study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammam, H M; Allam, F A; Hassanein, F; El-Garby, M T

    1975-01-01

    Four villages in Assiut Governorate were studied. They were matched for availability and time of introduction of medical services, the size of population and the socioeconomic status. One village had a basin system of irrigation. The other three villages had perennial irrigation introduced at different dates. A sketch map of each village was made showing the location of every house and the irrigation channels. Total coverage was intended in Gezirat El-Maabda (with basin irrigation) and Nazza Karar (with perennial irrigation-recently introduced). In El-Ghorayeb and Garf Sarhan (with older systems of perennial irrigation) systematic random samples were studied. The Study included a full, double check clinical examination of urine and stools samples and a social study. Data about educational level and activities that bring the individual in contact with canal water were recorded. Tables showing the age and sex distribution of the total population and the population studied in each village are presented and show validity of the samples taken from the population.

  1. Detection of Anthropogenic pressures on western Mediterranean irrigation systems (La Albufera de Valencia agriculture system, eastern Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual-Aguilar, J. A.; Andreu, V.; Picó, Y.

    2012-04-01

    Irrigation systems are considered as one of the major landscapes features in western Mediterranean environments. Both socio-economic and cultural elements are interrelated in their development and preservation. Generally, due to their location in flat lands and close to major urban-industrial zones, irrigation lands are suffering of intense pressures that can alter their agricultural values, environmental quality and, consequently, the sustainability of the systems. To understand the nature of anthropogenic pressures on large Mediterranean water agricultural systems a methodology based on environmental forensics criteria has been developed and applied to La Albufera Natural Park in Valencia (Eastern Spain), a protected area where traditional irrigation systems exists since Muslim times (from 8th to 15th centuries). The study analysed impacts on water and soils, for the first case the fate of emerging contaminants of urban origin (pharmaceuticals and illegal drugs) are analysed. Impact on soils is analysed using the dynamics urban expansion and the loss and fragmentation of soils. The study focused is organised around two major procedures: (1) analysis of 16 water samples to identify the presence of 14 illicit drugs and 17 pharmaceutical compounds by Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry techniques; (2) spatial analysis with Geographical Information Systems (GIS) integrating different sources and data formats such as water analysis, social, location of sewage water treatment plan and the synchronic comparison of two soil sealing layers -for the years 1991 and 2010. Results show that there is a clear trend in the introduction of pharmaceutical in the irrigation water through previous use of urban consumption and, in many cases, for receiving the effluents of wastewaters treatment plants. Impacts on soils are also important incidence in the fragmentation and disappearance of agricultural land due to soil sealing, even within the protected area of the Natural Park

  2. Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System Concepts for Upper Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravex, Alain; Flachbart, Robin; Holt, Barney

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a technology need that involves practically all uses of sub-critical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule-Thomson (J-T) valve to extract thermal energy from the propellant. Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (MHTB) was used to test both spray bar and axial jet TVS concepts. The axial jet system consists of a recirculation pump heat exchanger unit. The spray bar system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. The operation of both concepts is similar. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the heat exchanger, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. TVS performance testing demonstrated that the spray bar was effective in providing tank pressure control within a 6

  3. Obstruction and uniformity in drip irrigation systems by applying treated wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Ferreira da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The use of wastewater in agriculture is an alternative to control surface water pollution, and helps to promote the rational use of water. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the obstruction and uniformity of application of treated wastewater in drip irrigation systems. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the Universidade Federal de Campina Grande. The treatments were composed by the factorial combination of two factors: three types of water (supply water-ABAST, effluent of a constructed wetland system -WETLAND and upflow of anaerobic reactor effluent followed by constructed wetland system -UASB + WETLAND, and two drip irrigation systems (surface and subsurface, set in a completely randomized design, with four replications. The results indicated that the pH, suspended solids, total iron and coliforms of the WETLAND and UASB + WETLAND treatments represented a severe risk of clogging of drippers; the flow of the emitters increased as the service pressure was increased; values of CUC and CUD in surface and subsurface drip were classified as excellent in ABAST and WETLAND treatments. The degree of clogging reduced as pressure under surface and subsurface drip was increased.

  4. AUTOMATED IRRIGATION SYSTEM CONSTITUTED OF ELECTRONIC ELEMENTS, MOBILE DEVICE AND THE CONSTRUCTION OF SPRINKLER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alma Delia González

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This document presents the development of an automated irrigation system, which consisted of a sprinkler that has a range of 16 meters in diameter using only sprinklers per one hectare of land, water pump, hose, water containers, electro valves, relays, electronic components such as humidity and temperature sensor, ultrasonic sensor, LCD screen, microcontroller (Arduino Mega, for communication a bluetooth module and a mobile device (Android. The agile methodology used was Extreme XP Programming, following its 4 phases, planning, design, development and testing. With this an automated irrigation system was used that was developed to monitor temperature, humidity and to generate a saving in the water thanks to the census of the container of the same, as well as the reduction of maintenance costs, this can be activated or deactivated by the user regardless of the conditions. The system complies with the characteristics of a utility model, because these models are all those objects, tools, appliances or tools that, as a result of a change in their layout, configuration, structure or form, present a different function with respect to the parts that integrate it or advantages in terms of its usefulness and thanks to the search carried out in IMPI. In the study of the state of the art the search was made in the data bases of Mexico in SIGA (Information System of the Gazette of the Industrial Property and internationally in Thomson, the results showed that there were similar sy

  5. Effect of the Earth's inner structure on the gravity in definitions of height systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tenzer, Robert; Foroughi, Ismael; Pitoňák, Martin; Šprlák, Michal

    2017-04-01

    In context of the vertical datum unification, the geoid-to-quasi-geoid separation has been of significant interest in recent years, because most of existing local vertical datums are realized in the system of either normal or orthometric heights. Nevertheless, the normal-orthometric heights are still used in many other countries where the normal gravity values along leveling lines were adopted instead of the observed gravity. Whereas the conversion between the orthometric and normal heights is defined by means of the mean gravity disturbances (i.e. differences between the mean values of the actual and normal gravity) along the plumbline within the topography, differences between the normal and normal-orthometric heights can be described by means of the surface gravity disturbances. Since the normal gravity field does not reflect the topographic masses and actual mass density distribution inside the Earth, the definition of gravity represents a principal aspect for a realization of particular vertical datum. To address this issue in this study, we investigate effects of the Earth's inner density structure on the surface and mean gravity disturbances, and discuss their impact on the vertical datum realization. These two gravity field quantities are computed globally with a spectral resolution complete to a spherical harmonic degree 2160 using the global gravity, terrain, ice-thickness, inland bathymetry and crustal structure models. Our results reveal that both, the surface and mean gravity disturbances mostly comprise the gravitational signal of topography and masses distributed below the geoid surface. Moreover, in polar areas, a significant contribution comes from large glaciers. In contrast, the contributions of anomalous density distribution within the topography attributed to major lakes, sediments and bedrock density variations are much less pronounced. We also demonstrate that the mean gravity disturbances within the topography are significantly modified

  6. A Computer Program for Drip Irrigation System Design for Small Plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipova, Nina; Nicheva, Olga; Kazandjiev, Valentin; Chilikova-Lubomirova, Mila

    2012-12-01

    A computer programhas been developed for design of surface drip irrigation system. It could be applied for calculation of small scale fields with an area up to 10 ha. The program includes two main parts: crop water requirements and hydraulic calculations of the system. It has been developed in Graphical User Interface in MATLAB and gives opportunity for selecting some parameters from tables such as: agro- physical soil properties, characteristics of the corresponding crop, climatic data. It allows the user of the program to assume and set a definite value, for example the emitter discharge, plot parameters and etc. Eight cases of system layout according to the water source layout and the number of plots of the system operation are laid into hydraulic section of the program. It includes the design of lateral, manifold, main line and pump calculations. The program has been compiled to work in Windows.

  7. Safe and High Quality Food Production using Low Quality Waters and Improved Irrigation Systems and Management (SAFIR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, L.; Kloppmann, W.; Battilani, A.; Bertaki, M.; Blagojevic, S.; Chartzoulakis, K.; Dalsgaard, A.; Forslund, A.; Jovanovic, Z.; Kasapakis, I.

    2009-04-01

    The safe use of treated domestic wastewater for irrigation needs to address the risks for humans (workers, exposed via contact with irrigation water, soil, crops and food, consumers, exposed via ingestion of fresh and processed food), for animals (via ingestion of crops an soil), for the crops and agricultural productivity (via salinity and trace element uptake), for soil (via accumulation or release of pollutants) as well as for surface, groundwaters and the associated ecosystems (via runoff and infiltration, Kass et al., 2005, Bouwer, 2000). A work package in the EU FP5 project SAFIR is dedicated to study the impact of wastewater irrigation on the soil-water-plant-product system. Its monitoring program comprises pathogens and inorganic pollutants, including both geogenic and potentially anthropogenic trace elements in the aim to better understand soil-irrigation water interactions. The SAFIR field study sites are found in China, Italy, Crete, and Serbia. A performance evaluation of SAFIR-specific treatment technology through the monitoring of waste water and irrigation water quality was made through waste water chemical and microbiological qualities, which were investigated upstream and downstream of the SAFIR specific treatment three times per season. Irrigation water transits through the uppermost soil decimetres to the crop roots. The latter will become, in the course of the irrigation season, the major sink of percolating water, together with evaporation. The water saving irrigation techniques used in SAFIR are surface and subsurface drip irrigation. The investigation of the solid soil phase concentrates on the root zone as main transit and storage compartment for pollutants and, eventually, pathogens. The initial soil quality was assessed through a sampling campaign before the onset of the first year irrigation; the soil quality has been monitored throughout three years under cultivation of tomatoes or potatoes. The plot layout for each of the study sites

  8. Appropriate rehabilitation strategy for a traditional irrigation supply system: a case from the Babai area in Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adhikari, B; Verhoeven, R; Troch, P

    2009-01-01

    This paper studies primary canals of three traditional irrigation systems in the southern plains of Nepal. It offers a scientific interpretation of the indigenous technology applied to the systems, which facilitates to use the same channel network for irrigation, drainage and flood management. The flood management technology of the farmers by diverting as much discharge as possible to the field channels results in the reduction of discharge towards the downstream part of the main channel. It is depicted in the simulation study that uses the river analysis program HEC-RAS 4.0. A cascade of weirs is found to be the most cost effective and user-friendly option to upgrade these systems preserving the existing irrigation, drainage as well as flood management functions. This study suggests that the conventional irrigation design principles should be applied very cautiously with full knowledge of the existing socio-institutional setting, hydro-ecological regime and indigenous technology for upgrading any traditional irrigation system successfully. The indigenous flood management technology strengthens the emerging concept that the floods in the Ganges plain are to be managed, not controlled.

  9. Optimization Strategy for Improving the Energy Efficiency of Irrigation Systems by Micro Hydropower: Practical Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Modesto Pérez-Sánchez

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Analyses of possible synergies between energy recovery and water management are essential for achieving sustainable advances in the performance of pressurized irrigation networks. Nowadays, the use of micro hydropower in water systems is being analysed to improve the overall energy efficiency. In this line, the present research is focused on the proposal and development of a novel optimization strategy for increasing the energy efficiency in pressurized irrigation networks by energy recovering. The recovered energy is maximized considering different objective functions, including feasibility index: the best energy converter must be selected, operating in its best efficiency conditions by variation of its rotational speed, providing the required flow in each moment. These flows (previously estimated through farmers’ habits are compared with registered values of flow in the main line with very suitable calibration results, getting a Nash–Sutcliffe value above 0.6 for different time intervals, and a PBIAS index below 10% in all time interval range. The methodology was applied to a Vallada network obtaining a maximum recovered energy of 58.18 MWh/year (41.66% of the available energy, improving the recovered energy values between 141 and 184% when comparing to energy recovery considering a constant rotational speed. The proposal of this strategy shows the real possibility of installing micro hydropower machines to improve the water–energy nexus management in pressurized systems.

  10. Influence of a passive sonic irrigation system on the elimination of bacteria from root canal systems: a clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffaker, S Kirk; Safavi, Kamran; Spangberg, Larz S W; Kaufman, Blythe

    2010-08-01

    The present investigation evaluated the ability of a new passive sonic irrigation (sonic group) system (EndoActivator) to eliminate cultivable bacteria from root canals in vivo and compared it with that of standard syringe irrigation (control group). Data were obtained by using bacteriologic sampling of root canals treated by endodontic residents. Sampling results from 1 session of treatment were then compared with results obtained after intervisit calcium hydroxide disinfection and a second session of treatment. There was no significant difference in the ability of sonic group and control group to eliminate cultivable bacteria from root canals (P > .05). A second session and intervisit calcium hydroxide disinfection were able to eliminate cultivable bacteria from significantly more teeth than a single session of treatment (P treatment of apical periodontitis. Copyright 2010 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Efficiency optimization of a photovoltaic water pumping system for irrigation in Ouargla, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louazene, M. L.; Garcia, M. C. Alonso; Korichi, D.

    2017-02-01

    This work is technical study to contribute to the optimization of pumping systems powered by solar energy (clean) and used in the field of agriculture. To achieve our goals, we studied the techniques that must be entered on a photovoltaic system for maximum energy from solar panels. Our scientific contribution in this research is the realization of an efficient photovoltaic pumping system for irrigation needs. To achieve this and extract maximum power from the PV generator, two axes have been optimized: 1. Increase in the uptake of solar radiation by choice an optimum tilt angle of the solar panels, and 2. it is necessary to add an adaptation device, MPPT controller with a DC-DC converter, between the source and the load.

  12. Context-Aware Based Efficient Training System Using Augmented Reality and Gravity Sensor for Healthcare Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seoksoo; Jung, Sungmo; Song, Jae-Gu; Kang, Byong-Ho

    As augmented reality and a gravity sensor is of growing interest, siginificant developement is being made on related technology, which allows application of the technology in a variety of areas with greater expectations. In applying Context-aware to augmented reality, it can make useful programs. A traning system suggested in this study helps a user to understand an effcienct training method using augmented reality and make sure if his exercise is being done propery based on the data collected by a gravity sensor. Therefore, this research aims to suggest an efficient training environment that can enhance previous training methods by applying augmented reality and a gravity sensor.

  13. Increased water charges improve efficiency and equity in an irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reid. Bell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional wisdom in many agricultural systems across the world is that farmers cannot, will not, or should not pay the full costs associated with surface water delivery. Across Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD countries, only a handful can claim complete recovery of operation, maintenance, and capital costs; across Central and South Asia, fees are lower still, with farmers in Nepal, India, and Kazakhstan paying fractions of a U.S. penny for a cubic meter of water. In Pakistan, fees amount to roughly USD 1-2 per acre per season. However, farmers in Pakistan spend orders of magnitude more for diesel fuel to pump groundwater each season, suggesting a latent willingness to spend for water that, under the right conditions, could potentially be directed toward water-use fees for surface water supply. Although overall performance could be expected to improve with greater cost recovery, asymmetric access to water in canal irrigation systems leaves the question open as to whether those benefits would be equitably shared among all farmers in the system. We develop an agent-based model (ABM of a small irrigation command to examine efficiency and equity outcomes across a range of different cost structures for the maintenance of the system, levels of market development, and assessed water charges. We find that, robust to a range of different cost and structural conditions, increased water charges lead to gains in both efficiency and concomitant improvements in equity as investments in canal infrastructure and system maintenance improve the conveyance of water resources further down watercourses. This suggests that, under conditions in which (1 farmers are currently spending money to pump groundwater to compensate for a failing surface water system, and (2 there is the possibility that through initial investment to provide perceptibly better water supply, genuine win-win solutions can be attained through higher water-use fees to

  14. Evaluation of Different Irrigation Methods for an Apple Orchard Using an Aerial Imaging System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duke M. Bulanon

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Regular monitoring and assessment of crops is one of the keys to optimal crop production. This research presents the development of a monitoring system called the Crop Monitoring and Assessment Platform (C-MAP. The C-MAP is composed of an image acquisition unit which is an off-the-shelf unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV equipped with a multispectral camera (near-infrared, green, blue, and an image processing and analysis component. The experimental apple orchard at the Parma Research and Extension Center of the University of Idaho was used as the target for monitoring and evaluation. Five experimental rows of the orchard were randomly treated with five different irrigation methods. An image processing algorithm to detect individual trees was developed to facilitate the analysis of the rows and it was able to detect over 90% of the trees. The image analysis of the experimental rows was based on vegetation indices and results showed that there was a significant difference in the Enhanced Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (ENDVI among the five different irrigation methods. This demonstrates that the C-MAP has very good potential as a monitoring tool for orchard management.

  15. Simulating the reactive transport of nitrogen species in a regional irrigated agricultural groundwater system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, R. T.; Gates, T. K.

    2011-12-01

    The fate and transport of nitrogen (N) species in irrigated agricultural groundwater systems is governed by irrigation patterns, cultivation practices, aquifer-surface water exchanges, and chemical reactions such as oxidation-reduction, volatilization, and sorption, as well as the presence of dissolved oxygen (O2). We present results of applying the newly-developed numerical model RT3D-AG to a 50,400-ha regional study site within the Lower Arkansas River Valley in southeastern Colorado, where elevated concentrations of NO3 have been observed in both groundwater and surface water during the recent decade. Furthermore, NO3 has a strong influence on the fate and transport of other contaminants in the aquifer system such as selenium (Se) through inhibition of reduction of dissolved Se as well as oxidation of precipitate Se from outcropped and bedrock shale. RT3D-AG, developed by appending the multi-species reactive transport finite-difference model RT3D with modular packages that account for variably-saturated transport, the cycling of carbon (C) and N, and the fate and transport of O2 within the soil and aquifer system, simulates organic C and organic N decomposition and mineralization, oxidation-reduction reactions, and sorption. System sources/sinks consist of applied fertilizer and manure; crop uptake of ammonium (NH4) and NO3 during the growing season; mass of O2, NO3, and NH4 associated with irrigation water and canal seepage; mass of O2, NO3, and NH4 transferred to canals and the Arkansas River from the aquifer; and dead root mass and after-harvest stover mass incorporated into the soil organic matter at the end of the growing season. Chemical reactions are simulated using first-order Monod kinetics, wherein the rate of reaction is dependent on the concentration of the reactants as well as temperature and water content of the soil. Fertilizer and manure application timing and loading, mass of seasonal crop uptake, and end-of-season root mass and stover mass are

  16. Water Use Efficiency under Different Tillage and Irrigation Systems for Tomato Farming in Southeastern Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhering, S. B.; Fernandes, N. F.; Macedo, J. R.

    2009-04-01

    highly degrade the environment, applied without practices of soil and water conservation. Such production systems are associated with a variety of environmental problems, such as soil erosion, the extensive pumping of groundwater, the partial obstruction of surface drainage to form artificial lakes, the contamination of groundwater, among others. The environmental impacts generated by all these problems assume a greater importance due to the complete absence of monitoring the continuous lowering of the water table and the changes in water quality. We consider that the main management strategies for developing sustainable production systems for the tomato farming in this area should be based on monitoring water use efficiency, increasing water availability in the root zone and also preventing runoff, leaching and evaporation of water from the soil. Therefore, techniques were applied as green manures with legumes without incorporation of the biomass, non-mechanized and curve-level soil preparation, planting in level, soil cover with crop residues, fertirrigation with solid fertilization of low value, the conduct of tomato especially supported by plastic string attached to a trellis, drip irrigation, and monitoring soil water potential (SWP) with Watermak sensors. At the end of the tomato cycle, water use efficiency and the productivity were compared at 8 micro-plots installed in the 3 studied production systems: conventional tillage (CT-H), minimum tillage (MT-H), both with "wetting irrigation with garden hose", and no-tillage with drip irrigation (NT-D). For each production system, soil physical properties were characterized and soil water potential (SWP) and soil temperature were continuously monitored at different depths (20, 40, 60 and 80 cm), as well as the total water volume used in each irrigation. In parallel, we also compared the development of the root system and the final productivity for each one of the three production systems. The results obtained in this

  17. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using hand and three rotary instrumentation systems- An in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koppolu Madhusudhana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Sterilization of the root canal is a prime aim of successful endodontics. The cleaning and shaping of the canal is directed as achieving this goal. The extrusion of apical debris has a deleterious effect on the prognosis of root canal treatment. Several instrument designs and instrumentation techniques have been developed to prevent this. Materials and Methods: Forty caries free single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were divided in four groups of ten teeth each. Teeth in each group were instrumented until the working length with rotary ProTaper, K3, Mtwo systems, and hand K-type stainless steel files. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials and the amounts were quantitatively determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The results show that all instrumentation techniques produced significant amount of extruded debris and irrigant. The engine-driven nickel-titanium systems showed less apical extrusion of debris and irrigant than manual technique. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups at [P > 0.05]. Maximum apical debris and irrigant extrusion was seen with K-file group and least in the Mtwo group. Conclusions: The use of rotary files and techniques to perform instrumentation does show less extrusion of the debris and irrigant from the apex. This can contribute to more successful endodontic therapy.

  18. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using hand and three rotary instrumentation systems − An in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhusudhana, Koppolu; Mathew, Vinod Babu; Reddy, Nelaturi Madhusudhan

    2010-10-01

    Sterilization of the root canal is a prime aim of successful endodontics. The cleaning and shaping of the canal is directed as achieving this goal. The extrusion of apical debris has a deleterious effect on the prognosis of root canal treatment. Several instrument designs and instrumentation techniques have been developed to prevent this. Forty caries free single rooted human mandibular premolar teeth were divided in four groups of ten teeth each. Teeth in each group were instrumented until the working length with rotary ProTaper, K3, Mtwo systems, and hand K-type stainless steel files. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials and the amounts were quantitatively determined. The data obtained were analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis one-way analysis of variance and Mann-Whitney U tests. The results show that all instrumentation techniques produced significant amount of extruded debris and irrigant. The engine-driven nickel-titanium systems showed less apical extrusion of debris and irrigant than manual technique. No statistically significant difference was found between the groups at [P > 0.05]. Maximum apical debris and irrigant extrusion was seen with K-file group and least in the Mtwo group. The use of rotary files and techniques to perform instrumentation does show less extrusion of the debris and irrigant from the apex. This can contribute to more successful endodontic therapy.

  19. Constraining f(T) gravity in the Solar System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, Lorenzo [Ministero dell' Istruzione dell' Università e della Ricerca (M.I.U.R), Viale Unità di Italia 68, 70125 Bari (Italy); Radicella, Ninfa [Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Università di Salerno, Via Giovanni Paolo II 132, Fisciano (Italy); Ruggiero, Matteo Luca, E-mail: lorenzo.iorio@libero.it, E-mail: ninfa.radicella@sa.infn.it, E-mail: matteo.ruggiero@polito.it [DISAT, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, Torino (Italy)

    2015-08-01

    In the framework of f(T) theories of gravity, we solve the field equations for f(T)=T+α T{sup n} in the weak-field approximation and for spherical symmetry spacetime. Since f(T)=T corresponds to Teleparallel Gravity, which is equivalent to General Relativity, the non linearity of the Lagrangian are expected to produce perturbations of the general relativistic solutions, parameterized by α. Hence, we use the f(T) solutions to model the gravitational field of the Sun and exploit data from accurate radio-tracking of spacecrafts orbiting Mercury and Saturn to infer preliminary bounds on the model parameter α and on the cosmological constant Λ.

  20. The AFGL (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) Absolute Gravity System’s Error Budget Revisted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-08

    also be induced by equipment not associated with the system. A systematic bias of 68 pgal was observed by the Istituto di Metrologia "G. Colonnetti...Laboratory Astrophysics, Univ. of Colo., Boulder, Colo. IMGC: Istituto di Metrologia "G. Colonnetti", Torino, Italy Table 1. Absolute Gravity Values...measurements were made with three Model D and three Model G La Coste-Romberg gravity meters. These instruments were operated by the following agencies

  1. Gravity Compensation Using EGM2008 for High-Precision Long-Term Inertial Navigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruonan Wu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The gravity disturbance vector is one of the major error sources in high-precision and long-term inertial navigation applications. Specific to the inertial navigation systems (INSs with high-order horizontal damping networks, analyses of the error propagation show that the gravity-induced errors exist almost exclusively in the horizontal channels and are mostly caused by deflections of the vertical (DOV. Low-frequency components of the DOV propagate into the latitude and longitude errors at a ratio of 1:1 and time-varying fluctuations in the DOV excite Schuler oscillation. This paper presents two gravity compensation methods using the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008, namely, interpolation from the off-line database and computing gravity vectors directly using the spherical harmonic model. Particular attention is given to the error contribution of the gravity update interval and computing time delay. It is recommended for the marine navigation that a gravity vector should be calculated within 1 s and updated every 100 s at most. To meet this demand, the time duration of calculating the current gravity vector using EGM2008 has been reduced to less than 1 s by optimizing the calculation procedure. A few off-line experiments were conducted using the data of a shipborne INS collected during an actual sea test. With the aid of EGM2008, most of the low-frequency components of the position errors caused by the gravity disturbance vector have been removed and the Schuler oscillation has been attenuated effectively. In the rugged terrain, the horizontal position error could be reduced at best 48.85% of its regional maximum. The experimental results match with the theoretical analysis and indicate that EGM2008 is suitable for gravity compensation of the high-precision and long-term INSs.

  2. Gravity Compensation Using EGM2008 for High-Precision Long-Term Inertial Navigation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruonan; Wu, Qiuping; Han, Fengtian; Liu, Tianyi; Hu, Peida; Li, Haixia

    2016-12-18

    The gravity disturbance vector is one of the major error sources in high-precision and long-term inertial navigation applications. Specific to the inertial navigation systems (INSs) with high-order horizontal damping networks, analyses of the error propagation show that the gravity-induced errors exist almost exclusively in the horizontal channels and are mostly caused by deflections of the vertical (DOV). Low-frequency components of the DOV propagate into the latitude and longitude errors at a ratio of 1:1 and time-varying fluctuations in the DOV excite Schuler oscillation. This paper presents two gravity compensation methods using the Earth Gravitational Model 2008 (EGM2008), namely, interpolation from the off-line database and computing gravity vectors directly using the spherical harmonic model. Particular attention is given to the error contribution of the gravity update interval and computing time delay. It is recommended for the marine navigation that a gravity vector should be calculated within 1 s and updated every 100 s at most. To meet this demand, the time duration of calculating the current gravity vector using EGM2008 has been reduced to less than 1 s by optimizing the calculation procedure. A few off-line experiments were conducted using the data of a shipborne INS collected during an actual sea test. With the aid of EGM2008, most of the low-frequency components of the position errors caused by the gravity disturbance vector have been removed and the Schuler oscillation has been attenuated effectively. In the rugged terrain, the horizontal position error could be reduced at best 48.85% of its regional maximum. The experimental results match with the theoretical analysis and indicate that EGM2008 is suitable for gravity compensation of the high-precision and long-term INSs.

  3. Energetic expense in the conduction of the physic nut culture: comparative between the dried and irrigated system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frigo, Michelle Sato; Frigo, Elisandro Pires; Klar, Antonio Evaldo; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsuitsui [Universidade Estadual Paulista (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas], E-mail: msfrigo@fca.unesp.br

    2008-07-01

    The discussion around new vegetable raw materials for biofuel, production have been being very important for the consolidation of the National Program of Biofuel Production and Use (PNPB) in Brazil. In this scenery, a potential culture which could be pointed for such a thing is the physic nut one, however, the studies about it are very poor. Thus the goal of this present paper was to compare the energetic expense to this culture conduction, in two different productive systems, the dried and the irrigated ones, so as to identify the less dependent system on not-renewable energy, therefore, the most energetically sustainable one for these conduction operations. The selected planting was one of the areas of the company NNE Minas Agro-Florestal Ltda., in Janauba/MG; there were identified two operations for the dried system and four operations for the irrigated system. The adopted methodology was based in bibliographical revision. The dried system showed an energetic consumption of 1.151,22 MJ. ha{sup -1} and the irrigated one was 5.325,43 MJ . ha{sup -1}. In relation to the expenditure by source, the dried one used 2,72% by biological source and 97,28% by industrial source; and the irrigated system used 0,87% by biological source and 99,14% by industrial source. The conclusion is that the conduction with the dried system is the most efficient and sustainable from the energetic point of view. (author)

  4. Results of infected total knee arthroplasty treated with arthroscopic debridement and continuous antibiotic irrigation system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Che-Wei Liu

    2013-01-01

    Conclusion: Arthroscopic debridement combined with continuous antibiotic irrigation and suction is an effective treatment for patients with acute presentation of late infected total knee arthroplasty.

  5. Calibration Curve of Neutron Moisture Meter for Sandy Soil under Drip Irrigation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammad, Abd El- Moniem M.; Gendy, R. W.; Bedaiwy, M. N.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this work is to construct a neutron calibration curve in order to be able to use the neutron probe in sandy soils under drip irrigation systems. The experimental work was conducted at the Soil and Water Department of the Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority. Three replicates were used along the lateral lines of the drip irrigation system. For each dripper, ten neutron access tubes were installed to 100-cm depth at distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm from the dripper location around the drippers on the lateral line, as well as between lateral lines. The neutron calibrations were determined at 30, 45, and 60-cm depths. Determining coefficients as well as t-test in pairs were employed to detect the accuracy of the calibrations. Results indicated that in order for the neutron calibration curve to express the whole wet area around the emitter; three-access tubes must be installed at distances of 5, 15, and 25 cm from the emitter. This calibration curve will be correlating the average count ratio (CR) at the studied soil depth of the three locations (5, 15, and 25-cm distances from the emitter) to the average moisture content (θ) for this soil depth of the entire wetted area. This procedure should be repeated at different times in order to obtain different θ and C.R values, so that the regression equation of calibration curve at this soil depth can be obtained. To determine the soil moisture content, the average CR of the three locations must be taken and substituted into the regression equation representing the neutron calibration curve. Results taken from access tubes placed at distances of 15 cm from the emitter, showed good agreement with the average calibration curve both for the 45- and the 60-cm depths, suggesting that the 15-cm distance may provide a suitable substitute for the simultaneous use of the three different distances of 5, 15 and 25 cm. However, the obtained results show also that the neutron calibration curves of the 30-cm depth for

  6. BIonic system: Extraction of Lovelock gravity from a Born-Infeld-type theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naimi, Yaghoob; Sepehri, Alireza; Ghaffary, Tooraj; Ghaforyan, Hossein; Ebrahimzadeh, Majid

    It was shown that both Lovelock gravity and Born-Infeld (BI) electrodynamics can be obtained from low effective limit of string theory. Motivated by the mentioned unique origin of the gauge-gravity theories, we are going to find a close relation between them. In this research, we start from the Lagrangian of a BI-type nonlinear electrodynamics with an exponential form to extract the action of Lovelock gravity. We investigate the origin of Lovelock gravity in a system of branes which are connected with each other by different wormholes through a BIonic system. These wormholes are produced as due to the nonlinear electrodynamics which are emerged on the interacting branes. By approaching branes, wormholes dissolve into branes and Lovelock gravity is generated. Also, throats of some wormholes become smaller than their horizons and they transit to black holes. Generalizing calculations to M-theory, it is found that by compacting Mp-branes, Lovelock gravity changes to nonlinear electrodynamics and thus both of them have the same origin. This result is consistent with the prediction of BIonic model in string theory.

  7. Earth System Data Records of Mass Transport from Time-Variable Gravity Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zlotnicki, V.; Talpe, M.; Nerem, R. S.; Landerer, F. W.; Watkins, M. M.

    2014-12-01

    Satellite measurements of time variable gravity have revolutionized the study of Earth, by measuring the ice losses of Greenland, Antarctica and land glaciers, changes in groundwater including unsustainable losses due to extraction of groundwater, the mass and currents of the oceans and their redistribution during El Niño events, among other findings. Satellite measurements of gravity have been made primarily by four techniques: satellite tracking from land stations using either lasers or Doppler radio systems, satellite positioning by GNSS/GPS, satellite to satellite tracking over distances of a few hundred km using microwaves, and through a gravity gradiometer (radar altimeters also measure the gravity field, but over the oceans only). We discuss the challenges in the measurement of gravity by different instruments, especially time-variable gravity. A special concern is how to bridge a possible gap in time between the end of life of the current GRACE satellite pair, launched in 2002, and a future GRACE Follow-On pair to be launched in 2017. One challenge in combining data from different measurement systems consists of their different spatial and temporal resolutions and the different ways in which they alias short time scale signals. Typically satellite measurements of gravity are expressed in spherical harmonic coefficients (although expansions in terms of 'mascons', the masses of small spherical caps, has certain advantages). Taking advantage of correlations among spherical harmonic coefficients described by empirical orthogonal functions and derived from GRACE data it is possible to localize the otherwise coarse spatial resolution of the laser and Doppler derived gravity models. This presentation discusses the issues facing a climate data record of time variable mass flux using these different data sources, including its validation.

  8. Technical and economical evaluation of tape drip and drip line irrigation systems in a strawberry greenhouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soghra HOSSEINIAN

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was done in a strawberry greenhouse to examine the technical and the economical evaluation of two drip irrigation systems including the tape and the drip line in the northern part of Iran. The result showed that all of the technical indices with tape were higher than drip line, and due to statistical analysis reveal a significant difference (P < 0.05. Yield and water productivity (WP with tape were higher than drip line (P < 0.05. Benefit per drop (BPD and net benefit per drop (NBPD with tape were higher than drip line. Net present value, internal rate of capital return and benefit to cost ratio in drip line were higher than tape. In general, regarding technical evaluation tape was better than drip line, besides according to the economical evaluation the drip ­lines were better than tape.

  9. Gravity-assist heat pipes for thermal control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverall, J.E.; Keddy, E.S.; Kemme, J.E.; Phillips, J.R.

    1975-06-01

    Sodium heat pipes, operating in the gravity-assist mode, have been incorporated into irradiation capsules to provide a means for establishing and controlling a desired specimen temperature. Investigations were made of new wick structures for potassium heat pipes to operate at lower temperatures and higher heat transfer rates, and a helical trough wick structure was developed with an improved heat transfer capability in the temperature range of interest. Test results of these heat pipes led to the study of a new heat pipe limit which had not previously been considered. (12 references) (U.S.)

  10. Residue and soil carbon sequestration in relation to crop yield as affected by irrigation, tillage, cropping system and nitrogen fertilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on management practices is needed to increase surface residue and soil C sequestration to obtain farm C credit. The effects of irrigation, tillage, cropping system, and N fertilization were evaluated on the amount of crop biomass (stems and leaves) returned to the soil, surface residue C...

  11. Middle East Regional Irrigation Management Information Systems project-Some science products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Similarities in the aridity of environments and water scarcity for irrigation allow common approaches to irrigation management problems and research methods in the Southern Great Plains of the United States and the Middle East. Measurement methods involving weighing lysimeters and eddy covariance sy...

  12. Safe and high quality food production using low quality waters and improved irrigation systems and management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plauborg, Finn; Andersen, Mathias Neumann; Liu, Fulai

    2010-01-01

    uneven irrigation patterns can increase the water use efficiency as well as the quality of vegetable crops. Furthermore, recent innovations in the water treatment and irrigation industry have shown potential for the use of low quality water resources, such as reclaimed water or surface water in peri...

  13. Effectiveness of different irrigation systems on filling of simulated lateral canals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sehnaz Yilmaz

    2016-09-01

    Conclusions: Sonically or ultrasonically irrigation showed significant differences on the filling of the simulated lateral canals at the middle third of the root canals. Ultrasonic activation of the irrigants represented better results in radiographic and cleared specimen evaluation. [Cukurova Med J 2016; 41(3.000: 515-520

  14. Linked hydrologic and social systems that support resilience of traditional irrigation communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southwestern US irrigated landscapes are facing upheaval due to water scarcity and land use conversion associated with climate change, population growth, and changing economics. In the traditionally irrigated valleys of northern New Mexico, these stresses, as well as instances of community longevity...

  15. Detection of traveling ionospheric disturbances induced by atmospheric gravity waves using the global positioning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiri, Sassan; Hajj, George A.

    1993-01-01

    Natural and man-made events like earthquakes and nuclear explosions launch atmospheric gravity waves (AGW) into the atmosphere. Since the particle density decreases exponentially with height, the gravity waves increase exponentially in amplitude as they propagate toward the upper atmosphere and ionosphere. As atmospheric gravity waves approach the ionospheric heights, the neutral particles carried by gravity waves collide with electrons and ions, setting these particles in motion. This motion of charged particles manifests itself by wave-like fluctuations and disturbances that are known as traveling ionospheric disturbances (TID). The perturbation in the total electron content due to TID's is derived analytically from first principles. Using the tilted dipole magnetic field approximation and a Chapman layer distribution for the electron density, the variations of the total electron content versus the line-of-sight direction are numerically analyzed. The temporal variation associated with the total electron content measurements due to AGW's can be used as a means of detecting characteristics of the gravity waves. As an example, detection of tsunami generated earthquakes from their associated atmospheric gravity waves using the Global Positioning System is simulated.

