Streaming gravity mode instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shui.
1989-05-01
In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs
Kuntz, M.; Van Mier, J.G.M.
1997-01-01
A series of field observations of the evolution of water runoffs over several vertical concrete walls directly exposed to rain falls is reported in this note. In all the cases, the main water flow originated from the top horizontal surface of the walls. The observations show that the gravity-driven
Perturbative instabilities in Horava gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanos, Charalampos; Saridakis, Emmanuel N
2010-01-01
We investigate the scalar and tensor perturbations in Horava gravity, with and without detailed balance, around a flat background. Once both types of perturbations are taken into account, it is revealed that the theory is plagued by ghost-like scalar instabilities in the range of parameters which would render it power-counting renormalizable, that cannot be overcome by simple tricks such as analytic continuation. Implementing a consistent flow between the UV and IR limits seems thus more challenging than initially presumed, regardless of whether the theory approaches general relativity at low energies or not. Even in the phenomenologically viable parameter space, the tensor sector leads to additional potential problems, such as fine-tunings and super-luminal propagation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dorfi, E.A.; Drury, L.O.
1985-01-01
The interaction between energetic charged particles and thermal plasma, which forms the basis of diffusive shock acceleration, leads also to interesting dynamical phenomena. For a compressional mode propagating in a system with homoeneous energetic particle pressure it is well known that friction with the energetic particles leads to damping. The linear theory of this effect has been analyzed in detail by Ptuskin. Not so obvious is that a non-uniform energetic particle pressure can in addition amplify compressional disturbances. If the pressure gradient is sufficiently steep this growth can dominate the frictional damping and lead to an instability. It is important to not that this effect results from the collective nature of the interaction between the energetic particles and the gas and is not connected with the Parker instability, nor with the resonant amplification of Alfven waves
Flow and instability in quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Douglas, M.R.; Seiberg, N.; Shenker, S.H.
1990-01-01
We study the flow from the m=3 multicritical matrix theory, unambiguously defined by Brezin, Marinari and Parisi, to the m=2 pure gravity theory. We find behavior in the flow indicative of a non-perturbative instability in this definition of non-perturbative pure quantum gravity. We expect a similar situation for all m even theories. Other definitions of these theories are briefly discussed. (orig.)
A cosmic ray driven instability
Dorfi, E. A.; Drury, L. O.
1985-01-01
The interaction between energetic charged particles and thermal plasma which forms the basis of diffusive shock acceleration leads also to interesting dynamical phenomena. For a compressional mode propagating in a system with homogeneous energetic particle pressure it is well known that friction with the energetic particles leads to damping. The linear theory of this effect has been analyzed in detail by Ptuskin. Not so obvious is that a non-uniform energetic particle pressure can addition amplify compressional disturbances. If the pressure gradient is sufficiently steep this growth can dominate the frictional damping and lead to an instability. It is important to not that this effect results from the collective nature of the interaction between the energetic particles and the gas and is not connected with the Parker instability, nor with the resonant amplification of Alfven waves.
Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Haan, S.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.
1993-01-01
An extensive series of experiments has been conducted on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime. Two-mode foils allow a first direct observation of mode coupling. Surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes
Laser driven hydrodynamic instability experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Remington, B.A.; Weber, S.V.; Haan, S.W.; Kilkenny, J.D.; Glendinning, S.G.; Wallace, R.J.; Goldstein, W.H.; Wilson, B.G.; Nash, J.K.
1992-01-01
We have conducted an extensive series of experiments on the Nova laser to measure hydrodynamic instabilities in planar foils accelerated by x-ray ablation. Single mode experiments allow a measurement of the fundamental growth rates from the linear well into the nonlinear regime; multimode foils allow an assessment of the degree of mode coupling; and surface-finish experiments allow a measurement of the evolution of a broad spectrum of random initial modes. Experimental results and comparisons with theory and simulations are presented
Topographic-driven instabilities in terrestrial bodies
Vantieghem, S.; Cebron, D.; Herreman, W.; Lacaze, L.
2013-12-01
Models of internal planetary fluid layers (core flows, subsurface oceans) commonly assume that these fluid envelopes have a spherical shape. This approximation however entails a serious restriction from the fluid dynamics point of view. Indeed, in the presence of mechanical forcings (precession, libration, nutation or tides) due to gravitational interaction with orbiting partners, boundary topography (e.g. of the core-mantle boundary) may excite flow instabilities and space-filling turbulence. These phenomena may affect heat transport and dissipation at the main order. Here, we focus on instabilities driven by longitudinal libration. Using a suite of theoretical tools and numerical simulations, we are able to discern a parameter range for which instability may be excited. We thereby consider deformations of different azimuthal order. This study gives the first numerical evidence of the tripolar instability. Furthermore, we explore the non-linear regime and investigate the amplitude as well as the dissipation of the saturated instability. Indeed, these two quantities control the torques on the solid layers and the thermal transport. Furthermore, based on this results, we address the issue of magnetic field generation associated with these flows (by induction or by dynamo process). This instability mechanism applies to both synchronized as non-synchronized bodies. As such, our results show that a tripolar instability might be present in various terrestrial bodies (Early Moon, Gallilean moons, asteroids, etc.), where it could participate in dynamo action. Simulation of a libration-driven tripolar instability in a deformed spherical fluid layer: snapshot of the velocity magnitude, where a complex 3D flow pattern is established.
Onset of density-driven instabilities in fractured aquifers
Jafari Raad, Seyed Mostafa; Hassanzadeh, Hassan
2018-04-01
Linear stability analysis is conducted to study the onset of density-driven convection involved in solubility trapping of C O2 in fractured aquifers. The effect of physical properties of a fracture network on the stability of a diffusive boundary layer in a saturated fractured porous media is investigated using the dual porosity concept. Linear stability analysis results show that both fracture interporosity flow and fracture storativity play an important role in the stability behavior of the system. It is shown that a diffusive boundary layer under the gravity field in fractured porous media with lower fracture storativity and/or higher fracture interporosity flow coefficient is more stable. We present scaling relations for the onset of convective instability in fractured aquifers with single and variable matrix block size distribution. These findings improve our understanding of density-driven flow in fractured aquifers and are important in the estimation of potential storage capacity, risk assessment, and storage site characterization and screening.
Curvature driven instabilities in toroidal plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, P.
1986-11-01
The electromagnetic ballooning mode, the curvature driven trapped electron mode and the toroidally induced ion temperature gradient mode have been studies. Eigenvalue equations have been derived and solved both numerically and analytically. For electromagnetic ballooning modes the effects of convective damping, finite Larmor radius, higher order curvature terms, and temperature gradients have been investigated. A fully toroidal fluid ion model has been developed. It is shown that a necessary and sufficient condition for an instability below the MHD limit is the presence of an ion temperature gradient. Analytical dispersion relations giving results in good agreement with numerical solutions are also presented. The curvature driven trapped electron modes are found to be unstable for virtually all parameters with growth rates of the order of the diamagnetic drift frequency. Studies have been made, using both a gyrokinetic ion description and the fully toroidal ion model. Both analytical and numerical results are presented and are found to be in good agreement. The toroidally induced ion temperature gradients modes are found to have a behavior similar to that of the curvature driven trapped electron modes and can in the electrostatic limit be described by a simple quadratic dispersion equation. (author)
Collision and recombination driven instabilities in variable charged ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The dust-acoustic instability driven by recombination of electrons and ions on the surface of charged and variably-charged dust grains as well as by collisions in dusty plasmas with significant pressure of background neutrals have been theoretically investigated. The recombination driven instability is shown to be dominant ...
Overview of nonlinear theory of kinetically driven instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Breizman, B.N.
1998-09-01
An overview is presented of the theory for the nonlinear behavior of instabilities driven by the resonant wave particle interaction. The approach should be applicable to a wide variety of kinetic systems in magnetic fusion devices and accelerators. Here the authors emphasize application to Alfven were driven instability, and the principles of the theory are used to interpret experimental data
Transitional inertialess instabilities in driven multilayer channel flows
Papaefthymiou, Evangelos; Papageorgiou, Demetrios
2016-11-01
We study the nonlinear stability of viscous, immiscible multilayer flows in channels driven both by a pressure gradient and/or gravity in a slightly inclined channel. Three fluid phases are present with two internal interfaces. Novel weakly nonlinear models of coupled evolution equations are derived and we concentrate on inertialess flows with stably stratified fluids, with and without surface tension. These are 2 × 2 systems of second-order semilinear parabolic PDEs that can exhibit inertialess instabilities due to resonances between the interfaces - mathematically this is manifested by a transition from hyperbolic to elliptic behavior of the nonlinear flux functions. We consider flows that are linearly stable (i.e the nonlinear fluxes are hyperbolic initially) and use the theory of nonlinear systems of conservation laws to obtain a criterion (which can be verified easily) that can predict nonlinear stability or instability (i.e. nonlinear fluxes encounter ellipticity as they evolve spatiotemporally) at large times. In the former case the solution decays asymptotically to its base state, and in the latter nonlinear traveling waves emerge. EPSRC Grant Numbers EP/K041134 and EP/L020564.
Electrothermal instability growth in magnetically driven pulsed power liners
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, Kyle J.; Sinars, Daniel B.; Yu, Edmund P.; Herrmann, Mark C.; Cuneo, Michael E.; Slutz, Stephen A.; Smith, Ian C.; Atherton, Briggs W.; Knudson, Marcus D.; Nakhleh, Charles
2012-01-01
This paper explores the role of electro-thermal instabilities on the dynamics of magnetically accelerated implosion systems. Electro-thermal instabilities result from non-uniform heating due to temperature dependence in the conductivity of a material. Comparatively little is known about these types of instabilities compared to the well known Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT) instability. We present simulations that show electrothermal instabilities form immediately after the surface material of a conductor melts and can act as a significant seed to subsequent MRT instability growth. We also present the results of several experiments performed on Sandia National Laboratories Z accelerator to investigate signatures of electrothermal instability growth on well characterized initially solid aluminum and copper rods driven with a 20 MA, 100 ns risetime current pulse. These experiments show excellent agreement with electrothermal instability simulations and exhibit larger instability growth than can be explained by MRT theory alone.
Linearization instability for generic gravity in AdS spacetime
Altas, Emel; Tekin, Bayram
2018-01-01
In general relativity, perturbation theory about a background solution fails if the background spacetime has a Killing symmetry and a compact spacelike Cauchy surface. This failure, dubbed as linearization instability, shows itself as non-integrability of the perturbative infinitesimal deformation to a finite deformation of the background. Namely, the linearized field equations have spurious solutions which cannot be obtained from the linearization of exact solutions. In practice, one can show the failure of the linear perturbation theory by showing that a certain quadratic (integral) constraint on the linearized solutions is not satisfied. For non-compact Cauchy surfaces, the situation is different and for example, Minkowski space having a non-compact Cauchy surface, is linearization stable. Here we study, the linearization instability in generic metric theories of gravity where Einstein's theory is modified with additional curvature terms. We show that, unlike the case of general relativity, for modified theories even in the non-compact Cauchy surface cases, there are some theories which show linearization instability about their anti-de Sitter backgrounds. Recent D dimensional critical and three dimensional chiral gravity theories are two such examples. This observation sheds light on the paradoxical behavior of vanishing conserved charges (mass, angular momenta) for non-vacuum solutions, such as black holes, in these theories.
The instability of internal gravity waves to localised disturbances
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Vanneste
1995-02-01
Full Text Available The instability of an internal gravity wave due to nonlinear wave-wave interaction is studied theoretically and numerically. Three different aspects of this phenomenon are examined. 1. The influence of dissipation on both the resonant and the nonresonant interactions is analysed using a normal mode expansion of the basic equations. In particular, the modifications induced in the interaction domain are calculated and as a result some modes are shown to be destabilised by dissipation. 2. The evolution of an initial unstable disturbance of finite vertical extent is described as the growth of two secondary wave packets travelling at the same group velocity. A quasi-linear correction to the basic primary wave is calculated, corresponding to a localised amplitude decrease due to the disturbance growth. 3. Numerical experiments are carried out to study the effect of a basic shear on wave instability. It appears that the growing secondary waves can have a frequency larger than that of the primary wave, provided that the shear is sufficient. The instability of waves with large amplitude and long period, such as tides or planetary waves, could therefore be invoked as a possible mechanism for the generation of gravity waves with shorter period in the middle atmosphere.
Centrifugally Driven Rayleigh-Taylor Instability
Scase, Matthew; Hill, Richard
2017-11-01
The instability that develops at the interface between two fluids of differing density due to the rapid rotation of the system may be considered as a limit of high-rotation rate Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Previously the authors have considered the effect of rotation on a gravitationally dominated Rayleigh-Taylor instability and have shown that some growth modes of instability may be suppressed completely by the stabilizing effect of rotation (Phys. Rev. Fluids 2:024801, Sci. Rep. 5:11706). Here we consider the case of very high rotation rates and a negligible gravitational field. The initial condition is of a dense inner cylinder of fluid surrounded by a lighter layer of fluid. As the system is rotated about the generating axis of the cylinder, the dense inner fluid moves away from the axis and the familiar bubbles and spikes of Rayleigh-Taylor instability develop at the interface. The system may be thought of as a ``fluid-fluid centrifuge''. By developing a model based on an Orr-Sommerfeld equation, we consider the effects of viscosity, surface tension and interface diffusion on the growth rate and modes of instability. We show that under particular circumstances some modes may be stabilized. School of Mathematical Sciences.
Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yoon, Peter H., E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan)
2014-07-15
The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function.
Bernstein instability driven by thermal ring distribution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yoon, Peter H.; Hadi, Fazal; Qamar, Anisa
2014-01-01
The classic Bernstein waves may be intimately related to banded emissions detected in laboratory plasmas, terrestrial, and other planetary magnetospheres. However, the customary discussion of the Bernstein wave is based upon isotropic thermal velocity distribution function. In order to understand how such waves can be excited, one needs an emission mechanism, i.e., an instability. In non-relativistic collision-less plasmas, the only known Bernstein wave instability is that associated with a cold perpendicular velocity ring distribution function. However, cold ring distribution is highly idealized. The present Brief Communication generalizes the cold ring distribution model to include thermal spread, so that the Bernstein-ring instability is described by a more realistic electron distribution function, with which the stabilization by thermal spread associated with the ring distribution is demonstrated. The present findings imply that the excitation of Bernstein waves requires a sufficiently high perpendicular velocity gradient associated with the electron distribution function
Instability of combined gravity-inertial-Rossby waves in atmospheres and oceans
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. F. McKenzie
2011-06-01
Full Text Available The properties of the instability of combined gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane are investigated. The wave-energy exchange equation shows that there is an exchange of energy with the background stratified medium. The energy source driving the instability lies in the background enthalpy released by the gravitational buoyancy force. It is shown that if the phase speed of the westward propagating low frequency-long wavelength Rossby wave exceeds the Poincaré-Kelvin (or "equivalent" shallow water wave speed, instability arises from the merging of Rossby and Poincaré modes. There are two key parameters in this instability condition; namely, the equatorial/rotational Mach (or Froude number M and the latitude θ0 of the β-plane. In general waves equatorward of a critical latitude for given M can be driven unstable, with corresponding growth rates of the order of a day or so. Although these conclusions may only be safely drawn for short wavelengths corresponding to a JWKB wave packet propagating internally and located far from boundaries, nevertheless such a local instability may play a significant role in atmosphere-ocean dynamics.
Composition driven structural instability in perovskite ferroelectrics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chao Xu
2017-04-01
Full Text Available Ferroelectric solid solutions usually exhibit enhanced functional properties at the morphotropic phase boundary separating two ferroelectric phases with different orientations of polarization. The underlying mechanism is generally associated with polarization rotational instability and the flattened free energy profile. In this work we show that the polarization extensional instability can also be induced at the morphotropic phase boundary beyond the reported polar-nonpolar phase boundary. The piezoelectricity enhanced by this mechanism exhibits excellent thermal stability, which helps to develop high performance piezoelectric materials with good temperature stability.
Controlling chaos in the current-driven ion acoustic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fukuyama, T.; Taniguchi, K.; Kawai, Y.
2002-01-01
Control of intermittent chaos caused by the current-driven ion acoustic instability is attempted and the controlling mechanism is investigated. When a small negative dc voltage is applied to the chaotic system as a perturbation, the system changes from a chaotic state to a periodic state while maintaining the instability, indicating that the chaotic state caused by the ion acoustic instability is well controlled by applying a small negative dc voltage. A hysteresis structure is observed on the V-I curve of the mesh grid to which the negative dc voltage to control is applied. Furthermore, when a negative dc voltage is applied to the state which shows a laminar structure existing under same experimental conditions, the system becomes chaotic via a bifurcation. Driven-chaos is excited when a negative dc voltage is applied to the laminar state. Applying a small negative dc voltage leads to controlling intermittent chaos while exciting driven-chaos
Oblique Alfvén instabilities driven by compensated currents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Malovichko, P. [Main Astronomical Observatory, NASU, Kyiv (Ukraine); Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J., E-mail: voitenko@oma.be [Solar-Terrestrial Centre of Excellence, Space Physics Division, Belgian Institute for Space Aeronomy, Ringlaan-3-Avenue Circulaire, B-1180 Brussels (Belgium)
2014-01-10
Compensated-current systems created by energetic ion beams are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas. The well-known examples are foreshock regions in the solar wind and around supernova remnants. We found a new oblique Alfvénic instability driven by compensated currents flowing along the background magnetic field. Because of the vastly different electron and ion gyroradii, oblique Alfvénic perturbations react differently on the currents carried by the hot ion beams and the return electron currents. Ultimately, this difference leads to a non-resonant aperiodic instability at perpendicular wavelengths close to the beam ion gyroradius. The instability growth rate increases with increasing beam current and temperature. In the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock, the instability growth time can drop below 10 proton cyclotron periods. Our results suggest that this instability can contribute to the turbulence and ion acceleration in space and astrophysical foreshocks.
Oblique Alfvén instabilities driven by compensated currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malovichko, P.; Voitenko, Y.; De Keyser, J.
2014-01-01
Compensated-current systems created by energetic ion beams are widespread in space and astrophysical plasmas. The well-known examples are foreshock regions in the solar wind and around supernova remnants. We found a new oblique Alfvénic instability driven by compensated currents flowing along the background magnetic field. Because of the vastly different electron and ion gyroradii, oblique Alfvénic perturbations react differently on the currents carried by the hot ion beams and the return electron currents. Ultimately, this difference leads to a non-resonant aperiodic instability at perpendicular wavelengths close to the beam ion gyroradius. The instability growth rate increases with increasing beam current and temperature. In the solar wind upstream of Earth's bow shock, the instability growth time can drop below 10 proton cyclotron periods. Our results suggest that this instability can contribute to the turbulence and ion acceleration in space and astrophysical foreshocks.
Thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myung, Yun Soo; Moon, Taeyoon
2014-01-01
We study thermodynamic and classical instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. These include the BTZ black hole in new massive gravity, Schwarzschild-AdS black hole, and higher-dimensional AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. All thermodynamic quantities which are computed using the Abbot-Deser-Tekin method are used to study thermodynamic instability of AdS black holes. On the other hand, we investigate the s-mode Gregory-Laflamme instability of the massive graviton propagating around the AdS black holes. We establish the connection between the thermodynamic instability and the GL instability of AdS black holes in fourth-order gravity. This shows that the Gubser-Mitra conjecture holds for AdS black holes found from fourth-order gravity
Curvature-driven instabilities in the Elmo Bumpy Torus (EBT)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, H.; Spong, D.A.; Antonsen, T.M. Jr.; Tsang, K.T.; Nguyen, K.T.
1982-01-01
Curvature-driven instabilities are analyzed for an EBT configuration which consists of plasma interacting with a hot electron ring whose drift frequencies are larger than the growth rates predicted from conventional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. Stability criteria are obtained for five possible modes: the conventional hot electron interchange, a high-frequency hot electron interchange (at frequencies greater than the ion-cyclotron frequency), a compressional instability, a background plasma interchange, and an interacting pressure-driven interchange. A wide parameter regime for stable operation is found, which, however, severely deteriorates for a band of intermediate mode numbers. Finite Larmor radius effects can eliminate this deterioration; moreover, all short-wavelength curvature-driven modes are stabilized if the hot electron Larmor radius rho/sub h/ satisfies (kappa/sub perpendicular/rho/sub h/) 2 > 2Δ/[Rβ/sub h/(1 + P'/sub parallel//P'/sub perpendicular/)], where kappa/sub perpendicular/ is the transverse wavenumber, Δ is the ring half-width, R is the mid-plane radius of curvature, β/sub h/ is the hot electron beta value, and P' is the pressure gradient. Resonant wave-particle instabilities predicted by a new low frequency variational principle show that a variety of remnant instabilities may still persist
Two-dimensional simulations of magnetically-driven instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Peterson, D.; Bowers, R.; Greene, A.E.; Brownell, J.
1986-01-01
A two-dimensional Eulerian MHD code is used to study the evolution of magnetically-driven instabilities in cylindrical geometry. The code incorporates an equation of state, resistivity, and radiative cooling model appropriate for an aluminum plasma. The simulations explore the effects of initial perturbations, electrical resistivity, and radiative cooling on the growth and saturation of the instabilities. Comparisons are made between the 2-D simulations, previous 1-D simulations, and results from the Pioneer experiments of the Los Alamos foil implosion program
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhadauria, Beer S. [Babasaheb Bhimrao Ambedkar Univ., Lucknow (India). Dept. of Applied Mathematics and Statistics; Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Mathematics; Srivastava, Atul K. [Banaras Hindu Univ., Varanasi (India). Dept. of Mathematics; Sacheti, Nirmal C.; Chandran, Pallath [Sultan Qaboos Univ., Muscat (Oman). Dept. of Mathematics
2012-01-15
The present paper deals with a thermal instability problem in a viscoelastic fluid saturating an anisotropic porous medium under gravity modulation. To find the gravity modulation effect, the gravity field is considered in two parts: a constant part and an externally imposed time-dependent periodic part. The time-dependent part of the gravity field, which can be realized by shaking the fluid, has been represented by a sinusoidal function. Using Hill's equation and the Floquet theory, the convective threshold has been obtained. It is found that gravity modulation can significantly affect the stability limits of the system. Further, we find that there is a competition between the synchronous and subharmonic modes of convection at the onset of instability. Effects of various parameters on the onset of instability have also been discussed. (orig.)
Ponderomotive force effects on temperature-gradient-driven instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sundaram, A.K.; Hershkowitz, N.
1992-01-01
The modification of temperature-gradient-driven instabilities due to the presence of nonuniform radio-frequency fields near the ion cyclotron frequency is investigated in the linear regime. Employing the fluid theory, it is shown that the induced field line compression caused by ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) fields makes the net parallel compressibility positive, and thus provides a stabilizing influence on the ion-temperature-gradient-driven mode for an appropriately tailored profile of radio-frequency (rf) pressure. Concomitantly, the radial ponderomotive force generates an additional contribution via coupling between the perturbed fluid motion and the equilibrium ponderomotive force and this effect plays the role of dissipation to enhance or decrease the growth of temperature-gradient-driven modes depending upon the sign of rf pressure gradients. For decreased growth of temperature-gradient-driven instabilities, the plasma density gradients and rf pressure gradients must have opposite signs while enhancement in growth arises when both gradients have the same sign. Finally, the kinetic effects associated with these modes are briefly discussed
Kinetic instabilities in the solar wind driven by temperature anisotropies
Yoon, Peter H.
2017-12-01
The present paper comprises a review of kinetic instabilities that may be operative in the solar wind, and how they influence the dynamics thereof. The review is limited to collective plasma instabilities driven by the temperature anisotropies. To limit the scope even further, the discussion is restricted to the temperature anisotropy-driven instabilities within the model of bi-Maxwellian plasma velocity distribution function. The effects of multiple particle species or the influence of field-aligned drift will not be included. The field-aligned drift or beam is particularly prominent for the solar wind electrons, and thus ignoring its effect leaves out a vast portion of important physics. Nevertheless, for the sake of limiting the scope, this effect will not be discussed. The exposition is within the context of linear and quasilinear Vlasov kinetic theories. The discussion does not cover either computer simulations or data analyses of observations, in any systematic manner, although references will be made to published works pertaining to these methods. The scientific rationale for the present analysis is that the anisotropic temperatures associated with charged particles are pervasively detected in the solar wind, and it is one of the key contemporary scientific research topics to correctly characterize how such anisotropies are generated, maintained, and regulated in the solar wind. The present article aims to provide an up-to-date theoretical development on this research topic, largely based on the author's own work.
Surface Tension Driven Instability in the Regime of Stokes Flow
Yao, Zhenwei; Bowick, Mark; Xing, Xiangjun
2010-03-01
A cylinder of liquid inside another liquid is unstable towards droplet formation. This instability is driven by minimization of surface tension energy and was analyzed first by [1,2] and then by [3]. We revisit this problem in the limit of small Laplace number, where the inertial of liquids can be completely ignored. The stream function is found to obey biharmonic equation, and its analytic solutions are found. We rederive Tomotika's main results, and also obtain many new analytic results about the velocity fields. We also apply our formalism to study the recent experiment on toroidal liquid droplet[4]. Our framework shall have many applications in micro-fluidics. [1] L.Rayleigh, On The Instability of A Cylinder of Viscous Liquid Under Capillary Force, Scientific Papers, Cambridge, Vol.III, 1902. [2] L.Rayleigh, On The Instability of Cylindrical Fluid Surfaces, Scientific Papers, Cambridge, Vol.III, 1902. [3] S.Tomotika, On the Instability of a Cylindrical Thread of a Viscous Liquid surround by Another Viscous Fluid, Proceedings of the Royal Society of London. Series A, Mathematical and Physical Sciences, Volume 150, Issue 870, pp. 322-337. [4] E.Pairam and A.Fern'andez-Nieves, Generation and Stability of Toroidal Droplets in a Viscous Liquid, Physical Review Letters 102, 234501 (2009).
Mizuno, Yosuke; Lyubarsky, Yuri; ishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Hardee, Philip E.
2010-01-01
We have investigated the development of current-driven (CD) kink instability through three-dimensional relativistic MHD simulations. A static force-free equilibrium helical magnetic configuration is considered in order to study the influence of the initial configuration on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability. We found that the initial configuration is strongly distorted but not disrupted by the kink instability. The instability develops as predicted by linear theory. In the non-linear regime the kink amplitude continues to increase up to the terminal simulation time, albeit at different rates, for all but one simulation. The growth rate and nonlinear evolution of the CD kink instability depends moderately on the density profile and strongly on the magnetic pitch profile. The growth rate of the kink mode is reduced in the linear regime by an increase in the magnetic pitch with radius and the non-linear regime is reached at a later time than for constant helical pitch. On the other hand, the growth rate of the kink mode is increased in the linear regime by a decrease in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the non-linear regime sooner than the case with constant magnetic pitch. Kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime for decreasing magnetic pitch leads to a slender helically twisted column wrapped by magnetic field. On the other hand, kink amplitude growth in the non-linear regime nearly ceases for increasing magnetic pitch.
Parametric instabilities in resonantly-driven Bose–Einstein condensates
Lellouch, S.; Goldman, N.
2018-04-01
Shaking optical lattices in a resonant manner offers an efficient and versatile method to devise artificial gauge fields and topological band structures for ultracold atomic gases. This was recently demonstrated through the experimental realization of the Harper–Hofstadter model, which combined optical superlattices and resonant time-modulations. Adding inter-particle interactions to these engineered band systems is expected to lead to strongly-correlated states with topological features, such as fractional Chern insulators. However, the interplay between interactions and external time-periodic drives typically triggers violent instabilities and uncontrollable heating, hence potentially ruling out the possibility of accessing such intriguing states of matter in experiments. In this work, we study the early-stage parametric instabilities that occur in systems of resonantly-driven Bose–Einstein condensates in optical lattices. We apply and extend an approach based on Bogoliubov theory (Lellouch et al 2017 Phys. Rev. X 7 021015) to a variety of resonantly-driven band models, from a simple shaken Wannier–Stark ladder to the more intriguing driven-induced Harper–Hofstadter model. In particular, we provide ab initio numerical and analytical predictions for the stability properties of these topical models. This work sheds light on general features that could guide current experiments to stable regimes of operation.
Electron temperature gradient driven instability in the tokamak boundary plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Diamond, P.H.
1992-01-01
A general method is developed for calculating boundary plasma fluctuations across a magnetic separatrix in a tokamak with a divertor or a limiter. The slab model, which assumes a periodic plasma in the edge reaching the divertor or limiter plate in the scrape-off layer(SOL), should provide a good estimate, if the radial extent of the fluctuation quantities across the separatrix to the edge is small compared to that given by finite particle banana orbit. The Laplace transform is used for solving the initial value problem. The electron temperature gradient(ETG) driven instability is found to grow like t -1/2 e γmt
Nonlinear features of the energy beam-driven instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lesur, M.; Idomura, Y.; Garbet, X.
2009-01-01
Full text: A concern with ignited fusion plasmas is that, as a result of the instabilities they trigger, the high-energy particles eject themselves before they could give their energy to the core to sustain the reaction. Similarities between this class of instabilities and the so-called Berk-Breizman problem motivate us to study a single-mode instability driven by an energetic particle beam. For this purpose, a one dimensional Vlasov simulation is extended to include a Krook collision operator and external damping processes. The code is benchmarked with previous work. The fully nonlinear behavior is recovered in the whole parameter space characterized by an effective relaxation rate ν a and an external damping rate γ d . Steady state, periodic and chaotic behaviors are observed in nonlinear solutions. In the regime above marginal stability where both ν a and γ d are smaller than the linear drive γ L , we observe a good agreement of steady saturation levels between the simulation and theory. Near marginal stability, the role of the normalized relaxation rate ν a /(γ L -γ d ), which is a key parameter to predict the behavior of the solution, is investigated for an initial distribution with relatively small γ L , which correspond to the situation considered in the theory. In the low relaxation rate regime, frequency sweeping events are observed, and the time-evolution of such event is investigated. (author)
Transient many-body instability in driven Dirac materials
Pertsova, Anna; Triola, Christopher; Balatsky, Alexander
The defining feature of a Dirac material (DM) is the presence of nodes in the low-energy excitation spectrum leading to a strong energy dependence of the density of states (DOS). The vanishing of the DOS at the nodal point implies a very low effective coupling constant which leads to stability of the node against electron-electron interactions. Non-equilibrium or driven DM, in which the DOS and hence the effective coupling can be controlled by external drive, offer a new platform for investigating collective instabilities. In this work, we discuss the possibility of realizing transient collective states in driven DMs. Motivated by recent pump-probe experiments which demonstrate the existence of long-lived photo-excited states in DMs, we consider an example of a transient excitonic instability in an optically-pumped DM. We identify experimental signatures of the transient excitonic condensate and provide estimates of the critical temperatures and lifetimes of these states for few important examples of DMs, such as single-layer graphene and topological-insulator surfaces.
Condensation during gravity driven ECC: Experiments with PACTEL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Munther, R.; Kalli, H. [Lappeenranta Univ. of Technology (Finland); Kouhia, J. [Technical Research Centre of Finland, Lappeenranta (Finland)
1995-09-01
This paper provides the results of the second series of gravity driven emergency core cooling (ECC) experiments with PACTEL (Parallel Channel Test Loop). The simulated accident was a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) with a break in a cold leg. The ECC flow was provided from a core makeup tank (CMT) located at a higher elevation than the main part of the primary system. The CMT was pressurized with pipings from the pressurizer and a cold leg. The tests indicated that steam condensation in the CMT can prevent ECC and lead to core uncovery.
Libration-Driven Elliptical Instability Experiments in Ellipsoidal Shells
Grannan, A. M.; Lemasquerier, D. G.; Favier, B.; Cebron, D.; Le Bars, M.; Aurnou, J. M.
2016-12-01
Planets and satellites can be subjected to physical libration, which consists in forced periodic variations in their rotation rate induced by gravitational interactions with nearby bodies. These librations may mechanically drive turbulence in interior liquid layers such as subsurface oceans and metallic liquid cores. One possible driving-process is called the Libration-Driven Elliptical Instability (LDEI) and refers to the resonance of two inertial modes with the libration induced base flow. LDEI has been experimentally and numerically studied in the case of a full ellipsoid (e.g. Cébron et al. [2012c], Grannan et al. [2014] and Favier et al. [2015]). In this study, we address the question of the persistence of the LDEI in the theoretically complex case of an ellipsoidal shell which is more geophysically relevant to model planetary liquid layers. We use an ellipsoidal acrylic container filled with water and add spherical inner cores of different sizes. We perform direct side-view visualizations of the flow in the librating frame using Kalliroscope particles. A Fourier analysis of the light intensity extracted from the recorded movies shows that LDEI persists in a shell geometry for a libration frequency which is 4 and 2.4 time the rotation rate, and allows an identification of the mode coupling. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is performed in vertical and horizontal planes on a selected case to confirm our light intensity results. Additionaly, our survey at a fixed forcing-frequency and variable Ekman number (E) allows a comparison with a local stability analysis, and shows that the libration amplitude at the threshold of the instability varies as ≈[E0.63, E0.72]. When extrapolating to planetary interiors conditions, such a scaling leads to an easier excitation of the elliptical instability than the E0.5 scaling commonly considered.
Evaporation-driven instability of the precorneal tear film.
Peng, Cheng-Chun; Cerretani, Colin; Braun, Richard J; Radke, C J
2014-04-01
Tear-film instability is widely believed to be a signature of eye health. When an interblink is prolonged, randomly distributed ruptures occur in the tear film. "Black spots" and/or "black streaks" appear in 15 to 40 s for normal individuals. For people who suffer from dry eye, tear-film breakup time (BUT) is typically less than a few seconds. To date, however, there is no satisfactory quantitative explanation for the origin of tear rupture. Recently, it was proposed that tear-film breakup is related to locally high evaporative thinning. A spatial variation in the thickness of the tear-film lipid layer (TFLL) may lead to locally elevated evaporation and subsequent tear-film breakup. We examine the local-evaporation-driven tear-film-rupture hypothesis in a one-dimensional (1-D) model for the evolution of a thin aqueous tear film overriding the cornea subject to locally elevated evaporation at its anterior surface and osmotic water influx at its posterior surface. Evaporation rate depends on mass transfer both through the coating lipid layer and through ambient air. We establish that evaporation-driven tear-film breakup can occur under normal conditions but only for higher aqueous evaporation rates. Predicted roles of environmental conditions, such as wind speed and relative humidity, on tear-film stability agree with clinical observations. More importantly, locally elevated evaporation leads to hyperosmolar spots in the tear film and, hence, vulnerability to epithelial irritation. In addition to evaporation rate, tear-film instability depends on the strength of healing flow from the neighboring region outside the breakup region, which is determined by the surface tension at the tear-film surface and by the repulsive thin-film disjoining pressure. This study provides a physically consistent and quantitative explanation for the formation of black streaks and spots in the human tear film during an interblink. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thermal instability in a gravity-like scalar theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brandt, F. T.; Frenkel, J.; Das, Ashok
2008-01-01
We study the question of stability of the ground state of a scalar theory which is a generalization of the φ 3 theory and has some similarity to gravity with a cosmological constant. We show that the ground state of the theory at zero temperature becomes unstable above a certain critical temperature, which is evaluated in closed form at high temperature.
Hybrid simulations of radial transport driven by the Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Delamere, P. A.; Stauffer, B. H.; Ma, X.
2017-12-01
Plasma transport in the rapidly rotating giant magnetospheres is thought to involve a centrifugally-driven flux tube interchange instability, similar to the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability. In three dimensions, the convective flow patterns associated with the RT instability can produce strong guide field reconnection, allowing plasma mass to move radially outward while conserving magnetic flux (Ma et al., 2016). We present a set of hybrid (kinetic ion / fluid electron) plasma simulations of the RT instability using high plasma beta conditions appropriate for Jupiter's inner and middle magnetosphere. A density gradient, combined with a centrifugal force, provide appropriate RT onset conditions. Pressure balance is achieved by initializing two ion populations: one with fixed temperature, but varying density, and the other with fixed density, but a temperature gradient that offsets the density gradient from the first population and the centrifugal force (effective gravity). We first analyze two-dimensional results for the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field by comparing growth rates as a function of wave vector following Huba et al. (1998). Prescribed perpendicular wave modes are seeded with an initial velocity perturbation. We then extend the model to three dimensions, introducing a stabilizing parallel wave vector. Boundary conditions in the parallel direction prohibit motion of the magnetic field line footprints to model the eigenmodes of the magnetodisc's resonant cavity. We again compare growth rates based on perpendicular wave number, but also on the parallel extent of the resonant cavity, which fixes the size of the largest parallel wavelength. Finally, we search for evidence of strong guide field magnetic reconnection within the domain by identifying areas with large parallel electric fields or changes in magnetic field topology.
Off-equatorial current-driven instabilities ahead of approaching dipolarization fronts
Zhang, Xu; Angelopoulos, V.; Pritchett, P. L.; Liu, Jiang
2017-05-01
Recent kinetic simulations have revealed that electromagnetic instabilities near the ion gyrofrequency and slightly away from the equatorial plane can be driven by a current parallel to the magnetic field prior to the arrival of dipolarization fronts. Such instabilities are important because of their potential contribution to global electromagnetic energy conversion near dipolarization fronts. Of the several instabilities that may be consistent with such waves, the most notable are the current-driven electromagnetic ion cyclotron instability and the current-driven kink-like instability. To confirm the existence and characteristics of these instabilities, we used observations by two Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorms satellites, one near the neutral sheet observing dipolarization fronts and the other at the boundary layer observing precursor waves and currents. We found that such instabilities with monochromatic signatures are rare, but one of the few cases was selected for further study. Two different instabilities, one at about 0.3 Hz and the other at a much lower frequency, 0.02 Hz, were seen in the data from the off-equatorial spacecraft. A parallel current attributed to an electron beam coexisted with the waves. Our instability analysis attributes the higher-frequency instability to a current-driven ion cyclotron instability and the lower frequency instability to a kink-like instability. The current-driven kink-like instability we observed is consistent with the instabilities observed in the simulation. We suggest that the currents needed to excite these low-frequency instabilities are so intense that the associated electron beams are easily thermalized and hence difficult to observe.
Mass-induced instability of SAdS black hole in Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity
Myung, Yun Soo
2018-05-01
We perform the stability analysis of Schwarzschild-AdS (SAdS) black hole in the Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity. It shows that the Ricci tensor perturbations exhibit unstable modes for small black holes. We call this the mass-induced instability of SAdS black hole because the instability of small black holes arises from the massiveness in the linearized Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity, but not a feature of higher-order derivative theory giving ghost states. Also, we point out that the correlated stability conjecture holds for the SAdS black hole by computing the Wald entropy of SAdS black hole in Einstein-Ricci cubic gravity.
The Effect of Surface Tension on the Gravity-driven Thin Film Flow of Newtonian and Power-law Fluids
Hu, Bin; Kieweg, Sarah L.
2012-01-01
Gravity-driven thin film flow is of importance in many fields, as well as for the design of polymeric drug delivery vehicles, such as anti-HIV topical microbicides. There have been many prior works on gravity-driven thin films. However, the incorporation of surface tension effect has not been well studied for non-Newtonian fluids. After surface tension effect was incorporated into our 2D (i.e. 1D spreading) power-law model, we found that surface tension effect not only impacted the spreading speed of the microbicide gel, but also had an influence on the shape of the 2D spreading profile. We observed a capillary ridge at the front of the fluid bolus. Previous literature shows that the emergence of a capillary ridge is strongly related to the contact line fingering instability. Fingering instabilities during epithelial coating may change the microbicide gel distribution and therefore impact how well it can protect the epithelium. In this study, we focused on the capillary ridge in 2D flow and performed a series of simulations and showed how the capillary ridge height varies with other parameters, such as surface tension coefficient, inclination angle, initial thickness, and power-law parameters. As shown in our results, we found that capillary ridge height increased with higher surface tension, steeper inclination angle, bigger initial thickness, and more Newtonian fluids. This study provides the initial insights of how to optimize the flow and prevent the appearance of a capillary ridge and fingering instability. PMID:23687391
Spike morphology in blast-wave-driven instability experiments
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuranz, C. C.; Drake, R. P.; Grosskopf, M. J.; Fryxell, B.; Budde, A.; Hansen, J. F.; Miles, A. R.; Plewa, T.; Hearn, N.; Knauer, J.
2010-01-01
The laboratory experiments described in the present paper observe the blast-wave-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability with three-dimensional (3D) initial conditions. About 5 kJ of energy from the Omega laser creates conditions similar to those of the He-H interface during the explosion phase of a supernova. The experimental target is a 150 μm thick plastic disk followed by a low-density foam. The plastic piece has an embedded, 3D perturbation. The basic structure of the pattern is two orthogonal sine waves where each sine wave has an amplitude of 2.5 μm and a wavelength of 71 μm. In some experiments, an additional wavelength is added to explore the interaction of modes. In experiments with 3D initial conditions the spike morphology differs from what has been observed in other Rayleigh-Taylor experiments and simulations. Under certain conditions, experimental radiographs show some mass extending from the interface to the shock front. Current simulations show neither the spike morphology nor the spike penetration observed in the experiments. The amount of mass reaching the shock front is analyzed and potential causes for the spike morphology and the spikes reaching the shock are discussed. One such hypothesis is that these phenomena may be caused by magnetic pressure, generated by an azimuthal magnetic field produced by the plasma dynamics.
Curvature-driven instabilities in a hot-electron plasma: radial analysis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Van Dam, J.W.; Rosenbluth, M.N.; Spong, D.A.
1981-12-01
The theory of unfavorable curvature-driven instabilities is developed for a plasma interacting with a hot electron ring whose drift frequencies are larger than the growth rates predicted from conventional magnetohydrodynamic theory. A z-pinch model is used to emphasize the radial structure of the problem. Stability criteria are obtained for the five possible modes of instability: the conventional hot electron interchange, a high-frequency hot electron interchange (at frequencies larger than the ion cyclotron frequency), a compressional instability, a background pressure-driven interchange, and an interacting pressure-driven interchange
Unified formulation for inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silveira, O.J.G.; Ziebell, L.F.; Gaelzer, R.; Yoon, Peter H.
2002-01-01
A local dispersion relation that describes inhomogeneity-driven instabilities in the lower-hybrid range is derived following a procedure that correctly describes energy exchange between waves and particles in inhomogeneous media, correcting some inherent ambiguities associated with the standard formalism found in the literature. Numerical solutions of this improved dispersion relation show that it constitutes a unified formulation for the instabilities in the lower-hybrid range, describing the so-called modified two-stream instability, excited by the ion cross-field drift, including the ion Weibel instability, and also describing the lower-hybrid drift instability, which is due to inhomogeneity effects on the electron population
A nonlinear scenario for development of vortex layer instability in gravity field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goncharov, V. P.
2007-01-01
A Hamiltonian version of contour dynamics is formulated for models of constant-vorticity plane flows with interfaces. The proposed approach is used as a framework for a nonlinear scenario for instability development. Localized vortex blobs are analyzed as structural elements of a strongly perturbed wall layer of a vorticity-carrying fluid with free boundary in gravity field. Gravity and vorticity effects on the geometry and velocity of vortex structures are examined. It is shown that compactly supported nonlinear solutions (compactons) are candidates for the role of particle-like vortex structures in models of flow breakdown. An analysis of the instability mechanism demonstrates the possibility of a self-similar collapse. It is found that the vortex shape stabilizes at the final stage of the collapse, while the vortex sheet strength on its boundary increases as (t 0 - t) -1 , where t 0 is the collapse time
MAGNETOROTATIONAL-INSTABILITY-DRIVEN ACCRETION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai Xuening
2011-01-01
Non-ideal MHD effects play an important role in the gas dynamics in protoplanetary disks (PPDs). This paper addresses the influence of non-ideal MHD effects on the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and angular momentum transport in PPDs using the most up-to-date results from numerical simulations. We perform chemistry calculations using a complex reaction network with standard prescriptions for X-ray and cosmic-ray ionizations. We first show that whether or not grains are included, the recombination time is at least one order of magnitude less than the orbital time within five disk scale heights, justifying the validity of local ionization equilibrium and strong coupling limit in PPDs. The full conductivity tensor at different disk radii and heights is evaluated, with the MRI active region determined by requiring that (1) the Ohmic Elsasser number Λ be greater than 1 and (2) the ratio of gas to magnetic pressure β be greater than β min (Am) as identified in the recent study by Bai and Stone, where Am is the Elsasser number for ambipolar diffusion. With full flexibility as to the magnetic field strength, we provide a general framework for estimating the MRI-driven accretion rate M-dot and the magnetic field strength in the MRI active layer. We find that the MRI active layer always exists at any disk radius as long as the magnetic field in PPDs is sufficiently weak. However, the optimistically predicted M-dot in the inner disk (r = 1-10 AU) appears insufficient to account for the observed range of accretion rates in PPDs (around 10 -8 M sun yr -1 ) even in the grain-free calculation, and the presence of solar abundance sub-micron grains further reduces M-dot by one to two orders of magnitude. Moreover, we find that the predicted M-dot increases with radius in the inner disk where accretion is layered, which would lead to runaway mass accumulation if disk accretion is solely driven by the MRI. Our results suggest that stronger sources of ionization and
Radiation loss driven instabilities in laser heated plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evans, R.G.
1985-01-01
Any plasma in which a significant part of the power balance is due to optically thin radiative losses may be subject to a radiation cooling instability. A simple analytical model gives the dispersion relation for the instability and inclusion of a realistic radiation loss term in a two dimensional hydrodynamic simulation shows that ''jet'' like features form in moderate to high Z plasmas
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nakamura, Y; Watanabe, T; Nagao, A; Nakamura, K; Kikuchi, M; Aoki, T; Hiraki, N; Itoh, S [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics; Mitarai, O
1982-02-01
Critical condition for current-driven instability excited in turbulently heated TRIAM-1 tokamak plasma is investigated experimentally. Resistive hump in loop voltage, plasma density fluctuation and rapid increase of electron temperature in a skin layer are simultaneously observed at the time when the electron drift velocity amounts to the critical drift velocity for low-frequency ion acoustic instability.
Anisotropy-Driven Instability in Intense Charged Particle Beams
Startsev, Edward; Qin, Hong
2005-01-01
In electrically neutral plasmas with strongly anisotropic distribution functions, free energy is available to drive different collective instabilities such as the electrostatic Harris instability and the transverse electromagnetic Weibel instability. Such anisotropies develop naturally in particle accelerators and may lead to a detoriation of beam quality. We have generalized the analysis of the classical Harris and Weibel instabilities to the case of a one-component intense charged particle beam with anisotropic temperature including the important effects of finite transverse geometry and beam space-charge. For a long costing beam, the delta-f particle-in-cell code BEST and the eighenmode code bEASt have been used to determine detailed 3D stability properties over a wide range of temperature anisotropy and beam intensity. A theoretical model is developed which describes the essential features of the linear stage of these instabilities. Both, the simulations and analytical theory, clearly show that moderately...
Algorithms for optimization of branching gravity-driven water networks
Dardani, Ian; Jones, Gerard F.
2018-05-01
The design of a water network involves the selection of pipe diameters that satisfy pressure and flow requirements while considering cost. A variety of design approaches can be used to optimize for hydraulic performance or reduce costs. To help designers select an appropriate approach in the context of gravity-driven water networks (GDWNs), this work assesses three cost-minimization algorithms on six moderate-scale GDWN test cases. Two algorithms, a backtracking algorithm and a genetic algorithm, use a set of discrete pipe diameters, while a new calculus-based algorithm produces a continuous-diameter solution which is mapped onto a discrete-diameter set. The backtracking algorithm finds the global optimum for all but the largest of cases tested, for which its long runtime makes it an infeasible option. The calculus-based algorithm's discrete-diameter solution produced slightly higher-cost results but was more scalable to larger network cases. Furthermore, the new calculus-based algorithm's continuous-diameter and mapped solutions provided lower and upper bounds, respectively, on the discrete-diameter global optimum cost, where the mapped solutions were typically within one diameter size of the global optimum. The genetic algorithm produced solutions even closer to the global optimum with consistently short run times, although slightly higher solution costs were seen for the larger network cases tested. The results of this study highlight the advantages and weaknesses of each GDWN design method including closeness to the global optimum, the ability to prune the solution space of infeasible and suboptimal candidates without missing the global optimum, and algorithm run time. We also extend an existing closed-form model of Jones (2011) to include minor losses and a more comprehensive two-part cost model, which realistically applies to pipe sizes that span a broad range typical of GDWNs of interest in this work, and for smooth and commercial steel roughness values.
Algorithms for optimization of branching gravity-driven water networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
I. Dardani
2018-05-01
Full Text Available The design of a water network involves the selection of pipe diameters that satisfy pressure and flow requirements while considering cost. A variety of design approaches can be used to optimize for hydraulic performance or reduce costs. To help designers select an appropriate approach in the context of gravity-driven water networks (GDWNs, this work assesses three cost-minimization algorithms on six moderate-scale GDWN test cases. Two algorithms, a backtracking algorithm and a genetic algorithm, use a set of discrete pipe diameters, while a new calculus-based algorithm produces a continuous-diameter solution which is mapped onto a discrete-diameter set. The backtracking algorithm finds the global optimum for all but the largest of cases tested, for which its long runtime makes it an infeasible option. The calculus-based algorithm's discrete-diameter solution produced slightly higher-cost results but was more scalable to larger network cases. Furthermore, the new calculus-based algorithm's continuous-diameter and mapped solutions provided lower and upper bounds, respectively, on the discrete-diameter global optimum cost, where the mapped solutions were typically within one diameter size of the global optimum. The genetic algorithm produced solutions even closer to the global optimum with consistently short run times, although slightly higher solution costs were seen for the larger network cases tested. The results of this study highlight the advantages and weaknesses of each GDWN design method including closeness to the global optimum, the ability to prune the solution space of infeasible and suboptimal candidates without missing the global optimum, and algorithm run time. We also extend an existing closed-form model of Jones (2011 to include minor losses and a more comprehensive two-part cost model, which realistically applies to pipe sizes that span a broad range typical of GDWNs of interest in this work, and for smooth and commercial steel
Inhomogeneity driven by Higgs instability in a gapless superconductor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giannakis, Ioannis; Hou Defu; Huang Mei; Ren Haicang
2007-01-01
The fluctuations of the Higgs and pseudo Nambu-Goldstone fields in the 2-flavor color superconductivity (2SC) phase with mismatched pairing are described in the nonlinear realization framework of the gauged Nambu-Jona-Lasinio model. In the gapless 2SC phase, not only Nambu-Goldstone currents can be spontaneously generated, but also the Higgs field exhibits instablity. The Nambu-Goldstone currents generation indicates the formation of the single plane wave Larkin-Ovchinnikov-Fulde-Ferrel state and breaks rotation symmetry, while the Higgs instability favors spatial inhomogeneity and breaks translation invariance. In this paper, we focus on the Higgs instability which has not drawn much attention yet. The Higgs instability cannot be removed without a long range force, thus it persists in the gapless superfluidity and induces phase separation. In the case of gapless 2-flavor color superconductivity state, the Higgs instability can only be partially removed by the electric Coulomb energy. However, it is not excluded that the Higgs instability might be completely removed in the charge neutral gapless color-flavor locked phase by the color Coulomb energy
Magnetically-Driven Convergent Instability Growth platform on Z.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Knapp, Patrick [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Mattsson, Thomas [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Matthew [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Benage, John F. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jenkins, James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Albright, Brian James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-09-01
Hydrodynamic instability growth is a fundamentally limiting process in many applications. In High Energy Density Physics (HEDP) systems such as inertial confinement fusion implosions and stellar explosions, hydro instabilities can dominate the evolution of the object and largely determine the final state achievable. Of particular interest is the process by which instabilities cause perturbations at a density or material interface to grow nonlinearly, introducing vorticity and eventually causing the two species to mix across the interface. Although quantifying instabilities has been the subject of many investigations in planar geometry, few have been done in converging geometry. During FY17, the team executed six convergent geometry instability experiments. Based on earlier results, the platform was redesigned and improved with respect to load centering at installation making the installation reproducible and development of a new 7.2 keV, Co He-a backlighter system to better penetrate the liner. Together, the improvements yielded significantly improved experimental results. The results in FY17 demonstrate the viability of using experiments on Z to quantify instability growth in cylindrically convergent geometry. Going forward, we will continue the partnership with staff and management at LANL to analyze the past experiments, compare to hydrodynamics growth models, and design future experiments.
