Circulation-based Modeling of Gravity Currents
Meiburg, E. H.; Borden, Z.
2013-05-01
Atmospheric and oceanic flows driven by predominantly horizontal density differences, such as sea breezes, thunderstorm outflows, powder snow avalanches, and turbidity currents, are frequently modeled as gravity currents. Efforts to develop simplified models of such currents date back to von Karman (1940), who considered a two-dimensional gravity current in an inviscid, irrotational and infinitely deep ambient. Benjamin (1968) presented an alternative model, focusing on the inviscid, irrotational flow past a gravity current in a finite-depth channel. More recently, Shin et al. (2004) proposed a model for gravity currents generated by partial-depth lock releases, considering a control volume that encompasses both fronts. All of the above models, in addition to the conservation of mass and horizontal momentum, invoke Bernoulli's law along some specific streamline in the flow field, in order to obtain a closed system of equations that can be solved for the front velocity as function of the current height. More recent computational investigations based on the Navier-Stokes equations, on the other hand, reproduce the dynamics of gravity currents based on the conservation of mass and momentum alone. We propose that it should therefore be possible to formulate a fundamental gravity current model without invoking Bernoulli's law. The talk will show that the front velocity of gravity currents can indeed be predicted as a function of their height from mass and momentum considerations alone, by considering the evolution of interfacial vorticity. This approach does not require information on the pressure field and therefore avoids the need for an energy closure argument such as those invoked by the earlier models. Predictions by the new theory are shown to be in close agreement with direct numerical simulation results. References Von Karman, T. 1940 The engineer grapples with nonlinear problems, Bull. Am. Math Soc. 46, 615-683. Benjamin, T.B. 1968 Gravity currents and related
Assessing GOCE Gravity Models using Altimetry and In-situ Ocean Current Observation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Honecker, Johanna
gravity models provided by the GOCE mission have enhanced the resolution and sharpened the boundaries of those features and the associated geostrophic surface currents reveal improvements for all of the ocean's current systems. In this study, a series of 23 newer gravity models including observations from...... as quantified quality measures associated with the 23 GOCE gravity models.......The Gravity and steady state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission measures Earth's gravity field with an unprecedented accuracy at short spatial scales. Previous results have demonstrated a significant advance in our ability to determine the ocean's general circulation. The improved...
Blanck, Harvey F.
2012-01-01
Naturally occurring gravity currents include events such as air flowing through an open front door, a volcanic eruption's pyroclastic flow down a mountainside, and the spread of the Bhopal disaster's methyl isocyanate gas. Gravity currents typically have a small height-to-distance ratio. Plastic models were designed and constructed with a…
Zlotnicki, V.; Stammer, D.; Fukumori, I.
2003-01-01
Here we assess the new generation of gravity models, derived from GRACE data. The differences between a global geoid model (one from GRACE data and one the well-known EGM-96), minus a Mean Sea Surface derived from over a decade of altimetric data are compared to hydrographic data from the Levitus compilation and to the ECCO numerical ocean model, which assimilates altimetry and other data.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Taddei, Laura; Martinelli, Matteo; Amendola, Luca
2016-01-01
The aim of this paper is to constrain modified gravity with redshift space distortion observations and supernovae measurements. Compared with a standard ΛCDM analysis, we include three additional free parameters, namely the initial conditions of the matter perturbations, the overall perturbation normalization, and a scale-dependent modified gravity parameter modifying the Poisson equation, in an attempt to perform a more model-independent analysis. First, we constrain the Poisson parameter Y (also called G eff ) by using currently available f σ 8 data and the recent SN catalog JLA. We find that the inclusion of the additional free parameters makes the constraints significantly weaker than when fixing them to the standard cosmological value. Second, we forecast future constraints on Y by using the predicted growth-rate data for Euclid and SKA missions. Here again we point out the weakening of the constraints when the additional parameters are included. Finally, we adopt as modified gravity Poisson parameter the specific Horndeski form, and use scale-dependent forecasts to build an exclusion plot for the Yukawa potential akin to the ones realized in laboratory experiments, both for the Euclid and the SKA surveys.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Taddei, Laura; Martinelli, Matteo; Amendola, Luca, E-mail: taddei@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: martinelli@lorentz.leidenuniv.nl, E-mail: amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2016-12-01
The aim of this paper is to constrain modified gravity with redshift space distortion observations and supernovae measurements. Compared with a standard ΛCDM analysis, we include three additional free parameters, namely the initial conditions of the matter perturbations, the overall perturbation normalization, and a scale-dependent modified gravity parameter modifying the Poisson equation, in an attempt to perform a more model-independent analysis. First, we constrain the Poisson parameter Y (also called G {sub eff}) by using currently available f σ{sub 8} data and the recent SN catalog JLA. We find that the inclusion of the additional free parameters makes the constraints significantly weaker than when fixing them to the standard cosmological value. Second, we forecast future constraints on Y by using the predicted growth-rate data for Euclid and SKA missions. Here again we point out the weakening of the constraints when the additional parameters are included. Finally, we adopt as modified gravity Poisson parameter the specific Horndeski form, and use scale-dependent forecasts to build an exclusion plot for the Yukawa potential akin to the ones realized in laboratory experiments, both for the Euclid and the SKA surveys.
Low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents.
Saha, Sandeep; Salin, Dominique; Talon, Laurent
2013-08-01
The extension of a gravity current in a lock-exchange problem, proceeds as square root of time in the viscous-buoyancy phase, where there is a balance between gravitational and viscous forces. In the presence of particles however, this scenario is drastically altered, because sedimentation reduces the motive gravitational force and introduces a finite distance and time at which the gravity current halts. We investigate the spreading of low Reynolds number suspension gravity currents using a novel approach based on the Lattice-Boltzmann (LB) method. The suspension is modeled as a continuous medium with a concentration-dependent viscosity. The settling of particles is simulated using a drift flux function approach that enables us to capture sudden discontinuities in particle concentration that travel as kinematic shock waves. Thereafter a numerical investigation of lock-exchange flows between pure fluids of unequal viscosity, reveals the existence of wall layers which reduce the spreading rate substantially compared to the lubrication theory prediction. In suspension gravity currents, we observe that the settling of particles leads to the formation of two additional fronts: a horizontal front near the top that descends vertically and a sediment layer at the bottom which aggrandises due to deposition of particles. Three phases are identified in the spreading process: the final corresponding to the mutual approach of the two horizontal fronts while the laterally advancing front halts indicating that the suspension current stops even before all the particles have settled. The first two regimes represent a constant and a decreasing spreading rate respectively. Finally we conduct experiments to substantiate the conclusions of our numerical and theoretical investigation.
Introduction to gravity currents and intrusions
Ungarish, Marius
2009-01-01
The whole book is well written in a clear and pedagogical general style. … the author has, in my opinion, produced the first comprehensive book entirely devoted to the modeling of gravity currents and intrusions. This book will be particularly useful to graduate and PhD students, as well as to academics and research engineers working in this field. It may be used as a self-consistent document to get a detailed idea of the state of knowledge about a given problem or a guide toward more specialized papers. It is rich with ideas regarding the direction in which further research is warranted. This
Cowton, L. R.; Neufeld, J. A.; Bickle, M.; White, N.; White, J.; Chadwick, A.
2017-12-01
Vertically-integrated gravity current models enable computationally efficient simulations of CO2 flow in sub-surface reservoirs. These simulations can be used to investigate the properties of reservoirs by minimizing differences between observed and modeled CO2 distributions. At the Sleipner project, about 1 Mt yr-1 of supercritical CO2 is injected at a depth of 1 km into a pristine saline aquifer with a thick shale caprock. Analysis of time-lapse seismic reflection surveys shows that CO2 is distributed within 9 discrete layers. The trapping mechanism comprises a stacked series of 1 m thick, impermeable shale horizons that are spaced at 30 m intervals through the reservoir. Within the stratigraphically highest reservoir layer, Layer 9, a submarine channel deposit has been mapped on the pre-injection seismic survey. Detailed measurements of the three-dimensional CO2 distribution within Layer 9 have been made using seven time-lapse surveys, providing a useful benchmark against which numerical flow simulations can be tested. Previous simulations have, in general, been largely unsuccessful in matching the migration rate of CO2 in this layer. Here, CO2 flow within Layer 9 is modeled as a vertically-integrated gravity current that spreads beneath a structurally complex caprock using a two-dimensional grid, considerably increasing computational efficiency compared to conventional three-dimensional simulators. This flow model is inverted to find the optimal reservoir permeability in Layer 9 by minimizing the difference between observed and predicted distributions of CO2 as a function of space and time. A three parameter inverse model, comprising reservoir permeability, channel permeability and channel width, is investigated by grid search. The best-fitting reservoir permeability is 3 Darcys, which is consistent with measurements made on core material from the reservoir. Best-fitting channel permeability is 26 Darcys. Finally, the ability of this simplified numerical model
Breeze Gravity Current in a Uniform Flow of Air
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M.V. Shokurov
2017-02-01
Full Text Available Breeze circulation is often observed nearby the water basin coasts and usually accompanied by a background synoptic wind. One of the basic dynamically important components of the breeze circulation is gravity current. In the present paper the latter is used as the breeze simplified model. The theory of interaction of gravity current and a uniform synoptic wind are developed. The gravity current in the domain of infinite height in a stationary environment and environment with background flow was considered. To solve this problem the law of conservation of mass and universal property of the Froude number was used, which is true in the steady state. It is shown that increase of a tail-wind is followed by growth of the gravity current velocity and decrease of its height. The opposite situation is observed at increase of a head wind: the current velocity reduces and its height increases. Using a Taylor series expansion for small values of the background flow velocity a linear dependence of gravity current velocity on background flow velocity can be obtained. The factor determining the slope of the velocity of gravity current propagation on the background wind speed, which is equal 2/3, is a universal constant. The theory explains the results of numerical simulation previously obtained by numerous authors. A physical interpretation of dependence of the height and velocity of the gravity current on the background flow velocity is presented.
Numerical study of gravity currents in a channel
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, D.
1985-01-01
A three-dimensional, primitive-equation model was used to study gravity currents produced by instantaneous releases of a buoyant fluid in a rectangular channel. Without rotation, the gravity current passes through two distinct phases: an initial adjustment phase in which the front speed is constant, and an eventual self-similar phase in which the front speed decreases with time. With rotation, the gravity current is confined to the right-hand wall, forming a coastal jet. The initial front-speed is constant; however, the front speed decreases rapidly due to strong mixing at the horizontal edge of the gravity current. Also, with rotation, part of the buoyant fluid is trapped near the source region, forming an anticyclonic vortex
Distinguishing modified gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine
2015-01-01
Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations
Distinguishing modified gravity models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Davis, Anne-Christine, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: A.C.Davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2015-10-01
Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.
Terrestrial gravity data analysis for interim gravity model improvement
1987-01-01
This is the first status report for the Interim Gravity Model research effort that was started on June 30, 1986. The basic theme of this study is to develop appropriate models and adjustment procedures for estimating potential coefficients from terrestrial gravity data. The plan is to use the latest gravity data sets to produce coefficient estimates as well as to provide normal equations to NASA for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON gravity field modeling program.
On the Hydrogranular Dynamics of Magmatic Gravity Currents
McIntire, M. Z.; Bergantz, G. W.; Schleicher, J.; Burgisser, A.
2016-12-01
Magmatic processes are generally governed by multi-phase interactions of silicate liquid, crystals, and bubbles. However, the modes of dissipation and the manner that stress is transmitted are poorly understood. We use a model of a simple but widely applicable gravity current as a means to exemplify the hydrogranular dynamics in crystal-rich magmas. Viscous and lubrication forces are of special interest because they have a dual role in dispersal and mixing in a crystal-rich gravity current. For example, lubrication forces provide an initial apparent yield strength by inducing a negative pore pressure as crystals move apart. However, once the gravity current is underway, lubrication forces reduce the dissipation due to collision and frictional contact.The gravity current is initiated by a combination of toppling and sliding along a well-defined granular fault. This produces three distinct regimes: a quasi-static base, an overlying particle hump that translates in a quasi-plastic fashion by grain-passing and rolling until the angle of repose is reached, and a viscous particle current. The current initially forms a leading vortex at the head, but the loss of crystals by sedimentation-assisted granular capture by an upward growing particle front drains energy from the flow. The vortex is soon abandoned, but persists in the reservoir as a fossil feature of orphaned crystals in a smear of previous intercumulate fluid. The kinetic energy of the most active crystals decays in a dual fashion, initially linearly, then parabolically with a near symmetrical increase and loss of kinetic energy.There is very little entrainment and mixing between intercumulate and reservoir fluids from magmatic gravity currents. Only a thin seam of reservoir melt is captured by the base of the flow as it descends across the floor. Hence magmatic gravity currents, while producing modest amounts of crystal sorting, are not effective agents of mixing as lubrication and viscous forces inhibit
Western Ross Sea continental slope gravity currents
Gordon, Arnold L.; Orsi, Alejandro H.; Muench, Robin; Huber, Bruce A.; Zambianchi, Enrico; Visbeck, Martin
2009-06-01
Antarctic Bottom Water of the world ocean is derived from dense Shelf Water that is carried downslope by gravity currents at specific sites along the Antarctic margins. Data gathered by the AnSlope and CLIMA programs reveal the presence of energetic gravity currents that are formed over the western continental slope of the Ross Sea when High Salinity Shelf Water exits the shelf through Drygalski Trough. Joides Trough, immediately to the east, offers an additional escape route for less saline Shelf Water, while the Glomar Challenger Trough still farther east is a major pathway for export of the once supercooled low-salinity Ice Shelf Water that forms under the Ross Ice Shelf. The Drygalski Trough gravity currents increase in thickness from ˜100 to ˜400 m on proceeding downslope from ˜600 m (the shelf break) to 1200 m (upper slope) sea floor depth, while turning sharply to the west in response to the Coriolis force during their descent. The mean current pathway trends ˜35° downslope from isobaths. Benthic-layer current and thickness are correlated with the bottom water salinity, which exerts the primary control over the benthic-layer density. A 1-year time series of bottom-water current and hydrographic properties obtained on the slope near the 1000 m isobath indicates episodic pulses of Shelf Water export through Drygalski Trough. These cold (34.75) pulses correlate with strong downslope bottom flow. Extreme examples occurred during austral summer/fall 2003, comprising concentrated High Salinity Shelf Water (-1.9 °C; 34.79) and approaching 1.5 m s -1 at descent angles as large as ˜60° relative to the isobaths. Such events were most common during November-May, consistent with a northward shift in position of the dense Shelf Water during austral summer. The coldest, saltiest bottom water was measured from mid-April to mid-May 2003. The summer/fall export of High Salinity Shelf Water observed in 2004 was less than that seen in 2003. This difference, if real
Salvatici, Teresa; Di Roberto, Alessio; Di Traglia, Federico; Bisson, Marina; Morelli, Stefano; Fidolini, Francesco; Bertagnini, Antonella; Pompilio, Massimo; Hungr, Oldrich; Casagli, Nicola
2016-11-01
Gravity-induced pyroclastic density currents (PDCs) can be produced by the collapse of volcanic crater rims or due to the gravitational instability of materials deposited in proximal areas during explosive activity. These types of PDCs, which are also known as ;glowing avalanches;, have been directly observed, and their deposits have been widely identified on the flanks of several volcanoes that are fed by mafic to intermediate magmas. In this research, the suitability of landslide numerical models for simulating gravity-induced PDCs to provide hazard assessments was tested. This work also presents the results of a back-analysis of three events that occurred in 1906, 1930 and 1944 at the Stromboli volcano by applying a depth-averaged 3D numerical code named DAN-3D. The model assumes a frictional internal rheology and a variable basal rheology (i.e., frictional, Voellmy and plastic). The numerical modelling was able to reproduce the gravity-induced PDCs' extension and deposit thicknesses to an order of magnitude of that reported in the literature. The best results when compared with field data were obtained using a Voellmy model with a frictional coefficient of f = 0.19 and a turbulence parameter ξ = 1000 m s- 1. The results highlight the suitability of this numerical code, which is generally used for landslides, to reproduce the destructive potential of these events in volcanic environments and to obtain information on hazards connected with explosive-related, mass-wasting phenomena in Stromboli Island and at volcanic systems characterized by similar phenomena.
Rotating gravity currents. Part 1. Energy loss theory
Martin, J. R.; Lane-Serff, G. F.
2005-01-01
A comprehensive energy loss theory for gravity currents in rotating rectangular channels is presented. The model is an extension of the non-rotating energy loss theory of Benjamin (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 31, 1968, p. 209) and the steady-state dissipationless theory of rotating gravity currents of Hacker (PhD thesis, 1996). The theory assumes the fluid is inviscid, there is no shear within the current, and the Boussinesq approximation is made. Dissipation is introduced using a simple method. A head loss term is introduced into the Bernoulli equation and it is assumed that the energy loss is uniform across the stream. Conservation of momentum, volume flux and potential vorticity between upstream and downstream locations is then considered. By allowing for energy dissipation, results are obtained for channels of arbitrary depth and width (relative to the current). The results match those from earlier workers in the two limits of (i) zero rotation (but including dissipation) and (ii) zero dissipation (but including rotation). Three types of flow are identified as the effect of rotation increases, characterized in terms of the location of the outcropping interface between the gravity current and the ambient fluid on the channel boundaries. The parameters for transitions between these cases are quantified, as is the detailed behaviour of the flow in all cases. In particular, the speed of the current can be predicted for any given channel depth and width. As the channel depth increases, the predicted Froude number tends to surd 2, as for non-rotating flows.
Hogg, Charlie A. R.; Dalziel, Stuart B.; Huppert, Herbert E.; Imberger, Jörg
2015-09-01
In many important natural and industrial systems, gravity currents of dense fluid feed basins. Examples include lakes fed by dense rivers and auditoria supplied with cooled air by ventilation systems. As we will show, the entrainment into such buoyancy driven currents can be influenced by viscous forces. Little work, however, has examined this viscous influence and how entrainment varies with the Reynolds number, Re. Using the idea of an entrainment coefficient, E, we derive a mathematical expression for the rise of the front at the top of the dense fluid ponding in a basin, where the horizontal cross-sectional area of the basin varies linearly with depth. We compare this expression to experiments on gravity currents with source Reynolds numbers, Res, covering the broad range 100 < Res < 1500. The form of the observed frontal rises was well approximated by our theory. By fitting the observed frontal rises to the theoretical form with E as the free parameter, we find a linear trend for E(Res) over the range 350 < Res < 1100, which is in the transition to turbulent flow. In the experiments, the entrainment coefficient, E, varied from 4 × 10-5 to 7 × 10-2. These observations show that viscous damping can be a dominant influence on gravity current entrainment in the laboratory and in geophysical flows in this transitional regime.
Zhou, Xiao; Yang, Gongliu; Wang, Jing; Wen, Zeyang
2018-05-14
In recent decades, gravity compensation has become an important way to reduce the position error of an inertial navigation system (INS), especially for a high-precision INS, because of the extensive application of high precision inertial sensors (accelerometers and gyros). This paper first deducts the INS's solution error considering gravity disturbance and simulates the results. Meanwhile, this paper proposes a combined gravity compensation method using a simplified gravity model and gravity database. This new combined method consists of two steps all together. Step 1 subtracts the normal gravity using a simplified gravity model. Step 2 first obtains the gravity disturbance on the trajectory of the carrier with the help of ELM training based on the measured gravity data (provided by Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics; Chinese Academy of sciences), and then compensates it into the error equations of the INS, considering the gravity disturbance, to further improve the navigation accuracy. The effectiveness and feasibility of this new gravity compensation method for the INS are verified through vehicle tests in two different regions; one is in flat terrain with mild gravity variation and the other is in complex terrain with fierce gravity variation. During 2 h vehicle tests, the positioning accuracy of two tests can improve by 20% and 38% respectively, after the gravity is compensated by the proposed method.
Vortical motion in the head of an axisymmetric gravity current
Patterson, M.D.; Simpson, J.E.; Dalziel, S.B.; Heijst, van G.J.F.
2006-01-01
A series of experiments that examine the initial development of an axisymmetric gravity current have been carried out. The experiments highlight the growth of a ring vortex that dominates the dynamics of the gravity current's early time propagation. In particular, the experiments show three distinct
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Karami, K.; Abdolmaleki, A.; Asadzadeh, S. [University of Kurdistan, Department of Physics, Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Safari, Z. [Research Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM), Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2013-09-15
Within the framework of modified teleparallel gravity, we reconstruct a f(T) model corresponding to the QCD ghost dark energy scenario. For a spatially flat FRW universe containing only the pressureless matter, we obtain the time evolution of the torsion scalar T (or the Hubble parameter). Then, we calculate the effective torsion equation of state parameter of the QCD ghost f(T)-gravity model as well as the deceleration parameter of the universe. Furthermore, we fit the model parameters by using the latest observational data including SNeIa, CMB and BAO data. We also check the viability of our model using a cosmographic analysis approach. Moreover, we investigate the validity of the generalized second law (GSL) of gravitational thermodynamics for our model. Finally, we point out the growth rate of matter density perturbation. We conclude that in QCD ghost f(T)-gravity model, the universe begins a matter dominated phase and approaches a de Sitter regime at late times, as expected. Also this model is consistent with current data, passes the cosmographic test, satisfies the GSL and fits the data of the growth factor well as the {Lambda}CDM model. (orig.)
Dilaton gravity, Poisson sigma models and loop quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bojowald, Martin; Reyes, Juan D
2009-01-01
Spherically symmetric gravity in Ashtekar variables coupled to Yang-Mills theory in two dimensions and its relation to dilaton gravity and Poisson sigma models are discussed. After introducing its loop quantization, quantum corrections for inverse triad components are shown to provide a consistent deformation without anomalies. The relation to Poisson sigma models provides a covariant action principle of the quantum-corrected theory with effective couplings. Results are also used to provide loop quantizations of spherically symmetric models in arbitrary D spacetime dimensions.
Fragmented Canopies Control the Regimes of Gravity Current Development
Barcelona, Aina; Serra, Teresa; Colomer, Jordi
2018-03-01
Coastal ecosystems (marine littoral regions, wetlands, and deltas) are regions of high biological productivity. However, they are also one of the world's most threatened ecosystems. Wetlands are characterized by aquatic vegetation adapted to high salinity levels and climatic variations. Wetland canopies buffer these hydrodynamic and atmospheric variations and help retain sediment by reducing current velocity during sea storms or runoff after periods of rain. This work focuses on the effect of the presence of a gap (i.e., nonvegetated zone) parallel to the direction of the main current has on the sedimentation and hydrodynamics of a gravity current. The study aims to (1) address the behavior of a gravity current in a vegetated region compared to one without vegetation (i.e., the gap), (2) determine the effect gap size has on how a gravity current evolves, and 3) determine the effect gap sizes have on the sedimentary rates from a gravity current. Laboratory experiments were carried out in a flume using four different sediment concentrations, four different canopy densities (884, 354, 177, and 0 plants·m-2) and three different gap widths (H/2, H, and 1.5H, where H is the height of the water). This work shows that a gravity current's evolution and its sedimentary rates depend on the fractional volume occupied by the vegetation. While current dynamics in experiments with wider gaps are similar to the nonvegetated case, for smaller gaps the dynamics are closer to the fully vegetated case. Nonetheless, the gravity current exhibits the same behavior in both the vegetated region and the gap.
High-resolution gravity model of Venus
Reasenberg, R. D.; Goldberg, Z. M.