  16. Simulating selenium and nitrogen fate and transport in coupled stream-aquifer systems of irrigated regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Christopher D.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Gates, Timothy K.; Heesemann, Brent E.; Morway, Eric D.

    2018-01-01

    Elevated levels of selenium (Se) in aqueous environments can harm aquatic life and endanger livestock and human health. Although Se occurs naturally in the rocks and soils of many alluvial aquifers, mining and agricultural activities can increase its rate of mobilization and transport to surface waters. Attention is given here to regions where nonpoint source return flows from irrigated lands carry pollutant loads to aquifers and streams, contributing to concentrations that violate regulatory and performance standards. Of particular concern is the heightened level and mobilization of Se influenced by nitrate (NO3), a harmful pollutant in its own right. We present a numerical model that simulates the reactive transport of Se and nitrogen (N) species in a coupled groundwater-surface water system. Building upon a conceptual model that incorporates the major processes affecting Se and NO3 transport in an irrigated watershed, the model links the finite-difference models MODFLOW, UZF-RT3D, and OTIS, to simulate flow and reactive transport of multiple chemical species in both the aquifer and a stream network, with mass exchange between the two. The capability of the new model is showcased by calibration, testing, and application to a 500 km2 region in Colorado’s Lower Arkansas River Valley using a rich data set gathered over a 10-yr period. Simulation of spatial and temporal distributions of Se concentration reveals conditions that exceed standards in groundwater for approximately 20% of the area. For the Arkansas River, standards are exceeded by 290%–450%. Simulation indicates that river concentrations of NO3 alone are near the current interim standard for the total of all dissolved N species. These results indicate the need for future use of the developed model to investigate the prospects for land and water best management practices to decrease pollutant levels.

  17. Simulating selenium and nitrogen fate and transport in coupled stream-aquifer systems of irrigated regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shultz, Christopher D.; Bailey, Ryan T.; Gates, Timothy K.; Heesemann, Brent E.; Morway, Eric D.

    2018-05-01

    Elevated levels of selenium (Se) in aqueous environments can harm aquatic life and endanger livestock and human health. Although Se occurs naturally in the rocks and soils of many alluvial aquifers, mining and agricultural activities can increase its rate of mobilization and transport to surface waters. Attention is given here to regions where nonpoint source return flows from irrigated lands carry pollutant loads to aquifers and streams, contributing to concentrations that violate regulatory and performance standards. Of particular concern is the heightened level and mobilization of Se influenced by nitrate (NO3), a harmful pollutant in its own right. We present a numerical model that simulates the reactive transport of Se and nitrogen (N) species in a coupled groundwater-surface water system. Building upon a conceptual model that incorporates the major processes affecting Se and NO3 transport in an irrigated watershed, the model links the finite-difference models MODFLOW, UZF-RT3D, and OTIS, to simulate flow and reactive transport of multiple chemical species in both the aquifer and a stream network, with mass exchange between the two. The capability of the new model is showcased by calibration, testing, and application to a 500 km2 region in Colorado's Lower Arkansas River Valley using a rich data set gathered over a 10-yr period. Simulation of spatial and temporal distributions of Se concentration reveals conditions that exceed standards in groundwater for approximately 20% of the area. For the Arkansas River, standards are exceeded by 290%-450%. Simulation indicates that river concentrations of NO3 alone are near the current interim standard for the total of all dissolved N species. These results indicate the need for future use of the developed model to investigate the prospects for land and water best management practices to decrease pollutant levels.

  18. Using Remote Sensing Technology on the Delimitation of the Conservation Area for the Jianan Irrigation System Cultural Landsccape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C. H.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years the cultural landscape has become an important issue for cultural heritages throughout the world. It represents the "combined works of nature and of man" designated in Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention. When a landscape has a cultural heritage value, important features should be marked and mapped through the delimitation of a conservation area, which may be essential for further conservation work. However, a cultural landscape's spatial area is usually wider than the ordinary architectural type of cultural heritage, since various elements and impact factors, forming the cultural landscape's character, lie within a wide geographic area. It is argued that the conservation of a cultural landscape may be influenced by the delimitation of the conservation area, the corresponding land management measures, the limits and encouragements. The Jianan Irrigation System, an historical cultural landscape in southern Taiwan, was registered as a living cultural heritage site in 2009. However, the system's conservation should not be limited to just only the reservoir or canals, but expanded to irrigated areas where farmland may be the most relevant. Through the analysis process, only approximately 42,000 hectares was defined as a conservation area, but closely related to agricultural plantations and irrigated by the system. This is only half of the 1977 irrigated area due to urban sprawl and continuous industrial expansion.

  19. A solar energy powered autonomous wireless actuator node for irrigation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajara, Rafael; Alberola, Jorge; Pelegrí-Sebastiá, José

    2011-01-01

    The design of a fully autonomous and wireless actuator node ("wEcoValve mote") based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is presented. The system allows remote control (open/close) of a 3-lead magnetic latch solenoid, commonly used in drip irrigation systems in applications such as agricultural areas, greenhouses, gardens, etc. The very low power consumption of the system in conjunction with the low power consumption of the valve, only when switching positions, allows the system to be solar powered, thus eliminating the need of wires and facilitating its deployment. By using supercapacitors recharged from a specifically designed solar power module, the need to replace batteries is also eliminated and the system is completely autonomous and maintenance free. The "wEcoValve mote" firmware is based on a synchronous protocol that allows a bidirectional communication with a latency optimized for real-time work, with a synchronization time between nodes of 4 s, thus achieving a power consumption average of 2.9 mW.

  20. A Solar Energy Powered Autonomous Wireless Actuator Node for Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Lajara

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The design of a fully autonomous and wireless actuator node (“wEcoValve mote” based on the IEEE 802.15.4 standard is presented. The system allows remote control (open/close of a 3-lead magnetic latch solenoid, commonly used in drip irrigation systems in applications such as agricultural areas, greenhouses, gardens, etc. The very low power consumption of the system in conjunction with the low power consumption of the valve, only when switching positions, allows the system to be solar powered, thus eliminating the need of wires and facilitating its deployment. By using supercapacitors recharged from a specifically designed solar power module, the need to replace batteries is also eliminated and the system is completely autonomous and maintenance free. The “wEcoValve mote” firmware is based on a synchronous protocol that allows a bidirectional communication with a latency optimized for real-time work, with a synchronization time between nodes of 4 s, thus achieving a power consumption average of 2.9 mW.

  1. Managing Water Resources for Environmentally Sustainable Irrigated Agriculture in Pakistan

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Afzal

    1996-01-01

    Pakistan’s agriculture is almost wholly dependent on irrigation and irrigated land supplies more than 90 percent of agricultural production. Irrigation is central to Pakistan’s economy. Massive investments in irrigation contributed to the development of one of the largest Indus Basin Irrigation System. Despite heavy budgetary inputs in irrigation system, it is facing shortage of resources and suffering from operational problems. The sustainability of irrigated agriculture is threatened due to...

  2. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-01-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  3. Evaluating two irrigation controllers under subsurface drip irrigated tomato crop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Ghobari, H.M.; Mohammad, F.S.; El Marazky, M.S.A.

    2016-07-01

    Smart systems could be used to improve irrigation scheduling and save water under Saudi Arabia’s present water crisis scenario. This study investigated two types of evapotranspiration-based smart irrigation controllers, SmartLine and Hunter Pro-C2, as promising tools for scheduling irrigation and quantifying plants’ water requirements to achieve water savings. The effectiveness of these technologies in reducing the amount of irrigation water was compared with the conventional irrigation scheduling method as a control treatment. The two smart irrigation sensors were used for subsurface irrigation of a tomato crop (cv. Nema) in an arid region. The results showed that the smart controllers significantly reduced the amount of applied water and increased the crop yield. In general, the Hunter Pro-C2 system saved the highest amount of water and produced the highest crop yield, resulting in the highest water irrigation efficiency compared with the SmartLine controller and the traditional irrigation schedule. It can be concluded that the application of advanced scheduling irrigation techniques such as the Hunter controller under arid conditions can realise economic benefits by saving large amounts of irrigation water.

  4. Using Remote Sensing Technology on the Delimitation of the Conservation Area for the Jianan Irrigation System Cultural Landsccape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H. Wang

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In recent years the cultural landscape has become an important issue for cultural heritages throughout the world. It represents the "combined works of nature and of man" designated in Article 1 of the World Heritage Convention. When a landscape has a cultural heritage value, important features should be marked and mapped through the delimitation of a conservation area, which may be essential for further conservation work. However, a cultural landscape’s spatial area is usually wider than the ordinary architectural type of cultural heritage, since various elements and impact factors, forming the cultural landscape’s character, lie within a wide geographic area. It is argued that the conservation of a cultural landscape may be influenced by the delimitation of the conservation area, the corresponding land management measures, the limits and encouragements. The Jianan Irrigation System, an historical cultural landscape in southern Taiwan, was registered as a living cultural heritage site in 2009. However, the system’s conservation should not be limited to just only the reservoir or canals, but expanded to irrigated areas where farmland may be the most relevant. Through the analysis process, only approximately 42,000 hectares was defined as a conservation area, but closely related to agricultural plantations and irrigated by the system. This is only half of the 1977 irrigated area due to urban sprawl and continuous industrial expansion.

  5. Actin-based gravity-sensing mechanisms in unicellular plant model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Markus; Limbach, Christoph

    2005-08-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and gravity-oriented polarized growth in single-celled rhizoids and protonemata of the characean algae. It is well known that the actin cytoskeleton plays a key role in these processes. Numerous actin-binding proteins control apical actin polymerization and the dynamic remodeling of the actin arrangement. An actomyosin-based system mediates the delivery and incorporation of secretory vesicles at the growing tip and coordinates the tip-high gradient of cytoplasmic free calcium which is required for local exocytosis. Additionally, the actomyosin system precisely controls the position of statoliths and, upon a change in orientation relative to the gravity vector, directs sedimenting statoliths to the confined graviperception sites of the plasma membrane where gravitropic signalling is initiated. The upward growth response of protonemata is preceded by an actin-dependent relocalization of the Ca2+-gradient to the upper flank. The downward growth response of rhizoids, however, is caused by differential growth of the opposite flankes due to a local reduction of cytoplasmic free calcium limited to the plasma membrane area where statoliths are sedimented. Thus, constant actin polymerization in the growing tip and the spatiotemporal control of actin remodeling are essential for gravity sensing and gravity-oriented polarized growth of characean rhizoids and protonemata.

  6. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaowei Wang

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the influencing factors were analyzed, particularly the acknowledgment of farmers, the installation proportion of tube wells, the social benefits. Great achievements have been gained in the implementation, and the management targets have been achieved, including accurately metering overall irrigation groundwater production, assisting in the total amount control and quota management, reducing groundwater exploitation, and improving water use efficiency. However, shortcomings remain in the implementation process, such as single initial investment channels, imperfect policy system construction, a lack of retrieving and analyzing data, and the unbalanced development between areas. Countermeasures and suggestions for these problems are discussed in this article.

  7. The development of vestibular system and related function in mammals: Impact of gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc eJamon

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This chapter reviews the knowledge about the adaptation to Earth gravity during the development of mammals. The impact of early exposure to altered gravity is evaluated at the level of the functions related to the vestibular system, including postural control, homeostatic regulation, and spatial memory. The hypothesis of critical periods in the adaptation to gravity is discussed. Demonstrating a critical period requires removing the gravity stimulus during delimited time windows, what is impossible to do on Earth surface. The Surgical destruction of the vestibular apparatus, and the use of mice strains with defective graviceptors have provided useful information on the consequences of missing gravity perception, and the possible compensatory mechanisms, but transitory suppression of the stimulus can only be operated during spatial flight. The rare studies on rat pups housed on board of space shuttle significantly contributed to this problem, but the use of hypergravity environment, produced by means of chronic centrifugation, is the only available tool when repeated experiments must be carried out on Earth. Even though hypergravity is sometimes considered as a mirror situation to microgravity, the two situations cannot be confused because a gravitational force is still present. The theoretical considerations that validate the paradigm of hypergravity to evaluate critical periods are discussed. The question of adaption of graviceptor is questioned from an evolutionary point of view. It is possible that graviception is hardwired, because life on Earth has evolved under the constant pressure of gravity. The rapid acquisition of motor programming by precocial mammals in minutes after birth is consistent with this hypothesis, but the slow development of motor skills in altricial species and the plasticity of vestibular perception in adults suggest that gravity experience is required for the tuning of graviceptors. The possible reasons for this

  8. Evaluation of Fluent Software for Simulation and Costruction of a Variable Rate Sprinkler for an Autonomous Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Roshan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Water scarcity is today’s world biggest challenge which requires different countries to manage their water resources in the most efficient way. Sprinkler irrigation increases water consumption efficiency due to more uniform distribution of water across the field. Precision farming is based on the site-specific use of inputs according to soil characteristics and plant needs. One of the main inputs for agricultural production is water. Thus, efficient use of water resources based on variable rate irrigation is considered to be a basic approach of precision irrigation. The main purpose of this study was to simulate and fabricate a variable flow sprinkler, applicable in solid set sprinkler irrigation system. The preliminary drawing of the proposed sprinkler, which equipped with a flow and pressure control plunger, was simulated using Fluent software. The actual sprinkler was then fabricated and evaluated in a field. The performance of the sprinkler was evaluated at three pressure levels, three plunger positions (at the points of the least and biggest sprinkler’s cross section for water passage and three diameters of outlet nozzle opening. Results showed that the plunger had the capability of varying outlet flow and pressure in the sprinkler and trends in flow and pressure variation as affected by the plunger position was very complicated. The Fluent model for conditions with fully open of the plunger and half opened was effectively efficient. However, as the plunger closed the water passage more than the half of cross section, the model did not show an acceptable efficiency.

  9. Introduction: Panda or Hydra? The untold stories of drip irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper, M.; Venot, J.P.; Zwarteveen, M.; Venot, J.P.; Kuper, M.; Zwarteveen, M.

    2017-01-01

    Irrigated areas in the world are witnessing a transformation from open canal systems to more ‘modern’ irrigation methods such as drip irrigation that convey water through closed pipe systems. Initially associated with hi-tech irrigated agriculture, drip irrigation is now being used by a wide range

  10. Use of neutron scattering meter to detect soil moisture distribution under trickle irrigation system in sandy soil of inshas, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-moniem, M.; El-gendy, R.W.; Gadalla, A.M.; Hamdy, A.; Zeedan, A.

    2006-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the soil moisture distribution under different quantities of irrigation water in cultivated sandy soil with squash, using drip irrigation system. This study was carried out in Inshas sandy soil at the farm of Soil and Water Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority, Egypt. Three rates of applied irrigation water (100, 75 and 50 % ETc) were used. Three sites (0, 12.5 and 25 cm distances from the emitter between drippers and laterals lines) were chosen to measure soil moisture contents (horizontal and vertical directions within the soil depths). The obtained data pointed out that the maximum width, in onion shape of water distribution under drip irrigation system, was at 45 cm depth at 0 site. From the study of soil moisture distribution, the overlapping between each two neighbor drippers played a good role in increasing soil moisture content at the 25 site rather than the rest sites. Water distribution was affected with plant location within the wet area as well as the used irrigation water quantities. Water distribution between drippers and laterals did not differ much approximately. The highest soil moisture depletion was at 12.5 site (between drippers) for 100 and 75 % ETc rather than the rest treatments. 100 % ETc treatment introduced the highest soil moisture depletion in the first stage of plant growth season for the three sites (between drippers and laterals). In the last stage of plant growth season, water re-distribution phenomena resulted from the changeable total hydraulic potential, which played important role for interpretation of results

  11. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    OpenAIRE

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the community of Ccarhuancho in the Central Andes of Peru. For more than two centuries, they have been constructing small-scale irrigation canals to maintain and expand the local wetlands, called bofedales. Th...

  12. Endangered Species and Irrigated Agriculture, Water Resource Competition in Western River Systems

    OpenAIRE

    United States Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service

    1995-01-01

    This report characterizes several aspects of water allocation tradeoffs between fish species listed under the Federal Endangered Species Act and agriculture in the American West. The geographic intersection between endangered/threatened (E/T) fish and agricultural production reliant on surface water for irrigation is identified. Three findings are: (1) 235 counties, representing 22 percent of the West's counties, contain irrigated production that relies on water from rivers with E/T fish, ...

  13. Relative Water Uptake as a Criterion for the Design of Trickle Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Communar, G.; Friedman, S. P.

    2008-12-01

    Previously derived analytical solutions to the 2- and 3-dimensional water flow problems describing trickle irrigation are not being widely used in practice because those formulations either ignore root water uptake or refer to it as a known input. In this lecture we are going to describe a new modeling approach and demonstrate its applicability for designing the geometry of trickle irrigation systems, namely the spacing between the emitters and drip lines. The major difference between our and previous modeling approaches is that we refer to the root water uptake as to the unknown solution of the problem and not as to a known input. We postulate that the solution to the steady-state water flow problem with a root sink that is acting under constant, maximum suction defines un upper bound to the relative water uptake (water use efficiency) in actual transient situations and propose to use it as a design criterion. Following previous derivations of analytical solutions we assume that the soil hydraulic conductivity increases exponentially with its matric head, which allows the linearization of the Richards equation, formulated in terms of the Kirchhoff matric flux potential. Since the transformed problem is linear, the relative water uptake for any given configuration of point or line sources and sinks can be calculated by superposition of the Green's functions of all relevant water sources and sinks. In addition to evaluating the relative water uptake, we also derived analytical expressions for the steam functions. The stream lines separating the water uptake zone from the percolating water provide insight to the dependence of the shape and extent of the actual rooting zone on the source- sink geometry and soil properties. A minimal number of just 3 system parameters: Gardner's (1958) alfa as a soil type quantifier and the depth and diameter of the pre-assumed active root zone are sufficient to characterize the interplay between capillary and gravitational effects on

  14. Subsurface irrigation of potato crop (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) in Suka Kollus with different drainage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano-Coronel, Genaro; Chipana-Rivera, René; Fátima Moreno-Pérez, María; Roldán-Cañas, José

    2016-04-01

    Among the most important hydraulic structures of pre-Hispanic ancestral technology developed in the Andean region, we find the suka kollus, aymara word, called also waru waru, en quechua or raised fields, in English. They are raised platforms surrounded by water canals that irrigate subsurface, but also have the function of draining, to deal with floods because they are surrounding Lake Titicaca. They also have the property of generating a thermoregulatory effect to crops, depending on the configuration of the channels and platforms. Such agro-ecosystems are being abandoned, however, if properly addressed crop management and some drainage canals are replaced by underground drains for increased crop area could be very useful in enabling marginal soils affected by salts and / or excess water. For these reasons, the objective of this study was to evaluate the subsurface irrigation in the potato crop in suka kollus under a system of surface drainage, and mixed drainage (surface and subsurface). The study was conducted in marginal soils of Kallutaca area, located 30 km from the city of La Paz, Bolivia, at a height of 3892 m.a.s.l. The cultivation of the potato (Solanum tuberosum ssp. Andigena) was used. Four treatments were tested with different widths of the platforms: T1 (Control) with drainage through channels; T2 (replacing a channel by a drain); T3 (replacing two channels by two drains); T4 (replacing three channels by three drains). The flow of water into the soil from the water table was predominantly upward, except during periods of high rainfall. In terms of treatments, the flow in T1 was higher, mainly at weeks 8 to 11 after seedling emergence, coinciding with the phenological phases of flowering and at the beginning of the tuber ripening. It was followed by T3, T2 and T4 treatments, respectively. Tuber yield, if one considers that the channels detract arable land, was higher in the T3 treatment,16.4 Mg / ha, followed by T2 treatment, 15.2 Mg / ha, T1

  15. Renormalization group fixed points of foliated gravity-matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biemans, Jorn [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP),Radboud University Nijmegen,Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Platania, Alessia [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP),Radboud University Nijmegen,Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Catania,Via S. Sofia 63, 95123 Catania (Italy); INFN, Catania section,Via S. Sofia 64, 95123, Catania (Italy); INAF, Catania Astrophysical Observatory,Via S. Sofia 78, 95123, Catania (Italy); Saueressig, Frank [Institute for Mathematics, Astrophysics and Particle Physics (IMAPP),Radboud University Nijmegen,Heyendaalseweg 135, 6525 AJ Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2017-05-17

    We employ the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner formalism to study the renormalization group flow of gravity minimally coupled to an arbitrary number of scalar, vector, and Dirac fields. The decomposition of the gravitational degrees of freedom into a lapse function, shift vector, and spatial metric equips spacetime with a preferred (Euclidean) “time”-direction. In this work, we provide a detailed derivation of the renormalization group flow of Newton’s constant and the cosmological constant on a flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker background. Adding matter fields, it is shown that their contribution to the flow is the same as in the covariant formulation and can be captured by two parameters d{sub g}, d{sub λ}. We classify the resulting fixed point structure as a function of these parameters finding that the existence of non-Gaussian renormalization group fixed points is rather generic. In particular the matter content of the standard model and its most common extensions gives rise to one non-Gaussian fixed point with real critical exponents suitable for Asymptotic Safety. Moreover, we find non-Gaussian fixed points for any number of scalar matter fields, making the scenario attractive for cosmological model building.

  16. Performance of a 10 kilowatt wind-electric water pumping system for irrigating crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vick, B.D.; Clark, R.N. [Conservation and Production Research Lab., Bushland, TX (United States); Molla, S. [Texas A& M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A 10 kW wind-electric water pumping system was tested for field crop irrigation at pumping depths from 50 to 120 m. The wind turbine for this system used a permanent magnet alternator that powered off-the-shelf submersible motors and pumps without the use of an inverter. Pumping performance was determined at the USDA-Agricultural Research Service (ARS), Wind Energy Laboratory in Bushland, TX for the 10 kW wind turbine using a pressure valve and a pressure tank to simulate different pumping depths. Pumping performance was measured for two 10 kW wind turbines of the same type at farms near the cities of Garden City, TX and Stiles, TX. The pumping performance data collected at these actual wells compared favorably with the data collected at the USDA-ARS, Wind Energy Laboratory. If utility generated electricity was accessible, payback on the wind turbine depended on the cost of utility generated electricity and the transmission line extension cost.

  17. An optimization model to design and manage subsurface drip irrigation system for alfalfa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandelous, M.; Kamai, T.; Vrugt, J. A.; Simunek, J.; Hanson, B.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2010-12-01

    Subsurface drip irrigation (SDI) is one of the most efficient and cost-effective methods for watering alfalfa plants. Lateral installation depth and distance, emitter discharge, and irrigation time and frequency of SDI, in addition to soil and climatic conditions affect alfalfa’s root water uptake and yield. Here we use a multi-objective optimization approach to find optimal SDI strategies. Our approach uses the AMALGAM evolutionary search method, in combination with the HYDRUS-2D unsaturated flow model to maximize water uptake by alfalfa’s plant roots, and minimize loss of irrigation and drainage water to the atmosphere or groundwater. We use a variety of different objective functions to analyze SDI. These criteria include the lateral installation depth and distance, the lateral discharge, irrigation duration, and irrigation frequency. Our framework includes explicit recognition of the soil moisture status during the simulation period to make sure that the top soil is dry for harvesting during the growing season. Initial results show a wide spectrum of optimized SDI strategies for different root distributions, soil textures and climate conditions. The developed tool should be useful in helping farmers optimize their irrigation strategy and design.

  18. Nutrition of Tithonia diversifolia and attributes of the soil fertilized with biofertilizer in irrigated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus M. Reis

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The fertilization with biofertilizer associated with the use of irrigation favors nutrient uptake by plants and soil chemical properties; however, these effects are little studied in Tithonia diversifolia in semiarid regions. This study evaluated the effect of doses of bovine biofertilizer and irrigation on accumulation of nutrients in the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia plants and on soil chemical attributes. The study was carried out from December 3, 2014 to November 28, 2015, and arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, consisting of five doses of bovine biofertilizer (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 m3 ha-1, combined with and without irrigation. The experiment was set in a randomized block design, using three replicates. Irrigation promoted increased accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu and B in leaves of Tithonia diversifolia in the first cutting. However, the high bicarbonate concentration in the irrigation water and the occurrence of rainfall during the second crop increased the accumulation of Cu in the leaves of Tithonia diversifolia under rainfed condition, compared with irrigated plants. The increase in biofertilizer doses contributed to the increment of base saturation and the contents of organic matter, P and K in soil.

  19. Quantum solitonic wave-packet of a meso-scopic system in singularity free gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buoninfante, Luca; Lambiase, Gaetano; Mazumdar, Anupam

    2018-06-01

    In this paper we will discuss how to localise a quantum wave-packet due to self-gravitating meso-scopic object by taking into account gravitational self-interaction in the Schrödinger equation beyond General Relativity. In particular, we will study soliton-like solutions in infinite derivative ghost free theories of gravity, which resolves the gravitational 1 / r singularity in the potential. We will show a unique feature that the quantum spread of such a gravitational system is larger than that of the Newtonian gravity, therefore enabling us a window of opportunity to test classical and quantum properties of such theories of gravity in the near future at a table-top experiment.

  20. Gravity signals from the lithosphere in the Central European Basin System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yegorova, T.; Bayer, U.; Thybo, H.; Maystrenko, Y.; Scheck-Wenderoth, M.; Lyngsie, S. B.

    2007-01-01

    We study the gravity signals from different depth levels in the lithosphere of the Central European Basin System (CEBS). The major elements of the CEBS are the Northern and Southern Permian Basins which include the Norwegian-Danish Basin (NDB), the North-German Basin (NGB) and the Polish Trough (PT). An up to 10 km thick sedimentary cover of Mesozoic-Cenozoic sediments, hides the gravity signal from below the basin and masks the heterogeneous structure of the consolidated crust, which is assumed to be composed of domains that were accreted during the Paleozoic amalgamation of Europe. We performed a three-dimensional (3D) gravity backstripping to investigate the structure of the lithosphere below the CEBS. Residual anomalies are derived by removing the effect of sediments down to the base of Permian from the observed field. In order to correct for the influence of large salt structures, lateral density variations are incorporated. These sediment-free anomalies are interpreted to reflect Moho relief and density heterogeneities in the crystalline crust and uppermost mantle. The gravity effect of the Moho relief compensates to a large extent the effect of the sediments in the CEBS and in the North Sea. Removal of the effects of large-scale crustal inhomogeneities shows a clear expression of the Variscan arc system at the southern part of the study area and the old crust of Baltica further north-east. The remaining residual anomalies (after stripping off the effects of sediments, Moho topography and large-scale crustal heterogeneities) reveal long wavelength anomalies, which are caused mainly by density variations in the upper mantle, though gravity influence from the lower crust cannot be ruled out. They indicate that the three main subbasins of the CEBS originated on different lithospheric domains. The PT originated on a thick, strong and dense lithosphere of the Baltica type. The NDB was formed on a weakened Baltica low-density lithosphere formed during the Sveco

  1. Control of suspended low-gravity simulation system based on self-adaptive fuzzy PID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhigang; Qu, Jiangang

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, an active suspended low-gravity simulation system is proposed to follow the vertical motion of the spacecraft. Firstly, working principle and mathematical model of the low-gravity simulation system are shown. In order to establish the balance process and suppress the strong position interference of the system, the idea of self-adaptive fuzzy PID control strategy is proposed. It combines the PID controller with a fuzzy controll strategy, the control system can be automatically adjusted by changing the proportional parameter, integral parameter and differential parameter of the controller in real-time. At last, we use the Simulink tools to verify the performance of the controller. The results show that the system can reach balanced state quickly without overshoot and oscillation by the method of the self-adaptive fuzzy PID, and follow the speed of 3m/s, while simulation degree of accuracy of system can reach to 95.9% or more.

  2. QUALITY IMPROVEMENT OF MANGOSTEEN FOR EXPORT THROUGH DRIP IRRIGATION SYSTEM AND YELLOW FLUORESCENT STICKY TRAP INSTALLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Affandi

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn. dubbed as “finest fruit of the world”, has potential for both domestic market and export. However, this potential is threatened by low fruit quality caused by production of yellow latex and fruit scarring. The research objective was to obtain technology to reduce yellow latex and control Scirtothrips dorsalis, a pest that causes scarring on mangosteen. A randomized block design with four treatments and 14 replications was used in this research. Significant differences among the treatments were calculated using the Honestly Significant Difference (HSD test. The results showed that treatment of drip irrigation system in combination with removing weeds under the canopy (A or removing weeds followed by minimum tillage under the canopy (B or removing weeds then covering with rice hay mulch under the canopy (C, where N, P, K, Ca, Mg fertilizer and yellow fluorescent sticky trap were applied could reduce scarring intensity and percentage of yellow latex on the fruit peel. However, the treatments did not significantly impact fruit diameter or percentage of yellow latex inside the fruit. Nevertheless, treatment C improved mangosteen quality by as much as 67.79% fulfilling export standard requirements.

  3. Evaluation of water distribution under pivot irrigation systems using remote sensing imagery in eastern Nile delta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Farg

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Traditional methods for center pivot evaluation depend on the water depth distribution along the pivot arm. Estimation and mapping the water depth under pivot irrigation systems using remote sensing data is essential for calculating the coefficient of uniformity (CU of water distribution. This study focuses on estimating and mapping water depth using Landsat OLI 8 satellite data integrated with Heerman and Hein (1968 modified equation for center pivot evaluation. Landsat OLI 8 image was geometrically and radiometrically corrected to calculate the vegetation and water indices (NDVI and NDWI in addition to land surface temperature. Results of the statistical analysis showed that the collected water depth in catchment cans is also highly correlated negatively with NDVI. On the other hand water, depth was positively correlated with NDWI and LST. Multi-linear regression analysis using stepwise selection method was applied to estimate and map the water depth distribution. The results showed R2 and adjusted R2 0.93 and 0.88 respectively. Study area or field level verification was applied for estimation equation with correlation 0.93 between the collected water depth and estimated values.

  4. What role can information play in improved equity in Pakistan's irrigation system? Evidence from an experimental game in Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Reid. Bell

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The Indus Basin Irrigation System suffers significant inequity in access to surface water across its millions of users. Information, i.e., monitoring and reporting of water availability, may be of value in improving conditions across the basin, and we investigated this via an experimental game of water distribution in Punjab, Pakistan. We found evidence that flow information allowed players to take more effective action to target overuse, and that overall activities that might bring social disapproval were reduced with information. However, we did not find any overall improvement in equity across the system, suggesting that information on its own might not be sufficient to lead to better water distribution among irrigators.

  5. Economic profitability in conventional and irrigated coffee production systems in three municipalities in the Marilia region of São Paulo, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Helena Nogueira Turco

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the economic benefit of coffee cultivation, with a focus on the distinction between conventional and irrigated coffee production systems. For the development of the study, the various productive systems were delineated from the data provided by a sample of producers to generate a matrix of average technical coefficients. The methodology used to estimate the operating cost of production is the one used by the Instituto de Economia Agrícola (IEA. Profitability indicators were also evaluated. Results indicated that the effective operational cost (EOC incurred in the irrigated production system is higher than that in the conventional system. As regards the cost composition, in the conventional coffee production system, the largest cost incurred is on fertilizers among all inputs, whereas in the irrigated production system, the largest cost incurred is on machinery and equipment that are mainly used in harvesting, for the period 2013-2015. Profitability index of the conventional coffee production system in 2015 was 44.8%, and that of the drip irrigated production system was 49.7%. In 2014, profitability rates were negative for both the conventional (-13.9% and irrigated coffee production systems (-8.6%. The most preferable choice was found to be the irrigated production system, as it allows reducing the risk of loss in production during prolonged periods of water shortage as well as greater yields due to a larger production of grains.

  6. Prospects for Probing Strong Gravity with a Pulsar-Black Hole System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wex, N.; Liu, K.; Eatough, R. P.; Kramer, M.; Cordes, J. M.; Lazio, T. J. W.

    2012-01-01

    The discovery of a pulsar (PSR) in orbit around a black hole (BH) is expected to provide a superb new probe of relativistic gravity and BH properties. Apart from a precise mass measurement for the BH, one could expect a clean verification of the dragging of space-time caused by the BH spin. In order to measure the quadrupole moment of the BH for testing the no-hair theorem of general relativity (GR), one has to hope for a sufficiently massive BH. In this respect, a PSR orbiting the super-massive BH in the center of our Galaxy would be the ultimate laboratory for gravity tests with PSRs. But even for gravity theories that predict the same properties for BHs as GR, a PSR-BH system would constitute an excellent test system, due to the high grade of asymmetry in the strong field properties of these two components. Here we highlight some of the potential gravity tests that one could expect from different PSR-BH systems.

  7. Petroleum system of Northwest Java basin based on gravity data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widianto, E.

    2018-01-01

    Energy management in the upstream oil and gas sector becomes very important for the country’s energy security. The renewal of energy resources and reserves becomes necessary and is a must. In the oil and gas industry, gravity data is usually used only for regional surveys, but with the development of instrumentation technology and gravity software development, this method can be used for assessing oil and gas survey stages from exploration to production. This study was conducted to evaluate aspects of petroleum system and exploration play concept in the part of Northwest Java Basin, covering source rock deposition regions (source kitchen area, migration direction), development of reservoirs, structural and stratigraphic trap, based on gravity data. This study uses data from Bouguer gravity anomaly map by filtering process to produce a residual map depicting sedimentation basin configuration. The mapping generated 20 sedimentary basins in Java Island with the total hydrocarbon resources of 113 BBOE (Billion Barrel of Oil Equivalent). The petroleum system analysis was conducted in the Northwest Basin section. The final map produced illustrates the condition of petroleum system and play concept that can be used as exploration direction, expectedly reducing the risk of drilling failure.

  8. RAF/5/071: Enhancing Crop Nutrition and Soil and Water Management and Technology Transfer in Irrigated Systems for Increased Food Production and Income Generation (AFRA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sijali, I.

    2017-01-01

    The overall objective is to enhance food security, income and the resilience of smallholder farmers through climate change adaptive, mitigation and coping strategies and specific objective to Improve water and nitrogen use efficiency under different irrigated cropping systems using quantifying nuclear technique. Technologies perfected at KALRO transferred to pastoral communities (Maasai land). Technologies included drip irrigation systems for vegetables and orchards, water harvesting ponds dam lining, Solar pump, greenhouse management techniques and introduction of new crops such as sweet potatoes, green grams and sorghums. A low-cost solar-powered irrigation pump has been developed by on-station testing and demonstration was done for a small solar pump

  9. An integrated, multisensor system for the continuous monitoring of water dynamics in rice fields under different irrigation regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaradia, Enrico Antonio; Facchi, Arianna; Masseroni, Daniele; Ferrari, Daniele; Bischetti, Gian Battista; Gharsallah, Olfa; Cesari de Maria, Sandra; Rienzner, Michele; Naldi, Ezio; Romani, Marco; Gandolfi, Claudio

    2015-09-01

    The cultivation of rice, one of the most important staple crops worldwide, has very high water requirements. A variety of irrigation practices are applied, whose pros and cons, both in terms of water productivity and of their effects on the environment, are not completely understood yet. The continuous monitoring of irrigation and rainfall inputs, as well as of soil water dynamics, is a very important factor in the analysis of these practices. At the same time, however, it represents a challenging and costly task because of the complexity of the processes involved, of the difference in nature and magnitude of the driving variables and of the high variety of field conditions. In this paper, we present the prototype of an integrated, multisensor system for the continuous monitoring of water dynamics in rice fields under different irrigation regimes. The system consists of the following: (1) flow measurement devices for the monitoring of irrigation supply and tailwater drainage; (2) piezometers for groundwater level monitoring; (3) level gauges for monitoring the flooding depth; (4) multilevel tensiometers and moisture sensor clusters to monitor soil water status; (5) eddy covariance station for the estimation of evapotranspiration fluxes and (6) wireless transmission devices and software interface for data transfer, storage and control from remote computer. The system is modular and it is replicable in different field conditions. It was successfully applied over a 2-year period in three experimental plots in Northern Italy, each one with a different water management strategy. In the paper, we present information concerning the different instruments selected, their interconnections and their integration in a common remote control scheme. We also provide considerations and figures on the material and labour costs of the installation and management of the system.