The Current-Driven, Ion-Acoustic Instability in a Collisionless Plasma
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Michelsen, Poul; Pécseli, Hans; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1979-01-01
The current-driven, ion-acoustic instability was investigated by means of an experiment performed in a collisionless plasma produced in a single-ended Q-machine. Reflections at the ends of the plasma column gave rise to a standing wave. Parameters of the instability were investigated, and it was ......, and it was demonstrated that the fluctuations in the plasma column behave as a classical Van der Pol oscillator. Accurate measurements of the growth rate of the instability can be performed by making explicit use of the particular properties of such a system.......The current-driven, ion-acoustic instability was investigated by means of an experiment performed in a collisionless plasma produced in a single-ended Q-machine. Reflections at the ends of the plasma column gave rise to a standing wave. Parameters of the instability were investigated...
RECONNECTION-DRIVEN CORONAL-HOLE JETS WITH GRAVITY AND SOLAR WIND
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karpen, J. T.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K. [Heliophysics Science Division, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt MD 20771 (United States); Pariat, E. [LESIA, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Research University, CNRS, Sorbonne Université, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Univ. Paris Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 5 place Jules Janssen, F-92195 Meudon (France)
2017-01-01
Coronal-hole jets occur ubiquitously in the Sun's coronal holes, at EUV and X-ray bright points associated with intrusions of minority magnetic polarity. The embedded-bipole model for these jets posits that they are driven by explosive, fast reconnection between the stressed closed field of the embedded bipole and the open field of the surrounding coronal hole. Previous numerical studies in Cartesian geometry, assuming uniform ambient magnetic field and plasma while neglecting gravity and solar wind, demonstrated that the model is robust and can produce jet-like events in simple configurations. We have extended these investigations by including spherical geometry, gravity, and solar wind in a nonuniform, coronal hole-like ambient atmosphere. Our simulations confirm that the jet is initiated by the onset of a kink-like instability of the internal closed field, which induces a burst of reconnection between the closed and external open field, launching a helical jet. Our new results demonstrate that the jet propagation is sustained through the outer corona, in the form of a traveling nonlinear Alfvén wave front trailed by slower-moving plasma density enhancements that are compressed and accelerated by the wave. This finding agrees well with observations of white-light coronal-hole jets, and can explain microstreams and torsional Alfvén waves detected in situ in the solar wind. We also use our numerical results to deduce scaling relationships between properties of the coronal source region and the characteristics of the resulting jet, which can be tested against observations.
Laser induced ablatively driven interfacial nonlinear fluid instabilities in multilayer targets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manoranjan Khan; Gupta, M.R.; Mandal, L.K.; Roy, S.; Banerjee, R.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. High power laser driven shock waves in condensed matter have important application for studying equation of state (EOS) and high pressure physics. This is an important phenomenon in fuel compression for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) experiments where multilayer targets of differing shock impedance are interacted by laser induced shocks. The interface between the two fluid becomes unstable when driven by the impulsive force (Richtmyer-Meshkov) due to such a shock wave or a continuously acting force e.g., gravity (Rayleigh-Taylor). In the nonlinear stage, the fluid interface is found to develop structures having finger-like shapes. The structures resemble a bubble (spike) accordingly as a lighter (heavier) fluid pushes in a heavier (lighter) fluid. These effects need to be mitigated for efficient compression in ICF experiment. We have studied the effect of density variation on R-T and R-M instability on the temporal development of nonlinear two fluid interfacial structures like bubble and spike. It is shown that the velocity of bubble or spike decreases leading to stabilization if the density of the fluids leads to lowering of the Atwood number. The Atwood number A = ρ a -ρ b / ρ a +ρ b changes to A* = ρ a *ρ b */ ρ a *ρ b * where ρ* m = ρ m (1-1/γ m ), m = [a,b], assuming ρ a > ρ b . It has been seen that the stabilization or destabilization (depending on the algebraic sign of the gradient) will be proportional to the pressure p 0 at the interface. The set of equation describing the dynamics of the bubbles and spikes in presence of fluid density variation are not analytically integrable in closed form. All the results are derived by numerical methods and are represented and interpreted. Analytical calculations are performed (not presented here) to modify the dynamical boundary condition between the two fluids and we have finally arrived at the following expression for the asymptotic bubble velocity ν b 2 = 2(r
Kinetic theory of Jean instability in Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Martino, Ivan de [University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, Department of Theoretical Physics and History of Science, Faculty of Science and Technology, Leioa (Spain); Capolupo, Antonio [Universita di Salerno, Dipartimento di Fisica E.R. Caianiello, Fisciano (Italy); INFN Gruppo Collegato di Salerno, Fisciano (Italy)
2017-10-15
We analyze the stability of self-gravitating systems which dynamics is investigated using the collisionless Boltzmann equation, and the modified Poisson equation of Eddington-inspired Born-Infield gravity. These equations provide a description of the Jeans paradigm used to determine the critical scale above which such systems collapse. At equilibrium, the systems are described using the time-independent Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution function f{sub 0}(v). Considering small perturbations to this equilibrium state, we obtain a modified dispersion relation, and we find a new characteristic scale length. Our results indicate that the dynamics of self-gravitating astrophysical systems can be fully addressed in the Eddington-inspired Born-Infeld gravity. The latter modifies the Jeans instability in high densities environments, while its effects become negligible in star formation regions. (orig.)
Dynamic posturography using a new movable multidirectional platform driven by gravity.
Commissaris, D.A.C.M.; Nieuwenhuijzen, P.H.J.A.; Overeem, S.; Vos, A. de; Duysens, J.E.J.; Bloem, B.R.
2002-01-01
Human upright balance control can be quantified using movable platforms driven by servo-controlled torque motors (dynamic posturography). We introduce a new movable platform driven by the force of gravity acting upon the platform and the subject standing on it. The platform consists of a 1 m2 metal
Dynamic posturography using a new movable multidirectional platform driven by gravity
Commissaris, D.A.C.M.; Nieuwenhuijzen, P.H.J.A.; Overeem, S.; Vos, A. de; Duysens, J.E.J.; Bloem, B.R.
2002-01-01
Human upright balance control can be quantified using movable platforms driven by servo-controlled torque motors (dynamic posturography). We introduce a new movable platform driven by the force of gravity acting upon the platform and the subject standing on it. The platform consists of a 1 m(2)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nojiri, Shin'ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2007-01-01
We consider class of modified f(R) gravities with the effective cosmological constant epoch at the early and late universe. Such models pass most of solar system tests as well they satisfy to cosmological bounds. Despite their very attractive properties, it is shown that one realistic class of such models may lead to significant Newton law corrections at large cosmological scales. Nevertheless, these corrections are small at solar system as well as at the future universe. Another realistic model with acceptable Newton law regime shows the matter instability
Majority of Solar Wind Intervals Support Ion-Driven Instabilities
Klein, K. G.; Alterman, B. L.; Stevens, M. L.; Vech, D.; Kasper, J. C.
2018-05-01
We perform a statistical assessment of solar wind stability at 1 AU against ion sources of free energy using Nyquist's instability criterion. In contrast to typically employed threshold models which consider a single free-energy source, this method includes the effects of proton and He2 + temperature anisotropy with respect to the background magnetic field as well as relative drifts between the proton core, proton beam, and He2 + components on stability. Of 309 randomly selected spectra from the Wind spacecraft, 53.7% are unstable when the ion components are modeled as drifting bi-Maxwellians; only 4.5% of the spectra are unstable to long-wavelength instabilities. A majority of the instabilities occur for spectra where a proton beam is resolved. Nearly all observed instabilities have growth rates γ slower than instrumental and ion-kinetic-scale timescales. Unstable spectra are associated with relatively large He2 + drift speeds and/or a departure of the core proton temperature from isotropy; other parametric dependencies of unstable spectra are also identified.
Radial mode structure of curvature-driven instabilities in EBT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spong, D.A.
1983-01-01
Viewgraphs describe the theoretical treatment of the radial mode structure of plasma instabilities in the Elmo Bumpy Torus. The calculation retains nonlocal structure of the modes, connects inner and outer ring regions together, uses a self-consistent finite β, includes the relativistic effects for the hot electron ring, and examines a wide range of parameters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sun Shaoan
2011-11-01
Full Text Available A statistical correlation method is used to study the effect of instability of the calculation datum (used in traditional method of indirect adjustment on calculated gravity results, using data recorded by Long-men Mountain regional gravity network during 1996 – 2007. The result shows that when this effect is corrected, anomalous gravity changes before the 2008 Wenchuan Ms8.0 earthquake become obvious and characteristically distinctive. Thus the datum-stability problem must be considered when processing and analyzing data recorded by a regional gravity network.
Laughman, Brian; Wang, Ling; Lund, Thomas S.; Collins, Richard L.
2018-01-01
Abstract An anelastic numerical model is employed to explore the dynamics of gravity waves (GWs) encountering a mesosphere inversion layer (MIL) having a moderate static stability enhancement and a layer of weaker static stability above. Instabilities occur within the MIL when the GW amplitude approaches that required for GW breaking due to compression of the vertical wavelength accompanying the increasing static stability. Thus, MILs can cause large‐amplitude GWs to yield instabilities and turbulence below the altitude where they would otherwise arise. Smaller‐amplitude GWs encountering a MIL do not lead to instability and turbulence but do exhibit partial reflection and transmission, and the transmission is a smaller fraction of the incident GW when instabilities and turbulence arise within the MIL. Additionally, greater GW transmission occurs for weaker MILs and for GWs having larger vertical wavelengths relative to the MIL depth and for lower GW intrinsic frequencies. These results imply similar dynamics for inversions due to other sources, including the tropopause inversion layer, the high stability capping the polar summer mesopause, and lower frequency GWs or tides having sufficient amplitudes to yield significant variations in stability at large and small vertical scales. MILs also imply much stronger reflections and less coherent GW propagation in environments having significant fine structure in the stability and velocity fields than in environments that are smoothly varying. PMID:29576994
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mizuno, Yosuke; Nishikawa, Ken-Ichi; Lyubarsky, Yuri; Hardee, Philip E.
2009-01-01
We have investigated the development of current-driven (CD) kink instability through three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic simulations. A static force-free equilibrium helical magnetic configuration is considered in order to study the influence of the initial configuration on the linear and nonlinear evolution of the instability. We found that the initial configuration is strongly distorted but not disrupted by the kink instability. The instability develops as predicted by linear theory. In the nonlinear regime, the kink amplitude continues to increase up to the terminal simulation time, albeit at different rates, for all but one simulation. The growth rate and nonlinear evolution of the CD kink instability depend moderately on the density profile and strongly on the magnetic pitch profile. The growth rate of the kink mode is reduced in the linear regime by an increase in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the nonlinear regime at a later time than the case with constant helical pitch. On the other hand, the growth rate of the kink mode is increased in the linear regime by a decrease in the magnetic pitch with radius and reaches the nonlinear regime sooner than the case with constant magnetic pitch. Kink amplitude growth in the nonlinear regime for decreasing magnetic pitch leads to a slender helically twisted column wrapped by magnetic field. On the other hand, kink amplitude growth in the nonlinear regime nearly ceases for increasing magnetic pitch.
Ballooning-mirror instability and internally driven Pc 4--5 wave events
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheng, C.Z.; Qian, Q.; Takahashi, K.; Lui, A.T.Y.
1994-03-01
A kinetic-MHD field-aligned eigenmode stability analysis of low frequency ballooning-mirror instabilities has been performed for anisotropic pressure plasma sin the magnetosphere. The ballooning mode is mainly a transverse wave driven unstable by pressure gradient in the bad curvature region. The mirror mode with a dominant compressional magnetic field perturbation is excited when the product of plasma beta and pressure anisotropy (P perpendicular /P parallel > 1) is large. From the AMPTE/CCE particle and magnetic field data observed during Pc 4--5 wave events the authors compute the ballooning-mirror instability parameters and perform a correlation study with the theoretical instability threshold. They find that compressional Pc 5 waves approximately satisfy the ballooning-mirror instability condition, and transverse Pc 4--5 waves are probably related to resonant ballooning instabilities with small pressure anisotropy
Quantum gravity effect in torsion driven inflation and CP violation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Choudhury, Sayantan [Department of Theoretical Physics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research,Colaba, 1, Homi Bhabha Road, Mumbai 400005 (India); Pal, Barun Kumar [Inter-University Centre for Astronomy and Astrophysics,Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India); Netaji Nagar College for Women,Regent Estate, Kolkata 700092 (India); Basu, Banasri; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul [Physics and Applied Mathematics Unit, Indian Statistical Institute,203 B.T. Road, Kolkata 700 108 (India)
2015-10-28
We have derived an effective potential for inflationary scenario from torsion and quantum gravity correction in terms of the scalar field hidden in torsion. A strict bound on the CP violating θ parameter, O(10{sup −10})<θ
Quantum gravity effect in torsion driven inflation and CP violation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Choudhury, Sayantan; Pal, Barun Kumar; Basu, Banasri; Bandyopadhyay, Pratul
2015-01-01
We have derived an effective potential for inflationary scenario from torsion and quantum gravity correction in terms of the scalar field hidden in torsion. A strict bound on the CP violating θ parameter, O(10"−"1"0)<θ< O(10"−"9) has been obtained, using Planck+WMAP9 best fit cosmological parameters.
Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Max Karasik
1999-01-01
Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes
Driven Motion and Instability of an Atmospheric Pressure Arc
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Max Karasik
1999-12-01
Atmospheric pressure arcs are used extensively in applications such as welding and metallurgy. However, comparatively little is known of the physics of such arcs in external magnetic fields and the mechanisms of the instabilities present. In order to address questions of equilibrium and stability of such arcs, an experimental arc furnace is constructed and operated in air with graphite cathode and steel anode at currents 100-250 A. The arc is diagnosed with a gated intensified camera and a collimated photodiode array, as well as fast voltage and current probes.
TAE Saturation of Alpha Particle Driven Instability in TFTR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berk, H.L.; Chen, Y.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; White, R.B.
1998-01-01
A nonlinear theory of kinetic instabilities near threshold [H.L. Berk, et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 23, (1997) 842] is applied to calculate the saturation level of Toroidicity-induced Alfvn Eigenmodes (TAE) and be compared with the predictions of (delta)f method calculations [Y. Chen, Ph.D. Thesis, Princeton University, 1998]. Good agreement is observed between the predictions of both methods and the predicted saturation levels are comparable with experimentally measured amplitudes of the TAE oscillations in TFTR [D.J. Grove and D.M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25, (1985) 1167
Instability-induced ordering, universal unfolding and the role of gravity in granular Couette flow
Alam, Meheboob; Arakeri, V. H.; Nott, P. R.; Goddard, J. D.; Herrmann, H. J.
2005-01-01
Linear stability theory and bifurcation analysis are used to investigate the role of gravity in shear-band formation in granular Couette flow, considering a kinetic-theory rheological model. We show that the only possible state, at low shear rates, corresponds to a "plug" near the bottom wall, in which the particles are densely packed and the shear rate is close to zero, and a uniformly sheared dilute region above it. The origin of such plugged states is shown to be tied to the spontaneous symmetry-breaking instabilities of the gravity-free uniform shear flow, leading to the formation of ordered bands of alternating dilute and dense regions in the transverse direction, via an infinite hierarchy of pitchfork bifurcations. Gravity plays the role of an "imperfection", thus destroying the "perfect" bifurcation structure of uniform shear. The present bifurcation problem admits universal unfolding of pitchfork bifurcations which subsequently leads to the formation of a sequence of a countably infinite number of "isolas", with the solution structures being a modulated version of their gravity-free counterpart. While the solution with a plug near the bottom wall looks remarkably similar to the shear-banding phenomenon in dense slow granular Couette flows, a "floating" plug near the top wall is also a solution of these equations at high shear rates. A two-dimensional linear stability analysis suggests that these floating plugged states are unstable to long-wave travelling disturbances.The unique solution having a bottom plug can also be unstable to long waves, but remains stable at sufficiently low shear rates. The implications and realizability of the present results are discussed in the light of shear-cell experiments under "microgravity" conditions.
Electronically driven short-range lattice instability: Possible role in superconductive pairing
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Szasz, A.
1991-01-01
A superconducting pairing mechanism is suggested, mediating by collective and coherent cluster fluctuations in the materials. The model, based on a geometrical frustration, proposes a dynamic effect driven by a special short-range electronic instability. Experimental support for this model is discussed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spong, D.A.; Shaing, K.C.; Carreras, B.A.; Charlton, L.A.; Callen, J.D.; Garcia, L.
1988-10-01
The linearized neoclassical magnetohydrodynamic equations, including perturbed neoclassical flows and currents, have been solved for parameter regimes where the neoclassical pressure-gradient-driven instability becomes important. This instability is driven by the fluctuating bootstrap current term in Ohm's law. It begins to dominate the conventional resistive ballooning mode in the banana-plateau collisionality regime [μ/sub e//ν/sub e/ /approximately/ √ε/(1 + ν/sub *e/) > ε 2 ] and is characterized by a larger radial mode width and higher growth rate. The neoclassical instability persists in the absence of the usual magnetic field curvature drive and is not significantly affected by compressibility. Scalings with respect to β, n (toroidal mode number), and μ (neoclassical viscosity) are examined using a large-aspect-ratio, three-dimensional initial-value code that solves linearized equations for the magnetic flux, fluid vorticity, density, and parallel ion flow velocity in axisymmetric toroidal geometry. 13 refs., 10 figs
A line driven Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability in hot stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nelson, G.D.; Hearn, A.G.
1978-01-01
The existence of a Rayleigh-Taylor-type instability in the atmosphere of hot stars, driven by the radiative force associated with impurity ion resonance lines, is demonstrated. In a hot star with an effective temperature of 50 000 K, the instability will grow exponentially with a time scale of approximately 50 s in the layers where the stellar wind velocity is 5% of the thermal velocity of the ion. As a result, radially symmetric stellar winds driven by resonance line radiative forces will break up in small horizontal scale lengths. The energy fed into the instability provides a possible source of mechanical heating in the atmosphere for a chromosphere or corona. (orig.) [de
Comparative study of the loss cone-driven instabilities in the low solar corona
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharma, R.R.; Vlahos, L.
1984-01-01
A comparative study of the loss cone--driven instabilities in the low solar corona is undertaken. The instailities considered are the electron maser, the whistler, and the electrostatic upper hybrid. We show that the first-harmonic extraordinary mode of the electron cyclotron maser instability is the fastest growing mode for strongly magnetized plasma (ω/sub e//Ω/sub e/ 1.0, no direct electromagnetic radiation is expected since other instabilities, which do not escape directly, saturate the electron cyclotron maser (the whistler or the electrostatic upper hybrid waves). We also show that the second-harmonic electron cyclotron maser emission never grows to an appreciable level. Thus, we suggest that the electron cyclotron maser instability can be the explanation for intense radio bursts only when the first harmonic escapes from the low corona. We propose a possible explanation for the escape of the first harmonic from a flaring loop
A numerical study of Richtmyer endash Meshkov instability driven by cylindrical shocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, Q.; Graham, M.J.
1998-01-01
As an incident shock wave hits a material interface between two fluids of different densities, the interface becomes unstable. Small disturbances at the interface start to grow. This interfacial instability is known as a Richtmyer endash Meshkov (RM) instability. It plays an important role in the studies of inertial confinement fusion and supernova. The majority of studies of the RM instability were in plane geometry emdash namely, plane shocks in Cartesian coordinates. We present a systematic numerical study of the RM instability driven by cylindrical shocks for both the imploding and exploding cases. The imploding (exploding) case refers to a cylindrical shock colliding with the material interface from the outside in (inside out). The phenomenon of reshock caused by the waves reflected from the origin is also studied. A qualitative understanding of this system has been achieved. Detailed studies of the growth rate of the fingers at the unstable interface are presented. copyright 1998 American Institute of Physics
The evolution of a localized nonlinear wave of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with gravity
Orazzo, Annagrazia; Hoepffner, Jérôme
2012-11-01
At the interface between two fluids of different density and in the presence of gravity, there are well known periodic surface waves which can propagate for long distances with little attenuation, as it is for instance the case at the surface of the sea. If wind is present, these waves progressively accumulate energy as they propagate and grow to large sizes—this is the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. On the other hand, we show in this paper that for a given wind strength, there is potential for the growth of a localized nonlinear wave. This wave can reach a size such that the hydrostatic pressure drop from top to bottom equals the stagnation pressure of the wind. This process for the disruption of the flat interface is localized and nonlinear. We study the properties of this wave using numerical simulations of the Navier-Stokes equations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Labakanta Mandal; Banerjee, R.; Roy, S.; Khan, M.; Gupta, M.R.
2010-01-01
Complete text of publication follows. In an Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) situation, laser driven ablation front of an imploding capsule is subjected to the fluid instabilities like Rayleigh-Taylor (RT), Richtmyer-Meshkov (RM) and Kelvin-Helmholtz (KH) instability. In this case dense core is compressed and accelerated by low density ablating plasma. During this process laser driven shocks interact the interface and hence it becomes unstable due to the formation of nonlinear structure like bubble and spike. The nonlinear structure is called bubble if the lighter fluid pushes inside the heavier fluid and spike, if opposite takes place. R-M instability causes non-uniform compression of ICF fuel pellets and needs to be mitigated. Scientists and researchers are much more interested on RM instability both from theoretical and experimental points of view. In this article, we have presented the analytical expression for the growth rate and velocity for the nonlinear structures due to the effect of magnetic field of fluid using potential flow model. The magnetic field is assumed to be parallel to the plane of two fluid interfaces. If the magnetic field is restricted only to either side of interface the R-M instability can be stabilized or destabilized depending on whether the magnetic pressure on the interface opposes the instability driving shock pressure or acts in the same direction. An interesting result is that if both the fluids are magnetized, interface as well as velocity of bubble and spike will show oscillating stabilization and R-M instability is mitigated. All analytical results are also supported by numerical results. Numerically it is seen that magnetic field above certain minimum value reduces the instability for compression the target in ICF.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gómez, Daniel O.; DeLuca, Edward E. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Mininni, Pablo D. [Departamento de Física, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires and Instituto de Física de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2016-02-20
Recent high-resolution Atmospheric Imaging Assembly/Solar Dynamics Observatory images show evidence of the development of the Kelvin–Helmholtz (KH) instability, as coronal mass ejections (CMEs) expand in the ambient corona. A large-scale magnetic field mostly tangential to the interface is inferred, both on the CME and on the background sides. However, the magnetic field component along the shear flow is not strong enough to quench the instability. There is also observational evidence that the ambient corona is in a turbulent regime, and therefore the criteria for the development of the instability are a priori expected to differ from the laminar case. To study the evolution of the KH instability with a turbulent background, we perform three-dimensional simulations of the incompressible magnetohydrodynamic equations. The instability is driven by a velocity profile tangential to the CME–corona interface, which we simulate through a hyperbolic tangent profile. The turbulent background is generated by the application of a stationary stirring force. We compute the instability growth rate for different values of the turbulence intensity, and find that the role of turbulence is to attenuate the growth. The fact that KH instability is observed sets an upper limit on the correlation length of the coronal background turbulence.
Theory of the current-driven ion cyclotron instability in the bottomside ionosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Satyanarayana, P.; Chaturvedi, P.K.; Keskinen, M.J.; Huba, J.D.; Ossakow, S.L.
1985-01-01
A theory of the current-driven electrostatic ion cyclotron (EIC) instability in the collisional bottomside ionosphere is presented. It is found that electron collisions are destabilizing and are crucial for the excitation of the EIC instability in the collisional bottomside ionosphere. Furthermore, the growth rates of the ion cyclotron instability in the bottomside ionosphere maximize for k/sub perpendicular/ rho/sub i/> or =1, where 2π/k/sub perpendicular/ is the mode scale size perpendicular to the magnetic field and rho/sub i/ the ion gyroradius. Realistic plasma density and temperature profiles typical of the high-latitude ionosphere are used to compute the altitude dependence of the linear growth rate of the maximally growing modes and critical drift velocity of the EIC instability. The maximally growing modes correspond to observed tens of meter size irregularities, and the threshold drift velocity required for the excitation of EIC instability is lower for heavier ions (NO + , O + ) than that for the lighter ions (H + ). Dupree's resonance-broadening theory is used to estimate nonlinear saturated amplitudes for the ion cyclotron instability in the high-latitude ionosphere. Comparison with experimental observations is also made. It is conjectured that the EIC instability in the bottomside ionosphere could be a source of transversely accelerated heavier ions and energetic heavy-ion conic distributions at higher altitudes
LASNEX simulations of the classical and laser-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikaelian, K.O.
1990-01-01
We present the results of two-dimensional LASNEX simulations of the classical and laser-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Our growth rates and eigenmodes for classical two- and three-fluid problems agree closely with the exact analytic expressions. We illustrate in several examples how perturbations feed through from one interface to another. For targets driven by a 1/4-μm laser at I=2x10 14 W/cm 2 our growth rates are 40--80 % of the classical case rates for wavelengths between 5 and 100 μm. We find that radiation transport has a stabilizing effect on the Rayleigh-Taylor instability, particularly at high intensities. A brief comparison with a laser-driven experiment is also presented
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gilman, Peter A., E-mail: gilman@ucar.edu [High Altitude Observatory, National Center for Atmospheric Research, 3080 Center Green, Boulder, CO 80307-3000 (United States)
2017-06-20
We present results from an MHD model for baroclinic instability in the solar tachocline that includes rotation, effective gravity, and toroidal field that vary continuously with height. We solve the perturbation equations using a shooting method. Without toroidal fields but with an effective gravity declining linearly from a maximum at the bottom to much smaller values at the top, we find instability at all latitudes except at the poles, at the equator, and where the vertical rotation gradient vanishes (32.°3) for longitude wavenumbers m from 1 to >10. High latitudes are much more unstable than low latitudes, but both have e -folding times that are much shorter than a sunspot cycle. The higher the m and the steeper the decline in effective gravity, the closer the unstable mode peak to the top boundary, where the energy available to drive instability is greatest. The effect of the toroidal field is always stabilizing, shrinking the latitude ranges of instability as the toroidal field is increased. The larger the toroidal field, the smaller the longitudinal wavenumber of the most unstable disturbance. All latitudes become stable for a toroidal field exceeding about 4 kG. The results imply that baroclinic instability should occur in the tachocline at latitudes where the toroidal field is weak or is changing sign, but not where the field is strong.
Physics of energetic particle-driven instabilities in the START spherical tokamak
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McClements, K.G.; Gryaznevich, M.P.; Akers, R.J.; Appel, L.C.; Counsell, G.F.; Roach, C.M.; Sharapov, S.E.; Majeski, R.
1999-01-01
The recent use of neutral beam injection (NBI) in the UKAEA small tight aspect ratio tokamak (START) has provided the first opportunity to study experimentally the physics of energetic ions in spherical tokamak (ST) plasmas. In such devices the ratio of major radius to minor radius R 0 /a is of order unity. Several distinct classes of NBI-driven instability have been observed at frequencies up to 1 MHz during START discharges. These observations are described, and possible interpretations are given. Equilibrium data, corresponding to times of beam-driven wave activity, are used to compute continuous shear Alfven spectra: toroidicity and high plasma beta give rise to wide spectral gaps, extending up to frequencies of several times the Alfven gap frequency. In each of these gaps Alfvenic instabilities could, in principle, be driven by energetic ions. Chirping modes observed at high beta in this frequency range have bandwidths comparable to or greater than the gap widths. Instability drive in START is provided by beam ion pressure gradients (as in conventional tokamaks), and also by positive gradients in beam ion velocity distributions, which arise from velocity-dependent charge exchange losses. It is shown that fishbone-like bursts observed at a few tens of kHz can be attributed to internal kink mode excitation by passing beam ions, while narrow-band emission at several hundred kHz may be due to excitation of fast Alfven (magnetosonic) eigenmodes. In the light of our understanding of energetic particle-driven instabilities in START, the possible existence of such instabilities in larger STs is discussed. (author)
Simulation of a Feedback System for the Attenuation of e-Cloud Driven Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M.A.; Fox, J.; Rivetta, C.; de Maria, R.; Rumolo, G.
2009-01-01
Electron clouds impose limitations on current accelerators that may be more severe for future machines, unless adequate measures of mitigation are taken. Recently, it has been proposed to use feedback systems operating at high frequency (in the GHz range) to damp single-bunch transverse coherent oscillations that may otherwise be amplified during the interaction of the beam with ambient electron clouds. We have used the simulation package WARP-POSINST and the code Headtail to study the growth rate and frequency patterns in space-time of the electron cloud driven beam breakup instability in the CERN SPS accelerator with, or without, an idealized feedback model for damping the instability.
Electron Parametric Instabilities Driven by Relativistically Intense Laser Light in Plasma
Barr, H. C.; Mason, P.; Parr, D. M.
1999-08-01
A unified treatment of electron parametric instabilities driven by ultraintense laser light in plasma is described. It is valid for any intensity, polarization, plasma density, and scattering geometry. The method is applied to linearly polarized light in both underdense plasma and overdense plasma accessible by self-induced transparency. New options arise which are hybrids of stimulated Raman scattering, the two plasmon decay, the relativistic modulational and filamentation instabilities, and stimulated harmonic generation. There is vigorous growth over a wide range of wave numbers and harmonics.
Gandikota, G; Chatain, D; Amiroudine, S; Lyubimova, T; Beysens, D
2014-01-01
The frozen-wave instability which appears at a liquid-vapor interface when a harmonic vibration is applied in a direction tangential to it has been less studied until now. The present paper reports experiments on hydrogen (H2) in order to study this instability when the temperature is varied near its critical point for various gravity levels. Close to the critical point, a liquid-vapor density difference and surface tension can be continuously varied with temperature in a scaled, universal way. The effect of gravity on the height of the frozen waves at the interface is studied by performing the experiments in a magnetic facility where effective gravity that results from the coupling of the Earth's gravity and magnetic forces can be varied. The stability diagram of the instability is obtained. The experiments show a good agreement with an inviscid model [Fluid Dyn. 21 849 (1987)], irrespective of the gravity level. It is observed in the experiments that the height of the frozen waves varies weakly with temperature and increases with a decrease in the gravity level, according to a power law with an exponent of 0.7. It is concluded that the wave height becomes of the order of the cell size as the gravity level is asymptotically decreased to zero. The interface pattern thus appears as a bandlike pattern of alternate liquid and vapor phases, a puzzling phenomenon that was observed with CO2 and H2 near their critical point in weightlessness [Acta Astron. 61 1002 (2007); Europhys. Lett. 86 16003 (2009)].
Comparative study of the loss cone-driven instabilities in the low solar corona
Sharma, R. R.; Vlahos, L.
1984-01-01
A comparative study of the loss cone-driven instabilities in the low solar corona is undertaken. The instabilities considered are the electron cyclotron maser, the whistler, and the electrostatic upper hybrid. It is shown that the first-harmonic extraordinary mode of the electron cyclotron maser instability is the fastest growing mode for strong magnetized plasma (the ratio of plasma frequency to cyclotron frequency being less than 0.35). For values of the ratio between 0.35 and 1.0, the first-harmonic ordinary mode of the electron cyclotron maser instability dominates the emission. For ratio values greater than 1.0, no direct electromagnetic radiation is expected since other instabilities, which do not escape directly, saturate the electron cyclotron maser (the whistler or the electrostatic upper hybrid waves). It is also shown that the second-harmonic electron cyclotron maser emission never grows to an appreciable level. Thus, it is suggested that the electron cyclotron maser instability can be the explanation for the escape of the first harmonic from a flaring loop.
Flow instability in laminar jet flames driven by alternating current electric fields
Kim, Gyeong Taek
2016-10-13
The effect of electric fields on the instability of laminar nonpremixed jet flames was investigated experimentally by applying the alternating current (AC) to a jet nozzle. We aimed to elucidate the origin of the occurrence of twin-lifted jet flames in laminar jet flow configurations, which occurred when AC electric fields were applied. The results indicated that a twin-lifted jet flame originated from cold jet instability, caused by interactions between negative ions in the jet flow via electron attachment as O +e→O when AC electric fields were applied. This was confirmed by conducting systematic, parametric experiment, which included changing gaseous component in jets and applying different polarity of direct current (DC) to the nozzle. Using two deflection plates installed in parallel with the jet stream, we found that only negative DC on the nozzle could charge oxygen molecules negatively. Meanwhile, the cold jet instability occurred only for oxygen-containing jets. A shedding frequency of jet stream due to AC driven instability showed a good correlation with applied AC frequency exhibiting a frequency doubling. However, for the applied AC frequencies over 80Hz, the jet did not respond to the AC, indicating an existence of a minimum flow induction time in a dynamic response of negative ions to external AC fields. Detailed regime of the instability in terms of jet velocity, AC voltage and frequency was presented and discussed. Hypothesized mechanism to explain the instability was also proposed.
Diffusive smoothing of surfzone bathymetry by gravity-driven sediment transport
Moulton, M. R.; Elgar, S.; Raubenheimer, B.
2012-12-01
Gravity-driven sediment transport often is assumed to have a small effect on the evolution of nearshore morphology. Here, it is shown that down-slope gravity-driven sediment transport is an important process acting to smooth steep bathymetric features in the surfzone. Gravity-driven transport can be modeled as a diffusive term in the sediment continuity equation governing temporal (t) changes in bed level (h): ∂h/∂t ≈ κ ▽2h, where κ is a sediment diffusion coefficient that is a function of the bed shear stress (τb) and sediment properties, such as the grain size and the angle of repose. Field observations of waves, currents, and the evolution of large excavated holes (initially 10-m wide and 2-m deep, with sides as steep as 35°) in an energetic surfzone are consistent with diffusive smoothing by gravity. Specifically, comparisons of κ estimated from the measured bed evolution with those estimated with numerical model results for several transport theories suggest that gravity-driven sediment transport dominates the bed evolution, with κ proportional to a power of τb. The models are initiated with observed bathymetry and forced with observed waves and currents. The diffusion coefficients from the measurements and from the model simulations were on average of order 10-5 m2/s, implying evolution time scales of days for features with length scales of 10 m. The dependence of κ on τb varies for different transport theories and for high and low shear stress regimes. The US Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility, Duck, NC provided excellent logistical support. Funded by a National Security Science and Engineering Faculty Fellowship, a National Defense Science and Engineering Graduate Fellowship, and the Office of Naval Research.
Theory of the corrugation instability of a piston-driven shock wave.
Bates, J W
2015-01-01
We analyze the two-dimensional stability of a shock wave driven by a steadily moving corrugated piston in an inviscid fluid with an arbitrary equation of state. For h≤-1 or h>h(c), where h is the D'yakov parameter and h(c) is the Kontorovich limit, we find that small perturbations on the shock front are unstable and grow--at first quadratically and later linearly--with time. Such instabilities are associated with nonequilibrium fluid states and imply a nonunique solution to the hydrodynamic equations. The above criteria are consistent with instability limits observed in shock-tube experiments involving ionizing and dissociating gases and may have important implications for driven shocks in laser-fusion, astrophysical, and/or detonation studies.
Instabilities of line-driven stellar winds. V. Effect of an optically thick continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Owocki, S.P.; Rybicki, G.B.
1991-01-01
Earlier analyses of the linear instability of line-driven stellar winds are extended to the case, relevant to Wolf-Rayet stars, in which the continuum remains optically thick well above the sonic point. It is found that an optically thick flow driven by pure scattering lines is stabilized by the drag effect of the diffuse, scattered radiation. However, even a relatively small photon destruction probability can cause a flow with continuum optical thickness much greater than 1 to remain unstable, with a given growth rate. The implications of these results for the variability characteristics of winds from Wolf-Rayet stars are briefly discussed. 16 refs
Unified theory of ballooning instabilities and temperature gradient driven trapped ion modes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xu, X.Q.
1990-08-01
A unified theory of temperature gradient driven trapped ion modes and ballooning instabilities is developed using kinetic theory in banana regimes. All known results, such as electrostatic and purely magnetic trapped particle modes and ideal MHD ballooning modes (or shear Alfven waves) are readily derived from our single general dispersion relation. Several new results from ion-ion collision and trapped particle modification of ballooning modes are derived and discussed and the interrelationship between those modes is established. 24 refs
A Study of Current Driven Electrostatic Instability on the Auroral Zone
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Y. Kim
1986-12-01
Full Text Available According to recent satellite observations, strong ion transverse acceleration to the magnetic field(ion conics has been known. The ion conics may be a result of electrostatic waves frequently observed on the auroral zone. Both linear and nonlinear theory of electrostatic instability driven by an electron current based on 1-dimenstional particle simulation experiment have been considered. From the results of simulation strong ion transverse acceleration has been shown.
Instability and transport driven by an electron temperature gradient close to critical
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dong, J.Q.; Jian, G.D.; Wang, A.K.; Sanuki, H.; Itoh, K.
2003-01-01
Electron temperature gradient (ETG) driven instability in toroidal plasmas is studied with gyrokinetic theory. The full electron kinetics is considered. The upgraded numerical scheme for solving the integral eigenvalue equations allows the study of both growing and damping modes, and thus direct calculation of critical gradient. Algebraic formulas for the critical gradient with respect to ratio of electron temperature over ion temperature and to toroidicity are given. An estimation for turbulence induced transport is presented. (author)
Averaging processes in granular flows driven by gravity
Rossi, Giulia; Armanini, Aronne
2016-04-01
One of the more promising theoretical frames to analyse the two-phase granular flows is offered by the similarity of their rheology with the kinetic theory of gases [1]. Granular flows can be considered a macroscopic equivalent of the molecular case: the collisions among molecules are compared to the collisions among grains at a macroscopic scale [2,3]. However there are important statistical differences in dealing with the two applications. In the two-phase fluid mechanics, there are two main types of average: the phasic average and the mass weighed average [4]. The kinetic theories assume that the size of atoms is so small, that the number of molecules in a control volume is infinite. With this assumption, the concentration (number of particles n) doesn't change during the averaging process and the two definitions of average coincide. This hypothesis is no more true in granular flows: contrary to gases, the dimension of a single particle becomes comparable to that of the control volume. For this reason, in a single realization the number of grain is constant and the two averages coincide; on the contrary, for more than one realization, n is no more constant and the two types of average lead to different results. Therefore, the ensamble average used in the standard kinetic theory (which usually is the phasic average) is suitable for the single realization, but not for several realization, as already pointed out in [5,6]. In the literature, three main length scales have been identified [7]: the smallest is the particles size, the intermediate consists in the local averaging (in order to describe some instability phenomena or secondary circulation) and the largest arises from phenomena such as large eddies in turbulence. Our aim is to solve the intermediate scale, by applying the mass weighted average, when dealing with more than one realizations. This statistical approach leads to additional diffusive terms in the continuity equation: starting from experimental
On the spreading and instability of gravity current fronts of arbitrary shape
Zgheib, N.; Bonometti, T.; Balachandar, S.
2012-11-01
Experiments, simulations and theoretical analysis were carried out to study the influence of geometry on the spreading of gravity currents. The horizontal spreading of three different intial planforms of initial release were investigated: an extended ellipse, a cross, and a circle. The experiments used a pulley system for a swift nearly instantaneous release. The case of the axisymmetric cylinder compared favorably with earlier simulations. We ran experiments for multiple aspect ratios for all three configurations. Perhaps the most intriguing of the three cases is the ``ellipse,'' which within a short period of release flipped the major and minor axes. This behavior cannot be captured by current theoretical methods (such as the Box Model). These cases have also been investigated using shallow water and direct numerical simulations. Also, in this study, we investigate the possibility of a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability of the radially moving, but decelerating front. We present a simple theoretical framework based on the inviscid Shallow Water Equations. The theoretical results are supplemented and compared to highly resolved three-dimensional simulations with the Boussinesq approximation. Chateaubriand Fellowship - NSF PIRE grant OISE-0968313.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Makinde, O.D.
2005-10-01
In this paper, the first and second law of thermodynamics are employed in order to study the inherent irreversibility for a gravity driven non-Newtonian Ostwald-de Waele power law liquid film along an inclined isothermal plate. Based on some simplified assumptions, the governing equations are obtained and solved analytically. Expressions for fluid velocity, temperature, volumetric entropy generation numbers, irreversibility distribution ratio and the Bejan number are also determined. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pivi, Mauro; Raubenheimer, Tor O.; Ghalam, Ali; Harkay, Katherine; Ohmi, Kazuhito; Wanzenberg, Rainer; Wolski, Andrzej; Zimmermann, Frank
2005-01-01
Collective instabilities caused by the formation of an electron cloud (EC) are a potential limitation to the performances of the damping rings for a future linear collider. In this paper, we present recent simulation results for the electron cloud build-up in damping rings of different circumferences and discuss the single-bunch instabilities driven by the electron cloud
Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. F. McKenzie
2009-11-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θc versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θc~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.
Instability of coupled gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in solar system atmospheres
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. F. McKenzie
2009-11-01
Full Text Available This paper provides an analysis of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves on a β-plane in the Boussinesq approximation. The wave equation for the system is fifth order in space and time and demonstrates how gravity-inertial waves on the one hand are coupled to Rossby waves on the other through the combined effects of β, the stratification characterized by the Väisälä-Brunt frequency N, the Coriolis frequency f at a given latitude, and vertical propagation which permits buoyancy modes to interact with westward propagating Rossby waves. The corresponding dispersion equation shows that the frequency of a westward propagating gravity-inertial wave is reduced by the coupling, whereas the frequency of a Rossby wave is increased. If the coupling is sufficiently strong these two modes coalesce giving rise to an instability. The instability condition translates into a curve of critical latitude Θ_{c} versus effective equatorial rotational Mach number M, with the region below this curve exhibiting instability. "Supersonic" fast rotators are unstable in a narrow band of latitudes around the equator. For example Θ_{c}~12° for Jupiter. On the other hand slow "subsonic" rotators (e.g. Mercury, Venus and the Sun's Corona are unstable at all latitudes except very close to the poles where the β effect vanishes. "Transonic" rotators, such as the Earth and Mars, exhibit instability within latitudes of 34° and 39°, respectively, around the Equator. Similar results pertain to Oceans. In the case of an Earth's Ocean of depth 4km say, purely westward propagating waves are unstable up to 26° about the Equator. The nonlinear evolution of this instability which feeds off rotational energy and gravitational buoyancy may play an important role in atmospheric dynamics.
Rouhnia, Mohamad; Strom, Kyle
2015-09-01
We experimentally examine sedimentation from a freshwater suspension of clay flocs overlying saltwater in the presence of gravitational instabilities. The study seeks to determine: (1) if flocculation hampers or alters interface instability formation; (2) how the removal rates of sediment from the buoyant layer compare to those predicted by individual floc settling; and (3) whether or not it is possible to develop a model for effective settling velocity. The experiments were conducted in a tank at isothermal conditions. All experiments were initially stably stratified but later developed instabilities near the interface that grew into downward convecting plumes of fluid and sediment. Throughout, we measured sediment concentration in the upper and lower layers, floc size, and plume descent rates. The data showed that flocculation modifies the mixture settling velocity, and therefore shifts the mode of interface instability from double-diffusive (what one would expect from unflocculated clay) to settling-driven leaking and Rayleigh-Taylor instability formation. Removal rates of sediment from the upper layer in the presence of these instabilities were on the same order of magnitude as those predicted by individual floc settling. However, removal rates were found to better correlate with the speed of the interface plumes. A simple force-balance model was found to be capable of reasonably describing plume velocity based on concentration in the buoyant layer. This relation, coupled with a critical Grashof number and geometry relations, allowed us to develop a model for the effective settling velocity of the mixture based solely on integral values of the upper layer.
Current Driven Instabilities and Anomalous Mobility in Hall-effect Thrusters
Tran, Jonathan; Eckhardt, Daniel; Martin, Robert
2017-10-01
Due to the extreme cost of fully resolving the Debye length and plasma frequency, hybrid plasma simulations utilizing kinetic ions and quasi-steady state fluid electrons have long been the principle workhorse methodology for Hall-effect thruster (HET) modeling. Plasma turbulence and the resulting anomalous electron transport in HETs is a promising candidate for developing predictive models for the observed anomalous transport. In this work, we investigate the implementation of an anomalous electron cross field transport model for hybrid HET simulations such a HPHall. A theory for anomalous transport in HETs and current driven instabilities has been recently studied by Lafleur et al. This work has shown collective electron-wave scattering due to large amplitude azimuthal fluctuations of the electric field. We will further adapt the previous results for related current driven instabilities to electric propulsion relevant mass ratios and conduct a preliminary study of resolving this instability with a modified hybrid (fluid electron and kinetic ion) simulation with the hope of integration with established hybrid HET simulations. This work is supported by the Air Force Office of Scientific Research award FA9950-17RQCOR465.
Radial structure of curvature-driven instabilities in a hot-electron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spong, D.A.; Berk, H.L.; Van Dam, J.W.
1984-01-01
A nonlocal analysis of curvature-driven instabilities for a hot-electron ring interacting with a warm background plasma has been made. Four different instability modes characteristic of hot-electron plasmas have been examined: the high-frequency hot-electron interchange (at frequencies larger than the ion-cyclotron frequency), the compressional Alfven instability, the interacting background pressure-driven interchange, and the conventional hot-electron interchange (at frequencies below the ion-cyclotron frequency). The decoupling condition between core and hot-electron plasmas has also been examined, and its influence on the background and hot-electron interchange stability boundaries has been studied. The assumed equilibrium plasma profiles and resulting radial mode structure differ somewhat from those used in previous local analytic estimates; however, when the analysis is calibrated to the appropriate effective radial wavelength of the nonlocal calculation, reasonable agreement is obtained. Comparison with recent experimental measurements indicates that certain of these modes may play a role in establishing operating boundaries for the ELMO Bumpy Torus-Scale (EBT-S) experiment. The calculations given here indicate the necessity of having core plasma outside the ring to prevent the destabilizing wave resonance of the precessional mode with a cold plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gaur, Gurudatt; Das, Amita
2012-01-01
The study of electron velocity shear driven instability in electron magnetohydrodynamics (EMHD) regime in three dimensions has been carried out. It is well known that the instability is non-local in the plane defined by the flow direction and that of the shear, which is the usual Kelvin-Helmholtz mode, often termed as the sausage mode in the context of EMHD. On the other hand, a local instability with perturbations in the plane defined by the shear and the magnetic field direction exists which is termed as kink mode. The interplay of these two modes for simple sheared flow case as well as that when an external magnetic field exists has been studied extensively in the present manuscript in both linear and nonlinear regimes. Finally, these instability processes have been investigated for the exact 2D dipole solutions of EMHD equations [M. B. Isichenko and A. N. Marnachev, Sov. Phys. JETP 66, 702 (1987)] for which the electron flow velocity is sheared. It has been shown that dipoles are very robust and stable against the sausage mode as the unstable wavelengths are typically longer than the dipole size. However, we observe that they do get destabilized by the local kink mode.
Weibel instability mediated collisionless shocks using intense laser-driven plasmas
Palaniyappan, Sasikumar; Fiuza, Federico; Huang, Chengkun; Gautier, Donald; Ma, Wenjun; Schreiber, Jorg; Raymer, Abel; Fernandez, Juan; Shimada, Tom; Johnson, Randall
2017-10-01
The origin of cosmic rays remains a long-standing challenge in astrophysics and continues to fascinate physicists. It is believed that ``collisionless shocks'' - where the particle Coulomb mean free path is much larger that the shock transition - are a dominant source of energetic cosmic rays. These shocks are ubiquitous in astrophysical environments such as gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants, pulsar wind nebula and coronal mass ejections from the sun. A particular type of electromagnetic plasma instability known as Weibel instability is believed to be the dominant mechanism behind the formation of these collisionless shocks in the cosmos. The understanding of the microphysics behind collisionless shocks and their particle acceleration is tightly related with nonlinear basic plasma processes and remains a grand challenge. In this poster, we will present results from recent experiments at the LANL Trident laser facility studying collisionless shocks using intense ps laser (80J, 650 fs - peak intensity of 1020 W/cm2) driven near-critical plasmas using carbon nanotube foam targets. A second short pulse laser driven protons from few microns thick gold foil is used to radiograph the main laser-driven plasma. Work supported by the LDRD program at LANL.
Magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a rotating magnetic field
Duan, Shuchao; Xie, Weiping; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding
2018-04-01
In this paper, we analyze theoretically the magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instability driven by a rotating magnetic field. Slab configurations of finite thickness are treated both with and without using the Wenzel-Kramers-Brillouin approximation. Regardless of the slab thickness, the directional rotation of the driving magnetic field contributes to suppressing these instabilities. The two factors of the finite thickness and directional rotation of the magnetic field cooperate to enhance suppression, with the finite thickness playing a role only when the orientation of the magnetic field is time varying. The suppression becomes stronger as the driving magnetic field rotates faster, and all modes are suppressed, in contrast to the case of a non-rotating magnetic field, for which the vertical mode cannot be suppressed. This implies that the dynamically alternate configuration of a Theta-pinch and a Z-pinch may be applicable to the concept of Theta-Z liner inertial fusion.
A Comment on Interaction of Lower Hybrid Waves with the Current-Driven Ion-Acoustic Instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schrittwieser, R.; Juul Rasmussen, Jens
1985-01-01
Majeski et al. (1984) have investigated the interaction between the current-driven 'ion-acoustic' instability and high frequency lower hybrid waves. The 'ion-acoustic' instability was excited by drawing an electron current through the plasma column of a single-ended Q-machine by means...... of a positively biased cold plate. Schmittwieser et al. do not believe that the observed instability is of the ion-acoustic type but that it is rather the so-called potential relaxation instability....
Studies of energetic-ion-driven MHD instabilities in helical plasmas with low magnetic shear
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, S.; Ascasibar, E.; Jimenez-Gomez, R.
2012-11-01
We discuss the features of energetic-ion-driven MHD instabilities such as Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs) in three-dimensional magnetic configuration with low magnetic shear and low toroidal field period number (N p ) that are characteristic of advanced helical plasmas. Comparison of experimental and numerical studies in Heliotron J with those in TJ-II indicates that the most unstable AE is global AE (GAE) in low magnetic shear configuration in spite of the iota and the helicity-induced AE (HAE) is also the most unstable AE in the high iota configuration. (author)
Current driven drift instability in the W VII-A stellarator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Deutsch, R.; Wobig, H.