1992-01-01
The anomalous gravity field of Venus shows high correlation with surface features revealed by radar. We extract gravity models from the Doppler tracking data from the Pioneer Venus Orbiter by means of a two-step process. In the first step, we solve the nonlinear spacecraft state estimation problem using a Kalman filter-smoother. The Kalman filter has been evaluated through simulations. This evaluation and some unusual features of the filter are discussed. In the second step, we perform a geophysical inversion using a linear Bayesian estimator. To allow an unbiased comparison between gravity and topography, we use a simulation technique to smooth and distort the radar topographic data so as to yield maps having the same characteristics as our gravity maps. The maps presented cover 2/3 of the surface of Venus and display the strong topography-gravity correlation previously reported. The topography-gravity scatter plots show two distinct trends.
Lanczos–Lovelock models of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, T.; Kothawala, D.
2013-01-01
Lanczos–Lovelock models of gravity represent a natural and elegant generalization of Einstein’s theory of gravity to higher dimensions. They are characterized by the fact that the field equations only contain up to second derivatives of the metric even though the action functional can be a quadratic or higher degree polynomial in the curvature tensor. Because these models share several key properties of Einstein’s theory they serve as a useful set of candidate models for testing the emergent paradigm for gravity. This review highlights several geometrical and thermodynamical aspects of Lanczos–Lovelock models which have attracted recent attention
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ginsparg, P.
1991-01-01
These are introductory lectures for a general audience that give an overview of the subject of matrix models and their application to random surfaces, 2d gravity, and string theory. They are intentionally 1.5 years out of date
ADCP measurements of gravity currents in the Chicago River, Illinois
Garcia, C.M.; Oberg, K.; Garcia, M.H.
2007-01-01
A unique set of observations of stratified flow phenomena in the Chicago River was made using an upward-looking acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) during the period November 20, 2003 to February 1, 2004. Water density differences between the Chicago River and its North Branch (NB) seem to be responsible for the development of gravity currents. With the objective of characterizing the occurrence, frequency, and evolution of such currents, the ADCP was configured to continuously collect high-resolution water velocity and echo intensity profiles in the Chicago River at Columbus Drive. During the observation period, 28 gravity current events were identified, lasting a total of 77% of the time. Sixteen of these events were generated by underflows from the NB and 12 of these events were generated by overflows from the NB. On average, the duration of the underflow and overflow events was 52.3 and 42.1 h, respectively. A detailed analysis of one underflow event, which started on January 7, 2004, and lasted about 65h, was performed. This is the first time that ADCP technology has been used to continuously monitor gravity currents in a river. ?? 2007 ASCE.
New Spin Foam Models of Quantum Gravity
Miković, A.
We give a brief and a critical review of the Barret-Crane spin foam models of quantum gravity. Then we describe two new spin foam models which are obtained by direct quantization of General Relativity and do not have some of the drawbacks of the Barret-Crane models. These are the model of spin foam invariants for the embedded spin networks in loop quantum gravity and the spin foam model based on the integration of the tetrads in the path integral for the Palatini action.
Dark-energy cosmological models in f(G) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Shamir, M. F., E-mail: farasat.shamir@nu.edu.pk [National University of Computer and Emerging Sciences Lahore Campus, Department of Sciences and Humanities (Pakistan)
2016-10-15
We discuss dark-energy cosmological models in f(G) gravity. For this purpose, a locally rotationally symmetric Bianchi type I cosmological model is considered. First, exact solutions with a well-known form of the f(G) model are explored. One general solution is discussed using a power-law f(G) gravity model and physical quantities are calculated. In particular, Kasner’s universe is recovered and the corresponding f(G) gravity models are reported. Second, the energy conditions for the model under consideration are discussed using graphical analysis. It is concluded that solutions with f(G) = G{sup 5/6} support expansion of universe while those with f(G) = G{sup 1/2} do not favor the current expansion.
Entrainment, transport and deposition of sediment by saline gravity currents
Zordan, Jessica; Juez, Carmelo; Schleiss, Anton J.; Franca, Mário J.
2018-05-01
Few studies have addressed simultaneously the feedback between the hydrodynamics of a gravity current and the geomorphological changes of a mobile bed. Hydrodynamic quantities such as turbulent and mean velocities, bed shear stress and turbulent stresses undoubtedly govern the processes of entrainment, transport and deposition. On the other hand, the incorporation of entrained sediment in the current may change its momentum by introducing extra internal stresses, introducing thus a feedback process. These two main questions are here investigated. Laboratory experiments of saline gravity currents, produced by lock-exchange, flowing over a mobile bed channel reach, are here reported. Different initial buoyancies of the current in the lock are tested together with three different grain sizes of the non-coherent sediment that form the erodible bed. Results from velocity measurements are combined with the visualization of the sediment movement in the mobile reach and with post-test topographic and photo surveys of the geomorphology modifications of the channel bed. Mean and turbulent velocities are measured and bed shear stress and Reynolds stresses are estimated. We show that the mean vertical component of the velocity and bed shear stress are highly correlated with the first instants of sediment entrainment. Vertical turbulent velocity is similarly related to entrainment, although with lower correlation values, contributing as well to the sediment movement. Bed shear stress and Reynolds shear stress measured near the bed are correlated with sediment entrainment for longer periods, indicating that these quantities are associated to distal transport as well. Geomorphological changes in the mobile bed are strongly related to the impulse caused by the bed shear stress on the sediment. On the other hand, we show that the nature of the grain of the mobile bed reach influences the hydrodynamics of the current which means that a feedback mechanisms between both occurs during
Testing a Dilaton Gravity Model Using Nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boran, S.; Kahya, E. O.
2014-01-01
Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) offers one of the most strict evidences for the Λ-CDM cosmology at present, as well as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. In this work, our main aim is to present the outcomes of our calculations related to primordial abundances of light elements, in the context of higher dimensional steady-state universe model in the dilaton gravity. Our results show that abundances of light elements (primordial D, 3 He, 4 He, T, and 7 Li) are significantly different for some cases, and a comparison is given between a particular dilaton gravity model and Λ-CDM in the light of the astrophysical observations
Terrestrial Sagnac delay constraining modified gravity models
Karimov, R. Kh.; Izmailov, R. N.; Potapov, A. A.; Nandi, K. K.
2018-04-01
Modified gravity theories include f(R)-gravity models that are usually constrained by the cosmological evolutionary scenario. However, it has been recently shown that they can also be constrained by the signatures of accretion disk around constant Ricci curvature Kerr-f(R0) stellar sized black holes. Our aim here is to use another experimental fact, viz., the terrestrial Sagnac delay to constrain the parameters of specific f(R)-gravity prescriptions. We shall assume that a Kerr-f(R0) solution asymptotically describes Earth's weak gravity near its surface. In this spacetime, we shall study oppositely directed light beams from source/observer moving on non-geodesic and geodesic circular trajectories and calculate the time gap, when the beams re-unite. We obtain the exact time gap called Sagnac delay in both cases and expand it to show how the flat space value is corrected by the Ricci curvature, the mass and the spin of the gravitating source. Under the assumption that the magnitude of corrections are of the order of residual uncertainties in the delay measurement, we derive the allowed intervals for Ricci curvature. We conclude that the terrestrial Sagnac delay can be used to constrain the parameters of specific f(R) prescriptions. Despite using the weak field gravity near Earth's surface, it turns out that the model parameter ranges still remain the same as those obtained from the strong field accretion disk phenomenon.
Three-dimensional simplicial quantum gravity and generalized matrix models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ambjoern, J.; Durhuus, B.; Jonsson, T.
1990-11-01
We consider a discrete model of Euclidean quantum gravity in three dimensions based on a summation over random simplicial manifolds. We derive some elementary properties of the model and discuss possible 'matrix' models for 3d gravity. (orig.)
The Gravity Model for High School Students
Tribble, Paul; Mitchell, William A.
1977-01-01
The authors suggest ways in which the gravity model can be used in high school geography classes. Based on Newton's Law of Molecular Gravitation, the law states that gravitation is in direct ratio to mass and inverse ratio to distance. One activity for students involves determination of zones of influence of cities of various sizes. (Author/AV)
Gravity current into an ambient fluid with an open surface
Ungarish, Marius
2017-11-01
Consider the steady-state gravity current of height h and density ρ1 that propagates into an ambient motionless fluid of height H and density ρ2 with an upper surface open to the atmosphere (open channel) at high Reynolds number. The current propagates with speed U and causes a depth decrease χ of the top surface. This is a significant extension of Benjamin's (1968) seminal solution for the fixed-top channel χ = 0 . Here the determination of χ is a part of the problem. The dimensionless parameters of the problem are a = h / H and r =ρ2 /ρ1 . We show that a control-volume analysis determines χ = χ / H and Fr = U / (g ' h)1/2 as functions of a , r , where g ' = (r-1 - 1) g is the reduced gravity. The system satisfies balance of volume and momentum (explicitly), and vorticity (implicitly). We present solutions. The predicted flows are in general dissipative, and thus physically valid only for a Frb (a) , but the reduction is not dramatic, typically a few percent. In the Boussinesq r 1 case, χ << 1 while Fr and dissipation are close to Benjamin's values.
Assessing GOCE Gravity Models using Altimetry and Drifters
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar
The improved gravity models provided by the GOCE mission have enhanced the resolution and sharpened the boundaries of those features and the associated geostrophic surface currents reveal improvements for all of the ocean’s current systems. There are still important signals to be recovered...... and issues related to errors in the models have been identified.In this study, a series of newer gravity models including observations from GRACE and GOCE are compared with the DTU15MSS mean sea surface to analyse resolution capacities and to identify issues caused by errors in the models. The comparisons...... are carried out in regional analyses using Fourier techniques to derive the spectral characteristics as well as anisotropic patterns to identify differences and to quantify quality measures associated with the models. In addition, regional analyses are carried out using in-situ observations of the geostrophic...
Cao, Juliang; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Lian, Junxiang
2018-01-01
Compensation of gravity disturbance can improve the precision of inertial navigation, but the effect of compensation will decrease due to the accelerometer bias, and estimation of the accelerometer bias is a crucial issue in gravity disturbance compensation. This paper first investigates the effect of accelerometer bias on gravity disturbance compensation, and the situation in which the accelerometer bias should be estimated is established. The accelerometer bias is estimated from the gravity vector measurement, and a model of measurement noise in gravity vector measurement is built. Based on this model, accelerometer bias is separated from the gravity vector measurement error by the method of least squares. Horizontal gravity disturbances are calculated through EGM2008 spherical harmonic model to build the simulation scene, and the simulation results indicate that precise estimations of the accelerometer bias can be obtained with the proposed method. PMID:29547552
Tie, Junbo; Cao, Juliang; Chang, Lubing; Cai, Shaokun; Wu, Meiping; Lian, Junxiang
2018-03-16
Compensation of gravity disturbance can improve the precision of inertial navigation, but the effect of compensation will decrease due to the accelerometer bias, and estimation of the accelerometer bias is a crucial issue in gravity disturbance compensation. This paper first investigates the effect of accelerometer bias on gravity disturbance compensation, and the situation in which the accelerometer bias should be estimated is established. The accelerometer bias is estimated from the gravity vector measurement, and a model of measurement noise in gravity vector measurement is built. Based on this model, accelerometer bias is separated from the gravity vector measurement error by the method of least squares. Horizontal gravity disturbances are calculated through EGM2008 spherical harmonic model to build the simulation scene, and the simulation results indicate that precise estimations of the accelerometer bias can be obtained with the proposed method.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. K. Wardani
2013-07-01
Full Text Available ABSTRAKDalam konteks problem-based learning, salah satu masalah belajar fisika di sekolah dan di universitas adalah keterkaitan antara materi ajar dan fenomena alam dalam kehidupan sehari-hari masih minimum. Siswa, mahasiswa, guru, dan dosen masih mengalami kesulitan dalam memberikan contoh nyata GLB. Penelitian ini meninjau ulang materi ajar gerak lurus beraturan melalui percobaan gravity current sebagai sistem dua fluida dengan beda kerapatan di laboratorium dalam upaya mencari contoh nyata sistem fisis yang bergerak sepanjang garis lurus dengan kecepatan tetap. Penelitian ini dapat dipandang sebagai model proses intrusi air laut di estuari, tempat pertukaran massa air laut dan air sungai. Fokus penelitian adalah membuktikan bahwa gravity current bergerak dengan kecepatan tetap dan menentukan faktor-faktor dinamik kecepatan. Pengukuran akurat waktu tempuh dan tinggi permukaan air dalam tangki percobaan memberikan kecepatan tak-berdimensi gravity current sebesar 0,45 ± 0,03 dengan beda kerapatan massa dan tinggi awal permukaan air merupakan dua faktor dinamik penentu kecepatan. ABSTRACTIn the context of problem-based learning, one of learning difficulties in physics at schools and universities is theminimum relevance of learning materials to natural phenomena. School and university students still have difficulties in giving real examples of uniform motion. This research examines uniform motion by performing laboratory experiments on gravity current as a system of two fluids with different densities. The experiments were designed to provide a factual case of a moving system with constant speed and to model salt intrusion in an estuary, where sea water and river stream meets. The research focused on the dynamics of gravity currents and determines factors affecting the speed. Based on measurements of travel time and initial height of water surface in all experiments, the results showed that the non-dimensional speed was found to be 0.45 ± 0
The gravity model of labor migration behavior
Alexandr, Tarasyev; Alexandr, Tarasyev
2017-07-01
In this article, we present a dynamic inter-regional model, that is based on the gravity approach to migration and describes in continuous time the labor force dynamics between a number of conjugate regions. Our modification of the gravity migration model allows to explain the migration processes and to display the impact of migration on the regional economic development both for regions of origin and attraction. The application of our model allows to trace the dependency between salaries levels, total workforce, the number of vacancies and the number unemployed people in simulated regions. Due to the gravity component in our model the accuracy of prediction for migration flows is limited by the distance range between analyzed regions, so this model is tested on a number of conjugate neighbor regions. Future studies will be aimed at development of a multi-level dynamic model, which allows to construct a forecast for unemployment and vacancies trends on the first modeling level and to use these identified parameters on the second level for describing dynamic trajectories of migration flows.
Gravity model improvement investigation. [improved gravity model for determination of ocean geoid
Siry, J. W.; Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.; Vonbun, F. F.
1973-01-01
This investigation was undertaken to improve the gravity model and hence the ocean geoid. A specific objective is the determination of the gravity field and geoid with a space resolution of approximately 5 deg and a height resolution of the order of five meters. The concept of the investigation is to utilize both GEOS-C altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data to achieve the gravity model improvement. It is also planned to determine the geoid in selected regions with a space resolution of about a degree and a height resolution of the order of a meter or two. The short term objectives include the study of the gravity field in the GEOS-C calibration area outlined by Goddard, Bermuda, Antigua, and Cape Kennedy, and also in the eastern Pacific area which is viewed by ATS-F.
Spin foam models for quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Perez, Alejandro
2003-01-01
In this topical review, we review the present status of the spin foam formulation of non-perturbative (background-independent) quantum gravity. The topical review is divided into two parts. In the first part, we present a general introduction to the main ideas emphasizing their motivation from various perspectives. Riemannian three-dimensional gravity is used as a simple example to illustrate conceptual issues and the main goals of the approach. The main features of the various existing models for four-dimensional gravity are also presented here. We conclude with a discussion of important questions to be addressed in four dimensions (gauge invariance, discretization independence, etc). In the second part, we concentrate on the definition of the Barrett-Crane model. We present the main results obtained in this framework from a critical perspective. Finally, we review the combinatorial formulation of spin foam models based on the dual group field theory technology. We present the Barrett-Crane model in this framework and review the finiteness results obtained for both its Riemannian and its Lorentzian variants. (topical review)
Tests and comparisons of gravity models.
Marsh, J. G.; Douglas, B. C.
1971-01-01
Optical observations of the GEOS satellites were used to obtain orbital solutions with different sets of geopotential coefficients. The solutions were compared before and after modification to high order terms (necessary because of resonance) and were then analyzed by comparing subsequent observations with predicted trajectories. The most important source of error in orbit determination and prediction for the GEOS satellites is the effect of resonance found in most published sets of geopotential coefficients. Modifications to the sets yield greatly improved orbits in most cases. The results of these comparisons suggest that with the best optical tracking systems and gravity models, satellite position error due to gravity model uncertainty can reach 50-100 m during a heavily observed 5-6 day orbital arc. If resonant coefficients are estimated, the uncertainty is reduced considerably.
Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2013-01-01
In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc −1 , since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future
Systematic simulations of modified gravity: chameleon models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Theorique, CEA, IPhT, CNRS, URA 2306, F-91191Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Davis, Anne-Christine [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Li, Baojiu [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Winther, Hans A. [Institute of Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Oslo, 0315 Oslo (Norway); Zhao, Gong-Bo, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: a.c.davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: h.a.winther@astro.uio.no, E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)
2013-04-01
In this work we systematically study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in chameleon theories of modified gravity, using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of models using only 4 parameters. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ecosmog to perform a total of 65 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a significant portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM paradigm cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc{sup −1}, since the latter incorrectly assumes that the modification of gravity depends only on the background matter density. Our results show that the chameleon screening mechanism is significantly more efficient than other mechanisms such as the dilaton and symmetron, especially in high-density regions and at early times, and can serve as a guidance to determine the parts of the chameleon parameter space which are cosmologically interesting and thus merit further studies in the future.
A study of three-dimensional gravity currents on a uniform slope
Ross, Andrew N.; Linden, P. F.; Dalziel, Stuart B.
2002-02-01
In many geophysical, environmental and industrial situations, a finite volume of fluid with a density different to the ambient is released on a sloping boundary. This leads to the formation of a gravity current travelling up, down and across the slope. We present novel laboratory experiments in which the dense fluid spreads both down-slope (and initially up-slope) and laterally across the slope. The position, shape and dilution of the current are determined through video and conductivity measurements for moderate slopes (5° to 20°). The entrainment coefficient for different slopes is calculated from the experimental results and is found to depend very little on the slope. The value agrees well with previously published values for entrainment into gravity currents on a horizontal surface. The experimental measurements are compared with previous shallow-water models and with a new wedge integral model developed and presented here. It is concluded that these simplified models do not capture all the significant features of the flow. In the models, the current takes the form of a wedge which travels down the slope, but the experiments show the formation of a more complicated current. It is found that the wedge integral model over-predicts the length and width of the gravity current but gives fair agreement with the measured densities in the head. The initial stages of the flow, during which time the wedge shape develops, are studied. It is found that although the influence of the slope is seen relatively quickly for moderate slopes, the time taken for the wedge to develop is much longer. The implications of these findings for safety analysis are briefly discussed.
Kuroishi, Y.; Lemoine, F. G.; Rowlands, D. D.
2006-12-01
The latest gravimetric geoid model for Japan, JGEOID2004, suffers from errors at long wavelengths (around 1000 km) in a range of +/- 30 cm. The model was developed by combining surface gravity data with a global marine altimetric gravity model, using EGM96 as a foundation, and the errors at long wavelength are presumably attributed to EGM96 errors. The Japanese islands and their vicinity are located in a region of plate convergence boundaries, producing substantial gravity and geoid undulations in a wide range of wavelengths. Because of the geometry of the islands and trenches, precise information on gravity in the surrounding oceans should be incorporated in detail, even if the geoid model is required to be accurate only over land. The Kuroshio Current, which runs south of Japan, causes high sea surface variability, making altimetric gravity field determination complicated. To reduce the long-wavelength errors in the geoid model, we are investigating GRACE data for regional gravity field modeling at long wavelengths in the vicinity of Japan. Our approach is based on exclusive use of inter- satellite range-rate data with calibrated accelerometer data and attitude data, for regional or global gravity field recovery. In the first step, we calibrate accelerometer data in terms of scales and biases by fitting dynamically calculated orbits to GPS-determined precise orbits. The calibration parameters of accelerometer data thus obtained are used in the second step to recover a global/regional gravity anomaly field. This approach is applied to GRACE data obtained for the year 2005 and resulting global/regional gravity models are presented and discussed.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Per; Andersen, Ole Baltazar
2012-01-01
The Gravity and Ocean Circulation Experiment - GOCE satellite mission measure the Earth gravity field with unprecedented accuracy leading to substantial improvements in the modelling of the ocean circulation and transport. In this study of the performance of GOCE, a newer gravity model have been...... combined with the DTU10MSS mean sea surface model to construct a global mean dynamic topography model named DTU10MDT. The results of preliminary analyses using preliminary GOCE gravity models clearly demonstrated the potential of GOCE mission. Both the resolution and the estimation of the surface currents...... have been improved significantly compared to results obtained using pre-GOCE gravity field models. The results of this study show that geostrophic surface currents associated with the mean circulation have been further improved and that currents having speeds down to 5 cm/s have been recovered....
An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model 1
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.
1993-01-01
Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, Goddard Mars Model 1 (GMM-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S band tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of otpimum weighting and least squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, nnear-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolve the gravitational signature of the planet.
Spin foam models for quantum gravity
Perez, Alejandro
The definition of a quantum theory of gravity is explored following Feynman's path-integral approach. The aim is to construct a well defined version of the Wheeler-Misner- Hawking ``sum over four geometries'' formulation of quantum general relativity (GR). This is done by means of exploiting the similarities between the formulation of GR in terms of tetrad-connection variables (Palatini formulation) and a simpler theory called BF theory. One can go from BF theory to GR by imposing certain constraints on the BF-theory configurations. BF theory contains only global degrees of freedom (topological theory) and it can be exactly quantized á la Feynman introducing a discretization of the manifold. Using the path integral for BF theory we define a path integration for GR imposing the BF-to-GR constraints on the BF measure. The infinite degrees of freedom of gravity are restored in the process, and the restriction to a single discretization introduces a cut- off in the summed-over configurations. In order to capture all the degrees of freedom a sum over discretization is implemented. Both the implementation of the BF-to-GR constraints and the sum over discretizations are obtained by means of the introduction of an auxiliary field theory (AFT). 4-geometries in the path integral for GR are given by the Feynman diagrams of the AFT which is in this sense dual to GR. Feynman diagrams correspond to 2-complexes labeled by unitary irreducible representations of the internal gauge group (corresponding to tetrad rotation in the connection to GR). A model for 4-dimensional Euclidean quantum gravity (QG) is defined which corresponds to a different normalization of the Barrett-Crane model. The model is perturbatively finite; divergences appearing in the Barrett-Crane model are cured by the new normalization. We extend our techniques to the Lorentzian sector, where we define two models for four-dimensional QG. The first one contains only time-like representations and is shown to be
Modeling of the Earth's gravity field using the New Global Earth Model (NEWGEM)
Kim, Yeong E.; Braswell, W. Danny
1989-01-01
Traditionally, the global gravity field was described by representations based on the spherical harmonics (SH) expansion of the geopotential. The SH expansion coefficients were determined by fitting the Earth's gravity data as measured by many different methods including the use of artificial satellites. As gravity data have accumulated with increasingly better accuracies, more of the higher order SH expansion coefficients were determined. The SH representation is useful for describing the gravity field exterior to the Earth but is theoretically invalid on the Earth's surface and in the Earth's interior. A new global Earth model (NEWGEM) (KIM, 1987 and 1988a) was recently proposed to provide a unified description of the Earth's gravity field inside, on, and outside the Earth's surface using the Earth's mass density profile as deduced from seismic studies, elevation and bathymetric information, and local and global gravity data. Using NEWGEM, it is possible to determine the constraints on the mass distribution of the Earth imposed by gravity, topography, and seismic data. NEWGEM is useful in investigating a variety of geophysical phenomena. It is currently being utilized to develop a geophysical interpretation of Kaula's rule. The zeroth order NEWGEM is being used to numerically integrate spherical harmonic expansion coefficients and simultaneously determine the contribution of each layer in the model to a given coefficient. The numerically determined SH expansion coefficients are also being used to test the validity of SH expansions at the surface of the Earth by comparing the resulting SH expansion gravity model with exact calculations of the gravity at the Earth's surface.