  10. The implementation of biofiltration systems, rainwater tanks and urban irrigation in a single-layer urban canopy model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demuzere, Matthias; Coutts, Andrew; Goehler, Maren; Broadbent, Ashley; Wouters, Hendrik; van Lipzig, Nicole; Gebert, Luke

    2015-04-01

    Urban vegetation is generally considered as a key tool to modify the urban energy balance through enhanced evapotranspiration (ET). Given that vegetation is most effective when it is healthy, stormwater harvesting and retention strategies (such as water sensitive urban design) could be used to support vegetation and promote ET. This study presents the implementation of a vegetated lined bio-filtration system (BFS) combined with a rainwater tank (RWT) and urban irrigation system in the single-layer urban canopy model Community Land Model-Urban. Runoff from roof and impervious road surface fractions is harvested and used to support an adequate soil moisture level for vegetation in the BFS. In a first stage, modelled soil moisture dynamics are evaluated and found reliable compared to observed soil moisture levels from biofiltration pits in Smith Street, Melbourne (Australia). Secondly, the impact of BFS, RWT and urban irrigation on ET is illustrated for a two-month period in 2012 using varying characteristics for all components. Results indicate that (i) a large amount of stormwater is potentially available for indoor and outdoor water demands, including irrigation of urban vegetation, (ii) ET from the BFS is an order of magnitude larger compared to the contributions from the impervious surfaces, even though the former only covers 10% of the surface fraction and (iii) attention should be paid to the cover fraction and soil texture of the BFS, size of the RWT and the surface fractions contributing to the collection of water in the RWT. Overall, this study reveals that this model development can effectuate future research with state-of-the-art urban climate models to further explore the benefits of vegetated biofiltration systems as a water sensitive urban design tool optimised with an urban irrigation system to maintain healthy vegetation.

  11. Effect of water irrigation volume on Capsicum frutescens growth and plankton abundance in aquaponics system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andriani, Y.; Dhahiyat, Y.; Zahidah; Subhan, U.; Iskandar; Zidni, I.; Mawardiani, T.

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to understand Capsicum frutescens growth and plankton abundance in aquaponics culture. A Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six treatments in triplicates comprising of treatment A (positive control using organic liquid fertilizer), B (negative control without fertilizer), C (drip irrigation aquaponics with a water debit of 100 ml/day/plant), D (drip irrigation aquaponics with a water debit of 150 ml/day/plant), E (drip irrigation with a water debit of 200 ml/day/plant), and F (drip irrigation aquaponics with a water debit of 250 ml/day/plant) was applied. The water used in treatments C, D, E, and F contained comet fish feces as fertilizer. C. frutescens growth and plankton abundance were observed. Analysis was conducted using analysis of variance for plant productivity and descriptive analysis for plankton abundance and water quality. The results of this study showed that the highest plant growth was seen in plants receiving F treatment with 50 ml/day drip irrigation. However, no significant difference was found when compared to the positive control with organic artificial fertilizer. Eleven types of phytoplankton and six types of zooplankton were found, with Stanieria sp. as the most abundant phytoplankton and Brachionus sp. and Epistylis sp. as the most abundant zooplanktons.

  12. Reconstructing the Spatio-Temporal Development of Irrigation Systems in Uzbekistan Using Landsat Time Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Koellner

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The expansion of irrigated agriculture during the Soviet Union (SU era made Central Asia a leading cotton production region in the world. However, the successor states of the SU in Central Asia face on-going environmental damages and soil degradation that are endangering the sustainability of agricultural production. With Landsat MSS and TM data from 1972/73, 1977, 1987, 1998, and 2000 the expansion and densification of the irrigated cropland could be reconstructed in the Kashkadarya Province of Uzbekistan, Central Asia. Classification trees were generated by interpreting multitemporal normalized difference vegetation index data and crop phenological knowledge. Assessments based on image-derived validation samples showed good accuracy. Official statistics were found to be of limited use for analyzing the plausibility of the results, because they hardly represent the area that is cropped in the very dry study region. The cropping area increased from 134,800 ha in 1972/73 to 470,000 ha in 2009. Overlaying a historical soil map illustrated that initially sierozems were preferred for irrigated agriculture, but later the less favorable solonchaks and solonetzs were also explored, illustrating the strategy of agricultural expansion in the Aral Sea Basin. Winter wheat cultivation doubled between 1987 and 1998 to approximately 211,000 ha demonstrating its growing relevance for modern Uzbekistan. The spatial-temporal approach used enhances the understanding of natural conditions before irrigation is employed and supports decision-making for investments in irrigation infrastructure and land cultivation throughout the Landsat era.

  13. A rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in Pakistan; Evaluacion rapida de una zona de riego tipica de Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz-Carmona, Victor Manuel; Ojeda-Bustamante, Waldo [Instituto Mexicano de Tecnologia del Agua, Jiutepec, Morelos (Mexico); Contijoch, Manuel [Banco Mundial (Mexico)

    2006-07-15

    This paper presents the results obtained on the implementation of a rapid appraisal process on an irrigation system in the province of Punjab in Pakistan. The purpose of the evaluation was to know the present irrigation service quality and to propose some alternative to improve it. The evaluation results were: the canal inflow is smaller than peak crop water requirement; net aquifer loss; crops are always under stress which is reflected on low crop yields, the secondary canal network has not control structures and was not designed for rotation, insufficient human-human communication between canal operators; the operators have no complementary training course to enhance their capacity; discrepancy between the service the canal is supposed to provide and the real service it offers. The suggested actions to improve the irrigation service were: the irrigation service must be client oriented; the irrigation users should participate to determine the irrigation service characteristics; the difference between actual and stage irrigation service must be eliminated; clear definition on water allocation; implement a modernization program to provide the irrigation service required. The evaluation methodology used can be applied in other countries like Mexico for the analysis of large irrigation systems making an optimal use of time and resources. [Spanish] En el presente trabajo se muestran los resultados obtenidos al aplicar una metodologia de evaluacion rapida de sistemas de riego a una zona de la provincia del Punjab, Pakistan. El objetivo de la evaluacion fue conocer el estado actual del servicio de riego que ofrece la agencia responsable del manejo del riego en un distrito del Punjab y proponer alternativas para mejorarlo. Los principales resultados de esta evaluacion fueron los siguientes: la falta de capacidad de los canales, el abatimiento neto del acuifero; el estres hidrico continuo de los cultivos, que propicia un bajo rendimiento; la red secundaria de canales no

  14. New design and facilities for the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements (AGrav): A support for the Establishment of a new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wziontek, Hartmut; Falk, Reinhard; Bonvalot, Sylvain; Rülke, Axel

    2017-04-01

    After about 10 years of successful joint operation by BGI and BKG, the International Database for Absolute Gravity Measurements "AGrav" (see references hereafter) was under a major revision. The outdated web interface was replaced by a responsive, high level web application framework based on Python and built on top of Pyramid. Functionality was added, like interactive time series plots or a report generator and the interactive map-based station overview was updated completely, comprising now clustering and the classification of stations. Furthermore, the database backend was migrated to PostgreSQL for better support of the application framework and long-term availability. As comparisons of absolute gravimeters (AG) become essential to realize a precise and uniform gravity standard, the database was extended to document the results on international and regional level, including those performed at monitoring stations equipped with SGs. By this it will be possible to link different AGs and to trace their equivalence back to the key comparisons under the auspices of International Committee for Weights and Measures (CIPM) as the best metrological realization of the absolute gravity standard. In this way the new AGrav database accommodates the demands of the new Global Absolute Gravity Reference System as recommended by the IAG Resolution No. 2 adopted in Prague 2015. The new database will be presented with focus on the new user interface and new functionality, calling all institutions involved in absolute gravimetry to participate and contribute with their information to built up a most complete picture of high precision absolute gravimetry and improve its visibility. A Digital Object Identifier (DOI) will be provided by BGI to contributors to give a better traceability and facilitate the referencing of their gravity surveys. Links and references: BGI mirror site : http://bgi.obs-mip.fr/data-products/Gravity-Databases/Absolute-Gravity-data/ BKG mirror site: http

  15. Design of an automatic sprinkler irrigation system for the Welsh onion growing, in La Puerta farm (Tota-Boyacá

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Armando Pinto-Medina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design for automating sprinkler irrigation system in a Welsh onion growing, which poses the required parameters, establishes the differences, advantages and results related to the traditional irrigation system used in this region (Tota, Boyacá. Starting from the resources owned by the farming unit, calculations of water requests of the plant, taking into account the crop evapotranspiration, the irrigation planning with certain factors on the basis of effective storage of soils. Two different technologies for the design are presented: hard-wired and programmable logic. The hard-wired logic system is developed as an automatic cyclical sequence with four work timed stages; on the other hand, the programmable logic controller PLC used, is the Easy-512-DC of Moller, which is provided with eight digital inputs and four relay outputs, programmed in Ladder according to the sequence of the process.

  16. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan N Pawlowski

    Full Text Available Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2, as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield.

  17. Field-Based Estimates of Global Warming Potential in Bioenergy Systems of Hawaii: Crop Choice and Deficit Irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlowski, Meghan N; Crow, Susan E; Meki, Manyowa N; Kiniry, James R; Taylor, Andrew D; Ogoshi, Richard; Youkhana, Adel; Nakahata, Mae

    2017-01-01

    Replacing fossil fuel with biofuel is environmentally viable from a climate change perspective only if the net greenhouse gas (GHG) footprint of the system is reduced. The effects of replacing annual arable crops with perennial bioenergy feedstocks on net GHG production and soil carbon (C) stock are critical to the system-level balance. Here, we compared GHG flux, crop yield, root biomass, and soil C stock under two potential tropical, perennial grass biofuel feedstocks: conventional sugarcane and ratoon-harvested, zero-tillage napiergrass. Evaluations were conducted at two irrigation levels, 100% of plantation application and at a 50% deficit. Peaks and troughs of GHG emission followed agronomic events such as ratoon harvest of napiergrass and fertilization. Yet, net GHG flux was dominated by carbon dioxide (CO2), as methane was oxidized and nitrous oxide (N2O) emission was very low even following fertilization. High N2O fluxes that frequently negate other greenhouse gas benefits that come from replacing fossil fuels with agronomic forms of bioenergy were mitigated by efficient water and fertilizer management, including direct injection of fertilizer into buried irrigation lines. From soil intensively cultivated for a century in sugarcane, soil C stock and root biomass increased rapidly following cultivation in grasses selected for robust root systems and drought tolerance. The net soil C increase over the two-year crop cycle was three-fold greater than the annualized soil surface CO2 flux. Deficit irrigation reduced yield, but increased soil C accumulation as proportionately more photosynthetic resources were allocated belowground. In the first two years of cultivation napiergrass did not increase net greenhouse warming potential (GWP) compared to sugarcane, and has the advantage of multiple ratoon harvests per year and less negative effects of deficit irrigation to yield.

  18. Carbon retention in the soil–plant system under different irrigation regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Yaosheng; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2010-01-01

    their environmental impacts. Tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum L., var. Cedrico) were grown in split-root pots in a climate-controlled glasshouse and were subjected to full irrigation (FI), deficit irrigation (DI) and alternate partial root-zone irrigation (PRI) at early fruiting stage. In Exp. I, each plant...... to a greater microbial activity in the two treatments; particularly the PRI induced drying and wetting cycles of the soils may cause an increase of microbial activities and respiration rate, which could lead to more C losses from the soil. However, in both experiments the total C concentration in the PRI...... in the two experiments might have affected the C retention in the soil and in the plant biomass. Nevertheless, with a same degree of water saving, PRI was superior to DI in terms of enhancing C concentration in the plant biomass, which might have contributed to a better fruit quality in tomatoes as reported...

  19. Simulating Water Allocation and Cropping Decisions in Yemen’s Abyan Delta Spate Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek Jin-Uk Marchant

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture employs more Yemenis than any other sector and spate irrigation is the largest source of irrigation water. Spate irrigation however is growing increasingly difficult to sustain in many areas due to water scarcity and unclear sharing of water amongst users. In some areas of Yemen, there are no institutionalised water allocation rules which can lead to water related disputes. Here, we propose a proof-of-concept model to evaluate the impacts of different water allocation patterns to assist in devising allocation rules. The integrated model links simple wadi flow, diversion, and soil moisture-yield simulators to a crop decision model to evaluate impacts of different water allocation rules and their possible implications on local agriculture using preliminary literature data. The crop choice model is an agricultural production model of irrigation command areas where the timing, irrigated area and crop mix is decided each month based on current conditions and expected allocations. The model is applied to Yemen’s Abyan Delta, which has the potential to be the most agriculturally productive region in the country. The water allocation scenarios analysed include upstream priority, downstream priority, equal priority (equal sharing of water shortages, and a user-defined mixed priority that gives precedence to different locations based on the season. Once water is distributed according to one of these allocation patterns, the model determines the profit-maximising plant date and crop selection for 18 irrigated command areas. This aims to estimate the impacts different water allocation strategies could have on livelihoods. Initial results show an equal priority allocation is the most equitable and efficient, with 8% more net benefits than an upstream scenario, 10% more net benefits than a downstream scenario, and 25% more net benefits than a mixed priority.

  20. Identification of Decisive Factors Determining the Continued Use of Rainwater Harvesting Systems for Agriculture Irrigation in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Liang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The success or failure of operating a rainwater harvesting system (RWH depends on both technological and non-technological factors. The importance of non-technological factors in attaining sustainable RWH operation is rarely emphasized. This study aims to assess the contribution of non-technological factors through determining decisive factors involved in the use of RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing. The RWHs for agriculture irrigation in Beijing are not operating as well as expected. If the decisive factors are identified to be non-technological, the significance of non-technological factors will be highlighted. Firstly, 10 impact factors comprising non-technological and technological factors are selected according to both a literature review and interviews with RWH managers. Following this, through an artificial data mining method, rough set analysis, the decisive factors are identified. Results show that two non-technological factors, “doubts about rainwater quality” and “the availability of groundwater” determine whether these systems will continue or cease RWH operation in Beijing. It is, thus, considered necessary to improve public confidence in and motivation on using rainwater for agriculture irrigation, as this is the main obstacle in the sustainable and successful operation of RWHs. Through a case study of RWHs in Beijing, the study verifies the importance of acknowledging non-technological factors to achieve sustainable water management and considers that such factors should receive more attention by decision makers and researchers.

  1. Influence of genotype, cultivation system and irrigation regime on antioxidant capacity and selected phenolics of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Girones-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Muriel, José Luis; Moreno, Diego A; Moreno-Rojas, José M

    2016-07-01

    Demand for and availability of blueberries has increased substantially over recent years, driven in part by their health-promoting properties. Three blueberry varieties ('Rocío', V2, and V3) were grown under two cultivation systems (open-field and plastic tunnels) and subjected to two irrigations regimes (100% and 80% of crop evapotranspiration) in two consecutive years (2011-2012). They were evaluated for their phytochemical composition and antioxidant capacity. Genotype influenced the antioxidant capacity and the content of the three groups of phenolics in the blueberries. The antioxidant activity and total flavonols content increased when the blueberries were grown under open-field conditions. Deficit irrigation conditions led to additional positive effects on their phenolics (delphinidn-3-acetilhexoside content was increased under plastic tunnel with deficit irrigation). In conclusion, the amount of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity of blueberries were not negatively affected by water restriction; Moreover, several changes were recorded due to growing system and genotype. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Loading effects on rat craniomandibular morphology: a system for gravity studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Ranbir; Carvalho, Thais; Gerstner, Geoffrey E.

    2005-02-01

    Gravity effects on muscle and bone are a major impediment to long-term space travel. We introduce a model for studying these effects, the craniomandibular system. Some advantages of this system include: (1) craniomandibular morphology is determined by epigenetic factors including gravity, (2) relatively light forces can significantly alter its morphology, and (3) soft diet and tooth loss produce effects that are similar to those produced in lower limbs by weightlessness. In the study, implants made either of gold (experimental group) or lightweight acrylic (controls) were attached to adult rats' mandibles. After 13 weeks, the animals' skulls and mandibles were dissected. Pair-wise comparisons indicated that the experimental animals showed significantly shortened and narrowed cranial bases, and significant changes in the posterior zygomatic arch region. These results indicate that simulated macrogravity influences bone remodeling in the adult craniomandibular system.

  3. Monitoring and risk assessment of pesticides in irrigation systems in Debra Zeit, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teklu, Berhan M; Adriaanse, Paulien I; Van den Brink, Paul J

    2016-10-01

    Since Ethiopia is going through a rapid transformation of its agricultural sector, we assessed the human health and environmental risks due to the past use of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) as well as the risks of the current pesticide use by farmers. A monitoring programme and risk assessment was carried out for the Wedecha-Belbela irrigation system in the Debra Zeit area. The Wedecha and Belbela rivers and adjacent temporary ponds were sampled and examined for the presence of OCPs between August and October 2014, while data on the current pesticide use by small- and large-scale farmers was collected by interviews. The usage patterns were evaluated for risks of using the river or temporary ponds as source of drinking water and for risks for the aquatic ecosystems in the river and ponds with the aid of the PRIMET_Registration_Ethiopa_1.1 model. The samples were collected in five sampling periods, and results indicate that most of the 18 target OCPs were not detected above the detection limit, while g-chlordane may pose chronic risks when surface water is used as drinking water. Endosulfan and heptachlor pose risks to aquatic organisms at second-tier level, while for heptachlor-epoxide B, g-chlordane and b-BHC only risks could be determined at the first tier due to a lack of data. For all nine pesticides used by small-scale farmers the calculated acute risks to humans were low. Second tier risk assessment for the aquatic ecosystem indicated that lambda-cyhalothrin, endosulfan, profenofos, and diazinon may pose high risks. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. HYDRUS Simulation of Sustainable Brackish Water Irrigation in a Winter Wheat-Summer Maize Rotation System in the North China Plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangkang He

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Freshwater resources in the North China Plain (NCP are near depletion due to the unceasing overexploitation of deep groundwater, by far the most significant source of freshwater in the region. To deal with the deepening freshwater crisis, brackish water (rich but largely unused water in agriculture is increasingly being used in irrigation in the region. However, inappropriate irrigation with brackish water could lead to soil salinization and cropland degradation. To evaluate such negative impacts, the HYDRUS-1D model was used to simulate soil salt transport and accumulation under 15 years of irrigation with brackish water. The irrigation scenarios included brackish water irrigation during the wintering and jointing stages of winter wheat and then freshwater irrigation just before the sowing of summer maize. Freshwater irrigation was done to leach out soil salts, which is particularly vital in dry years. For the littoral region of the plain, HYDRUS-ID was used to simulate the irrigated cropping system stated above for a total period of 15 years. The results showed that it was feasible to use brackish water twice in one year, provided freshwater irrigation was performed before sowing summer maize. Freshwater irrigation, in conjunction with precipitation, leached out soil salts from the 100 cm root-zone depth. The maximum salt accumulation was in the 160–220 cm soil layer, which ensured that root-zone soil was free of restrictive salinity for crop growth. Precipitation was a critical determinant of the rate and depth leaching of soil salt. Heavy rainfall (>100 mm caused significant leaching of soluble salts in the 0–200 cm soil profile. Salt concentration under brackish water irrigation had no significant effect on the variations in the trend of soil salt transport in the soil profile. The variations of soil salinity were mainly affected by hydrological year type, for which the buried depth of soil salt was higher in wet years than in dry years

  5. Modeling and assessing field irrigation water use in a canal system of Hetao, upper Yellow River basin: Application to maize, sunflower and watermelon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Dongyang; Xu, Xu; Hao, Yuanyuan; Huang, Guanhua

    2016-01-01

    Water saving in irrigation is a key issue in the upper Yellow River basin. Excessive irrigation leads to water waste, water table rising and increased salinity. Land fragmentation associated with a large dispersion of crops adds to the agro-hydrological complexity of the irrigation system. The model HYDRUS-1D, coupled with the FAO-56 dual crop coefficient approach (dualKc), was applied to simulate the water and salt movement processes. Field experiments were conducted for maize, sunflower and watermelon crops in the command area of a typical irrigation canal system in Hetao Irrigation District during 2012 and 2013. The model was calibrated and validated in three crop fields using two-year experimental data. Simulations of soil moisture, salinity concentration and crop yield fitted well with the observations. The irrigation water use was then evaluated and results showed that large amounts of irrigation water percolated due to over-irrigation but their reuse through capillary rise was also quite large. That reuse was facilitated by the dispersion of crops throughout largely fragmented field, thus with fields reusing water percolated from nearby areas due to the rapid lateral migration of groundwater. Beneficial water use could be improved when taking this aspect into account, which was not considered in previous researches. The non-beneficial evaporation and salt accumulation into the root zone were found to significantly increase during non-growth periods due to the shallow water tables. It could be concluded that when applying water saving measures, close attention should be paid to cropping pattern distribution and groundwater control in association with irrigation scheduling and technique improvement.

  6. Review of the water management systems in the Gujarat Medium Irrigation II Project (Credit 1496-IN)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brouwer, R.

    1993-01-01

    Different activities are ongoing in the Medium Irrigation II project simultaneously. These are: - emancipation of farmers through their involvement in the operation and management; - change over from Sheshpali type water management to RWS type water management; - design and construction of remaining

  7. Management systems in irrigated rice affect physical and chemical soil properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodrigues de Lima, A.C.; Hoogmoed, W.B.; Pauletto, E.A.; Pinto, L.F.S.

    2009-01-01

    Lowland soils are commonly found in the state of Rio Grande do Sul, Southern of Brazil, where they represent around 20% of the total area. Deficient drainage is the most important natural characteristic of these soils which therefore are mainly in use for irrigated rice (Oriza sativa). Degradation

  8. A Matter of Relationships : Actor-Networks of Colonial Rule in the Gezira Irrigation System, Sudan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2016-01-01

    In the first half of the 20th century, colonial rulers, a British firm and Sudanese farmers changed the Gezira Plain in Sudan into a large-scale irrigated cotton scheme. Gezira continues to be in use up to date. Its story shows how the abstract concept 'development' is shaped through the agency of

  9. The System Nobody Sees: Irrigated Wetland Management and Alpaca Herding in the Peruvian Andes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verzijl, A.; Guerrero Quispe, S.

    2013-01-01

    Increasingly, attention in regional, national, and international water governance arenas has focused on high-altitude wetlands. However, existing local water management practices in these wetlands are often overlooked. This article looks at the irrigation activities of alpaca herders in the

  10. 3D inversion of full gravity gradient tensor data in spherical coordinate system using local north-oriented frame

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Wu, Yulong; Yan, Jianguo; Wang, Haoran; Rodriguez, J. Alexis P.; Qiu, Yue

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an inverse method for full gravity gradient tensor data in the spherical coordinate system. As opposed to the traditional gravity inversion in the Cartesian coordinate system, our proposed method takes the curvature of the Earth, the Moon, or other planets into account, using tesseroid bodies to produce gravity gradient effects in forward modeling. We used both synthetic and observed datasets to test the stability and validity of the proposed method. Our results using synthetic gravity data show that our new method predicts the depth of the density anomalous body efficiently and accurately. Using observed gravity data for the Mare Smythii area on the moon, the density distribution of the crust in this area reveals its geological structure. These results validate the proposed method and potential application for large area data inversion of planetary geological structures.[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  11. Analogue Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Barceló

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.

  12. Brackish groundwater membrane system design for sustainable irrigation: Optimal configuration selection using analytic hierarchy process and multi-dimension scaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beni eLew

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent high demands for reuse of salty water for irrigation affected membrane producers to assess new potential technologies for undesirable physical, chemical and biological contaminants removal. This paper studies the assembly options by the analytic hierarchy process (AHP model and the multi-dimension scaling (MDS techniques. A specialized form of MDS (CoPlot software enables presentation of the AHP outcomes in a two dimensional space and the optimal model can be visualized clearly. Four types of 8 membranes were selected: (i Nanofiltration low rejection and high flux (ESNA1-LF-LD, 86% rejection, 10,500gpd; (ii Nanofiltration medium rejection and medium flux (ESNA1-LF2-LD, 91% rejection, 8,200gpd; (iii Reverse Osmosis high rejection and high flux (CPA5-MAX, 99.7 rejection, 12,000gpd ; and (iv Reverse Osmosis medium rejection and extreme high flux (ESPA4-MAX, 99.2 rejection, 13,200gpd. The results indicate that: (i Nanofiltration membrane (High flux and Low rejection can produce water for irrigation with valuable levels of nutrient ions and a reduction in the sodium absorption ratio (SAR, minimizing soil salinity; this is an attractive option for agricultural irrigation and is the optimal solution; and (ii implementing the MDS approach with reference to the variables is consequently useful to characterize membrane system design.

  13. Water production for irrigation and drinking needs in remote arid communities using closed-system greenhouse: A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Kabeel

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Water needs for agriculture, food production and drinking are considered one of the most critical challenges facing the world in the present days. This is due mainly to the scarcity and lack of fresh water resources, and the increasing ground water salinity. Most of these countries have a high solar energy potential. This potential can be best developed by solar desalination concepts and methods specifically suited for rural water supply, irrigation. In this paper, a humidification–dehumidification (HD water desalination system with several technologies for irrigation and drinking needs in remote arid areas is introduced from technical and economic point of views. This study has investigated (1 detailed discussion of technical developments, economical and sustainable aspects; (2 benefits of the new design over traditional applications, desalination and other irrigation methods; (3 specific requirements and implementation challenges in remote and cold regions; (4 performance and reliability improvement possible techniques. Recommended researches and projects leading to high efficiency, economical and sustainable applications of some desalination devices driven by solar energy are highlighted.

  14. Unigrace - A Project For The Unification of Gravity Systems In Central Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richter, B.; Falk, R.; Erker, E.; Ruess, D.; Mäkinen, J.; Hinderer, J.; Marson, I.; Sledzinski, J.

    Because of the present trends of political and economical unification in Europe for- merly classified gravimetric data in Central Europe are becoming available. The dif- ferences, however, between gravity systems in this area are so large that they strongly affect the geoid, vertical datum definitions and height systems. It is therefore manda- tory to study system differences and to unify them. The project UNIGRACE aims at solving this problem by carrying out absolute grav- ity measurements with the most advanced technology at 17 selected sites in the coun- tries concerned. In a joint effort five European groups from Austria, Finland, France, Germany, Italy and Poland using their absolute gravimeters and partners from Bul- garia, Croatia, Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia cooperate in selecting and/or establishing the sites and performing the measurements as well as in connecting the absolute sites to the national gravimetric networks. As a result, a unique gravity system in Central Europe will be available. The project started on Jan. 1, 1998 and till the end of 2000 all selected gravity sites have been observed twice by absolute gravimeters. From these repeated measurements the final results for this project will be presented which was granted by the European Commission.

  15. Techno-economic feasibility of the irrigation system for the grassland and farmland conservation in China: Photovoltaic vs. wind power water pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campana, Pietro Elia; Li, Hailong; Yan, Jinyue

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel design procedure for photovoltaic and wind power water pumping systems for irrigation is proposed. • The design procedure is proved conducting dynamic simulations of the water supply and water demand. • The technical and economic effectiveness of photovoltaic water pumping systems is proved simulating the crop yield response. - Abstract: Photovoltaic water pumping (PVWP) and wind power water pumping (WPWP) systems for irrigation represent innovative solutions for the restoration of degraded grassland and the conservation of farmland in remote areas of China. The present work systematically compares the technical and economic suitability of such systems, providing a general approach for the design and selection of the suitable technology for irrigation purposes. The model calculates the PVWP and WPWP systems sizes based on irrigation water requirement (IWR), solar irradiation and wind speed. Based on the lowest PVWP and WPWP systems components costs, WPWP systems can compete with PVWP systems only at high wind speed and low solar irradiation values. Nevertheless, taking into account the average specific costs both for PVWP and WPWP systems, it can be concluded that the most cost-effective solution for irrigation is site specific. According to the dynamic simulations, it has also been found that the PVWP systems present better performances in terms of matching between IWR and water supply compared to the WPWP systems. The mismatch between IWR and pumped water resulted in a reduction of crop yield. Therefore, the dynamic simulations of the crop yield are essential for economic assessment and technology selection

  16. Appraising options to reduce shallow groundwater tables and enhance flow conditions over regional scales in an irrigated alluvial aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morway, Eric D.; Gates, Timothy K.; Niswonger, Richard G.

    2013-01-01

    Some of the world’s key agricultural production systems face big challenges to both water quantity and quality due to shallow groundwater that results from long-term intensive irrigation, namely waterlogging and salinity, water losses, and environmental problems. This paper focuses on water quantity issues, presenting finite-difference groundwater models developed to describe shallow water table levels, non-beneficial groundwater consumptive use, and return flows to streams across two regions within an irrigated alluvial river valley in southeastern Colorado, USA. The models are calibrated and applied to simulate current baseline conditions in the alluvial aquifer system and to examine actions for potentially improving these conditions. The models provide a detailed description of regional-scale subsurface unsaturated and saturated flow processes, thereby enabling detailed spatiotemporal description of groundwater levels, recharge to infiltration ratios, partitioning of ET originating from the unsaturated and saturated zones, and groundwater flows, among other variables. Hybrid automated and manual calibration of the models is achieved using extensive observations of groundwater hydraulic head, groundwater return flow to streams, aquifer stratigraphy, canal seepage, total evapotranspiration, the portion of evapotranspiration supplied by upflux from the shallow water table, and irrigation flows. Baseline results from the two regional-scale models are compared to model predictions under variations of four alternative management schemes: (1) reduced seepage from earthen canals, (2) reduced irrigation applications, (3) rotational lease fallowing (irrigation water leased to municipalities, resulting in temporary dry-up of fields), and (4) combinations of these. The potential for increasing the average water table depth by up to 1.1 and 0.7 m in the two respective modeled regions, thereby reducing the threat of waterlogging and lowering non-beneficial consumptive use

  17. Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammon, Martin Matthias

    2010-01-01

    DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further

  18. Gauge/gravity duality applied to condensed matter systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ammon, Martin Matthias

    2010-07-07

    DE024486693In the present thesis by means of the AdS/CFT correspondence phenomena of strongly coupled quantum critical systems are studied. Hereby the assumption developed 1997 by Maldacena puts four-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory and type IIB supergravity in the five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space in relation. This assumption can be generalized in different ways. So on the gauge-theory side states with finite temperature and density can be considered or degrees of freedom added, which transform in the fundamental representation of the gauge group, the so-called flavor degrees of freedom. These deformations of the correspondence are applied in the present thesis in order to understand better strongly coupled systems in the neighbourhood of quantum-critical points. We approximate hereby the field theory at the quantum-critical point by N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory. The charge carriers of the system are introduced by supersymmetric flavor fields. For instance in the present thesis in the case of two flavor fields, which have the same mass, a chemical potential for the isospin is considered and the phase diagram studied. The isospin-chemical potential breaks hereby the non-Abelian part of the flavor symmetry SU(2) to U(1). If a critical value of the isospin-chemical potential is exceeded, so shows our calculation, that the strongly coupled system becomes unstable against fluctuations. A new thermodynamically favorized state is formed. This state breaks the residual U(1) flavor symmetry spontaneously and can therefore be considered as a superfluid. If U(1) is gauged, by this way a superconductor is obtained. The AC conductivity goes in the superconducting phase for small frequencies to zero. The DC conductivity however is infinite. Furthermore we calculate the Fermi surface in the superconducting phase. Furthermore a holographic method for the calculation of the DC conductivity in arbitrarily constant electric and magnetic fields is further

  19. Microelectromechanical system gravimeters as a new tool for gravity imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, Richard P.; Bramsiepe, Steven G.; Douglas, Rebecca; Hild, Stefan; Hough, James; Paul, Douglas J.; Samarelli, Antonio; Rowan, Sheila; Hammond, Giles D.

    2018-05-01

    A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gravimeter has been manufactured with a sensitivity of 40 ppb in an integration time of 1 s. This sensor has been used to measure the Earth tides: the elastic deformation of the globe due to tidal forces. No such measurement has been demonstrated before now with a MEMS gravimeter. Since this measurement, the gravimeter has been miniaturized and tested in the field. Measurements of the free-air and Bouguer effects have been demonstrated by monitoring the change in gravitational acceleration measured while going up and down a lift shaft of 20.7 m, and up and down a local hill of 275 m. These tests demonstrate that the device has the potential to be a useful field-portable instrument. The development of an even smaller device is underway, with a total package size similar to that of a smartphone. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  20. The Influential Role of Sociocultural Feedbacks on Community-Managed Irrigation System Behaviors During Times of Water Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunda, T.; Turner, B. L.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2018-04-01

    Sociohydrological studies use interdisciplinary approaches to explore the complex interactions between physical and social water systems and increase our understanding of emergent and paradoxical system behaviors. The dynamics of community values and social cohesion, however, have received little attention in modeling studies due to quantification challenges. Social structures associated with community-managed irrigation systems around the world, in particular, reflect these communities' experiences with a multitude of natural and social shocks. Using the Valdez acequia (a communally-managed irrigation community in northern New Mexico) as a simulation case study, we evaluate the impact of that community's social structure in governing its responses to water availability stresses posed by climate change. Specifically, a system dynamics model (developed using insights from community stakeholders and multiple disciplines that captures biophysical, socioeconomic, and sociocultural dynamics of acequia systems) was used to generate counterfactual trajectories to explore how the community would behave with streamflow conditions expected under climate change. We found that earlier peak flows, combined with adaptive measures of shifting crop selection, allowed for greater production of higher value crops and fewer people leaving the acequia. The economic benefits were lost, however, if downstream water pressures increased. Even with significant reductions in agricultural profitability, feedbacks associated with community cohesion buffered the community's population and land parcel sizes from more detrimental impacts, indicating the community's resilience under natural and social stresses. Continued exploration of social structures is warranted to better understand these systems' responses to stress and identify possible leverage points for strengthening community resilience.

  1. Water-right and water-allocation procedures of farmers' managed perennial spate irrigation systems of mithawan watershed, D.G. Khan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.; Ahmad, S.

    2007-01-01

    A study was conducted on water rights, water allocation and local institutions prevailing in the perennial spate irrigation systems of Mithawan watershed o D.G. Khan District of Punjab. The Study Area was selected is the Mthawan watershed on the D.G. Khan-Quetta Road almost 70 kms from D.G. Khan and 10 km away from the road, representing real-life operating systems. Small-scale isolated and large-scale contiguous perennial spate irrigation systems were selected for study. A three-prong methodology was designed covering (a) interactive dialogue of the focus groups to document the community-perceptions regarding systems water-rights, water allocation and local institution prevailing in the area; (b) structured interviews to document systematic data regarding some of the study-aspects; and (c) diagnostic surveys to document some of the measured data regarding scheme performance. Water rights and allocation procedures both in small-scale isolated and large-scale Contiguous perennial spate irrigation-system are very clearly defined and do not change with time and space. Local institutions like Biradri and Muchi take care of just allocation of water. An irrigator is deputed who takes care of allocated time among various tribes. At the same time, the community is bringing more area under irrigation. Obviously it has increased water-requirements and in turn management of irrigation system. Previously they were reconstructing the diversion structure only. Present expansion in irrigated area has increased the necessity of maintaining the water-conveyance network more frequently, particularly at critical sections. However, the realization regarding water-losses still needs to be promoted. The linkages of resource-management with water-productivity are going to be the future area of consideration in theses systems, due to expansion of the system largely because of increased population and urge to increase their livelihood. (author)

  2. Microelectromechanical system gravimeters as a new tool for gravity imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Middlemiss, Richard P; Bramsiepe, Steven G; Douglas, Rebecca; Hild, Stefan; Hough, James; Paul, Douglas J; Samarelli, Antonio; Rowan, Sheila; Hammond, Giles D

    2018-05-28

    A microelectromechanical system (MEMS) gravimeter has been manufactured with a sensitivity of 40 ppb in an integration time of 1 s. This sensor has been used to measure the Earth tides: the elastic deformation of the globe due to tidal forces. No such measurement has been demonstrated before now with a MEMS gravimeter. Since this measurement, the gravimeter has been miniaturized and tested in the field. Measurements of the free-air and Bouguer effects have been demonstrated by monitoring the change in gravitational acceleration measured while going up and down a lift shaft of 20.7 m, and up and down a local hill of 275 m. These tests demonstrate that the device has the potential to be a useful field-portable instrument. The development of an even smaller device is underway, with a total package size similar to that of a smartphone.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  3. The improvement of the quality of polluted irrigation water through a phytoremediation process in a hydroponic batch culture system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retnaningdyah, Catur

    2017-11-01

    The objective of this research was to determine the effectiveness of a phytoremediation process using some local hydro macrophytes to reduce fertilizer residue in irrigation water in order to support healthy agriculture and to prevent eutrophication and algae bloom in water. A phytoremediation process was carried out in a hydroponic floating system by using transparent plastic bags of 1 m in diameter and 1 m in height that were placed in collecting ponds before they were used for agricultural activities. Paddy soils were used as substrates in this system. The irrigation water was treated with nutrient enrichment (Urea and SP-36 fertilizers). Then, the system was planted with remediation actors (Azolla sp., Ipomoea aquatica, Limnocharis flava, Marsilea crenata, polyculture of those hydro macrophytes and control). The improvement of the water quality as a result of the phytoremediation process was characterized by a decline in the concentration of some physicochemical parameters, which were measured at 7 days after incubation, as well as an increase in the plankton diversity index value. The results showed that all of the hydro macrophytes used in this research, which was grown in the hydroponic batch culture system for a period of 7 days, were able to significantly improve the irrigation water quality, which was enriched by the synthetic fertilizers Urea and SP36. This was reflected by a significant decrease in the concentration of water TSS, nitrate, BOD, COD and total phosphate and an increase in the value of water DO at 7 days after incubation. Improvement of the water quality is also reflected in the increasing plankton diversity index value as a bioindicator of water pollution indicating a change in the pollution status from moderately polluted to slightly polluted at 7 days after incubation.