1978-12-01
The instability region and growth rates of current driven drift modes in the W VII-A stellarator are calculated. Several theoretical results are evaluated for specific temperature and density profiles. It is found that in the outer region of the plasma-column (r > 6 cm) collisional drift waves with wavelengths (k 2 x + K 2 y)sup(-1/2) = 0.13 - 0.3 cm exist. In this region also the electron thermal conductivity determined experimentally appears to be large. (orig./GG) [de
ARE PROTOPLANETARY DISKS BORN WITH VORTICES? ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY DRIVEN BY PROTOSTELLAR INFALL
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee [Deptartment of Astronomy, University of Michigan, 1085 S. University Ave., Ann Arbor, MI 48109 (United States); Zhu, Zhaohuan, E-mail: jaehbae@umich.edu, E-mail: lhartm@umich.edu, E-mail: zhuzh@astro.princeton.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Peyton Hall, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2015-05-20
We carry out two-fluid, two-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulations to test whether protostellar infall can trigger the Rossby wave instability (RWI) in protoplanetry disks. Our results show that infall can trigger the RWI and generate vortices near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk (i.e., centrifugal radius). We find that the RWI is triggered under a variety of conditions, although the details depend on the disk parameters and the infall pattern. The common key feature of triggering the RWI is the steep radial gradient of the azimuthal velocity induced by the local increase in density at the outer edge of the infall region. Vortices form when the instability enters the nonlinear regime. In our standard model where self-gravity is neglected, vortices merge together to a single vortex within ∼20 local orbital times, and the merged vortex survives for the remaining duration of the calculation (>170 local orbital times). The vortex takes part in outward angular momentum transport, with a Reynolds stress of ≲10{sup −2}. Our two-fluid calculations show that vortices efficiently trap dust particles with stopping times of the order of the orbital time, locally enhancing the dust to gas ratio for particles of the appropriate size by a factor of ∼40 in our standard model. When self-gravity is considered, however, vortices tend to be impeded from merging and may eventually dissipate. We conclude it may well be that protoplanetary disks have favorable conditions for vortex formation during the protostellar infall phase, which might enhance early planetary core formation.
ARE PROTOPLANETARY DISKS BORN WITH VORTICES? ROSSBY WAVE INSTABILITY DRIVEN BY PROTOSTELLAR INFALL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bae, Jaehan; Hartmann, Lee; Zhu, Zhaohuan
2015-01-01
We carry out two-fluid, two-dimensional global hydrodynamic simulations to test whether protostellar infall can trigger the Rossby wave instability (RWI) in protoplanetry disks. Our results show that infall can trigger the RWI and generate vortices near the outer edge of the mass landing on the disk (i.e., centrifugal radius). We find that the RWI is triggered under a variety of conditions, although the details depend on the disk parameters and the infall pattern. The common key feature of triggering the RWI is the steep radial gradient of the azimuthal velocity induced by the local increase in density at the outer edge of the infall region. Vortices form when the instability enters the nonlinear regime. In our standard model where self-gravity is neglected, vortices merge together to a single vortex within ∼20 local orbital times, and the merged vortex survives for the remaining duration of the calculation (>170 local orbital times). The vortex takes part in outward angular momentum transport, with a Reynolds stress of ≲10 −2 . Our two-fluid calculations show that vortices efficiently trap dust particles with stopping times of the order of the orbital time, locally enhancing the dust to gas ratio for particles of the appropriate size by a factor of ∼40 in our standard model. When self-gravity is considered, however, vortices tend to be impeded from merging and may eventually dissipate. We conclude it may well be that protoplanetary disks have favorable conditions for vortex formation during the protostellar infall phase, which might enhance early planetary core formation
Particle force model effects in a shock-driven multiphase instability
Black, W. J.; Denissen, N.; McFarland, J. A.
2018-05-01
This work presents simulations on a shock-driven multiphase instability (SDMI) at an initial particle volume fraction of 1% with the addition of a suite of particle force models applicable in dense flows. These models include pressure-gradient, added-mass, and interparticle force terms in an effort to capture the effects neighboring particles have in non-dilute flow regimes. Two studies are presented here: the first seeks to investigate the individual contributions of the force models, while the second study focuses on examining the effect of these force models on the hydrodynamic evolution of a SDMI with various particle relaxation times (particle sizes). In the force study, it was found that the pressure gradient and interparticle forces have little effect on the instability under the conditions examined, while the added-mass force decreases the vorticity deposition and alters the morphology of the instability. The relaxation-time study likewise showed a decrease in metrics associated with the evolution of the SDMI for all sizes when the particle force models were included. The inclusion of these models showed significant morphological differences in both the particle and carrier species fields, which increased as particle relaxation times increased.
PIC simulation of a thermal anisotropy-driven Weibel instability in a circular rarefaction wave
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dieckmann, M E; Sarri, G; Kourakis, I; Borghesi, M; Murphy, G C; O'C Drury, L; Bret, A; Romagnani, L; Ynnerman, A
2012-01-01
The expansion of an initially unmagnetized planar rarefaction wave has recently been shown to trigger a thermal anisotropy-driven Weibel instability (TAWI), which can generate magnetic fields from noise levels. It is examined here whether the TAWI can also grow in a curved rarefaction wave. The expansion of an initially unmagnetized circular plasma cloud, which consists of protons and hot electrons, into a vacuum is modelled for this purpose with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is shown that the momentum transfer from the electrons to the radially accelerating protons can indeed trigger a TAWI. Radial current channels form and the aperiodic growth of a magnetowave is observed, which has a magnetic field that is oriented orthogonal to the simulation plane. The induced electric field implies that the electron density gradient is no longer parallel to the electric field. Evidence is presented here that this electric field modification triggers a second magnetic instability, which results in a rotational low-frequency magnetowave. The relevance of the TAWI is discussed for the growth of small-scale magnetic fields in astrophysical environments, which are needed to explain the electromagnetic emissions by astrophysical jets. It is outlined how this instability could be examined experimentally. (paper)
PIC simulation of a thermal anisotropy-driven Weibel instability in a circular rarefaction wave
Dieckmann, M. E.; Sarri, G.; Murphy, G. C.; Bret, A.; Romagnani, L.; Kourakis, I.; Borghesi, M.; Ynnerman, A.; O'C Drury, L.
2012-02-01
The expansion of an initially unmagnetized planar rarefaction wave has recently been shown to trigger a thermal anisotropy-driven Weibel instability (TAWI), which can generate magnetic fields from noise levels. It is examined here whether the TAWI can also grow in a curved rarefaction wave. The expansion of an initially unmagnetized circular plasma cloud, which consists of protons and hot electrons, into a vacuum is modelled for this purpose with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. It is shown that the momentum transfer from the electrons to the radially accelerating protons can indeed trigger a TAWI. Radial current channels form and the aperiodic growth of a magnetowave is observed, which has a magnetic field that is oriented orthogonal to the simulation plane. The induced electric field implies that the electron density gradient is no longer parallel to the electric field. Evidence is presented here that this electric field modification triggers a second magnetic instability, which results in a rotational low-frequency magnetowave. The relevance of the TAWI is discussed for the growth of small-scale magnetic fields in astrophysical environments, which are needed to explain the electromagnetic emissions by astrophysical jets. It is outlined how this instability could be examined experimentally.
Ohdachi, Satoshi; Watanabe, Kiyomasa; Sakakibara, Satoru; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Tsuchiya, Hayato; Ming, Tingfeng; Du, Xiaodi; LHD Expriment Group Team
2014-10-01
In the Large Helical Device (LHD), the plasma is surrounded by the so-called magnetic stochastic region, where the Kolmogorov length of the magnetic field lines is very short, from several tens of meters and to thousands meters. Finite pressure gradient are formed in this region and MHD instabilities localized in this region is observed since the edge region of the LHD is always unstable against the pressure driven mode. Therefore, the saturation level of the instabilities is the key issue in order to evaluate the risk of this kind of MHD instabilities. The saturation level depends on the pressure gradient and on the magnetic Reynolds number; there results are similar to the MHD mode in the closed magnetic surface region. The saturation level in the stochastic region is affected also by the stocasticity itself. Parameter dependence of the saturation level of the MHD activities in the region is discussed in detail. It is supported by NIFS budget code ULPP021, 028 and is also partially supported by the Ministry of Education, Science, Sports and Culture, Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 26249144, by the JSPS-NRF-NSFC A3 Foresight Program NSFC: No. 11261140328.
Bandwidth Dependence of Laser Plasma Instabilities Driven by the Nike KrF Laser
Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Phillips, L.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E.; Manka, C.; Feldman, U.
2011-10-01
The Nike krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser at the Naval Research Laboratory operates in the deep UV (248 nm) and employs beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). In the first ISI studies at longer wavelengths (1054 nm and 527 nm) [Obenschain, PRL 62, 768(1989);Mostovych, PRL, 59, 1193(1987); Peyser, Phys. Fluids B 3, 1479(1991)], stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and the two plasmon decay instability were reduced when wide bandwidth ISI (δν / ν ~ 0.03-0.19%) pulses irradiated targets at moderate to high intensities (1014-1015W/cm2) . Recent Nike work showed that the threshold for quarter critical instabilities increased with the expected wavelength scaling, without accounting for the large bandwidth (δν ~ 1-3 THz). New experiments will compare laser plasma instabilities (LPI) driven by narrower bandwidth pulses to those observed with the standard operation. The bandwidth of KrF lasers can be reduced by adding narrow filters (etalons or gratings) in the initial stages of the laser. This talk will discuss the method used to narrow the output spectrum of Nike, the laser performance for this new operating mode, and target observations of LPI in planar CH targets. Work supported by DoE/NNSA.
Distinguishing thrust sequences in gravity-driven fold and thrust belts
Alsop, G. I.; Weinberger, R.; Marco, S.
2018-04-01
Piggyback or foreland-propagating thrust sequences, where younger thrusts develop in the footwalls of existing thrusts, are generally assumed to be the typical order of thrust development in most orogenic settings. However, overstep or 'break-back' sequences, where later thrusts develop above and in the hangingwalls of earlier thrusts, may potentially form during cessation of movement in gravity-driven mass transport deposits (MTDs). In this study, we provide a detailed outcrop-based analysis of such an overstep thrust sequence developed in an MTD in the southern Dead Sea Basin. Evidence that may be used to discriminate overstep thrusting from piggyback thrust sequences within the gravity-driven fold and thrust belt includes upright folds and forethrusts that are cut by younger overlying thrusts. Backthrusts form ideal markers that are also clearly offset and cut by overlying younger forethrusts. Portions of the basal detachment to the thrust system are folded and locally imbricated in footwall synclines below forethrust ramps, and these geometries also support an overstep sequence. However, new 'short-cut' basal detachments develop below these synclines, indicating that movement continued on the basal detachment rather than it being abandoned as in classic overstep sequences. Further evidence for 'synchronous thrusting', where movement on more than one thrust occurs at the same time, is provided by displacement patterns on sequences of thrust ramp imbricates that systematically increases downslope towards the toe of the MTD. Older thrusts that initiate downslope in the broadly overstep sequence continue to move and therefore accrue greater displacements during synchronous thrusting. Our study provides a template to help distinguish different thrust sequences in both orogenic settings and gravity-driven surficial systems, with displacement patterns potentially being imaged in seismic sections across offshore MTDs.
Pattern formation, social forces, and diffusion instability in games with success-driven motion
Helbing, Dirk
2009-02-01
A local agglomeration of cooperators can support the survival or spreading of cooperation, even when cooperation is predicted to die out according to the replicator equation, which is often used in evolutionary game theory to study the spreading and disappearance of strategies. In this paper, it is shown that success-driven motion can trigger such local agglomeration and may, therefore, be used to supplement other mechanisms supporting cooperation, like reputation or punishment. Success-driven motion is formulated here as a function of the game-theoretical payoffs. It can change the outcome and dynamics of spatial games dramatically, in particular as it causes attractive or repulsive interaction forces. These forces act when the spatial distributions of strategies are inhomogeneous. However, even when starting with homogeneous initial conditions, small perturbations can trigger large inhomogeneities by a pattern-formation instability, when certain conditions are fulfilled. Here, these instability conditions are studied for the prisoner’s dilemma and the snowdrift game. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that asymmetrical diffusion can drive social, economic, and biological systems into the unstable regime, if these would be stable without diffusion.
BOW SHOCK FRAGMENTATION DRIVEN BY A THERMAL INSTABILITY IN LABORATORY ASTROPHYSICS EXPERIMENTS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suzuki-Vidal, F.; Lebedev, S. V.; Pickworth, L. A.; Swadling, G. F.; Skidmore, J.; Hall, G. N.; Bennett, M.; Bland, S. N.; Burdiak, G.; De Grouchy, P.; Music, J.; Suttle, L. [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2BW (United Kingdom); Ciardi, A. [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 6, UMR 8112, LERMA, F-75005, Paris (France); Rodriguez, R.; Gil, J. M.; Espinosa, G. [Departamento de Fisica de la Universidad de Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, E-35017 Las Palmas de Gran Canaria (Spain); Hartigan, P. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rice University, 6100 S. Main, Houston, TX 77521-1892 (United States); Hansen, E.; Frank, A., E-mail: f.suzuki@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627 (United States)
2015-12-20
The role of radiative cooling during the evolution of a bow shock was studied in laboratory-astrophysics experiments that are scalable to bow shocks present in jets from young stellar objects. The laboratory bow shock is formed during the collision of two counterstreaming, supersonic plasma jets produced by an opposing pair of radial foil Z-pinches driven by the current pulse from the MAGPIE pulsed-power generator. The jets have different flow velocities in the laboratory frame, and the experiments are driven over many times the characteristic cooling timescale. The initially smooth bow shock rapidly develops small-scale nonuniformities over temporal and spatial scales that are consistent with a thermal instability triggered by strong radiative cooling in the shock. The growth of these perturbations eventually results in a global fragmentation of the bow shock front. The formation of a thermal instability is supported by analysis of the plasma cooling function calculated for the experimental conditions with the radiative packages ABAKO/RAPCAL.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Baojun Zhao
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Envelope gravity solitary waves are an important research hot spot in the field of solitary wave. And the weakly nonlinear model equations system is a part of the research of envelope gravity solitary waves. Because of the lack of technology and theory, previous studies tried hard to reduce the variable numbers and constructed the two-dimensional model in barotropic atmosphere and could only describe the propagation feature in a direction. But for the propagation of envelope gravity solitary waves in real ocean ridges and atmospheric mountains, the three-dimensional model is more appropriate. Meanwhile, the baroclinic problem of atmosphere is also an inevitable topic. In the paper, the three-dimensional coupled nonlinear Schrödinger (CNLS equations are presented to describe the evolution of envelope gravity solitary waves in baroclinic atmosphere, which are derived from the basic dynamic equations by employing perturbation and multiscale methods. The model overcomes two disadvantages: (1 baroclinic problem and (2 propagation path problem. Then, based on trial function method, we deduce the solution of the CNLS equations. Finally, modulational instability of wave trains is also discussed.
Hysteresis-controlled instability waves in a scale-free driven current sheet model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
V. M. Uritsky
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Magnetospheric dynamics is a complex multiscale process whose statistical features can be successfully reproduced using high-dimensional numerical transport models exhibiting the phenomenon of self-organized criticality (SOC. Along this line of research, a 2-dimensional driven current sheet (DCS model has recently been developed that incorporates an idealized current-driven instability with a resistive MHD plasma system (Klimas et al., 2004a, b. The dynamics of the DCS model is dominated by the scale-free diffusive energy transport characterized by a set of broadband power-law distribution functions similar to those governing the evolution of multiscale precipitation regions of energetic particles in the nighttime sector of aurora (Uritsky et al., 2002b. The scale-free DCS behavior is supported by localized current-driven instabilities that can communicate in an avalanche fashion over arbitrarily long distances thus producing current sheet waves (CSW. In this paper, we derive the analytical expression for CSW speed as a function of plasma parameters controlling local anomalous resistivity dynamics. The obtained relation indicates that the CSW propagation requires sufficiently high initial current densities, and predicts a deceleration of CSWs moving from inner plasma sheet regions toward its northern and southern boundaries. We also show that the shape of time-averaged current density profile in the DCS model is in agreement with steady-state spatial configuration of critical avalanching models as described by the singular diffusion theory of the SOC. Over shorter time scales, SOC dynamics is associated with rather complex spatial patterns and, in particular, can produce bifurcated current sheets often seen in multi-satellite observations.
Particle-driven gravity currents in non-rectangular cross section channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zemach, T.
2015-01-01
We consider a high-Reynolds-number gravity current generated by suspension of heavier particles in fluid of density ρ i , propagating along a channel into an ambient fluid of the density ρ a . The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0, H, and the cross section is given by the quite general −f 1 (z) ≤ y ≤ f 2 (z) for 0 ≤ z ≤ H. The flow is modeled by the one-layer shallow-water equations obtained for the time-dependent motion which is produced by release from rest of a fixed volume of mixture from a lock. We solve the problem by the finite-difference numerical code to present typical height h(x, t), velocity u(x, t), and volume fraction of particles (concentration) ϕ(x, t) profiles. The methodology is illustrated for flow in typical geometries: power-law (f(z) = z α and f(z) = (H − z) α , where α is positive constant), trapezoidal, and circle. In general, the speed of propagation of the flows driven by suspensions decreases compared with those driven by a reduced gravity in homogeneous currents. However, the details depend on the geometry of the cross section. The runout length of suspensions in channels of power-law cross sections is analytically predicted using a simplified depth-averaged “box” model. The present approach is a significant generalization of the classical gravity current problem. The classical formulation for a rectangular channel is now just a particular case, f(z) = const., in the wide domain of cross sections covered by this new model
Basic physics of Alfven instabilities driven by energetic particles in toroidally confined plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heidbrink, W. W.
2008-01-01
Superthermal energetic particles (EP) often drive shear Alfven waves unstable in magnetically confined plasmas. These instabilities constitute a fascinating nonlinear system where fluid and kinetic nonlinearities can appear on an equal footing. In addition to basic science, Alfven instabilities are of practical importance, as the expulsion of energetic particles can damage the walls of a confinement device. Because of rapid dispersion, shear Alfven waves that are part of the continuous spectrum are rarely destabilized. However, because the index of refraction is periodic in toroidally confined plasmas, gaps appear in the continuous spectrum. At spatial locations where the radial group velocity vanishes, weakly damped discrete modes appear in these gaps. These eigenmodes are of two types. One type is associated with frequency crossings of counterpropagating waves; the toroidal Alfven eigenmode is a prominent example. The second type is associated with an extremum of the continuous spectrum; the reversed shear Alfven eigenmode is an example of this type. In addition to these normal modes of the background plasma, when the energetic particle pressure is very large, energetic particle modes that adopt the frequency of the energetic particle population occur. Alfven instabilities of all three types occur in every toroidal magnetic confinement device with an intense energetic particle population. The energetic particles are most conveniently described by their constants of motion. Resonances occur between the orbital frequencies of the energetic particles and the wave phase velocity. If the wave resonance with the energetic particle population occurs where the gradient with respect to a constant of motion is inverted, the particles transfer energy to the wave, promoting instability. In a tokamak, the spatial gradient drive associated with inversion of the toroidal canonical angular momentum P ζ is most important. Once a mode is driven unstable, a wide variety of
Rayleigh-Taylor and wind-driven instabilities of the nighttime equatorial ionosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chiu, Y.T.; Straus, J.M.
1979-01-01
We have made a thorough re-examination of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the nighttime equatorial ionosphere from approx.100 km to the bottomside F region. We have taken into account explicitly the following effects which have been ignored by other workers in various combinations: (1) The eastward drift of the ionosphere caused by the nighttime polarization electric field, (2) the eastward nighttime neutral wind, and (3) recombination in the F and E regions. We found that, well below the bottomside F region, the Rayleigh-Taylor mode can be unstable and is driven by an eastward neutral wind rather than by gravitational drift. Formation of ionospheric bubbles below the bottomside F region is consistent with the observation of lower ionospheric ions in F region ionospheric holes; furthermore, seasonal and shorter term variations in spread-F occurrence may be associated with variations in the neutral wind and polarization electric field
Experimental Observation of a Current-Driven Instability in a Neutral Electron-Positron Beam
Warwick, J.; Dzelzainis, T.; Dieckmann, M. E.; Schumaker, W.; Doria, D.; Romagnani, L.; Poder, K.; Cole, J. M.; Alejo, A.; Yeung, M.; Krushelnick, K.; Mangles, S. P. D.; Najmudin, Z.; Reville, B.; Samarin, G. M.; Symes, D. D.; Thomas, A. G. R.; Borghesi, M.; Sarri, G.
2017-11-01
We report on the first experimental observation of a current-driven instability developing in a quasineutral matter-antimatter beam. Strong magnetic fields (≥1 T ) are measured, via means of a proton radiography technique, after the propagation of a neutral electron-positron beam through a background electron-ion plasma. The experimentally determined equipartition parameter of ɛB≈10-3 is typical of values inferred from models of astrophysical gamma-ray bursts, in which the relativistic flows are also expected to be pair dominated. The data, supported by particle-in-cell simulations and simple analytical estimates, indicate that these magnetic fields persist in the background plasma for thousands of inverse plasma frequencies. The existence of such long-lived magnetic fields can be related to analog astrophysical systems, such as those prevalent in lepton-dominated jets.
Experimental Observation of a Current-Driven Instability in a Neutral Electron-Positron Beam.
Warwick, J; Dzelzainis, T; Dieckmann, M E; Schumaker, W; Doria, D; Romagnani, L; Poder, K; Cole, J M; Alejo, A; Yeung, M; Krushelnick, K; Mangles, S P D; Najmudin, Z; Reville, B; Samarin, G M; Symes, D D; Thomas, A G R; Borghesi, M; Sarri, G
2017-11-03
We report on the first experimental observation of a current-driven instability developing in a quasineutral matter-antimatter beam. Strong magnetic fields (≥1 T) are measured, via means of a proton radiography technique, after the propagation of a neutral electron-positron beam through a background electron-ion plasma. The experimentally determined equipartition parameter of ε_{B}≈10^{-3} is typical of values inferred from models of astrophysical gamma-ray bursts, in which the relativistic flows are also expected to be pair dominated. The data, supported by particle-in-cell simulations and simple analytical estimates, indicate that these magnetic fields persist in the background plasma for thousands of inverse plasma frequencies. The existence of such long-lived magnetic fields can be related to analog astrophysical systems, such as those prevalent in lepton-dominated jets.
Characterization of beam-driven instabilities and current redistribution in MST plasmas
Parke, E.
2015-11-01
A unique, high-rep-rate (>10 kHz) Thomson scattering diagnostic and a high-bandwidth FIR interferometer-polarimeter on MST have enabled characterization of beam-driven instabilities and magnetic equilibrium changes observed during high power (1 MW) neutral beam injection (NBI). While NBI leads to negligible net current drive, an increase in on-axis current density observed through Faraday rotation is offset by a reduction in mid-radius current. Identification of the phase flip in temperature fluctuations associated with tearing modes provides a sensitive measure of rational surface locations. This technique strongly constrains the safety factor for equilibrium reconstruction and provides a powerful new tool for measuring the equilibrium magnetic field. For example, the n = 6 temperature structure is observed to shift inward 1.1 +/- 0.6 cm, with an estimated reduction of q0 by 5%. This is consistent with a mid-radius reduction in current, and together the Faraday rotation and Thomson scattering measurements corroborate an inductive redistribution of current that compares well with TRANSP/MSTFit predictions. Interpreting tearing mode temperature structures in the RFP remains challenging; the effects of multiple, closely-spaced tearing modes on the mode phase measurement require further verification. In addition to equilibrium changes, previous work has shown that the large fast ion population drives instabilities at higher frequencies near the Alfvén continuum. Recent observations reveal a new instability at much lower frequency (~7 kHz) with strongly chirping behavior. It participates in extensive avalanches of the higher frequency energetic particle and Alfvénic modes to drive enhanced fast ion transport. Internal structures measured from Te and ne fluctuations, their dependence on the safety factor, as well as frequency scaling motivate speculation about mode identity. Work supported by U.S. DOE.
Parametric instability and wave turbulence driven by tidal excitation of internal waves
Le Reun, Thomas; Favier, Benjamin; Le Bars, Michael
2018-04-01
We investigate the stability of stratified fluid layers undergoing homogeneous and periodic tidal deformation. We first introduce a local model which allows to study velocity and buoyancy fluctuations in a Lagrangian domain periodically stretched and sheared by the tidal base flow. While keeping the key physical ingredients only, such a model is efficient to simulate planetary regimes where tidal amplitudes and dissipation are small. With this model, we prove that tidal flows are able to drive parametric subharmonic resonances of internal waves, in a way reminiscent of the elliptical instability in rotating fluids. The growth rates computed via Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) are in very good agreement with WKB analysis and Floquet theory. We also investigate the turbulence driven by this instability mechanism. With spatio-temporal analysis, we show that it is a weak internal wave turbulence occurring at small Froude and buoyancy Reynolds numbers. When the gap between the excitation and the Brunt-V\\"ais\\"al\\"a frequencies is increased, the frequency spectrum of this wave turbulence displays a -2 power law reminiscent of the high-frequency branch of the Garett and Munk spectrum (Garrett & Munk 1979) which has been measured in the oceans. In addition, we find that the mixing efficiency is altered compared to what is computed in the context of DNS of stratified turbulence excited at small Froude and large buoyancy Reynolds numbers and is consistent with a superposition of waves.
Modeling and simulations of radiative blast wave driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability experiments
Shimony, Assaf; Huntington, Channing M.; Trantham, Matthew; Malamud, Guy; Elbaz, Yonatan; Kuranz, Carolyn C.; Drake, R. Paul; Shvarts, Dov
2017-10-01
Recent experiments at the National Ignition Facility measured the growth of Rayleigh-Taylor RT instabilities driven by radiative blast waves, relevant to astrophysics and other HEDP systems. We constructed a new Buoyancy-Drag (BD) model, which accounts for the ablation effect on both bubble and spike. This ablation effect is accounted for by using the potential flow model ]Oron et al PoP 1998], adding another term to the classical BD formalism: βDuA / u , where β the Takabe constant, D the drag term, uA the ablation velocity and uthe instability growth velocity. The model results are compared with the results of experiments and 2D simulations using the CRASH code, with nominal radiation or reduced foam opacity (by a factor of 1000). The ablation constant of the model, βb / s, for the bubble and for the spike fronts, are calibrated using the results of the radiative shock experiments. This work is funded by the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under subcontract B614207, and was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Studies of bandwidth dependence of laser plasma instabilities driven by the Nike laser
Weaver, J.; Kehne, D.; Obenschain, S.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Brown, C. M.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.
2012-10-01
Experiments at the Nike laser facility of the Naval Research Laboratory are exploring the influence of laser bandwidth on laser plasma instabilities (LPI) driven by a deep ultraviolet pump (248 nm) that incorporates beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence (ISI). In early ISI studies with longer wavelength Nd:glass lasers (1054 nm and 527 nm),footnotetextObenschain, PRL 62(1989);Mostovych, PRL 62(1987);Peyser, Phys. Fluids B 3(1991). stimulated Raman scattering, stimulated Brillouin scattering, and the two plasmon decay instability were reduced when wide bandwidth ISI (δν/ν˜0.03-0.19%) pulses irradiated targets at moderate to high intensities (10^14-10^15 W/cm^2). The current studies will compare the emission signatures of LPI from planar CH targets during Nike operation at large bandwidth (δν˜1THz) to observations for narrower bandwidth operation (δν˜0.1-0.3THz). These studies will help clarify the relative importance of the short wavelength and wide bandwidth to the increased LPI intensity thresholds observed at Nike. New pulse shapes are being used to generate plasmas with larger electron density scale-lengths that are closer to conditions during pellet implosions for direct drive inertial confinement fusion.
Analytic approach to nonlinear hydrodynamic instabilities driven by time-dependent accelerations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mikaelian, K O
2009-09-28
We extend our earlier model for Rayleigh-Taylor and Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities to the more general class of hydrodynamic instabilities driven by a time-dependent acceleration g(t) . Explicit analytic solutions for linear as well as nonlinear amplitudes are obtained for several g(t)'s by solving a Schroedinger-like equation d{sup 2}{eta}/dt{sup 2} - g(t)kA{eta} = 0 where A is the Atwood number and k is the wavenumber of the perturbation amplitude {eta}(t). In our model a simple transformation k {yields} k{sub L} and A {yields} A{sub L} connects the linear to the nonlinear amplitudes: {eta}{sup nonlinear} (k,A) {approx} (1/k{sub L})ln{eta}{sup linear} (k{sub L}, A{sub L}). The model is found to be in very good agreement with direct numerical simulations. Bubble amplitudes for a variety of accelerations are seen to scale with s defined by s = {integral} {radical}g(t)dt, while spike amplitudes prefer scaling with displacement {Delta}x = {integral}[{integral}g(t)dt]dt.
Curvature and temperature gradient driven instabilities in tokomak edge plasmas with SOL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novakovskii, S.V.; Guzdar, P.N.; Drake, J.F.; Liu, C.S.
1996-01-01
Curvature driven resistive ballooning modes (RBM) as well as the electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes have been investigated in the tokomak edge region and the SOL, with the help of the numerical code open-quotes 2D-BALLOONclose quotes. This is an initial value code, which determines the stability properties and estimates the quasi-linear transport for given density, temperature, the magnetic and electric field profiles, taking into account the SOL geometry as well as a closed flux region. The results related to the following issues will be presented: (1) Comparative analysis of the ETG and the RBM instabilities in the SOL and their influence on the transport in the edge region (inside the Last Closed Magnetic Surface). (2) The influence of the effective Debye sheath current. (3) Different poloidal positions of the toroidal limiter and their effect on the instabilities. Other aspects of the edge plasma turbulence, such as finite β effects, flow-shear of the poloidal rotation etc. will also be discussed
Two-dimensional PIC simulations of ion beam instabilities in Supernova-driven plasma flows
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dieckmann, M E; Shukla, P K [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik IV, Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, D-44780 Bochum (Germany); Meli, A; Mastichiadis, A [Department of Physics, National University of Athens, Panepistimiopolis, Zografos 15783 (Greece); Drury, L O C [Dublin Institute for Advanced Studies, Dublin 2 (Ireland)], E-mail: markd@tp4.rub.de
2008-06-15
Supernova remnant blast shells can reach the flow speed v{sub s} = 0.1c and shocks form at its front. Instabilities driven by shock-reflected ion beams heat the plasma in the foreshock, which may inject particles into diffusive acceleration. The ion beams can have the speed v{sub b} {approx} v{sub s}. For v{sub b} << v{sub s} the Buneman or upper-hybrid instabilities dominate, while for v{sub b} >> v{sub s} the filamentation and mixed modes grow faster. Here the relevant waves for v{sub b} {approx} v{sub s} are examined and how they interact nonlinearly with the particles. The collision of two plasma clouds at the speed v{sub s} is modelled with particle-in-cell simulations, which convect with them magnetic fields oriented perpendicular to their flow velocity vector. One simulation models equally dense clouds and the other one uses a density ratio of 2. Both simulations show upper-hybrid waves that are planar over large spatial intervals and that accelerate electrons to {approx}10 keV. The symmetric collision yields only short oscillatory wave pulses, while the asymmetric collision also produces large-scale electric fields, probably through a magnetic pressure gradient. The large-scale fields destroy the electron phase space holes and they accelerate the ions, which facilitates the formation of a precursor shock.
Coupling of the Okuda-Dawson model with a shear current-driven wave and the associated instability
Masood, W.; Saleem, H.; Saleem
2013-12-01
It is pointed out that the Okuda-Dawson mode can couple with the newly proposed current-driven wave. It is also shown that the Shukla-Varma mode can couple with these waves if the density inhomogeneity is taken into account in a plasma containing stationary dust particles. A comparison of several low-frequency electrostatic waves and instabilities driven by shear current and shear plasma flow in an electron-ion plasma with and without stationary dust is also presented.
Risk analysis of gravity dam instability using credibility theory Monte Carlo simulation model.
Xin, Cao; Chongshi, Gu
2016-01-01
Risk analysis of gravity dam stability involves complicated uncertainty in many design parameters and measured data. Stability failure risk ratio described jointly by probability and possibility has deficiency in characterization of influence of fuzzy factors and representation of the likelihood of risk occurrence in practical engineering. In this article, credibility theory is applied into stability failure risk analysis of gravity dam. Stability of gravity dam is viewed as a hybrid event considering both fuzziness and randomness of failure criterion, design parameters and measured data. Credibility distribution function is conducted as a novel way to represent uncertainty of influence factors of gravity dam stability. And combining with Monte Carlo simulation, corresponding calculation method and procedure are proposed. Based on a dam section, a detailed application of the modeling approach on risk calculation of both dam foundation and double sliding surfaces is provided. The results show that, the present method is feasible to be applied on analysis of stability failure risk for gravity dams. The risk assessment obtained can reflect influence of both sorts of uncertainty, and is suitable as an index value.
Gravity-driven granular flow in a silo: Characterizing local forces and rearrangements
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thackray Emma
2017-01-01
Full Text Available While the gravity-driven flow of a granular material in a silo geometry can be modeled by the Beverloo equation, the mesoscale-level particle rearrangements and interactions that drive this flow are not wellunderstood. We have constructed a quasi-two-dimensional system of bidisperse, millimeter-scale disks with photoelastic properties that make force networks within the material visible. The system is contained in an acrylic box with an adjustable bottom opening. We can approach the clogging transition by adjusting this opening. By placing the system between cross-polarizers, we can obtain high-speed video of this system during flow, and extract intensity signals that can be used to identify and quantify localized, otherwise indeterminate forces. We can simultaneously track individual particle motions, which can be used to identify shear transformation zones in the system. In this paper, we present our results thus far.
Gravity wave-driven fluctuations in OH nightglow from an extended, dissipative emission region
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, G.; Walterscheid, R.L.; Hickey, M.P.
1991-01-01
The theory of gravity wave-driven fluctuations in the OH nightglow from an extended source region is generalized to account for effects of eddy kinematic viscosity v and eddy thermal diffusivity κ. In the nondiffusive case, the amplitudes and phases of vertically integrated normalized intensity (δI)/(bar I) and temperature (δT 1 )/(bar T 1 ) perturbations and vertically integrated Krassovsky's ratio (η) as functions of period are influenced by the upper limit of vertical integration of the extended source, especially at long periods when vertical wavelengths γ v are small. The effects, which include oscillations in (δT)/(bar I), (δT 1 )/(bar T 1 ), and (η), particularly at long periods, are due to constructive and destructive interference of nightglow signals from vertically separated levels of the OH emitting region that occur when γ v is comparable to or smaller than the thickness of the main emission region. The sensitivity of these ratios to the upper limit of vertical integration occurs because of the relatively small rate of decay of the intensity of OH emission with height above the peak emission level and the exponential growth with altitude of nondissipative gravity waves. Because eddy diffusion increases γ v , especially at long periods, and reduces wave growth with height compared with the case v = κ = 0, inclusion of eddy diffusion removes the sensitivity of (η) and the other ratios ot the maximum height of vertical integration. It is essential to account for both eddy diffusion and emission from the entire vertically extended emission region to correctly predict (η), (δI)/(bar I), and (δT 1 )/(bar T 1 ) at long gravity wave periods
Gamow, George
2003-01-01
A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw
Thermodynamic instability of nonlinearly charged black holes in gravity's rainbow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hendi, S.H. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panahiyan, S. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shahid Beheshti University, Physics Department, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Panah, B.E.; Momennia, M. [Shiraz University, Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-03-15
Motivated by the violation of Lorentz invariance in quantum gravity, we study black hole solutions in gravity's rainbow in the context of Einstein gravity coupled with various models of nonlinear electrodynamics. We regard an energy dependent spacetime and obtain the related metric functions and electric fields. We show that there is an essential singularity at the origin which is covered by an event horizon. We also compute the conserved and thermodynamical quantities and examine the validity of the first law of thermodynamics in the presence of rainbow functions. Finally, we investigate the thermal stability conditions for these black hole solutions in the context of canonical ensemble. We show that the thermodynamical structure of the solutions depends on the choices of nonlinearity parameters, charge, and energy functions. (orig.)
Wang, Yiran; Fortunato, Luca; Jeong, Sanghyun; Leiknes, TorOve
2017-01-01
Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is one of the promising membrane bioreactor (MBR) configurations. It operates at an ultra-low pressure by gravity, requiring a minimal energy. The objective of this study was to understand the performance of GDM filtration system and characterize the biofouling formation on a flat sheet membrane. This submerged GDM reactor was operated at constant gravitational pressure in treating of two different concentrations of secondary wastewater effluent. Morphology of biofilm layer was acquired by an in-situ and on-line optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning in a fixed position at regular intervals. The thickness and roughness calculated from OCT images were related to the variation of flux, fouling resistance and permeate quality. At the end of experiment, fouling was quantified by total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was also applied for biofouling morphology observation. The biofouling formed on membrane surface was mostly removed by physical cleaning confirmed by contact angle measurement before and after cleaning. This demonstrated that fouling on the membrane under ultra-low pressure operation was highly reversible. The superiority and sustainability of GDM in both flux maintaining and long-term operation with production of high quality effluent was demonstrated.
A one-dimensional model of the semiannual oscillation driven by convectively forced gravity waves
Sassi, Fabrizio; Garcia, Rolando R.
1994-01-01
A one-dimensional model that solves the time-dependent equations for the zonal mean wind and a wave of specified zonal wavenumber has been used to illustrate the ability of gravity waves forced by time-dependent tropospheric heating to produce a semiannual oscillation (SAO) in the middle atmosphere. When the heating has a strong diurnal cycle, as observed over tropical landmasses, gravity waves with zonal wavelengths of a few thousand kilometers and phase velocities in the range +/- 40-50 m/sec are excited efficiently by the maximum vertical projection criterion (vertical wavelength approximately equals 2 x forcing depth). Calculations show that these waves can account for large zonal mean wind accelerations in the middle atmosphere, resulting in realistic stratopause and mesopause oscillations. Calculations of the temporal evolution of a quasi-conserved tracer indicate strong down-welling in the upper stratosphere near the equinoxes, which is associated with the descent of the SAO westerlies. In the upper mesosphere, there is a semiannual oscillation in tracer mixing ratio driven by seasonal variability in eddy mixing, which increases at the solstices and decreases at the equinoxes.
Wang, Yiran
2017-04-21
Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is one of the promising membrane bioreactor (MBR) configurations. It operates at an ultra-low pressure by gravity, requiring a minimal energy. The objective of this study was to understand the performance of GDM filtration system and characterize the biofouling formation on a flat sheet membrane. This submerged GDM reactor was operated at constant gravitational pressure in treating of two different concentrations of secondary wastewater effluent. Morphology of biofilm layer was acquired by an in-situ and on-line optical coherence tomography (OCT) scanning in a fixed position at regular intervals. The thickness and roughness calculated from OCT images were related to the variation of flux, fouling resistance and permeate quality. At the end of experiment, fouling was quantified by total organic carbon (TOC) and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) method. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was also applied for biofouling morphology observation. The biofouling formed on membrane surface was mostly removed by physical cleaning confirmed by contact angle measurement before and after cleaning. This demonstrated that fouling on the membrane under ultra-low pressure operation was highly reversible. The superiority and sustainability of GDM in both flux maintaining and long-term operation with production of high quality effluent was demonstrated.
Droplet and multiphase effects in a shock-driven hydrodynamic instability with reshock
Middlebrooks, John B.; Avgoustopoulos, Constantine G.; Black, Wolfgang J.; Allen, Roy C.; McFarland, Jacob A.
2018-06-01
Shock-driven multiphase instabilities (SDMI) are unique physical phenomena that have far-reaching applications in engineering and science such as high energy explosions, scramjet combustors, and supernovae events. The SDMI arises when a multiphase field is impulsively accelerated by a shock wave and evolves as a result of gradients in particle-gas momentum transfer. A new shock tube facility has been constructed to study the SDMI. Experiments were conducted to investigate liquid particle and multiphase effects in the SDMI. A multiphase cylindrical interface was created with water droplet laden air in our horizontal shock tube facility. The interface was accelerated by a Mach 1.66 shock wave, and its reflection from the end wall. The interface development was captured using laser illumination and a high-resolution CCD camera. Laser interferometry was used to determine the droplet size distribution. A particle filtration technique was used to determine mass loading within an interface and verify particle size distribution. The effects of particle number density, particle size, and a secondary acceleration (reshock) of the interface were noted. Particle number density effects were found comparable to Atwood number effects in the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability for small (˜ 1.7 {μ }m) droplets. Evaporation was observed to alter droplet sizes and number density, markedly after reshock. For large diameter droplets (˜ 10.7 {μ }m), diminished development was observed with larger droplets lagging far behind the interface. These lagging droplets were also observed to breakup after reshock into structured clusters of smaller droplets. Mixing width values were reported to quantify mixing effects seen in images.
Three-dimensional gravity and instability of $\\text{AdS}_{3}$
Jałmużna, Joanna
2013-01-01
This is an extended version of my lecture at the LIII Cracow School of Theoretical Physics in Zakopane in which I presented the results of joint work with Piotr Bizo\\'n concerning (in)stability of the three-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McClenaghan, J.; Lin, Z.; Holod, I.; Deng, W.; Wang, Z. [University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)
2014-12-15
The gyrokinetic toroidal code (GTC) capability has been extended for simulating internal kink instability with kinetic effects in toroidal geometry. The global simulation domain covers the magnetic axis, which is necessary for simulating current-driven instabilities. GTC simulation in the fluid limit of the kink modes in cylindrical geometry is verified by benchmarking with a magnetohydrodynamic eigenvalue code. Gyrokinetic simulations of the kink modes in the toroidal geometry find that ion kinetic effects significantly reduce the growth rate even when the banana orbit width is much smaller than the radial width of the perturbed current layer at the mode rational surface.
Instability of a two-step Rankine vortex in a reduced gravity QG model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perrot, Xavier [Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France); Carton, Xavier, E-mail: xperrot@lmd.ens.fr, E-mail: xcarton@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Le Gorgeu, F-29200 Brest (France)
2014-06-01
We investigate the stability of a steplike Rankine vortex in a one-active-layer, reduced gravity, quasi-geostrophic model. After calculating the linear stability with a normal mode analysis, the singular modes are determined as a function of the vortex shape to investigate short-time stability. Finally we determine the position of the critical layer and show its influence when it lies inside the vortex. (papers)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Amita; Sen, Abhijit; Kaw, Predhiman; Benkadda, S.; Beyer, Peter
2005-01-01
Three-dimensional electromagnetic fluid simulations of the magnetic-curvature-driven Rayleigh-Taylor instability are presented. Issues related to the existence of nonlinear saturated states and the nature of the temporal evolution to such states from random initial conditions are addressed. It is found that nonlinear saturated states arising from generation of zonal shear flows continue to exist in certain parametric domains but their spectrum and spatial characteristics have important differences from earlier two-dimensional results reported in Phys. Plasmas 4, 1018 (1997) and Phys. Plasmas 8, 5104 (2001). In particular, the three-dimensional nonlinear states possess a significant power level in short scales and the spatial structures of the potential and density fluctuations appear not to develop any functional correlations. Electromagnetic effects are found to inhibit the formation of zonal flows and thereby to considerably restrict the parametric domain of nonlinear stabilization. The role of finite k parallel and the contribution of the unstable drift wave branch are also discussed and delineated through a number of simulation studies carried out in special simplified limits
Numerical Study of Instabilities Driven by Energetic Neutral Beam Ions in NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belova, E.V.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Cheng, C.Z.; Fredrickson, E.D.
2003-01-01
Recent experimental observations from NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] suggest that many modes in a subcyclotron frequency range are excited during neutral-beam injection (NBI). These modes have been identified as Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes (CAEs) and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAEs), which are driven unstable through the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with the beam ions. The injection velocities of the NBI ions in NSTX are large compared to Alfven velocity, V(sub)0 > 3V(sub)A, and a strong anisotropy in the fast-ion pitch-angle distribution provides the energy source for the instabilities. Recent interest in the excitation of Alfven Eigenmodes in the frequency range omega less than or approximately equal to omega(sub)ci, where omega(sub)ci is the ion cyclotron frequency, is related to the possibility that these modes can provide a mechanism for direct energy transfer from super-Alfvenic beam ions to thermal ions. Numerical simulations are required in order to find a self-consistent mode structure, and to include the effects of finite-Larmor radius (FLR), the nonlinear effects, and the thermal plasma kinetic effects
Kang, Sung-Min; Hwang, Sora; Jin, Si-Hyung; Choi, Chang-Hyung; Kim, Jongmin; Park, Bum Jun; Lee, Daeyeon; Lee, Chang-Soo
2014-03-18
We present a facile and inexpensive approach without any fluorinated chemistry to create superhydrophobic surface with exceptional liquid repellency, transportation of oil, selective capture of oil, optical bar code, and self-cleaning. Here we show experimentally that the control of evaporation is important and can be used to form superhydrophobic surface driven by Marangoni instability: the method involves in-situ photopolymerization in the presence of a volatile solvent and porous PDMS cover to afford superhydrophobic surfaces with the desired combination of micro- and nanoscale roughness. The porous PDMS cover significantly affects Marangoni convection of coating fluid, inducing composition gradients at the same time. In addition, the change of concentration of ethanol is able to produce versatile surfaces from hydrophilic to superhydrophobic and as a consequence to determine contact angles as well as roughness factors. In conclusion, the control of evaporation under the polymerization provides a convenient parameter to fabricate the superhydrophobic surface, without application of fluorinated chemistry and the elegant nanofabrication technique.
ELMs and the role of current-driven instabilities in the edge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Snyder, P.B.; Wilson, H.R.
2001-01-01
Edge localized modes (ELMs) can limit tokamak performance both directly, via large transient heat loads, and indirectly, through constraints placed on the H-mode pedestal height which impact global confinement. Theoretical understanding of the physics of ELMs should allow optimisation of existing experiments, and lead to greater confidence in projections for Next Step devices. However, understanding ELMs has proved challenging, in part because the sharp edge pressure gradients and consequent large bootstrap currents in the pedestal region provide drive for a variety of modes over a wide range of toroidal mode numbers (n). Here we present a brief discussion of ELM phenomenology, focussing primarily on ELMs whose frequency increases with input power. Theories of ELMs will be reviewed, emphasizing those which incorporate current-driven instabilities such as kink or 'peeling' modes. Parallel current plays a dual role in the edge, enhancing second stability access for ballooning modes while providing drive for peeling modes. The strong collisionality dependence of the edge bootstrap current introduces separate density and temperature dependence into pedestal MHD stability. We give a detailed description of recent work on coupled peeling-ballooning modes, including a model for ELM characteristics and temperature pedestal limits. Peeling-ballooning stability analysis of experimental discharges will be discussed, emphasising comparisons of different ELM regimes, such as the comparison between 'giant' and 'grassy' ELM shots on JT-60U. (orig.)
Polydisperse particle-driven gravity currents in non-rectangular cross section channels
Zemach, T.
2018-01-01
We consider a high-Reynolds-number gravity current generated by polydisperse suspension of n types of particles distributed in a fluid of density ρi. Each class of particles in suspension has a different settling velocity. The current propagates along a channel of non-rectangular cross section into an ambient fluid of constant density ρa. The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0, H, and the cross section is given by the quite general form -f1(z) ≤ y ≤ f2(z) for 0 ≤ z ≤ H. The flow is modeled by the one-layer shallow-water equations obtained for the time-dependent motion. We solve the problem by a finite-difference numerical code to present typical height h, velocity u, and mass fractions of particle (concentrations) (ϕ( j), j = 1, …, n) profiles. The runout length of suspensions in channels of power-law cross sections is analytically predicted using a simplified depth-averaged "box" model. We demonstrate that any degree of polydispersivity adds to the runout length of the currents, relative to that of equivalent monodisperse currents with an average settling velocity. The theoretical predictions are supported by the available experimental data. The present approach is a significant generalization of the particle-driven gravity current problem: on the one hand, now the monodisperse current in non-rectangular channels is a particular case of n = 1. On the other hand, the classical formulation of polydisperse currents for a rectangular channel is now just a particular case, f(z) = const., in the wide domain of cross sections covered by this new model.
Tangential neutral-beam--driven instabilities in the Princeton beta experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heidbrink, W.W.; Bol, K.; Buchenauer, D.
1986-01-01
During tangential neutral-beam injection into the PBX tokamak, bursts of two types of instabilities are observed. One instability occurs in the frequency range 120--210 kHz and the other oscillates predominantly near the frequency of bulk plasma rotation (20--30 kHz). Both instabilities correlate with drops in neutron emission and bursts in charge-exchange neutral flux, indicating that beam ions are removed from the center of the plasma by the instabilities. The central losses are comparable to the losses induced by the fishbone instability during perpendicular injection
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...
Gravity-Driven Deposits in an Active Margin (Ionian Sea) Over the Last 330,000 Years
Köng, Eléonore; Zaragosi, Sébastien; Schneider, Jean-Luc; Garlan, Thierry; Bachèlery, Patrick; Sabine, Marjolaine; San Pedro, Laurine
2017-11-01
In the Ionian Sea, the subduction of the Nubia plate underneath the Eurasia plate leads to an important sediment remobilization on the Calabrian Arc and the Mediterranean Ridge. These events are often associated with earthquakes and tsunamis. In this study, we analyze gravity-driven deposits in order to establish their recurrence time on the Calabrian Arc and the western Mediterranean Ridge. Four gravity cores collected on ridges and slope basins of accretionary prisms record turbidites, megaturbidites, slumping and micro-faults over the last 330,000 years. These turbidites were dated by correlation with a hemipelagic core with a multi-proxy approach: radiometric dating, δ18O, b* colour curve, sapropels and tephrochronology. The origin of the gravity-driven deposits was studied with a sedimentary approach: grain-size, lithology, thin section, geochemistry of volcanic glass. The results suggest three periods of presence/absence of gravity-driven deposits: a first on the western lobe of the Calabrian Arc between 330,000 and 250,000 years, a second between 120,000 years and present day on the eastern lobe of the Calabrian Arc and over the last 60,000 years on the western lobe, and a third on the Mediterranean Ridge over the last 37,000 years. Return times for gravity-driven deposits are around 1,000 years during the most important record periods. The turbidite activity also highlights the presence of volcaniclastic turbidites that seems to be link to the Etna changing morphology over the last 320,000 years.
The magnetized electron-acoustic instability driven by a warm, field-aligned electron beam
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sooklal, A.; Mace, R.L.