Vincent, S.; Marsh, J. G.
1973-01-01
A global detailed gravimetric geoid has been computed by combining the Goddard Space Flight Center GEM-4 gravity model derived from satellite and surface gravity data and surface 1 deg-by-1 deg mean free air gravity anomaly data. The accuracy of the geoid is + or - 2 meters on continents, 5 to 7 meters in areas where surface gravity data are sparse, and 10 to 15 meters in areas where no surface gravity data are available. Comparisons have been made with the astrogeodetic data provided by Rice (United States), Bomford (Europe), and Mather (Australia). Comparisons have also been carried out with geoid heights derived from satellite solutions for geocentric station coordinates in North America, the Caribbean, Europe, and Australia.
Polytropic and Chaplygin f(T)-gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Karami, K; Abdolmaleki, A
2012-01-01
We reconstruct different f(T)-gravity models corresponding to a set of dark energy scenarios containing the polytropic, the standard Chaplygin and the generalized Chaplygin gas models. We also derive the equation of state parameter of the selected f(T)-gravity models and obtain the necessary conditions for crossing the phantom-divide line.
Gravity model development for precise orbit computations for satellite altimetry
Marsh, James G.; Lerch, Francis, J.; Smith, David E.; Klosko, Steven M.; Pavlis, Erricos
1986-01-01
Two preliminary gravity models developed as a first step in reaching the TOPEX/Poseidon modeling goals are discussed. They were obtained by NASA-Goddard from an analysis of exclusively satellite tracking observations. With the new Preliminary Gravity Solution-T2 model, an improved global estimate of the field is achieved with an improved description of the geoid.
Quantum gravity and Standard-Model-like fermions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eichhorn, Astrid; Lippoldt, Stefan
2017-01-01
We discover that chiral symmetry does not act as an infrared attractor of the renormalization group flow under the impact of quantum gravity fluctuations. Thus, observationally viable quantum gravity models must respect chiral symmetry. In our truncation, asymptotically safe gravity does, as a chiral fixed point exists. A second non-chiral fixed point with massive fermions provides a template for models with dark matter. This fixed point disappears for more than 10 fermions, suggesting that an asymptotically safe ultraviolet completion for the standard model plus gravity enforces chiral symmetry.
Quantum Gravity Mathematical Models and Experimental Bounds
Fauser, Bertfried; Zeidler, Eberhard
2007-01-01
The construction of a quantum theory of gravity is the most fundamental challenge confronting contemporary theoretical physics. The different physical ideas which evolved while developing a theory of quantum gravity require highly advanced mathematical methods. This book presents different mathematical approaches to formulate a theory of quantum gravity. It represents a carefully selected cross-section of lively discussions about the issue of quantum gravity which took place at the second workshop "Mathematical and Physical Aspects of Quantum Gravity" in Blaubeuren, Germany. This collection covers in a unique way aspects of various competing approaches. A unique feature of the book is the presentation of different approaches to quantum gravity making comparison feasible. This feature is supported by an extensive index. The book is mainly addressed to mathematicians and physicists who are interested in questions related to mathematical physics. It allows the reader to obtain a broad and up-to-date overview on ...
Particle-driven gravity currents in non-rectangular cross section channels
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zemach, T.
2015-01-01
We consider a high-Reynolds-number gravity current generated by suspension of heavier particles in fluid of density ρ i , propagating along a channel into an ambient fluid of the density ρ a . The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0, H, and the cross section is given by the quite general −f 1 (z) ≤ y ≤ f 2 (z) for 0 ≤ z ≤ H. The flow is modeled by the one-layer shallow-water equations obtained for the time-dependent motion which is produced by release from rest of a fixed volume of mixture from a lock. We solve the problem by the finite-difference numerical code to present typical height h(x, t), velocity u(x, t), and volume fraction of particles (concentration) ϕ(x, t) profiles. The methodology is illustrated for flow in typical geometries: power-law (f(z) = z α and f(z) = (H − z) α , where α is positive constant), trapezoidal, and circle. In general, the speed of propagation of the flows driven by suspensions decreases compared with those driven by a reduced gravity in homogeneous currents. However, the details depend on the geometry of the cross section. The runout length of suspensions in channels of power-law cross sections is analytically predicted using a simplified depth-averaged “box” model. The present approach is a significant generalization of the classical gravity current problem. The classical formulation for a rectangular channel is now just a particular case, f(z) = const., in the wide domain of cross sections covered by this new model
Modeling human perception of orientation in altered gravity
Clark, Torin K.; Newman, Michael C.; Oman, Charles M.; Merfeld, Daniel M.; Young, Laurence R.
2015-01-01
Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception, and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal-otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system (CNS) treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: (a) static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, (b) static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, (c) static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and (d) static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments. PMID:25999822
Modeling Human Perception of Orientation in Altered Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Torin K. Clark
2015-05-01
Full Text Available Altered gravity environments, such as those experienced by astronauts, impact spatial orientation perception and can lead to spatial disorientation and sensorimotor impairment. To more fully understand and quantify the impact of altered gravity on orientation perception, several mathematical models have been proposed. The utricular shear, tangent, and the idiotropic vector models aim to predict static perception of tilt in hyper-gravity. Predictions from these prior models are compared to the available data, but are found to systematically err from the perceptions experimentally observed. Alternatively, we propose a modified utricular shear model for static tilt perception in hyper-gravity. Previous dynamic models of vestibular function and orientation perception are limited to 1 G. Specifically, they fail to predict the characteristic overestimation of roll tilt observed in hyper-gravity environments. To address this, we have proposed a modification to a previous observer-type canal otolith interaction model based upon the hypothesis that the central nervous system treats otolith stimulation in the utricular plane differently than stimulation out of the utricular plane. Here we evaluate our modified utricular shear and modified observer models in four altered gravity motion paradigms: a static roll tilt in hyper-gravity, b static pitch tilt in hyper-gravity, c static roll tilt in hypo-gravity, and d static pitch tilt in hypo-gravity. The modified models match available data in each of the conditions considered. Our static modified utricular shear model and dynamic modified observer model may be used to help quantitatively predict astronaut perception of orientation in altered gravity environments.
Venus spherical harmonic gravity model to degree and order 60
Konopliv, Alex S.; Sjogren, William L.
1994-01-01
The Magellan and Pioneer Venus Orbiter radiometric tracking data sets have been combined to produce a 60th degree and order spherical harmonic gravity field. The Magellan data include the high-precision X-band gravity tracking from September 1992 to May 1993 and post-aerobraking data up to January 5, 1994. Gravity models are presented from the application of Kaula's power rule for Venus and an alternative a priori method using surface accelerations. Results are given as vertical gravity acceleration at the reference surface, geoid, vertical Bouguer, and vertical isostatic maps with errors for the vertical gravity and geoid maps included. Correlation of the gravity with topography for the different models is also discussed.
Polydisperse particle-driven gravity currents in non-rectangular cross section channels
Zemach, T.
2018-01-01
We consider a high-Reynolds-number gravity current generated by polydisperse suspension of n types of particles distributed in a fluid of density ρi. Each class of particles in suspension has a different settling velocity. The current propagates along a channel of non-rectangular cross section into an ambient fluid of constant density ρa. The bottom and top of the channel are at z = 0, H, and the cross section is given by the quite general form -f1(z) ≤ y ≤ f2(z) for 0 ≤ z ≤ H. The flow is modeled by the one-layer shallow-water equations obtained for the time-dependent motion. We solve the problem by a finite-difference numerical code to present typical height h, velocity u, and mass fractions of particle (concentrations) (ϕ( j), j = 1, …, n) profiles. The runout length of suspensions in channels of power-law cross sections is analytically predicted using a simplified depth-averaged "box" model. We demonstrate that any degree of polydispersivity adds to the runout length of the currents, relative to that of equivalent monodisperse currents with an average settling velocity. The theoretical predictions are supported by the available experimental data. The present approach is a significant generalization of the particle-driven gravity current problem: on the one hand, now the monodisperse current in non-rectangular channels is a particular case of n = 1. On the other hand, the classical formulation of polydisperse currents for a rectangular channel is now just a particular case, f(z) = const., in the wide domain of cross sections covered by this new model.
Gamow, George
2003-01-01
A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw
Gravity loop corrections to the standard model Higgs in Einstein gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yugo Abe; Masaatsu Horikoshi; Takeo Inami
2016-01-01
We study one-loop quantum gravity corrections to the standard model Higgs potential V(φ) à la Coleman-Weinberg and examine the stability question of V(φ) in the energy region of Planck mass scale, μ ≃ M_P_l (M_P_l = 1.22x10"1"9 GeV). We calculate the gravity one-loop corrections to V(φ) in Einstein gravity by using the momentum cut-off Λ. We have found that even small gravity corrections compete with the standard model term of V(φ) and affect the stability argument of the latter part alone. This is because the latter part is nearly zero in the energy region of M_P_l. (author)
New classes of modified teleparallel gravity models
Bahamonde, Sebastian; Böhmer, Christian G.; Krššák, Martin
2017-12-01
New classes of modified teleparallel theories of gravity are introduced. The action of this theory is constructed to be a function of the irreducible parts of torsion f (Tax ,Tten ,Tvec), where Tax ,Tten and Tvec are squares of the axial, tensor and vector components of torsion, respectively. This is the most general (well-motivated) second order teleparallel theory of gravity that can be constructed from the torsion tensor. Different particular second order theories can be recovered from this theory such as new general relativity, conformal teleparallel gravity or f (T) gravity. Additionally, the boundary term B which connects the Ricci scalar with the torsion scalar via R = - T + B can also be incorporated into the action. By performing a conformal transformation, it is shown that the two unique theories which have an Einstein frame are either the teleparallel equivalent of general relativity or f (- T + B) = f (R) gravity, as expected.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Tscherning, Carl Christian; Herceg, Matija; Fredenslund Levinsen, Joanna
GOCE TRF (terrestrial reference frame) vertical anomalous gradients (Tzz) from two periods have been used to determine gravity anomalies changes in mid-west Greenland, where a large mass-loss has been detected using GRACE (Fig. 1). As additional data were used the GOCE DIR-3 model and ground...... gravity at the coast on solid rock, where no mass loss is expected. The methods of Least-Squares Collocation (LSC) and the Reduced Point Mass (RPM) methods have been used, however only LSC included the ground data....
Gravity current down a steeply inclined slope in a rotating fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. I. Shapiro
Full Text Available The sinking of dense water down a steep continental slope is studied using laboratory experiments, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The experiments were made in a rotating tank containing a solid cone mounted on the tank floor and originally filled with water of constant density. A bottom gravity current was produced by injecting more dense coloured water at the top of the cone. The dense water plume propagated from the source down the inclined cone wall and formed a bottom front separating the dense and light fluids. The location of the bottom front was measured as a function of time for various experimental parameters. In the majority of runs a stable axisymmetric flow was observed. In certain experiments, the bottom layer became unstable and was broken into a system of frontal waves which propagated down the slope. The fluid dynamics theory was developed for a strongly non-linear gravity current forming a near-bottom density front. The theory takes into account both bottom and interfacial friction as well as deviation of pressure from the hydrostatic formula in the case of noticeable vertical velocities. Analytical and numerical solutions were found for the initial (t < 1/ƒ, intermediate (t ≈ 1/ƒ, and main (t » 1/ƒ stages, where ƒ is the Coriolis parameter. The model results show that during the initial stage non-linear inertial oscillations are developed. During the main stage, the gravity current is concentrated in the bottom layer which has a thickness of the order of the Ekman scale. The numerical solutions are close to the same analytical one. Stability analysis shows that the instability threshold depends mainly on the Froude number and does not depend on the Ekman number. The results of laboratory experiments confirm the similarity properties of the bottom front propagation and agree well with the theoretical predictions.
Gravity current down a steeply inclined slope in a rotating fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. I. Shapiro
1997-03-01
Full Text Available The sinking of dense water down a steep continental slope is studied using laboratory experiments, theoretical analysis and numerical simulation. The experiments were made in a rotating tank containing a solid cone mounted on the tank floor and originally filled with water of constant density. A bottom gravity current was produced by injecting more dense coloured water at the top of the cone. The dense water plume propagated from the source down the inclined cone wall and formed a bottom front separating the dense and light fluids. The location of the bottom front was measured as a function of time for various experimental parameters. In the majority of runs a stable axisymmetric flow was observed. In certain experiments, the bottom layer became unstable and was broken into a system of frontal waves which propagated down the slope. The fluid dynamics theory was developed for a strongly non-linear gravity current forming a near-bottom density front. The theory takes into account both bottom and interfacial friction as well as deviation of pressure from the hydrostatic formula in the case of noticeable vertical velocities. Analytical and numerical solutions were found for the initial (t 1/ƒ, intermediate (t ≈ 1/ƒ, and main (t » 1/ƒ stages, where ƒ is the Coriolis parameter. The model results show that during the initial stage non-linear inertial oscillations are developed. During the main stage, the gravity current is concentrated in the bottom layer which has a thickness of the order of the Ekman scale. The numerical solutions are close to the same analytical one. Stability analysis shows that the instability threshold depends mainly on the Froude number and does not depend on the Ekman number. The results of laboratory experiments confirm the similarity properties of the bottom front propagation and agree well with the theoretical predictions.
2015-09-30
Interaction of Surface Gravity Waves with Nonlinear Internal Gravity Waves Lian Shen St. Anthony Falls Laboratory and Department of Mechanical...on studying surface gravity wave evolution and spectrum in the presence of surface currents caused by strongly nonlinear internal solitary waves...interaction of surface and internal gravity waves in the South China Sea. We will seek answers to the following questions: 1) How does the wind-wave
A dynamic model of Venus's gravity field
Kiefer, W. S.; Richards, M. A.; Hager, B. H.; Bills, B. G.
1984-01-01
Unlike Earth, long wavelength gravity anomalies and topography correlate well on Venus. Venus's admittance curve from spherical harmonic degree 2 to 18 is inconsistent with either Airy or Pratt isostasy, but is consistent with dynamic support from mantle convection. A model using whole mantle flow and a high viscosity near surface layer overlying a constant viscosity mantle reproduces this admittance curve. On Earth, the effective viscosity deduced from geoid modeling increases by a factor of 300 from the asthenosphere to the lower mantle. These viscosity estimates may be biased by the neglect of lateral variations in mantle viscosity associated with hot plumes and cold subducted slabs. The different effective viscosity profiles for Earth and Venus may reflect their convective styles, with tectonism and mantle heat transport dominated by hot plumes on Venus and by subducted slabs on Earth. Convection at degree 2 appears much stronger on Earth than on Venus. A degree 2 convective structure may be unstable on Venus, but may have been stabilized on Earth by the insulating effects of the Pangean supercontinental assemblage.
Internal model of gravity influences configural body processing.
Barra, Julien; Senot, Patrice; Auclair, Laurent
2017-01-01
Human bodies are processed by a configural processing mechanism. Evidence supporting this claim is the body inversion effect, in which inversion impairs recognition of bodies more than other objects. Biomechanical configuration, as well as both visual and embodied expertise, has been demonstrated to play an important role in this effect. Nevertheless, the important factor of body inversion effect may also be linked to gravity orientation since gravity is one of the most fundamental constraints of our biology, behavior, and perception on Earth. The visual presentation of an inverted body in a typical body inversion paradigm turns the observed body upside down but also inverts the implicit direction of visual gravity in the scene. The orientation of visual gravity is then in conflict with the direction of actual gravity and may influence configural processing. To test this hypothesis, we dissociated the orientations of the body and of visual gravity by manipulating body posture. In a pretest we showed that it was possible to turn an avatar upside down (inversion relative to retinal coordinates) without inverting the orientation of visual gravity when the avatar stands on his/her hands. We compared the inversion effect in typical conditions (with gravity conflict when the avatar is upside down) to the inversion effect in conditions with no conflict between visual and physical gravity. The results of our experiment revealed that the inversion effect, as measured by both error rate and reaction time, was strongly reduced when there was no gravity conflict. Our results suggest that when an observed body is upside down (inversion relative to participants' retinal coordinates) but the orientation of visual gravity is not, configural processing of bodies might still be possible. In this paper, we discuss the implications of an internal model of gravity in the configural processing of observed bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
State sum models for quantum gravity
Barrett, John W.
2000-01-01
This paper reviews the construction of quantum field theory on a 4-dimensional spacetime by combinatorial methods, and discusses the recent developments in the direction of a combinatorial construction of quantum gravity.
New Gravity Wave Treatments for GISS Climate Models
Geller, Marvin A.; Zhou, Tiehan; Ruedy, Reto; Aleinov, Igor; Nazarenko, Larissa; Tausnev, Nikolai L.; Sun, Shan; Kelley, Maxwell; Cheng, Ye
2011-01-01
Previous versions of GISS climate models have either used formulations of Rayleigh drag to represent unresolved gravity wave interactions with the model-resolved flow or have included a rather complicated treatment of unresolved gravity waves that, while being climate interactive, involved the specification of a relatively large number of parameters that were not well constrained by observations and also was computationally very expensive. Here, the authors introduce a relatively simple and computationally efficient specification of unresolved orographic and nonorographic gravity waves and their interaction with the resolved flow. Comparisons of the GISS model winds and temperatures with no gravity wave parameterization; with only orographic gravity wave parameterization; and with both orographic and nonorographic gravity wave parameterizations are shown to illustrate how the zonal mean winds and temperatures converge toward observations. The authors also show that the specifications of orographic and nonorographic gravity waves must be different in the Northern and Southern Hemispheres. Then results are presented where the nonorographic gravity wave sources are specified to represent sources from convection in the intertropical convergence zone and spontaneous emission from jet imbalances. Finally, a strategy to include these effects in a climate-dependent manner is suggested.
Lauriola, I.; Felisa, G.; Petrolo, D.; Di Federico, V.; Longo, S.
2018-05-01
We present an investigation on the combined effect of fluid rheology and permeability variations on the propagation of porous gravity currents in axisymmetric geometry. The fluid is taken to be of power-law type with behaviour index n and the permeability to depend from the distance from the source as a power-law function of exponent β. The model represents the injection of a current of non-Newtonian fluid along a vertical bore hole in porous media with space-dependent properties. The injection is either instantaneous (α = 0) or continuous (α > 0). A self-similar solution describing the rate of propagation and the profile of the current is derived under the assumption of small aspect ratio between the current average thickness and length. The limitations on model parameters imposed by the model assumptions are discussed in depth, considering currents of increasing/decreasing velocity, thickness, and aspect ratio, and the sensitivity of the radius, thickness, and aspect ratio to model parameters. Several critical values of α and β discriminating between opposite tendencies are thus determined. Experimental validation is performed using shear-thinning suspensions and Newtonian mixtures in different regimes. A box filled with ballotini of different diameter is used to reproduce the current, with observations from the side and bottom. Most experimental results for the radius and profile of the current agree well with the self-similar solution except at the beginning of the process, due to the limitations of the 2-D assumption and to boundary effects near the injection zone. The results for this specific case corroborate a general model for currents with constant or time-varying volume of power-law fluids propagating in porous domains of plane or radial geometry, with uniform or varying permeability, and the possible effect of channelization. All results obtained in the present and previous papers for the key parameters governing the dynamics of power-law gravity
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...
On combined gravity gradient components modelling for applied geophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Veryaskin, Alexey; McRae, Wayne
2008-01-01
Gravity gradiometry research and development has intensified in recent years to the extent that technologies providing a resolution of about 1 eotvos per 1 second average shall likely soon be available for multiple critical applications such as natural resources exploration, oil reservoir monitoring and defence establishment. Much of the content of this paper was composed a decade ago, and only minor modifications were required for the conclusions to be just as applicable today. In this paper we demonstrate how gravity gradient data can be modelled, and show some examples of how gravity gradient data can be combined in order to extract valuable information. In particular, this study demonstrates the importance of two gravity gradient components, Txz and Tyz, which, when processed together, can provide more information on subsurface density contrasts than that derived solely from the vertical gravity gradient (Tzz)
2D higher spin gravity and the multimatrix models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Awada, M.; Qiu Zongan
1990-01-01
We quantize W-gravity coupled to matter fields in the conformal gauge and obtain the critical exponents. We demonstrate explicitly how the generators of the W-algebra are described by an infinite set of conserved charges of the KdV hierarchy. We obtain the generalized hamiltonian equation of motion and show that it contains the class of universal differential equations of the matrix models. Thus we propose that these models describe pure W-gravity theories of the A-type. Consequently we give a new set of universal equations that correspond to other types of W-gravity theories. (orig.)
Venus gravity and topography: 60th degree and order model
Konopliv, A. S.; Borderies, N. J.; Chodas, P. W.; Christensen, E. J.; Sjogren, W. L.; Williams, B. G.; Balmino, G.; Barriot, J. P.
1993-01-01
We have combined the most recent Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) and Magellan (MGN) data with the earlier 1978-1982 PVO data set to obtain a new 60th degree and order spherical harmonic gravity model and a 120th degree and order spherical harmonic topography model. Free-air gravity maps are shown over regions where the most marked improvement has been obtained (Ishtar-Terra, Alpha, Bell and Artemis). Gravity versus topography relationships are presented as correlations per degree and axes orientation.
Universe before Planck time: A quantum gravity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, T.
1983-01-01
A model for quantum gravity can be constructed by treating the conformal degree of freedom of spacetime as a quantum variable. An isotropic, homogeneous cosmological solution in this quantum gravity model is presented. The spacetime is nonsingular for all the three possible values of three-space curvature, and agrees with the classical solution for time scales larger than the Planck time scale. A possibility of quantum fluctuations creating the matter in the universe is suggested
Regularization of quantum gravity in the matrix model approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ueda, Haruhiko
1991-02-01
We study divergence problem of the partition function in the matrix model approach for two-dimensional quantum gravity. We propose a new model V(φ) = 1/2Trφ 2 + g 4 /NTrφ 4 + g'/N 4 Tr(φ 4 ) 2 and show that in the sphere case it has no divergence problem and the critical exponent is of pure gravity. (author)
Modeling of gravity-imbibition and gravity-drainage processes: Analytic and numerical solutions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bech, N.; Jensen, O.K.; Nielsen, B.
1991-01-01
A matrix/fracture exchange model for a fractured reservoir simulator is described. Oil/water imbibition is obtained from a diffusion equation with water saturation as the dependent variable. Gas/oil gravity drainage and imbibition are calculated by taking into account the vertical saturation...... distribution in the matrix blocks....
High-resolution simulations of downslope gravity currents in the acceleration phase
Dai, Albert
2015-07-01
Gravity currents generated from an instantaneous buoyancy source propagating down a slope in the range of 0∘ ≤ θ fundamental difference in flow patterns, which helps explain the distinct characteristics of gravity currents on high and low slope angles using scaling arguments, is revealed. Energy budgets further show that, as the slope angle increases, the ambient fluid is more easily engaged in the gravitational convection and the potential energy loss is more efficiently converted into the kinetic energy associated with ambient fluid. The propagation of gravity currents on a slope is found to be qualitatively modified as the depth ratio, i.e., the lock height to channel height ratio, approaches unity. As the depth ratio increases, the conversion of potential energy loss into the kinetic energy associated with heavy fluid is inhibited and the conversion into the kinetic energy associated with ambient fluid is enhanced by the confinement of the top wall.
Gravity currents in rotating channels. Part 1. Steady-state theory
Hacker, J. N.; Linden, P. F.