  4. China’s Water-Saving Irrigation Management System: Policy, Implementation, and Challenge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liuyang Yao

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In response to the increased competition for water, the Chinese government has determined to promote water-saving irrigation (WSI followed by a range of institutional arrangements and policy goals. Three management mechanisms are analyzed in this study in terms of effectiveness, including the top-down regulation mechanism using direct control or economic instruments, the design-bid funding mechanism mobilizing local governments by competitive grants program, and the bottom-up participation mechanism transferring more irrigation management responsibilities to end-users. Although the WSI management has achieved notable improvements by the combination of different mechanisms, conflicts among different policy goals, uneven distribution of financial resources, and insufficient participation from water users caused the difficulty in aligning stakeholders’ incentives. Approaches are needed to enable sustainable management by coordinating incentives from different stakeholders in the management, as well as incorporating end water users to assist decision-making.

  5. Simulation-Optimization of the Management of Sensor-Based Deficit Irrigation Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Kloß, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Current research concentrates on ways to investigate and improve water productivity (WP), as agriculture is today’s predominant freshwater consumer, averaging at 70% and reaching up to 93% in some regions. A growing world population will require more food and thus more water for cultivation. Regions that are already affected by physical water scarcity and which depend on irrigation for growing crops will face even greater challenges regarding their water supply. Other problems in such regions...

  6. Breeding for high production of leaves of baobab (Adansonia digitata L) in an irrigated hedge system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korbo, Adama; Kjær, Erik Dahl; Sanou, Haby

    2013-01-01

    evaluated monthly from the third month after establishment. We found lowered leaf productivity during the dry season despite the plants being irrigated. We provide the first estimates of heritability for leaf production and growth of the species. We assumed that the families of seed from open...... was not significantly different among provenances or families within provenances. Based on the findings, we discuss how breeding can increase the total leaf production and its seasonal distribution....

  7. Modification of the gravity model and application to the metropolitan Seoul subway system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Park, Jong Soo; Choi, M Y

    2012-08-01

    The Metropolitan Seoul Subway system is examined through the use of the gravity model. Exponents describing the power-law dependence on the time distance between stations are obtained, which reveals a universality for subway lines of the same topology. In the short (time) distance regime the number of passengers between stations does not grow with the decrease in the distance, thus deviating from the power-law behavior. It is found that such reduction in passengers is well described by the Hill function. Further, temporal fluctuations in the passenger flow data, fitted to the gravity model modified by the Hill function, are analyzed to reveal the Yule-type nature inherent in the structure of Seoul.

  8. Simple prescription for computing the interparticle potential energy for D-dimensional gravity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, Antonio; Helayël-Neto, José; Barone, F E; Herdy, Wallace

    2015-01-01

    A straightforward prescription for computing the D-dimensional potential energy of gravitational models, which is strongly based on the Feynman path integral, is built up. Using this method, the static potential energy for the interaction of two masses is found in the context of D-dimensional higher-derivative gravity models, and its behavior is analyzed afterwards in both ultraviolet and infrared regimes. As a consequence, two new gravity systems in which the potential energy is finite at the origin, respectively, in D = 5 and D = 6, are found. Since the aforementioned prescription is equivalent to that based on the marriage between quantum mechanics (to leading order, i.e., in the first Born approximation) and the nonrelativistic limit of quantum field theory, and bearing in mind that the latter relies basically on the calculation of the nonrelativistic Feynman amplitude (M NR ), a trivial expression for computing M NR is obtained from our prescription as an added bonus. (paper)

  9. Are There Infinite Irrigation Trees?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernot, M.; Caselles, V.; Morel, J. M.

    2006-08-01

    In many natural or artificial flow systems, a fluid flow network succeeds in irrigating every point of a volume from a source. Examples are the blood vessels, the bronchial tree and many irrigation and draining systems. Such systems have raised recently a lot of interest and some attempts have been made to formalize their description, as a finite tree of tubes, and their scaling laws [25], [26]. In contrast, several mathematical models [5], [22], [10], propose an idealization of these irrigation trees, where a countable set of tubes irrigates any point of a volume with positive Lebesgue measure. There is no geometric obstruction to this infinitesimal model and general existence and structure theorems have been proved. As we show, there may instead be an energetic obstruction. Under Poiseuille law R(s) = s -2 for the resistance of tubes with section s, the dissipated power of a volume irrigating tree cannot be finite. In other terms, infinite irrigation trees seem to be impossible from the fluid mechanics viewpoint. This also implies that the usual principle analysis performed for the biological models needs not to impose a minimal size for the tubes of an irrigating tree; the existence of the minimal size can be proven from the only two obvious conditions for such irrigation trees, namely the Kirchhoff and Poiseuille laws.

  10. Scale Effects of Water Saving on Irrigation Efficiency: Case Study of a Rice-Based Groundwater Irrigation System on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haorui Chen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This research analyzed the scale effect of water saving in Bielahonghe (BLH Basin, a rice-cultivating district on the Sanjiang Plain, Northeast China. Water budgets with different surface irrigation water supply ratios and water-saving measures were simulated with a semi-distributed water balance model. PFnws, representing the ratio of rice evapotranspiration to net water supply (the total amount of irrigation and precipitation minus the amount of water reused, was employed to assess the water use efficiency. Seven spatial scales (noted from S1 to S7, ranging from a single field (317.87 ha to the whole basin (about 100,800 ha were determined. PFnws values were quantified across scales and several water-saving measures, including water-saving irrigation regimes, canal lining, and a reduction of the surface water supply ratio (SWSR. The results indicated that PFnws increased with scale and could be calculated by a fitted power function (PFnws = 0.736Area0.033, R2 = 0.58. Furthermore, PFnws increased most prominently when the scale increased from S1 to S2. The water-saving irrigation regime (WSIR had the most substantial water-saving effect (WSE at S1. Specifically, PFnws improved by 21.2% at S1 when high-intensity WSIR was applied. Additionally, the WSE values of S3 and S5 were slightly higher than at other scales when the branch canal water delivery coefficient increased from 0.65 to 0.80 through canal lining. Furthermore, the PFnws at each scale varied with SWSR. Specifically, PFnws from S3 to S7 improved as SWSR decreased from 0.4 to 0.3 but remained approximately constant when SWSR decreased from 0.3 to 0.

  11. Quantum Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giribet, G E

    2005-01-01

    Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)

  12. Development and Function of the Mouse Vestibular System in the Absence of Gravity Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, Debra J.

    2005-01-01

    The hypothesis that was tested in this research was that the absence of gravity perception, such as would occur in space, would affect the development and function of the vestibular and central nervous systems. Further, we postulated that these effects would be more significant at specific stages of post-natal development of the animal. We also proposed the use of molecular genetic approaches that would provide important information as to the hierarchy of gene function during the development and subsequent function of the vestibular system. The tilted (tlt) mutant mouse has been characterized as lacking the ability to provide sensory input to the gravity receptors. The tlt/tlt mutant mice were a particularly attractive model for the study of vestibular function since the primary defect was limited to the receptor part of the vestibular system, and there were no detectable abnormal phenotypes in other organ systems. The goal of the proposed studies was to assess immediate and delayed effects of the lack of gravity perception on the vestibular system. Particular attention was paid to characterizing primarily affected periods of vestibular morphogenesis, and to identifying downstream genetic pathways that are altered in the CNS of the tlt/tlt mutant mouse. The specific aims were: (1) to characterize the postnatal morphogenesis of the CNS in the tlt mutant mouse, using detailed morphometric analysis of isolated vestibular ganglia and brain tissue at different stages of postnatal development and assessment of apoptotic cell death; (2) to examine the expression of selected genes implicated by mutational analysis to be important in vestibular development or function by in situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry in the mutant mice; and (3) to identify other genes involved in vestibular development and function, using differential cloning strategies to isolate genes whose expression is changed in the mutant versus normal vestibular system.

  13. GRACE, time-varying gravity, Earth system dynamics and climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wouters, B.; Bonin, J. A.; Chambers, D. P.; Riva, R. E. M.; Sasgen, I.; Wahr, J.

    2014-11-01

    Continuous observations of temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field have recently become available at an unprecedented resolution of a few hundreds of kilometers. The gravity field is a product of the Earth's mass distribution, and these data—provided by the satellites of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE)—can be used to study the exchange of mass both within the Earth and at its surface. Since the launch of the mission in 2002, GRACE data has evolved from being an experimental measurement needing validation from ground truth, to a respected tool for Earth scientists representing a fixed bound on the total change and is now an important tool to help unravel the complex dynamics of the Earth system and climate change. In this review, we present the mission concept and its theoretical background, discuss the data and give an overview of the major advances GRACE has provided in Earth science, with a focus on hydrology, solid Earth sciences, glaciology and oceanography.

  14. GRACE, time-varying gravity, Earth system dynamics and climate change

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, B; Bonin, J A; Chambers, D P; Riva, R E M; Sasgen, I; Wahr, J

    2014-01-01

    Continuous observations of temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field have recently become available at an unprecedented resolution of a few hundreds of kilometers. The gravity field is a product of the Earth's mass distribution, and these data—provided by the satellites of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE)—can be used to study the exchange of mass both within the Earth and at its surface. Since the launch of the mission in 2002, GRACE data has evolved from being an experimental measurement needing validation from ground truth, to a respected tool for Earth scientists representing a fixed bound on the total change and is now an important tool to help unravel the complex dynamics of the Earth system and climate change. In this review, we present the mission concept and its theoretical background, discuss the data and give an overview of the major advances GRACE has provided in Earth science, with a focus on hydrology, solid Earth sciences, glaciology and oceanography. (review article)

  15. Assessing the performance of surface and subsurface drip systems on irrigation water use efficiency of citrus orchards in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amparo Martinez-Gimeno, Maria; Provenzano, Giuseppe; Bonet, Luis; Intrigliolo, Diego S.; Badal, Eduardo; Ballestrer, Carlos

    2017-04-01

    In Mediterranean countries, water scarcity represents a real environmental concern at present and, according to the current climate change models predictions, the problem will be amplified in the future. In order to deal with this issue, application of strategies aimed to optimize the water resources in agriculture and to increase water use efficiency have become essential. On the one hand, it is important the election of the appropriate irrigation system for each particular case. On the other hand, identify the best management options for that specific irrigation system is crucial to optimize the available water resources without affecting yield. When using water saving strategies, however, it is a must to monitor the soil and/or crop water status in order to know the level of stress reached by the plants and to avoid levels that could lead to detrimental effects on yield. Stem water potential, ψstem, expressing the instantaneous condition of crop water stress, is considered a robust indicator of crop water status. The main objective of this study was to assess the performance of a surface (DI) and subsurface (SDI) drip irrigation system in a citrus orchard with 7 (DI7, SDI7) or 14 emitters (DI14, SDI14) per plant, in terms of irrigation water use efficiency (IWUE) and possible amount of water saving. The experiment was carried out in 2014 and 2015 in Alberique, Spain, (39˚ 7'31" N, 0˚ 33'17" W), in a commercial orchard (Citrus clementina, Hort. ex Tan. 'Arrufatina') in which four different treatments with three replications (12 sub-plots) were prepared according to a complete randomized block design. Irrigation doses and timing were scheduled based on the estimated maximum crop evapotranspiration corrected according to measurements of ψstem and soil water content, and weather forecasts. In order to limit the maximum crop water stress, the thresholds of ψstem were assumed in the range between -0.8 and -1.0 MPa from January to June and between -1.0 and -1

  16. Apical extrusion of debris and irrigants using ProTaper hand, M-two rotary and WaveOne single file reciprocating system: An ex vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Arunagiri, Doraiswamy; Pushpa, Shankarappa; Sawhny, Asheesh; Misra, Abhinav; Khetan, Kirti

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this ex vivo study was to evaluate and compare the weight of debris and volume of irrigant extruded apically from teeth using different preparation techniques. Thirty extracted human mandibular premolars with single canals and similar lengths were instrumented using hand ProTaper F2 (25, 0.08; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland), M-two (25, 0.06; VDW, Munich, Germany) and WaveOne Primary (25, 0.08; Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland). Debris and irrigant extruded during instrumentation were collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The volume of the irrigant was measured, and then the tubes were stored in an incubator at 70°C for 2 days. The Eppendorf tubes were weighed to obtain the final weight when the extruded debris was included. Three consecutive weights were obtained for each tube. Data were statistically analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and Student's t-test. There were no statistically significant differences among the groups. The WaveOne reciprocating system showed the maximum amount of apical extrusion of debris and irrigant among all the groups. The least amount of debris and irrigant was observed in ProTaper hand instrument (P > 0.05). All instrumentation techniques were associated with debris and irrigant extrusion.

  17. Atributos do solo sob pastagens em sistema de sequeiro e irrigado Soil attributes under pasture system with and without irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lúcia Pereira

    2009-04-01

    Jacq. cv. Tanzania and bread grass [Brachiaria brizantha (Hochst ex A. Rich. Stapf. cv. Marandu], with and without irrigation, in the municipality of Rio Verde, Goiás State, Brazil. The experiment was carried out on an oxisol soil at the Comigo Technological Center, in 16 plots of 450m² each. The experimental design used was the completely randomized blocks with four replications. The treatments consisted of two grass species, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum and bread grass (Brachiaria brizantha and two irrigation treatments, with and without irrigation. The following attributes were determined: aggregate stability, pH, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, potential acidity, cation exchange capacity, base saturation, and organic matter content. The chemical attributes varied in both layers mainly due to the liming and fertilization of the soil, independently of the irrigation system. The treatments with Tanzania grass and bread grass without irrigation presented the highest organic matter content and the highest values of DMG. Most of the aggregates had a diameter larger than 2.0 mm. The irrigation management did not affect the dry mass of the grasses studied.

  18. Impacto de los sistemas de riego por goteo en arándanos Impact of drip irrigation systems in blueberries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Pannunzio

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available El ensayo examinó los efectos de diferentes sistemas de riego por goteo en el rendimiento de la variedad O´Neal de arándano (Vaccinium corymbosum L. El estudio se realizó en Zarate (33º 41’ S y 59º 41’ W, provincia de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El cultivo se implantó en agosto de 2001, la primera cosecha se efectuó en octubre de 2003. El objetivo fue determinar cual era el sistema de riego por goteo que maximizaba el rendimiento, siendo los tratamientos, un lateral de tubería de goteo por fila de plantas con goteros a 40 cm (T1 y dos laterales de tubería de goteo con goteros a 20 cm por fila de plantas (T2. El porcentaje de suelo mojado por sistema se incrementa a medida que aumenta el número de emisores por metro lineal. El diseño experimental fue de bloques completamente aleatorizados, con bloques de cinco plantas y cinco repeticiones por tratamiento. La cosecha de 2003, reportó rendimientos de 2436 kg ha-1 para el tratamiento T1 y de 4335 kg ha-1 para tratamiento T2. El mojado parcial del suelo que realiza el tratamiento T1, de menor cantidad de goteros por metro lineal, no es suficiente para mojar un porcentaje de suelo compatible con altos rendimientos.The experiment examined the effects of different drip irrigation systems in an O´Neal variety of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L. It was contucted at Zarate (33º 41’ S and 59º 41’ W, Buenos Aires, Argentina. Plants of the experiment were planted in August of 2001, after one year in nursery. The first harvest was realized in October of 2003. The main scope of the experiment was to find the irrigation system which maximized yields. Treatments were: one drip irrigation line with drippers at 40 cm (T1 and two laterals with drippers at 20 cm per row (T2. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized block design, each one with 5 plants and 5 replications. During the harvest of October and November of 2003, reported yields were 2436 kg ha-1 for the treatment T1 and

  19. Key Challenges and Opportunities for Conjunctive Management of Surface and Groundwater in Mega-Irrigation Systems: Lower Indus, Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank van Steenbergen

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the scope of conjunctive management in the Lower Indus part of the Indus Basin Irrigation System (IBIS, and the contribution this could make towards food security and socio-economic development. The total Gross Command Area (GCA of the Lower Indus is 5.92 Mha, with a cultivable command area (CCA of 5.43 Mha, most of which is in Sindh Province. There is a limited use of groundwater in Sindh (about 4.3 Billion Cubic Meter (BCM for two reasons: first, there is a large area where groundwater is saline; and second, there is a high surface irrigation supply to most of the canal commands, e.g., average annual supply to rice command is 1723 mm, close to the annual reference crop evapotranspiration for the area, while there is an additional annual rainfall of about 200 mm. These high irrigation allocations, even in areas where groundwater is fresh, create strong disincentives for farmers to use groundwater. Consequently, areas are waterlogged to the extent of 50% and 70% before and after the monsoon, respectively, which contributes to surface salinity through capillary rise. In Sindh, about 74%–80% of the available groundwater recharge is lost in the form of non-beneficial evaporation. This gives rise to low cropping intensities and yields compared to fresh groundwater areas elsewhere in the IBIS. The drought of 1999–2002 has demonstrated a reduction in waterlogging without any corresponding reduction in crop yields. Therefore, in order to efficiently meet current water requirements of all the sectors, i.e., agriculture, domestic and industrial, an ab initio level of water reallocation and efficient water management, with consideration to groundwater quality and its safe yield, in various areas are recommended. This might systematically reduce the waterlogged areas, support greater cropping intensity than is currently being practiced, and free up water for horizontal expansion, such as in the Thar Desert.

  20. The Auto control System Based on InTouch Configuration software for High-gravity Oil Railway Tank Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu De-Kai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides automatic design for high-gravity oil railway tank feeding system of some refinery uses distributive control system. The system adopts the automatic system of Modicon TSX Quantum or PLC as monitor and control level and uses a PC-based plat form as principal computer running on the Microsoft Windows2000. An automatic control system is developed in the environment of InTouch configuration software. This system implements automatic high-gravity oil tank feeding with pump controlling function. And it combines automatic oil feeding controlling, pump controlling and tank monitoring function to implement the automation of oil feeding with rations and automatic control.

  1. KOEFISIEN TANAMAN PADI SAWAH PADA SISTEM IRIGASI HEMAT AIR Crop Coefficient for Paddy Rice Field under Water Saving Irrigation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Sujono

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Traditional irrigation for paddy rice is the leading of consumer of water, about 80 % of the water resource availabilityused for irrigation purpose. This phenomenon is related to the way how to estimate the crop water requirement where crop coefficient for paddy rice (k (Prosida is always greater than one starting from planting up to nearly harvesting. In this research, a number of water saving irrigations (WSI systems for paddy rice cultivation using pots such asalternate wetting and drying (AWD, shallow water depth with wetting and drying (SWD, semi-dry cultivation (SDC, system of rice intensification (SRI, and  AWD with mulch (AWD-Mul were applied. The amount of irrigated water and when it should be irrigated depend on evapotranspiration rate, soil moisture condition and the WSI system used. For this purpose, daily measurement of the pot weight was carried out. Crop coefficient (k  is then caluculated as a cratio between crop and reference evapotranspiration computed using Penman-Montheit  method. Results show that up to 45 days after transplanting, the k of WSI treatments were around half of the k (Prosida values currently used for computing the water requirement, whereas at the productive stage the k of WSI systems were relatively equal (AWD, SDC to or greater (SRI, SWD than the k (Prosida. Based on the the k values, the AWD and the SDC systems could save much water compared to the SRI or the SWD. Water saving could be increased by applying the AWD with mulch. ABSTRAK Irigasi padi sawah dengan sistem tradisional merupakan sistem irigasi  yang boros air, hampir 80 % sumber air yang ada untuk irigasi. Hal ini tidak terlepas dari perhitungan kebutuhan air tanaman dengan nilai koefisien tanaman (k menurut Standar Perencanaan Irigasi (Prosida selalu lebih besar dari satu mulai dari tanam hingga menjelang panen.Dalam penelitian ini beberapa metoda budidaya padi hemat air seperti alternate wetting and drying (AWD, shallow water depth

  2. Analysis of an innovative solar water desalination system using gravity induced vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayhan, T.; Al-Madani, H.

    2007-01-01

    This study presents the theoretical analysis, design and appropriate models of a new desalination system using gravity induced vacuum. The system utilizes natural means (gravity and atmospheric pressure) to create a vacuum under which water can be rapidly evaporated at much lower temperatures with less energy than conventional techniques. This technique is developed to overcome water storage, in the areas where good solar radiation (or waste heat sources) and sea water (or waste water sources). The developed system consists of an evaporator connected to condenser by means of a vacuum tank. The vapour produced in the evaporator is driven to condenser through the vacuum tank, where it condenses and collected as a product. Vacuum equivalent to 7 kPa (abs) or less can be created depending on ambient temperature of Bahrain climatic conditions. The effect of various operating conditions, namely water levels in condensation and evaporating columns on the system performance were studied. The theoretical analysis and preliminary experimental results show that the performance of this system depends on the condensation temperature

  3. Spatial Zonation Model of Local Irrigation System Sustainability (A Case of Subak System in Bali

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Putu Sriartha

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed at designing a spatial zonation model of a subak sustainability type based on the internal and external dimentions from 69 subaks in three districts in Badung regency. The internal dimention was measured based on subak capability index in implementing Tri Hita Karana (THK philosophy. The external dimention was measured by using index of four variables, namely: road density, population density, social economic facilities, and number of nonfarmer families.The data were analyzed using descriptive quantitative technique and spatial analysis using Geographical Information System (GIS software. The results found three zones of subak sustainability type, spatially follows the principle of distance decay of the growth of tourism and city center. Unsustainable - less sustainable subak zone dominates short distance zone, sustainable - less sustainable subak zone dominates transitional zone, while sustainable subak zone dominates long distance zone. To protect subak from destruction, less sustainable subaks have to be restored into sustainable ones and the sustainable subaks should be made eternal/exclusive subaks

  4. Sensing technologies for precision irrigation

    CERN Document Server

    Ćulibrk, Dubravko; Minic, Vladan; Alonso Fernandez, Marta; Alvarez Osuna, Javier; Crnojevic, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    This brief provides an overview of state-of-the-art sensing technologies relevant to the problem of precision irrigation, an emerging field within the domain of precision agriculture. Applications of wireless sensor networks, satellite data and geographic information systems in the domain are covered. This brief presents the basic concepts of the technologies and emphasizes the practical aspects that enable the implementation of intelligent irrigation systems. The authors target a broad audience interested in this theme and organize the content in five chapters, each concerned with a specific technology needed to address the problem of optimal crop irrigation. Professionals and researchers will find the text a thorough survey with practical applications.

  5. Trade-FDI Linkages in a System of Gravity Equations for German Regional Data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitze, Timo; Alecke, Björn; Untiedt, Gerhard

    We analyse the nature of German trade-FDI linkages within the EU27 based on a simultaneous equation gravity approach for imports, exports, in- and outward FDI stocks.We adopt both a Hausman-Taylor (1981) IV approach (3SLS-GMM) and rival non-IV estimation (the system extension to the Fixed Effects...... substitutive links between trade flows and outward FDI in line with earlier empirical evidence for Germany. Building upon German state level data we are also able to analyse the sensitivity of the results for regional sub-samples. The latter disaggregation hints at structural differences among the trade...

  6. FEM static analysis for the ITER gravity support system under the combined action of the dead weight and seismic loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Shangming; Yan Xijiang; Mo Chunhua; Hou Binglin; Li Pengyuan; Jian Guangde; Liu Dequan; Zhou Caipin

    2010-01-01

    According to the characteristics of the gravity support system of ITER, a finite element static analysis method of the system was proposed. ANSYS was applied to built the three dimensional model of the system. A mesh dividing method,which has high precision and an acceptable calculating scale, was used. After the mesh of the model had been divided, the contact elements were defined on interfaces between volumes. The finite element static analysis of the gravity support system under the dead weight and seismic loads was performed. The stress distributions and the maximal stress values of all parts of the gravity support system were obtained, and the stress strength of the parts was analyzed. The results showed that the maximum stresses of the TF leg, the flexible-plate, the ring support and the support column occur respectively on the joint of TF leg and equivalent toroidal shell, at the corner of the weld joint of the flexible-plate and its lower flange, on the joint of the upper transverse plane and internal stiffening rib of the ring support, and on the support column's upper transverse plane. These maximum stresses are smaller than their respective allowable stress limits. All parts of the gravity support system have enough mechanical strength according to the ASME See. III-NF Code. The results of static analysis lay the solid foundation for the design and improvement of the gravity supports system of ITER. (authors)

  7. Development of a decision support system for precision management of conjunctive use of treated wastewater for irrigation in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemanatha P. W. Jayasuriya

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This research aimed at finding alternative options for conjunctive use of treated wastewater (TW with groundwater (GW minimizing the irrigation water from aquifers in the Al-Batinah region with the assistance of a Decision Support System (DSS. Oman is facing a three-facet problem of lowering of GW table, wastewater over-production and excess TW. Approved guidelines for use of TW with tertiary treatments are of two classes: class-A (for vegetables consumed raw, class-B (after cooking. The developed DSS is comprised of four management subsystems: (1 data management in Excel, (2 model and knowledge management by macro programming in Excel, (3 with linear programming (LP optimization models including transportation algorithms, and (4 user interface with Excel or Visual Basic (VB. The results are based on two extreme scenarios: zero TW excess, and zero GW used for irrigation. The DSS could predict water balance for number of crop rotations, and based on adjustable cost variables farmer profit margins could be created. Crop selections and rotation could be done using LP optimizations while transportation algorithm could organize best locations and capacities for treatment plants and the wastewater collection and transportation to farming areas via treatment plants. The developed DSS will be very useful as a water management, optimization and planning tool.

  8. Desalination Using the Condensation Irrigation System, A Case Study of the Research Farm of Shahid Chamran University of Ahvaz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagher Yousefi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensation Irrigation (CI is a combination of simultaneous desalination and irrigation/drinking water production. As saline water evaporates in a solar distiller and the hot and humid air is transferred into an underground pipeline, fresh water will condense on the inner pipe surface due to cooling of air by the ground. The water thus condensed infiltrates into the soil through pores in the perforated drainage pipes laid in the ground to transfer the humidified air. In this study, the CI system was developed using common buried pipes to determine the amount of water produced. In this setup, condensed water is collected at the end of the pipe to be used for drinking. Observations and calculations indicated a mean water production capacity of 4 liters every 8 hours along a pipe 25m long. Less water was produced on the first day because some of the water was lost to the wetting of the internal pipe walls. Finally, examination of temperature effects revealed that water production along the pipe reduces as we move farther away from the inlet part of the pipe.

  9. Numerical Models of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity: Brain Circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; David, Tim

    2003-01-01

    A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is presented to model the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Models required for CFD simulation relevant to major hemodynamic issues are introduced such as non-Newtonian flow models governed by red blood cells, a model for arterial wall motion due to fluid-wall interactions, a vascular bed model for outflow boundary conditions, and a model for auto-regulation mechanism. The three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with these models are solved iteratively using the pseudocompressibility method and dual time stepping. Moving wall boundary conditions from the first-order fluid-wall interaction model are used to study the influence of arterial wall distensibility on flow patterns and wall shear stresses during the heart pulse. A vascular bed modeling utilizing the analogy with electric circuits is coupled with an auto-regulation algorithm for multiple outflow boundaries. For the treatment of complex geometry, a chimera overset grid technique is adopted to obtain connectivity between arterial branches. For code validation, computed results are compared with experimental data for steady and unsteady non-Newtonian flows. Good agreement is obtained for both cases. In sin-type Gravity Benchmark Problems, gravity source terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effect of gravitational variation on the human circulatory system. This computational approach is then applied to localized blood flows through a realistic carotid bifurcation and two Circle of Willis models, one using an idealized geometry and the other model using an anatomical data set. A three- dimensional anatomical Circle of Willis configuration is reconstructed from human-specific magnetic resonance images using an image segmentation method. The blood flow through these Circle of Willis models is simulated to provide means for studying gravitational effects on the brain

  10. A bridge between unified cosmic history by f( R)-gravity and BIonic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Capozziello, Salvatore; Setare, Mohammad Reza

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the cosmological deceleration-acceleration transition redshift in f( R) gravity has been considered in order to address consistently the problem of cosmic evolution. It is possible to show that the deceleration parameter changes sign at a given redshift according to observational data. Furthermore, a f( R) gravity cosmological model can be constructed in brane-antibrane system starting from the very early universe and accounting for the cosmological redshift at all phases of cosmic history, from inflation to late time acceleration. Here we propose a f( R) model where transition redshifts correspond to inflation-deceleration and deceleration-late time acceleration transitions starting froma BIon system. At the point where the universe was born, due to the transition of k black fundamental strings to the BIon configuration, the redshift is approximately infinity and decreases with reducing temperature (z˜ T2). The BIon is a configuration in flat space of a universe-brane and a parallel anti-universe-brane connected by a wormhole. This wormhole is a channel for flowing energy from extra dimensions into our universe, occurring at inflation and decreasing with redshift as z˜ T^{4+1/7}. Dynamics consists with the fact that the wormhole misses its energy and vanishes as soon as inflation ends and deceleration begins. Approaching two universe branes together, a tachyon is originated, it grows up and causes the formation of a wormhole. We show that, in the framework of f( R) gravity, the cosmological redshift depends on the tachyonic potential and has a significant decrease at deceleration-late time acceleration transition point (z˜ T^{2/3}). As soon as today acceleration approaches, the redshift tends to zero and the cosmological model reduces to the standard Λ CDM cosmology.

  11. Groundwater-fed irrigation impacts spatially distributed temporal scaling behavior of the natural system: a spatio-temporal framework for understanding water management impacts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Condon, Laura E; Maxwell, Reed M

    2014-01-01

    Regional scale water management analysis increasingly relies on integrated modeling tools. Much recent work has focused on groundwater–surface water interactions and feedbacks. However, to our knowledge, no study has explicitly considered impacts of management operations on the temporal dynamics of the natural system. Here, we simulate twenty years of hourly moisture dependent, groundwater-fed irrigation using a three-dimensional, fully integrated, hydrologic model (ParFlow-CLM). Results highlight interconnections between irrigation demand, groundwater oscillation frequency and latent heat flux variability not previously demonstrated. Additionally, the three-dimensional model used allows for novel consideration of spatial patterns in temporal dynamics. Latent heat flux and water table depth both display spatial organization in temporal scaling, an important finding given the spatial homogeneity and weak scaling observed in atmospheric forcings. Pumping and irrigation amplify high frequency (sub-annual) variability while attenuating low frequency (inter-annual) variability. Irrigation also intensifies scaling within irrigated areas, essentially increasing temporal memory in both the surface and the subsurface. These findings demonstrate management impacts that extend beyond traditional water balance considerations to the fundamental behavior of the system itself. This is an important step to better understanding groundwater’s role as a buffer for natural variability and the impact that water management has on this capacity. (paper)

  12. Water Pricing and Implementation Strategies for the Sustainability of an Irrigation System: A Case Study within the Command Area of the Rakh Branch Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Uzair Qamar

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The command area of the Rakh branch canal grows wheat, sugarcane, and rice crops in abundance. The canal water, which is trivial for irrigating these crops, is conveyed to the farms through the network of canals and distributaries. For the maintenance of this vast infrastructure; the end users are charged on a seasonal basis. The present water charges are severely criticized for not being adequate to properly manage the entire infrastructure. We use the residual value to determine the value of the irrigation water and then based on the quantity of irrigation water supplied to farm land coupled with the infrastructure maintenance cost, full cost recovery figures are executed for the study area, and policy recommendations are made for the implementation of the full cost recovery system. The approach is unique in the sense that the pricings are based on the actual quantity of water conveyed to the field for irrigating crops. The results of our analysis showed that the canal water is severely under charged in the culturable command area of selected distributaries, thus negating the plan of having a self-sustainable irrigation system.

  13. a System Dynamics Approach for Looking at the Human and Environmental Interactions of Community-Based Irrigation Systems in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, C. G.; Tidwell, V. C.

    2012-12-01

    In the arid southwestern United States community water management systems have adapted to cope with climate variability and with socio-cultural and economic changes that have occurred since the establishment of these systems more than 300 years ago. In New Mexico, the community-based irrigation systems were established by Spanish settlers and have endured climate variability in the form of low levels of precipitation and have prevailed over important socio-political changes including the transfer of territory between Spain and Mexico, and between Mexico and the United States. Because of their inherent nature of integrating land and water use with society involvement these community-based systems have multiple and complex economic, ecological, and cultural interactions. Current urban population growth and more variable climate conditions are adding pressure to the survival of these systems. We are conducting a multi-disciplinary research project that focuses on characterizing these intrinsically complex human and natural interactions in three community-based irrigation systems in northern New Mexico. We are using a system dynamics approach to integrate different hydrological, ecological, socio-cultural and economic aspects of these three irrigation systems. Coupled with intensive field data collection, we are building a system dynamics model that will enable us to simulate important linkages and interactions between environmental and human elements occurring in each of these water management systems. We will test different climate variability and population growth scenarios and the expectation is that we will be able to identify critical tipping points of these systems. Results from this model can be used to inform policy recommendations relevant to the environment and to urban and agricultural land use planning in the arid southwestern United States.

  14. GRACE, time-varying gravity, Earth system dynamics and climate change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wouters, B.; Bonin, J.A.; Chambers, D.P.; Riva, R.E.M.; Sasgen, I.; Wahr, J.

    2014-01-01

    Continuous observations of temporal variations in the Earth's gravity field have recently become available at an unprecedented resolution of a few hundreds of kilometers. The gravity field is a product of the Earth's mass distribution, and these data—provided by the satellites of the Gravity

  15. A matter of relationships: Actor-networks of colonial rule in the Gezira irrigation system, Sudan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurits Ertsen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first half of the 20th century, colonial rulers, a British firm and Sudanese farmers changed the Gezira Plain in Sudan into a large-scale irrigated cotton scheme. Gezira continues to be in use up to date. Its story shows how the abstract concept 'development' is shaped through the agency of humans and non-humans alike in government offices and muddy fields. Gezira provides a well-suited starting point for moving into the networks of development without any pre-suggested division in terms of levels, contexts or relations. Hierarchies, arenas and institutions do exist. Such power relations are associations between humans and non-humans: relatively stable relations are typically produced when non-human agency is involved, for example through books, roads, and money. The Gezira case shows the potential of actor-network theory in building and understanding of conceptual and empirical links between water, infrastructure and political rule.

  16. Portable photovoltaic irrigation pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furber, J. D.

    1980-07-01

    Experiences in developing a solar-powered irrigation pump to meet the needs of poor farmers in developing nations are summarized. The design which evolved is small and portable, employing a high-efficiency electric pump, powered by photovoltaic panels. Particular emphasis is placed on how the system works, and on early field problems experienced with the first prototypes. The resolution of these problems and the performance of actual systems in various countries is presented and user responses are noted.