2004-01-01
The electron-acoustic instability in a magnetized plasma having three electron components, one of which is a field-aligned beam of intermediate temperature, is investigated. When the plasma frequency of the cool electrons exceeds the electron gyrofrequency, the electron-acoustic instability 'bifurcates' at sufficiently large propagation angles with respect to the magnetic field to yield an obliquely propagating, low-frequency electron-acoustic instability and a higher frequency cyclotron-sound instability. Each of these instabilities retains certain wave features of its progenitor, the quasiparallel electron-acoustic instability, but displays also new magnetic qualities through its dependence on the electron gyrofrequency. The obliquely propagating electron-acoustic instability requires a lower threshold beam speed for its excitation than does the cyclotron-sound instability, and for low to intermediate beam speeds has the higher maximum growth rate. When the plasma is sufficiently strongly magnetized that the plasma frequency of the cool electrons is less than the electron gyrofrequency, the only instability in the electron-acoustic frequency range is the strongly magnetized electron-acoustic instability. Its growth rate and real frequency exhibit a monotonic decrease with wave propagation angle and it grows at small to intermediate wave numbers where its parallel phase speed is approximately constant. The relevance of the results to the interpretation of cusp auroral hiss and auroral broadband electrostatic noise is briefly discussed
Lyubimova, Tatyana; Zubova, Nadezhda
The instability of incompressible viscous binary fluid with the Soret effect in square cavity heated from above is studied for different gravity levels. The no slip and zero mass flux conditions are imposed on all the boundaries. The horizontal boundaries are perfectly conductive, they are maintained at constant different temperatures and vertical boundaries are adiabatic. The calculations are performed for water - isopropanol mixture 90:10. Initial conditions correspond to the motionless state with uniform distribution of components and uniform temperature gradient directed upward. For binary fluid under consideration the separation parameter is negative therefore the Soret effect leads to the accumulation of heavy component in the upper part of cavity, moreover, the rate of accumulation is independent of the gravity level. The linear stability of the unsteady motionless state is studied numerically by solving linearized equations for small perturbations. To determine the time t* for the onset of instability, the criterion suggested in [1] is used. The dependence of t* on the gravity level is obtained. The work was done under financial support of Government of Perm Region, Russia (Contract C-26/212). 1. Shliomis M.I., Souhar M. Europhysics Letters. 2000. Vol. 49 (1), pp. 55-61.
Fortunato, Luca
2016-10-07
Fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBR) is acknowledged to be complex and unclear. An integrated characterization methodology was employed in this study to understand the fouling on a gravity-driven submerged MBR (GD-SMBR). It involved the use of different analytical tools, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), total organic carbon (TOC), flow cytometer (FCM), adenosine triphosphate analysis (ATP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The three-dimensional (3D) biomass morphology was acquired in a real-time through non-destructive and in situ OCT scanning of 75% of the total membrane surface directly in the tank. Results showed that the biomass layer was homogeneously distributed on the membrane surface. The amount of biomass was selectively linked with final destructive autopsy techniques. The LC-OCD analysis indicated the abundance of low molecular weight (LMW) organics in the fouling composition. Three different SEM techniques were applied to investigate the detailed fouling morphology on the membrane. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd
Gravity-driven groundwater flow and slope failure potential: 1. Elastic effective-stress model
Iverson, Richard M.; Reid, Mark E.
1992-01-01
Hilly or mountainous topography influences gravity-driven groundwater flow and the consequent distribution of effective stress in shallow subsurface environments. Effective stress, in turn, influences the potential for slope failure. To evaluate these influences, we formulate a two-dimensional, steady state, poroelastic model. The governing equations incorporate groundwater effects as body forces, and they demonstrate that spatially uniform pore pressure changes do not influence effective stresses. We implement the model using two finite element codes. As an illustrative case, we calculate the groundwater flow field, total body force field, and effective stress field in a straight, homogeneous hillslope. The total body force and effective stress fields show that groundwater flow can influence shear stresses as well as effective normal stresses. In most parts of the hillslope, groundwater flow significantly increases the Coulomb failure potential Φ, which we define as the ratio of maximum shear stress to mean effective normal stress. Groundwater flow also shifts the locus of greatest failure potential toward the slope toe. However, the effects of groundwater flow on failure potential are less pronounced than might be anticipated on the basis of a simpler, one-dimensional, limit equilibrium analysis. This is a consequence of continuity, compatibility, and boundary constraints on the two-dimensional flow and stress fields, and it points to important differences between our elastic continuum model and limit equilibrium models commonly used to assess slope stability.
Fortunato, Luca; Jeong, Sanghyun; Wang, Yiran; Behzad, Ali R; Leiknes, TorOve
2016-12-01
Fouling in membrane bioreactors (MBR) is acknowledged to be complex and unclear. An integrated characterization methodology was employed in this study to understand the fouling on a gravity-driven submerged MBR (GD-SMBR). It involved the use of different analytical tools, including optical coherence tomography (OCT), liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD), total organic carbon (TOC), flow cytometer (FCM), adenosine triphosphate analysis (ATP) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The three-dimensional (3D) biomass morphology was acquired in a real-time through non-destructive and in situ OCT scanning of 75% of the total membrane surface directly in the tank. Results showed that the biomass layer was homogeneously distributed on the membrane surface. The amount of biomass was selectively linked with final destructive autopsy techniques. The LC-OCD analysis indicated the abundance of low molecular weight (LMW) organics in the fouling composition. Three different SEM techniques were applied to investigate the detailed fouling morphology on the membrane. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Energetic-particle-driven instabilities and induced fast-ion transport in a reversed field pinch
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, L.; Brower, D. L.; Ding, W. X.; Anderson, J. K.; Capecchi, W.; Eilerman, S.; Forest, C. B.; Koliner, J. J.; Nornberg, M. D.; Reusch, J.; Sarff, J. S.; Liu, D.
2014-01-01
Multiple bursty energetic-particle (EP) driven modes with fishbone-like structure are observed during 1 MW tangential neutral-beam injection in a reversed field pinch (RFP) device. The distinguishing features of the RFP, including large magnetic shear (tending to add stability) and weak toroidal magnetic field (leading to stronger drive), provide a complementary environment to tokamak and stellarator configurations for exploring basic understanding of EP instabilities. Detailed measurements of the EP mode characteristics and temporal-spatial dynamics reveal their influence on fast ion transport. Density fluctuations exhibit a dynamically evolving, inboard-outboard asymmetric spatial structure that peaks in the core where fast ions reside. The measured mode frequencies are close to the computed shear Alfvén frequency, a feature consistent with continuum modes destabilized by strong drive. The frequency pattern of the dominant mode depends on the fast-ion species. Multiple frequencies occur with deuterium fast ions compared to single frequency for hydrogen fast ions. Furthermore, as the safety factor (q) decreases, the toroidal mode number of the dominant EP mode transits from n=5 to n=6 while retaining the same poloidal mode number m=1. The transition occurs when the m=1, n=5 wave-particle resonance condition cannot be satisfied as the fast-ion safety factor (q fi ) decreases. The fast-ion temporal dynamics, measured by a neutral particle analyzer, resemble a classical predator-prey relaxation oscillation. It contains a slow-growth phase arising from the beam fueling followed by a rapid drop when the EP modes peak, indicating that the fluctuation-induced transport maintains a stiff fast-ion density profile. The inferred transport rate is strongly enhanced with the onset of multiple EP modes
Evidence for the electromagnetic decay instability driven by two plasmon decay
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baker, K.L.; Afeyan, B.B.; Estabrook, K.G.; Drake, R.P.
1997-01-01
This paper examines the electromagnetic decay instability (EDI) and its role in laser-produced plasmas. The electromagnetic decay instability provides another channel through which parametric instabilities involving Langmuir waves can saturate. In the case where EDI is pumped by the Langmuir waves associated with two plasmon decay, EDI is shown to present an explanation for ω o /2 emission from laser-produced plasmas which is consistent with experimental observations
Tangential neutral-beam-driven instabilities in the princeton beta experiment
Heidbrink, WW; Bol, K; Buchenauer, D; Fonck, R; Gammel, G; Ida, K; Kaita, R; Kaye, S; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; Morris, W; Okabayashi, M; Powell, E; Sesnic, S; Takahashi, H
1986-01-01
During tangential neutral-beam injection into the PBX tokamak, bursts of two types of instabilities are observed. One instability occurs in the frequency range 120-210 kHz and the other oscillates predominantly near the frequency of bulk plasma rotation (20-30 kHz). Both instabilities correlate with drops in neutron emission and bursts in charge-exchange neutral flux, indicating that beam ions are removed from the center of the plasma by the instabilities. The central losses are comparable to...
Ripepe, Maurizio; Donne, Dario Delle; Genco, Riccardo; Maggio, Giuseppe; Pistolesi, Marco; Marchetti, Emanuele; Lacanna, Giorgio; Ulivieri, Giacomo; Poggi, Pasquale
2015-05-18
Effusive eruptions are explained as the mechanism by which volcanoes restore the equilibrium perturbed by magma rising in a chamber deep in the crust. Seismic, ground deformation and topographic measurements are compared with effusion rate during the 2007 Stromboli eruption, drawing an eruptive scenario that shifts our attention from the interior of the crust to the surface. The eruption is modelled as a gravity-driven drainage of magma stored in the volcanic edifice with a minor contribution of magma supplied at a steady rate from a deep reservoir. Here we show that the discharge rate can be predicted by the contraction of the volcano edifice and that the very-long-period seismicity migrates downwards, tracking the residual volume of magma in the shallow reservoir. Gravity-driven magma discharge dynamics explain the initially high discharge rates observed during eruptive crises and greatly influence our ability to predict the evolution of effusive eruptions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ross, D.W.
1994-01-01
The theory of atomic-process driven microinstabilities in the tokamak edge plasma is reexamined. It is found that these instabilities, as they are usually presented, do not exist. This assertion applies both to ionization-driven modes and to radiative condensation, or thermal-driven modes. The problem is that there exists no separation of time scales between the approach to equilibrium and the growth rate of the purported instabilities. Therefore, to describe the perturbation of an inhomogeneous plasma, it is essential either to establish an equilibrium that includes both perpendicular transport and the proposed source, or, alternatively, to follow the background evolution simultaneously with the growth of the modes. Neither has been done in theoretical or numerical studies of microinstabilities driven by atomic effects in tokamaks. Very near the density limit, macroscopic modes may be unstable, leading to marfes or disruptions, but perturbations of the equilibrium transport fluxes, when taken into account, are sufficient to stabilize the microscopic modes. If the equilibrium fluxes are not included a priori, the ordering breakdown persists into the nonlinear regime. Since the atomic driving terms are the same as in the linear limit, radial decorrelation lengths would have to approach background scale lengths to yield transport of significant magnitude. Under ordinary tokamak conditions, therefore, atomic processes are unlikely to provide an important driving mechanism for the microturbulence that is presumed to cause anomalous transport
Advanced Monitoring and Characterization of Biofouling in Gravity-driven Membrane Filtration
Wang, Yiran
2016-05-01
Gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration is one of the promising membrane bioreactor (MBR) technologies. It operates at a low pressure by gravity, requiring a minimal energy. Thus, it exhibits a great potential for a decentralized system, conducting household in developing and transition countries. Biofouling is a universal problem in almost all membrane filtration applications, leading to the decrease in flux or the increase in transmembrane pressure depending on different operation mode. Air scoring or regular membrane cleaning has been utilized for fouling mitigation, which requires increased energy consumption as well as complicated operations. Besides, repeating cleaning will trigger the deterioration of membranes and shorten their lifetime, elevating cost expenditures accordingly. In this way, GDM filtration stands out from conventional MBR technologies in a long-term operation with relative stable flux, which has been observed in many studies. The objective of this study was to monitor the biofilm development on a flat sheet membrane submerged in a GDM reactor with constant gravitational pressure. Morphology of biofilm layer in a fixed position was acquired by an in-situ and on-line OCT (optical coherence tomography) scanning at regular intervals for both visual investigation and structure analysis. The calculated thickness and roughness were compared to the variation of flux, fouling resistance and permeate quality, showing expected consistency. At the end of experiment, the morphology of entire membrane surface was scanned and recorded by OCT. Membrane autopsy was carried out for biofilm composition analysis by total organic carbon (TOC) and liquid chromatography with organic carbon detection (LC-OCD). In addition, biomass concentration was obtained by flow cytometer and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) method. The data of biofilm components indicated a homogeneous biofilm structure formed after a long-term running of the GDM system, based on the morphology
Optimization of gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration process for seawater pretreatment.
Wu, Bing; Hochstrasser, Florian; Akhondi, Ebrahim; Ambauen, Noëmi; Tschirren, Lukas; Burkhardt, Michael; Fane, Anthony G; Pronk, Wouter
2016-04-15
Seawater pretreatment by gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration at 40 mbar has been investigated. In this system, a beneficial biofilm develops on the membrane that helps to stabilize flux. The effects of membrane type, prefiltration and system configuration on stable flux, biofilm layer properties and dissolved carbon removal were studied. The results show that the use of flat sheet PVDF membranes with pore sizes of 0.22 and 0.45 μm in GDM filtration achieved higher stabilized permeate fluxes (7.3-8.4 L/m(2)h) than that of flat sheet PES 100 kD membranes and hollow fibre PVDF 0.1 μm membranes. Pore constriction and cake filtration were identified as major membrane fouling mechanisms, but their relative contributions varied with filtration time for the various membranes. Compared to raw seawater, prefiltering of seawater with meshes at sizes of 10, 100 and 1000 μm decreased the permeate flux, which was attributed to removal of beneficial eukaryotic populations. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) showed that the porosity of the biofouling layer was more significantly related with permeate flux development rather than its thickness and roughness. To increase the contact time between the biofilm and the dissolved organics, a hybrid biofilm-submerged GDM reactor was evaluated, which displayed significantly higher permeate fluxes than the submerged GDM reactor. Although integrating the biofilm reactor with the membrane system displayed better permeate quality than the GDM filtration cells, it could not effectively reduce dissolved organic substances in the seawater. This may be attributed to the decomposition/degradation of solid organic substances in the feed and carbon fixation by the biofilm. Further studies of the dynamic carbon balance are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Hydrodynamics of AHWR gravity driven water pool under simulated LOCA conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Thangamani, I.; Verma, Vishnu; Ali, Seik Mansoor
2015-01-01
The Advanced Heavy Water Reactor (AHWR) employs a double containment concept with a large inventory of water within the Gravity Driven Water Pool (GDWP) located at a high elevation within the primary containment building. GDWP performs several important safety functions in a passive manner, and hence it is essential to understand the hydrodynamics that this pool will be subjected to in case of an accident such as LOCA. In this paper, a detailed thermal hydraulic analysis for AHWR containment transients is presented for postulated LOCA scenarios involving RIH break sizes ranging from 2% to 50%. The analysis is carried out using in-house containment thermal hydraulics code 'CONTRAN'. The blowdown mass and energy discharge data for each break size, along with the geometrical details of the AHWR containment forms the main input for the analysis. Apart from obtaining the pressure and temperature transients within the containment building, the focus of this work is on simulating the hydrodynamic phenomena of vent clearing and pool swell occurring in the GDWP. The variation of several key parameters such as primary containment V1 and V2 volume pressure, temperature and V1-V2 differential pressure with time, BOP rupture time, vent clearing velocity, effect of pool swell on the V2 air-space pressure, GDWP water level etc. are discussed in detail and important findings are highlighted. Further, the effect of neglecting the pool swell phenomenon on the containment transients is also clearly brought out by a comparative study. The numerical studies presented in this paper give insight into containment transients that would be useful to both the system designer as well as the regulator. (author)
Kinetic-MHD simulations of gyroresonance instability driven by CR pressure anisotropy
Lebiga, O.; Santos-Lima, R.; Yan, H.
2018-05-01
The transport of cosmic rays (CRs) is crucial for the understanding of almost all high-energy phenomena. Both pre-existing large-scale magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence and locally generated turbulence through plasma instabilities are important for the CR propagation in astrophysical media. The potential role of the resonant instability triggered by CR pressure anisotropy to regulate the parallel spatial diffusion of low-energy CRs (≲100 GeV) in the interstellar and intracluster medium of galaxies has been shown in previous theoretical works. This work aims to study the gyroresonance instability via direct numerical simulations, in order to access quantitatively the wave-particle scattering rates. For this, we employ a 1D PIC-MHD code to follow the growth and saturation of the gyroresonance instability. We extract from the simulations the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient Dμμ produced by the instability during the linear and saturation phases, and a very good agreement (within a factor of 3) is found with the values predicted by the quasi-linear theory (QLT). Our results support the applicability of the QLT for modelling the scattering of low-energy CRs by the gyroresonance instability in the complex interplay between this instability and the large-scale MHD turbulence.
Localized instabilities and spinodal decomposition in driven systems in the presence of elasticity
Meca, Esteban; Münch, Andreas; Wagner, Barbara
2018-01-01
We study numerically and analytically the instabilities associated with phase separation in a solid layer on which an external material flux is imposed. The first instability is localized within a boundary layer at the exposed free surface by a process akin to spinodal decomposition. In the limiting static case, when there is no material flux, the coherent spinodal decomposition is recovered. In the present problem, stability analysis of the time-dependent and nonuniform base states as well as numerical simulations of the full governing equations are used to establish the dependence of the wavelength and onset of the instability on parameter settings and its transient nature as the patterns eventually coarsen into a flat moving front. The second instability is related to the Mullins-Sekerka instability in the presence of elasticity and arises at the moving front between the two phases when the flux is reversed. Stability analyses of the full model and the corresponding sharp-interface model are carried out and compared. Our results demonstrate how interface and bulk instabilities can be analyzed within the same framework which allows us to identify and distinguish each of them clearly. The relevance for a detailed understanding of both instabilities and their interconnections in a realistic setting is demonstrated for a system of equations modeling the lithiation and delithiation processes within the context of lithium ion batteries.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Singh, Chandra B.; Pino, Elisabete M. de Gouveia Dal [Department of Astronomy (IAG-USP), University of São Paulo, São Paulo (Brazil); Mizuno, Yosuke, E-mail: csingh@iag.usp.br, E-mail: dalpino@iag.usp.br, E-mail: mizuno@th.physik.uni-frankfurt.de [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Goethe University, D-60438, Frankfurt am Main (Germany)
2016-06-10
Using the three-dimensional relativistic magnetohydrodynamic code RAISHIN, we investigated the influence of the radial density profile on the spatial development of the current-driven kink instability along magnetized rotating, relativistic jets. For the purposes of our study, we used a nonperiodic computational box, the jet flow is initially established across the computational grid, and a precessional perturbation at the inlet triggers the growth of the kink instability. We studied light and heavy jets with respect to the environment depending on the density profile. Different angular velocity amplitudes have been also tested. The results show the propagation of a helically kinked structure along the jet and a relatively stable configuration for the lighter jets. The jets appear to be collimated by the magnetic field, and the flow is accelerated owing to conversion of electromagnetic into kinetic energy. We also identify regions of high current density in filamentary current sheets, indicative of magnetic reconnection, which are associated with the kink-unstable regions and correlated with the decrease of the sigma parameter of the flow. We discuss the implications of our findings for Poynting-flux-dominated jets in connection with magnetic reconnection processes. We find that fast magnetic reconnection may be driven by the kink-instability turbulence and govern the transformation of magnetic into kinetic energy, thus providing an efficient way to power and accelerate particles in active galactic nucleus and gamma-ray-burst relativistic jets.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J. [U.S. Naval Research Laboratory, Washington DC 20375 (United States); Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Mclean, E.; Manka, C. [Research Support Instruments, Lanham, Maryland 20905 (United States); Phillips, L. [Alogus Research Corporation, McLean, Virginia 22101 (United States); Afeyan, B. [Polymath Research, Inc., Pleasanton, California 94566 (United States); Seely, J.; Feldman, U. [Berkeley Research Associates, Inc., Beltsville, Maryland 20705 (United States)
2013-02-15
The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive choice for inertial confinement fusion due to its combination of short wavelength ({lambda}=248 nm), large bandwidth (up to 3 THz), and superior beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. These qualities improve the overall hydrodynamics of directly driven pellet implosions and should allow use of increased laser intensity due to higher thresholds for laser plasma instabilities when compared to frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers ({lambda}=351 nm). Here, we report the first observations of the two-plasmon decay instability using a KrF laser. The experiments utilized the Nike laser facility to irradiate solid plastic planar targets over a range of pulse lengths (0.35 ns{<=}{tau}{<=}1.25 ns) and intensities (up to 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 15} W/cm{sup 2}). Variation of the laser pulse created different combinations of electron temperature and electron density scale length. The observed onset of instability growth was consistent with the expected scaling that KrF lasers have a higher intensity threshold for instabilities in the quarter critical density region.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Oh, J.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Mclean, E.; Manka, C.; Phillips, L.; Afeyan, B.; Seely, J.; Feldman, U.
2013-01-01
The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive choice for inertial confinement fusion due to its combination of short wavelength (λ=248 nm), large bandwidth (up to 3 THz), and superior beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. These qualities improve the overall hydrodynamics of directly driven pellet implosions and should allow use of increased laser intensity due to higher thresholds for laser plasma instabilities when compared to frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers (λ=351 nm). Here, we report the first observations of the two-plasmon decay instability using a KrF laser. The experiments utilized the Nike laser facility to irradiate solid plastic planar targets over a range of pulse lengths (0.35 ns≤τ≤1.25 ns) and intensities (up to 2×10 15 W/cm 2 ). Variation of the laser pulse created different combinations of electron temperature and electron density scale length. The observed onset of instability growth was consistent with the expected scaling that KrF lasers have a higher intensity threshold for instabilities in the quarter critical density region.
Weaver, J. L.; Oh, J.; Phillips, L.; Afeyan, B.; Seely, J.; Kehne, D.; Brown, C. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; Schmitt, A. J.; Feldman, U.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Mclean, E.; Manka, C.
2013-02-01
The krypton-fluoride (KrF) laser is an attractive choice for inertial confinement fusion due to its combination of short wavelength (λ =248 nm), large bandwidth (up to 3 THz), and superior beam smoothing by induced spatial incoherence. These qualities improve the overall hydrodynamics of directly driven pellet implosions and should allow use of increased laser intensity due to higher thresholds for laser plasma instabilities when compared to frequency tripled Nd:glass lasers (λ =351 nm). Here, we report the first observations of the two-plasmon decay instability using a KrF laser. The experiments utilized the Nike laser facility to irradiate solid plastic planar targets over a range of pulse lengths (0.35 ns≤τ≤1.25 ns) and intensities (up to 2×1015 W/cm2). Variation of the laser pulse created different combinations of electron temperature and electron density scale length. The observed onset of instability growth was consistent with the expected scaling that KrF lasers have a higher intensity threshold for instabilities in the quarter critical density region.
Numerical simulation of Rayleigh-Taylor instability in ablation driven systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Verdon, C.P.
1984-01-01
Two-dimensional numerical simulations of ablatively accelerated thin shells subject to Rayleigh-Taylor instability are presented. Results for both single wavelength and multiwavelength perturbations show that the nonlinear effects of the instability are evident mainly in the bubble rather than the spike. Approximate roles for predicting the dominant nonlinear mode-mode interactions, which limit shell performance, are also discussed. The work concludes with a discussion of recommendations for future work in this area
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujioka, Shinsuke; Shiraga, Hiroyuki; Nishikino, Masaharu; Shigemori, Keisuke; Sunahara, Atsushi; Nakai, Mitsuo; Azechi, Hiroshi; Nishihara, Katsunobu; Yamanaka, Tatsuhiko
2003-01-01
The temporal evolution of the density profile of a directly laser-driven polystyrene target was observed for the first time using an x-ray penumbral imaging technique coupled with side-on x-ray backlighting at the GEKKO XII [C. Yamanaka et al., IEEE J. Quantum Electron. QE-17, 1639 (1981)]-High Intensity Plasma Experimental Research laser facility (I L =0.7x10 14 W/cm 2 , λ L =0.35 μm). This density measurement makes it possible to experimentally confirm all physical parameters [γ(k),k,g,m,ρ a ,L m ] appearing in the modified Takabe formula for the growth rate of the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The measured density profiles were well reproduced by a one-dimensional hydrodynamic simulation code. The density measurement contributes toward fully understanding the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Aizin, G. R.; Mikalopas, J.; Shur, M.
2016-05-01
An alternative approach of using a distributed transmission line analogy for solving transport equations for ballistic nanostructures is applied for solving the three-dimensional problem of electron transport in gated ballistic nanostructures with periodically changing width. The structures with varying width allow for modulation of the electron drift velocity while keeping the plasma velocity constant. We predict that in such structures biased by a constant current, a periodic modulation of the electron drift velocity due to the varying width results in the instability of the plasma waves if the electron drift velocity to plasma wave velocity ratio changes from below to above unity. The physics of such instability is similar to that of the sonic boom, but, in the periodically modulated structures, this analog of the sonic boom is repeated many times leading to a larger increment of the instability. The constant plasma velocity in the sections of different width leads to resonant excitation of the unstable plasma modes with varying bias current. This effect (that we refer to as the superplasmonic boom condition) results in a strong enhancement of the instability. The predicted instability involves the oscillating dipole charge carried by the plasma waves. The plasmons can be efficiently coupled to the terahertz electromagnetic radiation due to the periodic geometry of the gated structure. Our estimates show that the analyzed instability should enable powerful tunable terahertz electronic sources.
Radiation-induced genomic instability driven by de novo chromosomal rearrangement hot spots
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grosovsky, A.J.; Allen, R.N.; Moore, S.R.
2003-01-01
Genomic instability has become generally recognized as a critical contributor to tumor progression by generating the necessary number of genetic alterations required for expression of a clinically significant malignancy. Our study of chromosomal instability investigates the hypothesis that chromosomal rearrangements can generate novel breakage-prone sites, resulting in instability acting predominantly in cis. Here we present an analysis of the karyotypic distribution of instability associated chromosomal rearrangements in TK6 and derivative human lymphoblasts. Karyotypic analysis performed on a total of 455 independent clones included 183 rearrangements distributed among 100 separate unstable clones. The results demonstrate that the breakpoints of chromosomal rearrangements in unstable clones are non-randomly distributed throughout the genome. This pattern is statistically significant, and incompatible with expectations for random breakage associated with loss or alteration of a trans-acting factor. Furthermore, specific chromosomal breakage hot spots associated with instability have been identified; these occur in several independent unstable clones and are often repeatedly broken and rejoined during the outgrowth of an individual clone. In complimentary studies, genomic instability was generated without any exposure to a DNA-damaging agent, but rather by transfection with alpha heterochromatin DNA. In a prospective analysis, human-hamster hybrid AL cells containing a single human chromosome 11 were transfected with heterochromatic alpha DNA repeats and clones were analyzed by chromosome 11 painting. Transfection with alpha DNA was associated with karyotypic heterogeneity in 40% of clones examined; control transfections with plasmid alone did not lead to karyotypic heterogeneity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
R. Nazikian; G.J. Kramer; C.Z. Cheng; N.N. Gorelenkov; H.L. Berk; S.E. Sharapov
2003-01-01
The original description of alpha-particle-driven instabilities in the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) in terms of Toroidal Alfvin Eigenmodes (TAEs) remained inconsistent with three fundamental characteristics of the observations: (i) the variation of the mode frequency with toroidal mode number, (ii) the chirping of the mode frequency for a given toroidal mode number, and (iii) the anti-ballooning density perturbation of the modes. It is now shown that these characteristics can be explained by observing that cylindrical-like modes can exist in the weak magnetic shear region of the plasma that then make a transition to TAEs as the central safety factor decreases in time
Hardin, G. R.; Sani, R. L.; Henry, D.; Roux, B.
1990-01-01
The buoyancy-driven instability of a monocomponent or binary fluid completely contained in a vertical circular cylinder is investigated, including the influence of the Soret effect for the binary mixture. The Boussinesq approximation is used, and the resulting linear stability problem is solved using a Galerkin technique. The analysis considers fluid mixtures ranging from gases to liquid metals. The flow structure is found to depend strongly on both the cylinder aspect ratio and the magnitude of the Soret effect. The predicted stability limits are shown to agree closely with experimental observations.
Kondratiuk, Paweł; Dutka, Filip; Szymczak, Piotr
2016-04-01
Infiltration of a rock by an external fluid very often drives it out of chemical equilibrium. As a result, alteration of the rock mineral composition occurs. It does not however proceed uniformly in the entire rock volume. Instead, one or more reaction fronts are formed, which are zones of increased chemical activity, separating the altered (product) rock from the yet unaltered (primary) one. The reaction fronts propagate with velocities which are usually much smaller than those of the infiltrating fluid. One of the simplest examples of such alteration is the dissolution of some of the minerals building the primary rock. For instance, calcium carbonate minerals in the rock matrix can be dissolved by infiltrating acidic fluids. In such a case the product rock has higher porosity and permeability than the primary one. Due to positive feedbacks between the reactant transport, fluid flow, and porosity generation, the reaction fronts in porosity-generating replacement systems are inherently unstable. An arbitrarily small protrusion of the front gets magnified and develops into a highly porous finger-like or funnel-like structure. This feature of dissolution fronts, dubbed the "reactive-infiltration instability" [1], is responsible for the formation of a number of geological patterns, such as solution pipes or various karst forms. It is also of practical importance, since spontaneous front breakup and development of localized highly porous flow paths (a.k.a. "wormholes") is favourable by petroleum engineers, who apply acidization to oil-bearing reservoirs in order to increase their permeability. However, more complex chemical reactions might occur during infiltration of a rock by a fluid. In principle, the products of dissolution might react with other species present either in the fluid or in the rock and reprecipitate [2]. The dissolution and precipitation fronts develop and and begin to propagate with equal velocities, forming a single dissolution-precipitation front
New features of current-driven low-frequency instabilities in a Q-machine plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dimitriu, Dan-Gheorghe; Ignatescu, Valerian; Lozneanu, Erzilia; Sanduloviciu, Mircea; Ionita, Codrina; Schrittwieser, Roman Wolfgang
2001-01-01
Among the instabilities in a low-density magnetized plasma column, the electrostatic ion-cyclotron instability (EICI) and the potential relaxation instability (PRI) are the best known and most thoroughly investigated. Both instabilities are excited by drawing an electron current parallel to the magnetic field towards a circular collector (CO), which is inserted into the plasma column perpendicular to the axis. For the PRI, the radius of CO must be considerably larger than the ion gyroradius so that the ion trajectories can be approximated as one-dimensional. For the EICI, the radius of CO must be considerably smaller than that of the plasma column, but also larger than one ion gyroradius. A transition from the PRI into the EICI was reported earlier. A certain range of CO radii was found where both instabilities could be excited simultaneously. We report on a strong modulation of the EICI by the PRI, obtained for gradually increasing the CO bias, with the EICI appearing at first, and later the PRI. The EICI frequency was about four times larger than that of the PRI. The modulation not only affects the amplitude but also the frequency of the EICI. This leads to the formation of sidebands in the spectrum around f EICI with a frequency difference equal to ± f PRI . In addition, we find that the EICI frequency depends not only on the magnetic field strength but also on the CO current. Our data also show a strong non-linear dependence of the PRI frequency on the magnetic field strength. To explain these features, we propose a new phenomenological model, which is able to clarify the role of complex space charge configurations for low frequency instabilities in a low-density magnetized plasma column. (authors)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
B. P. Williams
2006-07-01
Full Text Available The winter MaCWAVE (Mountain and convective waves ascending vertically rocket campaign took place in January 2003 at Esrange, Sweden and the ALOMAR observatory in Andenes, Norway. The campaign combined balloon, lidar, radar, and rocket measurements to produce full temperature and wind profiles from the ground to 105 km. This paper will investigate gravity wave propagation in the mesosphere and lower thermosphere using data from the Weber sodium lidar on 28–29 January 2003. A very large semidiurnal tide was present in the zonal wind above 80 km that grew to a 90 m/s amplitude at 100 km. The superposition of smaller-scale gravity waves and the tide caused small regions of possible convective or shear instabilities to form along the downward progressing phase fronts of the tide. The gravity waves had periods ranging from the Nyquist period of 30 min up to 4 h, vertical wavelengths ranging from 7 km to more than 20 km, and the frequency spectra had the expected –5/3 slope. The dominant gravity waves had long vertical wavelengths and experienced rapid downward phase progression. The gravity wave variance grew exponentially with height up from 86 to 94 km, consistent with the measured scale height, suggesting that the waves were not dissipated strongly by the tidal gradients and resulting unstable regions in this altitude range.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Outeda, R.; D'Onofrio, A.; El Hasi, C.; Zalts, A.
2014-01-01
Density driven instabilities produced by CO 2 (gas) dissolution in water containing a color indicator were studied in a Hele Shaw cell. The images were analyzed and instability patterns were characterized by mixing zone temporal evolution, dispersion curves, and the growth rate for different CO 2 pressures and different color indicator concentrations. The results obtained from an exhaustive analysis of experimental data show that this system has a different behaviour in the linear regime of the instabilities (when the growth rate has a linear dependence with time), from the nonlinear regime at longer times. At short times using a color indicator to see the evolution of the pattern, the images show that the effects of both the color indicator and CO 2 pressure are of the same order of magnitude: The growth rates are similar and the wave numbers are in the same range (0–30 cm −1 ) when the system is unstable. Although in the linear regime the dynamics is affected similarly by the presence of the indicator and CO 2 pressure, in the nonlinear regime, the influence of the latter is clearly more pronounced than the effects of the color indicator
Pierce, Eric T; Kumar, Vikram; Zheng, Hui; Peterfreund, Robert A
2013-03-01
Gravity-driven micro-drip infusion sets allow control of medication dose delivery by adjusting drops per minute. When the roller clamp is fully open, flow in the drip chamber can be a continuous fluid column rather than discrete, countable, drops. We hypothesized that during this "wide-open" state, drug delivery becomes dependent on factors extrinsic to the micro-drip set and is therefore difficult to predict. We conducted laboratory experiments to characterize volume delivery under various clinically relevant conditions of wide-open flow in an in vitro laboratory model. A micro-drip infusion set, plugged into a bag of normal saline, was connected to a high-flow stopcock at the distal end. Vertically oriented IV catheters (gauges 14-22) were connected to the stopcock. The fluid meniscus height in the bag was fixed (60-120 cm) above the outflow point. The roller clamp on the infusion set was in fully open position for all experiments resulting in a continuous column of fluid in the drip chamber. Fluid volume delivered in 1 minute was measured 4 times with each condition. To model resistive effects of carrier flow, volumetric infusion pumps were used to deliver various flow rates of normal saline through a carrier IV set into which a micro-drip infusion was "piggybacked." We also compared delivery by micro-drip infusion sets from 3 manufacturers. The volume of fluid delivered by gravity-driven infusion under wide-open conditions (continuous fluid column in drip chamber) varied 2.9-fold (95% confidence interval, 2.84-2.96) depending on catheter size and fluid column height. Total model resistance of the micro-drip with stopcock and catheter varied with flow rate. Volume delivered by the piggybacked micro-drip decreased up to 29.7% ± 0.8% (mean ± SE) as the carrier flow increased from 0 to 1998 mL/min. Delivery characteristics of the micro-drip infusion sets from 3 different manufacturers were similar. Laboratory simulation of clinical situations with gravity-driven
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Avara, Mark J.; Reynolds, Christopher S.; Bogdanović, Tamara
2013-01-01
The role played by magnetic fields in the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters is complex. The weakly collisional nature of the ICM leads to thermal conduction that is channeled along field lines. This anisotropic heat conduction profoundly changes the instabilities of the ICM atmosphere, with convective stabilities being driven by temperature gradients of either sign. Here, we employ the Athena magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the local non-linear behavior of the heat-flux-driven buoyancy instability (HBI) relevant in the cores of cooling-core clusters where the temperature increases with radius. We study a grid of two-dimensional simulations that span a large range of initial magnetic field strengths and numerical resolutions. For very weak initial fields, we recover the previously known result that the HBI wraps the field in the horizontal direction, thereby shutting off the heat flux. However, we find that simulations that begin with intermediate initial field strengths have a qualitatively different behavior, forming HBI-stable filaments that resist field-line wrapping and enable sustained vertical conductive heat flux at a level of 10%-25% of the Spitzer value. While astrophysical conclusions regarding the role of conduction in cooling cores require detailed global models, our local study proves that systems dominated by the HBI do not necessarily quench the conductive heat flux
Health disparities among wage workers driven by employment instability in the Republic of Korea.
Jung, Minsoo
2013-01-01
Even though labor market flexibility continues to be a source of grave concern in terms of employment instability, as evidenced by temporary employment, only a few longitudinal studies have examined the effects of employment instability on the health status of wage workers. Against this backdrop, this study assesses the manner in which changes in employment type affect the health status of wage workers. The data originate from the Korean Labor and Income Panel Study's health-related surveys for the first through fourth years (n = 1,789; 1998 to 2001). This study estimates potential damage to self-rated health through the application of a generalized estimating equation, according to specific levels of employment instability. While controlling for age, socioeconomic position, marital status, health behavior, and access to health care, the study analysis confirms that changes in employment type exert significant and adverse effects on health status for a given year (OR = 1.47; 95% CII 1.10-1.96), to an extent comparable to the marked effects of smoking on human health (OR = 1.47; 95% CI 1.05-2.04). Given the global prevalence of labor flexibility, policy interventions must be implemented if employment instability triggers broad discrepancies not only in social standing, wage, and welfare benefits, but also in health status.
Alfvénic instabilities driven by runaways in fusion plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fülöp, T.; Newton, S.
2014-01-01
Runaway particles can be produced in plasmas with large electric fields. Here, we address the possibility that such runaway ions and electrons excite Alfvénic instabilities. The magnetic perturbation induced by these modes can enhance the loss of runaways. This may have important implications for the runaway electron beam formation in tokamak disruptions
Flow instability in laminar jet flames driven by alternating current electric fields
Kim, Gyeong Taek; Park, Daegeun; Cha, Min; Park, Jeong; Chung, Suk-Ho
2016-01-01
The effect of electric fields on the instability of laminar nonpremixed jet flames was investigated experimentally by applying the alternating current (AC) to a jet nozzle. We aimed to elucidate the origin of the occurrence of twin-lifted jet flames
MHD kink-driven instabilities in net-current-free stellarators
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rewoldt, G.; Johnson, J.L.
1984-02-01
The Pfirsch-Schlueter current, which is induced in a toroidal device to keep the plasma current diverence-free, is shown to drive a free-boundary instability in a model of a net-current-free ATF-1 stellarator if = 2.6%
Self-Consistant Numerical Modeling of E-Cloud Driven Instability of a Bunch Train in the CERN SPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M.A.; Secondo, R.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J.D.; Rivetta, C.H.
2010-01-01
The simulation package WARP-POSINST was recently upgraded for handling multiple bunches and modeling concurrently the electron cloud buildup and its effect on the beam, allowing for direct self-consistent simulation of bunch trains generating, and interacting with, electron clouds. We have used the WARP-POSINST package on massively parallel supercomputers to study the growth rate and frequency patterns in space-time of the electron cloud driven transverse instability for a proton bunch train in the CERN SPS accelerator. Results suggest that a positive feedback mechanism exists between the electron buildup and the e-cloud driven transverse instability, leading to a net increase in predicted electron density. Comparisons to selected experimental data are also given. Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS and other accelerators. So far, simulations of electron cloud buildup and their effects on beam dynamics have been performed separately. This is a consequence of the large computational cost of the combined calculation due to large space and time scale disparities between the two processes. We have presented the latest improvements of the simulation package WARP-POSINST for the simulation of self-consistent ecloud effects, including mesh refinement, and generation of electrons from gas ionization and impact at the pipe walls. We also presented simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with electrons clouds in the SPS, which included generation of secondary electrons. The distribution of electrons in front of the first beam was initialized from a dump taken from a preceding buildup calculation using the POSINST code. In this paper, we present an extension of this work where one full batch of 72 bunches is simulated in the SPS, including the entire buildup calculation and the self-consistent interaction between the bunches and the electrons. Comparisons to experimental data are also given.
Neutrino-driven supernovae: An accretion instability in a nuclear physics controlled environment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Janka, H.-T.; Buras, R.; Kitaura Joyanes, F.S.; Marek, A.; Rampp, M.; Scheck, L.
2005-01-01
New simulations demonstrate that low-mode, nonradial hydrodynamic instabilities of the accretion shock help starting hot-bubble convection in supernovae and thus support explosions by the neutrino-heating mechanism. The prevailing conditions depend on the high-density equation of state which governs stellar core collapse, core bounce, and neutron star formation. Tests of this sensitivity to nuclear physics variations are shown for spherically symmetric models. Implications of current explosion models for r-process nucleosynthesis are addressed
Proton temperature-anisotropy-driven instabilities in weakly collisional plasmas: Hybrid simulations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 81, č. 1 (2015), 305810103/1-305810103/14 ISSN 0022-3778 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP209/12/2023 Grant - others:EU(XE) SHOCK Project No. 284515 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 ; RVO:68378289 Keywords : magnetic field * solar wind * mirror instability Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics; BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics (UFA-U) Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2015
Proton temperature-anisotropy-driven instabilities in weakly collisional plasmas: Hybrid simulations
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Hellinger, Petr; Trávníček, Pavel M.
2015-01-01
Roč. 81, č. 1 (2015), s. 1-14 ISSN 0022-3778 Institutional support: RVO:68378289 Keywords : magnetic-field * solar- wind * mirror instability * Langevin representation * Coulomb collisions * nonlinear-theory * fluid model * evolution * turbulence * threshold Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.981, year: 2015 http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayAbstract?fromPage=online&aid=9525437
Coherent betatron instability driven by electrostatic separators: Stability analysis of the Tevatron
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harfoush, F.A.; Bogacz, S.A.
1989-03-01
This paper outlines possible intensity limits due to the coherent betatron motion for the upgraded Tevatron with the electrostatic separators. Numerical simulation shows that this new vacuum chamber structure dominates the high frequency part of the coupling impedance spectrum and more likely will excite a slow head-tail instability. A simple stability analysis yields the characteristic growth-time of the unstable modes. 4 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab
Huntington, C. M.; Shimony, A.; Trantham, M.; Kuranz, C. C.; Shvarts, D.; Di Stefano, C. A.; Doss, F. W.; Drake, R. P.; Flippo, K. A.; Kalantar, D. H.; Klein, S. R.; Kline, J. L.; MacLaren, S. A.; Malamud, G.; Miles, A. R.; Prisbrey, S. T.; Raman, K. S.; Remington, B. A.; Robey, H. F.; Wan, W. C.; Park, H.-S.
2018-05-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability is a common occurrence in nature, notably in astrophysical systems like supernovae, where it serves to mix the dense layers of the interior of an exploding star with the low-density stellar wind surrounding it, and in inertial confinement fusion experiments, where it mixes cooler materials with the central hot spot in an imploding capsule and stifles the desired nuclear reactions. In both of these examples, the radiative flux generated by strong shocks in the system may play a role in partially stabilizing RT instabilities. Here, we present experiments performed on the National Ignition Facility, designed to isolate and study the role of radiation and heat conduction from a shock front in the stabilization of hydrodynamic instabilities. By varying the laser power delivered to a shock-tube target with an embedded, unstable interface, the radiative fluxes generated at the shock front could be controlled. We observe decreased RT growth when the shock significantly heats the medium around it, in contrast to a system where the shock did not produce significant heating. Both systems are modeled with a modified set of buoyancy-drag equations accounting for ablative stabilization, and the experimental results are consistent with ablative stabilization when the shock is radiative. This result has important implications for our understanding of astrophysical radiative shocks and supernova radiative hydrodynamics [Kuranz et al., Nature Communications 9(1), 1564 (2018)].
Modeling of second order space charge driven coherent sum and difference instabilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yao-Shuo Yuan
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Second order coherent oscillation modes in intense particle beams play an important role for beam stability in linear or circular accelerators. In addition to the well-known second order even envelope modes and their instability, coupled even envelope modes and odd (skew modes have recently been shown in [Phys. Plasmas 23, 090705 (2016PHPAEN1070-664X10.1063/1.4963851] to lead to parametric instabilities in periodic focusing lattices with sufficiently different tunes. While this work was partly using the usual envelope equations, partly also particle-in-cell (PIC simulation, we revisit these modes here and show that the complete set of second order even and odd mode phenomena can be obtained in a unifying approach by using a single set of linearized rms moment equations based on “Chernin’s equations.” This has the advantage that accurate information on growth rates can be obtained and gathered in a “tune diagram.” In periodic focusing we retrieve the parametric sum instabilities of coupled even and of odd modes. The stop bands obtained from these equations are compared with results from PIC simulations for waterbag beams and found to show very good agreement. The “tilting instability” obtained in constant focusing confirms the equivalence of this method with the linearized Vlasov-Poisson system evaluated in second order.
Effect of ion cyclotron acceleration on frequency chirping beam-driven instabilities in NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruskov, E.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Darrow, D.; Medley, S.; Gorelenkov, N.
2006-01-01
The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ∼2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including TAE modes, 50-100∼kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (∼3 MW) harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the effective collision frequency. Steady-frequency TAE modes excited early in the discharge are affected by the HHFW heating but there is no evidence that the chirping of 20-100 kHz modes is suppressed. (author)
Effect of Ion Cyclotron Acceleration on Frequency Chirping Beam-Driven Instabilities in NSTX
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ruskov, E.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Darrow, D.; Medley, S.; Gorelenkov, N.
2006-01-01
The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ∼2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including TAE modes, 50-100∼kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (∼3 MW) harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the effective collision frequency. Steady-frequency TAE modes excited early in the discharge are affected by the HHFW heating but there is no evidence that the chirping of 20-100 kHz modes is suppressed. (author)
Data report for ROSA-IV LSTF gravity-driven safety injection experiment run SB-CL-27
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yonomoto, Taisuke; Saitou, Seishi; Kuroda, Takeshi
1994-03-01
Experimental data are presented for the passive injection test, Run SB-CL-27, conducted at the ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) on September 17, 1992. This experiment simulated thermal-hydraulic behavior of a gravity-driven, passive safety injection system during a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) in a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The injection system consisted of a gravity-driven injection tank, located above the reactor vessel, with connecting lines. The tank was initially filled with water of room temperature at the same pressure as the pressurizer. The connecting lines to the cold leg and to the vessel downcomer were opened at the test initiation. Then, a natural circulation flow developed in the loop which was formed by these lines and the injection tank. The hot water in the cold leg circulated into the upper part of tank and accumulated there causing a significant thermal stratification. This thermal stratification prevented direct-contact condensation of steam from occurring during the subsequent tank drain-down phase. Therefore, no condensation-induced depressurization of the tank, affecting adversely the injection performance, occurred. (author)
The Role of Testimony in Young Children's Solution of a Gravity-Driven Invisible Displacement Task
Bascandziev, Igor; Harris, Paul L.
2010-01-01
Previous research has shown that young children make a perseverative, gravity-oriented, error when asked to predict the final location of a ball dropped down an S-shaped opaque tube (Hood, 1995). We asked if providing children with verbal information concerning the role that the tubes play, in determining the ball's trajectory would improve their…
Non-linear 3D simulations of current-driven instabilities in jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanovski, S.; Bonanno, A.
2009-01-01
We present global 3D nonlinear simulations of the Taylor instability in the presence of vertical fields. The initial configuration is in equilibrium, which is achieved by a pressure gradient or an external potential force. The non linear evolution of the system leads to a stable equilibrium with a current free toroidal field. We find the that presence of a vertical poloidal field stabilize the system if B φ ∼B z . The implication of our findings for the physics of astrophysical jets are discussed.
Beam-beam instability driven by wakefield effects in linear colliders
Brinkmann, R; Schulte, Daniel
2002-01-01
The vertical beam profile distortions induced by wakefield effects in linear colliders (the so-called ``banana effect'') generate a beam-beam instability at the collision point when the vertical disruption parameter is large. We illustrate this effect in the case of the TESLA linear collider project. We specify the tolerance on the associated emittance growth, which translates into tolerances on injection jitter and, for a given tuning procedure, on structure misalignments. We look for possible cures based on fast orbit correction at the interaction point and using a fast luminosity monitor.
Measurement of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability in targets driven by optically smoothed laser beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Desselberger, M.; Willi, O.; Savage, M.; Lamb, M.J.
1990-01-01
Growth rates of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability were measured in targets with imposed sinusoidal modulations irradiated by optically smoothed 0.53-μm laser beams. A hybrid optical smoothing technique utilizing induced-spatial-incoherence and random-phase-plate technology was used for the first time. The wave-number dependence and the nonlinear behavior of Rayleigh-Taylor growth were investigated by using targets with a range of modulation periodicities and depths. The results are compared to 2D hydrodynamic-code simulations
Saturation of alpha particle driven instability in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gorelenkov, N.N.; Chen, Y.; White, R.B.; Berk, H.L.
1999-01-01
A nonlinear theory of kinetic instabilities near threshold [Berk et al., Plasma Phys. Rep. 23, 842 (1997)] is applied to calculate the saturation level of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), and to be compared with the predictions of δf method calculations (Y. Chen, Ph.D. thesis, Princeton University, 1998). Good agreement is observed between the predictions of both methods and the predicted saturation levels are comparable to experimentally measured amplitudes of the TAE oscillations in Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor [D. J. Grove and D. M. Meade, Nucl. Fusion 25, 1167 (1985)]. copyright 1999 American Institute of Physics
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Camilo de Souza, F.; Elfimov, A.; Galvão, R.M.O.; Krbec, Jaroslav; Seidl, Jakub; Stöckel, Jan; Hron, Martin; Havlíček, Josef; Mitošinková, Klára
2017-01-01
Roč. 381, č. 36 (2017), s. 3066-3070 ISSN 0375-9601 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA16-25074S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-35260S; GA MŠk(CZ) 8D15001; GA MŠk(CZ) LM2015045 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Tokamak * Geodesic acoustic modes * Kinetic theory * Instability * Landau damping Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: 1.3 Physical sciences Impact factor: 1.772, year: 2016 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0375960117306989
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Yang, X.H.; Zhuo, H.B.; Xu, H.; Ge, Z.; Shao, F.; Borghesi, Marco; Ma, Y.Y.
2016-01-01
Roč. 23, č. 10 (2016), s. 1-8, č. článku 103110. ISSN 1070-664X R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162 Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : Weibel instability * plasmas * target * generation * transition * ignition * beam Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.115, year: 2016
Kohler, Jonathan; Gerber, Justin A.; Dowd, Emma; Stamper-Kurn, Dan M.
2018-01-01
We realize a spin-orbit interaction between the collective spin precession and center-of-mass motion of a trapped ultracold atomic gas, mediated by spin- and position-dependent dispersive coupling to a driven optical cavity. The collective spin, precessing near its highest-energy state in an applied magnetic field, can be approximated as a negative-mass harmonic oscillator. When the Larmor precession and mechanical motion are nearly resonant, cavity mediated coupling leads to a negative-mass instability, driving exponential growth of a correlated mode of the hybrid system. We observe this growth imprinted on modulations of the cavity field and estimate the full covariance of the resulting two-mode state by observing its transient decay during subsequent free evolution.
X-Ray Laser in an Ablative Capillary Discharge Driven by an m=0 Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kunze, H.J.
2002-01-01
The development of EUV and soft-X ray lasers made great progress during the last decade. In most cases powerful primary lasers in the UV-, visible and near-infrared spectral regions are employed to produce the dense hot plasmas needed as active media for the lasers. Widely spread applications require small table-top systems and here capillary discharges offer an alternative approach and are being studied by several groups. By selecting properly the transient discharge conditions, collisional excitation or three-body recombination are the effective mechanisms to achieve population inversion. At the Ruhr-University a different approach is pursued where charge exchange between different ions in colliding plasmas is utilized. The plasmas are produced in a small ablative capillary discharge made of polyacetal. In the second half cycle an m=O instability develops and results in hot plasmas in the neck regions which stream into the cold plasma outside and create overpopulation of the n=3 level of hydrogenic carbon leading to lasing on the Balmer-alpha line at 18.22 nm. A waved structure of the inner capillary wall induces reliably the instability and pinhole pictures give the clue why not all materials are useful. Double pass experiments using a multilayer mirror give an effective gain-length product of GL=4.3 for a 3 cm long capillary and a life-time of the inversion layers of 400 ps
Physics of the ion acoustic wave driven by the stimulated Brillouin scattering instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clayton, C.E.