2002-04-01
A theory is developed for the speed and structure of steady-state non-dissipative gravity currents in rotating channels. The theory is an extension of that of Benjamin (1968) for non-rotating gravity currents, and in a similar way makes use of the steady-state and perfect-fluid (incompressible, inviscid and immiscible) approximations, and supposes the existence of a hydrostatic ‘control point’ in the current some distance away from the nose. The model allows for fully non-hydrostatic and ageostrophic motion in a control volume V ahead of the control point, with the solution being determined by the requirements, consistent with the perfect-fluid approximation, of energy and momentum conservation in V, as expressed by Bernoulli's theorem and a generalized flow-force balance. The governing parameter in the problem, which expresses the strength of the background rotation, is the ratio W = B/R, where B is the channel width and R = (g[prime prime or minute]H)1/2/f is the internal Rossby radius of deformation based on the total depth of the ambient fluid H. Analytic solutions are determined for the particular case of zero front-relative flow within the gravity current. For each value of W there is a unique non-dissipative two-layer solution, and a non-dissipative one-layer solution which is specified by the value of the wall-depth h0. In the two-layer case, the non-dimensional propagation speed c = cf(g[prime prime or minute]H)[minus sign]1/2 increases smoothly from the non-rotating value of 0.5 as W increases, asymptoting to unity for W [rightward arrow] [infty infinity]. The gravity current separates from the left-hand wall of the channel at W = 0.67 and thereafter has decreasing width. The depth of the current at the right-hand wall, h0, increases, reaching the full depth at W = 1.90, after which point the interface outcrops on both the upper and lower boundaries, with the distance over which the interface slopes being 0.881R. In the one-layer case, the wall
Calibrating Vadose Zone Models with Time-Lapse Gravity Data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Lars; Hansen, A. B.; Looms, M. C.
2009-01-01
A change in soil water content is a change in mass stored in the subsurface. Given that the mass change is big enough, the change can be measured with a gravity meter. Attempts have been made with varying success over the last decades to use ground-based time-lapse gravity measurements to infer...... hydrogeological parameters. These studies focused on the saturated zone with specific yield as the most prominent target parameter. Any change in storage in the vadose zone has been considered as noise. Our modeling results show a measureable change in gravity from the vadose zone during a forced infiltration...... experiment on 10m by 10m grass land. Simulation studies show a potential for vadose zone model calibration using gravity data in conjunction with other geophysical data, e.g. cross-borehole georadar. We present early field data and calibration results from a forced infiltration experiment conducted over 30...
Hamayun, H.
2014-01-01
Currently, a tremendous improvement is observed in the accuracy and spatial resolution of global Earth’s gravity field models. This improvement is achieved due to using various new data, including those from satellite gravimetry missions (CHAMP, GRACE, and GOCE); terrestrial and airborne gravity
Gravity model development for TOPEX/POSEIDON: Joint gravity models 1 and 2
Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Marshall, J. A.; Pavlis, E. C.; Putney, B. H.; Tapley, B. D.; Eanes, R. J.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.; Shum, C. K.
1994-01-01
The TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) prelaunch Joint Gravity Model-1 (JGM-1) and the postlaunch JGM-2 Earth gravitational models have been developed to support precision orbit determination for T/P. Each of these models is complete to degree 70 in spherical harmonics and was computed from a combination of satellite tracking data, satellite altimetry, and surface gravimetry. While improved orbit determination accuracies for T/P have driven the improvements in the models, the models are general in application and also provide an improved geoid for oceanographic computations. The postlaunch model, JGM-2, which includes T/P satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler orbitography and radiopositioning integrated by satellite (DORIS) tracking data, introduces radial orbit errors for T/P that are only 2 cm RMS with the commission errors of the marine geoid for terms to degree 70 being +/- 25 cm. Errors in modeling the nonconservative forces acting on T/P increase the total radial errors to only 3-4 cm root mean square (RMS), a result much better than premission goals. While the orbit accuracy goal for T/P has been far surpassed geoid errors still prevent the absolute determination of the ocean dynamic topography for wavelengths shorter than about 2500 km. Only a dedicated gravitational field satellite mission will likely provide the necessary improvement in the geoid.
A dynamic ventilation model for gravity sewer networks.
Wang, Y C; Nobi, N; Nguyen, T; Vorreiter, L
2012-01-01
To implement any effective odour and corrosion control technology in the sewer network, it is imperative that the airflow through gravity sewer airspaces be quantified. This paper presents a full dynamic airflow model for gravity sewer systems. The model, which is developed using the finite element method, is a compressible air transport model. The model has been applied to the North Head Sewerage Ocean Outfall System (NSOOS) and calibrated using the air pressure and airflow data collected during October 2008. Although the calibration is focused on forced ventilation, the model can be applied to natural ventilation as well.
Modeling and estimation of a low degree geopotential model from terrestrial gravity data
Pavlis, Nikolaos K.
1988-01-01
The development of appropriate modeling and adjustment procedures for the estimation of harmonic coefficients of the geopotential, from surface gravity data was studied, in order to provide an optimum way of utilizing the terrestrial gravity information in combination solutions currently developed at NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, for use in the TOPEX/POSEIDON mission. The mathematical modeling was based on the fundamental boundary condition of the linearized Molodensky boundary value problem. Atmospheric and ellipsoidal corrections were applied to the surface anomalies. Terrestrial gravity solutions were found to be in good agreement with the satellite ones over areas which are well surveyed (gravimetrically), such as North America or Australia. However, systematic differences between the terrestrial only models and GEMT1, over extended regions in Africa, the Soviet Union, and China were found. In Africa, gravity anomaly differences on the order of 20 mgals and undulation differences on the order of 15 meters, over regions extending 2000 km in diameter, occur. Comparisons of the GEMT1 implied undulations with 32 well distributed Doppler derived undulations gave an RMS difference of 2.6 m, while corresponding comparison with undulations implied by the terrestrial solution gave RMS difference on the order of 15 m, which implies that the terrestrial data in that region are substantially in error.
Gravity model improvement using GEOS-3 (GEM 9 and 10)
Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Laubscher, R. E.; Wagner, C. A.
1977-01-01
The use of collocation permitted GEM 9 to be a larger field than previous derived satellite models, GEM 9 having harmonics complete to 20 x 20 with selected higher degree terms. The satellite data set has approximately 840,000 observations, of which 200,000 are laser ranges taken on 9 satellites equipped with retroreflectors. GEM 10 is complete to 22 x 22 with selected higher degree terms out to degree and order 30 amounting to a total of 592 coefficients. Comparisons with surface gravity and altimeter data indicate a substantial improvement in GEM 9 over previous satellite solutions; GEM 9 is in even closer agreement with surface data than the previously published GEM 6 solution which contained surface gravity. In particular the free air gravity anomalies calculated from GEM 9 and a surface gravity solution are in excellent agreement for the high degree terms.
Spherical collapse and cluster counts in modified gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martino, Matthew C.; Stabenau, Hans F.; Sheth, Ravi K.
2009-01-01
Modifications to the gravitational potential affect the nonlinear gravitational evolution of large scale structures in the Universe. To illustrate some generic features of such changes, we study the evolution of spherically symmetric perturbations when the modification is of Yukawa type; this is nontrivial, because we should not and do not assume that Birkhoff's theorem applies. We then show how to estimate the abundance of virialized objects in such models. Comparison with numerical simulations shows reasonable agreement: When normalized to have the same fluctuations at early times, weaker large scale gravity produces fewer massive halos. However, the opposite can be true for models that are normalized to have the same linear theory power spectrum today, so the abundance of rich clusters potentially places interesting constraints on such models. Our analysis also indicates that the formation histories and abundances of sufficiently low mass objects are unchanged from standard gravity. This explains why simulations have found that the nonlinear power spectrum at large k is unaffected by such modifications to the gravitational potential. In addition, the most massive objects in models with normalized cosmic microwave background and weaker gravity are expected to be similar to the high-redshift progenitors of the most massive objects in models with stronger gravity. Thus, the difference between the cluster and field galaxy populations is expected to be larger in models with stronger large scale gravity.
Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation using Magnetic Levitation
Ramachandran, N.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successfully simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars. The paper will discuss experiments md modeling work to date in support of this project.
Dynamics and phenomenology of higher order gravity cosmological models
Moldenhauer, Jacob Andrew
2010-10-01
I present here some new results about a systematic approach to higher-order gravity (HOG) cosmological models. The HOG models are derived from curvature invariants that are more general than the Einstein-Hilbert action. Some of the models exhibit late-time cosmic acceleration without the need for dark energy and fit some current observations. The open question is that there are an infinite number of invariants that one could select, and many of the published papers have stressed the need to find a systematic approach that will allow one to study methodically the various possibilities. We explore a new connection that we made between theorems from the theory of invariants in general relativity and these cosmological models. In summary, the theorems demonstrate that curvature invariants are not all independent from each other and that for a given Ricci Segre type and Petrov type (symmetry classification) of the space-time, there exists a complete minimal set of independent invariants (a basis) in terms of which all the other invariants can be expressed. As an immediate consequence of the proposed approach, the number of invariants to consider is dramatically reduced from infinity to four invariants in the worst case and to only two invariants in the cases of interest, including all Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker metrics. We derive models that pass stability and physical acceptability conditions. We derive dynamical equations and phase portrait analyses that show the promise of the systematic approach. We consider observational constraints from magnitude-redshift Supernovae Type Ia data, distance to the last scattering surface of the Cosmic Microwave Background radiation, and Baryon Acoustic Oscillations. We put observational constraints on general HOG models. We constrain different forms of the Gauss-Bonnet, f(G), modified gravity models with these observations. We show some of these models pass solar system tests. We seek to find models that pass physical and
Zhao, Qile; Guo, Jing; Hu, Zhigang; Shi, Chuang; Liu, Jingnan; Cai, Hua; Liu, Xianglin
2011-05-01
The GRACE (Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment) monthly gravity models have been independently produced and published by several research institutions, such as Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Delft Institute of Earth Observation and Space Systems (DEOS). According to their processing standards, above institutions use the traditional variational approach except that the DEOS exploits the acceleration approach. The background force models employed are rather similar. The produced gravity field models generally agree with one another in the spatial pattern. However, there are some discrepancies in the gravity signal amplitude between solutions produced by different institutions. In particular, 10%-30% signal amplitude differences in some river basins can be observed. In this paper, we implemented a variant of the traditional variational approach and computed two sets of monthly gravity field solutions using the data from January 2005 to December 2006. The input data are K-band range-rates (KBRR) and kinematic orbits of GRACE satellites. The main difference in the production of our two types of models is how to deal with nuisance parameters. This type of parameters is necessary to absorb low-frequency errors in the data, which are mainly the aliasing and instrument errors. One way is to remove the nuisance parameters before estimating the geopotential coefficients, called NPARB approach in the paper. The other way is to estimate the nuisance parameters and geopotential coefficients simultaneously, called NPESS approach. These two types of solutions mainly differ in geopotential coefficients from degree 2 to 5. This can be explained by the fact that the nuisance parameters and the gravity field coefficients are highly correlated, particularly at low degrees. We compare these solutions with the official and published ones by means of spectral analysis. It is
Terrestrial Microgravity Model and Threshold Gravity Simulation sing Magnetic Levitation
Ramachandran, N.
2005-01-01
What is the threshold gravity (minimum gravity level) required for the nominal functioning of the human system? What dosage is required? Do human cell lines behave differently in microgravity in response to an external stimulus? The critical need for such a gravity simulator is emphasized by recent experiments on human epithelial cells and lymphocytes on the Space Shuttle clearly showing that cell growth and function are markedly different from those observed terrestrially. Those differences are also dramatic between cells grown in space and those in Rotating Wall Vessels (RWV), or NASA bioreactor often used to simulate microgravity, indicating that although morphological growth patterns (three dimensional growth) can be successiblly simulated using RWVs, cell function performance is not reproduced - a critical difference. If cell function is dramatically affected by gravity off-loading, then cell response to stimuli such as radiation, stress, etc. can be very different from terrestrial cell lines. Yet, we have no good gravity simulator for use in study of these phenomena. This represents a profound shortcoming for countermeasures research. We postulate that we can use magnetic levitation of cells and tissue, through the use of strong magnetic fields and field gradients, as a terrestrial microgravity model to study human cells. Specific objectives of the research are: 1. To develop a tried, tested and benchmarked terrestrial microgravity model for cell culture studies; 2. Gravity threshold determination; 3. Dosage (magnitude and duration) of g-level required for nominal functioning of cells; 4. Comparisons of magnetic levitation model to other models such as RWV, hind limb suspension, etc. and 5. Cellular response to reduced gravity levels of Moon and Mars.
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field
Tapley, B. D.; Shum, C. K.; Yuan, D. N.; Ries, J. C.; Schutz, B. E.
1989-01-01
An improved model for the Earth's gravity field, TEG-1, was determined using data sets from fourteen satellites, spanning the inclination ranges from 15 to 115 deg, and global surface gravity anomaly data. The satellite measurements include laser ranging data, Doppler range-rate data, and satellite-to-ocean radar altimeter data measurements, which include the direct height measurement and the differenced measurements at ground track crossings (crossover measurements). Also determined was another gravity field model, TEG-1S, which included all the data sets in TEG-1 with the exception of direct altimeter data. The effort has included an intense scrutiny of the gravity field solution methodology. The estimated parameters included geopotential coefficients complete to degree and order 50 with selected higher order coefficients, ocean and solid Earth tide parameters, Doppler tracking station coordinates and the quasi-stationary sea surface topography. Extensive error analysis and calibration of the formal covariance matrix indicate that the gravity field model is a significant improvement over previous models and can be used for general applications in geodesy.
Modelling Technique for Demonstrating Gravity Collapse Structures in Jointed Rock.
Stimpson, B.
1979-01-01
Described is a base-friction modeling technique for studying the development of collapse structures in jointed rocks. A moving belt beneath weak material is designed to simulate gravity. A description is given of the model frame construction. (Author/SA)
An extended gravity model with substitution applied to international trade
Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X
The traditional gravity model has been applied many times to international trade flows, especially in order to analyze trade creation and trade diversion. However, there are two fundamental objections to the model: it cannot describe substitutions between flows and it lacks a cogent theoretical
Holographic currents in first order Gravity and finite Fefferman-Graham expansions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Banados, Maximo; Miskovic, Olivera; Theisen, Stefan
2006-01-01
We study the holographic currents associated to Chern-Simons theories. We start with an example in three dimensions and find the holographic representations of vector and chiral currents reproducing the correct expression for the chiral anomaly. In five dimensions, Chern-Simons theory for AdS group describes first order gravity and we show that there exists a gauge fixing leading to a finite Fefferman-Graham expansion. We derive the corresponding holographic currents, namely, the stress tensor and spin current which couple to the metric and torsional degrees of freedom at the boundary, respectively. We obtain the correct Ward identities for these currents by looking at the bulk constraint equations
Modeling sintering of multilayers under influence of gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Frandsen, Henrik Lund; Olevsky, Eugene; Tadesse Molla, Tesfaye
2013-01-01
, which describes the combined effect of sintering and gravity of thin multilayers, is derived and later compared with experimental results. It allows for consideration of both uniaxial and biaxial stress states. The model is based on the Skorohod-Olevsky viscous sintering framework, the classical...... laminate theory and the elastic-viscoelastic correspondence principle. The modeling approach is then applied to illustrate the effect of gravity during sintering of thin layers of cerium gadolinium oxide (CGO), and it is found to be significant. © 2012 The American Ceramic Society....
Impact Of GOCE On The Nordic Gravity Field Modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yidiz, Hasan; Forsberg, René; Tscherning, C. C.
2011-01-01
GOCE level-2 Tzz and Txx gravity gradients at satellite altitude are used in combination as input data to predict surface free air gravity anomalies over the Nordic region using Least Square Collocation. We test the performance of using covariance functions created separately from Tzz gradients a...... Surface model, both the NKG-2004 quasi-geoid model of the Nordic and Baltic Area and the one obtained using second generation GOCE spherical harmonic coefficients based on time-wise method can successfully reproduce the higher level of the Baltic Sea relative to the Atlantic Ocean....
Approaches to Validation of Models for Low Gravity Fluid Behavior
Chato, David J.; Marchetta, Jeffery; Hochstein, John I.; Kassemi, Mohammad
2005-01-01
This paper details the author experiences with the validation of computer models to predict low gravity fluid behavior. It reviews the literature of low gravity fluid behavior as a starting point for developing a baseline set of test cases. It examines authors attempts to validate their models against these cases and the issues they encountered. The main issues seem to be that: Most of the data is described by empirical correlation rather than fundamental relation; Detailed measurements of the flow field have not been made; Free surface shapes are observed but through thick plastic cylinders, and therefore subject to a great deal of optical distortion; and Heat transfer process time constants are on the order of minutes to days but the zero-gravity time available has been only seconds.
On the spreading and instability of gravity current fronts of arbitrary shape
Zgheib, N.; Bonometti, T.; Balachandar, S.
2012-11-01
Experiments, simulations and theoretical analysis were carried out to study the influence of geometry on the spreading of gravity currents. The horizontal spreading of three different intial planforms of initial release were investigated: an extended ellipse, a cross, and a circle. The experiments used a pulley system for a swift nearly instantaneous release. The case of the axisymmetric cylinder compared favorably with earlier simulations. We ran experiments for multiple aspect ratios for all three configurations. Perhaps the most intriguing of the three cases is the ``ellipse,'' which within a short period of release flipped the major and minor axes. This behavior cannot be captured by current theoretical methods (such as the Box Model). These cases have also been investigated using shallow water and direct numerical simulations. Also, in this study, we investigate the possibility of a Rayleigh-Taylor (RT) instability of the radially moving, but decelerating front. We present a simple theoretical framework based on the inviscid Shallow Water Equations. The theoretical results are supplemented and compared to highly resolved three-dimensional simulations with the Boussinesq approximation. Chateaubriand Fellowship - NSF PIRE grant OISE-0968313.
Systematic simulations of modified gravity: symmetron and dilaton models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine; Li, Baojiu; Winther, Hans A.; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2012-01-01
We study the linear and nonlinear structure formation in the dilaton and symmetron models of modified gravity using a generic parameterisation which describes a large class of scenarios using only a few parameters, such as the coupling between the scalar field and the matter, and the range of the scalar force on very large scales. For this we have modified the N-body simulation code ECOSMOG, which is a variant of RAMSES working in modified gravity scenarios, to perform a set of 110 simulations for different models and parameter values, including the default ΛCDM. These simulations enable us to explore a large portion of the parameter space. We have studied the effects of modified gravity on the matter power spectrum and mass function, and found a rich and interesting phenomenology where the difference with the ΛCDM template cannot be reproduced by a linear analysis even on scales as large as k ∼ 0.05 hMpc −1 . Our results show the full effect of screening on nonlinear structure formation and the associated deviation from ΛCDM. We also investigate how differences in the force mediated by the scalar field in modified gravity models lead to qualitatively different features for the nonlinear power spectrum and the halo mass function, and how varying the individual model parameters changes these observables. The differences are particularly large in the nonlinear power spectra whose shapes for f(R), dilaton and symmetron models vary greatly, and where the characteristic bump around 1 hMpc −1 of f(R) models is preserved for symmetrons, whereas an increase on much smaller scales is particular to symmetrons. No bump is present for dilatons where a flattening of the power spectrum takes place on small scales. These deviations from ΛCDM and the differences between modified gravity models, such as dilatons and symmetrons, could be tested with future surveys
Lorentzian 3d gravity with wormholes via matrix models
Ambjørn, J.; Jurkiewicz, J.; Loll, R.; Vernizzi, G.
2001-01-01
We uncover a surprising correspondence between a non-perturbative formulation of three-dimensional Lorentzian quantum gravity and a hermitian two-matrix model with ABAB-interaction. The gravitational transfer matrix can be expressed as the logarithm of a two-matrix integral, and we deduce from
Phase diagram of the mean field model of simplicial gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bialas, P.; Burda, Z.; Johnston, D.
1999-01-01
We discuss the phase diagram of the balls in boxes model, with a varying number of boxes. The model can be regarded as a mean-field model of simplicial gravity. We analyse in detail the case of weights of the form p(q) = q -β , which correspond to the measure term introduced in the simplicial quantum gravity simulations. The system has two phases: elongated (fluid) and crumpled. For β ε (2, ∞) the transition between these two phases is first-order, while for β ε (1, 2) it is continuous. The transition becomes softer when β approaches unity and eventually disappears at β = 1. We then generalise the discussion to an arbitrary set of weights. Finally, we show that if one introduces an additional kinematic bound on the average density of balls per box then a new condensed phase appears in the phase diagram. It bears some similarity to the crinkled phase of simplicial gravity discussed recently in models of gravity interacting with matter fields
Astrophysical constraints on unparticle-inspired models of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.; Santos, P.
2009-01-01
We use stellar dynamics arguments to constrain the relevant parameters of unparticle-inspired models of gravity. We show that resulting bounds do constrain the parameters of the theory of unparticles, as far as its energy scale satisfies the condition Λ U ≥1 TeV and d U is close to unity.
Further stable neutron star models from f(R) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Astashenok, Artyom V. [I. Kant Baltic Federal University, Institute of Physics and Technology, Nevskogo st. 14, Kaliningrad, 236041 (Russian Federation); Capozziello, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Via Cinthia, 9, Napoli, I–80126 (Italy); Odintsov, Sergei D., E-mail: artyom.art@gmail.com, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it, E-mail: odintsov@ieec.uab.es [Instituciò Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)
2013-12-01
Neutron star models in perturbative f(R) gravity are considered with realistic equations of state. In particular, we consider the FPS, SLy and other equations of state and a case of piecewise equation of state for stars with quark cores. The mass-radius relations for f(R) = R+R(e{sup −R/R{sub 0}}−1) model and for R{sup 2} models with logarithmic and cubic corrections are obtained. In the case of R{sup 2} gravity with cubic corrections, we obtain that at high central densities (ρ > 10ρ{sub ns}, where ρ{sub ns} = 2.7 × 10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3} is the nuclear saturation density), stable star configurations exist. The minimal radius of such stars is close to 9 km with maximal mass ∼ 1.9M{sub ⊙} (SLy equation). A similar situation takes place for AP4 and BSK20 EoS. Such an effect can give rise to more compact stars than in General Relativity. If observationally identified, such objects could constitute a formidable signature for modified gravity at astrophysical level. Another interesting result can be achieved in modified gravity with only a cubic correction. For some EoS, the upper limit of neutron star mass increases and therefore these EoS can describe realistic star configurations (although, in General Relativity, these EoS are excluded by observational constraints)
Further stable neutron star models from f(R) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astashenok, Artyom V.; Capozziello, Salvatore; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2013-01-01
Neutron star models in perturbative f(R) gravity are considered with realistic equations of state. In particular, we consider the FPS, SLy and other equations of state and a case of piecewise equation of state for stars with quark cores. The mass-radius relations for f(R) = R+R(e −R/R 0 −1) model and for R 2 models with logarithmic and cubic corrections are obtained. In the case of R 2 gravity with cubic corrections, we obtain that at high central densities (ρ > 10ρ ns , where ρ ns = 2.7 × 10 14 g/cm 3 is the nuclear saturation density), stable star configurations exist. The minimal radius of such stars is close to 9 km with maximal mass ∼ 1.9M ⊙ (SLy equation). A similar situation takes place for AP4 and BSK20 EoS. Such an effect can give rise to more compact stars than in General Relativity. If observationally identified, such objects could constitute a formidable signature for modified gravity at astrophysical level. Another interesting result can be achieved in modified gravity with only a cubic correction. For some EoS, the upper limit of neutron star mass increases and therefore these EoS can describe realistic star configurations (although, in General Relativity, these EoS are excluded by observational constraints)
Chameleon halo modeling in f(R) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li Yin; Hu, Wayne
2011-01-01
We model the chameleon effect on cosmological statistics for the modified gravity f(R) model of cosmic acceleration. The chameleon effect, required to make the model compatible with local tests of gravity, reduces force enhancement as a function of the depth of the gravitational potential wells of collapsed structure and so is readily incorporated into a halo model by including parameters for the chameleon mass threshold and rapidity of transition. We show that the abundance of halos around the chameleon mass threshold is enhanced by both the merging from below and the lack of merging to larger masses. This property also controls the power spectrum in the nonlinear regime and we provide a description of the transition to the linear regime that is valid for a wide range of f(R) models.