  17. Compressibilidade de um solo sob sistemas de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado e não irrigado Soil compressibility under non-irrigated and irrigated short duration grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. L. R. Lima

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O incremento da produtividade das pastagens tem sido associado ao comportamento à compressão dos solos. Os objetivos deste trabalho foram: quantificar as curvas de compressão e a pressão de preconsolidação em sistemas de pastejo intensivo rotacionado irrigado e não irrigado. Foram coletadas 96 amostras indeformadas de solo em quatro ciclos sucessivos de pastejo instalado com capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. em um Argissolo Vermelho. Após saturadas com água e equilibradas no potencial (psi: -10 kPa, as amostras foram pesadas e submetidas ao ensaio de compressão uniaxial com a aplicação sucessiva e contínua de pressões de 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1.000, 1.300 e 1.600 kPa. Os resultados comprovaram a hipótese de que houve diferença na compressibilidade do solo sob os sistemas de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado e não irrigado. A maior compactação inicial verificada no sistema de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado favoreceu o deslocamento das curvas de compressão uniaxial para valores superiores de densidade do solo. A pressão de preconsolidação foi significativamente superior no quarto ciclo de pastejo no sistema de pastejo rotacionado intensivo irrigado em relação ao sistema pastejo rotacionado intensivo não irrigado.Increment in pasture productivity has been associated with the understanding of the soil behavior under compression. The objective of this research was to quantify (a the compression curves and (b the preconsolidation pressure of the soils under non-irrigated and irrigated short duration grazing systems. Ninety-six undisturbed soil samples were taken from the four successive pasture cycles of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. in a Hapludalf. The samples were saturated in water and equilibrated at the matrix potential (psi: -10 kPa and then were weighed and submitted to an uniaxial compression test, applying the following pressures: 25, 50, 100, 200, 400, 600, 800, 1,000, 1,300, and

  18. Straw decomposition of nitrogen-fertilized grasses intercropped with irrigated maize in an integrated crop-livestock system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Magalhães Pariz

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The greatest limitation to the sustainability of no-till systems in Cerrado environments is the low quantity and rapid decomposition of straw left on the soil surface between fall and spring, due to water deficit and high temperatures. In the 2008/2009 growing season, in an area under center pivot irrigation in Selvíria, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, this study evaluated the lignin/total N ratio of grass dry matter , and N, P and K deposition on the soil surface and decomposition of straw of Panicum maximum cv. Tanzânia, P. maximum cv. Mombaça, Brachiaria. brizantha cv. Marandu and B. ruziziensis, and the influence of N fertilization in winter/spring grown intercropped with maize, on a dystroferric Red Latosol (Oxisol. The experiment was arranged in a randomized block design in split-plots; the plots were represented by eight maize intercropping systems with grasses (sown together with maize or at the time of N side dressing. Subplots consisted of N rates (0, 200, 400 and 800 kg ha-1 year-1 sidedressed as urea (rates split in four applications at harvests in winter/spring, as well as evaluation of the straw decomposition time by the litter bag method (15, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 days after straw chopping. Nitrogen fertilization in winter/spring of P. maximum cv. Tanzânia, P. maximum cv. Mombaça, B. brizantha cv. Marandu and B. ruziziensis after intercropping with irrigated maize in an integrated crop-livestock system under no-tillage proved to be a technically feasible alternative to increase the input of straw and N, P and K left on the soil surface, required for the sustainability of the system, since the low lignin/N ratio of straw combined with high temperatures accelerated straw decomposition, reaching approximately 30 % of the initial amount, 90 days after straw chopping.

  19. Estimation of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system by using joint inversion of multicoil electromagnetic induction measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2015-05-12

    Low frequency electromagnetic induction (EMI) is becoming a useful tool for soil characterization due to its fast measurement capability and sensitivity to soil moisture and salinity. In this research, a new EMI system (the CMD mini-Explorer) is used for subsurface characterization of soil salinity in a drip irrigation system via a joint inversion approach of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. EMI measurements were conducted across a farm where Acacia trees are irrigated with brackish water. In situ measurements of vertical bulk electrical conductivity (σb) were recorded in different pits along one of the transects to calibrate the EMI measurements and to compare with the modeled electrical conductivity (σ) obtained by the joint inversion of multiconfiguration EMI measurements. Estimates of σ were then converted into the universal standard of soil salinity measurement (i.e., electrical conductivity of a saturated soil paste extract – ECe). Soil apparent electrical conductivity (ECa) was repeatedly measured with the CMD mini-Explorer to investigate the temperature stability of the new system at a fixed location, where the ambient air temperature increased from 26°C to 46°C. Results indicate that the new EMI system is very stable in high temperature environments, especially above 40°C, where most other approaches give unstable measurements. In addition, the distribution pattern of soil salinity is well estimated quantitatively by the joint inversion of multicomponent EMI measurements. The approach of joint inversion of EMI measurements allows for the quantitative mapping of the soil salinity distribution pattern and can be utilized for the management of soil salinity.

  20. Effect of inter-annual variability in pasture growth and irrigation response on farm productivity and profitability based on biophysical and farm systems modelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogeler, Iris; Mackay, Alec; Vibart, Ronaldo; Rendel, John; Beautrais, Josef; Dennis, Samuel

    2016-09-15

    Farm system and nutrient budget models are increasingly being used in analysis to inform on farm decision making and evaluate land use policy options at regional scales. These analyses are generally based on the use of average annual pasture yields. In New Zealand (NZ), like in many countries, there is considerable inter-annual variation in pasture growth rates, due to climate. In this study a modelling approach was used to (i) include inter-annual variability as an integral part of the analysis and (ii) test the approach in an economic analysis of irrigation in a case study within the Hawkes Bay Region of New Zealand. The Agricultural Production Systems Simulator (APSIM) was used to generate pasture dry matter yields (DMY) for 20 different years and under both dryland and irrigation. The generated DMY were linked to outputs from farm-scale modelling for both Sheep and Beef Systems (Farmaxx Pro) and Dairy Systems (Farmax® Dairy Pro) to calculate farm production over 20 different years. Variation in DMY and associated livestock production due to inter-annual variation in climate was large, with a coefficient of variations up to 20%. Irrigation decreased this inter-annual variation. On average irrigation, with unlimited available water, increased income by $831 to 1195/ha, but when irrigation was limited to 250mm/ha/year income only increased by $525 to 883/ha. Using pasture responses in individual years to capturing the inter-annual variation, rather than the pasture response averaged over 20years resulted in lower financial benefits. In the case study income from irrigation based on an average year were 10 to >20% higher compared with those obtained from individual years. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structural interpretation of El Hierro (Canary Islands) rifts system from gravity inversion modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sainz-Maza, S.; Montesinos, F. G.; Martí, J.; Arnoso, J.; Calvo, M.; Borreguero, A.

    2017-08-01

    Recent volcanism in El Hierro Island is mostly concentrated along three elongated and narrow zones which converge at the center of the island. These zones with extensive volcanism have been identified as rift zones. The presence of similar structures is common in many volcanic oceanic islands, so understanding their origin, dynamics and structure is important to conduct hazard assessment in such environments. There is still not consensus on the origin of the El Hierro rift zones, having been associated with mantle uplift or interpreted as resulting from gravitational spreading and flank instability. To further understand the internal structure and origin of the El Hierro rift systems, starting from the previous gravity studies, we developed a new 3D gravity inversion model for its shallower layers, gathering a detailed picture of this part of the island, which has permitted a new interpretation about these rifts. Previous models already identified a main central magma accumulation zone and several shallower high density bodies. The new model allows a better resolution of the pathways that connect both levels and the surface. Our results do not point to any correspondence between the upper parts of these pathways and the rift identified at the surface. Non-clear evidence of progression toward deeper parts into the volcanic system is shown, so we interpret them as very shallow structures, probably originated by local extensional stresses derived from gravitational loading and flank instability, which are used to facilitate the lateral transport of magma when it arrives close to the surface.

  2. Connected magma plumbing system between Cerro Negro and El Hoyo Complex, Nicaragua revealed by gravity survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacQueen, Patricia; Zurek, Jeffrey; Williams-Jones, Glyn

    2016-11-01

    Cerro Negro, near León, Nicaragua is a young, relatively small basaltic cinder cone volcano that has been unusually active during its short lifespan. Multiple explosive eruptions have deposited significant amounts of ash on León and the surrounding rural communities. While a number of studies investigate the geochemistry and stress regime of the volcano, subsurface structures have only been studied by diffuse soil gas surveys. These studies have raised several questions as to the proper classification of Cerro Negro and its relation to neighboring volcanic features. To address these questions, we collected 119 gravity measurements around Cerro Negro volcano in an attempt to delineate deep structures at the volcano. The resulting complete Bouguer anomaly map revealed local positive gravity anomalies (wavelength 0.5 to 2 km, magnitude +4 mGal) and regional positive (10 km wavelength, magnitudes +10 and +8 mGal) and negative (12 and 6 km wavelength, magnitudes -18 and -13 mGal) Bouguer anomalies. Further analysis of these gravity data through inversion has revealed both local and regional density anomalies that we interpret as intrusive complexes at Cerro Negro and in the Nicaraguan Volcanic Arc. The local density anomalies at Cerro Negro have a density of 2700 kg m-3 (basalt) and are located between -250 and -2000 m above sea level. The distribution of recovered density anomalies suggests that eruptions at Cerro Negro may be tapping an interconnected magma plumbing system beneath El Hoyo, Cerro La Mula, and Cerro Negro, and more than seven other proximal volcanic features, implying that Cerro Negro should be considered the newest cone of a Cerro Negro-El Hoyo volcanic complex.

  3. Modernized Irrigation Technologies in West Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakan Büyükcangaz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Crop production in West Africa is mostly dependent upon rainfed agriculture. Irrigation is a vital need due to uneven distribution of rainfall and seasonality of water resources. However, management and sustainability of irrigation are under risk due to notably weak database, excessive cost, unappropriate soil or land use, environmental problems and extreme pessimism in some quarters since rainfed agriculture is seen as potentially able to support the present population. This paper focuses on modernized irrigation technologies and systems that utilize less water. Information about irrigation systems in Ghana and Liberia were gathered through: 1 Irrigation development authorities in both countries, by reviewing past literatures, online publications, reports and files about irrigation in West Africa, specifically Ghana and Liberia; 2 International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI; 3 Collation of information, reports and data from Ghana Irrigation Development Authority (GIDA and 4 International Water Management Institute (IWMI. The result shows that both countries have higher irrigation potential. However, the areas developed for irrigation is still a small portion as compare to the total land available for irrigation. On the other hand, as seen in the result, Liberia as compare to Ghana has even low level of irrigation development.

  4. Impact of the reusing of food manufacturing wastewater for irrigation in a closed system on the microbiological quality of the food crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beneduce, Luciano; Gatta, Giuseppe; Bevilacqua, Antonio; Libutti, Angela; Tarantino, Emanuele; Bellucci, Micol; Troiano, Eleonora; Spano, Giuseppe

    2017-11-02

    In order to evaluate if the reuse of food industry treated wastewater is compatible for irrigation of food crops, without increased health risk, in the present study a cropping system, in which ground water and treated wastewater were used for irrigation of tomato and broccoli, during consecutive crop seasons was monitored. Water, crop environment and final products were monitored for microbial indicators and pathogenic bacteria, by conventional and molecular methods. The microbial quality of the irrigation waters influenced sporadically the presence of microbial indicators in soil. No water sample was found positive for pathogenic bacteria, independently from the source. Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes were detected in soil samples, independently from the irrigation water source. No pathogen was found to contaminate tomato plants, while Listeria monocytogenes and E. coli O157:H7 were detected on broccoli plant, but when final produce were harvested, no pathogen was detected on edible part. The level of microbial indicators and detection of pathogenic bacteria in field and plant was not dependent upon wastewater used. Our results, suggest that reuse of food industry wastewater for irrigation of agricultural crop can be applied without significant increase of potential health risk related to microbial quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relationship between pure Schistosoma haematobium infection in Upper Egypt and irrigation systems. Part II: Host characteristics. The general prevalence of Schistosoma haematobium, age and sex distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammam, H M; Allam, F A; Hassanein, F

    1975-01-01

    The epidemiology of bilharziasis was studied in four villages in Assiut Governorate. These villages were almost similar with respect to their socioeconomic conditions, modes of living, availability and date of introduction of medical services. The first village, Gezirat El-Maabda, has a basin system of irrigation. The other three villages had shifted to the perennial system of irrigation for three years in Nazza Karrar, 26 years in El-Ghorayeb and 95 years in Garf Sarhan and were similar with respect to proximity to water courses. So the only variable of importance between the four villages was the mode of irrigation. Bilharziasis was diagnosed by detection of eggs in urine or faeces. A definitive relationship between the prevalence of S. haematobium infection and the type of irrigation system was further documented. A low prevalence was found in Gezirat El-Maabda (2.95%). In the other three villages a much higher prevalence existed (31.9%, 46.2% & 38.9% in Nazza Karar, El-Ghorayeb and Garf Sarhan respectively). The higher prevalence of S. haematobium in Nazza Karar (31.9%) only three years after introduction of perennial irrigation was a disappointing finding. It can be considered as an evidence against the elaborate measures and precautions planned and incompletely implemented before or after the establishment of Aswan High Dam. Not a single case of S. mansoni was encountered during this study. As regards the age and sex distribution of S. haematobium in the three villages irrigated perennially, a steep rise started at the age group 5-9 years reaching a peak at the age group 10-14 years. In Gezirat El-Maabda the peak was reached at later age (15-19 years). The cause of this difference was explained. Males showed a higher rate of infection than females in almost all age groups of the four village studied.

  6. LH2 tank pressure control by thermodynamic vent system (TVS) at zero gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, B.; Huang, Y. H.; Chen, Z. C.; Wu, J. Y.; Li, P.; Sun, P. J.

    2017-02-01

    Thermodynamic vent system (TVS) is employed for pressure control of propellant tanks at zero gravity. An analytical lumped parameter model is developed to predict pressure variation in an 18.09 m3 liquid hydrogen tank equipped with TVS. Mathematical simulations are carried out assuming tank is filled up to 75% volume (liquid mass equals to 945 kg) and is subjected to heat flux of 0.76 W/m2. Tank pressure controls at 165.5-172.4, 165.5-179.3 and 165.5-182.2 kPa are compared with reference to number of vent cycles, vent duration per cycle and loss of hydrogen. Analysis results indicate that the number of vent cycles significantly decreases from 62 to 21 when tank pressure control increases from 6.9 to 20.4 kPa. Also, duration of vent cycle increases from 63 to 152 and cycle duration decreases from 3920 to 3200 s. Further, the analysis result suggests that LH2 evaporation loss per day decreases from 0.17 to 0.14%. Based on the results of analysis, TVS is found effective in controlling the propellant tank pressure in zero gravity.

  7. Gravity-driven membrane system for secondary wastewater effluent treatment: Filtration performance and fouling characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yiran; Fortunato, Luca; Jeong, Sanghyun; Leiknes, TorOve

    2017-01-01

    Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is one of the promising membrane bioreactor (MBR) configurations. It operates at an ultra-low pressure by gravity, requiring a minimal energy. The objective of this study was to understand the performance of GDM filtration system and characterize the biofouling formation on a flat sheet membrane. This submerged GDM reactor was operated at constant gravitational pressure in treating of two different concentrations of secondary wastewater effluent. Morphology of biofilm layer was acquired by an in-situ and on-line optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning in a fixed position at regular intervals. The thickness and roughness calculated from OCT images were related to the variation of flux, fouling resistance and permeate quality. At the end of experiment, fouling was quantified by total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was also applied for biofouling morphology observation. The biofouling formed on membrane surface was mostly removed by physical cleaning confirmed by contact angle measurement before and after cleaning. This demonstrated that fouling on the membrane under ultra-low pressure operation was highly reversible. The superiority and sustainability of GDM in both flux maintaining and long-term operation with production of high quality effluent was demonstrated.

  8. Application of the spherical harmonic gravity model in high precision inertial navigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Xiangyun

    2016-01-01

    The spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) may, in general, be considered as a suitable alternative to the normal gravity model (NGM), because it represents the Earth’s gravitational field more accurately. However, the high-resolution SHM has never been used in current inertial navigation systems (INSs) due to its extremely complex expression. In this paper, the feasibility and accuracy of a truncated SHM are discussed for application in a real-time free-INS with a precision demand better than 0.8 nm h −1 . In particular, the time and space complexity are analyzed mathematically to verify the feasibility of the SHM. Also, a test on a typical navigation computer shows a storable range of cut-off degrees. To further evaluate the appropriate degree and accuracy of the truncated SHM, analyses of covariance and truncation error are proposed. Finally, a SHM of degree 12 is demonstrated to be the appropriate model for routine INSs in the precision range of 0.4–0.75 nm h −1 . Flight simulations and road tests show its outstanding performance over the traditional NGM. (paper)

  9. Gravity-driven membrane system for secondary wastewater effluent treatment: Filtration performance and fouling characterization

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Yiran

    2017-04-21

    Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is one of the promising membrane bioreactor (MBR) configurations. It operates at an ultra-low pressure by gravity, requiring a minimal energy. The objective of this study was to understand the performance of GDM filtration system and characterize the biofouling formation on a flat sheet membrane. This submerged GDM reactor was operated at constant gravitational pressure in treating of two different concentrations of secondary wastewater effluent. Morphology of biofilm layer was acquired by an in-situ and on-line optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning in a fixed position at regular intervals. The thickness and roughness calculated from OCT images were related to the variation of flux, fouling resistance and permeate quality. At the end of experiment, fouling was quantified by total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was also applied for biofouling morphology observation. The biofouling formed on membrane surface was mostly removed by physical cleaning confirmed by contact angle measurement before and after cleaning. This demonstrated that fouling on the membrane under ultra-low pressure operation was highly reversible. The superiority and sustainability of GDM in both flux maintaining and long-term operation with production of high quality effluent was demonstrated.

  10. Characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the MU (Middle and Upper atmosphere) radar and GPS (Global Positioning System) radio occultation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuda, Toshitaka

    2014-01-01

    The wind velocity and temperature profiles observed in the middle atmosphere (altitude: 10-100 km) show perturbations resulting from superposition of various atmospheric waves, including atmospheric gravity waves. Atmospheric gravity waves are known to play an important role in determining the general circulation in the middle atmosphere by dynamical stresses caused by gravity wave breaking. In this paper, we summarize the characteristics of atmospheric gravity waves observed using the middle and upper atmosphere (MU) radar in Japan, as well as novel satellite data obtained from global positioning system radio occultation (GPS RO) measurements. In particular, we focus on the behavior of gravity waves in the mesosphere (50-90 km), where considerable gravity wave attenuation occurs. We also report on the global distribution of gravity wave activity in the stratosphere (10-50 km), highlighting various excitation mechanisms such as orographic effects, convection in the tropics, meteorological disturbances, the subtropical jet and the polar night jet.

  11. Nitrous oxide, carbon dioxide and methane emissions from irrigated cropping systems as influenced by legumes, manure and fertilizer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellert, B.H.; Janzen, H.H. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Lethbridge, AB (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Irrigated crops in Alberta require higher inputs of nitrogen (N) than rainfed crops. The aim of the study was to determine emissions of nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) from the soils of irrigated cropping systems that used inorganic fertilizer N at a site in Alberta. The study measured carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and methane (CH{sub 4}) levels in order to determine net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The exchange of gases between the atmosphere and soil in selected treatments was measured in order to compare the effects of contrasting N inputs. Fluxes were measured bi-weekly from spring 2001 to spring 2004. The time period included annual and perennial legume crops; the termination of a perennial forage crop; manure application; and 2 growing seasons of test crops. Soil surface fluxes were measured using PVC chambers equipped with thermocouples. Gas samples were measured using gas chromatography. A linear least squares method was used to calculate gas concentrations. Results showed that soil CO{sub 2} and N{sub 2}O production rates were intertwined after legume production or manure application, but decoupled during early spring bursts of N{sub 2}O production. Higher soil CO{sub 2} emissions with alfalfa and manure-amended soils suggested that soil oxygen consumption during high CO{sub 2} emission periods may promote N{sub 2}O emissions. Appreciable proportions of N{sub 2}O were emitted outside the growing season. Results suggested that N{sub 2}O leakage is an inevitable hazard of crop production. The study highlighted the importance of understanding and quantifying N{sub 2}O emissions from intensive cropping systems. 22 refs., 4 tabs., 6 figs.

  12. Maximum Plant Uptakes for Water, Nutrients, and Oxygen Are Not Always Met by Irrigation Rate and Distribution in Water-based Cultivation Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blok, Chris; Jackson, Brian E; Guo, Xianfeng; de Visser, Pieter H B; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2017-01-01

    Growing on rooting media other than soils in situ -i.e., substrate-based growing- allows for higher yields than soil-based growing as transport rates of water, nutrients, and oxygen in substrate surpass those in soil. Possibly water-based growing allows for even higher yields as transport rates of water and nutrients in water surpass those in substrate, even though the transport of oxygen may be more complex. Transport rates can only limit growth when they are below a rate corresponding to maximum plant uptake. Our first objective was to compare Chrysanthemum growth performance for three water-based growing systems with different irrigation. We compared; multi-point irrigation into a pond (DeepFlow); one-point irrigation resulting in a thin film of running water (NutrientFlow) and multi-point irrigation as droplets through air (Aeroponic). Second objective was to compare press pots as propagation medium with nutrient solution as propagation medium. The comparison included DeepFlow water-rooted cuttings with either the stem 1 cm into the nutrient solution or with the stem 1 cm above the nutrient solution. Measurements included fresh weight, dry weight, length, water supply, nutrient supply, and oxygen levels. To account for differences in radiation sum received, crop performance was evaluated with Radiation Use Efficiency (RUE) expressed as dry weight over sum of Photosynthetically Active Radiation. The reference, DeepFlow with substrate-based propagation, showed the highest RUE, even while the oxygen supply provided by irrigation was potentially growth limiting. DeepFlow with water-based propagation showed 15-17% lower RUEs than the reference. NutrientFlow showed 8% lower RUE than the reference, in combination with potentially limiting irrigation supply of nutrients and oxygen. Aeroponic showed RUE levels similar to the reference and Aeroponic had non-limiting irrigation supply of water, nutrients, and oxygen. Water-based propagation affected the subsequent

  13. Smart System for Bicarbonate Control in Irrigation for Hydroponic Precision Farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Cambra

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Improving the sustainability in agriculture is nowadays an important challenge. The automation of irrigation processes via low-cost sensors can to spread technological advances in a sector very influenced by economical costs. This article presents an auto-calibrated pH sensor able to detect and adjust the imbalances in the pH levels of the nutrient solution used in hydroponic agriculture. The sensor is composed by a pH probe and a set of micropumps that sequentially pour the different liquid solutions to maintain the sensor calibration and the water samples from the channels that contain the nutrient solution. To implement our architecture, we use an auto-calibrated pH sensor connected to a wireless node. Several nodes compose our wireless sensor networks (WSN to control our greenhouse. The sensors periodically measure the pH level of each hydroponic support and send the information to a data base (DB which stores and analyzes the data to warn farmers about the measures. The data can then be accessed through a user-friendly, web-based interface that can be accessed through the Internet by using desktop or mobile devices. This paper also shows the design and test bench for both the auto-calibrated pH sensor and the wireless network to check their correct operation.

  14. The strategies of local farmers' water management and the eco-hydrological effects of irrigation-drainage engineering systems in world heritage of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Terraces are built in mountainous regions to provide larger area for cultivation,in which the hydrological and geomorphological processes are impacted by local farmers' water management strategies and are modified by manmade irrigation-drainage engineering systems.The Honghe Hani Rice Terraces is a 1300a history of traditional agricultural landscape that was inscribed in the 2013 World Heritage List.The local farmers had developed systematic water management strategies and built perfect irrigation-drainage engineering systems to adapt the local rainfall pattern and rice farming activities.Through field investigation,interviews,combined with Geographic Information Systems,Remote Sensing images and Global Positioning Systems technology,the water management strategies as well as the irrigation-drainage systems and their impacts on eco-hydrological process were studied,the results indicate:Firstly,the local people created and maintained an unique woodcarving allocating management system of irrigating water over hundreds years,which aids distributing water and natural nutrition to each terrace field evenly,and regularly according to cultivation schedule.Secondly,the management of local people play an essential role in effective irrigation-drainage engineering system.A ditch leader takes charge of managing the ditch of their village,keeping ample amount of irrigation water,repairing broken parts of ditches,dealing with unfair water using issues,and so on.Meanwhile,some traditional leaders of minority also take part in.Thus, this traditional way of irrigation-drainage engineering has bringed Hani people around 1300 years of rice harvest for its eco-hydrological effects.Lastly we discuss the future of Honghe Hani Rice Terraces,the traditional cultivation pattern has been influenced by the rapid development of modern civilization,in which some related changes such as the new equipment of county roads and plastic channels and the water overusing by tourism are not totally

  15. Testing of a Spray-Bar Zero Gravity Cryogenic Vent System for Upper Stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lak, Tibor; Flachbart, Robin; Nguyen, Han; Martin, James

    1999-01-01

    The capability to vent in zero gravity without resettling is a fundamental technology need that involves practically all uses of subcritical cryogenics in space. Venting without resettling would extend cryogenic orbital transfer vehicle capabilities. However, the lack of definition regarding liquid/ullage orientation coupled with the somewhat random nature of the thermal stratification and resulting pressure rise rates, lead to significant technical challenges. Typically a zero gravity vent concept, termed a thermodynamic vent system (TVS), consists of a tank mixer to destratify the propellant, combined with a Joule- Thomson (J-T) valve to extract then-nal energy from the propellant. In a cooperative effort, Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Multipurpose Hydrogen Test Bed (N4HTB) was used to test a unique "spray bar" TVS system developed by Boeing. A schematic of this system is included in Figure 1. The system consists of a recirculation pump, a parallel flow concentric tube, heat exchanger, and a spray bar positioned close to the longitudinal axis of the tank. In the mixing mode, the recirculation pump withdraws liquid from the tank and sprays it radially into the tank liquid, ullage, and exposed tank surfaces. When energy extraction is required, a small portion of the recirculated liquid is passed sequentially through the J-T expansion valve, the spray bar heat exchanger element, and is vented overboard. The vented vapor cools the circulated bulk fluid, thereby removing thermal energy and reducing tank pressure. Figure 2 is a plot of ullage pressure (P4) and liquid vapor pressure (PSAI) versus time. The pump operates alone, cycling on and off, to destratify the tank liquid and ullage until the liquid vapor pressure reaches the lower set point. At that point, the J-T valve begins to cycle on and off with the pump. Thus, for short duration missions, only the mixer may operate, thus minimizing or even eliminating boil-off losses. The primary advantage of the

  16. Irrigation and Autocracy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Kaarsen, Nicolai; Wingender, Asger Moll

    We show that societies with a history of irrigation-based agriculture have been less likely to adopt democracy than societies with a history of rainfed agriculture. Rather than actual irrigation, the empirical analysis is based on how much irrigation potentially can increase yields.Irrigation pot...

  17. Genetic variability in elite barley genotypes based on the agro-morphological characteristics evaluated under irrigated system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Fernando Amabile

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Recently, researches have shown that the Brazilian savannah has a great potential to supply the demand for barley grains. The purpose of this study was to assess the genetic variability in 39 elite barley (Hordeum vulgare L. genotypes based on the agro-morphological traits of a crop irrigated in the savannah system. An irrigation experiment in the design of complete randomized block with four replicates was conducted at Federal District - Brazil. The evaluated traits were: distance from the last knot to the rachis, distance from the flag leaf to rachis, spike length, number of grains by ear, flag leaf area, plant height, silking, lodging, grain yield, thousand-seed weight, protein content and grain commercial classification. After using analysis of variance the means were used to estimate the genetic dissimilarity among all genotypes pairs based on the Mahalanobis’ generalized distance. Cluster analysis using genetic distance matrix was performed having Unweighted Pair Group Method using Arithmetic Means method (UPGMA as the criteria. Highly significant differences were found among the genotypes for all traits evaluated. The high coefficient of genetic variation indicates the possibility of having genetic gains for all traits. The traits that most contributed to the variability were the flag leaf area and silking, while the protein content and lodging were the traits that contributed the least. Based on the cluster analysis, at least three major groups of similarity were found. There was a clustering trend of two and six-rowed materials. The most divergent genotypes were PFC 2005123, Antártica-1, Nandi and FM 404.

  18. Analysis and comparison of modern methods of turf irrigation, verifying the capability of existing information systems through the use of numerical modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deangelis, Maria Laura; Facoetti, Nicola

    2016-04-01

    The automated irrigation of parks and gardens in public areas has become more and more a common practice due to the many benefits it brings in terms of improving the quality of urban green areas. Since this practice requires significant volumes of water, and this becomes increasingly scarce and expensive, it is necessary that the design criteria and use management aim at maximizing the irrigation efficiency. There are conflicting relationship and competition between trees and turf for several reasons. On one hand the different irrigation needs can cause excess water in the root zones of the trees, on the other hand the surface roots of trees and the shade created from the leaves by the dripline (projection line of the canopy) determine an unfavorable area to the growth of the turf because of light factor. It follows that for an optimal design of an irrigation system is necessary to separate the turf areas from trees, with the disadvantage of considerably complicate the geometries of the sprinklers. Each tree or group of trees need to be associated to a not irrigated area. This problem seems not to have a specifically bibliographical evidence, although there are operating standards primarily used to define buffer zones for trees from constructions (British Standard 5837:2005). Ideally, a high number of sprinklers is required to follow the shape of the areas perfectly. Hence, an additional step is necessary to simplify these geometries, identifying a correct scheme for the sprinkler spacing. Such a sequence of geometric operations has been tested on the "Indro Montanelli" park in Milan, obtaining a reduction of the irrigated area of 47% and a water saving of around 30%. We intend to continue the research applying the model to other parks, verifying its applicability in different situations.

  19. Dynamics of axial symmetric system in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, M.; Manzoor, Rubab

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of an axial reflection symmetric model in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity for anisotropic fluid. We formulate hydrodynamical equations and discuss oscillations using a time-dependent perturbation for both spin-dependent and spin-independent cases. The expressions of the frequency, the total energy density, and the equation of motion of the oscillating model are obtained. We study the instability of the oscillating models in weak approximations. It is found that the oscillations and stability of the model depend upon the dark energy source along with anisotropy and reflection effects. We conclude that the axial reflection system remains stable for stiffness parameter Γ = 1, collapses for Γ > 1, and becomes unstable for 0 < Γ < 1. (orig.)

  20. Opto-mechanical design and gravity-deformation analysis on optical telescope in laser communication system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Sen; Du, Jindan; Song, Yiwei; Gao, Tianyu; Zhang, Daqing; Wang, Yongzhi

    2017-11-01

    In space laser communication, optical antennas are one of the main components and the precision of optical antennas is very high. In this paper, it is based on the R-C telescope and it is carried out that the design and simulation of optical lens and supporting truss, according to the parameters of the systems. And a finite element method (FEM) was used to analyze the deformation of the optical lens. Finally, the Zernike polynomial was introduced to fit the primary mirror with a diameter of 250mm. The objective of this study is to determine whether the wave-front aberration of the primary mirror can meet the imaging quality. The results show that the deterioration of the imaging quality caused by the gravity deformation of primary and secondary mirrors. At the same time, the optical deviation of optical antenna increase with the diameter of the pupil.

  1. Dynamics of axial symmetric system in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharif, M. [University of the Punjab, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan); Manzoor, Rubab [University of Management and Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2016-06-15

    This paper investigates the dynamics of an axial reflection symmetric model in self-interacting Brans-Dicke gravity for anisotropic fluid. We formulate hydrodynamical equations and discuss oscillations using a time-dependent perturbation for both spin-dependent and spin-independent cases. The expressions of the frequency, the total energy density, and the equation of motion of the oscillating model are obtained. We study the instability of the oscillating models in weak approximations. It is found that the oscillations and stability of the model depend upon the dark energy source along with anisotropy and reflection effects. We conclude that the axial reflection system remains stable for stiffness parameter Γ = 1, collapses for Γ > 1, and becomes unstable for 0 < Γ < 1. (orig.)

  2. Gravity model improvement using the DORIS tracking system on the SPOT 2 satellite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Patel, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    A high-precision radiometric satellite tracking system, Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite system (DORIS), has recently been developed by the French space agency, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). DORIS was designed to provide tracking support for missions such as the joint United States/French TOPEX/Poseidon. As part of the flight testing process, a DORIS package was flown on the French SPOT 2 satellite. A substantial quantity of geodetic quality tracking data was obtained on SPOT 2 from an extensive international DORIS tracking network. These data were analyzed to assess their accuracy and to evaluate the gravitational modeling enhancements provided by these data in combination with the Goddard Earth Model-T3 (GEM-T3) gravitational model. These observations have noise levels of 0.4 to 0.5 mm/s, with few residual systematic effects. Although the SPOT 2 satellite experiences high atmospheric drag forces, the precision and global coverage of the DORIS tracking data have enabled more extensive orbit parameterization to mitigate these effects. As a result, the SPOT 2 orbital errors have been reduced to an estimated radial accuracy in the 10-20 cm RMS range. The addition of these data, which encompass many regions heretofore lacking in precision satellite tracking, has significantly improved GEM-T3 and allowed greatly improved orbit accuracies for Sun-synchronous satellites like SPOT 2 (such as ERS 1 and EOS). Comparison of the ensuing gravity model with other contemporary fields (GRIM-4C2, TEG2B, and OSU91A) provides a means to assess the current state of knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. Thus, the DORIS experiment on SPOT 2 has provided a strong basis for evaluating this new orbit tracking technology and has demonstrated the important contribution of the DORIS network to the success of the TOPEX/Poseidon mission.

  3. Interdisciplinary semantic model for managing the design of a steam-assisted gravity drainage tooling system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Leitch

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex engineering systems often require extensive coordination between different expert areas in order to avoid costly design iterations and rework. Cyber-physics system (CPS engineering methods could provide valuable insights to help model these interactions and optimize the design of such systems. In this work, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD, a complex oil extraction process that requires deep understanding of several physical-chemical phenomena, is examined whereby the complexities and interdependencies of the system are explored. Based on an established unified feature modeling scheme, a software modeling framework is proposed to manage the design process of the production tools used for SAGD oil extraction. Applying CPS methods to unify complex phenomenon and engineering models, the proposed CPS model combines effective simulation with embedded knowledge of completion tooling design in order to optimize reservoir performance. The system design is expressed using graphical diagrams of the unified modelling language (UML convention. To demonstrate the capability of this system, a distributed research group is described, and their activities coordinated using the described CPS model.

  4. Attributes for MRB_E2RF1 Catchments by Major River Basins in the Conterminous United States: Artificial Drainage (1992) and Irrigation (1997)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieczorek, Michael; LaMotte, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    This tabular data set represents the estimated area of artifical drainage for the year 1992 and irrigation types for the year 1997 compiled for every MRB_E2RF1 catchment of Major River Basins (MRBs, Crawford and others, 2006). The source data sets were derived from tabular National Resource Inventory (NRI) data sets created by the National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1995, 2000). Artificial drainage is defined as subsurface drains and ditches. Irrigation types are defined as gravity and pressure. Subsurface drains are described as conduits, such as corrugated plastic tubing, tile, or pipe, installed beneath the ground surface to collect and/or convey drainage. Surface drainage field ditches are described as graded ditches for collecting excess water. Gravity irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field by canals or pipelines open to the atmosphere; and water is distributed by the force of gravity down the field by: (1) A surface irrigation system (border, basin, furrow, corrugation, wild flooding, etc.) or (2) Sub-surface irrigation pipelines or ditches. Pressure irrigation source is described as irrigation delivered to the farm and/or field in pump or elevation-induced pressure pipelines, and water is distributed across the field by: (1) Sprinkle irrigation (center pivot, linear move, traveling gun, side roll, hand move, big gun, or fixed set sprinklers), or (2) Micro irrigation (drip emitters, continuous tube bubblers, micro spray or micro sprinklers). NRI data do not include Federal lands and are thus excluded from this dataset. The tabular data for drainage were spatially apportioned to the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCD, Kerie Hitt, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2005) and the tabular data for irrigation were spatially apportioned to an enhanced version of the National Land Cover Dataset (NLCDe, Nakagaki and others, 2007). The MRB_E2RF1 catchments are based on a modified

  5. Towards systems biology of the gravity response of higher plants -multiscale analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana root growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palme, Klaus; Aubry, D.; Bensch, M.; Schmidt, T.; Ronneberger, O.; Neu, C.; Li, X.; Wang, H.; Santos, F.; Wang, B.; Paponov, I.; Ditengou, F. A.; Teale, W. T.; Volkmann, D.; Baluska, F.; Nonis, A.; Trevisan, S.; Ruperti, B.; Dovzhenko, A.

    Gravity plays a fundamental role in plant growth and development. Up to now, little is known about the molecular organisation of the signal transduction cascades and networks which co-ordinate gravity perception and response. By using an integrated systems biological approach, a systems analysis of gravity perception and the subsequent tightly-regulated growth response is planned in the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. This approach will address questions such as: (i) what are the components of gravity signal transduction pathways? (ii) what are the dynamics of these components? (iii) what is their spatio-temporal regulation in different tis-sues? Using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model-we use root growth to obtain insights in the gravity response. New techniques enable identification of the individual genes affected by grav-ity and further integration of transcriptomics and proteomics data into interaction networks and cell communication events that operate during gravitropic curvature. Using systematic multiscale analysis we have identified regulatory networks consisting of transcription factors, the protein degradation machinery, vesicle trafficking and cellular signalling during the gravire-sponse. We developed approach allowing to incorporate key features of the root system across all relevant spatial and temporal scales to describe gene-expression patterns and correlate them with individual gene and protein functions. Combination of high-resolution microscopy and novel computational tools resulted in development of the root 3D model in which quantitative descriptions of cellular network properties and of multicellular interactions important in root growth and gravitropism can be integrated for the first time.