1984-01-01
The ion acoustic wave excited in the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) instability is probed via collective ruby-laser Thomson scattering in order to understand the low saturation level observed in the instability. Many of the features observed in the Brillouin backscattered CO 2 laser light from the underdense gas-target plasma are also observed in the Thomson scattered ruby light - from which it is learned that the ion acoustic wave grows exponentially and then saturates as the CO 2 pump power is increased. The primary advantage of the ruby Thomson scattering diagnostic is in its capability of providing simultaneous space and time resolved measurements of the ion wave amplitude. From these first such detailed measurements, it was found that the ion wave grows exponentially in space at a rate that agrees with the linear convective SBS theory. However, at higher pump powers, the ion wave saturates at an inferred amplitude of anti-n/n 0 approx. = 5 to 10%. Further increases in the pump power appear to result in an increase in the length over which the ion wave is saturated. A nearly constant SBS reflectivity in this saturated regime, however, suggests that the saturated ion wave does not contribute as much to the scattered power as would be expected from Bragg scattering theory. This apparent contradiction can be resolved if ion trapping is responsible for the saturation of the ion wave
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Amanda Gonçalves dos Santos Silva
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Aneuploidy and chromosomal instability (CIN are hallmarks of most solid tumors. These alterations may result from inaccurate chromosomal segregation during mitosis, which can occur through several mechanisms including defective telomere metabolism, centrosome amplification, dysfunctional centromeres, and/or defective spindle checkpoint control. In this work, we used an in vitro murine melanoma model that uses a cellular adhesion blockade as a transforming factor to characterize telomeric and centromeric alterations that accompany melanocyte transformation. To study the timing of the occurrence of telomere shortening in this transformation model, we analyzed the profile of telomere length by quantitative fluorescent in situ hybridization and found that telomere length significantly decreased as additional rounds of cell adhesion blockages were performed. Together with it, an increase in telomere-free ends and complex karyotypic aberrations were also found, which include Robertsonian fusions in 100% of metaphases of the metastatic melanoma cells. These findings are in agreement with the idea that telomere length abnormalities seem to be one of the earliest genetic alterations acquired in the multistep process of malignant transformation and that telomere abnormalities result in telomere aggregation, breakage-bridge-fusion cycles, and CIN. Another remarkable feature of this model is the abundance of centromeric instability manifested as centromere fragments and centromeric fusions. Taken together, our results illustrate for this melanoma model CIN with a structural signature of centromere breakage and telomeric loss.
Numerical modelling of hydrologically-driven slope instability by means of porous media mechanics
Kakogiannou, Evanthia; Sanavia, Lorenzo; Lora, Marco; Schrefler, Bernhard
2015-04-01
Heavy rainfall can trigger slope failure which generally involves shallow soil deposit of different grading and origin usually in a state of partial saturation. In this case of slope instability, the behaviour of the soil slope is closely related not only to the distribution of pore-water pressure but also to the stress state during rainfall infiltration involving both mechanical and hydrological processes. In order to understand better these physical key processes, in this research work, the modelling of rainfall induced slope failure is considered as a coupled variably saturated hydro-mechanical problem. Therefore, the geometrically linear finite element code Comes-Geo for non-isothermal elasto-plastic multiphase solid porous materials is used, as developed by B.A. Schrefler and his co-workers. In this context, a detailed numerical analysis of an experimental slope stability test due to rainfall infiltration is presented. The main goals of this work are to understand the triggering mechanisms during the progressive failure, the effect of using different constitutive models of the mechanical soil behavior on the numerical results and the use of the second order work criterion on the detection of slope instability.
Fluid instabilities and wakes in a soap-film tunnel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vorobieff, P.; Ecke, R.E.
1999-01-01
We present a compact, low-budget two-dimensional hydrodynamic flow visualization system based on a tilted, gravity-driven soap film tunnel. This system is suitable for demonstrations and studies of a variety of fluid mechanics problems, including turbulent wakes past bluff bodies and lifting surfaces, Kelvin - Helmholtz instability, and grid turbulence. copyright 1999 American Association of Physics Teachers
Stability and instability of axisymmetric droplets in thermocapillary-driven thin films
Nicolaou, Zachary G.
2018-03-01
The stability of compactly supported, axisymmetric droplet states is considered for driven thin viscous films evolving on two-dimensional surfaces. Stability is assessed using Lyapunov energy methods afforded by the Cahn-Hilliard variational form of the governing equation. For general driving forces, a criterion on the gradient of profiles at the boundary of their support (their contact slope) is shown to be a necessary condition for stability. Additional necessary and sufficient conditions for stability are established for a specific driving force corresponding to a thermocapillary-driven film. It is found that only droplets of sufficiently short height that satisfy the contact slope criterion are stable. This destabilization of droplets with increasing height is characterized as a saddle-node bifurcation between a branch of tall, unstable droplets and a branch of short, stable droplets.
Convective instability in a time-dependent buoyancy driven boundary layer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brooker, A.M.H.; Patterson, J.C.; Graham, T.; Schoepf, W. [University of Western Australia, Nedlands (Australia). Centre for Water Research
2000-01-01
The stability of the parallel time-dependent boundary layer adjacent to a suddenly heated vertical wall is described. The flow is investigated through experiments in water, through direct numerical simulation and also through linear stability analysis. The full numerical simulation of the flow shows that small perturbations to the wall boundary conditions, that are also present in the experimental study, are responsible for triggering the instability. As a result, oscillatory behaviour in the boundary layer is observed well before the transition to a steady two-dimensional flow begins. The properties of the observed oscillations are compared with those predicted by a linear stability analysis of the unsteady boundary layer using a quasi-stationary assumption and also using non-stationary assumptions by the formulation of parabolized equations (PSE). (Author)
Quasilinear analysis of loss-cone driven weakly relativistic electron cyclotron maser instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziebell, L.F.; Yoon, P.H.
1995-01-01
This paper presents a quasilinear analysis of the relativistic electron cyclotron maser instability. Two electron populations are assumed: a low-temperature background component and a more energetic loss-cone population. The dispersion relation is valid for any ratio of the energetic to cold populations, and includes thermal and relativistic effects. The quasilinear analysis is based upon an efficient kinetic moment method, in which various moment equations are derived from the particle kinetic equation. A model time-dependent loss-cone electron distribution function is assumed, which allows one to evaluate the instantaneous linear growth rate as well as the moment kinetic equations. These moment equations along with the wave kinetic equation form a fully self-consistent set of equations which governs the evolution of the particles as well as unstable waves. This set of equations is solved with physical parameters typical of the earth's auroral zone plasma. copyright 1995 American Institute of Physics
Surface diffusion driven morphological instability in free-standing nickel nanorod arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alrashid, Ebtihaj; Ye, Dexian [Department of Physics, Virginia Commonwealth University, PO Box 842000, Richmond, Virginia 23284-2000 (United States)
2014-07-28
Metallic nanostructures are thermodynamically unstable due to the excess of energy of large numbers of surface atoms. Morphological instability, such as Rayleigh breakup, sintering, and coalescence, can be observed at a temperature much lower than the bulk melting point of the metal. We study the morphological and crystalline evolution of well-aligned free-standing nickel nanorod arrays at elevated temperatures up to 600 °C. The as-deposited nickel nanorods are faceted with sharp nanotips, which are deformed at annealing temperatures higher than 400 °C due to strong surface diffusion. A mud-crack like pattern is formed in the samples annealed above 400 °C, leading to the generation of interconnected porous structure. Meanwhile, the X-ray diffraction reveals the recrystallization of nickel nanocrystals when annealed from 300 to 600 °C.
Scollo, Simona; Bonadonna, Costanza; Manzella, Irene
2017-06-01
Downward propagating instabilities are often observed at the bottom of volcanic plumes and clouds. These instabilities generate fingers that enhance the sedimentation of fine ash. Despite their potential influence on tephra dispersal and deposition, their dynamics is not entirely understood, undermining the accuracy of volcanic ash transport and dispersal models. Here, we present new laboratory experiments that investigate the effects of particle size, composition and concentration on finger generation and dynamics. The experimental set-up consists of a Plexiglas tank equipped with a removable plastic sheet that separates two different layers. The lower layer is a solution of water and sugar, initially denser than the upper layer, which consists of water and particles. Particles in the experiments include glass beads as well as andesitic, rhyolitic and basaltic volcanic ash. During the experiments, we removed the horizontal plastic sheet separating the two fluids. Particles were illuminated with a laser and filmed with a HD camera; particle image velocimetry (PIV) is used to analyse finger dynamics. Results show that both the number and the downward advance speed of fingers increase with particle concentration in the upper layer, while finger speed increases with particle size but is independent of particle composition. An increase in particle concentration and turbulence is estimated to take place inside the fingers, which could promote aggregation in subaerial fallout events. Finally, finger number, finger speed and particle concentration were observed to decrease with time after the formation of fingers. A similar pattern could occur in volcanic clouds when the mass supply from the eruptive vent is reduced. Observed evolution of the experiments through time also indicates that there must be a threshold of fine ash concentration and mass eruption rate below which fingers do not form; this is also confirmed by field observations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lillibridge, K.H.; Ghiaasiaan, S.M.; Abdel-Khalik, S.I.
1994-01-01
Countercurrent two-phase flow in horizontal and inclined channels, connecting a sealed liquid-filled reservoir to the atmosphere, is experimentally studied. This type of gravity-driven countercurrent two-phase flow can occur during the operation of passive safety coolant injection systems of advanced reactors. It can also occur in the pressurizer surge line of pressurized water reactors during severe accidents when the hot leg becomes voided. Four distinct flow regimes are identified: (a) stratified countercurrent, which mainly occurs when the channel is horizontal; (b) intermittent stratified-slug; (c) oscillating, which occurs when the angle of inclination is ≥30 deg; and (d) annular countercurrent. The characteristics of each regime and their sensitivity to important geometric parameters are examined. The superficial velocities in the stratified countercurrent and oscillating regimes are empirically correlated
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Rastello
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Results of laboratory experiments are presented in which a finite suspension of sawdust particles was released instantaneously into a rectangular channel immersed in a water tank. Two kinds of gravity currents were studied: currents with or without entrainment of particles from the bed. Experiments were repeated for two slopes: 30° and 45°. We observed that the velocity of the front was significantly in-creased as particle entrainment occurred. In addition, our experiments showed that the front kept a quasi-constant velocity for both runs. This might suggest that the flow regime corresponded to the "slumping regime" or "adjustment phase" described earlier by Huppert and Simpson (1980.
Anisotropy effects on curvature-driven flute instabilities in a hot-electron plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spong, D.A.; Berk, H.L.; Van Dam, J.W.; Rosenbluth, M.N.
1982-08-01
The effects of finite parallel temperature are investigated for a hot electron plasma with sufficiently large beta that the magnetic field scale length (Δ/sub B/) is small compared with the vacuum field radius of curvature (R). Numerical and analytical estimates of stability boundaries are obtained for the four possible modes that can be treated in this limit: the conventional hot electron interchange, the high frequency hot electron interchange (ω > ω/sub ci/), the compressional Alfven mode, and the interacting pressure-driven interchange
Origin of inflation in CFT driven cosmology. R2-gravity and non-minimally coupled inflaton models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barvinsky, A.O.; Kamenshchik, A.Yu.; Nesterov, D.V.
2015-01-01
We present a detailed derivation of the recently suggested new type of hill-top inflation [arXiv:1509.07270] originating from the microcanonical density matrix initial conditions in cosmology driven by conformal field theory (CFT). The cosmological instantons of topology S 1 x S 3 , which set up these initial conditions, have the shape of a garland with multiple periodic oscillations of the scale factor of the spatial S 3 -section. They describe underbarrier oscillations of the inflaton and scale factor in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum, which gives a sufficient amount of inflation required by the known CMB data. We build the approximation of two coupled harmonic oscillators for these garland instantons and show that they can generate inflation consistent with the parameters of the CMB primordial power spectrum in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and in R 2 gravity. In particular, the instanton solutions provide smallness of inflationary slow-roll parameters ε and η < 0 and their relation ε ∝ η 2 characteristic of these two models. We present the mechanism of formation of hill-like inflaton potentials, which is based on logarithmic loop corrections to the asymptotically shift-invariant tree-level potentials of these models in the Einstein frame. We also discuss the role of R 2 -gravity as an indispensable finite renormalization tool in the CFT driven cosmology, which guarantees the nondynamical (ghost free) nature of its scale factor and special properties of its cosmological garland-type instantons. Finally, as a solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale we discuss the concept of a hidden sector of conformal higher spin fields. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Barvinsky, A. O., E-mail: barvin@td.lpi.ru [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation); Department of Physics, Tomsk State University, Lenin Ave. 36, 634050, Tomsk (Russian Federation); Department of Physics and Astronomy, Pacific Institute for Theoretical Physics, UBC, 6224 Agricultural Road, V6T1Z1, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Kamenshchik, A. Yu., E-mail: kamenshchik@bo.infn.it [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Bologna and INFN, Via Irnerio 46, 40126, Bologna (Italy); L. D. Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics, 119334, Moscow (Russian Federation); Nesterov, D. V., E-mail: nesterov@td.lpi.it [Theory Department, Lebedev Physics Institute, Leninsky Prospect 53, 119991, Moscow (Russian Federation)
2015-12-11
We present a detailed derivation of the recently suggested new type of hill-top inflation originating from the microcanonical density matrix initial conditions in cosmology driven by conformal field theory (CFT). The cosmological instantons of topology S{sup 1}×S{sup 3}, which set up these initial conditions, have the shape of a garland with multiple periodic oscillations of the scale factor of the spatial S{sup 3}-section. They describe underbarrier oscillations of the inflaton and scale factor in the vicinity of the inflaton potential maximum, which gives a sufficient amount of inflation required by the known CMB data. We build the approximation of two coupled harmonic oscillators for these garland instantons and show that they can generate inflation consistent with the parameters of the CMB primordial power spectrum in the non-minimal Higgs inflation model and in R{sup 2} gravity. In particular, the instanton solutions provide smallness of inflationary slow-roll parameters ϵ and η<0 and their relation ϵ∼η{sup 2} characteristic of these two models. We present the mechanism of formation of hill-like inflaton potentials, which is based on logarithmic loop corrections to the asymptotically shift-invariant tree-level potentials of these models in the Einstein frame. We also discuss the role of R{sup 2}-gravity as an indispensable finite renormalization tool in the CFT driven cosmology, which guarantees the non-dynamical (ghost free) nature of its scale factor and special properties of its cosmological garland-type instantons. Finally, as a solution to the problem of hierarchy between the Planckian scale and the inflation scale we discuss the concept of a hidden sector of conformal higher spin fields.
Richtmyer-Meshkov instability of a sinusoidal interface driven by a cylindrical shock
Liu, L.; Ding, J.; Zhai, Z.; Luo, X.
2018-04-01
Evolution of a single-mode interface triggered by a cylindrically converging shock in a V-shaped geometry is investigated numerically using an adaptive multi-phase solver. Several physical mechanisms, including the Bell-Plesset (BP) effect, the Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) effect, the nonlinearity, and the compressibility are found to be pronounced in the converging environment. Generally, the BP and nonlinear effects play an important role at early stages, while the RT effect and the compressibility dominate the late-stage evolution. Four sinusoidal interfaces with different initial amplitudes (a_0 ) and wavelengths (λ ) are found to evolve differently in the converging geometry. For the very small a_0 /λ interfaces, nonlinearity is negligible at the early stages and the sole presence of the BP effect results in an increasing growth rate, confining the linear growth of the instability to a relatively small amount of time. For the moderately small a_0 /λ cases, the BP and nonlinear effects, which, respectively, promote and inhibit the perturbation development, coexist in the early stage. The counterbalancing effects between them produce a very long period of growth that is linear in time, even to a moment when the amplitude over wavelength ratio approaches 0.6. The RT stabilization effect at late stages due to the interface deceleration significantly inhibits the perturbation growth, which can be reasonably predicted by a modified Bell model.
Laser Plasma Instability (LPI) Driven Light Scattering Measurements with Nike KrF Laser
Oh, J.; Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D. M.; Obenschain, S. P.; McLean, E. A.; Lehmberg, R. H.
2008-11-01
With the short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1˜2 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser is expected to have higher LPI thresholds than observed at other laser facilities. Previous measurements using the Nike laser [J. L. Weaver et al, Phys. Plasmas 14, 056316 (2007)] showed no LPI evidence from CH targets up to I˜2x10^15 W/cm^2. For further experiments to detect LPI excitation, Nike capabilities have been extended to achieve higher laser intensities by tighter beam focusing and higher power pulses. This talk will present results of a recent LPI experiment with the extended Nike capabilities focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and Two-Plasmon Decay (TPD) instabilities. The primary diagnostics were time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array in (0.4˜0.8)φ0 and a streak camera near 0.5φ0. The measurements were conducted at laser intensities of 10^15˜10^16 W/cm^2 on planar targets of CH solids and RF foams.
THE INSTABILITY AND NON-EXISTENCE OF MULTI-STRANDED LOOPS WHEN DRIVEN BY TRANSVERSE WAVES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Magyar, N.; Van Doorsselaere, T., E-mail: norbert.magyar@wis.kuleuven.be [Centre for Mathematical Plasma Astrophysics (CmPA), KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200B bus 2400, 3001 Leuven (Belgium)
2016-06-01
In recent years, omni-present transverse waves have been observed in all layers of the solar atmosphere. Coronal loops are often modeled as a collection of individual strands in order to explain their thermal behavior and appearance. We perform three-dimensional (3D) ideal magnetohydrodynamics simulations to study the effect of a continuous small amplitude transverse footpoint driving on the internal structure of a coronal loop composed of strands. The output is also converted into synthetic images, corresponding to the AIA 171 and 193 Å passbands, using FoMo. We show that the multi-stranded loop ceases to exist in the traditional sense of the word, because the plasma is efficiently mixed perpendicularly to the magnetic field, with the Kelvin–Helmholtz instability acting as the main mechanism. The final product of our simulation is a mixed loop with density structures on a large range of scales, resembling a power-law. Thus, multi-stranded loops are unstable to driving by transverse waves, and this raises strong doubts on the usability and applicability of coronal loop models consisting of independent strands.
Direct Numerical Modeling of E-Cloud Driven Instability of a Bunch Train in the CERN SPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M.A.; Venturini, M.
2011-01-01
The simulation package WARP-POSINST was recently upgraded for handling multiple bunches and modeling concurrently the electron cloud buildup and its effect on the beam, allowing for direct self-consistent simulation of bunch trains generating, and interacting with, electron clouds. We have used the WARP-POSINST package on massively parallel supercomputers to study the buildup and interaction of electron clouds with a proton bunch train in the CERN SPS accelerator. Results suggest that a positive feedback mechanism exists between the electron buildup and the e-cloud driven transverse instability, leading to a net increase in predicted electron density. Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS and other accelerators. So far, simulations of electron cloud buildup and their effects on beam dynamics have been performed separately. This is a consequence of the large computational cost of the combined calculation due to large space and time scale disparities between the two processes. We have presented the latest improvements of the simulation package WARP-POSINST for the simulation of self-consistent ecloud effects, including mesh refinement, and generation of electrons from gas ionization and impact at the pipe walls. We also presented simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with electrons clouds in the SPS, which included generation of secondary electrons. The distribution of electrons in front of the first beam was initialized from a dump taken from a preceding buildup calculation using the POSINST code. In this paper, we present an extension of this work where one full batch of 72 bunches is simulated in the SPS, including the entire buildup calculation and the self-consistent interaction between the bunches and the electrons.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Ott, Christian D.; Radice, David; Roberts, Luke F.; Haas, Roland; Reisswig, Christian; Mösta, Philipp; Klion, Hannah; Schnetter, Erik
2015-01-01
We conduct a series of numerical experiments into the nature of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics in the postbounce stalled-shock phase of core-collapse supernovae using 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a 27 M ⊙ progenitor star with a neutrino leakage/heating scheme. We vary the strength of neutrino heating and find three cases of 3D dynamics: (1) neutrino-driven convection, (2) initially neutrino-driven convection and subsequent development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), and (3) SASI-dominated evolution. This confirms previous 3D results of Hanke et al. and Couch and Connor. We carry out simulations with resolutions differing by up to a factor of ∼4 and demonstrate that low resolution is artificially favorable for explosion in the 3D convection-dominated case since it decreases the efficiency of energy transport to small scales. Low resolution results in higher radial convective fluxes of energy and enthalpy, more fully buoyant mass, and stronger neutrino heating. In the SASI-dominated case, lower resolution damps SASI oscillations. In the convection-dominated case, a quasi-stationary angular kinetic energy spectrum E(ℓ) develops in the heating layer. Like other 3D studies, we find E(ℓ) ∝ℓ −1 in the “inertial range,” while theory and local simulations argue for E(ℓ) ∝ ℓ −5/3 . We argue that current 3D simulations do not resolve the inertial range of turbulence and are affected by numerical viscosity up to the energy-containing scale, creating a “bottleneck” that prevents an efficient turbulent cascade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Abdikamalov, Ernazar; Ott, Christian D.; Radice, David; Roberts, Luke F.; Haas, Roland; Reisswig, Christian; Mösta, Philipp; Klion, Hannah [TAPIR, Walter Burke Institute for Theoretical Physics, Mailcode 350-17, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Schnetter, Erik, E-mail: cott@tapir.caltech.edu [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON (Canada)
2015-07-20
We conduct a series of numerical experiments into the nature of three-dimensional (3D) hydrodynamics in the postbounce stalled-shock phase of core-collapse supernovae using 3D general-relativistic hydrodynamic simulations of a 27 M{sub ⊙} progenitor star with a neutrino leakage/heating scheme. We vary the strength of neutrino heating and find three cases of 3D dynamics: (1) neutrino-driven convection, (2) initially neutrino-driven convection and subsequent development of the standing accretion shock instability (SASI), and (3) SASI-dominated evolution. This confirms previous 3D results of Hanke et al. and Couch and Connor. We carry out simulations with resolutions differing by up to a factor of ∼4 and demonstrate that low resolution is artificially favorable for explosion in the 3D convection-dominated case since it decreases the efficiency of energy transport to small scales. Low resolution results in higher radial convective fluxes of energy and enthalpy, more fully buoyant mass, and stronger neutrino heating. In the SASI-dominated case, lower resolution damps SASI oscillations. In the convection-dominated case, a quasi-stationary angular kinetic energy spectrum E(ℓ) develops in the heating layer. Like other 3D studies, we find E(ℓ) ∝ℓ{sup −1} in the “inertial range,” while theory and local simulations argue for E(ℓ) ∝ ℓ{sup −5/3}. We argue that current 3D simulations do not resolve the inertial range of turbulence and are affected by numerical viscosity up to the energy-containing scale, creating a “bottleneck” that prevents an efficient turbulent cascade.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Peralta, Pedro [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Fortin, Elizabeth [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Opie, Saul [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gautam, Sudrishti [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Gopalakrishnan, Ashish [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Lynch, Jenna [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Chen, Yan [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States); Loomis, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-03-01
(or decreasing the initial wavelength) delays the perturbation decay. Conversely our experimental data, analysis and simulations show that for materials with elastic yield strength Y the normalized shock perturbation amplitude evolves with Yλ/A_{0}, which shows wavelength increases have the opposite effect as in viscous materials and perturbation decay is also dependent on initial amplitude A_{0} (viscous materials are independent of this parameter). Materials where strength had clear strain rate dependence, e.g., such as a PTW material law, behaved similarly to materials with only an effective yield stress (elastic-perfectly plastic) in the shock front perturbation studies obeying a Y_{eff}λA_{0} relationship where Y_{eff} was a constant (near ~400 MPa for Cu for strain rates around 10^{6} s^{-1}). Magnitude changes in strain rate would increase Y_{eff} as would be expected from the PTW behavior, but small perturbations (typical of regions behind the shock front) near a mean had little effect. Additional work based on simulations showed that phase transformation kinetics can affect the behavior of the perturbed shock front as well as the evolution of the RM-like instability that develops due to the imprint of the perturbed shock front on the initially flat surface as the shock breaks out.
Energy balance in current sheets: From Petschek to gravity driven reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mercier, C.; Heyvaerts, J.
1980-01-01
It has been shown earlier that energy balance processes play a very important role in the determination of the reconnection regime in the central diffusive region of a steady Petschek flow (usually considered elsewhere as isothermal and incompressible): as a consequence of the plasma thermal properties, abrupt transitions in the reconnection regime may occur for special external conditions. The regime becomes then a dynamical one, and it was suggested that onset of plasma microturbulence may result and act as a primary triggering mechanism in solar flares. In this paper we will reexamine the problem of onset of such dynamical transition and conclude that plasma microturbulence does not appear in a straightforward way. However it is possible that the canonical Petschek regime may evolute into a new one in which the dissipative sheet is no longer infinitesimal with respect to the dimensions of the structure, and in which gravity plays an important role. Flare triggering, if related to the reconnection regime, must then proceed by more complex processes, possibly related to tearing mode dynamics, or to more global properties of the magnetic structure of the active region. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bykov, Andrei M.; Osipov, Sergei M.; Uvarov, Yury A.; Ellison, Donald C.; Pavlov, George G.
2011-01-01
High-resolution Chandra observations of Tycho's supernova remnant (SNR) have revealed several sets of quasi-steady, high-emissivity, nearly parallel X-ray stripes in some localized regions of the SNR. These stripes are most likely the result of cosmic-ray (CR) generated magnetic turbulence at the SNR blast wave. However, for the amazingly regular pattern of these stripes to appear, simultaneous action of a number of shock-plasma phenomena is required, which is not predicted by most models of magnetic field amplification. A consistent explanation of these stripes yields information on the complex nonlinear plasma processes connecting efficient CR acceleration and magnetic field fluctuations in strong collisionless shocks. The nonlinear diffusive shock acceleration (NL-DSA) model described here, which includes magnetic field amplification from a CR-current-driven instability, does predict stripes consistent with the synchrotron observations of Tycho's SNR. We argue that the local ambient mean magnetic field geometry determines the orientation of the stripes and therefore it can be reconstructed with the high-resolution X-ray imaging. The estimated maximum energy of the CR protons responsible for the stripes is ∼10 15 eV. Furthermore, the model predicts that a specific X-ray polarization pattern, with a polarized fraction ∼50%, accompanies the stripes, which can be tested with future X-ray polarimeter missions.
Oh, Jaechul; Weaver, J. L.; Phillips, L.; Obenschain, S. P.; Schmitt, A. J.; Kehne, D. M.; Serlin, V.; Lehmberg, R. H.; McLean, E. A.; Manka, C. K.
2010-11-01
With short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (1˜3 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser provides unique research opportunities and potential for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Previous Nike experiments observed two plasmon decay (TPD) driven signals from CH plasmas at the laser intensities above ˜2x10^15 W/cm^2 with total laser energies up to 1 kJ of ˜350 ps FWHM pulses. We have performed a further experiment with longer laser pulses (0.5˜4.0 ns FWHM) and will present combined results of the experiments focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and TPD instabilities. Time- or space-resolved spectral features of TPD were detected at different viewing angles and the absolute intensity calibrated spectra of thermal background were used to obtain blackbody temperatures in the plasma corona. The wave vector distribution in k-space of the participating TPD plasmons will be also discussed. These results show promise for the proposed direct-drive designs.
Acoustic Monitoring of Gravity-Driven Controls on CaCO3 Precipitates in a Fracture
Xu, Z.; Sheets, J.; Zhang, L.; Kim, D.; Kneafsey, T. J.; Cole, D. R.; Jun, Y. S.; Pyrak-Nolte, L. J.
2017-12-01
Sealing fractures by mineral precipitation is an important process for improving caprock integrity in subsurface reservoirs. In this study, the ability to monitor precipitate distribution in fractures with buoyant fluids was examined. Fractures with uniform aperture distributions of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 mm were created from acrylic plates to enable direct imaging of precipitate formation over time. CaCO3 precipitation was induced in a fracture from invasion of 1M CaCl2 and 0.3M Na2CO3 solutions. During chemical invasion, a fracture plane was oriented either parallel or perpendicular to gravity. Acoustic (P) wave transmission ( 1 MHz) and optical imaging were used to monitor the sample prior to, during and after fluid injection. Complementary X-ray computed tomography was performed throughout the experiments on vertical fractures and post injection for the horizontal fractures. Precipitate particle sizes during formation were determined using SAXS and WAXS. In both horizontal and vertical fractures, the density contrast between the two solutions affected the spatial distribution of precipitation. In vertical fractures, the denser CaCl2 solution almost completely displaced the NaCO3 solution, causing strong localization of precipitates. However, in the horizontal fractures, flow stratification occurred in the 2 mm aperture fractures, with the less dense Na2CO3 flowing over the CaCl2 solution, resulting in a more even distribution of precipitates cross the fracture plane. P-wave amplitudes increased up to 8% and the arrival time decreased with precipitate accumulation in the horizontal fracture. This is consistent with a three-layered approach as the seismic impedance inside the fracture increases. The initial contact between the two was observed as a decrease in the P-wave amplitude. As precipitates accumulated, the amplitude recovered and increased, with greater increases observed along the mixing flow path. Fractures in the subsurface may seal differently depending on
Manifestations of quantum gravity in scalar QED phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Elizalde, E.; Odintsov, S.D.; Romeo, A.
1995-01-01
Quantum gravitational corrections to the effective potential, at the one-loop level and in the leading-log approximation, for scalar quantum electrodynamics with higher-derivative gravity, which is taken as an effective theory for quantum gravity (QG), are calculated. We point out the appearance of relevant phenomena caused by quantum gravity, such as dimensional transmutation, QG-driven instabilities of the potential, QG corrections to scalar-to-vector mass ratios, and curvature-induced phase transitions, whose existence is shown by means of analytical and numerical study
TRACG prediction of gravity-driven cooling system response in the SBWR/GIST facility LOCA tests
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alamgir, M.; Andersen, J.G.M.; Yang, A.I.; Shiralkar, B.S.
1990-01-01
General Electric (BE) Nuclear Energy has initiated work on technology programs in support of the advanced light water reactor (ALWR) plants under contract to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Work has been performed under the advanced boiling water reactor (ABWT) design verification program and the simplified boiling water reactor (SBWR) program. The objective of the SBWR program is to develop the key features of a simplified reactor design. The gravity-driven cooling system (GDCS) is an important feature of the SBWR design. The main objectives of the GDCS test program at GE were to demonstrate the technical feasibility of the GDCS concept by performing a section-scaled integrated systems test of the SBWR design and to provide a data base to qualify the TRACG computer code for use in SBWR accident analysis. This paper describes the qualification of TRACG for GDCS applications. The calculational capability and analytical models of TRACG are tested by performing assessment analysis for five loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) tests in the GDCS Integrated Systems Test (GIST) facility. The results of the qualification comparisons are presented and TRACG application ranges are discussed
Tang, Xiaobin; Ding, An; Qu, Fangshu; Jia, Ruibao; Chang, Haiqing; Cheng, Xiaoxiang; Liu, Bin; Li, Guibai; Liang, Heng
2016-08-01
A pilot-scale gravity-driven membrane (GDM) filtration system under low gravitational pressure without any pre-treatment, backwash, flushing, or chemical cleaning was carried out to investigate the effect of operation parameters (including operation pressure, aeration mode, and intermittent filtration) on the effluent quality and permeability development. The results revealed that GDM system exhibited an efficient performance for the removal of suspended substances and organic compounds. The stabilization of flux occurred and the average values of stable flux were 6.6, 8.1, and 8.6 Lm(-2) h(-1) for pressures of 65, 120, and 200 mbar, respectively. In contrast, flux stabilization was not observed under continuous and intermittent aeration conditions. However, aeration (especially continuous aeration) was effective to improve flux and alleviate membrane fouling during 1-month operation. Moreover, intermittent filtration would influence the stabilization of permeate flux, resulting in a higher stable flux (ranging from 6 to 13 Lm(-2) h(-1)). The stable flux significantly improved with the increase of intermittent period. Additionally, GDM systems exhibited an efficient recovery of flux after simple physical cleaning and the analyses of resistance reversibility demonstrated that most of the total resistance was hydraulic reversible resistance (50-75 %). Therefore, it is expected that the results of this study can develop strategies to increase membrane permeability and reduce energy consumption in GDM systems for decentralized water supply.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. J. G. Perron
2013-03-01
Full Text Available Temperature anisotropies may be encountered in space plasmas when there is a preferred direction, for instance, a strong magnetic or electric field. In this paper, we study how ion temperature anisotropy can affect the threshold conditions of a shear-modified current driven electrostatic ion-acoustic (CDEIA instability. In particular, this communication focuses on instabilities in the context of topside auroral F-region situations and in the limit where finite Larmor radius corrections are small. We derived a new fluid-like expression for the critical drift which depends explicitly on ion anisotropy. More importantly, for ion to electron temperature ratios typical of F-region, solutions of the kinetic dispersion relation show that ion temperature anisotropy may significantly lower the drift threshold required for instability. In some cases, a perpendicular to parallel ion temperature ratio of 2 and may reduce the relative drift required for the onset of instability by a factor of approximately 30, assuming the ion-acoustic speed of the medium remains constant. Therefore, the ion temperature anisotropy should be considered in future studies of ion-acoustic waves and instabilities in the high-latitude ionospheric F-region.
Kalogirou, Anna
2018-03-01
We consider a two-fluid shear flow where the interface between the two fluids is coated with an insoluble surfactant. An asymptotic model is derived in the thin-layer approximation, consisting of a set of nonlinear partial differential equations describing the evolution of the film and surfactant disturbances at the interface. The model includes important physical effects such as Marangoni forces (caused by the presence of surfactant), inertial forces arising in the thick fluid layer, as well as gravitational forces. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of density stratification or gravity—represented through the Bond number Bo—on the flow stability and the interplay between the different (de)stabilisation mechanisms. It is found that gravity can either stabilise or destabilise the interface (depending on fluid properties) but not always as intuitively anticipated. Different traveling-wave branches are presented for varying Bo, and the destabilising mechanism associated with the Marangoni forces is discussed.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Genome-wide transcriptional profiling shows that reducing gravity levels in the International Space Station (ISS) causes important alterations in Drosophila gene...
SIMULATION OF E-CLOUD DRIVEN INSTABILITY AND ITS ATTENUATION USING A FEEDBACK SYSTEM IN THE CERN SPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, J.-L.; Byrd, J.M.; Furman, M.A.; Secondo, R.; Venturini, M.; Fox, J.D.; Rivetta, C.H.; Hofle, W.
2010-01-01
Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS (1), and a feedback system to control the instabilities is under active development (2). We present the latest improvements to the Warp-Posinst simulation framework and feedback model, and its application to the self-consistent simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with an electron cloud in the SPS.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heidbrink, W.W.; Kaita, R.; Takahashi, H.; Gammel, G.; Hammett, G.W.; Kaye, S.
1987-01-01
During tangential injection of neutral beams into low density tokamak plasmas with β > 1% in the Princeton Beta Experiment (PBX), instabilities are observed that degrade the confinement of beam ions. Neutron, charge-exchange, and diamagnetic loop measurements are examined in order to identify the mechanism or mechanisms responsible for the beam-ion transport. The data suggest a resonant interaction between the instabilities and the parallel energetic beam ions. Evidence for some nonresonant transport also exists
Simulation of E-Cloud Driven Instability And Its Attenuation Using a Feedback System in the CERN SPS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, Jean-Luc
2012-01-01
Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS, and a feedback system to control the instabilities is under active development. We present the latest improvements to the Warp-Posinst simulation framework and feedback model, and its application to the self-consistent simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with an electron cloud in the SPS.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Riquelme, Mario A.; Quataert, Eliot; Verscharen, Daniel
2015-01-01
We use particle-in-cell simulations to study the nonlinear evolution of ion velocity space instabilities in an idealized problem in which a background velocity shear continuously amplifies the magnetic field. We simulate the astrophysically relevant regime where the shear timescale is long compared to the ion cyclotron period, and the plasma beta is β ∼ 1-100. The background field amplification in our calculation is meant to mimic processes such as turbulent fluctuations or MHD-scale instabilities. The field amplification continuously drives a pressure anisotropy with p > p ∥ and the plasma becomes unstable to the mirror and ion cyclotron instabilities. In all cases, the nonlinear state is dominated by the mirror instability, not the ion cyclotron instability, and the plasma pressure anisotropy saturates near the threshold for the linear mirror instability. The magnetic field fluctuations initially undergo exponential growth but saturate in a secular phase in which the fluctuations grow on the same timescale as the background magnetic field (with δB ∼ 0.3 (B) in the secular phase). At early times, the ion magnetic moment is well-conserved but once the fluctuation amplitudes exceed δB ∼ 0.1 (B), the magnetic moment is no longer conserved but instead changes on a timescale comparable to that of the mean magnetic field. We discuss the implications of our results for low-collisionality astrophysical plasmas, including the near-Earth solar wind and low-luminosity accretion disks around black holes
RADIATIVE RAYLEIGH-TAYLOR INSTABILITIES
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jacquet, Emmanuel; Krumholz, Mark R.
2011-01-01
We perform analytic linear stability analyses of an interface separating two stratified media threaded by a radiation flux, a configuration relevant in several astrophysical contexts. We develop a general framework for analyzing such systems and obtain exact stability conditions in several limiting cases. In the optically thin, isothermal regime, where the discontinuity is chemical in nature (e.g., at the boundary of a radiation pressure-driven H II region), radiation acts as part of an effective gravitational field, and instability arises if the effective gravity per unit volume toward the interface overcomes that away from it. In the optically thick a diabaticregime where the total (gas plus radiation) specific entropy of a Lagrangian fluid element is conserved, for example at the edge of radiation pressure-driven bubble around a young massive star, we show that radiation acts like a modified equation of state and derive a generalized version of the classical Rayleigh-Taylor stability condition.
Evaporation and Antievaporation Instabilities
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Andrea Addazi
2017-10-01
Full Text Available We review (antievaporation phenomena within the context of quantum gravity and extended theories of gravity. The (antievaporation effect is an instability of the black hole horizon discovered in many different scenarios: quantum dilaton-gravity, f ( R -gravity, f ( T -gravity, string-inspired black holes, and brane-world cosmology. Evaporating and antievaporating black holes seem to have completely different thermodynamical features compared to standard semiclassical black holes. The purpose of this review is to provide an introduction to conceptual and technical aspects of (antievaporation effects, while discussing problems that are still open.
Cruciani, Francesco; Manconi, Andrea; Rinaldo Barchi, Massimiliano
2014-05-01
Gravity-driven deformation processes at continental passive margins occur at different scales, from small-scale turbidity currents and sediment slides, to large-scale mass transport complexes (MTCs), to the giant-scale deep water fold and thrust belts (DW-FTBs), which affect most or the entire sedimentary sequence. This kind of giant structures, quite widespread in passive margins, may be active for tens of millions of years. In this context, the Brazilian Atlantic margin hosts several well-known DW-FTBs detached on both shale and salt décollement. Despite of their relevant scientific and economic importance, the mechanical processes driving the onset and evolution of these giant-scale structures are still poorly investigated. In this work, we focus on the shale décollement DW-FTB of the Barreirinhas Basin, where the continental slope has been affected by multi-phase gravitational processes since the Late Cretaceous. This DW-FTB consists of a linked fault system of listric normal faults updip and thrust faults downdip, detached over a common concave upward décollement surface. From the onshore extensional to the offshore compressional domain the DW-FTB is about 50 km wide and involve a sedimentary sequence up to 5 km thick. Shortening within the compressional domain is accommodated almost entirely from a single thrust ramp with a large related anticline fold. Previous studies have shown that the main activity phases of the gravitational processes are closely linked to significant increases in the sediment supply within the basin. Indeed, the highest deformation rate, accounting for about 80% of the net strain, occurred in the Upper Miocene following a drainage rearrangement which led to the birth of the modern Amazon River drainage system. The Barreirinhas Basin DW-FTB entails a rather simple geometrical structure, which can be well schematized, therefore is particularly suitable for numerical simulations aimed to study and understand the dynamics of DW-FTB at
Akhondi, Ebrahim; Wu, Bing; Sun, Shuyang; Marxer, Brigit; Lim, Weikang; Gu, Jun; Liu, Linbo; Burkhardt, Michael; McDougald, Diane; Pronk, Wouter; Fane, Anthony G
2015-03-01
In this study gravity-driven membrane (GDM) ultrafiltration is investigated for the pretreatment of seawater before reverse osmosis (RO). The impacts of temperature (21 ± 1 and 29 ± 1 °C) and hydrostatic pressure (40 and 100 mbar) on dynamic flux development and biofouling layer structure were studied. The data suggested pore constriction fouling was predominant at the early stage of filtration, during which the hydrostatic pressure and temperature had negligible effects on permeate flux. With extended filtration time, cake layer fouling played a major role, during which higher hydrostatic pressure and temperature improved permeate flux. The permeate flux stabilized in a range of 3.6 L/m(2) h (21 ± 1 °C, 40 mbar) to 7.3 L/m(2) h (29 ± 1 °C, 100 mbar) after slight fluctuations and remained constant for the duration of the experiments (almost 3 months). An increase in biofouling layer thickness and a variable biofouling layer structure were observed over time by optical coherence tomography and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The presence of eukaryotic organisms in the biofouling layer was observed by light microscopy and the microbial community structure of the biofouling layer was analyzed by sequences of 16S rRNA genes. The magnitude of permeate flux was associated with the combined effect of the biofouling layer thickness and structure. Changes in the biofouling layer structure were attributed to (1) the movement and predation behaviour of the eukaryotic organisms which increased the heterogeneous nature of the biofouling layer; (2) the bacterial debris generated by eukaryotic predation activity which reduced porosity; (3) significant shifts of the dominant bacterial species over time that may have influenced the biofouling layer structure. As expected, most of the particles and colloids in the feed seawater were removed by the GDM process, which led to a lower RO fouling potential. However, the dissolved organic carbon in the
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vay, J.-L.; Furman, M.A.
2010-01-01
Electron clouds have been shown to trigger fast growing instabilities on proton beams circulating in the SPS, and a feedback system to control the single-bunch instabilities is under active development. We present the latest improvements to the WARP-POSINST simulation framework and feedback model, and its application to the self-consistent simulations of two consecutive bunches interacting with an electron cloud in the SPS. Simulations using an idealized feedback system exhibit adequate mitigation of the instability providing that the cutoff of the feedback bandwidth is at or above 450 MHz. Artifacts from numerical noise of the injected distribution of electrons in the modeling of portions of bunch trains are discussed, and benchmarking of WARP against POSINST and HEADTAIL are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smitherman, D.P.
1998-04-01
Eight beams carrying a shaped pulse from the NOVA laser were focused into a hohlraum with a total energy of about 25 kJ. A planar foil was placed on the side of the hohlraum with perturbations facing away from the hohlraum. All perturbations were 4 {micro}m in amplitude and 50 {micro}m in wavelength. Three foils of pure aluminum were shot with thicknesses and pulse lengths respectively of 86 {micro}m and 2. 2 ns, 50 {micro}m and 4.5 ns, and 35 {micro}m with both 2.2 ns and 4. 5 ns pulses. Two composite foils constructed respectively of 32 and 84 {micro}m aluminum on the ablative side and 10 {micro}m beryllium on the cold surface were also shot using the 2.2 ns pulse. X-ray framing cameras recorded perturbation growth using both face- and side-on radiography. The LASNEX code was used to model the experiments. A shock wave interacted with the perturbation on the cold surface generating growth from a Richtmyer-Meshkov instability and a strong acoustic mode. The cold surface perturbation fed-out to the Rayleigh-Taylor unstable ablation surface, both by differential acceleration and interface coupling, where it grew. A density jump did not appear to have a large effect on feed-out from interface coupling. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability`s vortex pairs overtook and reversed the direction of flow of the Richtmyer-Meshkov vortices, resulting in the foil moving from a sinuous to a bubble and spike configuration. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability may have acted as an ablative instability on the hot surface, and as a classical instability on the cold surface, on which grew second and third order harmonics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakai, J.; Nishikawa, K.-I.
1982-04-01
A mode of 'disparitions brusques' (sudden disappearance of eruptive prominences) is discussed based on the Kippenhahn and Schluter configuration. It is shown that Kippenhahn and Schluter's current sheet is very weakly unstable against magnetic reconnecting modes during the lifetime of quiescent prominences. Disturbances in the form of fast magnetosonic waves originating from nearby active regions or the changes of whole magnetic configuration due to newly emerged magnetic flux may trigger a rapid growing instability associated with magnetic field reconnection. This instability gives rise to disruptions of quiescent prominences and also generates high energy particles. (author)
Gravity-driven pH adjustment for site-specific protein pKa measurement by solution-state NMR
Li, Wei
2017-12-01
To automate pH adjustment in site-specific protein pKa measurement by solution-state NMR, I present a funnel with two caps for the standard 5 mm NMR tube. The novelty of this simple-to-build and inexpensive apparatus is that it allows automatic gravity-driven pH adjustment within the magnet, and consequently results in a fully automated NMR-monitored pH titration without any hardware modification on the NMR spectrometer.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Outeda, R.; D' Onofrio, A. [Grupo de Medios Porosos, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Paseo Colón 850, C1063ACV Buenos Aires (Argentina); El Hasi, C.; Zalts, A. [Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Nacional General Sarmiento, J. M. Gutiérrez 1150, B1613GSX, Los Polvorines, Provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2014-03-15
Density driven instabilities produced by CO{sub 2} (gas) dissolution in water containing a color indicator were studied in a Hele Shaw cell. The images were analyzed and instability patterns were characterized by mixing zone temporal evolution, dispersion curves, and the growth rate for different CO{sub 2} pressures and different color indicator concentrations. The results obtained from an exhaustive analysis of experimental data show that this system has a different behaviour in the linear regime of the instabilities (when the growth rate has a linear dependence with time), from the nonlinear regime at longer times. At short times using a color indicator to see the evolution of the pattern, the images show that the effects of both the color indicator and CO{sub 2} pressure are of the same order of magnitude: The growth rates are similar and the wave numbers are in the same range (0–30 cm{sup −1}) when the system is unstable. Although in the linear regime the dynamics is affected similarly by the presence of the indicator and CO{sub 2} pressure, in the nonlinear regime, the influence of the latter is clearly more pronounced than the effects of the color indicator.
Pickworth, Louisa
2017-10-01
Hydrodynamic instabilities and asymmetries are a major obstacle in the quest to achieve ignition as they cause pre-existing capsule perturbations to grow and ultimately quench the fusion burn in experiments at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). This talk will review recent developments of the experimental platforms and techniques to measure high-mode instabilities and low-mode asymmetries in the deceleration phase of implosions. These new platforms provide a natural link between the acceleration-phase experiments and neutron performance of layered deuterium-tritium implosions. In one innovative technique, self-emission from the hot spot was enhanced with argon dopant to ``self-backlight'' the shell in-flight around peak compression. Experiments with pre-imposed 2-D perturbations measured instability growth factors, while experiments with 3-D, ``native-roughness'' perturbations measured shell integrity in the deceleration phase of implosions. In a complimentary technique, the inner surface of the shell, along with its low-mode asymmetries and high-mode perturbations were visualized in implosions using x-ray emission of a high-Z dopant added to the inner surface of the capsule. These new measurements were instrumental in revealing unexpected surprises and providing improved understanding of the role of instabilities and asymmetries on implosion performance. This work performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.
Bodego, Arantxa; Agirrezabala, Luis M.
2010-05-01
, which define a horst and graben system. Rollovers (unfaulted and faulted), hangingwall synclines and central domes are present in the hangingwalls of both listric and planar faults. Also, a fault-propagation fold, a forced fold and a roller have been interpreted. Synkinematic depositional systems and sediment-filled fissures are parallel to the NW- to N-trending tectonic structures. Based on the trend of tectonic structures, the orientation of sediment-filled fissures and the paleocurrent pattern of growth strata, a thin-skinned NE-SW to E-W extension has been deduced for the interior of the Lasarte sub-basin. Both the coincidence between the directions of extension and dip of the detachment layer and the characteristics of the deformation suggest a thin-skinned gravity-driven extensional tectonics caused by the dip of the detachment layer. Recorded extensional deformation event in the Lasarte sub-basin is contemporaneous with and would have been triggered by the extreme crustal thinning and mantle exhumation processes documented recently in both the Basque-Cantabrian Basin and the Pyrenees.
Instabilities and vortex dynamics in shear flow of magnetized plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajima, T.; Horton, W.; Morrison, P.J.; Schutkeker, J.; Kamimura, T.; Mima, K.; Abe, Y.
1990-03-01
Gradient-driven instabilities and the subsequent nonlinear evolution of generated vortices in sheared E x B flows are investigated for magnetized plasmas with and without gravity (magnetic curvature) and magnetic shear by using theory and implicit particle simulations. In the linear eigenmode analysis, the instabilities considered are the Kelvin-Helmholtz (K-H) instability and the resistive interchange instability. The presence of the shear flow can stabilize these instabilities. The dynamics of the K-H instability and the vortex dynamics can be uniformly described by the initial flow pattern with a vorticity localization parameter ε. The observed growth of the K-H modes is exponential in time for linearly unstable modes, secular for marginal mode, and absent until driven nonlinearly for linearly stable modes. The distance between two vortex centers experiences rapid merging while the angle θ between the axis of vortices and the external shear flow increases. These vortices proceed toward their overall coalescence, while shedding small-scale vortices and waves. The main features of vortex dynamics of the nonlinear coalescence and the tilt or the rotational instabilities of vortices are shown to be given by using a low dimension Hamiltonian representation for interacting vortex cores in the shear flow. 24 refs., 19 figs., 1 tab
Martinez, D A; Smalyuk, V A; Kane, J O; Casner, A; Liberatore, S; Masse, L P
2015-05-29
We investigate on the National Ignition Facility the ablative Rayleigh-Taylor instability in the transition from weakly nonlinear to highly nonlinear regimes. A planar plastic package with preimposed two-dimensional broadband modulations is accelerated for up to 12 ns by the x-ray drive of a gas-filled Au radiation cavity with a radiative temperature plateau at 175 eV. This extended tailored drive allows a distance traveled in excess of 1 mm for a 130 μm thick foil. Measurements of the modulation optical density performed by x-ray radiography show that a bubble-merger regime for the Rayleigh-Taylor instability at an ablation front is achieved for the first time in indirect drive. The mutimode modulation amplitudes are in the nonlinear regime, grow beyond the Haan multimode saturation level, evolve toward the longer wavelengths, and show insensitivity to the initial conditions.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shukla, Chandrasekhar, E-mail: chandrasekhar.shukla@gmail.com; Das, Amita, E-mail: amita@ipr.res.in [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar 382428 (India); Patel, Kartik [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai 400 085 (India)
2016-08-15
We carry out particle-in-cell simulations to study the instabilities associated with a 2-D sheared electron flow configuration against a neutralizing background of ions. Both weak and strong relativistic flow velocities are considered. In the weakly relativistic case, we observe the development of electromagnetic Kelvin-Helmholtz instability with similar characteristics as that predicted by the electron Magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) model. On the contrary, in a strong relativistic case, the compressibility effects of electron fluid dominate and introduce upper hybrid electrostatic oscillations transverse to the flow which are very distinct from EMHD fluid behavior. In the nonlinear regime, both weak and strong relativistic cases lead to turbulence with broad power law spectrum.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heidbrink, W W; Ruskov, E; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N; Medley, S S; Berk, H L; Harvey, R W
2006-01-01
The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ∼2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50-100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (∼<3 MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Heidbrink, W W [University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Ruskov, E [University of California, Irvine, California (United States); Fredrickson, E D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Gorelenkov, N [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Medley, S S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey (United States); Berk, H L [University of Texas, Austin, Texas (United States); Harvey, R W [CompX, Del Mar, California (United States)
2006-09-15
The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at {approx}2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50-100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power ({approx}<3 MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
W W,Heidbrink; E,Ruskov; E D,Fredrickson; N,Gorelenkov; S S,Medley; H L,Berk; R W,Harvey
2006-09-01
The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ~2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including compressional Alfven eigenmodes, toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE), 50–100 kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10–20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase-space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (≤3MW) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the nonlinear dynamics. Steady-frequency TAE modes diminish during the HHFW heating but there is little evidence that frequency chirping is suppressed.