High-resolution Local Gravity Model of the South Pole of the Moon from GRAIL Extended Mission Data
Goossens, Sander Johannes; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Mazarico, Erwan; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.
2014-01-01
We estimated a high-resolution local gravity field model over the south pole of the Moon using data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory's extended mission. Our solution consists of adjustments with respect to a global model expressed in spherical harmonics. The adjustments are expressed as gridded gravity anomalies with a resolution of 1/6deg by 1/6deg (equivalent to that of a degree and order 1080 model in spherical harmonics), covering a cap over the south pole with a radius of 40deg. The gravity anomalies have been estimated from a short-arc analysis using only Ka-band range-rate (KBRR) data over the area of interest. We apply a neighbor-smoothing constraint to our solution. Our local model removes striping present in the global model; it reduces the misfit to the KBRR data and improves correlations with topography to higher degrees than current global models.
Quantum gravity in two dimensions and the SL(2,R) current algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Smith, A.W.; Mokhtari, S.
1990-01-01
Gravity coupled to a scalar field in two dimensions is studied and it is shown that in the light-cone gauge there exists a new symmetry associated with the scalar field that leads naturally to the SL(2,R) kac-Moody current algebra. This algebra is derived from the traceless part of the energy-momentum tensor whose conservation is shown to give the well-known constraint necessary to obtain the chiral SL (2,R) algebra. (orig.)
Quantum gravity in two dimensions and the SL(2,R) current algebra
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Helayel-Neto, J.A.; Smith, A.W. (Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, Rio de Janeiro Universidade Catolica de Petropolis, RJ (Brazil)); Mokhtari, S. (International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy))
1990-02-08
Gravity coupled to a scalar field in two dimensions is studied and it is shown that in the light-cone gauge there exists a new symmetry associated with the scalar field that leads naturally to the SL(2,R) kac-Moody current algebra. This algebra is derived from the traceless part of the energy-momentum tensor whose conservation is shown to give the well-known constraint necessary to obtain the chiral SL (2,R) algebra. (orig.).
Quantum gravity in two dimensions and the SL(2,R) current algebra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Helayel Neto, J.A.; Smith, A.W.; Mokhtari, S.
1989-12-01
Gravity coupled to a scalar field in two dimensions is studied and it is shown that in the light-cone gauge there exists a new symmetry associated with the scalar field that leads naturally to SL(2,R)-Kac-Moody current algebra. This algebra is derived from the traceless part of the energy-momentum tensor whose conservation is shown to give the well-known constraint necessary to obtain the chiral SL(2,R) algebra. (author). 8 refs
Neutron Star Models in Alternative Theories of Gravity
Manolidis, Dimitrios
We study the structure of neutron stars in a broad class of alternative theories of gravity. In particular, we focus on Scalar-Tensor theories and f(R) theories of gravity. We construct static and slowly rotating numerical star models for a set of equations of state, including a polytropic model and more realistic equations of state motivated by nuclear physics. Observable quantities such as masses, radii, etc are calculated for a set of parameters of the theories. Specifically for Scalar-Tensor theories, we also calculate the sensitivities of the mass and moment of inertia of the models to variations in the asymptotic value of the scalar field at infinity. These quantities enter post-Newtonian equations of motion and gravitational waveforms of two body systems that are used for gravitational-wave parameter estimation, in order to test these theories against observations. The construction of numerical models of neutron stars in f(R) theories of gravity has been difficult in the past. Using a new formalism by Jaime, Patino and Salgado we were able to construct models with high interior pressure, namely pc > rho c/3, both for constant density models and models with a polytropic equation of state. Thus, we have shown that earlier objections to f(R) theories on the basis of the inability to construct viable neutron star models are unfounded.
High-Resolution Gravity Field Modeling for Mercury to Estimate Crust and Lithospheric Properties
Goossens, S.; Mazarico, E.; Genova, A.; James, P. B.
2018-05-01
We estimate a gravity field model for Mercury using line-of-sight data to improve the gravity field model at short wavelengths. This can be used to infer crustal density and infer the support mechanism of the lithosphere.
A high resolution gravity model for Venus - GVM-1
Nerem, R. S.; Bills, B. G.; Mcnamee, J. B.
1993-01-01
A spherical harmonic model of the gravitational field of Venus complete to degree and order 50 has been developed using the S-band Doppler tracking data of the Pioneer Venus Orbiter (PVO) collected between 1979 and 1982. The short wavelengths of this model could only be resolved near the PVO periapse location (about 14 deg N latitude), therefore a priori constraints were applied to the model to bias poorly observed coefficients towards zero. The resulting model has a half-wavelength resolution of 400 km near the PVO periapse location, but the resolution degrades to greater than 1000 km near the poles. This gravity model correlates well with a degree 50 spherical harmonic expansion of the Venus topography derived from a combination of Magellan and PVO data. New tracking data from Magellan's gravity mission should provide some improvement to this model, although a complete model of the Venusian gravity field will depend on tracking of Magellan after the circularization of its orbit using aerobraking.
Assessing performance of gravity models in the Arctic and the implications for polar oceanography
Thomas, S. F.; McAdoo, D. C.; Farrell, S. L.; Brozena, J. M.; Childers, V. A.; Ziebart, M. K.; Shepherd, A.
2014-12-01
The circulation of the Arctic Ocean is of great interest to both the oceanographic and cryospheric communities. Understanding both the steady state and variations of this circulation is essential to building our knowledge of Arctic climate. With the advent of high inclination altimeter missions such as CryoSat and ICESat, it is now feasible to produce Mean Dynamic Topography (MDT) products for the region, which allow a comprehensive investigation of geostrophic currents. However, the accuracy of these products is largely limited by our knowledge of the marine geoid in the Arctic. There are a number of publicly available gravity models commonly used to derive the geoid. These use different combinations of available data (satellite gravimetry, altimetry, laser ranging, and in-situ) and are calculated using different mathematical techniques. However, the effect of these differences on the real world performance of these models when used for oceanographic studies in the Arctic is not well known. Given the unique problems for gravimetry in the region (especially data gaps) and their potential impact on MDT products, it is especially important that the relative performance of these models be assessed We consider the needs of the "end user" satellite oceanographer in the Arctic with respect to gravimetry, and the relationship between the precision of gravity data and the accuracy of a final MDT/current velocity product. Using high-precision aerogravity data collected over 3 years of campaigns by NASA's Operation IceBridge we inter-compare 10 of the leading gravity models and assess their performance in the Arctic. We also use historical data from campaigns flown by the US Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to demonstrate the impact of gravity errors on MDT products. We describe how gravity models for the region might be improved in the future, in an effort to maximize the level at which Arctic currents may be resolved.
BRST cohomology ring in 2D gravity coupled to minimal models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kanno, H.; Sarmadi, M.H.
1992-08-01
The ring structure of Lian-Zuckerman states for (q,p) minimal models coupled to gravity is shown to be R=R 0 xC[w,w -1 ] where R 0 is the ring of ghost number zero operators generated by two elements and w is an operator of ghost number -1. Some examples are discussed in detail. For these models the currents are also discussed and their algebra is shown to contain the Virasoro algebra. (author). 21 refs
Modeling of zero gravity venting: Studies of two-phase heat transfer under reduced gravity
Merte, H., Jr.
1986-01-01
The objective is to predict the pressure response of a saturated liquid-vapor system when undergoing a venting or depressurization process in zero gravity at low vent rates. An experimental investigation of the venting of cylindrical containers partially filled with initially saturated liquids was previously conducted under zero-gravity conditions and compared with an analytical model which incorporated the effect of interfacial mass transfer on the ullage pressure response during venting. A new model is presented to improve the estimation of the interfacial mass transfer. Duhammel's superposition integral is incorporated to approximate the transient temperature response of the interface, treating the liquid as a semi-infinite solid with conduction heat transfer. Account is also taken of the condensation taking place within the bulk of a saturated vapor as isentropic expansion takes place. Computational results are presented for the venting of R-11 from a given vessel and initial state for five different venting rates over a period of three seconds, and compared to prior NASA experiments. An improvement in the prediction of the final pressure takes place, but is still considerably below the measurements.
Renormalization group flow of scalar models in gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guarnieri, Filippo
2014-01-01
In this Ph.D. thesis we study the issue of renormalizability of gravitation in the context of the renormalization group (RG), employing both perturbative and non-perturbative techniques. In particular, we focus on different gravitational models and approximations in which a central role is played by a scalar degree of freedom, since their RG flow is easier to analyze. We restrict our interest in particular to two quantum gravity approaches that have gained a lot of attention recently, namely the asymptotic safety scenario for gravity and the Horava-Lifshitz quantum gravity. In the so-called asymptotic safety conjecture the high energy regime of gravity is controlled by a non-Gaussian fixed point which ensures non-perturbative renormalizability and finiteness of the correlation functions. We then investigate the existence of such a non trivial fixed point using the functional renormalization group, a continuum version of the non-perturbative Wilson's renormalization group. In particular we quantize the sole conformal degree of freedom, which is an approximation that has been shown to lead to a qualitatively correct picture. The question of the existence of a non-Gaussian fixed point in an infinite-dimensional parameter space, that is for a generic f(R) theory, cannot however be studied using such a conformally reduced model. Hence we study it by quantizing a dynamically equivalent scalar-tensor theory, i.e. a generic Brans-Dicke theory with ω=0 in the local potential approximation. Finally, we investigate, using a perturbative RG scheme, the asymptotic freedom of the Horava-Lifshitz gravity, that is an approach based on the emergence of an anisotropy between space and time which lifts the Newton's constant to a marginal coupling and explicitly preserves unitarity. In particular we evaluate the one-loop correction in 2+1 dimensions quantizing only the conformal degree of freedom.
Mapping the earth's magnetic and gravity fields from space Current status and future prospects
Settle, M.; Taranik, J. V.
1983-01-01
The principal magnetic fields encountered by earth orbiting spacecraft include the main (core) field, external fields produced by electrical currents within the ionosphere and magnetosphere, and the crustal (anomaly) field generated by variations in the magnetization of the outermost portions of the earth. The first orbital field measurements which proved to be of use for global studies of crustal magnetization were obtained by a series of three satellites launched and operated from 1965 to 1971. Each of the satellites, known as a Polar Orbiting Geophysical Observatory (POGO), carried a rubidium vapor magnetometer. Attention is also given to Magsat launched in 1979, the scalar anomaly field derived from the Magsat measurements, satellite tracking studies in connection with gravity field surveys, radar altimetry, the belt of positive free air gravity anomalies situated along the edge of the Pacific Ocean basin, future technological capabilities, and information concerning data availability.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Rastello
2002-01-01
Full Text Available Results of laboratory experiments are presented in which a finite suspension of sawdust particles was released instantaneously into a rectangular channel immersed in a water tank. Two kinds of gravity currents were studied: currents with or without entrainment of particles from the bed. Experiments were repeated for two slopes: 30° and 45°. We observed that the velocity of the front was significantly in-creased as particle entrainment occurred. In addition, our experiments showed that the front kept a quasi-constant velocity for both runs. This might suggest that the flow regime corresponded to the "slumping regime" or "adjustment phase" described earlier by Huppert and Simpson (1980.
ORBSIM- ESTIMATING GEOPHYSICAL MODEL PARAMETERS FROM PLANETARY GRAVITY DATA
Sjogren, W. L.
1994-01-01
The ORBSIM program was developed for the accurate extraction of geophysical model parameters from Doppler radio tracking data acquired from orbiting planetary spacecraft. The model of the proposed planetary structure is used in a numerical integration of the spacecraft along simulated trajectories around the primary body. Using line of sight (LOS) Doppler residuals, ORBSIM applies fast and efficient modelling and optimization procedures which avoid the traditional complex dynamic reduction of data. ORBSIM produces quantitative geophysical results such as size, depth, and mass. ORBSIM has been used extensively to investigate topographic features on the Moon, Mars, and Venus. The program has proven particulary suitable for modelling gravitational anomalies and mascons. The basic observable for spacecraft-based gravity data is the Doppler frequency shift of a transponded radio signal. The time derivative of this signal carries information regarding the gravity field acting on the spacecraft in the LOS direction (the LOS direction being the path between the spacecraft and the receiving station, either Earth or another satellite). There are many dynamic factors taken into account: earth rotation, solar radiation, acceleration from planetary bodies, tracking station time and location adjustments, etc. The actual trajectories of the spacecraft are simulated using least squares fitted to conic motion. The theoretical Doppler readings from the simulated orbits are compared to actual Doppler observations and another least squares adjustment is made. ORBSIM has three modes of operation: trajectory simulation, optimization, and gravity modelling. In all cases, an initial gravity model of curved and/or flat disks, harmonics, and/or a force table are required input. ORBSIM is written in FORTRAN 77 for batch execution and has been implemented on a DEC VAX 11/780 computer operating under VMS. This program was released in 1985.
Transcendental Political Systems and the Gravity Model
Lock, Connor
2012-01-01
This summer I have been working on an Army Deep Futures Model project named Themis. Themis is a JPL based modeling framework that anticipates possible future states for the world within the next 25 years. The goal of this framework is to determine the likelihood that the US Army will need to intervene on behalf of the US strategic interests. Key elements that are modeled within this tool include the world structure and major decisions that are made by key actors. Each actor makes decisions based on their goals and within the constraints of the structure of the system in which they are located. In my research I have focused primarily on the effects of structures upon the decision-making processes of the actors within them. This research is a natural extension of my major program at Georgetown University, where I am studying the International Political Economy and the structures that make it up. My basic goal for this summer project was to be a helpful asset to the Themis modeling team, with any research done or processes learned constituting a bonus.
Balasubramanian, Sridhar; Zhong, Qiang
2018-05-01
Gravity currents modify their flow characteristics by entraining ambient fluid, which depends on a variety of governing parameters such as the initial density, Δρ, the total initial height of the fluid, H, and the slope of the terrain, α, from where it is released. It is imperative to study the entrainment dynamics of a gravity current in order to have a clear understanding of mixing transitions that govern the flow physics, the velocity mixing layer thickness, δu, and the density mixing layer thickness, δρ. Experiments were conducted in a lock-exchange facility in which the dense fluid was separated from the ambient lighter fluid using a gate. As the gate is released instantaneously, an energy conserving gravity current is formed, for which the only governing parameter is the Reynolds number defined as R e =U/h ν , where U is the front velocity of the gravity current and h is the height of the current. In our study, the bulk Richardson number (inverse of Froude number, Fr), Rib = g/'H Ub2 = 1, takes a constant value for all the experiments, with Ub being the bulk velocity of the current defined as Ub = √{g'H }. Simultaneous particle image velocimetry and planar laser induced fluorescence measurement techniques are employed to get the velocity and density statistics. Using the buoyancy conservation equation, a new flux-based method was formulated for calculating the entrainment coefficient, EF, near the front and head of the propagating gravity current for a Reynolds number range of Re ≈ 485-12 270 used in our experiments. At the head of the current, the results show a mixing transition at Re ≈ 2700 that is attributed to the flow transitioning from weak Holmboe waves to Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities, in the form of Kelvin-Helmholtz vortex rolls. Following this mixing transition, the entrainment coefficient continued to increase with increasing Reynolds number owing to the occurrence of three-dimensional Kelvin-Helmholtz billows that promote further
Computer modeling describes gravity-related adaptation in cell cultures.
Alexandrov, Ludmil B; Alexandrova, Stoyana; Usheva, Anny
2009-12-16
Questions about the changes of biological systems in response to hostile environmental factors are important but not easy to answer. Often, the traditional description with differential equations is difficult due to the overwhelming complexity of the living systems. Another way to describe complex systems is by simulating them with phenomenological models such as the well-known evolutionary agent-based model (EABM). Here we developed an EABM to simulate cell colonies as a multi-agent system that adapts to hyper-gravity in starvation conditions. In the model, the cell's heritable characteristics are generated and transferred randomly to offspring cells. After a qualitative validation of the model at normal gravity, we simulate cellular growth in hyper-gravity conditions. The obtained data are consistent with previously confirmed theoretical and experimental findings for bacterial behavior in environmental changes, including the experimental data from the microgravity Atlantis and the Hypergravity 3000 experiments. Our results demonstrate that it is possible to utilize an EABM with realistic qualitative description to examine the effects of hypergravity and starvation on complex cellular entities.
Globally covering a-priori regional gravity covariance models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
D. Arabelos
2003-01-01
Full Text Available Gravity anomaly data generated using Wenzel’s GPM98A model complete to degree 1800, from which OSU91A has been subtracted, have been used to estimate covariance functions for a set of globally covering equal-area blocks of size 22.5° × 22.5° at Equator, having a 2.5° overlap. For each block an analytic covariance function model was determined. The models are based on 4 parameters: the depth to the Bjerhammar sphere (determines correlation, the free-air gravity anomaly variance, a scale factor of the OSU91A error degree-variances and a maximal summation index, N, of the error degree-variances. The depth of Bjerhammar-sphere varies from -134km to nearly zero, N varies from 360 to 40, the scale factor from 0.03 to 38.0 and the gravity variance from 1081 to 24(10µms-22. The parameters are interpreted in terms of the quality of the data used to construct OSU91A and GPM98A and general conditions such as the occurrence of mountain chains. The variation of the parameters show that it is necessary to use regional covariance models in order to obtain a realistic signal to noise ratio in global applications.Key words. GOCE mission, Covariance function, Spacewise approach`
Investigation of Global Imbalances Based on a Gravity Model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hyun-Hoon Lee
2011-06-01
Full Text Available Using the US Treasury International Capital (TIC data, this paper attempts to analyze the size and trend of foreign investment in the U.S. in the form of equities, bonds and bank lending during the period of 2001-2007. In addition, this paper assesses the determinants of foreign investment in the U.S., using the financial gravity model which includes an East Asian dummy as an explanatory variable. The results show that most East Asian countries have invested more in the U.S. than the optimal level suggested by the gravity model. Such an over-investment is more evident in long-term bond investment than in equity investment or bank lending. Thus, the results confirm that global imbalance does exist between East Asian countries and the U.S.
Dynamical 3-Space Gravity Theory: Effects on Polytropic Solar Models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
May R. D.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Numerous experiments and observations have confirmed the existence of a dynamical 3-space, detectable directly by light-speed anisotropy experiments, and indirectly by means of novel gravitational effects, such as bore hole g anomalies, predictable black hole masses, flat spiral-galaxy rotation curves, and the expansion of the universe, all without dark matter and dark energy. The dynamics for this 3-space follows from a unique generalisation of Newtonian gravity, once that is cast into a velocity formalism. This new theory of gravity is applied to the solar model of the sun to compute new density, pressure and temperature profiles, using polytrope modelling of the equation of state for the matter. These results should be applied to a re-analysis of solar neutrino production, and to stellar evolution in general.
Type I Shell Galaxies as a Test of Gravity Models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vakili, Hajar; Rahvar, Sohrab [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Kroupa, Pavel, E-mail: vakili@physics.sharif.edu [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen-und Kernphysik, Universität Bonn, Nussallee 14-16, D-53115 Bonn (Germany)
2017-10-10
Shell galaxies are understood to form through the collision of a dwarf galaxy with an elliptical galaxy. Shell structures and kinematics have been noted to be independent tools to measure the gravitational potential of the shell galaxies. We compare theoretically the formation of shells in Type I shell galaxies in different gravity theories in this work because this is so far missing in the literature. We include Newtonian plus dark halo gravity, and two non-Newtonian gravity models, MOG and MOND, in identical initial systems. We investigate the effect of dynamical friction, which by slowing down the dwarf galaxy in the dark halo models limits the range of shell radii to low values. Under the same initial conditions, shells appear on a shorter timescale and over a smaller range of distances in the presence of dark matter than in the corresponding non-Newtonian gravity models. If galaxies are embedded in a dark matter halo, then the merging time may be too rapid to allow multi-generation shell formation as required by observed systems because of the large dynamical friction effect. Starting from the same initial state, the observation of small bright shells in the dark halo model should be accompanied by large faint ones, while for the case of MOG, the next shell generation patterns iterate with a specific time delay. The first shell generation pattern shows a degeneracy with the age of the shells and in different theories, but the relative distance of the shells and the shell expansion velocity can break this degeneracy.
Quantum Gravity and Maximum Attainable Velocities in the Standard Model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfaro, Jorge
2007-01-01
A main difficulty in the quantization of the gravitational field is the lack of experiments that discriminate among the theories proposed to quantize gravity. Recently we showed that the Standard Model(SM) itself contains tiny Lorentz invariance violation(LIV) terms coming from QG. All terms depend on one arbitrary parameter α that set the scale of QG effects. In this talk we review the LIV for mesons nucleons and leptons and apply it to study several effects, including the GZK anomaly
The use of gravity models in setting and location analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zbigniew Drewniak
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The article discusses the gravity models as an example of a tool that helps to analyze localization and the market coverage. Especially Reilly’s law of retail gravitation was presented in details as the milestone. The discussion was supported by calculations concerning two cities – Torun and Bydgoszcz and thus their impact on shopping preferences of inhabitants of neighboring places. The issues are mainly used in logistics, but also in marketing, advertising and sales.
A GOCE only gravity model GOSG01S and the validation of GOCE related satellite gravity models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinyu Xu
2017-07-01
Full Text Available We compile the GOCE-only satellite model GOSG01S complete to spherical harmonic degree of 220 using Satellite Gravity Gradiometry (SGG data and the Satellite-to-Satellite Tracking (SST observations along the GOCE orbit based on applying a least-squares analysis. The diagonal components (Vxx, Vyy, Vzz of the gravitational gradient tensor are used to form the system of observation equations with the band-pass ARMA filter. The point-wise acceleration observations (ax, ay, az along the orbit are used to form the system of observation equations up to the maximum spherical harmonic degree/order 130. The analysis of spectral accuracy characteristics of the newly derived gravitational model GOSG01S and the existing models GOTIM04S, GODIR04S, GOSPW04S and JYY_GOCE02S based on their comparison with the ultra-high degree model EIGEN-6C2 reveals a significant consistency at the spectral window approximately between 80 and 190 due to the same period SGG data used to compile these models. The GOCE related satellite gravity models GOSG01S, GOTIM05S, GODIR05S, GOTIM04S, GODIR04S, GOSPW04S, JYY_GOCE02S, EIGEN-6C2 and EGM2008 are also validated by using GPS-leveling data in China and USA. According to the truncation at degree 200, the statistic results show that all GGMs have very similar differences at GPS-leveling points in USA, and all GOCE related gravity models have better performance than EGM2008 in China. This suggests that all these models provide much more information on the gravity field than EGM2008 in areas with low terrestrial gravity coverage. And STDs of height anomaly differences in China for the selected truncation degrees show that GOCE has improved the accuracy of the global models beyond degree 90 and the accuracies of the models improve from 24 cm to 16 cm. STDs of geoid height differences in USA show that GOSG01S model has best consistency comparing with GPS-leveling data for the frequency band of the degree between 20 and 160.
Equivalence principle implications of modified gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hui, Lam; Nicolis, Alberto; Stubbs, Christopher W.