  6. Characterising East Antarctic Lithosphere and its Rift Systems using Gravity Inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaughan, Alan P. M.; Kusznir, Nick J.; Ferraccioli, Fausto; Leat, Phil T.; Jordan, Tom A. R. M.; Purucker, Michael E.; Golynsky, A. V. Sasha; Rogozhina, Irina

    2013-04-01

    Since the International Geophysical Year (1957), a view has prevailed that East Antarctica has a relatively homogeneous lithospheric structure, consisting of a craton-like mosaic of Precambrian terranes, stable since the Pan-African orogeny ~500 million years ago (e.g. Ferracioli et al. 2011). Recent recognition of a continental-scale rift system cutting the East Antarctic interior has crystallised an alternative view of much more recent geological activity with important implications. The newly defined East Antarctic Rift System (EARS) (Ferraccioli et al. 2011) appears to extend from at least the South Pole to the continental margin at the Lambert Rift, a distance of 2500 km. This is comparable in scale to the well-studied East African rift system. New analysis of RadarSat data by Golynsky & Golynsky (2009) indicates that further rift zones may form widely distributed extension zones within the continent. A pilot study (Vaughan et al. 2012), using a newly developed gravity inversion technique (Chappell & Kusznir 2008) with existing public domain satellite data, shows distinct crustal thickness provinces with overall high average thickness separated by thinner, possibly rifted, crust. Understanding the nature of crustal thickness in East Antarctica is critical because: 1) this is poorly known along the ocean-continent transition, but is necessary to improve the plate reconstruction fit between Antarctica, Australia and India in Gondwana, which will also better define how and when these continents separated; 2) lateral variation in crustal thickness can be used to test supercontinent reconstructions and assess the effects of crystalline basement architecture and mechanical properties on rifting; 3) rift zone trajectories through East Antarctica will define the geometry of zones of crustal and lithospheric thinning at plate-scale; 4) it is not clear why or when the crust of East Antarctica became so thick and elevated, but knowing this can be used to test models of

  7. Evaluation of conventional, protaper hand and protaper rotary instrumentation system for apical extrusion of debris, irrigants and bacteria- An in vitro randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Pinky; Rao, Arathi; Suman, Ethel; Shenoy, Ramya; Suprabha, Baranya-Shrikrishna

    2017-02-01

    Endodontic instrumentation carries the risk of over extrusion of debris and bacteria. The technique used and the type of instrumentation influences this risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the K-file, ProTaper hand and ProTaper rotary instrumentation systems for the amount of apically extruded debris, irrigant solution and intracanal bacteria. Experimental single blinded randomized type of in vitro study with sample of 30 single rooted teeth. Endodontic access cavities were prepared and the root canals were filled with the suspension of E. faecalis . Myers and Montogomery Model was used to collect apically extruded debris and irrigant. Canals were prepared using K files, Hand protapers and Protaper rotary files. Non Parametric test like Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U test were applied to determine the significant differences among the group. Tests revealed statistically significant difference between the amount of debris and number of bacteria extruded by the ProTaper hand and the K-files. No statistically significant difference was observed between the amounts of irrigant extruded by the ProTaper hand and the K-file system. Statistically significant differences were observed between the amounts of bacteria and irrigant extruded by the ProTaper rotary and the Protaper hand. No statistically significant difference was observed between the amounts of debris extruded by the ProTaper hand and the K-file system. Amount of apical extrusion of irrigant solution, bacteria and debris are significantly greater with K File instruments and least with Protaper rotary instruments. Key words: Protaper, rotary, periapical extrusion.

  8. Crop water productivity under increasing irrigation capacities in Romania. A spatially-explicit assessment of winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the southern lowlands of the country

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogaru, Diana

    2016-04-01

    Improved water use efficiency in agriculture is a key issue in terms of sustainable management and consumption of water resources in the context of peoples' increasing food demands and preferences, economic growth and agricultural adaptation options to climate variability and change. Crop Water Productivity (CWP), defined as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to actual evapotranspiration or as the ratio of yield (or value of harvested crop) to volume of supplied irrigation water (Molden et al., 1998), is a useful indicator in the evaluation of water use efficiency and ultimately of cropland management, particularly in the case of regions affected by or prone to drought and where irrigation application is essential for achieving expected productions. The present study investigates the productivity of water in winter wheat and maize cropping systems in the Romanian Plain (49 594 sq. km), an important agricultural region in the southern part of the country which is increasingly affected by drought and dry spells (Sandu and Mateescu, 2014). The scope of the analysis is to assess the gains and losses in CWP for the two crops, by considering increased irrigated cropland and improved fertilization, these being the most common measures potentially and already implemented by the farmers. In order to capture the effects of such measures on agricultural water use, the GIS-based EPIC crop-growth model (GEPIC) (Williams et al., 1989; Liu, 2009) was employed to simulate yields, seasonal evapotranspiration from crops and volume of irrigation water in the Romanian Plain for the 2002 - 2013 interval with focus on 2007 and 2010, two representative years for dry and wet periods, respectively. The GEPIC model operates on a daily time step, while the geospatial input datasets for this analysis (e.g. climate data, soil classes and soil parameters, land use) were harmonized at 1km resolution grid cell. The sources of the spatial data are mainly the national profile agencies

  9. Hydraulic performance of locally made LDPE-Pipes for drip irrigation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aslam, M.; Mangrio, A.G.; Ibrar, S.U.

    2007-01-01

    LDPE pipes give controlled and efficient irrigation practices for plant-water requirement. All five sizes of pipes i.e. 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm with wall thicknesses of 1.4, 1.8, 2.0, 2.5 and 3.0 mm respectively in 100 and 200 m lengths were selected for determination of pressure-discharge relationships, manufacturing coefficient of variation and friction coefficient. The pipes were operated at pressure ranging from 10 to 50 psi (7.00 -35.00 meter head) with an increment of 5 psi. The discharge of different sizes of LDPE pipes was measured under various pressures. The average discharge of the pipes with 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm pipe sizes between 10 to 50 psi pressure heads were 0.058, 0.301, 0.402, 0.909 and 2.076 lps respectively for 100 meter pipe length and 0.056, 0.10, 0.13, 0.45 and 1.993 lps respectively for 200 meter pipe length. The average friction head loss of the pipes with 13.0, 25.7, 31.5, 38 and 50 mm pipe sizes between 10 to 50 psi pressure heads were 3.21, 2.51, 1.66, 3.99 and 3.64 meter per 100 meter pipe length and 6.44, 5.03, 3.15, 6.79 and 6.85 meter per 200 meter pipe length respectively. The average C-value of all sizes of selected pipes for both lengths between 10-50 psi was indicated 18% less than the recommend value. Results indicated that the discharge, friction head losses and friction coefficient increased with the increase in pressure. This study helped describe the optimal pressure requirement to achieve the desirable discharge low friction head losses and minimum friction coefficients. (author)

  10. Massive Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    de Rham, Claudia

    2014-01-01

    We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...

  11. Gravity-Based Precise Cell Manipulation System Enhanced by In-Phase Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koji Mizoue

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a gravity-based system capable of generating high-resolution pressure for precise cell manipulation or evaluation in a microfluidic channel. While the pressure resolution of conventional pumps for microfluidic applications is usually about hundreds of pascals as the resolution of their feedback sensors, precise cell manipulation at the pascal level cannot be done. The proposed system successfully achieves a resolution of 100 millipascals using water head pressure with an in-phase noise cancelation mechanism. The in-phase mechanism aims to suppress the noises from ambient vibrations to the system. The proposed pressure system is tested with a microfluidic platform for pressure validation. The experimental results show that the in-phase mechanism effectively reduces the pressure turbulence, and the pressure-driven cell movement matches the theoretical simulations. Preliminary experiments on deformability evaluation with red blood cells under incremental pressures of one pascal are successfully performed. Different deformation patterns are observed from cell to cell under precise pressure control.

  12. Technical descriptions of ten irrigation technologies for conserving energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrer, B.J.; Wilfert, G.L.

    1983-05-01

    Technical description of ten technologies which were researched to save energy in irrigated agriculture are presented. These technologies are: well design and development ground water supply system optimization, column and pump redesign, variable-speed pumping, pipe network optimization, reduced-pressure center-pivot systems, low-energy precision application, automated gated-pipe system, computerized irrigation scheduling, and instrumented irrigation scheduling. (MHR)

  13. Using SWAT-MODFLOW to simulate groundwater flow and groundwater-surface water interactions in an intensively irrigated stream-aquifer system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, X.; Bailey, R. T.

    2017-12-01

    Agricultural irrigated watersheds in semi-arid regions face challenges such as waterlogging, high soil salinity, reduced crop yield, and leaching of chemical species due to extreme shallow water tables resulting from long-term intensive irrigation. Hydrologic models can be used to evaluate the impact of land management practices on water yields and groundwater-surface water interactions in such regions. In this study, the newly developed SWAT-MODFLOW, a coupled surface/subsurface hydrologic model, is applied to a 950 km2 watershed in the Lower Arkansas River Valley (southeastern Colorado). The model accounts for the influence of canal diversions, irrigation applications, groundwater pumping, and earth canal seepage losses. The model provides a detailed description of surface and subsurface flow processes, thereby enabling detailed description of watershed processes such as runoff, infiltration, in-streamflow, three-dimensional groundwater flow in a heterogeneous aquifer system with sources and sinks (e.g. pumping, seepage to subsurface drains), and spatially-variable surface and groundwater exchange. The model was calibrated and tested against stream discharge from 5 stream gauges in the Arkansas River and its tributaries, groundwater levels from 70 observation wells, and evapotranspiration (ET) data estimated from satellite (ReSET) data during the 1999 to 2007 period. Since the water-use patterns within the study area are typical of many other irrigated river valleys in the United States and elsewhere, this modeling approach is transferable to other regions.

  14. Consistency of orthodox gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)

    1997-01-01

    A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.

  15. Review of ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics: increasing action of irrigating solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozo, Sandra; Llena, Carmen

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: Effective irrigant delivery and agitation are prerequisites for successful endodontic treatment. Ultrasonic irrigation can be performed with or without simultaneous ultrasonic instrumentation. Existing literature reveals that ultrasonic irrigation may have a very positive effect on chemical, biological and physical debridement of the root canal system as investigated in many in vitro studies. Objective: The purpose of this review article was to summarize and discuss the available information concerning ultrasonic irrigation in endodontics. Methods: This article presents an overview of ultrasonic irrigation methods and their debridement efficacy. In this paper the relevant literature on passive ultrasonic irrigation is reviewed. Information from original scientific papers or reviews listed in MEDLINE and Cochrane were included in the review. Results: The use of ultrasound in the irrigation procedure results in improved canal cleanliness, better irrigant transfer to the canal system, soft tissue debridement, and removal of smear layer and bacteria. There are many in vitro studies, but there is a need to standardize protocols, and correlate the clinical efficacy of ultrasonic devices with improved treatment outcomes. Understanding the basis of ultrasonic irrigation is fundamental for clinicians and researchers to improve the design and use of ultrasonic irrigation. Key words:Ultrasonic irrigation, ultrasound, smear layer, endodontics. PMID:22143738

  16. Le devenir de la gestion traditionnelle des eaux apres l'envahissement des systemes modernes d'irrigation. Oasis de Boukais, Sud-Ouest algérien

    OpenAIRE

    CHERIF REZZOUG; BOUALEM REMINI; SAAD HAMOUDI

    2014-01-01

    The evolution of traditional water administration after the extension of modern irrigation systems. Oasis de Boukais, south - west of Algeria. One of the topics that touch the field of environment is undoubtedly the traditional catchment systems and the sharing of water in the oasis. The ancestral techniques such as wells to chadouf, quanat, Khettara and foggaras have protected the oasis and the man in the past. These t...

  17. Classical Weyl transverse gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)

    2017-05-15

    We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)

  18. Modelling human agency in ancient irrigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ertsen, M.W.

    2011-01-01

    Human activity is key in understanding ancient irrigation systems. Results of short term actions build up over time, affecting civilizations on larger temporal and spatial scales. Irrigation systems, with their many entities, social and physical, their many interactions within a changing environment

  19. Two Case Studies to Quantify Resilience across Food-Energy-Water Systems: the Columbia River Treaty and Adaptation in Yakima River Basin Irrigation Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, K.; Adam, J. C.; Richey, A.; Rushi, B. R.; Stockle, C.; Yoder, J.; Barik, M.; Lee, S. Y.; Rajagopalan, K.; Brady, M.; Barber, M. E.; Boll, J.; Padowski, J.

    2017-12-01

    The U.S. Pacific Northwest (PNW) plays a significant role in meeting agricultural and hydroelectric demands nationwide. Climatic and anthropogenic stressors, however, potentially threaten the productivity, resilience, and environmental health of the region. Our objective is to understand how resilience of each Food-Energy-Water (FEW) sector, and the combined Nexus, respond to exogenous perturbations and the extent to which technological and institutional advances can buffer these perturbations. In the process of taking information from complex integrated models and assessing resilience across FEW sectors, we start with two case studies: 1) Columbia River Treaty (CRT) with Canada that determines how multiple reservoirs in the Columbia River basin (CRB) are operated, and 2) climate change adaptation actions in the Yakima River basin (YRB). We discuss these case studies in terms of the similarities and contrasts related to FEW sectors and management complexities. Both the CRB and YBP systems are highly sensitive to climate change (they are both snowmelt-dominant) and already experience water conflict. The CRT is currently undergoing renegotiation; a new CRT will need to consider a much more comprehensive approach, e.g., treating environmental flows explicitly. The YRB also already experiences significant water conflict and thus the comprehensive Yakima Basin Integrated Plan (YBIP) is being pursued. We apply a new modeling framework that mechanistically captures the interactions between the FEW sectors to quantify the impacts of CRT and YBIP planning (as well as adaptation decisions taken by individuals, e.g., irrigators) on resilience in each sector. Proposed modification to the CRT may relieve impacts to multiple sectors. However, in the YRB, irrigators' actions to adapt to climate change (through investing in more efficient irrigation technology) could reduce downstream water availability for other users. Developing a process to quantify resilience to perturbations

  20. Irrigation Capability Evaluation of Illushi Floodplain, Edo State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Umweni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Many irrigation projects, especially in the developing tropical regions, are embarked upon without any land capability assessment, resulting in avoidable and undesirable ecological consequences. The aim of this study is to assess the irrigation capability potentials of the soils of a rice growing Illushi/Ega community in Edo State of Nigeria. Soils of Illushi/Ega (200 ha were studied to establish their irrigation capabilities. Water samples were collected from the rivers within and near the sites at the proposed points of intake structures and analyzed for salinity (ECw, permeability (SAR and ion toxicity [Chlorine (Cl and Boron (B]. Gravity irrigation suitability assessment was carried out following the guidelines of the United States Bureau for Land Reclamation (USBR, 1953 and FAO (1979. Results showed that about 5.5 % of the land was non-irrigable, 11.5 % was marginally irrigable, 30.5% was moderately irrigable and 52.5 % highly irrigable.Thus about 83 % of the total land area was found to be irrigable. The results of analyses of irrigation water [ECw, SAR and Cl and B (ion toxicity problems in water sources were 0.1 – 0.7 dS m-1, 1.2 – 1.7, 0.6 – 1.8 cmol kg-1 and 0.5 – 0.7 mg kg-1] also show that there is no indication of salinity or ion toxicity problem.

  1. The effect of irrigation, soil cultivation system and nitrogen fertilizer on the vitality and content of selected sugars in Vicia faba seed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurasiak-Popowska, D.; Szukala, J.; Gulewicz, K.

    2009-07-01

    In this study the influence of sprinkler irrigation, various soil cultivation systems (conventional, reduced tillage, zero tillage system) and the level (0, 30, 60, 90 kg N ha{sup -}1) of nitrogen (N) fertilization on the vitality and content of selected sugars in faba bean seeds (Vicia faba L.) of the cultivar Nadwislanski was examined. Sprinkler irrigation of faba bean improved seed energy and germination in all three years of the study (1999-2001) - on average germination energy by 8.8% and total germination by 3.2%-. Germination of faba bean seed under conventional tillage in the drier years was significantly higher than in the zero tillage system. In the wetter year, seed from both simplified systems produced seeds with higher germination than in traditional conventional tillage. Nitrogen (N) fertilizer affected germination energy, but had no effect on faba bean germination. Sprinkler irrigation and N fertilization had no effect on the content of the sugars studied in the faba bean seed. However, the stachyose content of faba bean seeds from conventional tilled plants was significantly higher than in seed of zero tilled plants (0.78 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm), and the galactose content of seed from zero tilled plants was significantly higher than in the other two cultivation systems - 0.34 and 0.28 mg g{sup -}1 seed dm in seeds from conventional and reduced tillage system, respectively. Additional key words: agronomic treatment, faba bean seeds, RFOs sugars. (Author) 24 refs.

  2. Evaluation of hydraulic performance of downstream-controlled Maira-PHLC irrigation canals under crop-based irrigation operations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munir, S.; Schultz, B.; Suryadi, F.X.; Bharati, L.

    2012-01-01

    Demand-based irrigation systems are operated according to crop water requirements. As crop water requirements remain variable throughout the growing season, the discharges in the canal also vary to meet demands. The irrigation system under study is a demand-based semi-automatic irrigation system,

  3. An object-oriented model of the cardiopulmonary system with emphasis on the gravity effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuong Ngo; Herranz, Silvia Briones; Misgeld, Berno; Vollmer, Thomas; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2016-08-01

    We introduce a novel comprehensive model of the cardiopulmonary system with emphasis on perfusion and ventilation distribution along the vertical thorax axis under the gravity effect. By using an object-oriented environment, the complex physiological system can be represented by a network of electrical, lumped-element compartments. The lungs are divided into three zones: upper, middle, and lower zone. Blood flow increases with the distance from the apex to the base of the lungs. The upper zone is characterized by a complete collapse of the pulmonary capillary vasculature; thus, there is no flow in this zone. The second zone has a "waterfall effect" where the blood flow is determined by the difference between the pulmonary-arterial and alveolar pressures. At resting position, the upper lobes of the lungs are more expanded than the middle and lower lobes. However, during spontaneous breathing, ventilation is nonuniform with more air entering the lower lobes than the middle and upper lobes. A simulative model of the complete system is developed which shows results in good agreement with the literature.

  4. Spray Bar Zero-Gravity Vent System for On-Orbit Liquid Hydrogen Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastings, L. J.; Flachbart, R. H.; Martin, J. J.; Hedayat, A.; Fazah, M.; Lak, T.; Nguyen, H.; Bailey, J. W.

    2003-01-01

    During zero-gravity orbital cryogenic propulsion operations, a thermodynamic vent system (TVS) concept is expected to maintain tank pressure control without propellant resettling. In this case, a longitudinal spray bar mixer system, coupled with a Joule-Thompson (J-T) valve and heat exchanger, was evaluated in a series of TVS tests using the 18 cu m multipurpose hydrogen test bed. Tests performed at fill levels of 90, 50, and 25 percent, coupled with heat tank leaks of about 20 and 50 W, successfully demonstrated tank pressure control within a 7-kPa band. Based on limited testing, the presence of helium constrained the energy exchange between the gaseous and liquid hydrogen (LH2) during the mixing cycles. A transient analytical model, formulated to characterize TVS performance, was used to correlate the test data. During self-pressurization cycles following tank lockup, the model predicted faster pressure rise rates than were measured; however, once the system entered the cyclic self-pressurization/mixing/venting operational mode, the modeled and measured data were quite similar. During a special test at the 25-percent fill level, the J-T valve was allowed to remain open and successfully reduced the bulk LH2 saturation pressure from 133 to 70 kPa in 188 min.

  5. Impact of irrigation with high arsenic burdened groundwater on the soil–plant system: Results from a case study in the Inner Mongolia, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neidhardt, H.; Norra, S.; Tang, X.; Guo, H.; Stüben, D.

    2012-01-01

    Consequences of irrigation by arsenic (As) enriched groundwater were assigned in the Hetao Plain, part of Chinas’ Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region. Examinations followed the As flow path from groundwater to soil and finally plants. A sunflower and a maize field were systematically sampled, each irrigated since three years with saline well water, characterized by elevated As concentrations (154 and 238 μg L −1 ). The annual As input per m 2 was estimated as 120 and 186 mg, respectively. Compared to the geogenic background, As concentrations increased toward the surface with observed enrichments in topsoil being relatively moderate (up to 21.1 mg kg −1 ). Arsenic concentrations in plant parts decreased from roots toward leaves, stems and seeds. It is shown that the bioavailability of As is influenced by a complex interplay of partly counteracting processes. To prevent As enrichment and soil salinization, local farmers were recommended to switch to a less problematic water source. - Highlights: ► We examined influences of irrigation with As burdened water at two fields. ► As distribution within soil–plant system in Hetao Plain, PR China. ► Three years of flood irrigation with As containing groundwater. ► Annual As inputs per m 2 were estimated as 120 mg and 186 mg, respectively. ► Contents in topsoil and plants are partly elevated, but not critical yet. - Recent irrigation with groundwater raises the risk of As entering the local food chain in one of the oldest crop producing areas in the People’s Republic of China.

  6. A Combined Gravity Compensation Method for INS Using the Simplified Gravity Model and Gravity Database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zeyang

    2018-05-14

    In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS's solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method.

  7. Modeling Acequia Irrigation Systems Using System Dynamics: Model Development, Evaluation, and Sensitivity Analyses to Investigate Effects of Socio-Economic and Biophysical Feedbacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin L. Turner

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Agriculture-based irrigation communities of northern New Mexico have survived for centuries despite the arid environment in which they reside. These irrigation communities are threatened by regional population growth, urbanization, a changing demographic profile, economic development, climate change, and other factors. Within this context, we investigated the extent to which community resource management practices centering on shared resources (e.g., water for agricultural in the floodplains and grazing resources in the uplands and mutualism (i.e., shared responsibility of local residents to maintaining traditional irrigation policies and upholding cultural and spiritual observances embedded within the community structure influence acequia function. We used a system dynamics modeling approach as an interdisciplinary platform to integrate these systems, specifically the relationship between community structure and resource management. In this paper we describe the background and context of acequia communities in northern New Mexico and the challenges they face. We formulate a Dynamic Hypothesis capturing the endogenous feedbacks driving acequia community vitality. Development of the model centered on major stock-and-flow components, including linkages for hydrology, ecology, community, and economics. Calibration metrics were used for model evaluation, including statistical correlation of observed and predicted values and Theil inequality statistics. Results indicated that the model reproduced trends exhibited by the observed system. Sensitivity analyses of socio-cultural processes identified absentee decisions, cumulative income effect on time in agriculture, and land use preference due to time allocation, community demographic effect, effect of employment on participation, and farm size effect as key determinants of system behavior and response. Sensitivity analyses of biophysical parameters revealed that several key parameters (e.g., acres per

  8. PPN-limit of Fourth Order Gravity inspired by Scalar-Tensor Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Capozziello, S.; Troisi, A.

    2005-01-01

    Based on the {\\it dynamical} equivalence between higher order gravity and scalar-tensor gravity the PPN-limit of fourth order gravity is discussed. We exploit this analogy developing a fourth order gravity version of the Eddington PPN-parameters. As a result, Solar System experiments can be reconciled with higher order gravity, if physical constraints descending from experiments are fulfilled.

  9. to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in Zuru, Northern Guinea

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSN 0794-5698. Response of Onion (Allium cepa L.) to Irrigation Intervals and Plant Density in ... The treatments were laid out in a split plot design with three replications. Irrigation ..... System and Agronomic Practice in. Tropical Climates.

  10. Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low Cost Constant – Head Drip Irrigation Emitter for Climate Change Adaptation in Nigeria: Engineering Design and Calibration. ... The drip system comprises of abarrel, sub-main line, lateral lines, tubes and emitters, it can irrigate140 crop ...

  11. Is the Revitalisation of Smallholder Irrigation Schemes (RESIS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2013-09-30

    Sep 30, 2013 ... including rainwater harvesting, flood recession, flood water spreading, river ... Smallholder irrigation systems can comprise farmers who use shared or ...... on Irrigation and Drainage, 15-17 November 2006, Aventura. Swadini.

  12. Economic Analysis of Crop Production under Jibiya Irrigation Project ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Majority of the farmers were married and can read and write. Most of ... The performance of the farmers, though ... holder irrigation dependent on the shadoof system of lifting water as .... implies that in Jibiya Irrigation Project, women were not.

  13. Synergistic action of gravity and temperature on the motor system within the lifespan: a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meigal, Alexander Yu

    2013-03-01

    Here we describe GATO (gravity, age, thermoregulation, and oxygenation) hypothesis (or a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis) which we suggest to explain synergistic effect of these factors on the motor system. Taken separately, microgravity (in spaceflight, G~0), the early age, heat and hypoxia exert identical effect on the motor system. We posit that synergy of these factors originate from their synchronicity during intrauterine immersion (analog microgravity) of the fetus in warm hypoxic condition. We further postulate three successive motor adaptive strategies, driven lifelong by gravity as the key factor. The first by age, fetal/microgravity (FM)-strategy, induced by the intrauterine immersion of the fetus, is based on domination of fast type muscle fibers. After birth, thought to be analog for landing from orbit, newborn is subjected to combined influence of cooler ambient temperature, normoxia, and 1G Earth gravity, which cooperatively form a slower GE-strategy. Eventually, healthy ageing results in further domination of slow type muscle fibers that forms the slowest (SL)-strategy. Our hypothesis implies that specific sensory conditions may substitute for each other owing to their synergistic action on the motor system. According to GATO hypothesis heating and hypoxia may be considered as "pro-microgravity" factors, while cold and hyperoxia - as "pro-gravity" ones. As such, cold may act as a partial "surrogate" for gravity, estimated as ~0.2G. That may have potential to elaborate countermeasures for muscle atrophy in astronauts either on-board in long-term spaceflight or for post-flight rehabilitation. Based on GATO hypothesis, predictions on muscle remodeling caused by illumination, sound/noise, and gravidity are discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Near-surface gravity actuated pipe (GAP{sup TM}) system for Brazilian deepwater fluid transfer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fromage, Lionel; Brown, Paul A. [SBM Offshore (Monaco)

    2009-12-19

    The recent discovery of new deep water and ultra-deep water oil and gas fields offshore Brazil, including pre-salt reservoirs, has become a focal point for field development Operators and Contractors. The aggressive nature of fluids (sour, high density) in combination with deeper waters implies potential flow assurance issues. These issues challenge riser and pipeline technology to find cost effective solutions for hydrocarbon fluid transfer in field development scenarios involving phased tied-back. The near-surface GAP{sup TM}, system (Gravity Actuated Pipe{sup TM}), which has been in operation for more than two years on the Kikeh field offshore Malaysia in 1325 m of water between a Dry Tree Unit (SPAR) and a turret-moored FPSO, is considered to meet these challenges since such a product is quasi independent of water depth and takes advantage of being near surface to optimize flow assurance. Furthermore the GAP{sup TM} has undergone technical upgrades when compared to the Kikeh project in order to make it suitable for the more hostile met ocean conditions offshore Brazil. This paper presents the design features, the construction and assembly plans in Brazil and the offshore installation of a GAP fluid transfer system for operation in Brazilian deep waters. (author)

  15. Optimum Design of Gravity Retaining Walls Using Charged System Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Talatahari

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study focuses on the optimum design retaining walls, as one of the familiar types of the retaining walls which may be constructed of stone masonry, unreinforced concrete, or reinforced concrete. The material cost is one of the major factors in the construction of gravity retaining walls therefore, minimizing the weight or volume of these systems can reduce the cost. To obtain an optimal seismic design of such structures, this paper proposes a method based on a novel meta-heuristic algorithm. The algorithm is inspired by the Coulomb's and Gauss’s laws of electrostatics in physics, and it is called charged system search (CSS. In order to evaluate the efficiency of this algorithm, an example is utilized. Comparing the results of the retaining wall designs obtained by the other methods illustrates a good performance of the CSS. In this paper, we used the Mononobe-Okabe method which is one of the pseudostatic approaches to determine the dynamic earth pressure.

  16. Timing system design and tests for the Gravity Probe B relativity mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, J; Keiser, G M; Ohshima, Y; Shestople, P; Lockhart, J M

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the timing system design and tests for the NASA/Stanford Gravity Probe B (GP-B) relativity mission. The primary clock of GP-B, called the 16f o clock, was an oven-controlled crystal oscillator that produced a 16.368 MHz master frequency 3 . The 16f o clock and the 10 Hz data strobe, which was divided down from the 16f o clock, provided clock signals to all GP-B components and synchronized the data collection, transmission, and processing. The sampled data of science signals were stamped with the vehicle time, a counter of the 10 Hz data strobe. The time latency between the time of data sampling and the stamped vehicle time was compensated in the ground data processing. Two redundant global positioning system receivers onboard the GP-B satellite supplied an external reference for time transfer between the vehicle time and coordinated universal time (UTC), and the time conversion was established in the ground preprocessing of the telemetry timing data. The space flight operation showed that the error of time conversion between the vehicle time and UTC was less than 2 μs. Considering that the constant timing offsets were compensated in the ground processing of the GP-B science data, the time latency between the effective sampling time of GP-B science signals and the stamped vehicle time was verified to within 1 ms in the ground tests. (paper)

  17. Estimating thermal maturity in the Eagle Ford Shale petroleum system using gas gravity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birdwell, Justin E.; Kinney, Scott A.

    2017-01-01

    Basin-wide datasets that provide information on the geochemical properties of petroleum systems, such as source rock quality, product composition, and thermal maturity, are often difficult to come by or assemble from publically available data. When published studies are available and include these kinds of properties, they generally have few sampling locations and limited numbers and types of analyses. Therefore, production-related data and engineering parameters can provide useful proxies for geochemical properties that are often widely available across a play and in some states are reported in publically available or commercial databases. Gas-oil ratios (GOR) can be calculated from instantaneous or cumulative production data and can be related to the source rock geochemical properties like kerogen type (Lewan and Henry, 1999) and thermal maturity (Tian et al., 2013; U.S. Energy Information Administration [EIA], 2014). Oil density or specific gravity (SG), often reported in American Petroleum Institute units (°API = 141.5 /SG – 131.5), can also provide information on source rock thermal maturity, particularly when combined with GOR values in unconventional petroleum systems (Nesheim, 2017).

  18. Cierny-Mader Type III chronic osteomyelitis: the results of patients treated with debridement, irrigation, vancomycin beads and systemic antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaduman, Mert

    2007-01-01

    Cierny-Mader (C-M) Type III osteomyelitis is defined as a localised lesion with both medullary and cortical involvement that is stable mechanically after debridement. The treatment of C-M Type III osteomyelitisis is difficult and requires a precise protocol to achieve a disease-free long-term follow-up. We report here the results of our study on 26 patients (19 men and 7 women; average age: 34.7 years) with C-M Type III osteomylelitis who were treated with radical debridement, irrigation, vancomycin-impregnated custom-made beads and culture-specific systemic antibiotics. Those patients with metaphyseal involvement were treated with deroofing of the cortex and debridement by means of a “trough” (16 patients); those with diaphyseal involvement were treated with both intramedullary reaming and debridement from a trough (ten patients). Antibiotic cement rods were used as an additional therapy in five patients with diaphyseal involvement. Recurrence developed in three patients and was attributed to inadequate debridement; all three patients were treated again in the same manner with success. The mean follow-up is currently 3.6 years (range: 2–6 years). All of the patients have normal clinical, radiographic and laboratory parameters, and all are ambulatory and have returned to their pretreatment level of activity or better. We conclude that C-M Type III chronic osteomyelitis can be safely treated with this protocol. PMID:17375299

  19. Analysis of Barriers against Wheat Farmers' Participation in the Formation of Water Users Association: the Case of Dez Irrigation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ali pazhuhan

    2016-11-01

    The present study was aimed at analyzing the barriers against wheat farmers' participation in the formation of water users association within the framework of a descriptive survey. The sample of this study included 375 wheat farmers in Dez irrigation system who were selected through random cluster sampling and were studied through a questionnaire. The reliability index of this questionnaire was estimated to be 0.89. The content validity of the questionnaire was confirmed by the experts and scholars in the field. After the participants filled the questionnaires and the data were collected, the SPSS software package was used to analyze the data. In addition, the results of factor analysis related to the items of barriers led to the extraction of four barriers. These barriers, in order of importance, include the lack of proper infrastructures and economic facilities, social barriers, inadequate structural characteristics and lack of risk-taking, local organizations and lack of attention to extension activities that explain 60.78 percent of the variance of all the barriers.

  20. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaib Jadoon, Khan; Umer Altaf, Muhammad; McCabe, Matthew Francis; Hoteit, Ibrahim; Muhammad, Nisar; Moghadas, Davood; Weihermüller, Lutz

    2017-10-01

    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  1. Technical- and environmental-efficiency analysis of irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab, Pakistan using data envelopment analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ullah, Asmat; Perret, Sylvain R

    2014-08-01

    Cotton cropping in Pakistan uses substantial quantities of resources and adversely affects the environment with pollutants from the inputs, particularly pesticides. A question remains regarding to what extent the reduction of such environmental impact is possible without compromising the farmers' income. This paper investigates the environmental, technical, and economic performances of selected irrigated cotton-cropping systems in Punjab to quantify the sustainability of cotton farming and reveal options for improvement. Using mostly primary data, our study quantifies the technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies of different farm sizes. A set of indicators has been computed to reflect these three domains of efficiency using the data envelopment analysis technique. The results indicate that farmers are broadly environmentally inefficient; which primarily results from poor technical inefficiency. Based on an improved input mix, the average potential environmental impact reduction for small, medium, and large farms is 9, 13, and 11 %, respectively, without compromising the economic return. Moreover, the differences in technical, cost, and environmental efficiencies between small and medium and small and large farm sizes were statistically significant. The second-stage regression analysis identifies that the entire farm size significantly affects the efficiencies, whereas exposure to extension and training has positive effects, and the sowing methods significantly affect the technical and environmental efficiencies. Paradoxically, the formal education level is determined to affect the efficiencies negatively. This paper discusses policy interventions that can improve the technical efficiency to ultimately increase the environmental efficiency and reduce the farmers' operating costs.

  2. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Z. Jadoon

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell's equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  3. Inferring soil salinity in a drip irrigation system from multi-configuration EMI measurements using adaptive Markov chain Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Jadoon, Khan Zaib

    2017-10-26

    A substantial interpretation of electromagnetic induction (EMI) measurements requires quantifying optimal model parameters and uncertainty of a nonlinear inverse problem. For this purpose, an adaptive Bayesian Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) algorithm is used to assess multi-orientation and multi-offset EMI measurements in an agriculture field with non-saline and saline soil. In MCMC the posterior distribution is computed using Bayes\\' rule. The electromagnetic forward model based on the full solution of Maxwell\\'s equations was used to simulate the apparent electrical conductivity measured with the configurations of EMI instrument, the CMD Mini-Explorer. Uncertainty in the parameters for the three-layered earth model are investigated by using synthetic data. Our results show that in the scenario of non-saline soil, the parameters of layer thickness as compared to layers electrical conductivity are not very informative and are therefore difficult to resolve. Application of the proposed MCMC-based inversion to field measurements in a drip irrigation system demonstrates that the parameters of the model can be well estimated for the saline soil as compared to the non-saline soil, and provides useful insight about parameter uncertainty for the assessment of the model outputs.

  4. Comparison and analysis of empirical equations for soil heat flux for different cropping systems and irrigation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irmak, A.; Singh, Ramesh K.; Walter-Shea, Elizabeth; Verma, S.B.; Suyker, A.E.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of four models for estimating soil heat flux density (G) in maize (Zea mays L.) and soybean (Glycine max L.) fields under different irrigation methods (center-pivot irrigated fields at Mead, Nebraska, and subsurface drip irrigated field at Clay Center, Nebraska) and rainfed conditions at Mead. The model estimates were compared against measurements made during growing seasons of 2003, 2004, and 2005 at Mead and during 2005, 2006, and 2007 at Clay Center. We observed a strong relationship between the G and net radiation (Rn) ratio (G/Rn) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). When a significant portion of the ground was bare soil, G/Rn ranged from 0.15 to 0.30 and decreased with increasing NDVI. In contrast to the NDVI progression, the G/Rn ratio decreased with crop growth and development. The G/Rn ratio for subsurface drip irrigated crops was smaller than for the center-pivot irrigated crops. The seasonal average G was 13.1%, 15.2%, 10.9%, and 12.8% of Rn for irrigated maize, rainfed maize, irrigated soybean, and rainfed soybean, respectively. Statistical analyses of the performance of the four models showed a wide range of variation in G estimation. The root mean square error (RMSE) of predictions ranged from 15 to 81.3 W m-2. Based on the wide range of RMSE, it is recommended that local calibration of the models should be carried out for remote estimation of soil heat flux.