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Korvasová, K.; Gaffney, E. A.; Maini, P.K.; Ferreira, M.A.; Klika, Václav
2015-01-01
Roč. 367, February (2015), s. 286-295 ISSN 0022-5193 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : turing instability * non-diffusive substrate * pattern formation Subject RIV: BJ - Thermodynamics Impact factor: 2.049, year: 2015 http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0022519314006766/1-s2.0-S0022519314006766-main.pdf?_tid=63ec0858-9ffa-11e5-969b-00000aacb35d&acdnat=1449833527_e470798087aa42f7ca3b2efcfffc48cf
Oh, J.; Weaver, J. L.; Kehne, D. M.; Phillips, L. S.; Obenschain, S. P.; Serlin, V.; McLean, E. A.; Lehmberg, R. H.; Manka, C. K.
2009-11-01
With short wavelength (248 nm), large bandwidth (˜1 THz), and ISI beam smoothing, Nike KrF laser provides unique opportunities of LPI research for direct-drive inertial confinement fusion. Previous experiments at intensities (10^15˜10^16 W/cm^2) exceeded two-plasmon decay (TPD) instability threshold using 12 beam-lines of Nike laser.^a,b For further experiments to study LPI excitation in bigger plasma volumes, 44 Nike main beams have been used to produce plasmas with total laser energies up to 1 kJ of ˜350 psec FWHM pulses. This talk will present results of the recent LPI experiment focusing on light emission data in spectral ranges relevant to the Raman (SRS) and TPD instabilities. The primary diagnostics were time-resolved spectrometers with an absolute-intensity-calibrated photodiode array in (0.4˜0.8)φ0 and a streak camera near 0.5φ0. Blackbody temperature and expansion speed measurements of the plasmas were also made. The experiment was conducted at laser intensities of (1˜4)x10^15 W/cm^2 on solid planar CH targets. ^a J. L. Weaver, et al, NO4.14, APS DPP (2008) ^b J. Oh, et al, NO4.15, APS DPP (2008) * Work supported by DoE/NNSA and performed at Naval Research Laboratory.
Tong, Zi-Jin; Wang, Chuan-Bing; Zhang, Pei-Jin; Liu, Jin
2017-05-01
The electron-cyclotron maser is a process that generates the intense and coherent radio emission in the plasma. In this paper, we present a comprehensive parametric investigation on the electron-cyclotron-maser instability driven by non-thermal ring-beam electrons with intrinsic Alfvén waves, which pervade the solar atmosphere and interplanetary space. It is found that both forward propagating and backward propagating waves can be excited in the fast ordinary (O) and extraordinary (X) electromagnetic modes. The growth rates of X1 mode are almost always weakened by Alfvén waves. The average pitch-angle ϕ 0 of electrons is a key parameter for the effect of Alfvén waves on the growth rate of modes O1, O2, and X2. For a beam-dominated electron distribution ( ϕ 0 ≲ 30 ° ), the growth rates of the maser instability for O1, O2, and X2 modes are enhanced with the increase of the Alfvén wave energy density. In other conditions, the growth rates of O1, O2, and X2 modes weakened with the increasing Alfvén wave intensity, except that the growth of the O1 mode may also be enhanced by Alfvén waves for a ring distribution. The results may be important for us in analyzing the mechanism of radio bursts with various fine structures observed in space and astrophysical plasmas.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miles, A.R.; Edwards, M.J.; Greenough, J.A.
2004-01-01
Perturbations on an interface driven by a strong blast wave grow in time due to a combination of Rayleigh-Taylor, Richtmyer-Meshkov, and decompression effects. In this paper, the results from a computational study of such a system under drive conditions to be attainable on the National Ignition Facility [E. M. Campbell, Laser Part. Beams 9, 209 (1991)] are presented. Using the multiphysics, adaptive mesh refinement, higher order Godunov Eulerian hydrocode, Raptor [L. H. Howell and J. A. Greenough, J. Comput. Phys. 184, 53 (2003)], the late nonlinear instability evolution for multiple amplitude and phase realizations of a variety of multimode spectral types is considered. Compressibility effects preclude the emergence of a regime of self-similar instability growth independent of the initial conditions by allowing for memory of the initial conditions to be retained in the mix-width at all times. The loss of transverse spectral information is demonstrated, however, along with the existence of a quasi-self-similar regime over short time intervals. Certain aspects of the initial conditions, including the rms amplitude, are shown to have a strong effect on the time to transition to the quasi-self-similar regime
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peila Chen
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Oncogenes induce cell proliferation leading to replicative stress, DNA damage and genomic instability. A wide variety of cellular stresses activate c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK proteins, but few studies have directly addressed the roles of JNK isoforms in tumor development. Herein, we show that jnk2 knockout mice expressing the Polyoma Middle T Antigen transgene developed mammary tumors earlier and experienced higher tumor multiplicity compared to jnk2 wildtype mice. Lack of jnk2 expression was associated with higher tumor aneuploidy and reduced DNA damage response, as marked by fewer pH2AX and 53BP1 nuclear foci. Comparative genomic hybridization further confirmed increased genomic instability in PyV MT/jnk2-/- tumors. In vitro, PyV MT/jnk2-/- cells underwent replicative stress and cell death as evidenced by lower BrdU incorporation, and sustained chromatin licensing and DNA replication factor 1 (CDT1 and p21(Waf1 protein expression, and phosphorylation of Chk1 after serum stimulation, but this response was not associated with phosphorylation of p53 Ser15. Adenoviral overexpression of CDT1 led to similar differences between jnk2 wildtype and knockout cells. In normal mammary cells undergoing UV induced single stranded DNA breaks, JNK2 localized to RPA (Replication Protein A coated strands indicating that JNK2 responds early to single stranded DNA damage and is critical for subsequent recruitment of DNA repair proteins. Together, these data support that JNK2 prevents replicative stress by coordinating cell cycle progression and DNA damage repair mechanisms.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Trushnikov, D. N., E-mail: trdimitr@yandex.ru [The department for Applied Physics, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, 614990 (Russian Federation); Mladenov, G. M., E-mail: gmmladenov@abv.bg; Koleva, E. G., E-mail: eligeorg@abv.bg [Institute of Electronics, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, 72 Tzarigradsko Shose, 1784, Sofia (Bulgaria); Technology Centre of Electron Beam and Plasma Technologies and Techniques, 68-70 Vrania, ap.10, Banishora,1309, Sofia (Bulgaria); Belenkiy, V. Ya., E-mail: mtf@pstu.ru; Varushkin, S. V., E-mail: stepan.varushkin@mail.ru [The department for Welding Production and Technology of Constructional Materials, Perm National Research Polytechnic University, Perm, 614990 (Russian Federation)
2014-04-15
Many papers have sought correlations between the parameters of secondary particles generated above the beam/work piece interaction zone, dynamics of processes in the keyhole, and technological processes. Low- and high-frequency oscillations of the current, collected by plasma have been observed above the welding zone during electron beam welding. Low-frequency oscillations of secondary signals are related to capillary instabilities of the keyhole, however; the physical mechanisms responsible for the high-frequency oscillations (>10 kHz) of the collected current are not fully understood. This paper shows that peak frequencies in the spectra of the collected high-frequency signal are dependent on the reciprocal distance between the welding zone and collector electrode. From the relationship between current harmonics frequency and distance of the collector/welding zone, it can be estimated that the draft velocity of electrons or phase velocity of excited waves is about 1600 m/s. The dispersion relation with the properties of ion-acoustic waves is related to electron temperature 10 000 K, ion temperature 2 400 K and plasma density 10{sup 16} m{sup −3}, which is analogues to the parameters of potential-relaxation instabilities, observed in similar conditions. The estimated critical density of the transported current for creating the anomalous resistance state of plasma is of the order of 3 A·m{sup −2}, i.e. 8 mA for a 3–10 cm{sup 2} collector electrode. Thus, it is assumed that the observed high-frequency oscillations of the current collected by the positive collector electrode are caused by relaxation processes in the plasma plume above the welding zone, and not a direct demonstration of oscillations in the keyhole.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Levermore, C.D.; Caflisch, R.E.; Wood, L.L.
1977-10-01
Longer wavelength (e.g., lambda = 10.5 μm) laser radiation generates relatively large fluxes of superthermal electrons that penetrate and preheat the cores of such pellets at early times in their implosion history, precluding their efficient subsequent compression. It has been proposed to separate the outermost shell of such pellets (onto which the laser light is directed) from its inner regions by a vacuum layer, thereby ''insulating'' these inner portions from superthermal electron degradation. We consider this proposal analytically and computationally, and find it to be questionable, due to the rapid penetration of the vacuum insulation layer by plasma streamers from the laser heated shells, which are accelerated to velocities of the order of those of the superthermal electrons by an electrostatic analog of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability. Results of such considerations are presented. The results developed also apply to a variety of formally similar phenomena, ranging from the relativistic edge of supernova photospheres to diode breakdown in REB machines
Sippel, Judith; Meeßen, Christian; Cacace, Mauro; Mechie, James; Fishwick, Stewart; Heine, Christian; Scheck-Wenderoth, Magdalena; Strecker, Manfred R.
2017-01-01
We present three-dimensional (3-D) models that describe the present-day thermal and rheological state of the lithosphere of the greater Kenya rift region aiming at a better understanding of the rift evolution, with a particular focus on plume-lithosphere interactions. The key methodology applied is the 3-D integration of diverse geological and geophysical observations using gravity modelling. Accordingly, the resulting lithospheric-scale 3-D density model is consistent with (i) reviewed descriptions of lithological variations in the sedimentary and volcanic cover, (ii) known trends in crust and mantle seismic velocities as revealed by seismic and seismological data and (iii) the observed gravity field. This data-based model is the first to image a 3-D density configuration of the crystalline crust for the entire region of Kenya and northern Tanzania. An upper and a basal crustal layer are differentiated, each composed of several domains of different average densities. We interpret these domains to trace back to the Precambrian terrane amalgamation associated with the East African Orogeny and to magmatic processes during Mesozoic and Cenozoic rifting phases. In combination with seismic velocities, the densities of these crustal domains indicate compositional differences. The derived lithological trends have been used to parameterise steady-state thermal and rheological models. These models indicate that crustal and mantle temperatures decrease from the Kenya rift in the west to eastern Kenya, while the integrated strength of the lithosphere increases. Thereby, the detailed strength configuration appears strongly controlled by the complex inherited crustal structure, which may have been decisive for the onset, localisation and propagation of rifting.
Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew
2010-01-01
We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS 3 vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bai Xuening; Stone, James M.
2013-01-01
We perform local, vertically stratified shearing-box MHD simulations of protoplanetary disks (PPDs) at a fiducial radius of 1 AU that take into account the effects of both Ohmic resistivity and ambipolar diffusion (AD). The magnetic diffusion coefficients are evaluated self-consistently from a look-up table based on equilibrium chemistry. We first show that the inclusion of AD dramatically changes the conventional picture of layered accretion. Without net vertical magnetic field, the system evolves into a toroidal field dominated configuration with extremely weak turbulence in the far-UV ionization layer that is far too inefficient to drive rapid accretion. In the presence of a weak net vertical field (plasma β ∼ 10 5 at midplane), we find that the magnetorotational instability (MRI) is completely suppressed, resulting in a fully laminar flow throughout the vertical extent of the disk. A strong magnetocentrifugal wind is launched that efficiently carries away disk angular momentum and easily accounts for the observed accretion rate in PPDs. Moreover, under a physical disk wind geometry, all the accretion flow proceeds through a strong current layer with a thickness of ∼0.3H that is offset from disk midplane with radial velocity of up to 0.4 times the sound speed. Both Ohmic resistivity and AD are essential for the suppression of the MRI and wind launching. The efficiency of wind transport increases with increasing net vertical magnetic flux and the penetration depth of the FUV ionization. Our laminar wind solution has important implications on planet formation and global evolution of PPDs.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindl, J.D.; Mead, W.C.
1975-01-01
LASNEX calculations with a modified electron conductivity show the existence of a firepolishing stabilization effect. By modifying the thermal conductivity so that K α T/sup n//rho/sup m/, one is able to construct a situation in which the electrons deposit their energy in a thin layer at the ablation surface and closely match the zero order solutions assumed earlier. The firepolishing effect appears to require that a significant fraction of the total pressure be due to the ablation process itself rather than the thermal pressure in the corona gas. It also requires KL approximately 1 where L is the scale height for decay of thermal perturbations generated at the ablation surface. For classical electron conductivity, because the thermal flux depends linearly on the grams/cm 2 necessary to stop the electrons, (1/rho) nabla rho approximately (1/T) nabla T near the ablation surface so that the pressure is nearly constant across the ablation surface. Hence there is no ablation pressure as such and no firepolishing effect for electron-driven implosions
Instabilities and spin-up behaviour of a rotating magnetic field driven flow in a rectangular cavity
Galindo, V.; Nauber, R.; Räbiger, D.; Franke, S.; Beyer, H.; Büttner, L.; Czarske, J.; Eckert, S.
2017-11-01
This study presents numerical simulations and experiments considering the flow of an electrically conducting fluid inside a cube driven by a rotating magnetic field (RMF). The investigations are focused on the spin-up, where a liquid metal (GaInSn) is suddenly exposed to an azimuthal body force generated by the RMF and the subsequent flow development. The numerical simulations rely on a semi-analytical expression for the induced electromagnetic force density in an electrically conducting medium inside a cuboid container with insulating walls. Velocity distributions in two perpendicular planes are measured using a novel dual-plane, two-component ultrasound array Doppler velocimeter with continuous data streaming, enabling long term measurements for investigating transient flows. This approach allows identifying the main emerging flow modes during the transition from stable to unstable flow regimes with exponentially growing velocity oscillations using the Proper Orthogonal Decomposition method. Characteristic frequencies in the oscillating flow regimes are determined in the super critical range above the critical magnetic Taylor number T ac≈1.26 ×1 05, where the transition from the steady double vortex structure of the secondary flow to an unstable regime with exponentially growing oscillations is detected. The mean flow structures and the temporal evolution of the flow predicted by the numerical simulations and observed in experiments are in very good agreement.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Jeong-Gyu; Kim, Woong-Tae; Seo, Young Min; Hong, Seung Soo
2012-01-01
We investigate the gravitational instability (GI) of rotating, vertically stratified, pressure-confined, polytropic gas disks using a linear stability analysis as well as analytic approximations. The disks are initially in vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and bounded by a constant external pressure. We find that the GI of a pressure-confined disk is in general a mixed mode of the conventional Jeans and distortional instabilities, and is thus an unstable version of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. The Jeans mode dominates in weakly confined disks or disks with rigid boundaries. On the other hand, when the disk has free boundaries and is strongly pressure confined, the mixed GI is dominated by the distortional mode that is surface-gravity waves driven unstable under their own gravity and thus incompressible. We demonstrate that the Jeans mode is gravity-modified acoustic waves rather than inertial waves and that inertial waves are almost unaffected by self-gravity. We derive an analytic expression for the effective sound speed c eff of acoustic-surface-gravity waves. We also find expressions for the gravity reduction factors relative to a razor-thin counterpart that are appropriate for the Jeans and distortional modes. The usual razor-thin dispersion relation, after correcting for c eff and the reduction factors, closely matches the numerical results obtained by solving a full set of linearized equations. The effective sound speed generalizes the Toomre stability parameter of the Jeans mode to allow for the mixed GI of vertically stratified, pressure-confined disks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Willi, O.; Pasley, J.; Iwase, A.; Nazarov, W.; Rose, S.J.
2000-01-01
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability was studied in the short wavelength regime using single mode targets that were driven by hohlraum radiation allowing the Takabe-Morse roll-over due to ablative stabilisation to be investigated. A temporally shaped soft x-ray drive was generated by focusing one of the PHEBUS laser beams into a gold hohlraum with a maximum radiation temperature of about 120 eV. Thin plastic foils with sinusoidal modulations with wavelengths between 12 and 50 μm, and a perturbation amplitude of about 10% of the wavelength, were used. A low density 50 mg/cc tri-acrylate foam 150 μm in length facing the hohlraum was attached to the modulated foam target. The targets were radiographed face-on at an x-ray energy of about 1.3 keV with a spatial resolution of about 5 μm using a Wolter-like x-ray microscope coupled to an x-ray streak camera with a temporal resolution of 50 ps. The acceleration was obtained from side-on radiography. 2-D hydrodynamic code simulations have been carried out to compare the experimental results with the simulations. (authors)
On holographic disorder-driven metal-insulator transitions
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol [Institut de Física d’Altes Energies (IFAE), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona,The Barcelona Institute of Science and Technology,Campus UAB, 08193 Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain)
2017-01-10
We give a minimal holographic model of a disorder-driven metal-insulator transition. It consists in a CFT with a charge sector and a translation-breaking sector that interact in the most generic way allowed by the symmetries and by dynamical consistency. In the gravity dual, it reduces to a Massive Gravity-Maxwell model with a new direct coupling between the gauge field and the metric that is allowed when gravity is massive. We show that the effect of this coupling is to decrease the DC electrical conductivity generically. This gives a nontrivial check that holographic massive gravity can be consistently interpreted as disorder from the CFT perspective. The suppression of the conductivity happens to such an extent that it does not obey any lower bound and it can be very small in the insulating phase. In some cases, the large disorder limit produces gradient instabilities that hint at the formation of modulated phases.
On holographic disorder-driven metal-insulator transitions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baggioli, Matteo; Pujolàs, Oriol
2017-01-01
We give a minimal holographic model of a disorder-driven metal-insulator transition. It consists in a CFT with a charge sector and a translation-breaking sector that interact in the most generic way allowed by the symmetries and by dynamical consistency. In the gravity dual, it reduces to a Massive Gravity-Maxwell model with a new direct coupling between the gauge field and the metric that is allowed when gravity is massive. We show that the effect of this coupling is to decrease the DC electrical conductivity generically. This gives a nontrivial check that holographic massive gravity can be consistently interpreted as disorder from the CFT perspective. The suppression of the conductivity happens to such an extent that it does not obey any lower bound and it can be very small in the insulating phase. In some cases, the large disorder limit produces gradient instabilities that hint at the formation of modulated phases.
Wetting front instability in an initially wet unsaturated fracture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.; Nguyen, H.A.
1993-01-01
Experimental results exploring gravity-driven wetting from instability in a pre-wetted, rough-walled analog fractures such as those at Yucca Mountain are presented. Initial conditions considered include a uniform moisture field wetted to field capacity of the analog fracture and the structured moisture field created by unstable infiltration into an initially dry fracture. As in previous studies performed under dry initial conditions, instability was found to result both at the cessation of stable infiltration and at flux lower than the fracture capacity under gravitational driving force. Individual fingers were faster, narrower, longer, and more numerous than observed under dry initial conditions. Wetting fronts were found to follow existing wetted structure, providing a mechanism for rapid recharge and transport
Wetting front instability in an initially wet unsaturated fracture
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nicholl, M.J.; Glass, R.J.; Nguyen, H.A.
1992-01-01
Experimental results exploring gravity-driven wetting front instability in a pre-wetted, rough-walled analog fracture are presented. Initial conditions considered include a uniform moisture field wetted to field capacity of the analog fracture and the structured moisture field created by unstable infiltration into an initially dry fracture. As in previous studies performed under dry initial conditions, instability was found to result both at the cessation of stable infiltration and at flux lower than the fracture capacity under gravitational driving force. Individual fingers were faster, narrower, longer, and more numerous than observed under dry initial conditions. Wetting fronts were found to follow existing wetted structure, providing a mechanism for rapid recharge and transport
Suppression of instability in rotatory hydromagnetic convection
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
first time by Lord Rayleigh [9] for the idealized case of two free boundaries. Rayleigh's theory shows that the gravity-dominated thermal instability in liquid layer ... suppressed for oscillatory perturbations by the simultaneous application of a ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Smalyuk, V. A.; Weber, S. V.; Casey, D. T.; Clark, D. S.; Field, J. E.; Haan, S. W.; Hammel, B. A.; Hamza, A. V.; Landen, O. L.; Robey, H. F.; Weber, C. R. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, NIF Directorate, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Hoover, D. E.; Nikroo, A. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States)
2015-07-15
Hydrodynamic instability growth experiments with three-dimensional (3-D) surface-roughness modulations were performed on plastic (CH) shell spherical implosions at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [E. M. Campbell, R. Cauble, and B. A. Remington, AIP Conf. Proc. 429, 3 (1998)]. The initial capsule outer-surface roughness was similar to the standard specifications (“native roughness”) used in a majority of implosions on NIF. The experiments included instability growth measurements of the perturbations seeded by the thin membranes (or tents) used to hold the capsules inside the hohlraums. In addition, initial modulations included two divots used as spatial fiducials to determine the convergence in the experiments and to check the accuracy of 3D simulations in calculating growth of known initial perturbations. The instability growth measurements were performed using x-ray, through-foil radiography of one side of the imploding shell, based on time-resolved pinhole imaging. Averaging over 30 similar images significantly increases the signal-to-noise ratio, making possible a comparison with 3-D simulations. At a convergence ratio of ∼3, the measured tent and divot modulations were close to those predicted by 3-D simulations (within ∼15%–20%), while measured 3-D, broadband modulations were ∼3–4 times larger than those simulated based on the growth of the known imposed initial surface modulations. In addition, some of the measured 3-D features in x-ray radiographs did not resemble those characterized on the outer capsule surface before the experiments. One of the hypotheses to explain the results is based on the increased instability amplitudes due to modulations of the oxygen content in the bulk of the capsule. As the target assembly and handling procedures involve exposure to UV light, this can increase the uptake of the oxygen into the capsule, with irregularities in the oxygen seeding hydrodynamic instabilities. These new experimental results have
Tearing instabilities in turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ishizawa, A.; Nakajima, N.
2009-01-01
Full text: Effects of micro-turbulence on tearing instabilities are investigated by numerically solving a reduced set of two-fluid equations. Micro-turbulence excites both large-scale and small-scale Fourier modes through energy transfer due to nonlinear mode coupling. The energy transfer to large scale mode does not directly excite tearing instability but it gives an initiation of tearing instability. When tearing instability starts to grow, the excited small scale mode plays an important role. The mixing of magnetic flux by micro-turbulence is the dominant factor of non-ideal MHD effect at the resonant surface and it gives rise to magnetic reconnection which causes tearing instability. Tearing instabilities were investigated against static equilibrium or flowing equilibrium so far. On the other hand, the recent progress of computer power allows us to investigate interactions between turbulence and coherent modes such as tearing instabilities in magnetically confined plasmas by means of direct numerical simulations. In order to investigate effects of turbulence on tearing instabilities we consider a situation that tearing mode is destabilized in a quasi-equilibrium including micro-turbulence. We choose an initial equilibrium that is unstable against kinetic ballooning modes and tearing instabilities. Tearing instabilities are current driven modes and thus they are unstable for large scale Fourier modes. On the other hand kinetic ballooning modes are unstable for poloidal Fourier modes that are characterized by ion Larmor radius. The energy of kinetic ballooning modes spreads over wave number space through nonlinear Fourier mode coupling. We present that micro-turbulence affects tearing instabilities in two different ways by three-dimensional numerical simulation of a reduced set of two-fluid equations. One is caused by energy transfer to large scale modes, the other is caused by energy transfer to small scale modes. The former is the excitation of initial
de Rham, Claudia
2014-01-01
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, J W S; Chapman, S C; Dendy, R O; Brady, C S
2011-01-01
We present particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations of minority energetic protons in deuterium plasmas, which demonstrate a collective instability responsible for emission near the lower hybrid frequency and its harmonics. The simulations capture the lower hybrid drift instability in a parameter regime motivated by tokamak fusion plasma conditions, and show further that the excited electromagnetic fields collectively and collisionlessly couple free energy from the protons to directed electron motion. This results in an asymmetric tail antiparallel to the magnetic field. We focus on obliquely propagating modes excited by energetic ions, whose ring-beam distribution is motivated by population inversions related to ion cyclotron emission, in a background plasma with a temperature similar to that of the core of a large tokamak plasma. A fully self-consistent electromagnetic relativistic PIC code representing all vector field quantities and particle velocities in three dimensions as functions of a single spatial dimension is used to model this situation, by evolving the initial antiparallel travelling ring-beam distribution of 3 MeV protons in a background 10 keV Maxwellian deuterium plasma with realistic ion-electron mass ratio. These simulations provide a proof-of-principle for a key plasma physics process that may be exploited in future alpha channelling scenarios for magnetically confined burning plasmas.
Plasma physics and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lashmore-Davies, C.N.
1981-01-01
These lectures procide an introduction to the theory of plasmas and their instabilities. Starting from the Bogoliubov, Born, Green, Kirkwood, and Yvon (BBGKY) hierarchy of kinetic equations, the additional concept of self-consistent fields leads to the fundamental Vlasov equation and hence to the warm two-fluid model and the one-fluid MHD, or cold, model. The properties of small-amplitude waves in magnetized (and unmagnetized) plasmas, and the instabilities to which they give rise, are described in some detail, and a complete chapter is devoted to Landau damping. The linear theory of plasma instabilities is illustrated by the current-driven electrostatic kind, with descriptions of the Penrose criterion and the energy principle of ideal MHD. There is a brief account of the application of feedback control. The non-linear theory is represented by three examples: quasi-linear velocity-space instabilities, three-wave instabilities, and the stability of an arbitrarily largeamplitude wave in a plasma. (orig.)
Aeroelastic instability problems for wind turbines
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hansen, Morten Hartvig
2007-01-01
This paper deals with the aeroelostic instabilities that have occurred and may still occur for modem commercial wind turbines: stall-induced vibrations for stall-turbines, and classical flutter for pitch-regulated turbines. A review of previous works is combined with derivations of analytical...... stiffness and chordwise position of the center of gravity along the blades are the main parameters for flutter. These instability characteristics are exemplified by aeroelastic stability analyses of different wind turbines. The review of each aeroelastic instability ends with a list of current research...... issues that represent unsolved aeroelostic instability problems for wind turbines. Copyright (c) 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....
Hydro-osmotic Instabilities in Active Membrane Tubes
Al-Izzi, Sami C.; Rowlands, George; Sens, Pierre; Turner, Matthew S.
2018-03-01
We study a membrane tube with unidirectional ion pumps driving an osmotic pressure difference. A pressure-driven peristaltic instability is identified, qualitatively distinct from similar tension-driven Rayleigh-type instabilities on membrane tubes. We discuss how this instability could be related to the function and biogenesis of membrane bound organelles, in particular, the contractile vacuole complex. The unusually long natural wavelength of this instability is in agreement with that observed in cells.
Instability timescale for the inclination instability in the solar system
Zderic, Alexander; Madigan, Ann-Marie; Fleisig, Jacob
2018-04-01
The gravitational influence of small bodies is often neglected in the study of solar system dynamics. However, this is not always an appropriate assumption. For example, mutual secular torques between low mass particles on eccentric orbits can result in a self-gravity instability (`inclination instability'; Madigan & McCourt 2016). During the instability, inclinations increase exponentially, eccentricities decrease (detachment), and orbits cluster in argument of perihelion. In the solar system, the orbits of the most distant objects show all three of these characteristics (high inclination: Volk & Malhotra (2017), detachment: Delsanti & Jewitt (2006), and argument of perihelion clustering: Trujillo & Sheppard (2014)). The inclination instability is a natural explanation for these phenomena.Unfortunately, full N-body simulations of the solar system are unfeasible (N ≈ O(1012)), and the behavior of the instability depends on N, prohibiting the direct application of lower N simulations. Here we present the instability timescale's functional dependence on N, allowing us to extrapolate our simulation results to that appropriate for the solar system. We show that ~5 MEarth of small icy bodies in the Sedna region is sufficient for the inclination instability to occur in the outer solar system.
Rotating magnetic shallow water waves and instabilities in a sphere
Márquez-Artavia, X.; Jones, C. A.; Tobias, S. M.
2017-07-01
Waves in a thin layer on a rotating sphere are studied. The effect of a toroidal magnetic field is considered, using the shallow water ideal MHD equations. The work is motivated by suggestions that there is a stably stratified layer below the Earth's core mantle boundary, and the existence of stable layers in stellar tachoclines. With an azimuthal background field known as the Malkus field, ?, ? being the co-latitude, a non-diffusive instability is found with azimuthal wavenumber ?. A necessary condition for instability is that the Alfvén speed exceeds ? where ? is the rotation rate and ? the sphere radius. Magneto-inertial gravity waves propagating westward and eastward occur, and become equatorially trapped when the field is strong. Magneto-Kelvin waves propagate eastward at low field strength, but a new westward propagating Kelvin wave is found when the field is strong. Fast magnetic Rossby waves travel westward, whilst the slow magnetic Rossby waves generally travel eastward, except for some ? modes at large field strength. An exceptional very slow westward ? magnetic Rossby wave mode occurs at all field strengths. The current-driven instability occurs for ? when the slow and fast magnetic Rossby waves interact. With strong field the magnetic Rossby waves become trapped at the pole. An asymptotic analysis giving the wave speed and wave form in terms of elementary functions is possible both in polar trapped and equatorially trapped cases.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xiaolu Zhu
2018-03-01
Full Text Available Four-dimensional (4D biofabrication techniques aim to dynamically produce and control three-dimensional (3D biological structures that would transform their shapes or functionalities with time, when a stimulus is imposed or cell post-printing self-assembly occurs. The evolution of 3D branching patterns via self-assembly of cells is critical for the 4D biofabrication of artificial organs or tissues with branched geometry. However, it is still unclear how the formation and evolution of these branching patterns are biologically encoded. Here, we study the biofabrication of lung branching structures utilizing a simulation model based on Turing instability that raises a dynamic reaction–diffusion (RD process of the biomolecules and cells. The simulation model incorporates partial differential equations of four variables, describing the tempo-spatial distribution of the variables in 3D over time. The simulation results present the formation and evolution process of 3D branching patterns over time and also interpret both the behaviors of side-branching and tip-splitting as the stalk grows and the fabrication style under an external concentration gradient of morphogen, through 3D visualization. This provides a theoretical framework for rationally guiding the 4D biofabrication of lung airway grafts via cellular self-organization, which would potentially reduce the complexity of future experimental research and number of trials.
Kheyfets, Vitaly O; Kieweg, Sarah L
2013-06-01
HIV/AIDS is a growing global pandemic. A microbicide is a formulation of a pharmaceutical agent suspended in a delivery vehicle, and can be used by women to protect themselves against HIV infection during intercourse. We have developed a three-dimensional (3D) computational model of a shear-thinning power-law fluid spreading under the influence of gravity to represent the distribution of a microbicide gel over the vaginal epithelium. This model, accompanied by a new experimental methodology, is a step in developing a tool for optimizing a delivery vehicle's structure/function relationship for clinical application. We compare our model with experiments in order to identify critical considerations for simulating 3D free-surface flows of shear-thinning fluids. Here we found that neglecting lateral spreading, when modeling gravity-induced flow, resulted in up to 47% overestimation of the experimental axial spreading after 90 s. In contrast, the inclusion of lateral spreading in 3D computational models resulted in rms errors in axial spreading under 7%. In addition, the choice of the initial condition for shape in the numerical simulation influences the model's ability to describe early time spreading behavior. Finally, we present a parametric study and sensitivity analysis of the power-law parameters' influence on axial spreading, and to examine the impact of changing rheological properties as a result of dilution or formulation conditions. Both the shear-thinning index (n) and consistency (m) impacted the spreading length and deceleration of the moving front. The sensitivity analysis showed that gels with midrange m and n values (for the ranges in this study) would be most sensitive (over 8% changes in spreading length) to 10% changes (e.g., from dilution) in both rheological properties. This work is applicable to many industrial and geophysical thin-film flow applications of non-Newtonian fluids; in addition to biological applications in microbicide drug delivery.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Long, K.A.; Tahir, N.A.
1987-01-01
In this paper we present an analysis of the theory of the energy deposition of ions in cold materials and hot dense plasmas together with numerical calculations for heavy and light ions of interest to ion-beam fusion. We have used the gorgon computer code of Long, Moritz, and Tahir (which is an extension of the code originally written for protons by Nardi, Peleg, and Zinamon) to carry out these calculations. The energy-deposition data calculated in this manner has been used in the design of heavy-ion-beam-driven fusion targets suitable for a reactor, by its inclusion in the medusa code of Christiansen, Ashby, and Roberts as extended by Tahir and Long. A number of other improvements have been made in this code and these are also discussed. Various aspects of the theoretical analysis of such targets are discussed including the calculation of the hydrodynamic stability, the hydrodynamic efficiency, and the gain. Various different target designs have been used, some of them new. In general these targets are driven by Bi + ions of energy 8--12 GeV, with an input energy of 4--6.5 MJ, with output energies in the range 600--900 MJ, and with gains in the range 120--180. The peak powers are in the range of 500--750 TW. We present detailed calculations of the ablation, compression, ignition, and burn phases. By the application of a new stability analysis which includes ablation and density-gradient effects we show that these targets appear to implode in a stable manner. Thus the targets designed offer working examples suited for use in a future inertial-confinement fusion reactor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schmitt, R.; Froehner, S.; Coblenz, G.; Christopoulos, G.
2006-01-01
This review addresses the pathoanatomical basics as well as the clinical and radiological presentation of instability patterns of the wrist. Carpal instability mostly follows an injury; however, other diseases, like CPPD arthropathy, can be associated. Instability occurs either if the carpus is unable to sustain physiologic loads (''dyskinetics'') or suffers from abnormal motion of its bones during movement (''dyskinematics''). In the classification of carpal instability, dissociative subcategories (located within proximal carpal row) are differentiated from non-dissociative subcategories (present between the carpal rows) and combined patterns. It is essential to note that the unstable wrist initially does not cause relevant signs in standard radiograms, therefore being ''occult'' for the radiologic assessment. This paper emphasizes the high utility of kinematographic studies, contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography for detecting these predynamic and dynamic instability stages. Later in the natural history of carpal instability, static malalignment of the wrist and osteoarthritis will develop, both being associated with significant morbidity and disability. To prevent individual and socio-economic implications, the handsurgeon or orthopedist, as well as the radiologist, is challenged for early and precise diagnosis. (orig.)
Instabilities expected to exist in a gas centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sakurai, Takeo
1977-01-01
A typical counter current type centrifuge of long bowl geometry is schematically shown. At first glance, the main flow field in this centrifuge can be taken as a swirling pipe flow. Taking in mind the operating gas (uranium hexafluoride) the temperature of which is 20 deg C and the peripheral pressure 10 torrs, the density and pressure obey the barometric relation in which the gravity is replaced by the centrifugal acceleration; in a thermally driven centrifuge, an additional weak temperature gradient appears along the axial direction. These situations are similar to those in the earth's atmosphere. So, it is stressed that the interior of a gas centrifuge is a new kind of rotating atmosphere and offers a 'new face' in the field of geophysical fluid dynamics. Instabilities in inviscid case and the destabilizing effects of the diffusivity are thus discussed together with the effects of the mechanical vibrations of the centrifuge, and vortex breakdown phenomena
Mashhoon, Bahram
2017-01-01
Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...
Ion-cyclotron instability in magnetic mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pearlstein, L.D.
1987-01-01
This report reviews the role of ion-cyclotron frequency instability in magnetic mirrors. The modes discussed here are loss-cone or anisotropy driven. The discussion includes quasilinear theory, explosive instabilities of 3-wave interaction and non-linear Landau damping, and saturation due to non-linear orbits
On the existence of hydrodynamic instability in single diffusive ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
bottom heavy systems with permeable boundaries. A K GUPTA1, ... Abstract. We utilize the reformulated equations of the classical theory, as derived by ... of gravity-dominated thermal instability in a horizontal liquid layer heated underside (or.
Massive gravity from bimetric gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baccetti, Valentina; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt
2013-01-01
We discuss the subtle relationship between massive gravity and bimetric gravity, focusing particularly on the manner in which massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure is more delicate than currently appreciated. Specifically, this limiting procedure should not unnecessarily constrain the background metric, which must be externally specified by the theory of massive gravity itself. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit, leading to additional constraints besides the one set of equations of motion naively expected. Thus, since solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statement is not necessarily true, there is no complete continuity in the parameter space of the theory. In particular, we study the massive cosmological solutions which are continuous in the parameter space, showing that many interesting cosmologies belong to this class. (paper)
Linear waves and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bers, A.
1975-01-01
The electrodynamic equations for small-amplitude waves and their dispersion relation in a homogeneous plasma are outlined. For such waves, energy and momentum, and their flow and transformation, are described. Perturbation theory of waves is treated and applied to linear coupling of waves, and the resulting instabilities from such interactions between active and passive waves. Linear stability analysis in time and space is described where the time-asymptotic, time-space Green's function for an arbitrary dispersion relation is developed. The perturbation theory of waves is applied to nonlinear coupling, with particular emphasis on pump-driven interactions of waves. Details of the time--space evolution of instabilities due to coupling are given. (U.S.)
Lujan, Richard E.
2001-01-01
A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barceló Carlos
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
Alvarez, Enrique
2004-01-01
Gravitons should have momentum just as photons do; and since graviton momentum would cause compression rather than elongation of spacetime outside of matter; it does not appear that gravitons are compatible with Swartzchild's spacetime curvature. Also, since energy is proportional to mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the energy of matter is proportional to gravity. The energy of matter could thus contract space within matter; and because of the inter-connectedness of space, cause the...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Barceló
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
Rayleigh-Taylor instability in an equal mass plasma
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adak, Ashish, E-mail: ashish-adak@yahoo.com [Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India); Ghosh, Samiran, E-mail: sran-g@yahoo.com [Department of Applied Mathematics, University of Calcutta 92, Acharya Prafulla Chandra Road, Kolkata 700 009 (India); Chakrabarti, Nikhil, E-mail: nikhil.chakrabarti@saha.ac.in [Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Bidhannagar, Kolkata 700 064 (India)
2014-09-15
The Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability in an inhomogeneous pair-ion plasma has been analyzed. Considering two fluid model for two species of ions (positive and negative), we obtain the possibility of the existence of RT instability. The growth rate of the RT instability as usual depends on gravity and density gradient scale length. The results are discussed in context of pair-ion plasma experiments.
Instability of enclosed horizons
Kay, Bernard S.
2015-03-01
We point out that there are solutions to the scalar wave equation on dimensional Minkowski space with finite energy tails which, if they reflect off a uniformly accelerated mirror due to (say) Dirichlet boundary conditions on it, develop an infinite stress-energy tensor on the mirror's Rindler horizon. We also show that, in the presence of an image mirror in the opposite Rindler wedge, suitable compactly supported arbitrarily small initial data on a suitable initial surface will develop an arbitrarily large stress-energy scalar near where the two horizons cross. Also, while there is a regular Hartle-Hawking-Israel-like state for the quantum theory between these two mirrors, there are coherent states built on it for which there are similar singularities in the expectation value of the renormalized stress-energy tensor. We conjecture that in other situations with analogous enclosed horizons such as a (maximally extended) Schwarzschild black hole in equilibrium in a (stationary spherical) box or the (maximally extended) Schwarzschild-AdS spacetime, there will be similar stress-energy singularities and almost-singularities—leading to instability of the horizons when gravity is switched on and matter and gravity perturbations are allowed for. All this suggests it is incorrect to picture a black hole in equilibrium in a box or a Schwarzschild-AdS black hole as extending beyond the past and future horizons of a single Schwarzschild (/Schwarzschild-AdS) wedge. It would thus provide new evidence for 't Hooft's brick wall model while seeming to invalidate the picture in Maldacena's ` Eternal black holes in AdS'. It would thereby also support the validity of the author's matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis and of the paper ` Brick walls and AdS/CFT' by the author and Ortíz.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giribet, G E
2005-01-01
Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)
About the magneto-acoustic instabilities in mirrors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zvonkov, A.V.; Timofeev, A.V.
1984-01-01
It is shown that the characteristic of a plasma in mirrors anisotropy of io on distribution function versus velocities may results in the drive of magneto-acoustic instabilities. This instability, in contast to the well known Alyven oscillation instability, is driven on ion cyclotron frequency harmonics The instability in question has been possibly observed during the experiments a at the tmx device, where the oscillations have been excited both at the ion cycl tron frequency and harmonics
Coupled-bunch instabilities in the APS ring
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Emery, L.
1991-01-01
A study of coupled bunch instabilities for the APS storage ring is presented. The instabilities are driven by the higher-order modes of the fifteen 352-MHz single-cell RF cavities. These modes are modeled using the 2-D cavity program URMEL. The program ZAP is then used to estimate the growth time of the instabilities for an equally-spaced bunch pattern. The cavity modes most responsible for the instabilities will be singles out for damping. 7 refs., 5 tabs
Approaching Pomeranchuk instabilities from ordered phase: A crossing-symmetric equation method
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reidy, Kelly; Quader, Khandker; Bedell, Kevin
2014-01-01
We explore features of a 3D Fermi liquid near generalized Pomeranchuk instabilities using a tractable crossing-symmetric equation method. We approach the instabilities from the ordered ferromagnetic phase. We find “quantum multi-criticality” as approach to the ferromagnetic instability drives instability in other channel(s). It is found that a charge nematic instability precedes and is driven by Pomeranchuk instabilities in both the ℓ=0 spin and density channels
Two-component gravitational instability in spiral galaxies
Marchuk, A. A.; Sotnikova, N. Y.
2018-04-01
We applied a criterion of gravitational instability, valid for two-component and infinitesimally thin discs, to observational data along the major axis for seven spiral galaxies of early types. Unlike most papers, the dispersion equation corresponding to the criterion was solved directly without using any approximation. The velocity dispersion of stars in the radial direction σR was limited by the range of possible values instead of a fixed value. For all galaxies, the outer regions of the disc were analysed up to R ≤ 130 arcsec. The maximal and sub-maximal disc models were used to translate surface brightness into surface density. The largest destabilizing disturbance stars can exert on a gaseous disc was estimated. It was shown that the two-component criterion differs a little from the one-fluid criterion for galaxies with a large surface gas density, but it allows to explain large-scale star formation in those regions where the gaseous disc is stable. In the galaxy NGC 1167 star formation is entirely driven by the self-gravity of the stars. A comparison is made with the conventional approximations which also include the thickness effect and with models for different sound speed cg. It is shown that values of the effective Toomre parameter correspond to the instability criterion of a two-component disc Qeff < 1.5-2.5. This result is consistent with previous theoretical and observational studies.
Turbulent resistivity driven by the magnetorotational instability
Fromang, S.; Stone, J. M.
2009-11-01
Aims: We measure the turbulent resistivity in the nonlinear regime of the MRI, and evaluate the turbulent magnetic Prandtl number. Methods: We perform a set of numerical simulations with the Eulerian finite volume codes Athena and Ramses in the framework of the shearing box model. We consider models including explicit dissipation coefficients and magnetic field topologies such that the net magnetic flux threading the box in both the vertical and azimuthal directions vanishes. Results: We first demonstrate good agreement between the two codes by comparing the properties of the turbulent states in simulations having identical microscopic diffusion coefficients (viscosity and resistivity). We find the properties of the turbulence do not change when the box size is increased in the radial direction, provided it is elongated in the azimuthal direction. To measure the turbulent resistivity in the disk, we impose a fixed electromotive force on the flow and measure the amplitude of the saturated magnetic field that results. We obtain a turbulent resistivity that is in rough agreement with mean field theories like the Second Order Smoothing Approximation. The numerical value translates into a turbulent magnetic Prandtl number Pmt of order unity. Pmt appears to be an increasing function of the forcing we impose. It also becomes smaller as the box size is increased in the radial direction, in good agreement with previous results obtained in very large boxes. Conclusions: Our results are in general agreement with other recently published papers studying the same problem but using different methodology. Thus, our conclusion that Pmt is of order unity appears robust.
Pipinos, Savas
2010-01-01
This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…
F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)
1999-01-01
textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on
Liu, Rong; Chen, Xue; Ding, Zijing
2018-01-01
We consider the motion of a gravity-driven flow down a vertical fiber subjected to a radial electric field. This flow exhibits rich dynamics including the formation of droplets, or beads, driven by a Rayleigh-Plateau mechanism modified by the presence of gravity as well as the Maxwell stress at the interface. A spatiotemporal stability analysis is performed to investigate the effect of electric field on the absolute-convective instability (AI-CI) characteristics. We performed a numerical simulation on the nonlinear evolution of the film to examine the transition from CI to AI regime. The numerical results are in excellent agreement with the spatiotemporal stability analysis. The blowup behavior of nonlinear simulation predicts the formation of touchdown singularity of the interface due to the effect of electric field. We try to connect the blowup behavior with the AI-CI characteristics. It is found that the singularities mainly occur in the AI regime. The results indicate that the film may have a tendency to form very sharp tips due to the enhancement of the absolute instability induced by the electric field. We perform a theoretical analysis to study the behaviors of the singularities. The results show that there exists a self-similarity between the temporal and spatial distances from the singularities.
Kinetic theory of tearing instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hazeltine, R.D.; Dobrott, D.; Wang, T.S.
1975-01-01
The guiding-center kinetic equation with Fokker-Planck collision term is used to study, in cylindrical geometry, a class of dissipative instabilities of which the classical tearing mode is an archetype. Variational solution of the kinetic equation obviates the use of an approximate Ohm's law or adiabatic assumption, as used in previous studies, and it provides a dispersive relation which is uniformly valid for any ratio of wave frequency to collision frequency. One result of using the rigorous collision operator is the prediction of a new instability. This instability, driven by the electron temperature gradient, is predicted to occur under the long mean-free path conditions of present tokamak experiments, and has significant features in common with the kink-like oscillations observed in such experiments
Lower hybrid parametric instabilities nonuniform pump waves and tokamak applications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Berger, R.L.; Chen, L.; Kaw, P.K.; Perkins, F.W.
1976-11-01
Electrostatic lower hybrid ''pump'' waves often launched into tokamak plasmas by structures (e.g., waveguides) whose dimensions are considerably smaller than characteristic plasma sizes. Such waves propagate in well-defined resonance cones and give rise to parametric instabilities driven by electron E x B velocities. The finite size of the resonance cone region determines the threshold for both convective quasimode decay instabilities and absolute instabilities. The excitation of absolute instabilities depends on whether a travelling or standing wave pump model is used; travelling wave pumps require the daughter waves to have a definite frequency shift. Altogether, parametric instabilities driven by E x B velocities occur for threshold fields significantly below the threshold for filamentation instabilities driven by pondermotive forces. Applications to tokamak heating show that nonlinear effects set in when a certain power-per-wave-launching port is exceeded
Dubovsky, S L
2004-01-01
We systematically study the most general Lorentz-violating graviton mass invariant under three-dimensional Eucledian group using the explicitly covariant language. We find that at general values of mass parameters the massive graviton has six propagating degrees of freedom, and some of them are ghosts or lead to rapid classical instabilities. However, there is a number of different regions in the mass parameter space where massive gravity can be described by a consistent low-energy effective theory with cutoff $\\sim\\sqrt{mM_{Pl}}$ free of rapid instabilities and vDVZ discontinuity. Each of these regions is characterized by certain fine-tuning relations between mass parameters, generalizing the Fierz--Pauli condition. In some cases the required fine-tunings are consequences of the existence of the subgroups of the diffeomorphism group that are left unbroken by the graviton mass. We found two new cases, when the resulting theories have a property of UV insensitivity, i.e. remain well behaved after inclusion of ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isham, C.
1989-01-01
Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.
1984-01-01
This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981
Single-mode coherent synchrotron radiation instability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. Heifets
2003-06-01
Full Text Available The microwave instability driven by the coherent synchrotron radiation (CSR has been previously studied [S. Heifets and G. V. Stupakov, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams 5, 054402 (2002] neglecting effect of the shielding caused by the finite beam pipe aperture. In practice, the unstable mode can be close to the shielding threshold where the spectrum of the radiation in a toroidal beam pipe is discrete. In this paper, the CSR instability is studied in the case when it is driven by a single synchronous mode. A system of equations for the beam-wave interaction is derived and its similarity to the 1D free-electron laser theory is demonstrated. In the linear regime, the growth rate of the instability is obtained and a transition to the case of continuous spectrum is discussed. The nonlinear evolution of the single-mode instability, both with and without synchrotron damping and quantum diffusion, is also studied.
Neutron star pulsations and instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lindblom, L.
2001-01-01
Gravitational radiation (GR) drives an instability in certain modes of rotating stars. This instability is strong enough in the case of the r-modes to cause their amplitudes to grow on a timescale of tens of seconds in rapidly rotating neutron stars. GR emitted by these modes removes angular momentum from the star at a rate which would spin it down to a relatively small angular velocity within about one year, if the dimensionless amplitude of the mode grows to order unity. A pedagogical level discussion is given here on the mechanism of GR instability in rotating stars, on the relevant properties of the r-modes, and on our present understanding of the dissipation mechanisms that tend to suppress this instability in neutron stars. The astrophysical implications of this GR driven instability are discussed for young neutron stars, and for older systems such as low mass x-ray binaries. Recent work on the non-linear evolution of the r-modes is also presented. (author)
Kinetic theory of tearing instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Drake, J.F.; Lee, Y.C.
1977-01-01
The transition of the tearing instability from the collisional to the collisionless regime is investigated kinetically using a Fokker--Planck collision operator to represent electron-ion collisions. As a function of the collisionality of the plasma, the tearing instability falls into three regions, which are referred to as collisionless, semi-collisional, and collisional. The width Δ of the singular layer around kxB 0 =0 is limited by electron thermal motion along B 0 in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes and is typically smaller than rho/sub i/, the ion Larmor radius. Previously accepted theories, which are based on the assumption Δvery-much-greater-thanrho/sub i/, are found to be valid only in the collisional regime. The effects of density and temperature gradients on the instabilities are also studied. The tearing instability is only driven by the temperature gradient in the collisional and semi-collisional regimes. Numerical calculations indicate that the semi-collisional tearing instability is particularly relevant to present day high temperature tokamak discharges
Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kocharyan, A. A.
2009-01-01
We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.