2009-01-01
Theories that attempt to explain the observed cosmic acceleration by modifying general relativity all introduce a new scalar degree of freedom that is active on large scales, but is screened on small scales to match experiments. We demonstrate that if such screening occurs via the chameleon mechanism, such as in f(R) theory, it is possible to have order unity violation of the equivalence principle, despite the absence of explicit violation in the microscopic action. Namely, extended objects such as galaxies or constituents thereof do not all fall at the same rate. The chameleon mechanism can screen the scalar charge for large objects but not for small ones (large/small is defined by the depth of the gravitational potential and is controlled by the scalar coupling). This leads to order one fluctuations in the ratio of the inertial mass to gravitational mass. We provide derivations in both Einstein and Jordan frames. In Jordan frame, it is no longer true that all objects move on geodesics; only unscreened ones, such as test particles, do. In contrast, if the scalar screening occurs via strong coupling, such as in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati braneworld model, equivalence principle violation occurs at a much reduced level. We propose several observational tests of the chameleon mechanism: 1. small galaxies should accelerate faster than large galaxies, even in environments where dynamical friction is negligible; 2. voids defined by small galaxies would appear larger compared to standard expectations; 3. stars and diffuse gas in small galaxies should have different velocities, even if they are on the same orbits; 4. lensing and dynamical mass estimates should agree for large galaxies but disagree for small ones. We discuss possible pitfalls in some of these tests. The cleanest is the third one where the mass estimate from HI rotational velocity could exceed that from stars by 30% or more. To avoid blanket screening of all objects, the most promising place to look is in
Kaluza–Klein-type models of de Sitter and Poincaré gauge theories of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lu Jiaan; Huang Chaoguang
2013-01-01
We construct Kaluza–Klein-type models with a de Sitter or Minkowski bundle in the de Sitter or Poincaré gauge theory of gravity, respectively. A manifestly gauge-invariant formalism has been given. The gravitational dynamics is constructed by the geometry of the de Sitter or Minkowski bundle and a global section which plays an important role in the gauge-invariant formalism. Unlike the old Kaluza–Klein-type models of gauge theory of gravity, a suitable cosmological term can be obtained in the Lagrangian of our models and the models in the spin-current-free and torsion-free limit will come back to general relativity with a corresponding cosmological term. We also generalize the results to the case with a variable cosmological term. (paper)
Speeding up N -body simulations of modified gravity: chameleon screening models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu; He, Jian-hua; Llinares, Claudio [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, Durham University, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Barreira, Alexandre [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, 85741 Garching (Germany); Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Koyama, Kazuya [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Zhao, Gong-Bo, E-mail: sownak.bose@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: baojiu.li@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: barreira@mpa-garching.mpg.de, E-mail: jianhua.he@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: wojciech.hellwing@port.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: claudio.llinares@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: gbzhao@nao.cas.cn [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100012 (China)
2017-02-01
We describe and demonstrate the potential of a new and very efficient method for simulating certain classes of modified gravity theories, such as the widely studied f ( R ) gravity models. High resolution simulations for such models are currently very slow due to the highly nonlinear partial differential equation that needs to be solved exactly to predict the modified gravitational force. This nonlinearity is partly inherent, but is also exacerbated by the specific numerical algorithm used, which employs a variable redefinition to prevent numerical instabilities. The standard Newton-Gauss-Seidel iterative method used to tackle this problem has a poor convergence rate. Our new method not only avoids this, but also allows the discretised equation to be written in a form that is analytically solvable. We show that this new method greatly improves the performance and efficiency of f ( R ) simulations. For example, a test simulation with 512{sup 3} particles in a box of size 512 Mpc/ h is now 5 times faster than before, while a Millennium-resolution simulation for f ( R ) gravity is estimated to be more than 20 times faster than with the old method. Our new implementation will be particularly useful for running very high resolution, large-sized simulations which, to date, are only possible for the standard model, and also makes it feasible to run large numbers of lower resolution simulations for covariance analyses. We hope that the method will bring us to a new era for precision cosmological tests of gravity.
High-resolution Moho model for Greenland from EIGEN-6C4 gravity data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Steffen, Rebekka; Strykowski, Gabriel; Lund, Björn
2017-01-01
are difficult to obtain. Here, we take advantage of the global gravity model EIGEN-6C4, together with the Parker-Oldenburg algorithm, to estimate the depth to the Moho beneath Greenland and surroundings. The available free-air gravity data are corrected for the topographic effect and the effect of sedimentary...... basins. We also correct for the effect on gravity due to the weight of the ice sheet and the accompanying deflection of the Earth's surface, which has not previously been taken into account in gravity studies of currently glaciated regions. Our final Moho depth model for Greenland has an associated...... uncertainty of ±4.5 km for areas with sedimentary basins and ±4 km for areas without sedimentary basins. The model shows maximum Moho depths below east Greenland of up to 55 km and values less than 20 km offshore east Greenland. There is a marked increase in Moho depth of 10–15 km from northern to central...
Speeding up N-body simulations of modified gravity: chameleon screening models
Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu; Barreira, Alexandre; He, Jian-hua; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Llinares, Claudio; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2017-02-01
We describe and demonstrate the potential of a new and very efficient method for simulating certain classes of modified gravity theories, such as the widely studied f(R) gravity models. High resolution simulations for such models are currently very slow due to the highly nonlinear partial differential equation that needs to be solved exactly to predict the modified gravitational force. This nonlinearity is partly inherent, but is also exacerbated by the specific numerical algorithm used, which employs a variable redefinition to prevent numerical instabilities. The standard Newton-Gauss-Seidel iterative method used to tackle this problem has a poor convergence rate. Our new method not only avoids this, but also allows the discretised equation to be written in a form that is analytically solvable. We show that this new method greatly improves the performance and efficiency of f(R) simulations. For example, a test simulation with 5123 particles in a box of size 512 Mpc/h is now 5 times faster than before, while a Millennium-resolution simulation for f(R) gravity is estimated to be more than 20 times faster than with the old method. Our new implementation will be particularly useful for running very high resolution, large-sized simulations which, to date, are only possible for the standard model, and also makes it feasible to run large numbers of lower resolution simulations for covariance analyses. We hope that the method will bring us to a new era for precision cosmological tests of gravity.
Speeding up N -body simulations of modified gravity: chameleon screening models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bose, Sownak; Li, Baojiu; He, Jian-hua; Llinares, Claudio; Barreira, Alexandre; Hellwing, Wojciech A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Zhao, Gong-Bo
2017-01-01
We describe and demonstrate the potential of a new and very efficient method for simulating certain classes of modified gravity theories, such as the widely studied f ( R ) gravity models. High resolution simulations for such models are currently very slow due to the highly nonlinear partial differential equation that needs to be solved exactly to predict the modified gravitational force. This nonlinearity is partly inherent, but is also exacerbated by the specific numerical algorithm used, which employs a variable redefinition to prevent numerical instabilities. The standard Newton-Gauss-Seidel iterative method used to tackle this problem has a poor convergence rate. Our new method not only avoids this, but also allows the discretised equation to be written in a form that is analytically solvable. We show that this new method greatly improves the performance and efficiency of f ( R ) simulations. For example, a test simulation with 512 3 particles in a box of size 512 Mpc/ h is now 5 times faster than before, while a Millennium-resolution simulation for f ( R ) gravity is estimated to be more than 20 times faster than with the old method. Our new implementation will be particularly useful for running very high resolution, large-sized simulations which, to date, are only possible for the standard model, and also makes it feasible to run large numbers of lower resolution simulations for covariance analyses. We hope that the method will bring us to a new era for precision cosmological tests of gravity.
Analog model for quantum gravity effects: phonons in random fluids.
Krein, G; Menezes, G; Svaiter, N F
2010-09-24
We describe an analog model for quantum gravity effects in condensed matter physics. The situation discussed is that of phonons propagating in a fluid with a random velocity wave equation. We consider that there are random fluctuations in the reciprocal of the bulk modulus of the system and study free phonons in the presence of Gaussian colored noise with zero mean. We show that, in this model, after performing the random averages over the noise function a free conventional scalar quantum field theory describing free phonons becomes a self-interacting model.
Seasonal Gravity Field Variations from GRACE and Hydrological Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Hinderer, Jacques; Lemoine, Frank G.
2004-01-01
. Four global hydrological models covering the same period in 2002–2003 as the GRACE observations were investigated to for their mutual consistency in estimates of annual variation in terrestrial water storage and related temporal changes in gravity field. The hydrological models differ by a maximum of 2...... µGal or nearly 5 cm equivalent water storage in selected regions. Integrated over all land masses the standard deviation among the annual signal from the four hydrological models are 0.6 µGal equivalent to around 1.4 cm in equivalent water layer thickness. The estimated accuracy of the annual...
Modeling and control of a gravity gradient stabilised satellite
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aage Skullestad
1999-01-01
Full Text Available This paper describes attitude control, i.e., 3-axes stabilisation and pointing, of a proposed Norwegian small gravity gradient stabilized satellite to be launched into low earth orbit. Generally, a gravity gradient stabilised system has limited stability and pointing capabilities, and wheels and/or magnetic coils are added in order to improve the attitude control. The best attitude accuracy is achieved using wheels, which can give accuracies down to less than one degree, but wheels increase the complexity and cost of the satellite. Magnetic coils allow cheaper satellites, and are an attractive solution to small, inexpensive satellites in low earth orbits and may provide an attitude control accuracy of a few degrees. Scientific measurements often require accurate attitude control in one or two axes only. Combining wheel and coil control may, in these cases, provide the best solutions. The simulation results are based on a linearised mathematical model of the satellite.
Spin foam models of matter coupled to gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikovic, A
2002-01-01
We construct a class of spin foam models describing matter coupled to gravity, such that the gravitational sector is described by the unitary irreducible representations of the appropriate symmetry group, while the matter sector is described by the finite-dimensional irreducible representations of that group. The corresponding spin foam amplitudes in the four-dimensional gravity case are expressed in terms of the spin network amplitudes for pentagrams with additional external and internal matter edges. We also give a quantum field theory formulation of the model, where the matter degrees of freedom are described by spin network fields carrying the indices from the appropriate group representation. In the non-topological Lorentzian gravity case, we argue that the matter representations should be appropriate SO(3) or SO(2) representations contained in a given Lorentz matter representation, depending on whether one wants to describe a massive or a massless matter field. The corresponding spin network amplitudes are given as multiple integrals of propagators which are matrix spherical functions
Testing the gravity p-median model empirically
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kenneth Carling
2015-12-01
Full Text Available Regarding the location of a facility, the presumption in the widely used p-median model is that the customer opts for the shortest route to the nearest facility. However, this assumption is problematic on free markets since the customer is presumed to gravitate to a facility by the distance to and the attractiveness of it. The recently introduced gravity p-median model offers an extension to the p-median model that account for this. The model is therefore potentially interesting, although it has not yet been implemented and tested empirically. In this paper, we have implemented the model in an empirical problem of locating vehicle inspections, locksmiths, and retail stores of vehicle spare-parts for the purpose of investigating its superiority to the p-median model. We found, however, the gravity p-median model to be of limited use for the problem of locating facilities as it either gives solutions similar to the p-median model, or it gives unstable solutions due to a non-concave objective function.
Effect of roughness and porosity on geometry and kinematics of lock-exchange gravity currents
Gatto, Elena; Adduce, Claudia; Ferreira, Rui M. L.
2017-04-01
Gravity currents generated by lock-exchange are an important research tool to understand key features of flows driven by a density may be naturally caused by interaction of geophysical nature but may also be triggered by adverse anthropic actions, from oil spills to pollution related turbidity. Research on the fundamental geometrical and kinematic features of these currents is still necessary, especially when they propagate on complex geometries. The purpose of this work is to investigate the shape and the velocity of propagation of gravity currents over rough beds and over rough-porous beds. To attain this objective, different initial conditions were specified, namely smooth bed, rough bed composed of a single layer of 2 mm glass beads and rough and porous bed composed of 4 layers of the same beads. The dimensions of the channel are 300 × 19,6 × 40 cm in which a steel gate is inserted to define the lock. Two initial mixtures were tested: 1015 and 1030 kgm-3. The density is measured with a pycnometer on a high precision balance. The mixture is composed of fresh water, salt and rhodamine, to allow for visualization and measurements based on image analysis. A high-speed video system camera was used to record the motion of the current. The camera has a 50 mm lens and a sampling frequency of 100 fps. Gray-level images were obtained with 8 bit depth. Calibration of gray-levels was performed pixel by pixel to mixture concentrations. The current is examined in three positions: immediately after the gate ((x-x0)/x0 = 0 to 3), in the middle ((x-x0)/x0 = 5 to 8) and at the end of the channel((x - x0)/x0 = 10 to 13). It is shown that the celerity of the gravity current wave front varies with the different boundary conditions. Indeed, the current is faster for the smooth bed and slower for the rough bed conditions. No appreciable effects of porosity were registered on the wave celerity. The shape of the current varied slightly between the rough and the porous-rough tests
BRS current and related anomalies in two-dimensional gravity and string theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fujikawa, Kazuo; Inagaki, Takeshi; Suzuki, Hiroshi.
1989-06-01
The BRS currents in two-dimensional gravity and supergravity theories, which are related to string theory, contain anomalous terms. The origin of these anomalies can be neatly understood in a carefully defined path integral. We present the detailed calculations of these BRS and related anomalies in the holomorphic or antiholomorphic sector separately in the conformal gauge. One-loop renormalization of the Liouville action becomes transparent in our formulation. We identify a BRS-invariant BRS current (and thus nil-potent charge) and a conformally invariant ghost number current by incorporating the dynamical Weyl freedom explicitly. The formal path integral construction of various composite operators is also checked by using the operator product technique. Implications of these BRS analyses on possible non-critical string theories at d<26 or d<10 are briefly discussed. (author)
Embedded model control GNC for the Next Generation Gravity Mission
Colangelo, Luigi; Massotti, Luca; Canuto, Enrico; Novara, Carlo
2017-11-01
A Next Generation Gravity Mission (NGGM) concept for measuring the Earth's variable gravity field has been recently proposed by ESA. The mission objective consists in measuring the temporal variations of the Earth gravity field over a long-time span, with very high spatial and temporal resolutions. This paper focuses on the guidance, navigation and control (GNC) design for the science phase of the NGGM mission. NGGM will consist of a two-satellite long-distance formation like GRACE, where each satellite will be controlled to be drag-free like GOCE. Satellite-to-satellite distance variations, encoding gravity anomalies, will be measured by laser interferometry. The formation satellites, distant up to 200 km, will fly in a quasi-polar orbit at an Earth altitude between 300 and 450 km. Orbit and formation control counteract bias and drift of the residual drag-free accelerations, in order to reach orbit/formation long-term stability. Drag-free control allows the formation to fly counteracting the atmospheric drag, ideally subject only to gravity. Orbit and formation control, designed through the innovative Integrated Formation Control (IFC), have been integrated into a unique control system, aiming at stabilizing the formation triangle consisting of satellites and Earth Center of Masses. In addition, both spacecraft must align their control axis to the satellite-to-satellite line (SSL) with micro-radian accuracy. This is made possible by specific optical sensors and the inter-satellite laser interferometer, capable of materializing the SSL. Such sensors allow each satellite to pursue an autonomous alignment after a suitable acquisition procedure. Pointing control is severely constrained by the angular drag-free control, which must ideally zero the angular acceleration vector, in the science frequency band. The control unit has been designed according to the Embedded Model Control methodology and is organized in a hierarchical way, where the drag-free control plays the
Affine group formulation of the Standard Model coupled to gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chou, Ching-Yi, E-mail: l2897107@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China); Ita, Eyo, E-mail: ita@usna.edu [Department of Physics, US Naval Academy, Annapolis, MD (United States); Soo, Chopin, E-mail: cpsoo@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Cheng Kung University, Taiwan (China)
2014-04-15
In this work we apply the affine group formalism for four dimensional gravity of Lorentzian signature, which is based on Klauder’s affine algebraic program, to the formulation of the Hamiltonian constraint of the interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity with non-vanishing cosmological constant Λ, as an affine Lie algebra. We use the hermitian action of fermions coupled to gravitation and Yang–Mills theory to find the density weight one fermionic super-Hamiltonian constraint. This term, combined with the Yang–Mills and Higgs energy densities, are composed with York’s integrated time functional. The result, when combined with the imaginary part of the Chern–Simons functional Q, forms the affine commutation relation with the volume element V(x). Affine algebraic quantization of gravitation and matter on equal footing implies a fundamental uncertainty relation which is predicated upon a non-vanishing cosmological constant. -- Highlights: •Wheeler–DeWitt equation (WDW) quantized as affine algebra, realizing Klauder’s program. •WDW formulated for interaction of matter and all forces, including gravity, as affine algebra. •WDW features Hermitian generators in spite of fermionic content: Standard Model addressed. •Constructed a family of physical states for the full, coupled theory via affine coherent states. •Fundamental uncertainty relation, predicated on non-vanishing cosmological constant.
Inflation and reheating in induced-gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barr, S.; Segre, G.
1990-01-01
The Planck mass is generated dynamically in induced-gravity models, typically being related to the vacuum expectation value of a scalar field φ, ε 1/2 left-angle φ right-angle=M Pl / √8π , where ε is a dimensionless parameter, typically smaller than one. We discuss in this paper the decay of the φ particle, which is mainly into gravitons, and the consequences this has for models in which the φ field is responsible for inflation. We show in particular that too much energy is stored in φ oscillations and adequate reheating does not occur
Models of non-relativistic quantum gravity: the good, the bad and the healthy
Blas, Diego; Sibiryakov, Sergey
2011-01-01
Horava's proposal for non-relativistic quantum gravity introduces a preferred time foliation of space-time which violates the local Lorentz invariance. The foliation is encoded in a dynamical scalar field which we call `khronon'. The dynamics of the khronon field is sensitive to the symmetries and other details of the particular implementations of the proposal. In this paper we examine several consistency issues present in three non-relativistic gravity theories: Horava's projectable theory, the healthy non-projectable extension, and a new extension related to ghost condensation. We find that the only model which is free from instabilities and strong coupling is the non-projectable one. We elaborate on the phenomenology of the latter model including a discussion of the couplings of the khronon to matter. In particular, we obtain the parameters of the post-Newtonian expansion in this model and show that they are compatible with current observations.
On a numerical strategy to compute gravity currents of non-Newtonian fluids
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vola, D.; Babik, F.; Latche, J.-C.
2004-01-01
This paper is devoted to the presentation of a numerical scheme for the simulation of gravity currents of non-Newtonian fluids. The two dimensional computational grid is fixed and the free-surface is described as a polygonal interface independent from the grid and advanced in time by a Lagrangian technique. Navier-Stokes equations are semi-discretized in time by the Characteristic-Galerkin method, which finally leads to solve a generalized Stokes problem posed on a physical domain limited by the free surface to only a part of the computational grid. To this purpose, we implement a Galerkin technique with a particular approximation space, defined as the restriction to the fluid domain of functions of a finite element space. The decomposition-coordination method allows to deal without any regularization with a variety of non-linear and possibly non-differentiable constitutive laws. Beside more analytical tests, we revisit with this numerical method some simulations of gravity currents of the literature, up to now investigated within the simplified thin-flow approximation framework
High-degree Gravity Models from GRAIL Primary Mission Data
Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander J.; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Loomis, Bryant D.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Caprette, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.;
2013-01-01
We have analyzed Ka?band range rate (KBRR) and Deep Space Network (DSN) data from the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) primary mission (1 March to 29 May 2012) to derive gravity models of the Moon to degree 420, 540, and 660 in spherical harmonics. For these models, GRGM420A, GRGM540A, and GRGM660PRIM, a Kaula constraint was applied only beyond degree 330. Variance?component estimation (VCE) was used to adjust the a priori weights and obtain a calibrated error covariance. The global root?mean?square error in the gravity anomalies computed from the error covariance to 320×320 is 0.77 mGal, compared to 29.0 mGal with the pre?GRAIL model derived with the SELENE mission data, SGM150J, only to 140×140. The global correlations with the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter?derived topography are larger than 0.985 between l = 120 and 330. The free?air gravity anomalies, especially over the lunar farside, display a dramatic increase in detail compared to the pre?GRAIL models (SGM150J and LP150Q) and, through degree 320, are free of the orbit?track?related artifacts present in the earlier models. For GRAIL, we obtain an a posteriori fit to the S?band DSN data of 0.13 mm/s. The a posteriori fits to the KBRR data range from 0.08 to 1.5 micrometers/s for GRGM420A and from 0.03 to 0.06 micrometers/s for GRGM660PRIM. Using the GRAIL data, we obtain solutions for the degree 2 Love numbers, k20=0.024615+/-0.0000914, k21=0.023915+/-0.0000132, and k22=0.024852+/-0.0000167, and a preliminary solution for the k30 Love number of k30=0.00734+/-0.0015, where the Love number error sigmas are those obtained with VCE.
CFD Modeling of a Multiphase Gravity Separator Vessel
Narayan, Gautham
2017-05-23
The poster highlights a CFD study that incorporates a combined Eulerian multi-fluid multiphase and a Population Balance Model (PBM) to study the flow inside a typical multiphase gravity separator vessel (GSV) found in oil and gas industry. The simulations were performed using Ansys Fluent CFD package running on KAUST supercomputer, Shaheen. Also, a highlight of a scalability study is presented. The effect of I/O bottlenecks and using Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) for collective and independent parallel reading of case file is presented. This work is an outcome of a research collaboration on an Aramco project on Shaheen.
CFD Modeling of a Multiphase Gravity Separator Vessel
Narayan, Gautham; Khurram, Rooh Ul Amin; Elsaadawy, Ehab
2017-01-01
The poster highlights a CFD study that incorporates a combined Eulerian multi-fluid multiphase and a Population Balance Model (PBM) to study the flow inside a typical multiphase gravity separator vessel (GSV) found in oil and gas industry. The simulations were performed using Ansys Fluent CFD package running on KAUST supercomputer, Shaheen. Also, a highlight of a scalability study is presented. The effect of I/O bottlenecks and using Hierarchical Data Format (HDF5) for collective and independent parallel reading of case file is presented. This work is an outcome of a research collaboration on an Aramco project on Shaheen.
ANALISIS DETERMINAN EKSPOR PROVINSI SUMATERA UTARA: PENDEKATAN GRAVITY MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Efori Telambanua
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Export Growth has been being one of important component in enhancing of economic growth of North Sumatera Province. During 2005-2010, the average growth of export rate of North Sumatera Province is 16,5 percent per year with 5,23 percent per year the average of it’s contribution to growth. The aim of this research is to detect the factors which affect the enhancement of export rate of North Sumatera Province during 2005-2010. With augmented gravity model approach, this research analyzes the effect of gross domestic product percapita rate and the population of each trading partner countries, geographical distance between North Sumatera Province and every trading partner countries, foreign direct investment and real effective exchange rate of North Sumatera Province, to the export rate of North Sumatera Province to every trading countries, such as United States of America, Netherland, China, India, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Egypt, Singapore, and Ukraine. By using random effect model in pooled data processing, the result of this research describes that the gross domestic product percapita and the population of each trading partner countries affect positively and significantly to the export rate of North Sumatera Province. As well as foreign direct investment rate and real effective exchange rate of North Sumatera Province show the positive and significant effect. Whereas, geographical distance as the trade barrier, correlate negatively and significantly to the export rate of North Sumatera Province. _________________________________ Keywords:Export rate, gravity model approach, export destination country
Guo, Zhikui; Chen, Chao; Tao, Chunhui
2016-04-01
Since 2007, there are four China Da yang cruises (CDCs), which have been carried out to investigate polymetallic sulfides in the southwest Indian ridge (SWIR) and have acquired both gravity data and bathymetry data on the corresponding survey lines(Tao et al., 2014). Sandwell et al. (2014) published a new global marine gravity model including the free air gravity data and its first order vertical gradient (Vzz). Gravity data and its gradient can be used to extract unknown density structure information(e.g. crust thickness) under surface of the earth, but they contain all the mass effect under the observation point. Therefore, how to get accurate gravity and its gradient effect of the existing density structure (e.g. terrain) has been a key issue. Using the bathymetry data or ETOPO1 (http://www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/global.html) model at a full resolution to calculate the terrain effect could spend too much computation time. We expect to develop an effective method that takes less time but can still yield the desired accuracy. In this study, a constant-density polyhedral model is used to calculate the gravity field and its vertical gradient, which is based on the work of Tsoulis (2012). According to gravity field attenuation with distance and variance of bathymetry, we present an adaptive mesh refinement and coarsening strategies to merge both global topography data and multi-beam bathymetry data. The local coarsening or size of mesh depends on user-defined accuracy and terrain variation (Davis et al., 2011). To depict terrain better, triangular surface element and rectangular surface element are used in fine and coarse mesh respectively. This strategy can also be applied to spherical coordinate in large region and global scale. Finally, we applied this method to calculate Bouguer gravity anomaly (BGA), mantle Bouguer anomaly(MBA) and their vertical gradient in SWIR. Further, we compared the result with previous results in the literature. Both synthetic model
Large Eddy Simulations of sediment entrainment induced by a lock-exchange gravity current
Kyrousi, Foteini; Leonardi, A.; Roman, F.; Armenio, V.; Zanello, F.; Zordan, J.; Juez, C.; Falcomer, L.