  5. The AFGL (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) Absolute Gravity Measuring System. A Final Report and Operating/Maintenance Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-28

    Acceleration of Gravit , Ph. D. Thesis, Princeton University, Prion, NJ 12,"% %% %. LA -T of the reflectors is dropped and the number of optical fringes is...system which, as described in Reference 9, is a Chamber -Within -A -Chamber direct free-fall system; and the Istituto de Metrologia "G. Colonnetti" (IMGC...Report, AD No. 783313, Martin Marietta Aerospace, Orlando, la 4. Faller, J. E. (1967) The precision measurement of the acceleration of gravity, Science

  6. Evaluation of potential water conservation using site-specific irrigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    With the advent of site-specific variable-rate irrigation (VRI) systems, irrigation can be spatially managed within sub-field-sized zones. Spatial irrigation management can optimize spatial water use efficiency and may conserve water. Spatial VRI systems are currently being managed by consultants ...

  7. Limited irrigation research and infrared thermometry for detecting water stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    The USDA-ARS Limited Irrigation Research Farm, located outside of Greeley Colorado, is an experiment evaluating management perspectives of limited irrigation water. An overview of the farm systems is shown, including drip irrigation systems, water budgeting, and experimental design, as well as preli...

  8. Modelling the economic trade-offs of irrigation pipeline investments ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Soil Water Irrigation Planning and Energy Management (SWIP-E) mathematical programming model was developed and applied in this paper to provide decision support regarding the optimal mainline pipe diameter, irrigation system delivery capacity and size of the irrigation system. SWIP-E unifies the interrelated ...

  9. Conformal Gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hooft, G.

    2012-01-01

    The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)

  10. Multi-Sensor Calibration of Low-Cost Magnetic, Angular Rate and Gravity Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Lüken

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a new calibration procedure for low-cost nine degrees-of-freedom (9DOF magnetic, angular rate and gravity (MARG sensor systems, which relies on a calibration cube, a reference table and a body sensor network (BSN. The 9DOF MARG sensor is part of our recently-developed “Integrated Posture and Activity Network by Medit Aachen” (IPANEMA BSN. The advantage of this new approach is the use of the calibration cube, which allows for easy integration of two sensor nodes of the IPANEMA BSN. One 9DOF MARG sensor node is thereby used for calibration; the second 9DOF MARG sensor node is used for reference measurements. A novel algorithm uses these measurements to further improve the performance of the calibration procedure by processing arbitrarily-executed motions. In addition, the calibration routine can be used in an alignment procedure to minimize errors in the orientation between the 9DOF MARG sensor system and a motion capture inertial reference system. A two-stage experimental study is conducted to underline the performance of our calibration procedure. In both stages of the proposed calibration procedure, the BSN data, as well as reference tracking data are recorded. In the first stage, the mean values of all sensor outputs are determined as the absolute measurement offset to minimize integration errors in the derived movement model of the corresponding body segment. The second stage deals with the dynamic characteristics of the measurement system where the dynamic deviation of the sensor output compared to a reference system is Sensors 2015, 15 25920 corrected. In practical validation experiments, this procedure showed promising results with a maximum RMS error of 3.89°.

  11. Multi-sensor calibration of low-cost magnetic, angular rate and gravity systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüken, Markus; Misgeld, Berno J E; Rüschen, Daniel; Leonhardt, Steffen

    2015-10-13

    We present a new calibration procedure for low-cost nine degrees-of-freedom (9DOF) magnetic, angular rate and gravity (MARG) sensor systems, which relies on a calibration cube, a reference table and a body sensor network (BSN). The 9DOF MARG sensor is part of our recently-developed "Integrated Posture and Activity Network by Medit Aachen" (IPANEMA) BSN. The advantage of this new approach is the use of the calibration cube, which allows for easy integration of two sensor nodes of the IPANEMA BSN. One 9DOF MARG sensor node is thereby used for calibration; the second 9DOF MARG sensor node is used for reference measurements. A novel algorithm uses these measurements to further improve the performance of the calibration procedure by processing arbitrarily-executed motions. In addition, the calibration routine can be used in an alignment procedure to minimize errors in the orientation between the 9DOF MARG sensor system and a motion capture inertial reference system. A two-stage experimental study is conducted to underline the performance of our calibration procedure. In both stages of the proposed calibration procedure, the BSN data, as well as reference tracking data are recorded. In the first stage, the mean values of all sensor outputs are determined as the absolute measurement offset to minimize integration errors in the derived movement model of the corresponding body segment. The second stage deals with the dynamic characteristics of the measurement system where the dynamic deviation of the sensor output compared to a reference system is Sensors 2015, 15 25920 corrected. In practical validation experiments, this procedure showed promising results with a maximum RMS error of 3.89°.

  12. Ghana - Agriculture - Irrigation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The Millennium Development Authority (MiDA) financed the construction of a new irrigation scheme in Kpong and the renovation of two irrigation schemes in Botanga and...

  13. Solar and wind systems utilization in water pumping for irrigation; Utilizacao de sistemas solar e eolico no bombeamento de agua para uso na irrigacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nogueira, Cicero Urbanetto

    2009-07-01

    In this work, it was made an applied research in two stations, the first one located at Canabarro locality and the second one at Polytechnic School at UFSM, in Santa Maria city, RS, with wind and photovoltaic equipment for pumping water. These ones are used for fruit trees irrigation in irrigation systems of low pressure. The research work was developed from September 2007 to August 2009, when the results showed the viability of wind and photovoltaic equipment for utilization in the complementary irrigation in fruit cultures such as guava, fig and grape trees. In the fruit culture sector, are installed: one multivane fans wind indicator one savonius wind indicator and respective pumps as well as pump set and a photovoltaic board. With the photovoltaic system, the pumped volume was about 5000 m{sup 3}/ha and, with the wind system, the pumped volume was approximately 6m{sup 3}/ha. The wind groups demonstrated low efficiency, if compared to photovoltaic systems, which showed more efficient. (author)

  14. Asymptotic safety of higher derivative quantum gravity non-minimally coupled with a matter system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamada, Yuta; Yamada, Masatoshi

    2017-08-01

    We study asymptotic safety of models of the higher derivative quantum gravity with and without matter. The beta functions are derived by utilizing the functional renormalization group, and non-trivial fixed points are found. It turns out that all couplings in gravity sector, namely the cosmological constant, the Newton constant, and the R 2 and R μν 2 coupling constants, are relevant in case of higher derivative pure gravity. For the Higgs-Yukawa model non-minimal coupled with higher derivative gravity, we find a stable fixed point at which the scalar-quartic and the Yukawa coupling constants become relevant. The relevant Yukawa coupling is crucial to realize the finite value of the Yukawa coupling constants in the standard model.

  15. Insights into the Earth System mass variability from CSR-RL05 GRACE gravity fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettadpur, S.

    2012-04-01

    The next-generation Release-05 GRACE gravity field data products are the result of extensive effort applied to the improvements to the GRACE Level-1 (tracking) data products, and to improvements in the background gravity models and processing methodology. As a result, the squared-error upper-bound in RL05 fields is half or less than the squared-error upper-bound in RL04 fields. The CSR-RL05 field release consists of unconstrained gravity fields as well as a regularized gravity field time-series that can be used for several applications without any post-processing error reduction. This paper will describe the background and the nature of these improvements in the data products, and provide an error characterization. We will describe the insights these new series offer in measuring the mass flux due to diverse Hydrologic, Oceanographic and Cryospheric processes.

  16. Avaliação da uniformidade de aplicação de água em um sistema de gotejamento para pequenas propriedades Uniformity of water application for a drip irrigation system to small farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Marcelo Silva do Nascimento

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O uso de sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento à baixa pressão tem como objetivo oferecer uma técnica de irrigação viável para pequenas propriedades. Foram dimensionados oito sistemas de irrigação, um com os seguintes acessórios: 210 metros de tubo gotejador com diâmetro interno (DI de 10,4 mm, sete conectores de 12 mm, e seis metros de tubo de polietileno, um adaptador para tubo de polietileno, uma curva de 90º e três metros de tubo de PVC com DI igual a 20,6 mm. Quatro sistemas foram montados com um filtro de tela de 130 μm e os demais com um filtro de disco de 200 μm. Em todos os sistemas foram utilizados um reservatório de 1 m³ localizado a 3 m acima do nível do solo. Irrigou-se 1296 m² de uma cultura de tomate, em canteiros com dimensões de 1,20 m por 60 m. Para avaliação técnica do projeto foi obtida a uniformidade de aplicação de água através do coeficiente de uniformidade de emissão (UE e coeficiente de uniformidade de distribuição (UD, durante um período de 90 dias. Os resultados indicaram que o UE e o UD foram excelentes e que os valores de grau de entupimento aumentaram com o uso da irrigação. Assim, de acordo com os resultados, comprova-se a viabilidade técnica da utilização de sistemas de irrigação por gotejamento funcionando a baixa pressão para pequenas áreas.A low pressure drip irrigation gravity feed system may be a viable technique to small farms. So, according with it, eight irrigation systems with 10.4 mm internal diameter driptubing 210 m long, seven 12 mm adapters, 20.6 mm polyethylene pipe 6 m long, polyethylene adapter, 20.6 mm 90º elbow, 20.6 mm PVC pipe 3 m long and 1 m³ water reservoir at 3 m height, were designed and assembled to irrigate 1.296 m² with tomato cultivated in 0.8 x 60 m beds. One 130 mm screen filter was used to four systems and one 200 mm disc filter for the other ones. Emission uniformity coefficients (UE and distribution uniformity coefficients (UD were

  17. Introduction of filtration systems in container nurseries for nonchemical elimination of Phytophthora spp. from irrigation water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorsten Ufer; Heinrich Beltz; Thomas Brand; Katrin Kaminski; Ralf Lüttmann; Martin Posner; Stefan Wagner; Sabine Werres; Hans-Peter Wessels

    2006-01-01

    In a 3-year project the elimination of Phytophthora spp. from the recirculation water with different kinds of filtration systems will be tested under commercial conditions in container nurseries. First results indicate that the filtration systems eliminate Phytophthora spp. from the water.

  18. Root canal irrigants

    OpenAIRE

    Kandaswamy, Deivanayagam; Venkateshbabu, Nagendrababu

    2010-01-01

    Successful root canal therapy relies on the combination of proper instrumentation, irrigation, and obturation of the root canal. Of these three essential steps of root canal therapy, irrigation of the root canal is the most important determinant in the healing of the periapical tissues. The primary endodontic treatment goal must thus be to optimize root canal disinfection and to prevent reinfection. In this review of the literature, various irrigants and the interactions between irrigants are...

  19. Evaluation of conventional, protaper hand and protaper rotary instrumentation system for apical extrusion of debris, irrigants and bacteria- An in vitro randomized trial

    OpenAIRE

    Kalra, Pinky; Rao, Arathi; Suman, Ethel; Shenoy, Ramya; Suprabha, Baranya-Shrikrishna

    2017-01-01

    Background Endodontic instrumentation carries the risk of over extrusion of debris and bacteria. The technique used and the type of instrumentation influences this risk. Aim The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the K-file, ProTaper hand and ProTaper rotary instrumentation systems for the amount of apically extruded debris, irrigant solution and intracanal bacteria. Design Experimental single blinded randomized type of in vitro study with sample of 30 single rooted teeth. Endo...

  20. Location Accuracy of INS/Gravity-Integrated Navigation System on the Basis of Ocean Experiment and Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hubiao; Wu, Lin; Chai, Hua; Bao, Lifeng; Wang, Yong

    2017-12-20

    An experiment comparing the location accuracy of gravity matching-aided navigation in the ocean and simulation is very important to evaluate the feasibility and the performance of an INS/gravity-integrated navigation system (IGNS) in underwater navigation. Based on a 1' × 1' marine gravity anomaly reference map and multi-model adaptive Kalman filtering algorithm, a matching location experiment of IGNS was conducted using data obtained using marine gravimeter. The location accuracy under actual ocean conditions was 2.83 nautical miles (n miles). Several groups of simulated data of marine gravity anomalies were obtained by establishing normally distributed random error N ( u , σ 2 ) with varying mean u and noise variance σ 2 . Thereafter, the matching location of IGNS was simulated. The results show that the changes in u had little effect on the location accuracy. However, an increase in σ 2 resulted in a significant decrease in the location accuracy. A comparison between the actual ocean experiment and the simulation along the same route demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed simulation method and quantitative analysis results. In addition, given the gravimeter (1-2 mGal accuracy) and the reference map (resolution 1' × 1'; accuracy 3-8 mGal), location accuracy of IGNS was up to reach ~1.0-3.0 n miles in the South China Sea.

  1. Implementing the Prepaid Smart Meter System for Irrigated Groundwater Production in Northern China: Status and Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaowei Wang; Jingli Shao; Frank van Steenbergen; Qiulan Zhang

    2017-01-01

    To reduce the gap between groundwater demand and supply caused by agricultural groundwater over-exploitation, the Prepaid Smart Meter System (PSMS) is being strongly implemented by the Chinese government in northern China. This study reports the analysis and results of PSMS field surveys in six typical provinces in northern China as well as domestic literature reviews. Based on the architecture and implementation policies of the system, the implementation differences between areas and the inf...

  2. Evaluation of hazardous metal pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems in the vicinity of a coal mine area of northwestern Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhuiyan, Mohammad A H; Islam, M A; Dampare, Samuel B; Parvez, Lutfar; Suzuki, Shigeyuki

    2010-07-15

    An integrated approach of pollution evaluation indices, principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) was employed to evaluate the intensity and sources of pollution in irrigation and drinking water systems of northwestern Bangladesh. Temperature, BOD, chemical oxygen demand (COD), Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu and Pb levels in most of the water samples exceed the Bangladesh and international standards. The heavy metal pollution index (HPI) and degree of contamination (C(d)) yield different results despite significant correlations between them. The heavy metal evaluation index (HEI) shows strong correlations with HPI and C(d), and gives a better assessment of pollution levels. Modifications to the existing HPI and C(d) schemes show comparable results with HEI, and indicate that about 55% of the mine drainage/irrigation waters and 50% of the groundwaters are moderately to highly contaminated. The CA, PCA and pollution indices suggest that the mine drainage water (DW) is contaminated by anthropogenic (mining operation and agrogenic) sources, and the proximal parts are more contaminated than the distal part. The groundwater system in the vicinity of the coal mine site is also heavily polluted by anthropogenic sources. The pollution status of irrigation and drinking water systems in the study area are of great environmental and health concerns. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. A Universal Velocity Dispersion Profile for Pressure Supported Systems: Evidence for MONDian Gravity across Seven Orders of Magnitude in Mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durazo, R.; Hernandez, X.; Sánchez, S. F. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264 C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Sodi, B. Cervantes [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)

    2017-03-10

    For any MONDian extended theory of gravity where the rotation curves of spiral galaxies are explained through a change in physics rather than the hypothesis of dark matter, a generic dynamical behavior is expected for pressure supported systems: an outer flattening of the velocity dispersion profile occurring at a characteristic radius, where both the amplitude of this flat velocity dispersion and the radius at which it appears are predicted to show distinct scalings with the total mass of the system. By carefully analyzing the dynamics of globular clusters and elliptical galaxies, we are able to significantly extend the astronomical diversity of objects in which MONDian gravity has been tested, from spiral galaxies to the much larger mass range covered by pressure supported systems. We show that a universal projected velocity dispersion profile accurately describes various classes of pressure supported systems, and further, that the expectations of extended gravity are met across seven orders of magnitude in mass. These observed scalings are not expected under dark matter cosmology, and would require particular explanations tuned at the scales of each distinct astrophysical system.

  4. Syringe irrigation: blending endodontics and fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boutsioukis, C.; van der Sluis, L.W.M.; Basrani, B.

    2015-01-01

    Syringe irrigation remains a widely used irrigant delivery method during root canal treatment. An interdisciplinary approach involving well-established methods from the field of fluid dynamics can provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in cleaning and disinfection of the root canal system

  5. Recent progress in mesospheric gravity wave studies using nightglow imaging system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Michael J.; Pendleton Junior, William R.; Pautet, Pierre-Dominique; Zhao, Yucheng; Olsen, Chris; Babu, Hema Karnam Surendra [Center for Atmospheric and Space Sciences, Utah State University, Logan, Utah (United States); Medeiros, Amauri F. [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Centro de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Unidade Academica de Fisica, Campina Grande, PB (Brazil); Takahashi, Hisao, E-mail: mtaylor@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: wpen@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: dominiquepautet@gmail.com, E-mail: yucheng@cc.usu.edu, E-mail: cmellob@gmail.com, E-mail: hema_sb@rediffmail.com, E-mail: afragoso@df.ufcg.edu.br, E-mail: hisaotak@laser.inpe.br [INPE, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil)

    2007-07-01

    A variety of optical remote sensing techniques have now revealed a rich spectrum of wave activity in the upper atmosphere. Many of these perturbations, with periodicities ranging from {approx} 5 min to many hours and horizontal scales of a few tens of km to several thousands km, are due to freely propagating atmospheric gravity waves and forced tidal oscillations. Passive optical observations of the spatial and temporal characteristics of these waves in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere (MLT) region ( {approx} 80-100 km) are facilitated by several naturally occurring, vertically distinct nightglow layers. This paper describes the use of state-of-the-art ground-based CCD imaging techniques to detect these waves in intensity and temperature. All-sky (180 deg ) image measurements are used to illustrate the characteristics of small-scale, short period ( < 1 hour) waves and to investigate their seasonal propagation and momentum impact on the MLT region. These results are then contrasted with measurements of mesospheric temperature made using a new temperature mapping imaging system capable of determining induced temperature amplitudes of a large range of wave motions and investigating night-to-night and seasonal variability in mesospheric temperature. (author)

  6. Inertia–gravity wave radiation from the elliptical vortex in the f -plane shallow water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimoto, Norihiko, E-mail: nori@phys-h.keio.ac.jp [Research and Education Center for Natural Sciences, Department of Physics, Keio University, 4-1-1 Hiyoshi, Kouhoku-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 223-8521 (Japan)

    2017-04-15

    Inertia–gravity wave (IGW) radiation from the elliptical vortex is investigated in the f -plane shallow water system. The far field of IGW is analytically derived for the case of an almost circular Kirchhoff vortex with a small aspect ratio. Cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry appears at finite values of the Rossby number (Ro) caused by the source originating in the Coriolis acceleration. While the intensity of IGWs from the cyclone monotonically decreases as f increases, that from the anticyclone increases as f increases for relatively smaller f and has a local maximum at intermediate f . A numerical experiment is conducted on a model using a spectral method in an unbounded domain. The numerical results agree quite well with the analytical ones for elliptical vortices with small aspect ratios, implying that the derived analytical forms are useful for the verification of the numerical model. For elliptical vortices with larger aspect ratios, however, significant deviation from the analytical estimates appears. The intensity of IGWs radiated in the numerical simulation is larger than that estimated analytically. The reason is that the source of IGWs is amplified during the time evolution because the shape of the vortex changes from ideal ellipse to elongated with filaments. Nevertheless, cyclone–anticyclone asymmetry similar to the analytical estimate appears in all the range of aspect ratios, suggesting that this asymmetry is a robust feature. (paper)

  7. High-resolution simulations of unstable cylindrical gravity currents undergoing wandering and splitting motions in a rotating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Albert; Wu, Ching-Sen

    2018-02-01

    High-resolution simulations of unstable cylindrical gravity currents when wandering and splitting motions occur in a rotating system are reported. In this study, our attention is focused on the situation of unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents when the ratio of Coriolis to inertia forces is larger, namely, 0.5 ≤ C ≤ 2.0, in comparison to the stable ones when C ≤ 0.3 as investigated previously by the authors. The simulations reproduce the major features of the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents observed in the laboratory, i.e., vortex-wandering or vortex-splitting following the contraction-relaxation motion, and good agreement is found when compared with the experimental results on the outrush radius of the advancing front and on the number of bulges. Furthermore, the simulations provide energy budget information which could not be attained in the laboratory. After the heavy fluid is released, the heavy fluid collapses and a contraction-relaxation motion is at work for approximately 2-3 revolutions of the system. During the contraction-relaxation motion of the heavy fluid, the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents behave similar to the stable ones. Towards the end of the contraction-relaxation motion, the dissipation rate in the system reaches a local minimum and a quasi-geostrophic equilibrium state is reached. After the quasi-geostrophic equilibrium state, vortex-wandering or vortex-splitting may occur depending on the ratio of Coriolis to inertia forces. The vortex-splitting process begins with non-axisymmetric bulges and, as the bulges grow, the kinetic energy increases at the expense of decreasing potential energy in the system. The completion of vortex-splitting is accompanied by a local maximum of dissipation rate and a local maximum of kinetic energy in the system. A striking feature of the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents is the persistent upwelling and downwelling motions, which are observed for both the

  8. Use of 15N methodology to assess urea use efficiency under different nitrogen levels in fertigation system and comparison with furrow irrigation on tomato

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mousavi Shalmani, M. A.; Sagheb, N.; Hobbi, M.S.; Teimoori, S.; Khorasani, A.; Piervali, N.

    2003-01-01

    In order to determine a suitable level of nitrogen fertilizer for simultaneous increasing the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency and the yield production under the trickle fertigation system in comparison with the furrow irrigation, an experimental design was conducted in a randomized complete block with five treatments and four replications in plots of 35 square meters area. The treatments of N 0 , N 1 , N 2 and N 3 received 0, 100, 150 and 200 mg N/lit, respectively under the trickle fertigation, and for the treatment of Ns the amount of fertilizer were equal to N 2 but under the furrow irrigation system. Fertilization and irrigation were performed by means of two fertigator pumps (one for urea and the other for ammonium phosphate and potassium sulfate) . In order to determine the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency, six plants in the middle of each plot received 15 N labeled urea (isotopic form of 14 N) through plastic containers. Irrigation schedule and soil moisture monitoring were performed by means of a neutron gauge. The results showed that in spite of increasing the nitrogen levels in the fertigation system, the nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency decreases. In this respect, the treatment of N 1 could absorb %54 of nitrogen fertilizer which indicated that the highest fertilizer use efficiency under the current design condition and the final nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency for N 2 and N 3 treatments are %39 and %31, respectively. In addition, the traditional treatment (Ns), with %83 losses of nitrogen had the lowest rate of fertilizer use efficiency

  9. Problems of Participation and Issues of Sustainability in the Public Irrigation System in the Context of Management Transfer: Some Sociological Observations from Eastern Terai, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laya Prasad Uprety

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available It has been ascertained that participatory processes did not involve learning component from both agency and water users’ association for institutional and technical sustainability. The overall process of participation was superficial. There was a need of participation that underscored the empowerment of WUA with accountability. As Vermillion (2005 shares that empowerment with partnership is an emergent institutional paradigm for the irrigation sector development that places water users in the role of irrigation system governance, and government in the roles of regulator and provider of support services. There is a need to re-train the irrigation staff on the emergent institutional paradigm to empower the water users. For the empowerment with accountability, water users are to be provided enough institutional strengthening. There is the need to promote user-agency relationship positively and develop faith and confidence of the users and agency in the regime of transparency. Social scientists point out potential benefits of building successful local organizations. These benefits, for the local people, are in aspects such as empowerment, confidence-building, forming social capital, and reduction of dependency. Given the fact that participation is a process, it cannot be achieved in a short span of time with little institutional inputs. Sustainability of the management transferred irrigation systems/sub-systems definitely hinges on the broad-based and inclusive participatory processes. Keywords: participation; sustainability; management transfer; social capital and empowerment DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4512 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.41-64

  10. Integrating Unified Gravity Wave Physics into the NOAA Next Generation Global Prediction System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, J. C.; Yudin, V.; Fuller-Rowell, T. J.; Akmaev, R. A.

    2017-12-01

    The Unified Gravity Wave Physics (UGWP) project for the Next Generation Global Prediction System (NGGPS) is a NOAA collaborative effort between the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP), Environemntal Modeling Center (EMC) and the University of Colorado, Cooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences (CU-CIRES) to support upgrades and improvements of GW dynamics (resolved scales) and physics (sub-grid scales) in the NOAA Environmental Modeling System (NEMS)†. As envisioned the global climate, weather and space weather models of NEMS will substantially improve their predictions and forecasts with the resolution-sensitive (scale-aware) formulations planned under the UGWP framework for both orographic and non-stationary waves. In particular, the planned improvements for the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of NEMS are: calibration of model physics for higher vertical and horizontal resolution and an extended vertical range of simulations, upgrades to GW schemes, including the turbulent heating and eddy mixing due to wave dissipation and breaking, and representation of the internally-generated QBO. The main priority of the UGWP project is unified parameterization of orographic and non-orographic GW effects including momentum deposition in the middle atmosphere and turbulent heating and eddies due to wave dissipation and breaking. The latter effects are not currently represented in NOAA atmosphere models. The team has tested and evaluated four candidate GW solvers integrating the selected GW schemes into the NGGPS model. Our current work and planned activity is to implement the UGWP schemes in the first available GFS/FV3 (open FV3) configuration including adapted GFDL modification for sub-grid orography in GFS. Initial global model results will be shown for the operational and research GFS configuration for spectral and FV3 dynamical cores. †http://www.emc.ncep.noaa.gov/index.php?branch=NEMS

  11. DC electrostatic gyro suspension system for the Gravity Probe B experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chang-Huei

    1994-12-01

    The Gravity Probe B experiment is a satellite-based experiment primarily designed to test two aspects of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity by observing the spin axis drift of near-perfect gyroscopes in a 650-km circular polar orbit. The goal of this experiment is to measure the drift angles to an accuracy of 0.3 milli-arcsec after one year in orbit. As a result, electrostatically suspended free-spinning gyroscopes operating at a very low temperature became the final choice for their ultra-low Newtonian torque-induced drift rate. The Conventional AC current-driven suspension system faces two fundamental difficulties for ground gyro testing. Field emission causes rotor charging and arcing with an imperfect electrode or rotor surfaces because the electric field intensity needed to support a solid rotor in the 1-g field is more than 107 V/m. The system not only becomes unstable at a high rotor charge, which can be more than 500 volts, but may also lose control in case of arcing. Both the high voltage AC suspension signal and the high frequency (1 MHz) signal for rotor position sensing interfere with the superconducting SQUID magnetometer for spin axis readout through inductive coupling. These problems were resolved by using DC voltage to generate a suspension force and a low frequency position sensor. In addition to the Input/Output linearization algorithm developed to remove the system nonlinearity for global stability and dynamic performance, we also minimized the electric field intensity to reduce rotor charging. Experimental results verified the desired global stability and satisfactory dynamic performance. The problem of rotor charging is virtually eliminated. More importantly, the DC system is compatible with the SQUID readout system in the Science Mission configuration. Consequently, experiments in low magnetic field at a sub-micro-gauss level for SQUID design verification and trapped flux distribution study were finally realizable in ground environment

  12. An Integrated Modeling System for Water Resource Management Under Climate Change, Socio-Economic Development and Irrigation Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    SU, Q.; Karthikeyan, R.; Lin, Y.

    2017-12-01

    Water resources across the world have been increasingly stressed in the past few decades due to the population and economic growth and climate change. Consequently, the competing use of water among agricultural, domestic and industrial sectors is expected to be increasing. In this study, the water stresses under various climate change, socio-economic development and irrigation management scenarios are predicted over the period of 2015-2050 using an integrated model, in which the changes in water supply and demand induced by climate change, socio-economic development and irrigation management are dynamically parameterized. Simulations on the case of Texas, Southwest U.S. were performed using the newly developed integrated model, showing that the water stress is projected to be elevated in 2050 over most areas of Texas, particularly at Northern and Southern Plain and metropolitan areas. Climate change represents the most pronounce factor affecting the water supply and irrigation water demand in Texas. The water supply over East Texas is largely reduced in future because of the less precipitation and higher temperature under the climate change scenario, resulting in an elevated irrigation water demand and thus a higher water stress in this region. In contrast, the severity of water shortage in West Texas would be alleviated in future because of climate change. The water shortage index over metropolitan areas would increase by 50-90% under 1.0% migration scenario, suggesting that the population growth in future could also greatly stress the water supply, especially megacities like Dallas, Houston, Austin and San Antonio. The projected increase in manufacturing water demand shows little effects on the water stress. Increasing irrigation rate exacerbates the water stress over irrigated agricultural areas of Texas.

  13. Organic blueberry production systems: management of plant nutrition, irrigation requirements, and weeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    A long-term systems trial was established to evaluate management practices for organic production of northern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). The factorial experiment included two planting bed treatments (flat and raised beds), source and rate of fertilizer (feather meal and fish emuls...

  14. Mechanical properties of electron beam welds of 316LN austenitic steels at low temperature for ITER gravity support system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, P.Y.; Huo, B.L.; Kuai, K.W.

    2007-01-01

    The gravity support system in ITER not only sustains magnet system, the vacuum vessel and in-vessel components, but also endures several large forces, such as electromagnetic force, thermal load and seismic loads. Based on the ITER design report, the maximum displacement of the gravity support system is estimated to be 32 mm in radial direction at the top flange of the flexible plates during the TF coil cool down from room temperature to 80 k. Welds are located in the peak stress region and subject to cyclic loads in the top flange is a potential problem. Therefore, the mechanical properties of the welds are extremely important for this system. 316LN austenitic stainless steel has been selected as the gravity support structure materials. However, there is still lack of the related mechanical data of the welding components of 316LN stainless steel at present. In this study, we are systematically investigated the mechanical properties of the welding components at low temperature. (authors)

  15. Improved decision-making on irrigation farming in arid zones using a system dynamics model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin de Wit

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The Sandveld region in the Western Cape is a low rainfall area dominated by agricultural production using groundwater resources. The rise in agricultural production in the Sandveld has led to questions regarding the region's ecological sustainability. We developed a system dynamics model for the Sandveld system which captures land-use change, agricultural production, and groundwater abstraction and recharge. Using this model, we find little evidence that pressures on livelihoods result, either currently or in the immediate future, from ecological feedback effects. The model does indicate that the highest risks are associated with the financial viability of agriculture, in its present form, in the region. With lower margins, a drive towards economies of scale in agricultural production is more likely in the future. This process has had severe implications in some sectors already, with a 39% decrease in the number of potato producers in the Sandveld region between 2003 and 2009. These results highlight that an integrated approach to agricultural, economic and environmental management and planning is needed to capture the economic and ecological complexity and dynamics of the Sandveld system.

  16. Water Leakage and Nitrate Leaching Characteristics in the Winter Wheat–Summer Maize Rotation System in the North China Plain under Different Irrigation and Fertilization Management Practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Chen

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out in Huantai County from 2006 to 2008 to evaluate the effects of different nitrogen (N fertilization and irrigation management practices on water leakage and nitrate leaching in the dominant wheat–maize rotation system in the North China Plain (NCP. Two N fertilization (NF1, the traditional one; NF2, fertilization based on soil testing and two irrigation (IR1, the traditional one; IR2, irrigation based on real-time soil water content monitoring management practices were designed in the experiments. Water and nitrate amounts leaving the soil layer at a depth of 2.0 m below the soil surface were calculated and compared. Results showed that the IR2 effectively reduced water leakage and nitrate leaching amounts in the two-year period, especially in the winter wheat season. Less than 10 percent irrigation water could be saved in a dry winter wheat season, but about 60 percent could be saved in a wet winter wheat season. Besides, 58.8 percent nitrate under single NF2IR1 and 85.2 percent under NF2IR2 could be prevented from leaching. The IR2 should be considered as the best management practice to save groundwater resources and prevent nitrate from leaching. The amounts of N input play a great role in affecting nitrate concentrations in the soil solutions in the winter wheat–summer maize rotation system. The NF2 significantly reduced N inputs and should be encouraged in ordinary agricultural production. Thus, nitrate leaching and groundwater contamination could be alleviated, but timely N supplement might be needed under high precipitation condition.

  17. Increase globe artichoke cropping sustainability using sub-surface drip-irrigation systems in a Mediterranean coastal area for reducing groundwater withdrawal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantino, Alberto; Marchina, Chiara; Bonari, Enrico; Fabbrizzi, Alessandro; Rossetto, Rudy

    2017-04-01

    During the last decades in coastal areas of the Mediterranean basin, human growth posed severe stresses on freshwater resources due to increasing demand by agricultural, industrial and civil activities, in particular on groundwater. This in turn led to worsening of water quality, loss/reduction of wetlands, up to soil salinization and abandonment of agricultural areas. Within the EU LIFE REWAT project a number of demonstration measures will take place in the lower Cornia valley (Livorno, Italy), both structural (pilot) and non-structural (education, dissemination and capacity building), aiming at achieving sustainable and participated water management. In particular, the five demonstration actions are related to: (1) set up of a managed aquifer recharge facility, (2) restoration of a Cornia river reach, (3) water saving in the civil water supply sector, (4) water saving in agriculture, (5) reuse of treated wastewater for irrigation purposes. Thus, the REWAT project general objective is to develop a new model of governance for sustainable development of the lower Cornia valley based on the water asset at its core. As per water use in agriculture, the lower Cornia valley is well known for the horticultural production. In this regard, globe artichoke (Cynara cardunculus L. var. scolymus L. (Fiori)) crops, a perennial cool-season vegetable, cover a surface of about 600 ha. In order to increase stability and productivity of the crop, about 2000 - 4000 m3 ha-1 yr-1 of irrigation water is required. Recent studies demonstrated that yield of different crops increases using Sub-surface Drip-Irrigation (SDI) system under high frequency irrigation management enhancing water use efficiency. In the SDI systems, the irrigation water is delivered to the plant root zone, below the soil surface by buried plastic tubes containing embedded emitters located at regular spacing. Within the LIFE REWAT, the specific objectives of the pilot on irrigation efficiency is to (i) demonstrate the

  18. [Continent colostomy and colon irrigation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, D; Temelkov, T; Kiriazov, E; Ivanov, K; Ignatov, V; Kobakov, G

    2000-01-01

    The authors have studied a functional activity of a continent colostomy at 20 patients, undergone an abdomeno-perineal extirpation of rectum and carried out periodic colonirrigations, during a period of 6 months. A conus type, closed irrigating system has been used. The degree of an incontinency at patients has been compared before and after the beginning of the colonirrigations. The irrigating procedures have reduced spontaneous defications at patients during a week 28 times and have improved the quality of life significantly. The application of colostomy bags has been restricted in 8 (40%) patients. An intraluminal ultrasonographic investigation has been done at 12 (60%) patients at the end of 6 month irrigating period. No changes of the ultrasonographic image of the precolostomic segment of colon has been observed.

  19. [Irrigants and intracanal medicaments in endodontics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zehnder, Matthias; Lehnert, Birgit; Schönenberger, Kathrin; Waltimo, Tuomas

    2003-01-01

    Modern, biologic root canal therapy should be performed with suitable irrigating solutions and intracanal medicaments. The goal of endodontic treatment is to free the treated tooth from infection and prevent reinfection as thoroughly as possible by means which do not put the organism at risk. In this review of the literature, an evidence-based concept for irrigation and medication of root canal systems is presented. Irrigants and medicaments are discussed with respect to their antimicrobial, tissue-dissolving and endotoxin-decontaminating capacity in relation to their systemic toxicity. Recent findings pertaining to interactions of root canal medicaments and irrigating solutions and their impact on a sound irrigating and medicating concept are discussed.

  20. AGROCLIMATIC DETERMINANTS OF IRRIGATION NEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leszek Łabędzki

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper is a review of the so far used in Poland methods and criteria for assessing the needs of irrigation for planning purposes, the assessment because of the agroclimatic conditions and taking into account the soil water retention. Irrigation needs of the most are determined taking into account crop water deficits. This is the factor that is characterized by a shortage of precipitation in relation to the water requirements of crops. Some methods use only the meteorological parameters that determine the state of the atmosphere-soil-plant system, and some also take into account soil water retention and its availability for plants.