Experimental tests of relativistic gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, Thibault
2000-01-01
The confrontation between Einstein's gravitation theory and experimental results, notably binary pulsar data, is summarized and its significance discussed. Experiment and theory agree at the 10 -3 level or better. All the basic structures of Einstein's theory (coupling of gravity matter; propagation and self-interaction of the gravitational field, including in strong field conditions) have been verified. However, the theoretical possibility that scalar couplings be naturally driven toward zero by the cosmological expansion suggests that the present agreement between Einstein's theory and experiment might be compatible with the existence of a long-range scalar contribution to gravity (such as the dilation field, or a moduli field, of string theory). This provides a new theoretical paradigm, and new motivations for improving the experimental tests of gravity
Plasma instability of a vacuum arc centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hole, M.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Simpson, S.W.; Del Bosco, E.
2002-01-01
Ever since conception of the vacuum arc centrifuge in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a vacuum arc centrifuge. In this work we develop a linearized theoretical model to describe a range of instabilities in the vacuum arc centrifuge plasma column, and then test the validity of the description through comparison with experiment. We conclude that the observed instability is a 'universal' instability, driven by the density gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity
Kordilla, J.; Bresinsky, L. T.; Shigorina, E.; Noffz, T.; Dentz, M.; Sauter, M.; Tartakovsky, A. M.
2017-12-01
Preferential flow dynamics in unsaturated fractures remain a challenging topic on various scales. On pore- and fracture-scales the highly erratic gravity-driven flow dynamics often provoke a strong deviation from classical volume-effective approaches. Against the common notion that flow in fractures (or macropores) can only occur under equilibrium conditions, i.e., if the surrounding porous matrix is fully saturated and capillary pressures are high enough to allow filling of the fracture void space, arrival times suggest the existence of rapid preferential flow along fractures, fracture networks, and fault zones, even if the matrix is not fully saturated. Modeling such flows requires efficient numerical techniques to cover various flow-relevant physics, such as surface tension, static and dynamic contact angles, free-surface (multi-phase) interface dynamics, and formation of singularities. Here we demonstrate the importance of such flow modes on the partitioning dynamics at simple fracture intersections, with a combination of laboratory experiments, analytical solutions and numerical simulations using our newly developed massively parallel smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code. Flow modes heavily influence the "bypass" behavior of water flowing along a fracture junction. Flows favoring the formation of droplets exhibit a much stronger bypass capacity compared to rivulet flows, where nearly the whole fluid mass is initially stored within the horizontal fracture. This behavior is demonstrated for a multi-inlet laboratory setup where the inlet-specific flow rate is chosen so that either a droplet or rivulet flow persists. The effect of fluid buffering within the horizontal fracture is presented in terms of dimensionless fracture inflow so that characteristic scaling regimes can be recovered. For both cases (rivulets and droplets), flow within the horizontal fracture transitions into a Washburn regime until a critical threshold is reached and the bypass efficiency
White-light parametric instabilities in plasmas.
Santos, J E; Silva, L O; Bingham, R
2007-06-08
Parametric instabilities driven by partially coherent radiation in plasmas are described by a generalized statistical Wigner-Moyal set of equations, formally equivalent to the full wave equation, coupled to the plasma fluid equations. A generalized dispersion relation for stimulated Raman scattering driven by a partially coherent pump field is derived, revealing a growth rate dependence, with the coherence width sigma of the radiation field, scaling with 1/sigma for backscattering (three-wave process), and with 1/sigma1/2 for direct forward scattering (four-wave process). Our results demonstrate the possibility to control the growth rates of these instabilities by properly using broadband pump radiation fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schupp, P.
2007-01-01
Heuristic arguments suggest that the classical picture of smooth commutative spacetime should be replaced by some kind of quantum / noncommutative geometry at length scales and energies where quantum as well as gravitational effects are important. Motivated by this idea much research has been devoted to the study of quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetimes. More recently the focus has started to shift back to gravity in this context. We give an introductory overview to the formulation of general relativity in a noncommutative spacetime background and discuss the possibility of exact solutions. (author)
The adiabatic instability on cosmology's dark side
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bean, Rachel; Flanagan, Eanna E; Trodden, Mark
2008-01-01
We consider theories with a nontrivial coupling between the matter and dark energy sectors. We describe a small scale instability that can occur in such models when the coupling is strong compared to gravity, generalizing and correcting earlier treatments. The instability is characterized by a negative sound speed squared of an effective coupled dark matter/dark energy fluid. Our results are general, and applicable to a wide class of coupled models and provide a powerful, redshift-dependent tool, complementary to other constraints, with which to rule many of them out. A detailed analysis and applications to a range of models are presented in a longer companion paper
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooft, G.
2012-01-01
The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)
Sheared Electroconvective Instability
Kwak, Rhokyun; Pham, Van Sang; Lim, Kiang Meng; Han, Jongyoon
2012-11-01
Recently, ion concentration polarization (ICP) and related phenomena draw attention from physicists, due to its importance in understanding electrochemical systems. Researchers have been actively studying, but the complexity of this multiscale, multiphysics phenomenon has been limitation for gaining a detailed picture. Here, we consider electroconvective(EC) instability initiated by ICP under pressure-driven flow, a scenario often found in electrochemical desalinations. Combining scaling analysis, experiment, and numerical modeling, we reveal unique behaviors of sheared EC: unidirectional vortex structures, its size selection and vortex propagation. Selected by balancing the external pressure gradient and the electric body force, which generates Hagen-Poiseuille(HP) flow and vortical EC, the dimensionless EC thickness scales as (φ2 /UHP)1/3. The pressure-driven flow(or shear) suppresses unfavorably-directed vortices, and simultaneously pushes favorably-directed vortices with constant speed, which is linearly proportional to the total shear of HP flow. This is the first systematic characterization of sheared EC, which has significant implications on the optimization of electrodialysis and other electrochemical systems.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data base (14,559 records) was received in January 1986. Principal gravity parameters include elevation and observed gravity. The observed gravity values are...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...
Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity
Smolin, Lee
2010-01-01
We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.
Faraday instability in a near-critical fluid under weightlessness.
Gandikota, G; Chatain, D; Amiroudine, S; Lyubimova, T; Beysens, D
2014-01-01
Experiments on near-critical hydrogen have been conducted under magnetic compensation of gravity to investigate the Faraday instability that arises at the liquid-vapor interface under zero-gravity conditions. We investigated such instability in the absence of stabilizing gravity. Under such conditions, vibration orients the interface and can destabilize it. The experiments confirm the existence of Faraday waves and demonstrate a transition from a square to a line pattern close to the critical point. They also show a transition very close to the critical point from Faraday to periodic layering of the vapor-liquid interface perpendicular to vibration. It was seen that the Faraday wave instability is favored when the liquid-vapor density difference is large enough (fluid far from the critical point), whereas periodic layering predominates for small difference in the liquid and vapor densities (close to the critical point). It was observed for the Faraday wave instability that the wavelength of the instability decreases as one approaches the critical point. The experimental results demonstrate good agreement to the dispersion relation for zero gravity except for temperatures very close to the critical point where a transition from a square pattern to a line pattern is detected, similarly to what is observed under 1g conditions.
How much gravity is needed to establish the perceptual upright?
Harris, Laurence R; Herpers, Rainer; Hofhammer, Thomas; Jenkin, Michael
2014-01-01
Might the gravity levels found on other planets and on the moon be sufficient to provide an adequate perception of upright for astronauts? Can the amount of gravity required be predicted from the physiological threshold for linear acceleration? The perception of upright is determined not only by gravity but also visual information when available and assumptions about the orientation of the body. Here, we used a human centrifuge to simulate gravity levels from zero to earth gravity along the long-axis of the body and measured observers' perception of upright using the Oriented Character Recognition Test (OCHART) with and without visual cues arranged to indicate a direction of gravity that differed from the body's long axis. This procedure allowed us to assess the relative contribution of the added gravity in determining the perceptual upright. Control experiments off the centrifuge allowed us to measure the relative contributions of normal gravity, vision, and body orientation for each participant. We found that the influence of 1 g in determining the perceptual upright did not depend on whether the acceleration was created by lying on the centrifuge or by normal gravity. The 50% threshold for centrifuge-simulated gravity's ability to influence the perceptual upright was at around 0.15 g, close to the level of moon gravity but much higher than the threshold for detecting linear acceleration along the long axis of the body. This observation may partially explain the instability of moonwalkers but is good news for future missions to Mars.
Modulational instability of coupled waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
McKinstrie, C.J.; Bingham, R.
1989-01-01
The collinear propagation of an arbitrary number of finite-amplitude waves is modeled by a system of coupled nonlinear Schroedinger equations; one equation for each complex wave amplitude. In general, the waves are modulationally unstable with a maximal growth rate larger than the modulational growth rate of any wave alone. Moreover, waves that are modulationally stable by themselves can be driven unstable by the nonlinear coupling. The general theory is then applied to the relativistic modulational instability of two laser beams in a beat-wave accelerator. For parameters typical of a proposed beat-wave accelerator, this instability can seriously distort the incident laser pulse shapes on the particle-acceleration time scale, with detrimental consequences for particle acceleration
Effective action in multidimensional quantum gravity and spontaneous compactification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, V.G.; Bukhbinder, I.L.; Odintsov, S.D.
1987-01-01
One-loop effective action (the Casimir energy) is obtained for a special model of multidimensional quantum gravity and several variants of the d-dimensional quantum R 2 gravity in the space M 4 xT d-4 , where M 4 is the Minkowski space and T d-4 is the (d-4)-dimensional torus. It is shown that the effective action for the conformal gravity and the R 2 gravity without cosmological and Einstein's terms lead to an instability of the classical compactification. A numerical calculation reveals that the effective action for the five-dimensional R 2 gravity with the cosmological term is compatible with a self-consistent spontaneous compactification. The one-loop effective action is also obtained for the five dimensional Einstein gravity with the antisymmetrical torsion in the space M 4 xS 1 , where S 1 is the one-dimensional sphere
Seeding and layering of equatorial spread F by gravity waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hysell, D.L.; Kelley, M.C.; Swartz, W.E.; Woodman, R.F.
1990-01-01
Studies dating back more than 15 years have presented evidence that atmospheric gravity waves play a role in initiating nighttime equatorial F region instabilities. This paper analyzes a spectabular spread F event that for the first time demonstrates a layering which, the authors argue, is controlled by a gravity wave effect. The 50-km vertical wavelength of a gravity wave which they have found is related theoretically to a plasma layering irregularity that originated at low altitudes and then was convected, intact, to higher altitudes. Gravity waves also seem to have determined bottomside intermediate scale undulations, although this fact is not as clear in the data. The neutral wind dynamo effect yields wave number conditions on the gravity wave's ability to modulate the Rayleigh-Taylor instaiblity process. Finally, after evaluating the gravity wave dispersion relation and spatial resonance conditions, we estimate the properties of the seeding wave
Effective action in multidimensional quantum gravity, and spontaneous compactification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bagrov, V.G.; Bukhbinder, I.L.; Odintsov, S.D.
1987-01-01
The one-loop effective action (Casimir energy) is obtained for a special form of model of multidimensional quantum gravity and for several variants of d-dimensional quantum R 2 -gravity on the space M 4 x T/sub d//sub -4/, where M 4 is Minkowski space and T/sub d//sub -4/ is the (d-4)-dimensional torus. It is shown that the effective action of the model of multidimensional quantum gravity and R 2 -gravity without the cosmological term and Einstein term leads to instability of the classical compactification. By a numerical calculation it is demonstrated that the effective action of five-dimensional R 2 -gravity with the cosmological term admits a self-consistent spontaneous compactification. The one-loop effective action is also found for five-dimensional Einstein gravity with antisymmetric torsion on the space M 4 x S 1 (S 1 is the one-dimensional sphere)
Comments on the Operation of Capillary Pumped Loop Devices in Low Gravity
Hallinan, K. P.; Allen, J. S.
1999-01-01
The operation of Capillary Pumped Loops (CPL's) in low gravity has generally been unable to match ground-based performance. The reason for this poorer performance has been elusive. In order to investigate the behavior of a CPL in low-gravity, an idealized, glass CPL experiment was constructed. This experiment, known as the Capillary-driven Heat Transfer (CHT) experiment, was flown on board the Space Shuttle Columbia in July 1997 during the Microgravity Science Laboratory mission. During the conduct of the CHT experiment an unexpected failure mode was observed. This failure mode was a result of liquid collecting and then eventually bridging the vapor return line. With the vapor return line blocked, the condensate was unable to return to the evaporator and dry-out subsequently followed. The mechanism for this collection and bridging has been associated with long wavelength instabilities of the liquid film forming in the vapor return line. Analysis has shown that vapor line blockage in present generation CPL devices is inevitable. Additionally, previous low-gravity CPL tests have reported the presence of relatively low frequency pressure oscillations during erratic system performance. Analysis reveals that these pressure oscillations are in part a result of long wavelength instabilities present in the evaporator pores, which likewise lead to liquid bridging and vapor entrapment in the porous media. Subsequent evaporation to the trapped vapor increases the vapor pressure. Eventually the vapor pressure causes ejection of the bridged liquid. Recoil stresses depress the meniscus, the vapor pressure rapidly increases, and the heated surface cools. The process then repeats with regularity.
Premixed Flames Under Microgravity and Normal Gravity Conditions
Krikunova, Anastasia I.; Son, Eduard E.
2018-03-01
Premixed conical CH4-air flames were studied experimentally and numerically under normal straight, reversed gravity conditions and microgravity. Low-gravity experiments were performed in Drop tower. Classical Bunsen-type burner was used to find out features of gravity influence on the combustion processes. Mixture equivalence ratio was varied from 0.8 to 1.3. Wide range of flow velocity allows to study both laminar and weakly turbulized flames. High-speed flame chemoluminescence video-recording was used as diagnostic. The investigations were performed at atmospheric pressure. As results normalized flame height, laminar flame speed were measured, also features of flame instabilities were shown. Low- and high-frequency flame-instabilities (oscillations) have a various nature as velocity fluctuations, preferential diffusion instability, hydrodynamic and Rayleigh-Taylor ones etc., that was explored and demonstrated.
Instability of a Vacuum Arc Centrifuge
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hole, M.J.; Dallaqua, R.S.; Bosco, E. del; Simpson, S.W.
2003-01-01
Ever since conception of the Vacuum Arc Centrifuge (VAC) in 1980, periodic fluctuations in the ion saturation current and floating potential have been observed in Langmuir probe measurements in the rotation region of a VAC. Our theoretical and experimental research suggests that these fluctuations are in fact a pressure-gradient driven drift mode. In this work, we summarise the properties of a theoretical model describing the range of instabilities in the VAC plasma column, present theoretical predictions and compare with detailed experiments conducted on the PCEN centrifuge at the Brazilian National Space Research Institute (INPE). We conclude that the observed instability is a 'universal' instability, driven by the density-gradient, in a plasma with finite conductivity
Anisotropic gravitational instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.
1988-01-01
Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common
Interfacial instabilities in vibrated fluids
Porter, Jeff; Laverón-Simavilla, Ana; Tinao Perez-Miravete, Ignacio; Fernandez Fraile, Jose Javier
2016-07-01
Vibrations induce a range of different interfacial phenomena in fluid systems depending on the frequency and orientation of the forcing. With gravity, (large) interfaces are approximately flat and there is a qualitative difference between vertical and horizontal forcing. Sufficient vertical forcing produces subharmonic standing waves (Faraday waves) that extend over the whole interface. Horizontal forcing can excite both localized and extended interfacial phenomena. The vibrating solid boundaries act as wavemakers to excite traveling waves (or sloshing modes at low frequencies) but they also drive evanescent bulk modes whose oscillatory pressure gradient can parametrically excite subharmonic surface waves like cross-waves. Depending on the magnitude of the damping and the aspect ratio of the container, these locally generated surfaces waves may interact in the interior resulting in temporal modulation and other complex dynamics. In the case where the interface separates two fluids of different density in, for example, a rectangular container, the mass transfer due to vertical motion near the endwalls requires a counterflow in the interior region that can lead to a Kelvin-Helmholtz type instability and a ``frozen wave" pattern. In microgravity, the dominance of surface forces favors non-flat equilibrium configurations and the distinction between vertical and horizontal applied forcing can be lost. Hysteresis and multiplicity of solutions are more common, especially in non-wetting systems where disconnected (partial) volumes of fluid can be established. Furthermore, the vibrational field contributes a dynamic pressure term that competes with surface tension to select the (time averaged) shape of the surface. These new (quasi-static) surface configurations, known as vibroequilibria, can differ substantially from the hydrostatic state. There is a tendency for the interface to orient perpendicular to the vibrational axis and, in some cases, a bulge or cavity is induced
Matter Loops Corrected Modified Gravity in Palatini Formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng Xinhe; Wang Peng
2008-01-01
Recently, corrections to the standard Einstein-Hilbert action were proposed to explain the current cosmic acceleration in stead of introducing dark energy. In the Palatini formulation of those modified gravity models, there is an important observation due to Arkani-Hamed: matter loops will give rise to a correction to the modified gravity action proportional to the Ricci scalar of the metric. In the presence of such a term, we show that the current forms of modified gravity models in Palatini formulation, specifically, the 1/R gravity and ln R gravity, will have phantoms. Then we study the possible instabilities due to the presence of phantom fields. We show that the strong instability in the metric formulation of 1/R gravity indicated by Dolgov and Kawasaki will not appear and the decay timescales for the phantom fields may be long enough for the theories to make sense as effective field theory. On the other hand, if we change the sign of the modification terms to eliminate the phantoms, some other inconsistencies will arise for the various versions of the modified gravity models. Finally, we comment on the universal property of the Palatini formulation of the matter loops corrected modified gravity models and its implications
Gravity-induced rock mass damage related to large en masse rockslides: Evidence from Vajont
Paronuzzi, Paolo; Bolla, Alberto
2015-04-01
The Vajont landslide is a well-known, reservoir-induced slope failure that occurred on 9 October 1963 and was characterized by an 'en masse' sliding motion that triggered various large waves, determining catastrophic consequences for the nearby territory and adjacent villages. During the Vajont dam construction, and especially after the disaster, some researchers identified widespread field evidence of heavy rock mass damage involving the presumed prehistoric rockslide and/or the 1963 failed mass. This paper describes evidence of heavy gravitational damage, including (i) folding, (ii) fracturing, (iii) faulting, and (iv) intact rock disintegration. The gravity-induced rock mass damage (GRMD) characterizes the remnants of the basal shear zone, still resting on the large detachment surface, and the 1963 failed rock mass. The comprehensive geological study of the 1963 Vajont landslide, based on the recently performed geomechanical survey (2006-present) and on the critical analysis of the past photographic documentation (1959-1964), allows us to recognize that most GRMD evidence is related to the prehistoric multistage Mt. Toc rockslide. The 1963 catastrophic en masse remobilization induced an increase to the prehistoric damage, reworking preexisting structures and creating additional gravity-driven features (folds, fractures, faults, and rock fragmentation). The gravity-induced damage was formed during the slope instability phases that preceded the collapse (static or quasi-static GRMD) and also as a consequence of the sliding motion and of the devastating impact between the failed blocks (dynamic GRMD). Gravitational damage originated various types of small drag folds such as flexures, concentric folds, chevron, and kink-box folds, all having a radius of 1-5 m. Large buckle folds (radius of 10-50 m) are related to the dynamic damage and were formed during the en masse motion as a consequence of deceleration and impact processes that involved the sliding mass. Prior
Drinking-Straw Microbalance and Seesaw: Stability and Instability
Chapman, Peter; Glasser, Leslie
2015-03-01
The mechanics of a beam balance are little appreciated and seldom understood. We here consider the conditions that result in a stable balance, with center of gravity below the fulcrum (pivot point), while an unstable balance results when the center of gravity is above the fulcrum. The highly sensitive drinking-straw microbalance, which uses a plastic drinking straw as a rigid beam, is briefly described with some slight convenient modifications. Different placements of the center of gravity are considered analytically to explain the equilibrium neutrality, stability, and instability of such beam balances as the microbalance, the playground "seesaw" or "teeter-totter," the "dipping bird," and other toys and magic tricks.
Byrne, Michael
1999-01-01
Einstein said that gravity is an acceleration like any other acceleration. But gravity causes relativistic effects at non-relativistic speeds; so gravity could have relativistic origins. And since the strong force is thought to cause most of mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the strong force is therefore also proportional to gravity. The strong force could thus cause relativistic increases of mass through the creation of virtual gluons; along with a comparable contraction of space ar...
Application of high-speed photography to hydrodynamic instability research
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang Lihua; Li Zuoyou; Xiao Zhengfei; Zou Liyong; Liu Jinhong; Xiong Xueshi
2012-01-01
High-speed photography is used to study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability of air-water interface driven by high- pressure exploding gas. Clear images illustrating the instability are obtained, along with the air bubble peak speed and turbulent mixing speed. The RM (Richtmyer-Meshkov) instability of air/SF 6 interface driven by shock wave is also researched by using high-speed Schlieren technique on the horizontal shock tube and primary experimental results are obtained, which show the change of the turbulent mixing region clearly. (authors)
Extensional and compressional instabilities in icy satellite lithospheres
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Herrick, D.L.; Stevenson, D.J.
1990-01-01
The plausibility of invoking a lithospheric instability mechanism to account for the grooved terrains on Ganymede, Encedalus, and Miranda is presently evaluated in light of the combination of a simple mechanical model of planetary lithospheres and asthenospheres with recent experimental data for the brittle and ductile deformation of ice. For Ganymede, high surface gravity and warm temperatures render the achievement of an instability sufficiently great for the observed topographic relief virtually impossible; an instability of sufficient strength, however, may be able to develop on such smaller, colder bodies as Encedalus and Miranda. 15 refs
Collisional effect on the Weibel instability in the limit of high plasma ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Davidson and Hammer [12] studied the wave instabilities which included transverse electromagnetic WI driven by kinetic energy anisotropy in an unmag- netized plasma (e.g., electromagnetic instabilities driven by thermal anisotropy or directed counter-streaming motion). Zaki [13] studied the excitation of electromagnetic ...
Beyond Lovelock gravity: Higher derivative metric theories
Crisostomi, M.; Noui, K.; Charmousis, C.; Langlois, D.
2018-02-01
We consider theories describing the dynamics of a four-dimensional metric, whose Lagrangian is diffeomorphism invariant and depends at most on second derivatives of the metric. Imposing degeneracy conditions we find a set of Lagrangians that, apart form the Einstein-Hilbert one, are either trivial or contain more than 2 degrees of freedom. Among the partially degenerate theories, we recover Chern-Simons gravity, endowed with constraints whose structure suggests the presence of instabilities. Then, we enlarge the class of parity violating theories of gravity by introducing new "chiral scalar-tensor theories." Although they all raise the same concern as Chern-Simons gravity, they can nevertheless make sense as low energy effective field theories or, by restricting them to the unitary gauge (where the scalar field is uniform), as Lorentz breaking theories with a parity violating sector.
Instabilities in inhomogeneous plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikhailovsky, A.B.
1983-01-01
The plasma inhomogeneity across the magnetic field causes a wide class of instabilities which are called instabilities of an inhomogeneous plasma or gradient instabilities. The instabilities that can be studied in the approximation of a magnetic field with parallel straight field lines are treated first, followed by a discussion of the influence of shear on these instabilities. The instabilities of a weakly inhomogeneous plasma with the Maxwellian velocity distribution of particles caused by the density and temperature gradients are often called drift instabilities, and the corresponding types of perturbations are the drift waves. An elementary theory of drift instabilities is presented, based on the simplest equations of motion of particles in the field of low-frequency and long-wavelength perturbations. Following that is a more complete theory of inhomogeneous collisionless plasma instabilities which uses the permittivity tensor and, in the case of electrostatic perturbations, the scalar of permittivity. The results are used to study the instabilities of a strongly inhomogeneous plasma. The instabilities of a plasma in crossed fields are discussed and the electromagnetic instabilities of plasma with finite and high pressure are described. (Auth.)
Diffusive instabilities in hyperbolic reaction-diffusion equations
Zemskov, Evgeny P.; Horsthemke, Werner
2016-03-01
We investigate two-variable reaction-diffusion systems of the hyperbolic type. A linear stability analysis is performed, and the conditions for diffusion-driven instabilities are derived. Two basic types of eigenvalues, real and complex, are described. Dispersion curves for both types of eigenvalues are plotted and their behavior is analyzed. The real case is related to the Turing instability, and the complex one corresponds to the wave instability. We emphasize the interesting feature that the wave instability in the hyperbolic equations occurs in two-variable systems, whereas in the parabolic case one needs three reaction-diffusion equations.
Instability of flat space at finite temperature
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gross, D.J.; Perry, M.J.; Yaffe, L.G.
1982-01-01
The instabilities of quantum gravity are investigated using the path-integral formulation of Einstein's theory. A brief review is given of the classical gravitational instabilities, as well as the stability of flat space. The Euclidean path-integral representation of the partition function is employed to discuss the instability of flat space at finite temperature. Semiclassical, or saddle-point, approximations are utilized. We show how the Jeans instability arises as a tachyon in the graviton propagator when small perturbations about hot flat space are considered. The effect due to the Schwarzschild instanton is studied. The small fluctuations about this instanton are analyzed and a negative mode is discovered. This produces, in the semiclassical approximation, an imaginary part of the free energy. This is interpreted as being due to the metastability of hot flat space to nucleate black holes. These then evolve by evaporation or by accretion of thermal gravitons, leading to the instability of hot flat space. The nucleation rate of black holes is calculated as a function of temperature
Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial confinement fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, N.M.
1995-01-01
The focus of these (two) lectures is on buoyancy-driven instabilities of the Rayleigh-Taylor type, which are commonly regarded as the most important kind of hydrodynamic instability in inertial-confinement-fusion implosions. The paper is intended to be pedagogical rather than research-oriented, and so is by no means a comprehensive review of work in this field. Rather, it is hoped that the student will find here a foundation on which to build an understanding of current research, and the experienced researcher will find a compilation of useful results. (author)
Methods for Simulating the Heavy Core Instability
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chang Philip
2013-04-01
Full Text Available Vortices have been proposed as the sites of planet formation, where dust collects and grows into planetesimals, the building blocks of planets. However, for very small dust particles that can be treated as a pressure-less fluid, we have recently discovered the “heavy core” instability, driven by the density gradient in the vortex. In order to understand the eventual outcome of this instability, we need to study its non-linear development. Here, we describe our ongoing work to develop highly accurate numerical models of a vortex with a density gradient embedded within a protoplanetary disk.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoutens, K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY
1991-11-01
We briefly review some results in the theory of quantum W 3 gravity in the chiral gauge. We compare them with similar results in the analogous but simpler cases of d = 2 induced gauge theories and d = 2 induced gravity
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...
Cadiz, California Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32 records) were gathered by Mr. Seth I. Gutman for AridTech Inc., Denver, Colorado using a Worden Prospector gravity meter. This data base...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Andes gravity data (6,151 records) were compiled by Professor Gotze and the MIGRA Group. This data base was received in April, 1997. Principal gravity...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) gravity grid values, spaced at 6 km, were used to produce the Gravity Anomaly Map of North America (1987; scale...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinheiro, R.
1979-01-01
The properties and production of gravitational radiation are described. The prospects for their detection are considered including the Weber apparatus and gravity-wave telescopes. Possibilities of gravity-wave astronomy are noted
Northern Oklahoma Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (710 records) were compiled by Professor Ahern. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters include latitude,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (24,284 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega, H.J. de
1990-01-01
One of the main challenges in theoretical physics today is the unification of all interactions including gravity. At present, string theories appear as the most promising candidates to achieve such a unification. However, gravity has not completely been incorporated in string theory, many technical and conceptual problems remain and a full quantum theory of gravity is still non-existent. Our aim is to properly understand strings in the context of quantum gravity. Attempts towards this are reviewed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La, H.
1992-01-01
A new geometric formulation of Liouville gravity based on the area preserving diffeo-morphism is given and a possible alternative to reinterpret Liouville gravity is suggested, namely, a scalar field coupled to two-dimensional gravity with a curvature constraint
Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.
1990-01-01
We discuss the notion of higher-spin covariance in w∞ gravity. We show how a recently proposed covariant w∞ gravity action can be obtained from non-chiral w∞ gravity by making field redefinitions that introduce new gauge-field components with corresponding new gauge transformations.
Induced quantum conformal gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novozhilov, Y.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.
1988-11-01
Quantum gravity is considered as induced by matter degrees of freedom and related to the symmetry breakdown in the low energy region of a non-Abelian gauge theory of fundamental fields. An effective action for quantum conformal gravity is derived where both the gravitational constant and conformal kinetic term are positive. Relation with induced classical gravity is established. (author). 15 refs
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2003-01-01
Comment: 9 pages, LaTex. These notes were prepared while working on an invited contribution to the November 2003 issue of Physics World, which focused on quantum gravity. They intend to give a non-technical introduction (accessible to readers from outside quantum gravity) to "Quantum Gravity Phenomenology"
MacKeown, P. K.
1984-01-01
Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)
Joint Instability and Osteoarthritis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Darryl Blalock
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA. Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.
Joint instability and osteoarthritis.
Blalock, Darryl; Miller, Andrew; Tilley, Michael; Wang, Jinxi
2015-01-01
Joint instability creates a clinical and economic burden in the health care system. Injuries and disorders that directly damage the joint structure or lead to joint instability are highly associated with osteoarthritis (OA). Thus, understanding the physiology of joint stability and the mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA is of clinical significance. The first section of this review discusses the structure and function of major joint tissues, including periarticular muscles, which play a significant role in joint stability. Because the knee, ankle, and shoulder joints demonstrate a high incidence of ligament injury and joint instability, the second section summarizes the mechanisms of ligament injury-associated joint instability of these joints. The final section highlights the recent advances in the understanding of the mechanical and biological mechanisms of joint instability-induced OA. These advances may lead to new opportunities for clinical intervention in the prevention and early treatment of OA.
A new necessary condition for Turing instabilities.
Elragig, Aiman; Townley, Stuart
2012-09-01
Reactivity (a.k.a initial growth) is necessary for diffusion driven instability (Turing instability). Using a notion of common Lyapunov function we show that this necessary condition is a special case of a more powerful (i.e. tighter) necessary condition. Specifically, we show that if the linearised reaction matrix and the diffusion matrix share a common Lyapunov function, then Turing instability is not possible. The existence of common Lyapunov functions is readily checked using semi-definite programming. We apply this result to the Gierer-Meinhardt system modelling regenerative properties of Hydra, the Oregonator, to a host-parasite-hyperparasite system with diffusion and to a reaction-diffusion-chemotaxis model for a multi-species host-parasitoid community. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory
2002-01-01
We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework
Pressure Profiles in a Loop Heat Pipe under Gravity Influence
Ku, Jentung
2015-01-01
During the operation of a loop heat pipe (LHP), the viscous flow induces pressure drops in various elements of the loop. The total pressure drop is equal to the sum of pressure drops in vapor grooves, vapor line, condenser, liquid line and primary wick, and is sustained by menisci at liquid and vapor interfaces on the outer surface of the primary wick in the evaporator. The menisci will curve naturally so that the resulting capillary pressure matches the total pressure drop. In ground testing, an additional gravitational pressure head may be present and must be included in the total pressure drop when LHP components are placed in a non-planar configuration. Under gravity-neutral and anti-gravity conditions, the fluid circulation in the LHP is driven solely by the capillary force. With gravity assist, however, the flow circulation can be driven by the combination of capillary and gravitational forces, or by the gravitational force alone. For a gravity-assist LHP at a given elevation between the horizontal condenser and evaporator, there exists a threshold heat load below which the LHP operation is gravity driven and above which the LHP operation is capillary force and gravity co-driven. The gravitational pressure head can have profound effects on the LHP operation, and such effects depend on the elevation, evaporator heat load, and condenser sink temperature. This paper presents a theoretical study on LHP operations under gravity-neutral, anti-gravity, and gravity-assist modes using pressure diagrams to help understand the underlying physical processes. Effects of the condenser configuration on the gravitational pressure head and LHP operation are also discussed.
Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoffman, N.M.
1994-01-01
This report discusses topics on hydrodynamics instabilities in inertial confinement: linear analysis of Rayleigh-Taylor instability; ablation-surface instability; bubble rise in late-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability; and saturation and multimode interactions in intermediate-stage Rayleigh-Taylor instability
Einstein gravity emerging from quantum weyl gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zee, A.
1983-01-01
We advocate a conformal invariant world described by the sum of the Weyl, Dirac, and Yang-Mills action. Quantum fluctuations bring back Einstein gravity so that the long-distance phenomenology is as observed. Formulas for the induced Newton's constant and Eddington's constant are derived in quantized Weyl gravity. We show that the analogue of the trace anomaly for the Weyl action is structurally similar to that for the Yang-Mills action
Genomic instability following irradiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hacker-Klom, U.B.; Goehde, W.
2001-01-01
Ionising irradiation may induce genomic instability. The broad spectrum of stress reactions in eukaryontic cells to irradiation complicates the discovery of cellular targets and pathways inducing genomic instability. Irradiation may initiate genomic instability by deletion of genes controlling stability, by induction of genes stimulating instability and/or by activating endogeneous cellular viruses. Alternatively or additionally it is discussed that the initiation of genomic instability may be a consequence of radiation or other agents independently of DNA damage implying non nuclear targets, e.g. signal cascades. As a further mechanism possibly involved our own results may suggest radiation-induced changes in chromatin structure. Once initiated the process of genomic instability probably is perpetuated by endogeneous processes necessary for proliferation. Genomic instability may be a cause or a consequence of the neoplastic phenotype. As a conclusion from the data available up to now a new interpretation of low level radiation effects for radiation protection and in radiotherapy appears useful. The detection of the molecular mechanisms of genomic instability will be important in this context and may contribute to a better understanding of phenomenons occurring at low doses <10 cSv which are not well understood up to now. (orig.)
Faraday instability of crystallization waves in 4He
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abe, H; Ueda, T; Morikawa, M; Saitoh, Y; Nomura, R; Okuda, Y
2007-01-01
Periodic modulation of the gravity acceleration makes a flat surface of a fluid unstable and standing waves are parametrically excited on the surface. This phenomenon is called Faraday instability. Since a crystal-superfluid interface of 4 He at low temperatures is very mobile and behaves like a fluid surface, Saarloos and Weeks predicted that Faraday instability of the crystallization waves exists in 4 He and that the threshold excitation for the instability depends on the crystal growth coefficient. We successfully observed the Faraday instability of the crystal-liquid interface at 160 mK. Faraday waves were parametrically generated at one half of the driving frequency 90 Hz. Amplitude of the Faraday wave becomes smaller at higher temperature due to decrease of the crystal growth coefficient and disappears above 200 mK
Theory of 'strong' turbulence - Application to the ion acoustic instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abdel-Gawad, Hamdy Ibrahim
1984-01-01
In this thesis, we apply the techniques recently developed in the theory of turbulence to study the evolution of the current-driven ion acoustic instability. We present a method allow to describe analytically and with a self-coherent manner the dynamic of the deformation of the distribution function of particles in the same time as the evolution of the turbulent energy. We have also discerned the saturation mechanisms of the instability as well as their domain of validity. (author) [fr
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, J.D.
1988-01-01
This book addresses the subject of gravity theories in two and three spacetime dimensions. The prevailing philosophy is that lower dimensional models of gravity provide a useful arena for developing new ideas and insights, which are applicable to four dimensional gravity. The first chapter consists of a comprehensive introduction to both two and three dimensional gravity, including a discussion of their basic structures. In the second chapter, the asymptotic structure of three dimensional Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is analyzed. The third chapter contains a treatment of the effects of matter sources in classical two dimensional gravity. The fourth chapter gives a complete analysis of particle pair creation by electric and gravitational fields in two dimensions, and the resulting effect on the cosmological constant
Gravity interpretation via EULDPH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebrahimzadeh Ardestani, V.
2003-01-01
Euler's homogeneity equation for determining the coordinates of the source body especially to estimate the depth (EULDPH) is discussed at this paper. This method is applied to synthetic and high-resolution real data such as gradiometric or microgravity data. Low-quality gravity data especially in the areas with a complex geology structure has rarely been used. The Bouguer gravity anomalies are computed from absolute gravity data after the required corrections. Bouguer anomaly is transferred to residual gravity anomaly. The gravity gradients are estimated from residual anomaly values. Bouguer anomaly is the gravity gradients, using EULDPH. The coordinates of the perturbing body will be determined. Two field examples one in the east of Tehran (Mard Abad) where we would like to determine the location of the anomaly (hydrocarbon) and another in the south-east of Iran close to the border with Afghanistan (Nosrat Abad) where we are exploring chromite are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mielke, Eckehard W.
2006-01-01
Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F and F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed
Interplay between parametric instabilities in fusion - relevant laser plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huller, St.
2003-01-01
The control of parametric instabilities plays an important role in laser fusion. They are driven by the incident laser beams in the underdense plasma surrounding a fusion capsule and hinder the absorption process of incident laser light which is necessary to heat the fusion target. Due to its high intensity and power, the laser light modifies the plasma density dynamically, such that two or more parametric instabilities compete, in particular stimulated Brillouin scattering and the filamentation instability. The complicated interplay between these parametric instabilities is studied in detail by developing an adequate model accompanied by numerical simulations with multidimensional codes. The model is applied to generic and to smoothed laser beams, which are necessary to limit parametric instabilities, with parameters close to experimental conditions. (author)
Anomalous plasma transport due to electron temperature gradient instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tokuda, Sinji; Ito, Hiroshi; Kamimura, Tetsuo.
1979-01-01
The collisionless drift wave instability driven by an electron temperature inhomogeneity (electron temperature gradient instability) and the enhanced transport processes associated with it are studied using a two-and-a-half dimensional particle simulation code. The simulation results show that quasilinear diffusion in phase space is an important mechanism for the saturation of the electron temperature gradient instability. Also, the instability yields particle fluxes toward the hot plasma regions. The heat conductivity of the electron temperature perpendicular to the magnetic field, T sub(e'), is not reduced by magnetic shear but remains high, whereas the heat conductivity of the parallel temperature, T sub(e''), is effectively reduced, and the instability stabilized. (author)
Role of parametric decay instabilities in generating ionospheric irregularities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuo, S.P.; Cheo, B.R.; Lee, M.C.
1983-01-01
We show that purely growing instabilities driven by the saturation spectrum of parametric decay instabilities can produce a broad spectrum of ionospheric irregularities. The threshold field Vertical BarE/sub th/Vertical Bar of the instabilities decreases with the scale lengths lambda of the ionospheric irregularities as Vertical BarE/sub th/Vertical Barproportionallambda -2 in the small-scale range ( -2 with scale lengths larger than a few kilometers. The excitation of kilometer-scale irregularities is strictly restricted by the instabilities themselves and by the spatial inhomogeneity of the medium. These results are drawn from the analyses of four-wave interaction. Ion-neutral collisions impose no net effect on the instabilities when the excited ionospheric irregularities have a field-aligned nature
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Animesh Mukherjee
1991-01-01
Full Text Available Based upon Biot's [1965] theory of initial stresses of hydrostatic nature produced by the effect of gravity, a study is made of surface waves in higher order visco-elastic media under the influence of gravity. The equation for the wave velocity of Stonely waves in the presence of viscous and gravitational effects is obtained. This is followed by particular cases of surface waves including Rayleigh waves and Love waves in the presence of viscous and gravity effects. In all cases the wave-velocity equations are found to be in perfect agreement with the corresponding classical results when the effects of gravity and viscosity are neglected.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkhard, N.R.
1979-01-01
The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)
2017-05-15
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)
Gas-laser behavior in a low-gravity environment
Owen, R. B.
1981-01-01
In connection with several experiments proposed for flight on the Space Shuttle, which involve the use of gas lasers, the behavior of a He-Ne laser in a low-gravity environment has been studied theoretically and experimentally in a series of flight tests using a low-gravity-simulation aircraft. No fluctuation in laser output above the noise level of the meter (1 part in 1000 for 1 hr) was observed during the low-gravity portion of the flight tests. The laser output gradually increased by 1.4% during a 1.5-hr test; at no time were rapid variations observed in the laser output. A maximum laser instability of 1 part in 100 was observed during forty low-gravity parabolic maneuvers. The beam remained Gaussian throughout the tests and no lobe patterns were observed.
Unitarity problems in 3D gravity theories
Alkac, Gokhan; Basanisi, Luca; Kilicarslan, Ercan; Tekin, Bayram
2017-07-01
We revisit the problem of the bulk-boundary unitarity clash in 2 +1 -dimensional gravity theories, which has been an obstacle in providing a viable dual two-dimensional conformal field theory for bulk gravity in anti-de Sitter (AdS) spacetime. Chiral gravity, which is a particular limit of cosmological topologically massive gravity (TMG), suffers from perturbative log-modes with negative energies inducing a nonunitary logarithmic boundary field theory. We show here that any f (R ) extension of TMG does not improve the situation. We also study the perturbative modes in the metric formulation of minimal massive gravity—originally constructed in a first-order formulation—and find that the massive mode has again negative energy except in the chiral limit. We comment on this issue and also discuss a possible solution to the problem of negative-energy modes. In any of these theories, the infinitesimal dangerous deformations might not be integrable to full solutions; this suggests a linearization instability of AdS spacetime in the direction of the perturbative log-modes.
Pfaff, R.; Freudenreich, H.; Klenzing, J.; Liebrecht, C.; Valladares, C.
2011-01-01
As solar activity has increased, the ionosphere F-peak has been elevated on numerous occasions above the C/NOFS satellite perigee of 400km. In particular, during the month of April, 2011, the satellite consistently journeyed below the F-peak whenever the orbit was in the region of the South Atlantic anomaly after sunset. During these passes, data from the electric field and plasma density probes on the satellite have revealed two types of instabilities which had not previously been observed in the C/NOFS data set (to our knowledge): The first is evidence for 400-500km-scale bottomside "undulations" that appear in the density and electric field data. In one case, these large scale waves are associated with a strong shear in the zonal E x B flow, as evidenced by variations in the meridional (outward) electric fields observed above and below the F-peak. These undulations are devoid of smaller scale structures in the early evening, yet appear at later local times along the same orbit associated with fully-developed spread-F with smaller scale structures. This suggests that they may be precursor waves for spread-F, driven by a collisional shear instability, following ideas advanced previously by researchers using data from the Jicamarca radar. A second new result (for C/NOFS) is the appearance of km-scale irregularities that are a common feature in the electric field and plasma density data that also appear when the satellite is below the F -peak at night. The vector electric field instrument on C/NOFS clearly shows that the electric field component of these waves is strongest in the zonal direction. These waves are strongly correlated with simultaneous observations of plasma density oscillations and appear both with, and without, evidence of larger-scale spread-F depletions. These km-scale, quasi-coherent waves strongly resemble the bottomside, sinusoidal irregularities reported in the Atmosphere Explorer satellite data set by Valladares et al. [JGR, 88, 8025, 1983
Simulation and quasilinear theory of proton firehose instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Seough, Jungjoon [Korean Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Faculty of Human Development, University of Toyama, 3190, Gofuku, Toyama City, Toyama, 930-8555 (Japan); Yoon, Peter H. [University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin, Gyeonggi 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Junga [Korean Astronomy and Space Science Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Korea, University of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)
2015-01-15
The electromagnetic proton firehose instability is driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy, T{sub ∥} > T{sub ⊥} (or more precisely, parallel pressure anisotropy, P{sub ∥} > P{sub ⊥}) in high-beta plasmas. Together with kinetic instabilities driven by excessive perpendicular temperature anisotropy, namely, electromagnetic proton cyclotron and mirror instabilities, its role in providing the upper limit for the temperature anisotropy in the solar wind is well-known. A recent Letter [Seough et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 071103 (2013)] employed quasilinear kinetic theory for these instabilities to explain the observed temperature anisotropy upper bound in the solar wind. However, the validity of quasilinear approach has not been rigorously tested until recently. In a recent paper [Seough et al., Phys. Plasmas 21, 062118 (2014)], a comparative study is carried out for the first time in which quasilinear theory of proton cyclotron instability is tested against results obtained from the particle-in-cell simulation method, and it was demonstrated that the agreement was rather excellent. The present paper addresses the same issue involving the proton firehose instability. Unlike the proton cyclotron instability, however, it is found that the quasilinear approximation enjoys only a limited range of validity, especially for the wave dynamics and for the relatively high-beta regime. Possible causes and mechanisms responsible for the discrepancies are speculated and discussed.
Testing the gravitational instability hypothesis?
Babul, Arif; Weinberg, David H.; Dekel, Avishai; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1994-01-01
We challenge a widely accepted assumption of observational cosmology: that successful reconstruction of observed galaxy density fields from measured galaxy velocity fields (or vice versa), using the methods of gravitational instability theory, implies that the observed large-scale structures and large-scale flows were produced by the action of gravity. This assumption is false, in that there exist nongravitational theories that pass the reconstruction tests and gravitational theories with certain forms of biased galaxy formation that fail them. Gravitational instability theory predicts specific correlations between large-scale velocity and mass density fields, but the same correlations arise in any model where (a) structures in the galaxy distribution grow from homogeneous initial conditions in a way that satisfies the continuity equation, and (b) the present-day velocity field is irrotational and proportional to the time-averaged velocity field. We demonstrate these assertions using analytical arguments and N-body simulations. If large-scale structure is formed by gravitational instability, then the ratio of the galaxy density contrast to the divergence of the velocity field yields an estimate of the density parameter Omega (or, more generally, an estimate of beta identically equal to Omega(exp 0.6)/b, where b is an assumed constant of proportionality between galaxy and mass density fluctuations. In nongravitational scenarios, the values of Omega or beta estimated in this way may fail to represent the true cosmological values. However, even if nongravitational forces initiate and shape the growth of structure, gravitationally induced accelerations can dominate the velocity field at late times, long after the action of any nongravitational impulses. The estimated beta approaches the true value in such cases, and in our numerical simulations the estimated beta values are reasonably accurate for both gravitational and nongravitational models. Reconstruction tests
Relativistic gravitational instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schutz, B.F.
1987-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures
Character of decay instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polovin, R.V.; Demutskii, V.P.
1981-01-01
If the initial wave is unstable in the upper half plane Im ω>0 and there are no branch points of the quasiwave number, or if waves traveling in the same direction coalesce at a branch point, the instability is convective. On the other hand, if a branch point k(ω) does exist in the upper half-plane Im ω>0, and not all the waves that merge at this point travel in the same direction, the instability is absolute. A Green's function that describes the evolution of the perturbations of the initial wave in space and in time is constructed. The growth rates of the decay instability of the harmonics are determined. The produced waves are richer in harmonics than the initial waves. It is shown that the decay instability of an Alfven wave is absolute
Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D.; Simons, P.; Kuchta, J.
2009-01-01
We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI
Spondylolisthesis and Posterior Instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Niggemann, P.; Beyer, H.K.; Frey, H.; Grosskurth, D. (Privatpraxis fuer Upright MRT, Koeln (Germany)); Simons, P.; Kuchta, J. (Media Park Klinik, Koeln (Germany))
2009-04-15
We present the case of a patient with a spondylolisthesis of L5 on S1 due to spondylolysis at the level L5/S1. The vertebral slip was fixed and no anterior instability was found. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in an upright MRI scanner, posterior instability at the level of the spondylolytic defect of L5 was demonstrated. A structure, probably the hypertrophic ligament flava, arising from the spondylolytic defect was displaced toward the L5 nerve root, and a bilateral contact of the displaced structure with the L5 nerve root was shown in extension of the spine. To our knowledge, this is the first case described of posterior instability in patients with spondylolisthesis. The clinical implications of posterior instability are unknown; however, it is thought that this disorder is common and that it can only be diagnosed using upright MRI.
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....
Consistency of orthodox gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
1997-01-01
A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.
Generalized pure Lovelock gravity
Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn
2017-11-01
We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure) Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.
Generalized pure Lovelock gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Concha
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.
Genomic instability and radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Little, John B [Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA 02115 (United States)
2003-06-01
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)
Genomic instability and radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Little, John B
2003-01-01
Genomic instability is a hallmark of cancer cells, and is thought to be involved in the process of carcinogenesis. Indeed, a number of rare genetic disorders associated with a predisposition to cancer are characterised by genomic instability occurring in somatic cells. Of particular interest is the observation that transmissible instability can be induced in somatic cells from normal individuals by exposure to ionising radiation, leading to a persistent enhancement in the rate at which mutations and chromosomal aberrations arise in the progeny of the irradiated cells after many generations of replication. If such induced instability is involved in radiation carcinogenesis, it would imply that the initial carcinogenic event may not be a rare mutation occurring in a specific gene or set of genes. Rather, radiation may induce a process of instability in many cells in a population, enhancing the rate at which the multiple gene mutations necessary for the development of cancer may arise in a given cell lineage. Furthermore, radiation could act at any stage in the development of cancer by facilitating the accumulation of the remaining genetic events required to produce a fully malignant tumour. The experimental evidence for such induced instability is reviewed. (review)
Tribology Experiment in Zero Gravity
Pan, C. H. T.; Gause, R. L.; Whitaker, A. F.; Finckenor, M. M.
2015-01-01
A tribology experiment in zero gravity was performed during the orbital flight of Spacelab 1 to study the motion of liquid lubricants over solid surfaces. The absence of a significant gravitational force facilitates observation of such motions as controlled by interfacial and capillary forces. Two experimental configurations were used. One deals with the liquid on one solid surface, and the other with the liquid between a pair of closed spaced surfaces. Time sequence photographs of fluid motion on a solid surface yielded spreading rate data of several fluid-surface combinations. In general, a slow spreading process as governed by the tertiary junction can be distinguished from a more rapid process which is driven by surface tension controlled internal fluid pressure. Photographs were also taken through the transparent bushings of several experimental journal bearings. Morphology of incomplete fluid films and its fluctuation with time suggest the presence or absence of unsteady phenomena of the bearing-rotor system in various arrangements.
Cosmological attractors in massive gravity
Dubovsky, S; Tkachev, I I
2005-01-01
We study Lorentz-violating models of massive gravity which preserve rotations and are invariant under time-dependent shifts of the spatial coordinates. In the linear approximation the Newtonian potential in these models has an extra ``confining'' term proportional to the distance from the source. We argue that during cosmological expansion the Universe may be driven to an attractor point with larger symmetry which includes particular simultaneous dilatations of time and space coordinates. The confining term in the potential vanishes as one approaches the attractor. In the vicinity of the attractor the extra contribution is present in the Friedmann equation which, in a certain range of parameters, gives rise to the cosmic acceleration.
Gravity induced wave function collapse
Gasbarri, G.; Toroš, M.; Donadi, S.; Bassi, A.
2017-11-01
Starting from an idea of S. L. Adler [in Quantum Nonlocality and Reality: 50 Years of Bell's Theorem, edited by M. Bell and S. Gao (Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, England 2016)], we develop a novel model of gravity induced spontaneous wave function collapse. The collapse is driven by complex stochastic fluctuations of the spacetime metric. After deriving the fundamental equations, we prove the collapse and amplification mechanism, the two most important features of a consistent collapse model. Under reasonable simplifying assumptions, we constrain the strength ξ of the complex metric fluctuations with available experimental data. We show that ξ ≥10-26 in order for the model to guarantee classicality of macro-objects, and at the same time ξ ≤10-20 in order not to contradict experimental evidence. As a comparison, in the recent discovery of gravitational waves in the frequency range 35 to 250 Hz, the (real) metric fluctuations reach a peak of ξ ˜10-21.