2018-04-01
Large Eddy simulations of lock-exchange gravity currents propagating over a mobile reach are presented. The numerical setting allows to investigate the sediment pick up induced by the currents and to study the underlying mechanisms leading to sediment entrainment for different Grashof numbers and grain sizes. First, the velocity field and the bed shear-stress distribution are investigated, along with turbulent structures formed in the flow, before the current reaches the mobile bed. Then, during the propagation of the current above the erodible section of the bed the contour plots of the entrained material are presented as well as the time evolution of the areas covered by the current and by the sediment at this section. The numerical outcomes are compared with experimental data showing a very good agreement. Overall, the study confirms that sediment pick up is prevalent at the head of the current where the strongest turbulence occurs. Further, above the mobile reach of the bed, settling process seems to be of minor importance, with the entrained material being advected downstream by the current. Additionally, the study shows that, although shear stress is the main mechanism that sets particles in motion, turbulent bursts as well as vertical velocity fluctuations are also necessary to counteract the falling velocity of the particles and maintain them into suspension. Finally, the analysis of the stability conditions of the current shows that, from one side, sediment concentration gives a negligible contribution to the stability of the front of the current and from the other side, the stability conditions provided by the current do not allow sediments to move into the ambient fluid.
Space-Wise approach for airborne gravity data modelling
Sampietro, D.; Capponi, M.; Mansi, A. H.; Gatti, A.; Marchetti, P.; Sansò, F.
2017-05-01
Regional gravity field modelling by means of remove-compute-restore procedure is nowadays widely applied in different contexts: it is the most used technique for regional gravimetric geoid determination, and it is also used in exploration geophysics to predict grids of gravity anomalies (Bouguer, free-air, isostatic, etc.), which are useful to understand and map geological structures in a specific region. Considering this last application, due to the required accuracy and resolution, airborne gravity observations are usually adopted. However, due to the relatively high acquisition velocity, presence of atmospheric turbulence, aircraft vibration, instrumental drift, etc., airborne data are usually contaminated by a very high observation error. For this reason, a proper procedure to filter the raw observations in both the low and high frequencies should be applied to recover valuable information. In this work, a software to filter and grid raw airborne observations is presented: the proposed solution consists in a combination of an along-track Wiener filter and a classical Least Squares Collocation technique. Basically, the proposed procedure is an adaptation to airborne gravimetry of the Space-Wise approach, developed by Politecnico di Milano to process data coming from the ESA satellite mission GOCE. Among the main differences with respect to the satellite application of this approach, there is the fact that, while in processing GOCE data the stochastic characteristics of the observation error can be considered a-priori well known, in airborne gravimetry, due to the complex environment in which the observations are acquired, these characteristics are unknown and should be retrieved from the dataset itself. The presented solution is suited for airborne data analysis in order to be able to quickly filter and grid gravity observations in an easy way. Some innovative theoretical aspects focusing in particular on the theoretical covariance modelling are presented too
Using the Gravity Model to Estimate the Spatial Spread of Vector-Borne Diseases
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jean-Marie Aerts
2012-11-01
Full Text Available The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the physical habitat of pathogens’ vectors and/or hosts, and urban areas, thus humans. This study implements the concept behind gravity models in the spatial spread of two vector-borne diseases, nephropathia epidemica and Lyme borreliosis, based on current knowledge on the transmission mechanism of these diseases. Two sources of information on vegetated systems were tested: the CORINE land cover map and MODIS NDVI. The size of vegetated areas near urban centers and a local indicator of occupation-related exposure were found significant predictors of disease risk. Both the land cover map and the space-borne dataset were suited yet not equivalent input sources to locate and measure vegetated areas of importance for disease spread. The overall results point at the compatibility of the gravity model concept and the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases.
Chen, Pengzhen; Wang, Xiaoqing; Liu, Li; Chong, Jinsong
2016-06-01
According to Bragg theory, capillary waves are the predominant scatterers of high-frequency band (such as Ka-band) microwave radiation from the surface of the ocean. Therefore, understanding the modulation mechanism of capillary waves is an important foundation for interpreting high-frequency microwave remote sensing images of the surface of the sea. In our experiments, we discovered that modulations of capillary waves are significantly larger than the values predicted by the classical theory. Further, analysis shows that the difference in restoring force results in an inflection point while the phase velocity changes from gravity waves region to capillary waves region, and this results in the capillary waves being able to resonate with gravity waves when the phase velocity of the gravity waves is equal to the group velocity of the capillary waves. Consequently, we propose a coupling modulation model in which the current modulates the capillary wave indirectly by modulating the resonant gravity waves, and the modulation of the former is approximated by that of the latter. This model very effectively explains the results discovered in our experiments. Further, based on Bragg scattering theory and this coupling modulation model, we simulate the modulation of normalized radar cross section (NRCS) of typical internal waves and show that the high-frequency bands are superior to the low-frequency bands because of their greater modulation of NRCS and better radiometric resolution. This result provides new support for choice of radar band for observation of wave-current modulation oceanic phenomena such as internal waves, fronts, and shears.
Gravity Model for Topological Features on a Cylindrical Manifold
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bayak I.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available A model aimed at understanding quantum gravity in terms of Birkho’s approach is discussed. The geometry of this model is constructed by using a winding map of Minkowski space into a R3 S1 -cylinder. The basic field of this model is a field of unit vectors defined through the velocity field of a flow wrapping the cylinder. The degeneration of some parts of the flow into circles (topological features results in in- homogeneities and gives rise to a scalar field, analogous to the gravitational field. The geometry and dynamics of this field are briefly discussed. We treat the intersections be- tween the topological features and the observer’s 3-space as matter particles and argue that these entities are likely to possess some quantum properties.
Periodic cycle of stretching and breaking of the head of gravity currents
Nogueira, H. I. S.; Adduce, C.; Alves, E.; Franca, M. J.
2012-04-01
Gravity currents, which are geophysical flows driven by density differences within a fluid, are herein investigated under unsteady conditions by means of lock-exchange releases of saline water into a fresh water tank. Generally, gravity or density currents are caused by temperature differences or the presence of dissolved substances or particles in suspension. Examples of gravity currents include avalanches of airborne snow and plumes of pyroclasts from volcanic eruptions, in the atmosphere, releases of pollutants and turbidity currents, in rivers, lakes and reservoirs, and oil spillage and oceanic fronts in the ocean. A controlled and convenient fashion to investigate in detail hydrodynamics of unsteady gravity currents is by means of lock-exchange experiments. The propagation of unsteady density currents, produced by lock exchange experiments, present three distinct phases, a first so-called slumping phase when buoyancy and inertial effects are balanced and front celerity is constant, a second (self-similar) phase when the reflected bore from the upper layer ambient fluid upstream drive, caused by continuity within the limited length tank, reaches the current front and causes the front celerity to decrease and provokes a diminution of the current head and, finally, a third viscous phase when viscosity plays a role and its effects overcome inertial effects. On the first and second phase, the current propagation is ruled by buoyancy effects counterbalanced by inertia, Reynolds stresses on the upper mixing layer and bed shear. Buoyancy is reduced due to entrainment and consequently the front velocity, leading to lower Reynolds number flows allowing thus viscosity effects to play a role. As for its anatomy, the current presents two distinct regions, the head and the remaining body or tail. On the very first instants of the release, the flow is bulky driven by the whole current mass while the head is not yet well defined. Later, this detaches from the main body and
de Rham, Claudia
2014-01-01
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...
Establishing a Near Term Lunar Farside Gravity Model via Inexpensive Add-on Navigation Payload
Folta, David; Mesarch, Michael; Miller, Ronald; Bell, David; Jedrey, Tom; Butman, Stanley; Asmar, Sami
2007-01-01
The Space Communications and Navigation, Constellation Integration Project (SCIP) is tasked with defining, developing, deploying and operating an evolving multi-decade communications and navigation (C/N) infrastructure including services and subsystems that will support both robotic and human exploration activities at the Moon. This paper discusses an early far side gravitational mapping service and related telecom subsystem that uses an existing spacecraft (WIND) and the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) to collect data that would address several needs of the SCIP. An important aspect of such an endeavor is to vastly improve the current lunar gravity model while demonstrating the navigation and stationkeeping of a relay spacecraft. We describe a gravity data acquisition activity and the trajectory design of the relay orbit in an Earth-Moon L2 co-linear libration orbit. Several phases of the transfer from an Earth-Sun to the Earth-Moon region are discussed along with transfers within the Earth-Moon system. We describe a proposed, but not integrated, add-on to LRO scheduled to be launched in October of 2008. LRO provided a real host spacecraft against which we designed the science payload and mission activities. From a strategic standpoint, LRO was a very exciting first flight opportunity for gravity science data collection. Gravity Science data collection requires the use of one or more low altitude lunar polar orbiters. Variations in the lunar gravity field will cause measurable variations in the orbit of a low altitude lunar orbiter. The primary means to capture these induced motions is to monitor the Doppler shift of a radio signal to or from the low altitude spacecraft, given that the signal is referenced to a stable frequency reference. For the lunar far side, a secondary orbiting radio signal platform is required. We provide an in-depth look at link margins, trajectory design, and hardware implications. Our approach posed minimum risk to a host mission while
The distance-decay function of geographical gravity model: Power law or exponential law?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen, Yanguang
2015-01-01
Highlights: •The distance-decay exponent of the gravity model is a fractal dimension. •Entropy maximization accounts for the gravity model based on power law decay. •Allometric scaling relations relate gravity models with spatial interaction models. •The four-parameter gravity models have dual mathematical expressions. •The inverse power law is the most probable distance-decay function. -- Abstract: The distance-decay function of the geographical gravity model is originally an inverse power law, which suggests a scaling process in spatial interaction. However, the distance exponent of the model cannot be reasonably explained with the ideas from Euclidean geometry. This results in a dimension dilemma in geographical analysis. Consequently, a negative exponential function was used to replace the inverse power function to serve for a distance-decay function. But a new puzzle arose that the exponential-based gravity model goes against the first law of geography. This paper is devoted for solving these kinds of problems by mathematical reasoning and empirical analysis. New findings are as follows. First, the distance exponent of the gravity model is demonstrated to be a fractal dimension using the geometric measure relation. Second, the similarities and differences between the gravity models and spatial interaction models are revealed using allometric relations. Third, a four-parameter gravity model possesses a symmetrical expression, and we need dual gravity models to describe spatial flows. The observational data of China's cities and regions (29 elements indicative of 841 data points) in 2010 are employed to verify the theoretical inferences. A conclusion can be reached that the geographical gravity model based on power-law decay is more suitable for analyzing large, complex, and scale-free regional and urban systems. This study lends further support to the suggestion that the underlying rationale of fractal structure is entropy maximization. Moreover
Einstein’s gravity from a polynomial affine model
Castillo-Felisola, Oscar; Skirzewski, Aureliano
2018-03-01
We show that the effective field equations for a recently formulated polynomial affine model of gravity, in the sector of a torsion-free connection, accept general Einstein manifolds—with or without cosmological constant—as solutions. Moreover, the effective field equations are partially those obtained from a gravitational Yang–Mills theory known as Stephenson–Kilmister–Yang theory. Additionally, we find a generalization of a minimally coupled massless scalar field in General Relativity within a ‘minimally’ coupled scalar field in this affine model. Finally, we present a brief (perturbative) analysis of the propagators of the gravitational theory, and count the degrees of freedom. For completeness, we prove that a Birkhoff-like theorem is valid for the analyzed sector.
Modeling of solidification of MMC composites during gravity casting process
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Zagórski
2013-04-01
Full Text Available The paper deals with computer simulation of gravity casting of the metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramics (MMC into sand mold. The subject of our interest is aluminum matrix composite (AlMMC reinforced with ceramic particles i.e. silicon carbide SiC and glass carbon Cg. The created model describes the process taking into account solidification and its influence on the distribution of reinforcement particles. The computer calculation has been carried out in 2D system with the use of Navier-Stokes equations using ANSYS FLUENT 13. The Volume of Fluid approach (VOF and enthalpy method have been used to model the air-fluid free surface (and also volume fraction of particular continuous phases and the solidification of the cast, respectively.
Thermodynamic behavior of particular f(R,T)-gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sharif, M.; Zubair, M.
2013-01-01
We investigate the thermodynamics at the apparent horizon of the FRW universe in f(R, T) theory in the nonequilibrium description. The laws of thermodynamics are discussed for two particular models of the f(R, T) theory. The first law of thermodynamics is expressed in the form of the Clausius relation T h dS-circumflex h = δ Q , where δQ is the energy flux across the horizon and dS-circumflex is the entropy production term. Furthermore, the conditions for the generalized second law of thermodynamics to be preserved are established with the constraints of positive temperature and attractive gravity. We illustrate our results for some concrete models in this theory
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rowe, Charlotte Anne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-11-21
We can measure changes in gravity from place to place on the earth. These measurements require careful recording of location, elevation and time for each reading. These readings must be adjusted for known effects (such as elevation, latitude, tides) that can bias our data and mask the signal of interest. After making corrections to our data, we can remove regional trends to obtain local Bouguer anomalies. The Bouguer anomalies arise from variations in the subsurface density structure. We can build models to explain our observations, but these models must be consistent with what is known about the local geology. Combining gravity models with other information – geologic, seismic, electromagnetic, will improve confidence in the results.
An improved gravity model for Mars: Goddard Mars Model-1 (GMM-1)
Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.; Fricke, S. K.; Lemoine, F. G.
1993-01-01
Doppler tracking data of three orbiting spacecraft have been reanalyzed to develop a new gravitational field model for the planet Mars, GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1). This model employs nearly all available data, consisting of approximately 1100 days of S-bank tracking data collected by NASA's Deep Space Network from the Mariner 9, and Viking 1 and Viking 2 spacecraft, in seven different orbits, between 1971 and 1979. GMM-1 is complete to spherical harmonic degree and order 50, which corresponds to a half-wavelength spatial resolution of 200-300 km where the data permit. GMM-1 represents satellite orbits with considerably better accuracy than previous Mars gravity models and shows greater resolution of identifiable geological structures. The notable improvement in GMM-1 over previous models is a consequence of several factors: improved computational capabilities, the use of optimum weighting and least-squares collocation solution techniques which stabilized the behavior of the solution at high degree and order, and the use of longer satellite arcs than employed in previous solutions that were made possible by improved force and measurement models. The inclusion of X-band tracking data from the 379-km altitude, near-polar orbiting Mars Observer spacecraft should provide a significant improvement over GMM-1, particularly at high latitudes where current data poorly resolves the gravitational signature of the planet.
Downstream Fining of Polydispersed Gravity Currents Along a V-Shaped Valley.
Besson, C. K.; Meriaux, C. A. M. D.
2014-12-01
Turbidity currents belong to the class of currents transporting sediments, whose deposits exhibit downstream grain size fining. In this study, the objective was to better understand the relationship between downstream fining and grain sizes at the source. To this end, we performed four lock-exchange experiments of polydispersed and turbulent gravity currents flowing along a 5-m long V-shaped valley. The particle volumetric concentrations were typically 3%. The four currents were made of 1) Silicon Carbide (SiC), 2) Glass Beads (GBs), 3) a combined poorly sorted SiC/GBs, and 4) a moderately sorted combined SiC/GBs. We used the Morphologi G3 tool developed by Malvern Instruments Corporate (Malvern Instruments Ltd, UK) for the grain size analyses. We first established a criterion for identifying the appropriate number of grain size classes nbclassfor characterizing the grain size distributions. We considered the four statistical indicators that are the arithmetic mean size dmean, the standard deviation σd, the skewness Skd, and the kurtosis Kd, and show that the four indicators for the initial grain size distributions reach plateaux when nb_class≥ 20. Hence we chose nbclass=20 as being our appropriate bin width. These four indicators were then calculated for samples taken along the deposits to establish the grain size distributions along the deposits. The subsequent profiles of dmean, σd, Skd, and Kd with distance from the lock show highly variable behaviours between the different initial distributions. In particular, the distance over which the loss of the largest grains of the initial distribution occurs [dmean> dmean(initial)], can cover up to half the runout length. Curiously, the different rates of fining estimated from the curves (dmean/ dmean(initial)) as a function of downstream distance (x/x_runout) do not appear to be well correlated with the sedimentation velocities based on dmean(initial). This is currently being investigated.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forsberg, René; Sideris, M.G.; Shum, C.K.
2005-01-01
The gravity field of the earth is a natural element of the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS). Gravity field quantities are like spatial geodetic observations of potential very high accuracy, with measurements, currently at part-per-billion (ppb) accuracy, but gravity field quantities are also...... unique as they can be globally represented by harmonic functions (long-wavelength geopotential model primarily from satellite gravity field missions), or based on point sampling (airborne and in situ absolute and superconducting gravimetry). From a GGOS global perspective, one of the main challenges...... is to ensure the consistency of the global and regional geopotential and geoid models, and the temporal changes of the gravity field at large spatial scales. The International Gravity Field Service, an umbrella "level-2" IAG service (incorporating the International Gravity Bureau, International Geoid Service...
Influence of World and Gravity Model Selection on Surface Interacting Vehicle Simulations
Madden, Michael M.
2007-01-01
A vehicle simulation is surface-interacting if the state of the vehicle (position, velocity, and acceleration) relative to the surface is important. Surface-interacting simulations perform ascent, entry, descent, landing, surface travel, or atmospheric flight. Modeling of gravity is an influential environmental factor for surface-interacting simulations. Gravity is the free-fall acceleration observed from a world-fixed frame that rotates with the world. Thus, gravity is the sum of gravitation and the centrifugal acceleration due to the world s rotation. In surface-interacting simulations, the fidelity of gravity at heights above the surface is more significant than gravity fidelity at locations in inertial space. A surface-interacting simulation cannot treat the gravity model separately from the world model, which simulates the motion and shape of the world. The world model's simulation of the world's rotation, or lack thereof, produces the centrifugal acceleration component of gravity. The world model s reproduction of the world's shape will produce different positions relative to the world center for a given height above the surface. These differences produce variations in the gravitation component of gravity. This paper examines the actual performance of world and gravity/gravitation pairs in a simulation using the Earth.
Zwei-Dreibein Gravity : A Two-Frame-Field Model of 3D Massive Gravity
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; de Haan, Sjoerd; Hohm, Olaf; Merbis, Wout; Townsend, Paul K.
2013-01-01
We present a generally covariant and parity-invariant two-frame field ("zwei-dreibein") action for gravity in three space-time dimensions that propagates two massive spin-2 modes, unitarily, and we use Hamiltonian methods to confirm the absence of unphysical degrees of freedom. We show how
Solving the Standard Model Problems in Softened Gravity
Salvio, Alberto
2016-11-16
The Higgs naturalness problem is solved if the growth of Einstein's gravitational interaction is softened at an energy $ \\lesssim 10^{11}\\,$GeV (softened gravity). We work here within an explicit realization where the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is extended to include terms quadratic in the curvature and a non-minimal coupling with the Higgs. We show that this solution is preserved by adding three right-handed neutrinos with masses below the electroweak scale, accounting for neutrino oscillations, dark matter and the baryon asymmetry. The smallness of the right-handed neutrino masses (compared to the Planck scale) and the QCD $\\theta$-term are also shown to be natural. We prove that a possible gravitational source of CP violation cannot spoil the model, thanks to the presence of right-handed neutrinos. Starobinsky inflation can occur in this context, even if we live in a metastable vacuum.
Bucha, Blažej; Hirt, Christian; Kuhn, Michael
2018-04-01
Spectral gravity forward modelling is a technique that converts a band-limited topography into its implied gravitational field. This conversion implicitly relies on global integration of topographic masses. In this paper, a modification of the spectral technique is presented that provides gravity effects induced only by the masses located inside or outside a spherical cap centred at the evaluation point. This is achieved by altitude-dependent Molodensky's truncation coefficients, for which we provide infinite series expansions and recurrence relations with a fixed number of terms. Both representations are generalized for an arbitrary integer power of the topography and arbitrary radial derivative. Because of the altitude-dependency of the truncation coefficients, a straightforward synthesis of the near- and far-zone gravity effects at dense grids on irregular surfaces (e.g. the Earth's topography) is computationally extremely demanding. However, we show that this task can be efficiently performed using an analytical continuation based on the gradient approach, provided that formulae for radial derivatives of the truncation coefficients are available. To demonstrate the new cap-modified spectral technique, we forward model the Earth's degree-360 topography, obtaining near- and far-zone effects on gravity disturbances expanded up to degree 3600. The computation is carried out on the Earth's surface and the results are validated against an independent spatial-domain Newtonian integration (1 μGal RMS agreement). The new technique is expected to assist in mitigating the spectral filter problem of residual terrain modelling and in the efficient construction of full-scale global gravity maps of highest spatial resolution.
Spin foam models of Yang-Mills theory coupled to gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mikovic, A
2003-01-01
We construct a spin foam model of Yang-Mills theory coupled to gravity by using a discretized path integral of the BF theory with polynomial interactions and the Barrett-Crane ansatz. In the Euclidean gravity case, we obtain a vertex amplitude which is determined by a vertex operator acting on a simple spin network function. The Euclidean gravity results can be straightforwardly extended to the Lorentzian case, so that we propose a Lorentzian spin foam model of Yang-Mills theory coupled to gravity
Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2005-08-01
Internal model is a neural mechanism that mimics the dynamics of an object for sensory motor or cognitive functions. Recent research focuses on the issue of whether multiple internal models are learned and switched to cope with a variety of conditions, or single general models are adapted by tuning the parameters. Here we addressed this issue by investigating how the manual interception of a moving target changes with changes of the visual environment. In our paradigm, a virtual target moves vertically downward on a screen with different laws of motion. Subjects are asked to punch a hidden ball that arrives in synchrony with the visual target. By using several different protocols, we systematically found that subjects do not develop a new internal model appropriate for constant speed targets, but they use the default gravity model and reduce the central processing time. The results imply that adaptation to zero-gravity targets involves a compression of temporal processing through the cortical and subcortical regions interconnected with the vestibular cortex, which has previously been shown to be the site of storage of the internal model of gravity.
Matthews, Samuel J.; O'Neill, Craig; Lackie, Mark A.