  1. Dynamical Studies of N-Body Gravity and Tidal Dissipation in the TRAPPIST-1 Star System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nayak, Michael; Kuettel, Donald H.; Stebler, Shane T.; Udrea, Bogdan

    2018-01-01

    To date, we have discovered a total of 2,729 planetary systems that contain more than 3,639 known exoplanets [1]. A majority of these are defined as compact systems, containing multiple exoplanets within 0.25 AU of the central star. It has been shown that tightly packed exoplanets avoid colliding due to long-term resonance-induced orbit stability [2]. However, due to extreme proximity, these planets experience intense gravitational forces from each other that are unprecedented within our own solar system, which makes the existence of exomoons doubtful. We present the results of an initial study evaluating dynamical stability of potential exomoons within such highly compact systems.This work is baselined around TRAPPIST-1, an ultra-cool dwarf star that hosts seven temperate terrestrial planets, three of which are in the habitable zone, orbiting within 0.06 AU [3]. N-body simulations place a grid of test particles varying semi-major axis, eccentricity, and inclination around the three habitable zone planets. We find that most exomoons with semi-major axes less than half the Hill sphere of their respective planet are stable over 10 kyrs, with several stable over 300 kyrs.However, in compact systems, tidal influences from other planets can compete with tidal effects from the primary planet, resulting in possible instabilities and massive amounts of tidal dissipation. We investigate these effects with a large grid search that incorporates exomoon radius, tidal quality factor and a range of planet rigidities. Results of simulations that combine n-body gravity effects with both planetary and satellite tides are presented and contrasted with n-body results. Finally, we examine long-term stability (> 1Myrs) of the stable subset of test particles from the n-body simulation with the addition of tidal dissipation, to determine if exomoons can survive around planets e, f, and g in the TRAPPIST-1 system.[1] Schneider (2017). The Extrasolar Planets Encyclopedia. http

  2. Combining Multi-Agent Systems and Wireless Sensor Networks for Monitoring Crop Irrigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Villarrubia

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring mechanisms that ensure efficient crop growth are essential on many farms, especially in certain areas of the planet where water is scarce. Most farmers must assume the high cost of the required equipment in order to be able to streamline natural resources on their farms. Considering that many farmers cannot afford to install this equipment, it is necessary to look for more effective solutions that would be cheaper to implement. The objective of this study is to build virtual organizations of agents that can communicate between each other while monitoring crops. A low cost sensor architecture allows farmers to monitor and optimize the growth of their crops by streamlining the amount of resources the crops need at every moment. Since the hardware has limited processing and communication capabilities, our approach uses the PANGEA architecture to overcome this limitation. Specifically, we will design a system that is capable of collecting heterogeneous information from its environment, using sensors for temperature, solar radiation, humidity, pH, moisture and wind. A major outcome of our approach is that our solution is able to merge heterogeneous data from sensors and produce a response adapted to the context. In order to validate the proposed system, we present a case study in which farmers are provided with a tool that allows us to monitor the condition of crops on a TV screen using a low cost device.

  3. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina [Studsvik RadWaste AB, Nykoeping (Sweden)

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  4. Irrigation in dose assessments models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstroem, Ulla; Barkefors, Catarina

    2004-05-01

    SKB has carried out several safety analyses for repositories for radioactive waste, one of which was SR 97, a multi-site study concerned with a future deep bedrock repository for high-level waste. In case of future releases due to unforeseen failure of the protective multiple barrier system, radionuclides may be transported with groundwater and may reach the biosphere. Assessments of doses have to be carried out with a long-term perspective. Specific models are therefore employed to estimate consequences to man. It has been determined that the main pathway for nuclides from groundwater or surface water to soil is via irrigation. Irrigation may cause contamination of crops directly by e.g. interception or rain-splash, and indirectly via root-uptake from contaminated soil. The exposed people are in many safety assessments assumed to be self-sufficient, i.e. their food is produced locally where the concentration of radionuclides may be the highest. Irrigation therefore plays an important role when estimating consequences. The present study is therefore concerned with a more extensive analysis of the role of irrigation for possible future doses to people living in the area surrounding a repository. Current irrigation practices in Sweden are summarised, showing that vegetables and potatoes are the most common crops for irrigation. In general, however, irrigation is not so common in Sweden. The irrigation model used in the latest assessments is described. A sensitivity analysis is performed showing that, as expected, interception of irrigation water and retention on vegetation surfaces are important parameters. The parameters used to describe this are discussed. A summary is also given how irrigation is proposed to be handled in the international BIOMASS (BIOsphere Modelling and ASSessment) project and in models like TAME and BIOTRAC. Similarities and differences are pointed out. Some numerical results are presented showing that surface contamination in general gives the

  5. Effects of seven different irrigation techniques on debris and the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: Conventional manual irrigation with a syringe and needle remains widely accepted technique in the irrigation procedures. However, its flushing action has some limitations. Currently, several techniques and systems are available and reported to improve the insufficiency of syringe irrigation. The aim of this study was to ...

  6. Drip Irrigation for Commercial Vegetable and Fruit Production

    OpenAIRE

    Maughn, Tiffany; Allen, Niel; Drost, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Drip irrigation is a highly efficient irrigation method well suited to many fruit and vegetable row crops. Drip tubing or tape discharges water to the soil through emitters positioned close to the plant. The drip tubing can be placed uncovered on the soil surface, under plastic mulch, buried in the soil, or suspended above the ground (e.g., on a trellis system). Water application rate is relatively low and irrigations are usually frequent. Properly designed and maintained drip-irrigation syst...

  7. Distributed ecohydrological modelling to evaluate irrigation system performance in Sirsa district, India II: Impact of viable water management scenarios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Singh, R.; Jhorar, R.K.; Dam, van J.C.; Feddes, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    This study focuses on the identification of appropriate strategies to improve water management and productivity in an irrigated area of 4270 km2 in India (Sirsa district). The field scale ecohydrological model SWAP in combination with field experiments, remote sensing and GIS has been applied in a

  8. Characterizing the Effects of Irrigation in the Middle East and North Africa Using Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Water Cycle Observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolten, John; Ozdogan, Mutlu; Beaudoing, Hiroko; Rodell, Matthew

    2012-01-01

    A majority of the countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region suffer from water scarcity due in part to widespread rainfall deficits, unprecedented levels of water demand, and the inefficient use of renewable freshwater resources. Since a majority of the water withdrawal in the MENA is used for irrigation, there is a desperate need for improved understanding of irrigation practices and agricultural water use in the region. Here, satellite-derived irrigation maps and crop-type agricultural data are applied to the Land Data Assimilation System for the MENA region (MENA LDAS), designed to provide regional, gridded fields of hydrological states and fluxes relevant for water resources assessments. Within MENA-LDAS, the Catchment Land Surface Model (CLSM) simulates the location, timing, and amount of water applied through agricultural irrigation practices over the region from 2002-2012. In addition to simulating the irrigation impact on evapotranspiration, soil moisture, and runoff, we also investigate regional changes in terrestrial water storage (TWS) observed from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) and simulated by CLSM.

  9. Precision overhead irrigation is suitable for several Central Valley crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey P. Mitchell

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Overhead systems are the dominant irrigation technology in many parts of the world, but they are not widely used in California even though they have higher water application efficiency than furrow irrigation systems and lower labor requirements than drip systems. With water and labor perennial concerns in California, the suitability of overhead systems merits consideration. From 2008 through 2013, in studies near Five Points, California, we evaluated overhead irrigation for wheat, corn, cotton, tomato, onion and broccoli as an alternative to furrow and drip irrigation. With the exception of tomato, equal or increased yields were achieved with overhead irrigation. Many variables are involved in the choice of an irrigation system, but our results suggest that, with more research to support best management practices, overhead irrigation may be useful to a wider set of California farmers than currently use it.

  10. Systems and rates of aerial application of fungicides in irrigated rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Bayer

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The present research studied the performance of flat-fan and hollow-cone nozzles, with application rates of 20 and 30 L ha-1, and rotary disc atomizer with application rates of 10 and 15 L ha-1. The test was conducted with a fungicide spray tank composed of Azoxystrobin + Difenoconazole, in which the density and penetration of droplets into the canopy were evaluated using a water-sensitive paper and the distribution of the active ingredients in the plant was evaluated through the chromatographic analysis. Higher application rates resulted in higher droplet density in the upper stratum of plants. In all treatments, the penetration of the droplets was 26% into the middle stratum and 23% into the lower stratum, in relation to the top of the crop, resulting in an average 25% penetration of droplets into the leaf canopy. The active ingredients were distributed in greater quantity in the upper stratum of the plant. For the same weight, the upper part of the ‘Puitá Inta CL’ rice cultivar has a leaf area 6.4 times larger than the lower part. It was concluded that higher application rate leads to higher droplet density in the upper stratum of the leaf canopy and that all systems and application rates promoted similar penetration of droplets into the canopy.

  11. Insect detection and nitrogen management for irrigated potatoes using remote sensing from small unmanned aircraft systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. Raymond; Rondon, Silvia I.; Hamm, Philip B.; Turner, Robert W.; Bruce, Alan E.; Brungardt, Josh J.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing with small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS) has potential applications in agriculture because low flight altitudes allow image acquisition at very high spatial resolution. We set up experiments at the Oregon State University Hermiston Agricultural Research and Extension Center with different platforms and sensors to assess advantages and disadvantages of sUAS for precision farming. In 2013, we conducted an experiment with 4 levels of N fertilizer, and followed the changes in the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) over time. In late June, there were no differences in chlorophyll content or leaf area index (LAI) among the 3 higher application rates. Consistent with the field data, only plots with the lowest rate of applied N were distinguished by low NDVI. In early August, N deficiency was determined by NDVI, but it was too late to mitigate losses in potato yield and quality. Populations of the Colorado potato beetle (CPB) may rapidly increase, devouring the shoots, thus early detection and treatment could prevent yield losses. In 2014, we conducted an experiment with 4 levels of CPB infestation. Over one day, damage from CPB in some plots increased from 0 to 19%. A visual ranking of damage was not correlated with the total number of CPB or treatment. Plot-scale vegetation indices were not correlated with damage, although the damaged area determined by object-based feature extraction was highly correlated. Methods based on object-based image analysis of sUAS data have potential for early detection and reduced cost.

  12. Comparison of SVAT models for simulating and optimizing deficit irrigation systems in arid and semi-arid countries under climate variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloss, Sebastian; Schuetze, Niels; Schmitz, Gerd H.

    2010-05-01

    The strong competition for fresh water in order to fulfill the increased demand for food worldwide has led to a renewed interest in techniques to improve water use efficiency (WUE) such as controlled deficit irrigation. Furthermore, as the implementation of crop models into complex decision support systems becomes more and more common, it is imperative to reliably predict the WUE as ratio of water consumption and yield. The objective of this paper is the assessment of the problems the crop models - such as FAO-33, DAISY, and APSIM in this study - face when maximizing the WUE. We applied these crop models for calculating the risk in yield reduction in view of different sources of uncertainty (e.g. climate) employing a stochastic framework for decision support for the planning of water supply in irrigation. The stochastic framework consists of: (i) a weather generator for simulating regional impacts of climate change; (ii) a new tailor-made evolutionary optimization algorithm for optimal irrigation scheduling with limited water supply; and (iii) the above mentioned models for simulating water transport and crop growth in a sound manner. The results present stochastic crop water production functions (SCWPF) for different crops which can be used as basic tools for assessing the impact of climate variability on the risk for the potential yield. Case studies from India, Oman, Malawi, and France are presented to assess the differences in modeling water stress and yield response for the different crop models.

  13. Effects of waste water irrigation on soil properties and soil fauna of spinach fields in a West African urban vegetable production system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenchly, Kathrin; Dao, Juliane; Lompo, Désiré Jean-Pascal; Buerkert, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The usage of inadequately processed industrial waste water (WW) can lead to strong soil alkalinity and soil salinization of agricultural fields with negative consequences on soil properties and biota. Gypsum as a soil amendment to saline-sodic soils is widely used in agricultural fields to improve their soil physical, chemical and hence biological properties. This study aimed at analysing the effects of intensive WW irrigation on the structure and composition of soil-dwelling arthropods on spinach fields (Spinacia oleracea L.) in a West African urban vegetable production system. We used gypsum as a soil amendment with the potential to alleviate soil chemical stress resulting in a potentially positive impact on soil arthropods. A total of 32 plots were established that showed a gradient in soil pH ranging from slight to strong soil alkalinity and that were irrigated with WW (n = 12) or clean water (CW; n = 20), including eight plots into which gypsum was incorporated. Our study revealed a high tolerance of soil-dwelling arthropods for alkaline soils, but spinach fields with increased soil electrical conductivity (EC) showed a reduced abundance of Hymenoptera, Diptera and Auchenorrhyncha. Arthropod abundance was positively related to a dense spinach cover that in turn was not affected by WW irrigation or soil properties. Gypsum application reduced soil pH but increased soil EC. WW irrigation and related soil pH affected arthropod composition in the investigated spinach fields which may lead to negative effects on agronomical important arthropod groups such as pollinators and predators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Flora, life form characteristics, and plan for the promotion of biodiversity in South Korea's Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System, the traditional Gudeuljang irrigated rice terraces in Cheongsando

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Chul PARK; Choong Hyeon OH

    2017-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to analyze the biodiversity of the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces in Cheongsando,South Korea's representative GIAHS (Globally Important Agricultural Heritage System) site,with reference to position and land-use features,and to develop a plan to promote agricultural biodiversity in the region.We confirmed approximately 54,000 m2 of Gudeuljang paddy fields by an on-site survey.Of the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces confirmed by onsite inspection,our survey showed that approximately 24,000 m2 are currently being used as paddy fields,approximately 15,000 m2 are being used as dry fields,and approximately 14,000 m2 are fallow.In terms of other non-agricultural land use,there was grassland,including graveyards;artificial arboreal land,such as orchards,rivers and wetlands,and man-made facilities,such as roads and residences.We also confirmed that the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces had higher plant species diversity than conventional terraced rice paddies,and there was a difference in life form characteristics between the two types.Although the superficial topsoil structure is the same for the Traditional Gudeuljang Irrigated Rice Terraces (TGIRTs) and conventional terraced rice paddies,it is thought that the differences in the subsurface structure of the TGIRTs contribute greatly to species and habitat diversity.However,the TGIRTs in Cheongsando are facing degeneration,due to damage and reduction in agricultural activity.The main cause is the reduction in the number of farming households due to an aging population in Cheongsando.In order to address this problem,we proposed a management plan,related to fallow paddy fields in South Korea,to initiate voluntary activities in the TGIRTs.

  15. Effects of canal enlargement and irrigation needle depth on the cleaning of the root canal system at 3 mm from the apex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Jin Moon

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Objectives The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis, that the effectiveness of irrigation in removing smear layer in the apical third of root canal system is dependent on the depth of placement of the irrigation needle into the root canal and the enlargement size of the canal. Materials and Methods Eighty sound human lower incisors were divided into eight groups according to the enlargement size (#25, #30, #35 and #40 and the needle penetration depth (3 mm from working length, WL-3 mm and 9 mm from working length, WL-9 mm. Each canal was enlarged to working length with Profile.06 Rotary Ni-Ti files and irrigated with 5.25% NaOCl. Then, each canal received a final irrigation with 3 mL of 3% EDTA for 4 min, followed by 5 mL of 5.25% NaOCl at different level (WL-3 mm and WL-9 mm from working length. Each specimen was prepared for the scanning electron microscope (SEM. Photographs of the 3mm area from the apical constriction of each canal with a magnification of ×250, ×500, ×1,000, ×2,500 were taken for the final evaluation. Results Removal of smear layer in WL-3 mm group showed a significantly different effect when the canal was enlarged to larger than #30. There was a significant difference in removing apical smear layer between the needle penetration depth of WL-3 mm and WL-9 mm. Conclusions Removal of smear layer from the apical portion of root canals was effectively accomplished with apical instrumentation to #35/40 06 taper file and 3 mm needle penetration from the working length.

  16. Equilibrium points and associated periodic orbits in the gravity of binary asteroid systems: (66391) 1999 KW4 as an example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yu; Wang, Yue; Xu, Shijie

    2018-04-01

    The motion of a massless particle in the gravity of a binary asteroid system, referred as the restricted full three-body problem (RF3BP), is fundamental, not only for the evolution of the binary system, but also for the design of relevant space missions. In this paper, equilibrium points and associated periodic orbit families in the gravity of a binary system are investigated, with the binary (66391) 1999 KW4 as an example. The polyhedron shape model is used to describe irregular shapes and corresponding gravity fields of the primary and secondary of (66391) 1999 KW4, which is more accurate than the ellipsoid shape model in previous studies and provides a high-fidelity representation of the gravitational environment. Both of the synchronous and non-synchronous states of the binary system are considered. For the synchronous binary system, the equilibrium points and their stability are determined, and periodic orbit families emanating from each equilibrium point are generated by using the shooting (multiple shooting) method and the homotopy method, where the homotopy function connects the circular restricted three-body problem and RF3BP. In the non-synchronous binary system, trajectories of equivalent equilibrium points are calculated, and the associated periodic orbits are obtained by using the homotopy method, where the homotopy function connects the synchronous and non-synchronous systems. Although only the binary (66391) 1999 KW4 is considered, our methods will also be well applicable to other binary systems with polyhedron shape data. Our results on equilibrium points and associated periodic orbits provide general insights into the dynamical environment and orbital behaviors in proximity of small binary asteroids and enable the trajectory design and mission operations in future binary system explorations.

  17. Irrigating The Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, D.

    2017-12-01

    Water insecurity and water inequality are international issues that reduce economic growth. Countries are adopting alternative approaches to rebalance the share of water between all users to mitigate economic loss for this and future generations. However, recent reforms have struggled to provide the necessary arguments to obtain political protection of the process. In the absence of proof, rent-seeking arguments have challenged the benefit of restoring environmental flows by arguing that policy design fails to maximise the environmental benefits. This is a problem in Australia's Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), where despite establishing 3,200GL of environmental water, the policy is still under threat. Applied water economic policy advice fails, when it does not deal with uncertainty. The state-contingent analysis approach can map how individual decision makers can adapt to alternative states of water supply (i.e. drought, normal and wet) by reallocating inputs to obtain state-described outputs. By modelling changes to the states, or the frequency of the states occurring, climate change can modelled, and decision management responses explored. By treating the environment as another set of production systems, lessons learnt from managing perennial and annual agricultural production systems during the Millennium Drought in the MDB can be applied to explore the limits of irrigating the environment. The demand for water by a production system is a combination of state-general (must be irrigated every year e.g. perennial crop or permanent wetland) and state specific inputs (irrigate in response to the realise state). In simple terms, the greater the component of state-general water requirements a production system has, the less resilience it has when water supply is highly variable and if water is not available then production systems are irreversibly lost. While production systems that only need state-allocable water can adapt to alternative levels of scarcity without

  18. Nonlocal gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Mashhoon, Bahram

    2017-01-01

    Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...

  19. Irrigation of steppe soils in the south of Russia: Problems and solutions (Analysis of Irrigation Practices in 1950-1990)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minashina, N. G.

    2009-07-01

    Experience in irrigation of chernozems in the steppe zone of Russia for a period from 1950 to 1990 is analyzed. By the end of this period and in the subsequent years, the areas under irrigation reduced considerably, and the soil productivity worsened. This was caused by the improper design of irrigation systems, on the one hand, and by the low tolerance of chernozems toward increased moistening upon irrigation, on the other hand. The analysis of the factors and regimes of soil formation under irrigation conditions shows that irrigation-induced changes in the soil hydrology also lead to changes in the soil physicochemical, biochemical, and other properties. In particular, changes in the composition of exchangeable cations lead to the development of solonetzic process. In many areas, irrigation of chernozems was accompanied by the appearance of solonetzic, vertic, saline, and eroded soils. The development of soil degradation processes is described. In general, the deterioration of irrigated chernozems was related to the absence of adequate experience in irrigation of steppe soils, unskilled personnel, improper regime of irrigation, and excessively high rates of watering. In some cases, the poor quality of irrigation water resulted in the development of soil salinization and alkalization. To improve the situation, the training of personnel is necessary; the strategy of continuous irrigation should be replaced by the strategy of supplementary irrigation in the critical periods of crop development.

  20. Optimization of modern irrigation for biosaline agriculture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shahid, S.A.; Hasbini, B.

    2007-01-01

    Supplementation water is a must to offset the water requirement to produce profitable crops in most arid and semiarid zones, where fresh water resources are insufficient to meet the pressure of irrigated agriculture. This necessitates the use of poor quality water resources. These waters if not properly managed and used can cause serious soil related problems (salinity, sodicity, destruction of soil structure) in addition to decline in crop yields. Biosaline agriculture (using saline water on saline soils to grow salt-tolerant crops) becomes the only option for the farmer when both soil and water resources are saline and the water resource is scarce. In this regards key design considerations must be taken into account when irrigating with salty waters to optimize water uses and to reduce subsequent soil salinity development. Sprinkler irrigation systems are commonly used in irrigation of large-scale irrigational production systems. However they tend to concentrate salts on the leaves of plants. For this reason discharge and degree of overlap between consecutive sprinkler heads, are key design parameters when applying salty waters. Trickle irrigation is the most efficient system and is gaining importance in the GCC countries in the agriculture and landscape irrigation. The objective of this study was to optimize modern irrigation systems through development of design standards for drip (emitters spacing) and sprinkler irrigation systems (single head jet and overlapping) by applying saline water. The effect of emitter spacing (drip) and overlapping (sprinkler) were tested for the formation of salt contours in soil. The leaching ratio (LR) is the overall soil sanity within rhizosphere divided by the average irrigation water salinity. In this study LR is used to evaluate the effectiveness of irrigation systems in developing soil sanity. From the present investigations it is concluded that when using saline water for irrigation, the soil sanity development can be

  1. Automation in irrigation process in family farm with Arduino platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianne Crystie Bezerra da Cunha

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The small farmers tend not to use mechanical inputs in the irrigation process due to the high cost than conventional irrigation systems have and in other cases, the lack of knowledge and technical guidance makes the farmer theme using the system. Thus, all control and monitoring are made by hand without the aid of machines and this practice can lead to numerous problems from poor irrigation, and water waste, energy, and deficits in production. It is difficult to deduce when to irrigate, or how much water applied in cultivation, measure the soil temperature variables, temperature, and humidity, etc. The objective of this work is to implement an automated irrigation system aimed at family farming that is low cost and accessible to the farmer. The system will be able to monitor all parameters from irrigation. For this to occur, the key characteristics of family farming, Arduino platform, and irrigation were analyzed.

  2. Using a Gravity Model to Predict Circulation in a Public Library System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottensmann, John R.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development of a gravity model based upon principles of spatial interaction to predict the circulation of libraries in the Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library (Indiana). The model effectively predicted past circulation figures and was tested by predicting future library circulation, particularly for a new branch library.…

  3. Massive gravity from bimetric gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baccetti, Valentina; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt

    2013-01-01

    We discuss the subtle relationship between massive gravity and bimetric gravity, focusing particularly on the manner in which massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure is more delicate than currently appreciated. Specifically, this limiting procedure should not unnecessarily constrain the background metric, which must be externally specified by the theory of massive gravity itself. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit, leading to additional constraints besides the one set of equations of motion naively expected. Thus, since solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statement is not necessarily true, there is no complete continuity in the parameter space of the theory. In particular, we study the massive cosmological solutions which are continuous in the parameter space, showing that many interesting cosmologies belong to this class. (paper)

  4. The evolution of Brown-York quasilocal energy as due to evolution of Lovelock gravity in a system of M0-branes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sepehri, Alireza; Rahaman, Farook; Capozziello, Salvatore; Ali, Ahmed Farag; Pradhan, Anirudh

    Recently, it has been suggested in [S. Chakraborty and N. Dadhich, Brown-York quasilocal energy in Lanczos-Lovelock gravity and black hole horizons, J. High Energ. Phys. 12 (2015) 003.] that the Brown-York mechanism can be used to measure the quasilocal energy in Lovelock gravity. We have used this method in a system of M0-branes and show that the Brown-York energy evolves in the process of birth and growth of Lovelock gravity. This can help us to predict phenomenological events which are emerged as due to dynamical structure of Lovelock gravity in our universe. In this model, first, M0-branes join each other and form an M3-brane and an anti-M3-branes connected by an M2-brane. This system is named BIon. Universes and anti-universes live on M3-branes and M2 plays the role of wormhole between them. By passing time, M2 dissolves in M3’s and nonlinear massive gravities like Lovelock massive gravity emerges and grows. By closing M3-branes, BIon evolves and wormhole between branes makes a transition to black hole. During this stage, Brown-York energy increases and shrinks to large values at the colliding points of branes. By approaching M3-branes towards each other, the square energy of their system becomes negative and some tachyonic states are produced. To remove these states, M3-branes compact, the sign of compacted gravity changes, anti-gravity is created which leads to getting away of branes from each other. Also, the Lovelock gravity disappears and its energy forms a new M2 between M3-branes. By getting away of branes from each other, Brown-York energy decreases and shrinks to zero.

  5. The gravity field and GGOS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsberg, René; Sideris, M.G.; Shum, C.K.

    2005-01-01

    The gravity field of the earth is a natural element of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). Gravity field quantities are like spatial geodetic observations of potential very high accuracy, with measurements, currently at part-per-billion (ppb) accuracy, but gravity field quantities are also...... unique as they can be globally represented by harmonic functions (long-wavelength geopotential model primarily from satellite gravity field missions), or based on point sampling (airborne and in situ absolute and superconducting gravimetry). From a GGOS global perspective, one of the main challenges...... is to ensure the consistency of the global and regional geopotential and geoid models, and the temporal changes of the gravity field at large spatial scales. The International Gravity Field Service, an umbrella "level-2" IAG service (incorporating the International Gravity Bureau, International Geoid Service...

  6. Sensitivity of the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) to the complexity of aquifer systems for monitoring of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katpatal, Yashwant B.; Rishma, C.; Singh, Chandan K.

    2018-05-01

    The Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) satellite mission is aimed at assessment of groundwater storage under different terrestrial conditions. The main objective of the presented study is to highlight the significance of aquifer complexity to improve the performance of GRACE in monitoring groundwater. Vidarbha region of Maharashtra, central India, was selected as the study area for analysis, since the region comprises a simple aquifer system in the western region and a complex aquifer system in the eastern region. Groundwater-level-trend analyses of the different aquifer systems and spatial and temporal variation of the terrestrial water storage anomaly were studied to understand the groundwater scenario. GRACE and its field application involve selecting four pixels from the GRACE output with different aquifer systems, where each GRACE pixel encompasses 50-90 monitoring wells. Groundwater storage anomalies (GWSA) are derived for each pixel for the period 2002 to 2015 using the Release 05 (RL05) monthly GRACE gravity models and the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) land-surface models (GWSAGRACE) as well as the actual field data (GWSAActual). Correlation analysis between GWSAGRACE and GWSAActual was performed using linear regression. The Pearson and Spearman methods show that the performance of GRACE is good in the region with simple aquifers; however, performance is poorer in the region with multiple aquifer systems. The study highlights the importance of incorporating the sensitivity of GRACE in estimation of groundwater storage in complex aquifer systems in future studies.

  7. Water and agriculture in arid systems: a dynamic model of irrigation of Mazarron and Aguilas; Agua y agricultural en sistemas aridos: un modelo dinamico del regadio de Mazarron y Aguilas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez Fernandez, J.; Esteve Selma, M. A.

    2009-07-01

    The intensive use of groundwater resources in the new irrigated lands of Mazarron-Aguilas has led to the over-exploitation of the local aquifer and thus, to seawater intrusion, water salinization and falling off water tables, all of them key processes of desertification. The simulation results show that the unrealistic perceptions about the relationships between irrigated land and water resources constitutes a key factor to explain the highly unsustainable dynamics of irrigated lands in Mazarron and Aguilas and the whole SE Spain. The increase in water resources does not eliminate the problem because the feedback loops and endogenous factors of the system lead to a further increase in irrigated land and continuation of the water deficit, which shows a highly counter-intuitive behaviour. (Author) 3 refs.

  8. Armenia - Irrigation Infrastructure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — This study evaluates irrigation infrastructure rehabilitation in Armenia. The study separately examines the impacts of tertiary canals and other large infrastructure...

  9. Using Gravity Assists in the Earth-moon System as a Gateway to the Solar System

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElrath, Tim; Lantoine, Gregory; Landau, Damon; Grebow, Dan; Strange, Nathan; Wilson, Roby; Sims, Jon

    2012-01-01

    For spacecraft departing the Earth - Moon system, lunar flybys can significantly increase the hype rbolic escape energy (C3, in km 2 /sec 2 ) for a modest increase in flight time. Within 2 months, lunar flybys can produce a C3 of 2. Over 4 - 6 months, lunar flybys alone can increase the C3 to 4.5, or they can provide for additional periapsis burns to increase the C3 from 2 -3 to 10 or more, suitable for planetary missions. A lunar flyby departure can be followed by additional ? -V (such as that efficiently provided by a low thrust system, eg. Solar Electric Propulsion (SEP)) to raise the Earth - relative velocity (at a ratio of more than 2:1) before a subsequent Earth flyby, which redirects that velocity to a more di stant target, all within not much more than a year. This paper describes the applicability of lunar flybys for different flight times and propulsi on systems, and illustrates this with instances of past usage and future possibilities. Examples discussed i nclude ISEE - 3, Nozomi, STEREO, 2018 Mars studies (which showed an 8% payload increase), and missions to Near Earth Objects (NEOs). In addition, the options for the achieving the initial lunar flyby are systematically discussed, with a view towards their p ractical use with in a compact launch period. In particular, we show that launches to geosynchronous transfer orbit (GTO) as a secondary payload provide a feasible means of obtaining a lunar flyby for an acceptable cost, even for SEP systems that cannot ea sily deliver large ? - Vs at periapsis. Taken together, these results comprise a myriad of options for increasing the mission performance, by the efficient use of lunar flybys within an acceptable extension of the flight time.

  10. Fate of fertilizer nitrogen in soil-plant system under irrigating condition. Pt.1: Effect of nitrogen level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Qing; Wen Xianfang; Zheng Xingyun; Pan Jiarong

    1997-01-01

    Three nitrogen fertilization levels including optimum rate of nitrogen applied (N1.0, 150 kg N·ha -1 ), 150% of optimum rate (N1.5, 225 kg N·ha -1 ) and 50% of optimum rate (N0.5, 75 kg N·ha -1 ) were selected to determine the fate of nitrogen in soil plant system by 15 N technique in 1994∼1995 field experiment which was conducted in Shijiazhuang. The results showed that under irrigated condition the nitrogen use efficiencies (NUE) of ammonium bicarbonate by winter wheat in fertilized treatments were 38.5%, 32.3% and 22.4% respectively, while the highest NUE of winter wheat was found in N0.5 treatment due to a relatively high fertility. The highest yield (6.8 x 10 3 kg grain·ha -1 , 14.7 x 10 3 kg top·ha -1 ) was obtained in N1.0 treatment, but nitrogen uptake and grain yield in N1.5 treatment were lower than those of other fertilizer treatments and there was no significant difference between N0.0 and N1.5 in grain yield. the highest residue of fertilizer N was determined in N1.5 treatment, of which 46% existed in the top layer of the soil (0∼50 cm). There was no significant difference in residual fertilizer N in soil between the other two treatments (31.28% in N0.5, 31.12% in N1.0). In 15 N balance calculation, the unaccounted part of applied N which was leaching down 50 cm in the soil profile as nitrate or gaseous loss through volatilization, denitrification were 30.20%, the soil profile as nitrate or gaseous loss through volatilization, denitrification were 30.20%, 36.56%, 31.25% in N0.5, N1.5 treatments, respectively. It is very important to control residual N in order to prevent N pollution and promote the growth of next crop

  11. Content Of 2,4-D-14C Herbicide Residue In Water And Soil Of Irrigated Rice Field System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chairul, Sofnie M.; Djabir, Elida; Magdalena, Nelly

    2000-01-01

    The investigation of 2,4-D exp.-14C herbicide residue in water and soil of irrigated rice field system was carried out. Rice plant and weeds (Monochoria vaginalis Burn. F. Presl) were planted in 101 buckets using two kinds of soil condition, I.e. normal soil and 30 % above normal compact soil. After one week planting, the plants were sprayed with 1 u Ci of 2,4-D exp.-14C and 0,4 mg non labeled 2,4-D. The herbicide residue content was determined 0, 2, 4, 8 and 10 weeks after spraying with 2,4-D herbicide. The analysis was done using Combustion Biological Oxidizer merk Harvey ox-400, and counted with Liquid Scintillation Counter merk Beckman model LS-1801. The results indicates that the herbicide contents in water and soil decrease from the first spraying with herbicide until harvest herbicide Residue content in water after harvest was 0.87 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil normal condition, and 0.59 x 10 exp.-6 pm for the soil 30 % up normal condition, while herbicide content in soil was 1.54 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil normal condition and 1.48 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for soil 30 % up normal. 2,4-D herbicide residue content in rice after harvest was 0.27 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for normal soil condition and 0.25 x 10 exp.-6 ppm for the soil 30 % up normal. 2,4-D herbicide residue content in roots and leaves of weeds after harvest were respectively 0.29 x 10 exp.-6 ppm and 0.18 x 10 exp.-6 for normal soil condition, while for 30 % up normal soil were 0.25 x 10 exp.-5 ppm and 0.63 x 10 exp.-7 ppm. This result indicates that there is no effect pollution to surrounding area, because the herbicide content is still bellow the allowed detection limit, 0.05 ppm

  12. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbyla, M.E., E-mail: verbylam@mail.usf.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States); Iriarte, M.M.; Mercado Guzmán, A.; Coronado, O.; Almanza, M. [Centro de Aguas y Saneamiento Ambiental, Universidad Mayor de San Simón, Cochabamba (Bolivia, Plurinational State of); Mihelcic, J.R. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of South Florida, 4202 E. Fowler Avenue, Tampa, FL (United States)

    2016-05-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10 years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1 mL g{sup −1} for coliphage, between 1 and 100 mL g{sup −1} for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000 mL g{sup −1} for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. - Highlights: • Study of health risks from reclaimed wastewater irrigation from aging pond systems • Coliphages, protozoan parasites, and helminths were measured in water/soil/crops. • Sludge accumulation in

  13. Pathogens and fecal indicators in waste stabilization pond systems with direct reuse for irrigation: Fate and transport in water, soil and crops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verbyla, M.E.; Iriarte, M.M.; Mercado Guzmán, A.; Coronado, O.; Almanza, M.; Mihelcic, J.R.

    2016-01-01

    Wastewater use for irrigation is expanding globally, and information about the fate and transport of pathogens in wastewater systems is needed to complete microbial risk assessments and develop policies to protect public health. The lack of maintenance for wastewater treatment facilities in low-income areas and developing countries results in sludge accumulation and compromised performance over time, creating uncertainty about the contamination of soil and crops. The fate and transport of pathogens and fecal indicators was evaluated in waste stabilization ponds with direct reuse for irrigation, using two systems in Bolivia as case studies. Results were compared with models from the literature that have been recommended for design. The removal of Escherichia coli in both systems was adequately predicted by a previously-published dispersed flow model, despite more than 10 years of sludge accumulation. However, a design equation for helminth egg removal overestimated the observed removal, suggesting that this equation may not be appropriate for systems with accumulated sludge. To assess the contamination of soil and crops, ratios were calculated of the pathogen and fecal indicator concentrations in soil or on crops to their respective concentrations in irrigation water (termed soil-water and crop-water ratios). Ratios were similar within each group of microorganisms but differed between microorganism groups, and were generally below 0.1 mL g"−"1 for coliphage, between 1 and 100 mL g"−"1 for Giardia and Cryptosporidium, and between 100 and 1000 mL g"−"1 for helminth eggs. This information can be used for microbial risk assessments to develop safe water reuse policies in support of the United Nations' 2030 Sustainable Development Agenda. - Highlights: • Study of health risks from reclaimed wastewater irrigation from aging pond systems • Coliphages, protozoan parasites, and helminths were measured in water/soil/crops. • Sludge accumulation in ponds may limit

  14. Development of new experimental platform 'MARS'-Multiple Artificial-gravity Research System-to elucidate the impacts of micro/partial gravity on mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiba, Dai; Mizuno, Hiroyasu; Yumoto, Akane; Shimomura, Michihiko; Kobayashi, Hiroe; Morita, Hironobu; Shimbo, Miki; Hamada, Michito; Kudo, Takashi; Shinohara, Masahiro; Asahara, Hiroshi; Shirakawa, Masaki; Takahashi, Satoru

    2017-09-07

    This Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency project focused on elucidating the impacts of partial gravity (partial g) and microgravity (μg) on mice using newly developed mouse habitat cage units (HCU) that can be installed in the Centrifuge-equipped Biological Experiment Facility in the International Space Station. In the first mission, 12 C57BL/6 J male mice were housed under μg or artificial earth-gravity (1 g). Mouse activity was monitored daily via downlinked videos; μg mice floated inside the HCU, whereas artificial 1 g mice were on their feet on the floor. After 35 days of habitation, all mice were returned to the Earth and processed. Significant decreases were evident in femur bone density and the soleus/gastrocnemius muscle weights of μg mice, whereas artificial 1 g mice maintained the same bone density a