Nonlinear growth of the quasi-interchange instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Waelbroeck, F.L.
1988-07-01
In this paper nonlinear effects on the growth of a pressure-driven, interchange-like mode are investigated. This mode is thought to be responsible for the sawtooth crashes observed in JET and successfully accounts for most of their features. The analysis presented here differs from previous bifurcation calculations by the inclusion of toroidal coupling effects. Toroidal curvature, which is important for pressure-driven modes, destroys the helical symmetry which is typical of kink-like instabilities. 14 refs., 3 figs
Globally regular instability of AdS_3
Bizon, P.; Jałmużna, J.
2013-01-01
We consider three-dimensional AdS gravity minimally coupled to a massless scalar field and study numerically the evolution of small smooth circularly symmetric perturbations of the $AdS_3$ spacetime. As in higher dimensions, for a large class of perturbations, we observe a turbulent cascade of energy to high frequencies which entails instability of $AdS_3$. However, in contrast to higher dimensions, the cascade cannot be terminated by black hole formation because small perturbations have ener...
Landau-Darrieus instability in an ablation front
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Piriz, A.R.; Portugues, R.F.
2003-01-01
An analytical model that shows the conditions for the existence of the Landau-Darrieus instability of an ablation front is presented. The model seems to agree with recently claimed simulation results [L. Masse et al., Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on Inertial Fusion Sciences and Applications (Elsevier, Paris, 2000), p. 220]. The model shows that the ablation front can be unstable in absence of gravity when the thermal flux is inhibited within the supercritical region of the corona
Rotating polygon instability of a swirling free surface flow
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tophøj, Laust Emil Hjerrild; Bohr, Tomas; Mougel, J.
2013-01-01
We explain the rotating polygon instability on a swirling fluid surface [G. H. Vatistas, J. Fluid Mech. 217, 241 (1990)JFLSA70022-1120 and Jansson et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 174502 (2006)PRLTAO0031-9007] in terms of resonant interactions between gravity waves on the outer part of the surface...... behavior near the corners), and indeed we show that we can obtain the polygons transiently by violently stirring liquid nitrogen in a hot container....
The role of multidimensional instabilities in direct initiation of gaseous detonations in free space
Shen, Hua; Parsani, Matteo
2017-01-01
We numerically investigate the direct initiation of detonations driven by the propagation of a blast wave into a unconfined gaseous combustible mixture to study the role played by multidimensional instabilities in direct initiation of stable
Resilience of quasi-isodynamic stellarators against trapped-particle instabilities.
Proll, J H E; Helander, P; Connor, J W; Plunk, G G
2012-06-15
It is shown that in perfectly quasi-isodynamic stellarators, trapped particles with a bounce frequency much higher than the frequency of the instability are stabilizing in the electrostatic and collisionless limit. The collisionless trapped-particle instability is therefore stable as well as the ordinary electron-density-gradient-driven trapped-electron mode. This result follows from the energy balance of electrostatic instabilities and is thus independent of all other details of the magnetic geometry.
Magnaudet, Jacques; Tchoufag, Joel; Fabre, David
2015-11-01
Gravity/buoyancy-driven bodies moving in a slightly viscous fluid frequently follow fluttering or helical paths. Current models of such systems are largely empirical and fail to predict several of the key features of their evolution, especially close to the onset of path instability. Using a weakly nonlinear expansion of the full set of governing equations, we derive a new generic reduced-order model of this class of phenomena based on a pair of amplitude equations with exact coefficients that drive the evolution of the first pair of unstable modes. We show that the predictions of this model for the style (eg. fluttering or spiraling) and characteristics (eg. frequency and maximum inclination angle) of path oscillations compare well with various recent data for both solid disks and air bubbles.
Tchoufag, Joël; Fabre, David; Magnaudet, Jacques
2015-09-01
Gravity- or buoyancy-driven bodies moving in a slightly viscous fluid frequently follow fluttering or helical paths. Current models of such systems are largely empirical and fail to predict several of the key features of their evolution, especially close to the onset of path instability. Here, using a weakly nonlinear expansion of the full set of governing equations, we present a new generic reduced-order model based on a pair of amplitude equations with exact coefficients that drive the evolution of the first pair of unstable modes. We show that the predictions of this model for the style (e.g., fluttering or spiraling) and characteristics (e.g., frequency and maximum inclination angle) of path oscillations compare well with various recent data for both solid disks and air bubbles.
Low-Gravity Mimicking Simulants and Evaluation of Simulant Flow, Phase I
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This project will provide a new method for testing flow/no-flow conditions and other gravity-driven flow behavior of Lunar or planetary regolith under reduced...
Linear instability and nonlinear motion of rotating plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu, J.
1985-01-01
Two coupled nonlinear equations describing the flute dynamics of the magnetically confined low-β collisionless rotating plasma are derived. The linear instability and nonlinear dynamics of the rotating column are analyzed theoretically. In the linear stability analysis, a new sufficient condition of stability is obtained. From the exact solution of eigenvalue equation for Gaussian density profile and uniform rotation of the plasma, the stability of the system strongly depends on the direction of plasma rotation, FLR effect and the location of the conducting wall. An analytic expression showing the finite wall effect on different normal modes is obtained and it explains the different behavior of (1,0) normal mode from other modes. The sheared rotation driven instability is investigated by using three model equilibrium profiles, and the analytic expressions of eigenvalues which includes the wall effect are obtained. The analogy between shear rotation driven instability and the instability driven by sheared plane parallel flow in the inviscid fluid is analyzed. Applying the linear analysis to the central cell of tandem mirror system, the trapped particle instability with only passing electronics is analyzed. For uniform rotation and Gaussian density profile, an analytic expression that determines the stability boundary is found. The nonlinear analysis shows that the nonlinear equations have a solitary vortex solution which is very similar to the vortex solution of nonlinear Rossby wave equation
Instabilities in the 'on' phase of the plasma focus
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kaeppeler, H.J.
1990-07-01
In the operation of large plasma focus devices, e.g. POSEIDON, there appear saturation phenomena in the neutron production when the charging energy of the condensor bank approaches its nominal value. This saturation is attributed to the action of impurities. It is assumed that there appear instabilities which are in part caused by impurities. In order to be able to answer this question, the linear dispersion relation was derived from a three-fluid theory (electrons, ions and neutrals) with the aid of the computer algebra (CA) code MACSYMA. The inversion of the 17x17 matrix (it is assumed that v a =v i and T a =T i ) and solution of the determinant was carried out on a CONVEX C 120 computer using the CA code MAPLE. The calculation of the zeros was done with a modified CPZERO program from the SLATEC library. There appear four instabilities in the rundown phase of the plasma focus, two of them gradient driven. The first two are unstable electrostatic waves with very high phase velocities, thus they do not contribute to anomalous dissipation. The third is identified as a gradient driven space charge instability which may possibly lead to current chopping. The electron acoustic wave instability, here gradient driven, is the fourth. It was found in a previous study of MPD thruster instabilities. (orig.)
Ferreira, Ana M.; Westers, Helga; Sousa, Sonia; Wu, Ying; Niessen, Renee C.; Olderode-Berends, Maran; van der Sluis, Tineke; Reuvekamp, Peter T. W.; Seruca, Raquel; Kleibeuker, Jan H.; Hollema, Harry; Sijmons, Rolf H.; Hofstra, Robert M. W.
A progressive accumulation of genetic alterations underlies the adenoma-carcinoma sequence of colorectal cancer. This accumulation of mutations is driven by genetic instability, of which there are different types. Microsatellite instability (MSI) is the predominant type present in the tumours of
Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents
Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.
2013-05-01
Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jevicki, A.; Ninomiya, M.
1985-01-01
We are concerned with applications of the simplicial discretization method (Regge calculus) to two-dimensional quantum gravity with emphasis on the physically relevant string model. Beginning with the discretization of gravity and matter we exhibit a discrete version of the conformal trace anomaly. Proceeding to the string problem we show how the direct approach of (finite difference) discretization based on Nambu action corresponds to unsatisfactory treatment of gravitational degrees. Based on the Regge approach we then propose a discretization corresponding to the Polyakov string. In this context we are led to a natural geometric version of the associated Liouville model and two-dimensional gravity. (orig.)
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
Of the four fundamental forces, gravity has been studied the longest, yet gravitational physics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science today. This talk will give a broad brush survey of the past achievements and future prospects of general relativistic gravitational physics. Gravity is a two frontier science being important on both the very largest and smallest length scales considered in contemporary physics. Recent advances and future prospects will be surveyed in precision tests of general relativity, gravitational waves, black holes, cosmology and quantum gravity. The aim will be an overview of a subject that is becoming increasingly integrated with experiment and other branches of physics.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Ambjørn
1995-07-01
Full Text Available The 2-point function is the natural object in quantum gravity for extracting critical behavior: The exponential falloff of the 2-point function with geodesic distance determines the fractal dimension dH of space-time. The integral of the 2-point function determines the entropy exponent γ, i.e. the fractal structure related to baby universes, while the short distance behavior of the 2-point function connects γ and dH by a quantum gravity version of Fisher's scaling relation. We verify this behavior in the case of 2d gravity by explicit calculation.
Linear predictions of supercritical flow instability in two parallel channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shah, M.
2008-01-01
A steady state linear code that can predict thermo-hydraulic instability boundaries in a two parallel channel system under supercritical conditions has been developed. Linear and non-linear solutions of the instability boundary in a two parallel channel system are also compared. The effect of gravity on the instability boundary in a two parallel channel system, by changing the orientation of the system flow from horizontal flow to vertical up-flow and vertical down-flow has been analyzed. Vertical up-flow is found to be more unstable than horizontal flow and vertical down flow is found to be the most unstable configuration. The type of instability present in each flow-orientation of a parallel channel system has been checked and the density wave oscillation type is observed in horizontal flow and vertical up-flow, while the static type of instability is observed in a vertical down-flow for the cases studied here. The parameters affecting the instability boundary, such as the heating power, inlet temperature, inlet and outlet K-factors are varied to assess their effects. This study is important for the design of future Generation IV nuclear reactors in which supercritical light water is proposed as the primary coolant. (author)
Instability and dynamics of volatile thin films
Ji, Hangjie; Witelski, Thomas P.
2018-02-01
Volatile viscous fluids on partially wetting solid substrates can exhibit interesting interfacial instabilities and pattern formation. We study the dynamics of vapor condensation and fluid evaporation governed by a one-sided model in a low-Reynolds-number lubrication approximation incorporating surface tension, intermolecular effects, and evaporative fluxes. Parameter ranges for evaporation-dominated and condensation-dominated regimes and a critical case are identified. Interfacial instabilities driven by the competition between the disjoining pressure and evaporative effects are studied via linear stability analysis. Transient pattern formation in nearly flat evolving films in the critical case is investigated. In the weak evaporation limit unstable modes of finite-amplitude nonuniform steady states lead to rich droplet dynamics, including flattening, symmetry breaking, and droplet merging. Numerical simulations show that long-time behaviors leading to evaporation or condensation are sensitive to transitions between filmwise and dropwise dynamics.
Selected Topics in Microwave Instabilities and Linacs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ng, K. Y. [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)
2013-06-01
The Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics (SINAP) is embarking on its first X-ray free-electron laser (FEL) project. It is a cascading high-gain harmonic generation FEL. Microwave instabilities driven by various effects, especially the space-charge force, will degrade the qual- ity of the electron beam before entering into the undulator. However, inside the undulator, the occurrence of microbunching becomes an ut- most important ingredient for the generation of coherent radiation. In short, controlled and uncontrolled microwave instabilities must be fully understood in such a project. These are the slides of a series of eight-hour lectures given at the SINAP in June of 2013, with the intention of a fully understanding of the microbunching phenomenon. The sections of wake field and impedance theory are added as an in- troduction for those who are not familiar with the subject.
Hydrodynamic instabilities in inertial confinement fusion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Freeman, J.R.
1977-01-01
Inertial confinement fusion targets generally consist of hollow high-density spheres filled with low density thermonuclear fuel. Targets driven ablatively by electrons, ions, or lasers are potentially unstable during the initial acceleration phase. Later in time, the relatively low density fuel decelerates the dense inner portion of the sphere (termed the pusher), permitting unstable growth at the fuel-pusher interface. The instabilities are of the Rayleigh-Taylor variety, modified by thermal and viscous diffusion and convection. These problems have been analyzed by many in recent years using both linearized perturbation methods and direct numerical simulation. Examples of two-dimensional simulations of the fuel-pusher instability in electron beam fusion targets will be presented, along with a review of possible stabilization mechanisms
Dissipative drift instability in dusty plasma
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Nilakshi Das
2012-03-01
Full Text Available An investigation has been done on the very low-frequency electrostatic drift waves in a collisional dusty plasma. The dust density gradient is taken perpendicular to the magnetic field B0⃗, which causes the drift wave. In this case, low-frequency drift instabilities can be driven by E1⃗×B0⃗ and diamagnetic drifts, where E1⃗ is the perturbed electric field. Dust charge fluctuation is also taken into consideration for our study. The dust- neutral and ion-neutral collision terms have been included in equations of motion. It is seen that the low-frequency drift instability gets damped in such a system. Both dust charging and collision of plasma particles with the neutrals may be responsible for the damping of the wave. Both analytical and numerical techniques have been used while developing the theory.
Bohan, Richard J.; Vandegrift, Guy
2003-02-01
Warm air aloft is stable. This explains the lack of strong winds in a warm front and how nighttime radiative cooling can lead to motionless air that can trap smog. The stability of stratospheric air can be attributed to the fact that it is heated from above as ultraviolet radiation strikes the ozone layer. On the other hand, fluid heated from below is unstable and can lead to Bernard convection cells. This explains the generally turbulent nature of the troposphere, which receives a significant fraction of its heat directly from the Earth's warmer surface. The instability of cold fluid aloft explains the violent nature of a cold front, as well as the motion of Earth's magma, which is driven by radioactive heating deep within the Earth's mantle. This paper describes how both effects can be demonstrated using four standard beakers, ice, and a bit of food coloring.
Fingerprints of dynamical instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chomaz, Ph.; Colonna, M.; Guarnera, A.
1993-01-01
It is explained why any reduced descriptions, such as mean field approximation, are stochastic in nature. It is shown that the introduction of this stochastic dynamics leads to a predictive theory in a statistical sens whatever the individual trajectories are characterized by the occurrence of bifurcations, instabilities or phase transitions. Concerning nuclear matter, the spinodal instability is discussed. In such a critical situation, the possibility to replace the stochastic part of the collision integral in the Boltzmann-Langevin model by the numerical noise associated with the finite number of test particles in ordinary BUU treatment is studied. It is shown that the fingerprints of these instabilities are kept during the evolution because of the relatively long recombination time compared with the typical time scales imposed by the Coulomb repulsion and the possible collective expansion. (author) 5 refs., 12 figs
Instability and star evolution
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mirzoyan, L.V.
1981-01-01
The observational data are discussed which testify that the phenomena of dynamical instability of stars and stellar systems are definite manifestations of their evolution. The study of these phenomena has shown that the instability is a regular phase of stellar evolution. It has resulted in the recognition of the most important regularities of the process of star formation concerning its nature. This became possible due to the discovery in 1947 of stellar associations in our Galaxy. The results of the study of the dynamical instability of stellar associations contradict the predictions of classical hypothesis of stellar condensation. These data supplied a basis for a new hypothesis on the formation of stars and nebulae by the decay of superdense protostars [ru
Sedimentation and gravitational instability of Escherichia coli Suspension
Salin, Dominique; Douarche, Carine
2017-11-01
The successive runs and tumbles of Escherichia coli bacteria provide an active matter suspension of rod-like particles with a large swimming, Brownian like, diffusion. As opposed to inactive elongated particles, this diffusion prevents clustering of the particles and hence instability in the gravity field. We measure the time dependent E . coli concentration profile during their sedimentation. After some hours, due to the dioxygen consumption, a motile / non-motile front forms leading to a Rayleigh-Taylor type gravitational instability. Analysing both sedimentation and instability in the framework of active particle suspensions, we can measure the relevant bacteria hydrodynamic characteristics such as its single particle sedimentation velocity and its hindrance volume. Comparing these quantities to the ones of equivalent passive particles (ellipsoid, rod) we tentatively infer the effective shape and size of the bacteria involved in its buoyancy induced advection and diffusion. Laboratoire FAST University Paris Saclay France.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (71 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received in...
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.
2012-01-01
We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (65,164 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. The data base was received...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (55,907 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hertog, Thomas; Hollands, Stefan
2005-01-01
We study the stability of designer gravity theories, in which one considers gravity coupled to a tachyonic scalar with anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. We construct Hamiltonian generators of the asymptotic symmetries using the covariant phase space method of Wald et al and find that they differ from the spinor charges except when W = 0. The positivity of the spinor charge is used to establish a lower bound on the conserved energy of any solution that satisfies boundary conditions for which W has a global minimum. A large class of designer gravity theories therefore have a stable ground state, which the AdS/CFT correspondence indicates should be the lowest energy soliton. We make progress towards proving this by showing that minimum energy solutions are static. The generalization of our results to designer gravity theories in higher dimensions involving several tachyonic scalars is discussed
Carroll versus Galilei gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergshoeff, Eric [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament de Física Cuàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rollier, Blaise [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Rosseel, Jan [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Veldhuis, Tonnis ter [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2017-03-30
We consider two distinct limits of General Relativity that in contrast to the standard non-relativistic limit can be taken at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action instead of the equations of motion. One is a non-relativistic limit and leads to a so-called Galilei gravity theory, the other is an ultra-relativistic limit yielding a so-called Carroll gravity theory. We present both gravity theories in a first-order formalism and show that in both cases the equations of motion (i) lead to constraints on the geometry and (ii) are not sufficient to solve for all of the components of the connection fields in terms of the other fields. Using a second-order formalism we show that these independent components serve as Lagrange multipliers for the geometric constraints we found earlier. We point out a few noteworthy differences between Carroll and Galilei gravity and give some examples of matter couplings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, Ruth M
2006-01-01
A review is given of a number of approaches to discrete quantum gravity, with a restriction to those likely to be relevant in four dimensions. This paper is dedicated to Rafael Sorkin on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday
Angular momentum transport by heat-driven g-modes in slowly pulsating B stars
Townsend, R. H. D.; Goldstein, J.; Zweibel, E. G.
2018-03-01
Motivated by recent interest in the phenomenon of waves transport in massive stars, we examine whether the heat-driven gravity (g) modes excited in slowly pulsating B (SPB) stars can significantly modify the stars' internal rotation. We develop a formalism for the differential torque exerted by g modes, and implement this formalism using the GYRE oscillation code and the MESASTAR stellar evolution code. Focusing first on a 4.21M⊙ model, we simulate 1 000 yr of stellar evolution under the combined effects of the torque due to a single unstable prograde g mode (with an amplitude chosen on the basis of observational constraints), and diffusive angular momentum transport due to convection, overshooting, and rotational instabilities. We find that the g mode rapidly extracts angular momentum from the surface layers, depositing it deeper in the stellar interior. The angular momentum transport is so efficient that by the end of the simulation, the initially non-rotating surface layers are spun in the retrograde direction to ≈ 30 per cent of the critical rate. However, the additional inclusion of magnetic stresses in our simulations almost completely inhibits this spin-up. Expanding our simulations to cover the whole instability strip, we show that the same general behaviour is seen in all SPB stars. After providing some caveats to contextualize our results, we hypothesize that the observed slower surface rotation of SPB stars (as compared to other B-type stars) may be the direct consequence of the angular momentum transport that our simulations demonstrate.
Garland, G D; Wilson, J T
2013-01-01
The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Langie, Sabine A S; Koppen, Gudrun; Desaulniers, Daniel
2015-01-01
function, chromosome segregation, telomere length). The purpose of this review is to describe the crucial aspects of genome instability, to outline the ways in which environmental chemicals can affect this cancer hallmark and to identify candidate chemicals for further study. The overall aim is to make......Genome instability is a prerequisite for the development of cancer. It occurs when genome maintenance systems fail to safeguard the genome's integrity, whether as a consequence of inherited defects or induced via exposure to environmental agents (chemicals, biological agents and radiation). Thus...
Instabilities and nonequilibrium structures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tirapegui, E.; Villarroel, D.
1987-01-01
Physical systems can be studied both near to and far from equilibrium where instabilities appear. The behaviour in these two regions is reviewed in this book, from both the theoretical and application points of view. The influence of noise in these situations is an essential feature which cannot be ignored. It is therefore discussed using phenomenological and theoretical approaches for the numerous problems which still remain in the field. This volume should appeal to mathematicians and physicists interested in the areas of instability, bifurcation theory, dynamical systems, pattern formation, nonequilibrium structures and statistical mechanics. (Auth.)
RINGED ACCRETION DISKS: INSTABILITIES
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Pugliese, D.; Stuchlík, Z., E-mail: d.pugliese.physics@gmail.com, E-mail: zdenek.stuchlik@physics.cz [Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Silesian University in Opava, Bezručovo náměstí 13, CZ-74601 Opava (Czech Republic)
2016-04-01
We analyze the possibility that several instability points may be formed, due to the Paczyński mechanism of violation of mechanical equilibrium, in the orbiting matter around a supermassive Kerr black hole. We consider a recently proposed model of a ringed accretion disk, made up by several tori (rings) that can be corotating or counter-rotating relative to the Kerr attractor due to the history of the accretion process. Each torus is governed by the general relativistic hydrodynamic Boyer condition of equilibrium configurations of rotating perfect fluids. We prove that the number of the instability points is generally limited and depends on the dimensionless spin of the rotating attractor.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accioly, A.J.
1987-01-01
A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt
Nelson, George
2004-01-01
Gravity is the name given to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the Earth, attract each other. One pulls on the Earth and the Earth pulls on one the same amount. And one does not have to be touching. Gravity acts over vast distances, like the 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) between the Earth and the Sun or the billions of…
Automated borehole gravity meter system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.
1984-01-01
An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity
On the unstable mode merging of gravity-inertial waves with Rossby waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. F. McKenzie
2011-08-01
Full Text Available We recapitulate the results of the combined theory of gravity-inertial-Rossby waves in a rotating, stratified atmosphere. The system is shown to exhibit a "local" (JWKB instability whenever the phase speed of the low-frequency-long wavelength westward propagating Rossby wave exceeds the phase speed ("Kelvin" speed of the high frequency-short wavelength gravity-inertial wave. This condition ensures that mode merging, leading to instability, takes place in some intermediate band of frequencies and wave numbers. The contention that such an instability is "spurious" is not convincing. The energy source of the instability resides in the background enthalpy which can be released by the action of the gravitational buoyancy force, through the combined wave modes.
Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity
Trimble, Virginia L.
2012-05-01
Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
2011-01-01
Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.
Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution
Hadi, F.; Yoon, P. H.; Qamar, A.
2015-02-01
The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.
Ordinary mode instability associated with thermal ring distribution
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hadi, F.; Qamar, A. [Institute of Physics and Electronics, University of Peshawar, Peshawar 25000 (Pakistan); Yoon, P. H. [Institute for Physical Science and Technology, University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland 20742 (United States); School of Space Research, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-Si, Gyeonggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2015-02-15
The purely growing ordinary (O) mode instability driven by excessive parallel temperature anisotropy has recently received renewed attention owing to its potential applicability to the solar wind plasma. Previous studies of O mode instability have assumed either bi-Maxwellian or counter-streaming velocity distributions. For solar wind plasma trapped in magnetic mirror-like geometry such as magnetic clouds or in the vicinity of the Earth's collisionless bow shock environment, however, the velocity distribution function may possess a loss-cone feature. The O-mode instability in such a case may be excited for cyclotron harmonics as well as the purely growing branch. The present paper investigates the O-mode instability for plasmas characterized by the parallel Maxwellian distribution and perpendicular thermal ring velocity distribution in order to understand the general stability characteristics.
Finding Horndeski theories with Einstein gravity limits
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McManus, Ryan; Lombriser, Lucas; Peñarrubia, Jorge, E-mail: ryanm@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: llo@roe.ac.uk, E-mail: jorpega@roe.ac.uk [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)
2016-11-01
The Horndeski action is the most general scalar-tensor theory with at most second-order derivatives in the equations of motion, thus evading Ostrogradsky instabilities and making it of interest when modifying gravity at large scales. To pass local tests of gravity, these modifications predominantly rely on nonlinear screening mechanisms that recover Einstein's Theory of General Relativity in regions of high density. We derive a set of conditions on the four free functions of the Horndeski action that examine whether a specific model embedded in the action possesses an Einstein gravity limit or not. For this purpose, we develop a new and surprisingly simple scaling method that identifies dominant terms in the equations of motion by considering formal limits of the couplings that enter through the new terms in the modified action. This enables us to find regimes where nonlinear terms dominate and Einstein's field equations are recovered to leading order. Together with an efficient approximation of the scalar field profile, one can then further evaluate whether these limits can be attributed to a genuine screening effect. For illustration, we apply the analysis to both a cubic galileon and a chameleon model as well as to Brans-Dicke theory. Finally, we emphasise that the scaling method also provides a natural approach for performing post-Newtonian expansions in screened regimes.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamilton, Andrew J.S.; Avelino, Pedro P.
2010-01-01
If you fall into a real astronomical black hole (choosing a supermassive black hole, to make sure that the tidal forces do not get you first), then you will probably meet your fate not at a central singularity, but rather in the exponentially growing, relativistic counter-streaming instability at the inner horizon first pointed out by Poisson and Israel (1990), who called it mass inflation. The chief purpose of this paper is to present a clear exposition of the physical cause and consequence of inflation in spherical, charged black holes. Inflation acts like a particle accelerator in that it accelerates cold ingoing and outgoing streams through each other to prodigiously high energies. Inflation feeds on itself: the acceleration is powered by the gravity produced by the streaming energy. The paper: (1) uses physical arguments to develop simple approximations that follow the evolution of inflation from ignition, through inflation itself, to collapse; (2) confirms that the simple approximations capture accurately the results of fully nonlinear one- and two-fluid self-similar models; (3) demonstrates that, counter-intuitively, the smaller the accretion rate, the more rapidly inflation exponentiates; (4) shows that in single perfect fluid models, inflation occurs only if the sound speed equals the speed of light, supporting the physical idea that inflation in single fluids is driven by relativistic counter-streaming of waves; (5) shows that what happens during inflation up to the Planck curvature depends not on the distant past or future, but rather on events happening only a few hundred black hole crossing times into the past or future; (6) shows that, if quantum gravity does not intervene, then the generic end result of inflation is not a general relativistic null singularity, but rather a spacelike singularity at zero radius.
Buneman instability and Pierce instability in a collisionless bounded plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iizuka, Satoru; Saeki, Koichi; Sato, Noriyoshi; Hatta, Yoshisuke
1983-01-01
A systematic experiment is performed on the Buneman instability and the Pierce instability in a bounded plasma consisting of beam electrons and stationary ions. Current fluctuations are confirmed to be induced by the Buneman instability. On the other hand, the Pierce instability gives rise to a current limitation. The phenomena are well explained by Mikhailovskii's theory taking account of ion motion in a bounded plasma. (author)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Olsen, Bo Sanderhoff; Henriksen, M G; Søjbjerg, Jens Ole
1994-01-01
The effect of simultaneous ulnar and radial collateral ligament division on the kinematics of the elbow joint is studied in a cadaveric model. Severance of the anterior part of the ulnar collateral ligament and the annular ligament led to significant elbow joint instability in valgus and varus...
Structural and Material Instability
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cifuentes, Gustavo Cifuentes
This work is a small contribution to the general problem of structural and material instability. In this work, the main subject is the analysis of cracking and failure of structural elements made from quasi-brittle materials like concrete. The analysis is made using the finite element method. Three...
Agricultural Markets Instability
Garrido, A.; Brümmer, B.; M'Barek, R.; Gielen-Meuwissen, M.P.M.; Morales-Opazo, C.
2016-01-01
Since the financial and food price crises of 2007, market instability has been a topic of major concern to agricultural economists and policy professionals. This volume provides an overview of the key issues surrounding food prices volatility, focusing primarily on drivers, long-term implications of
Comment on critical instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
King, S.F.; Suzuki, Mahiko
1992-01-01
We discuss the problem of the mass splitting between top and bottom quarks, within the context of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type models involving top and bottom quark condensates. We interpret the phenomenon of 'critical instability' recently proposed to account for such a mass splitting as the fine-tuning of two vacuum expectation values in a composite two-Higgs doublet model. (orig.)
Geometric flows in Horava-Lifshitz gravity
Bakas, Ioannis; Lust, Dieter; Petropoulos, Marios
2010-01-01
We consider instanton solutions of Euclidean Horava-Lifshitz gravity in four dimensions satisfying the detailed balance condition. They are described by geometric flows in three dimensions driven by certain combinations of the Cotton and Ricci tensors as well as the cosmological-constant term. The deformation curvature terms can have competing behavior leading to a variety of fixed points. The instantons interpolate between any two fixed points, which are vacua of topologically massive gravity with Lambda > 0, and their action is finite. Special emphasis is placed on configurations with SU(2) isometry associated with homogeneous but generally non-isotropic Bianchi IX model geometries. In this case, the combined Ricci-Cotton flow reduces to an autonomous system of ordinary differential equations whose properties are studied in detail for different couplings. The occurrence and stability of isotropic and anisotropic fixed points are investigated analytically and some exact solutions are obtained. The correspond...
Non-linear development of secular gravitational instability in protoplanetary disks
Tominaga, Ryosuke T.; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro; Takahashi, Sanemichi Z.
2018-01-01
We perform non-linear simulation of secular gravitational instability (GI) in protoplanetary disks, which has been proposed as a mechanism of planetesimal and multiple ring formation. Since the timescale of the growth of the secular GI is much longer than the Keplerian rotation period, we develop a new numerical scheme for a long-term calculation utilizing the concept of symplectic integration. With our new scheme, we first investigate the non-linear development of the secular GI in a disk without a pressure gradient in the initial state. We find that the surface density of dust increases by more than a factor of 100 while that of gas does not increase even by a factor of 2, which results in the formation of dust-dominated rings. A line mass of the dust ring tends to be very close to the critical line mass of a self-gravitating isothermal filament. Our results indicate that the non-linear growth of the secular GI provides a powerful mechanism to concentrate the dust. We also find that the dust ring formed via the non-linear growth of the secular GI migrates inward with a low velocity, which is driven by the self-gravity of the ring. We give a semi-analytical expression for the inward migration speed of the dusty ring.
ANALYSIS OF THE INSTABILITY DUE TO GAS–DUST FRICTION IN PROTOPLANETARY DISKS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shadmehri, Mohsen, E-mail: m.shadmehri@gu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Golestan University, Gorgan 49138-15739 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-02-01
We study the stability of a dust layer in a gaseous disk subject to linear axisymmetric perturbations. Instead of considering single-size particles, however, the population of dust particles is assumed to consist of two grain species. Dust grains exchange momentum with the gas via the drag force and their self-gravity is also considered. We show that the presence of two grain sizes can increase the efficiency of the linear growth of drag-driven instability in the protoplanetary disks (PPDs). A second dust phase with a small mass, compared to the first dust phase, would reduce the growth timescale by a factor of two or more, especially when its coupling to the gas is weak. This means that once a certain amount of large dust particles form, even though it is much smaller than that of small dust particles, the dust layer becomes more unstable and dust clumping is accelerated. Thus, the presence of dust particles of various sizes must be considered in studies of dust clumping in PPDs where both large and small dust grains are present.
Tracking Code for Microwave Instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Heifets, S.; SLAC
2006-01-01
To study microwave instability the tracking code is developed. For bench marking, results are compared with Oide-Yokoya results [1] for broad-band Q = 1 impedance. Results hint to two possible mechanisms determining the threshold of instability
Instabilities in thin tunnel junctions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Konkin, M.K.; Adler, J.G.
1978-01-01
Tunnel junctions prepared for inelastic electron tunneling spectroscopy are often plagued by instabilities in the 0-500-meV range. This paper relates the bias at which the instability occurs to the barrier thickness
Causal properties of nonlinear gravitational waves in modified gravity
Suvorov, Arthur George; Melatos, Andrew
2017-09-01
Some exact, nonlinear, vacuum gravitational wave solutions are derived for certain polynomial f (R ) gravities. We show that the boundaries of the gravitational domain of dependence, associated with events in polynomial f (R ) gravity, are not null as they are in general relativity. The implication is that electromagnetic and gravitational causality separate into distinct notions in modified gravity, which may have observable astrophysical consequences. The linear theory predicts that tachyonic instabilities occur, when the quadratic coefficient a2 of the Taylor expansion of f (R ) is negative, while the exact, nonlinear, cylindrical wave solutions presented here can be superluminal for all values of a2. Anisotropic solutions are found, whose wave fronts trace out time- or spacelike hypersurfaces with complicated geometric properties. We show that the solutions exist in f (R ) theories that are consistent with Solar System and pulsar timing experiments.
The cosmological Higgstory of the vacuum instability
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Espinosa, José R. [IFAE, Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona,08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); ICREA, Institució Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats,Barcelona (Spain); Giudice, Gian F. [CERN, Theory Division,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Morgante, Enrico; Riotto, Antonio [Département de Physique Théorique and Centre for Astroparticle Physics (CAP),Université de Genève, 24 quai Ernest-Ansermet, CH-1211 Geneva 4 (Switzerland); Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physicsand Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology,Physics Department and SLAC, Stanford, CA 94025 (United States); Strumia, Alessandro [Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa and INFN, Polo Fibonacci,Largo B. Pontecorvo 3, Pisa (Italy); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Ravala 10, Tallinn (Estonia); Tetradis, Nikolaos [Department of Physics, University of Athens,Zographou 157 84 (Greece)
2015-09-24
The Standard Model Higgs potential becomes unstable at large field values. After clarifying the issue of gauge dependence of the effective potential, we study the cosmological evolution of the Higgs field in presence of this instability throughout inflation, reheating and the present epoch. We conclude that anti-de Sitter patches in which the Higgs field lies at its true vacuum are lethal for our universe. From this result, we derive upper bounds on the Hubble constant during inflation, which depend on the reheating temperature and on the Higgs coupling to the scalar curvature or to the inflaton. Finally we study how a speculative link between Higgs meta-stability and consistence of quantum gravity leads to a sharp prediction for the Higgs and top masses, which is consistent with measured values.
Nonlinear evolution of MHD instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bateman, G.; Hicks, H.R.; Wooten, J.W.; Dory, R.A.
1975-01-01
A 3-D nonlinear MHD computer code was used to study the time evolution of internal instabilities. Velocity vortex cells are observed to persist into the nonlinear evolution. Pressure and density profiles convect around these cells for a weak localized instability, or convect into the wall for a strong instability. (U.S.)
Simulation of Instability at Transition Energy with a New Impedance Model for CERN PS
Wang, Na; Biancacci, Nicolo; Migliorati, Mauro; Persichelli, Serena; Sterbini, Guido
2016-01-01
Instabilities driven by the transverse impedance are proven to be one of the limitations for the high intensity reach of the CERN PS. Since several years, fast single bunch vertical instability at transition energy has been observed with the high intensity bunch serving the neu-tron Time-of-Flight facility (n-ToF). In order to better understand the instability mechanism, a dedicated meas-urement campaign took place. The results were compared with macro-particle simulations with PyHEADTAIL based on the new impedance model developed for the PS. Instability threshold and growth rate for different longitu-dinal emittances and beam intensities were studied.
Hydrodynamic instability of elastic-plastic solid plates at the early stage of acceleration.
Piriz, A R; Sun, Y B; Tahir, N A
2015-03-01
A model is presented for the linear Rayleigh-Taylor instability taking place at the early stage of acceleration of an elastic-plastic solid, when the shock wave is still running into the solid and is driven by a time varying pressure on the interface. When the the shock is formed sufficiently close to the interface, this stage is considered to follow a previous initial phase controlled by the Ritchmyer-Meshkov instability that settles new initial conditions. The model reproduces the behavior of the instability observed in former numerical simulation results and provides a relatively simpler physical picture than the currently existing one for this stage of the instability evolution.
Gravity darkening in late-type stars. I. The Coriolis effect
Raynaud, R.; Rieutord, M.; Petitdemange, L.; Gastine, T.; Putigny, B.
2018-02-01
Context. Recent interferometric data have been used to constrain the brightness distribution at the surface of nearby stars, in particular the so-called gravity darkening that makes fast rotating stars brighter at their poles than at their equator. However, good models of gravity darkening are missing for stars that posses a convective envelope. Aim. In order to better understand how rotation affects the heat transfer in stellar convective envelopes, we focus on the heat flux distribution in latitude at the outer surface of numerical models. Methods: We carry out a systematic parameter study of three-dimensional, direct numerical simulations of anelastic convection in rotating spherical shells. As a first step, we neglect the centrifugal acceleration and retain only the Coriolis force. The fluid instability is driven by a fixed entropy drop between the inner and outer boundaries where stress-free boundary conditions are applied for the velocity field. Restricting our investigations to hydrodynamical models with a thermal Prandtl number fixed to unity, we consider both thick and thin (solar-like) shells, and vary the stratification over three orders of magnitude. We measure the heat transfer efficiency in terms of the Nusselt number, defined as the output luminosity normalised by the conductive state luminosity. Results: We report diverse Nusselt number profiles in latitude, ranging from brighter (usually at the onset of convection) to darker equator and uniform profiles. We find that the variations of the surface brightness are mainly controlled by the surface value of the local Rossby number: when the Coriolis force dominates the dynamics, the heat flux is weakened in the equatorial region by the zonal wind and enhanced at the poles by convective motions inside the tangent cylinder. In the presence of a strong background density stratification however, as expected in real stars, the increase of the local Rossby number in the outer layers leads to uniformisation of
Role of compressibility on driven magnetic reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sato, T.; Hayashi, T.; Watanabe, K.; Horiuchi, R.; Tanaka, M.; Sawairi, N.; Kusano, K.
1991-08-01
Whether it is induced by an ideal (current driven) instability or by an external force, plasma flow causes a change in the magnetic field configuration and often gives rise to a current intensification locally, thereby a fast driven reconnection being driven there. Many dramatic phenomena in magnetically confined plasmas such as magnetospheric substorms, solar flares, MHD self-organization and tokamak sawtooth crash, may be attributed to this fast driven reconnection. Using a fourth order MHD simulation code it is confirmed that compressibility of the plasma plays a crucial role in leading to a fast (MHD time scale) driven reconnection. This indicates that the incompressible representation is not always applicable to the study of a global dynamical behavior of a magnetically confined plasma. (author)
Mode Selection in Flame-Vortex driven Combustion Instabilities
Speth, Ray; Hong, Seung Hyuck; Shanbogue, Santosh; Ghoniem, Ahmed
2011-01-01
is governed by a combustion-related time delay inversely proportional to the flame speed. Our model predicts the transition between distinct operating modes. We introduce non-dimensional parameters characterizing the flame speed and stretch rate, and develop a
Resonant Alfven wave instabilities driven by streaming fast particles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zachary, A.
1987-01-01
A plasma simulation code is used to study the resonant interactions between streaming ions and Alfven waves. The medium which supports the Alfven waves is treated as a single, one-dimensional, ideal MHD fluid, while the ions are treated as kinetic particles. The code is used to study three ion distributions: a cold beam; a monoenergetic shell; and a drifting distribution with a power-law dependence on momentum. These distributions represent: the field-aligned beams upstream of the earth's bow shock; the diffuse ions upstream of the bow shock; and the cosmic ray distribution function near a supernova remnant shock. 92 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs
Nonlinear effects of energetic particle driven instabilities in tokamaks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bruedgam, Michael
2010-01-01
In a tokamak plasma, a population of superthermal particles generated by heating methods can lead to a destabilization of various MHD modes. Due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions, a consequential fast particle redistribution reduces the plasma heating and can cause severe damages to the wall of the fusion device. In order to describe the wave-particle interaction, the drift-kinetic perturbative HAGIS code is applied which evolves the particle trajectories and the waves nonlinearly. For a simulation speed-up, the 6-d particle phase-space is reduced by the guiding centre approach to a 5-d description. The eigenfunction of the wave is assumed to be invariant, but its amplitude and phase is altered in time. A sophisticated δ/f-method is employed to model the change in the fast particle distribution so that numerical noise and the excessive number of simulated Monte-Carlo points are reduced significantly. The original code can only calculate the particle redistribution inside the plasma region. Therefore, a code extension has been developed during this thesis which enlarges the simulation region up to the vessel wall. By means of numerical simulations, this thesis addresses the problem of nonlinear waveparticle interactions in the presence of multiple MHD modes with significantly different eigenfrequencies and the corresponding fast particle transport inside the plasma. In this context, a new coupling mechanism between resonant particles and waves has been identified that leads to enhanced mode amplitudes and fast particle losses. The extension of the code provides for the first time the possibility of a quantitative and qualitative comparison between simulation results and recent measurements in the experiment. The findings of the comparison serve as a validation of both the theoretical model and the interpretation of the experimental results. Thus, a powerful interface tool has been developed for a deeper insight of nonlinear wave-particle interaction. (orig.)
Nonlinear effects of energetic particle driven instabilities in tokamaks
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bruedgam, Michael
2010-03-25
In a tokamak plasma, a population of superthermal particles generated by heating methods can lead to a destabilization of various MHD modes. Due to nonlinear wave-particle interactions, a consequential fast particle redistribution reduces the plasma heating and can cause severe damages to the wall of the fusion device. In order to describe the wave-particle interaction, the drift-kinetic perturbative HAGIS code is applied which evolves the particle trajectories and the waves nonlinearly. For a simulation speed-up, the 6-d particle phase-space is reduced by the guiding centre approach to a 5-d description. The eigenfunction of the wave is assumed to be invariant, but its amplitude and phase is altered in time. A sophisticated {delta}/f-method is employed to model the change in the fast particle distribution so that numerical noise and the excessive number of simulated Monte-Carlo points are reduced significantly. The original code can only calculate the particle redistribution inside the plasma region. Therefore, a code extension has been developed during this thesis which enlarges the simulation region up to the vessel wall. By means of numerical simulations, this thesis addresses the problem of nonlinear waveparticle interactions in the presence of multiple MHD modes with significantly different eigenfrequencies and the corresponding fast particle transport inside the plasma. In this context, a new coupling mechanism between resonant particles and waves has been identified that leads to enhanced mode amplitudes and fast particle losses. The extension of the code provides for the first time the possibility of a quantitative and qualitative comparison between simulation results and recent measurements in the experiment. The findings of the comparison serve as a validation of both the theoretical model and the interpretation of the experimental results. Thus, a powerful interface tool has been developed for a deeper insight of nonlinear wave-particle interaction. (orig.)
Mode Selection in Flame-Vortex driven Combustion Instabilities
Speth, Ray
2011-01-04
In this paper, we investigate flame-vortex interaction in a lean premixed, laboratory scale, backward-facing step combustor. Two series of tests were conducted, using propane/hydrogen mixtures and carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures as fuels, respectively. Pressure measurements and high speed particle imaging velocimetry (PIV) were employed to generate pressure response curves as well as the images of the velocity field and the flame brush. We demonstrate that the step combustor exhibits several operating modes depending on the inlet conditions and fuel composition, characterized by the amplitude and frequency of pressure oscillations along with distinct dynamic flame shapes. We propose a model in which the combustor\\'s selection of the acoustic mode is governed by a combustion-related time delay inversely proportional to the flame speed. Our model predicts the transition between distinct operating modes. We introduce non-dimensional parameters characterizing the flame speed and stretch rate, and develop a relationship between these quantities at the operating conditions corresponding to each mode transition. Based on this relationship, we show that numerically-calculated density-weighted strained flame speed can be used to collapse the combustion dynamics data over the full range of conditions (inlet temperature, fuel composition, and equivalence ratio). Finally, we validate our strain flame based model by measuring the strain rate using the flame image and the velocity field from the PIV measurement. Our results show that the measured strain rates lie in the same range as the critical values at the transitions among distinct modes as those predicted by our model.
Instability driven flow and runoff formation in a small catchment
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Tesař, Miroslav; Pražák, Josef; Lichner, Ľ.
2004-01-01
Roč. 2, č. 2 (2004), s. 147-156 ISSN 1695-6133 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KSK3046108; GA AV ČR IBS2060104; GA MŽP SE/610/3/00 Grant - others:Slovak Scientific Grant Agency(SK) 2/7065/20; 5th EC Framework Programme(XE) IST-2000-28084 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2060917 Keywords : rain fall * runoff * soil Subject RIV: DA - Hydrology ; Limnology
Scalar QNMs for higher dimensional black holes surrounded by quintessence in Rastall gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Graca, J.P.M.; Lobo, Iarley P. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)
2018-02-15
The spacetime solution for a black hole, surrounded by an exotic matter field, in Rastall gravity, is calculated in an arbitrary d-dimensional spacetime. After this, we calculate the scalar quasinormal modes of such solution, and study the shift on the modes caused by the modification of the theory of gravity, i.e., by the introduction of a new term due to Rastall. We conclude that the shift strongly depends on the kind of exotic field one is studying, but for a low density matter that supposedly pervades the universe, it is unlikely that Rastall gravity will cause an instability for the probe field. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generali- sation of the Schrödinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing conse- quent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this depen- dence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational waves are easily detected.
Ortín, Tomás
2015-01-01
Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goetz, G.
1988-01-01
It is shown that the plane-wave solutions for the equations governing the motion of a self-gravitating isothermal fluid in Newtonian hydrodynamics are generated by a sine-Gordon equation which is solvable by an 'inverse scattering' transformation. A transformation procedure is outlined by means of which one can construct solutions of the gravity system out of a pair of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation, which are interrelated via an auto-Baecklund transformation. In general the solutions to the gravity system are obtained in a parametric representation in terms of characteristic coordinates. All solutions of the gravity system generated by the one-and two-soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation can be constructed explicitly. These might provide models for the evolution of flat structures as they are predicted to arise in the process of galaxy formation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rumpf, H.
1987-01-01
We begin with a naive application of the Parisi-Wu scheme to linearized gravity. This will lead into trouble as one peculiarity of the full theory, the indefiniteness of the Euclidean action, shows up already at this level. After discussing some proposals to overcome this problem, Minkowski space stochastic quantization will be introduced. This will still not result in an acceptable quantum theory of linearized gravity, as the Feynman propagator turns out to be non-causal. This defect will be remedied only after a careful analysis of general covariance in stochastic quantization has been performed. The analysis requires the notion of a metric on the manifold of metrics, and a natural candidate for this is singled out. With this a consistent stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity becomes possible. It is even possible, at least perturbatively, to return to the Euclidean regime. 25 refs. (Author)
Linder, Eric V.
2018-03-01
A subclass of the Horndeski modified gravity theory we call No Slip Gravity has particularly interesting properties: 1) a speed of gravitational wave propagation equal to the speed of light, 2) equality between the effective gravitational coupling strengths to matter and light, Gmatter and Glight, hence no slip between the metric potentials, yet difference from Newton's constant, and 3) suppressed growth to give better agreement with galaxy clustering observations. We explore the characteristics and implications of this theory, and project observational constraints. We also give a simple expression for the ratio of the gravitational wave standard siren distance to the photon standard candle distance, in this theory and others, and enable a direct comparison of modified gravity in structure growth and in gravitational waves, an important crosscheck.
Gerhardt, Claus
2018-01-01
A unified quantum theory incorporating the four fundamental forces of nature is one of the major open problems in physics. The Standard Model combines electro-magnetism, the strong force and the weak force, but ignores gravity. The quantization of gravity is therefore a necessary first step to achieve a unified quantum theory. In this monograph a canonical quantization of gravity has been achieved by quantizing a geometric evolution equation resulting in a gravitational wave equation in a globally hyperbolic spacetime. Applying the technique of separation of variables we obtain eigenvalue problems for temporal and spatial self-adjoint operators where the temporal operator has a pure point spectrum with eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$ and related eigenfunctions, while, for the spatial operator, it is possible to find corresponding eigendistributions for each of the eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$, if the Cauchy hypersurface is asymptotically Euclidean or if the quantized spacetime is a black hole with a negative cosmological ...
Gauge/gravity duality. A road towards reality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kerner, Patrick
2012-01-01
In this dissertation we use gauge/gravity duality to investigate various phenomena of strongly coupled systems. In particular, we consider applications of the duality to real-world systems such as condensed matter systems and the quark-gluon plasma created by heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Gauge/gravity duality which originates from string theory relates strongly coupled gauge theories to weakly coupled gravity theories. This duality allows for computations of non-perturbative results on the field theory side by perturbative calculations on the gravity side. As we have learned in the recent years, the duality is especially suitable to describe hot and dense plasmas as well as real-time processes related to transport properties or spectral functions. Unfortunately, so far there is no dual gravity description modeling every aspect of a strongly coupled real-world system. However, there are many gravity duals which describe several phenomena. The general idea of this thesis is to study different gravity duals in order to develop a gravity description of hot and dense plasmas. In particular, we focus on physics in thermal equilibrium and close to equilibrium. Motivated by the experimentally observed mesonic resonances in the quark-gluon plasma, we first study quasinormal modes of a gravity dual which contains such resonances. The quasinormal modes on the gravity side are identified with the poles of the Green's function on the field theory side. By studying these quasinormal modes, we observe how quasiparticle resonances develop in a hot and dense plasma. We find interesting trajectories of quasinormal frequencies which may be found experimentally as the temperature and density is varied. In addition, we find an instability in the quasinormal mode spectrum at large chemical potential or magnetic field. At large chemical potential, this instability triggers the condensation of a field which breaks
Gauge/gravity duality. A road towards reality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kerner, Patrick
2012-02-23
In this dissertation we use gauge/gravity duality to investigate various phenomena of strongly coupled systems. In particular, we consider applications of the duality to real-world systems such as condensed matter systems and the quark-gluon plasma created by heavy ion collisions at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) and the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Gauge/gravity duality which originates from string theory relates strongly coupled gauge theories to weakly coupled gravity theories. This duality allows for computations of non-perturbative results on the field theory side by perturbative calculations on the gravity side. As we have learned in the recent years, the duality is especially suitable to describe hot and dense plasmas as well as real-time processes related to transport properties or spectral functions. Unfortunately, so far there is no dual gravity description modeling every aspect of a strongly coupled real-world system. However, there are many gravity duals which describe several phenomena. The general idea of this thesis is to study different gravity duals in order to develop a gravity description of hot and dense plasmas. In particular, we focus on physics in thermal equilibrium and close to equilibrium. Motivated by the experimentally observed mesonic resonances in the quark-gluon plasma, we first study quasinormal modes of a gravity dual which contains such resonances. The quasinormal modes on the gravity side are identified with the poles of the Green's function on the field theory side. By studying these quasinormal modes, we observe how quasiparticle resonances develop in a hot and dense plasma. We find interesting trajectories of quasinormal frequencies which may be found experimentally as the temperature and density is varied. In addition, we find an instability in the quasinormal mode spectrum at large chemical potential or magnetic field. At large chemical potential, this instability triggers the condensation of a field which
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN08 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Maine, and Canada collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity...
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2016 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Nebraska collected in 2013 & 2014 over 3 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN01 (2011)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Canada, and Lake Ontario collected in 2011 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN03 (2010)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2010 and 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN06 (2016)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Maine, Canada, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2012 over 2 surveys. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
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National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Florida, the Bahamas, and the Atlantic Ocean collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of...