2017-06-01
Gravity gradiometry has a long legacy, with airborne/marine applications as well as surface applications receiving renewed recent interest. Recent instrumental advances has led to the emergence of downhole gravity gradiometry applications that have the potential for greater resolving power than borehole gravity alone. This has promise in both the petroleum and geosequestration industries; however, the effect of inherent uncertainties in the ability of downhole gravity gradiometry to resolve a subsurface signal is unknown. Here, we utilise the open source modelling package, Fatiando a Terra, to model both the gravity and gravity gradiometry responses of a subsurface body. We use a Monte Carlo approach to vary the geological structure and reference densities of the model within preset distributions. We then perform 100 000 simulations to constrain the mean response of the buried body as well as uncertainties in these results. We varied our modelled borehole to be either centred on the anomaly, adjacent to the anomaly (in the x-direction), and 2500 m distant to the anomaly (also in the x-direction). We demonstrate that gravity gradiometry is able to resolve a reservoir-scale modelled subsurface density variation up to 2500 m away, and that certain gravity gradient components (Gzz, Gxz, and Gxx) are particularly sensitive to this variation in gravity/gradiometry above the level of uncertainty in the model. The responses provided by downhole gravity gradiometry modelling clearly demonstrate a technique that can be utilised in determining a buried density contrast, which will be of particular use in the emerging industry of CO2 geosequestration. The results also provide a strong benchmark for the development of newly emerging prototype downhole gravity gradiometers.
Bouguer gravity anomalies for terrain modeling | Orupabo | Journal ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
Gravity anomalies have been applied in geodesy to determine the geoid, and the associated composition and crustal properties of the earth. Applications of solution of the gravity inversion problems include the study of crustal dynamics as a result of the extraction of fluids in the form of oil, gas and water from ...
A marked correlation function for constraining modified gravity models
White, Martin
2016-11-01
Future large scale structure surveys will provide increasingly tight constraints on our cosmological model. These surveys will report results on the distance scale and growth rate of perturbations through measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and Redshift-Space Distortions. It is interesting to ask: what further analyses should become routine, so as to test as-yet-unknown models of cosmic acceleration? Models which aim to explain the accelerated expansion rate of the Universe by modifications to General Relativity often invoke screening mechanisms which can imprint a non-standard density dependence on their predictions. This suggests density-dependent clustering as a `generic' constraint. This paper argues that a density-marked correlation function provides a density-dependent statistic which is easy to compute and report and requires minimal additional infrastructure beyond what is routinely available to such survey analyses. We give one realization of this idea and study it using low order perturbation theory. We encourage groups developing modified gravity theories to see whether such statistics provide discriminatory power for their models.
A marked correlation function for constraining modified gravity models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
White, Martin, E-mail: mwhite@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)
2016-11-01
Future large scale structure surveys will provide increasingly tight constraints on our cosmological model. These surveys will report results on the distance scale and growth rate of perturbations through measurements of Baryon Acoustic Oscillations and Redshift-Space Distortions. It is interesting to ask: what further analyses should become routine, so as to test as-yet-unknown models of cosmic acceleration? Models which aim to explain the accelerated expansion rate of the Universe by modifications to General Relativity often invoke screening mechanisms which can imprint a non-standard density dependence on their predictions. This suggests density-dependent clustering as a 'generic' constraint. This paper argues that a density-marked correlation function provides a density-dependent statistic which is easy to compute and report and requires minimal additional infrastructure beyond what is routinely available to such survey analyses. We give one realization of this idea and study it using low order perturbation theory. We encourage groups developing modified gravity theories to see whether such statistics provide discriminatory power for their models.
On the Dynamics of Two-Dimensional Capillary-Gravity Solitary Waves with a Linear Shear Current
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dali Guo
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The numerical study of the dynamics of two-dimensional capillary-gravity solitary waves on a linear shear current is presented in this paper. The numerical method is based on the time-dependent conformal mapping. The stability of different kinds of solitary waves is considered. Both depression wave and large amplitude elevation wave are found to be stable, while small amplitude elevation wave is unstable to the small perturbation, and it finally evolves to be a depression wave with tails, which is similar to the irrotational capillary-gravity waves.
Sanchez, Braulio V.
1990-01-01
The Japanese Experimental Geodetic Satellite Ajisai was launched on August 12, 1986. In response to the TOPEX-POSEIDON mission requirements, the GSFC Space Geodesy Branch and its associates are producing improved models of the Earth's gravitational field. With the launch of Ajisai, precise laser data is now available which can be used to test many current gravity models. The testing of the various gravity field models show improvements of more than 70 percent in the orbital fits when using GEM-T1 and GEM-T2 relative to results obtained with the earlier GEM-10B model. The GEM-T2 orbital fits are at the 13-cm level (RMS). The results of the tests with the various versions of the GEM-T1 model indicate that the addition of satellite altimetry and surface gravity anomalies as additional data types should improve future gravity field models.
Renormalization group flows in σ-models coupled to two-dimensional dynamical gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penati, S.; Santambrogio, A.; Zanon, D.
1997-01-01
We consider a bosonic σ-model coupled to two-dimensional gravity. In the semiclassical limit, c→-∞, we compute the gravity dressing of the β-functions at two-loop order in the matter fields. We find that the corrections due to the presence of dynamical gravity are not expressible simply in terms of a multiplicative factor as previously obtained at the one-loop level. Our result indicates that the critical points of the theory are non-trivially influenced and modified by the induced gravity. (orig.)
Gravity modelling of the lower crust in Sardinia (Italy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Quarta
1997-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper an example is given of an application of statistical techniques to the Bouguer anomalies analysis in order to design a simple crustal model using few a priori assumptions. All gravity measurements carried out in Sardinia have been collected and processed. The Bouguer anomalies have been calculated according to local density estimates. Spectral analysis of the Bouguer anomalies has been carried out along selected profiles in order to estimate the mean depth of the Moho discontinuity and that of an infracrustal discontinuity. The use of this technique inferred the presence of a discontinuity at a mean depth of ~ 28 km, interpreted as Moho and the likely presence of an infracrustal discontinuity at a mean depth of ~18 km, interpreted as the upper-lower crust transition. In order to roughly reconstruct the shape of these interfaces, 2D inversion techniques were applied to the large wavelength components of the Bouguer anomalies, relative to profiles oriented along the E-W direction, extracted from low-pass filtered Bouguer anomaly maps. The density model obtained is compatible with some velocity models achieved from the interpretation of the seismic refraction profiles carried out within the European Geotraverse project.
A refined gravity model from Lageos /GEM-L2/
Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.
1982-01-01
Lageos satellite laser ranging (SLR) data taken over a 2.5 yr period were employed to develop the Goddard Earth Model GEM-L2, a refined gravity field model. Additional data was gathered with 30 other satellites, resulting in spherical harmonics through degree and order 20, based on over 600,000 measurements. The Lageos data was accurate down to 10 cm, after which the GEM 9 data were used to make adjustments past order 7. The resolution of long wavelength activity, through degree and order 4, was made possible by the Lageos data. The GEM-L2 model features a 20 x 20 geopotential, tracking station coordinates (20), 5-day polar motion and A1-UT1 values, and a GM value of 398,600.607 cu km/sq sec. The accuracy of station positioning has been raised to within 6 cm total position globally and within 1.8 cm in baselines. It is concluded that SLR is useful for measuring tectonic plate motions and inter-plate deformations.
Improved upper bounds on Kaluza-Klein gravity with current Solar System experiments and observations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Deng, Xue-Mei [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Purple Mountain Observatory, Nanjing (China); Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Shanghai Key Laboratory of Space Navigation and Position Techniques, Shanghai (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)
2015-11-15
As an extension of previous works on classical tests of Kaluza-Klein (KK) gravity and as an attempt to find more stringent constraints on this theory, its effects on physical experiments and astronomical observations conducted in the Solar System are studied. We investigate the gravitational time delay at inferior conjunction caused by KK gravity, and use new Solar System ephemerides and the observation of Cassini to strengthen constraints on KK gravity by up to two orders of magnitude. These improved upper bounds mean that the fifth-dimensional space in the soliton case is a very flat extra dimension in the Solar System, even in the vicinity of the Sun. (orig.)
Root, Bart; Tarasov, Lev; van der Wal, Wouter
2014-05-01
The global ice budget is still under discussion because the observed 120-130 m eustatic sea level equivalent since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) can not be explained by the current knowledge of land-ice melt after the LGM. One possible location for the missing ice is the Barents Sea Region, which was completely covered with ice during the LGM. This is deduced from relative sea level observations on Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and the North coast of Scandinavia. However, there are no observations in the middle of the Barents Sea that capture the post-glacial uplift. With increased precision and longer time series of monthly gravity observations of the GRACE satellite mission it is possible to constrain Glacial Isostatic Adjustment in the center of the Barents Sea. This study investigates the extra constraint provided by GRACE data for modeling the past ice geometry in the Barents Sea. We use CSR release 5 data from February 2003 to July 2013. The GRACE data is corrected for the past 10 years of secular decline of glacier ice on Svalbard, Novaya Zemlya and Frans Joseph Land. With numerical GIA models for a radially symmetric Earth, we model the expected gravity changes and compare these with the GRACE observations after smoothing with a 250 km Gaussian filter. The comparisons show that for the viscosity profile VM5a, ICE-5G has too strong a gravity signal compared to GRACE. The regional calibrated ice sheet model (GLAC) of Tarasov appears to fit the amplitude of the GRACE signal. However, the GRACE data are very sensitive to the ice-melt correction, especially for Novaya Zemlya. Furthermore, the ice mass should be more concentrated to the middle of the Barents Sea. Alternative viscosity models confirm these conclusions.
Vertical Transport of Momentum by the Inertial-Gravity Internal Waves in a Baroclinic Current
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. A. Slepyshev
2017-08-01
Full Text Available When the internal waves break, they are one of the sources of small-scale turbulence. Small-scale turbulence causes the vertical exchange in the ocean. However, internal waves with regard to the Earth rotation in the presence of vertically inhomogeneous two-dimensional current are able to contribute to the vertical transport. Free inertial-gravity internal waves in a baroclinic current in a boundless basin of a constant depth are considered in the Bussinesq approximation. Boundary value problem of linear approximation for the vertical velocity amplitude of internal waves has complex coefficients when current velocity component, which is transversal to the wave propagation direction, depends on the vertical coordinate (taking into account the rotation of the Earth. Eigenfunction and wave frequency are complex, and it is shown that a weak wave damping takes place. Dispersive relation and wave damping decrement are calculated in the linear approximation. At a fixed wave number damping decrement of the second mode is larger (in the absolute value than the one of the first mode. The equation for vertical velocity amplitude for real profiles of the Brunt – Vaisala frequency and current velocity are numerically solved according to implicit Adams scheme of the third order of accuracy. The dispersive curves of the first two modes do not reach inertial frequency in the low-frequency area due to the effect of critical layers in which wave frequency of the Doppler shift is equal to the inertial one. Termination of the second mode dispersive curves takes place at higher frequency than the one of the first mode. In the second order of the wave amplitude the Stokes drift speed is determined. It is shown that the Stokes drift speed, which is transversal to the wave propagation direction, differs from zero if the transversal component of current velocity depends on the vertical coordinate. In this case, the Stokes drift speed in the second mode is lower than
Constraints on modified gravity models from white dwarfs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Banerjee, Srimanta; Singh, Tejinder P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005, Maharashtra (India); Shankar, Swapnil, E-mail: srimanta.banerjee@tifr.res.in, E-mail: swapnil.shankar@cbs.ac.in, E-mail: tpsingh@tifr.res.in [Department of Physics, Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Mumbai 400098, Maharashtra (India)
2017-10-01
Modified gravity theories can introduce modifications to the Poisson equation in the Newtonian limit. As a result, we expect to see interesting features of these modifications inside stellar objects. White dwarf stars are one of the most well studied stars in stellar astrophysics. We explore the effect of modified gravity theories inside white dwarfs. We derive the modified stellar structure equations and solve them to study the mass-radius relationships for various modified gravity theories. We also constrain the parameter space of these theories from observations.
On tridimensional rip current modeling
Marchesiello, Patrick; Benshila, Rachid; Almar, Rafael; Uchiyama, Yusuke; McWilliams, James C.; Shchepetkin, Alexander
2015-12-01
Do lateral shear instabilities of nearshore circulation account for a substantial part of Very Low-Frequency (VLF) variability? If yes, it would promote stirring and mixing of coastal waters and surf-shelf exchanges. Another question is whether tridimensional transient processes are important for instability generation. An innovative modeling system with tridimensional wave-current interactions was designed to investigate transient nearshore currents and interactions between nearshore and innershelf circulations. We present here some validation of rip current modeling for the Aquitanian coast of France, using in-situ and remote video sensing. We then proceed to show the benefits of 3D versus 2D (depth-mean flow) modeling of rip currents and their low-frequency variability. It appears that a large part of VLF motions is due to intrinsic variability of the tridimensional flow. 3D models may thus provide a valuable, only marginally more expensive alternative to conventional 2D approaches that miss the vertical flow structure and its nonlinear interaction with the depth-averaged flow.
Constraining the interacting dark energy models from weak gravity conjecture and recent observations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chen Ximing; Wang Bin; Pan Nana; Gong Yungui
2011-01-01
We examine the effectiveness of the weak gravity conjecture in constraining the dark energy by comparing with observations. For general dark energy models with plausible phenomenological interactions between dark sectors, we find that although the weak gravity conjecture can constrain the dark energy, the constraint is looser than that from the observations.
The anisotropic cosmological models in f ( R , T ) gravity with Λ
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
The general class of anisotropic Bianchi cosmological models in f ( R , T ) modified theories of gravity with Λ ( T ) has been considered. This paper deals with f ( R , T ) modified theories of gravity, where the gravitational Lagrangian is given by an arbitrary function of Ricci scalar R and the trace of the stress-energy tensor T ...
A Comparison Between Gravity Wave Momentum Fluxes in Observations and Climate Models
Geller, Marvin A.; Alexadner, M. Joan; Love, Peter T.; Bacmeister, Julio; Ern, Manfred; Hertzog, Albert; Manzini, Elisa; Preusse, Peter; Sato, Kaoru; Scaife, Adam A.;
2013-01-01
For the first time, a formal comparison is made between gravity wave momentum fluxes in models and those derived from observations. Although gravity waves occur over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales, the focus of this paper is on scales that are being parameterized in present climate models, sub-1000-km scales. Only observational methods that permit derivation of gravity wave momentum fluxes over large geographical areas are discussed, and these are from satellite temperature measurements, constant-density long-duration balloons, and high-vertical-resolution radiosonde data. The models discussed include two high-resolution models in which gravity waves are explicitly modeled, Kanto and the Community Atmosphere Model, version 5 (CAM5), and three climate models containing gravity wave parameterizations,MAECHAM5, Hadley Centre Global Environmental Model 3 (HadGEM3), and the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) model. Measurements generally show similar flux magnitudes as in models, except that the fluxes derived from satellite measurements fall off more rapidly with height. This is likely due to limitations on the observable range of wavelengths, although other factors may contribute. When one accounts for this more rapid fall off, the geographical distribution of the fluxes from observations and models compare reasonably well, except for certain features that depend on the specification of the nonorographic gravity wave source functions in the climate models. For instance, both the observed fluxes and those in the high-resolution models are very small at summer high latitudes, but this is not the case for some of the climate models. This comparison between gravity wave fluxes from climate models, high-resolution models, and fluxes derived from observations indicates that such efforts offer a promising path toward improving specifications of gravity wave sources in climate models.
Model study of the compact gravity reconstruction; Juryoku inversion `CGR` no model kento
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ishii, Y; Muraoka, A [Sogo Geophysical Exploration Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)
1996-05-01
An examination was made on gravity inversion using a compact gravity reconstruction (CGR) method in gravity tomography analysis. In a model analysis, an analytical region of 100m{times}50m was divided into cells of 10m{times}10m, on the assumption that two density anomalous bodies with a density difference of 1.0g/cm{sup 3} existed with one shallow and the other deep density distribution. The result of the analysis revealed that, in a linear analysis by a general inverse matrix, blurs and blotting were plenty with a tendency of making gravity anomaly attributable to an anomalous distribution of shallow density; that CGR provided a large effect in making a clear contrast of an anomalous part; that, where structures of shallow and deep density anomalies existed, the analysis by CGR was inferior in the restoration of a deep structure with errors enlarged; that, if a gravity traverse was taken long compared with the distribution depth of density anomalies, the analytical precision of a deep part was improved; that an analytical convergence was better with the restriction of density difference given on the large side than on the small side; and so on. 3 refs., 10 figs.
Donovan, F. M.; Gresser, A. L.; Sato, Kevin Y.; Taylor, Elizabeth M.
2018-01-01
Laboratory strains of mice and rat are widely used to study mammalian responses to stimulus, and both have been studied under a variety of gravity conditions, including space flight. We compared results obtained from exposure to spaceflight and microgravity, hyper gravity via centrifugation, earth gravity, and models of simulated partial gravity (hind-limb unloading and partial weight bearing treatments). We examined the reported changes in survival, body mass, circadian rhythm (body temperature and activity levels), behavior, bone, muscle, immune, cardio-vasculature, vestibular, reproduction and neonate survival, microbiome, and the visual system. Not all categories have published data for both species, some have limited data, and there are variations in experiment design that allow for only relative comparisons to be considered. The data reveal species differences in both the level of gravity required to obtain a response, degree of response, and in temporal expression of responses. Examination of the data across the gravity levels allows consideration of the hypothesis that gravitational responses follow a continuum, and organ specific differences are noted. In summary, we present advantages and caveats of each model system as pertains to gravitational biology research and identify gaps in our knowledge of how these mammals respond to gravity.
Streaming gravity mode instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shui.
1989-05-01
In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs
Temporal gravity field modeling based on least square collocation with short-arc approach
ran, jiangjun; Zhong, Min; Xu, Houze; Liu, Chengshu; Tangdamrongsub, Natthachet
2014-05-01
After the launch of the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) in 2002, several research centers have attempted to produce the finest gravity model based on different approaches. In this study, we present an alternative approach to derive the Earth's gravity field, and two main objectives are discussed. Firstly, we seek the optimal method to estimate the accelerometer parameters, and secondly, we intend to recover the monthly gravity model based on least square collocation method. The method has been paid less attention compared to the least square adjustment method because of the massive computational resource's requirement. The positions of twin satellites are treated as pseudo-observations and unknown parameters at the same time. The variance covariance matrices of the pseudo-observations and the unknown parameters are valuable information to improve the accuracy of the estimated gravity solutions. Our analyses showed that introducing a drift parameter as an additional accelerometer parameter, compared to using only a bias parameter, leads to a significant improvement of our estimated monthly gravity field. The gravity errors outside the continents are significantly reduced based on the selected set of the accelerometer parameters. We introduced the improved gravity model namely the second version of Institute of Geodesy and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (IGG-CAS 02). The accuracy of IGG-CAS 02 model is comparable to the gravity solutions computed from the Geoforschungszentrum (GFZ), the Center for Space Research (CSR) and the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). In term of the equivalent water height, the correlation coefficients over the study regions (the Yangtze River valley, the Sahara desert, and the Amazon) among four gravity models are greater than 0.80.
Dai, Albert; Wu, Ching-Sen
2018-02-01
High-resolution simulations of unstable cylindrical gravity currents when wandering and splitting motions occur in a rotating system are reported. In this study, our attention is focused on the situation of unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents when the ratio of Coriolis to inertia forces is larger, namely, 0.5 ≤ C ≤ 2.0, in comparison to the stable ones when C ≤ 0.3 as investigated previously by the authors. The simulations reproduce the major features of the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents observed in the laboratory, i.e., vortex-wandering or vortex-splitting following the contraction-relaxation motion, and good agreement is found when compared with the experimental results on the outrush radius of the advancing front and on the number of bulges. Furthermore, the simulations provide energy budget information which could not be attained in the laboratory. After the heavy fluid is released, the heavy fluid collapses and a contraction-relaxation motion is at work for approximately 2-3 revolutions of the system. During the contraction-relaxation motion of the heavy fluid, the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents behave similar to the stable ones. Towards the end of the contraction-relaxation motion, the dissipation rate in the system reaches a local minimum and a quasi-geostrophic equilibrium state is reached. After the quasi-geostrophic equilibrium state, vortex-wandering or vortex-splitting may occur depending on the ratio of Coriolis to inertia forces. The vortex-splitting process begins with non-axisymmetric bulges and, as the bulges grow, the kinetic energy increases at the expense of decreasing potential energy in the system. The completion of vortex-splitting is accompanied by a local maximum of dissipation rate and a local maximum of kinetic energy in the system. A striking feature of the unstable rotating cylindrical gravity currents is the persistent upwelling and downwelling motions, which are observed for both the
Calibrating vadose zone models with time-lapse gravity data: a forced infiltration experiment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Lars; Hansen, Allan Bo; Zibar, Majken Caroline Looms
A change in soil water content is a change in mass stored in the subsurface, and when large enough, can be measured with a gravity meter. Over the last few decades there has been increased use of ground-based time-lapse gravity measurements to infer hydrogeological parameters. These studies have...... focused on the saturated zone, with specific yield as the most prominent target parameter and with few exceptions, changes in storage in the vadose zone have been considered as noise. Here modeling results are presented suggesting that gravity changes will be measureable when soil moisture changes occur...... in the unsaturated zone. These results are confirmed by field measurements of gravity and georadar data at a forced infiltration experiment conducted over 14 days on a grassland area of 10 m by 10 m. An unsaturated zone infiltration model can be calibrated using the gravity data with good agreement to the field data...
MODELING AND DESIGN OF INNOVATIVE SMALL DIAMETER GRAVITY SEWERAGE SYSTEM
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tadeusz Nawrot
2017-05-01
Full Text Available The article presents modern methods of hydraulic design of an innovative small diameter gravity sewerage system. In this system, domestic wastewater is preliminary treated in septic tanks equipped with outlet filters, thus the effluent features are similar to those of clear water. Innovative non-return valves at the outlets eliminate introduction of air to the system and thus the flows can be treated as one-phase ones. Computer codes EPANET 2 and SWMM 5.0 were applied and compared. Two flow schemes typical for the sewerage system were implemented in EPANET 2, and the third - in a slightly modified SWMM 5.0. Simulation results were validated on empirical data obtained on a laboratory physical model, consisting of four tanks of minimum volumes 600 dm3 each, connecting PE pipelines of diameters 25 mm and 36 mm and relevant sanitary fittings. Water inflows, typical for domestic wastewater outflows from single homesteads, were provided by a pump. Water flows were measured using water meters with pulse outputs, and water levels in tanks by pressure transducers. Hydraulic characteristics of filters and non-return valves were provided. Simulation results showed good agreement with the empirical data. Ranges of values of design parameters, needed for successful application of both codes, were established and discussed.
Polar gravity fields from GOCE and airborne gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Forsberg, René; Olesen, Arne Vestergaard; Yidiz, Hasan
2011-01-01
Airborne gravity, together with high-quality surface data and ocean satellite altimetric gravity, may supplement GOCE to make consistent, accurate high resolution global gravity field models. In the polar regions, the special challenge of the GOCE polar gap make the error characteristics...... of combination models especially sensitive to the correct merging of satellite and surface data. We outline comparisons of GOCE to recent airborne gravity surveys in both the Arctic and the Antarctic. The comparison is done to new 8-month GOCE solutions, as well as to a collocation prediction from GOCE gradients...... in Antarctica. It is shown how the enhanced gravity field solutions improve the determination of ocean dynamic topography in both the Arctic and in across the Drake Passage. For the interior of Antarctica, major airborne gravity programs are currently being carried out, and there is an urgent need...
Application of the spherical harmonic gravity model in high precision inertial navigation systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Jing; Yang, Gongliu; Zhou, Xiao; Li, Xiangyun
2016-01-01
The spherical harmonic gravity model (SHM) may, in general, be considered as a suitable alternative to the normal gravity model (NGM), because it represents the Earth’s gravitational field more accurately. However, the high-resolution SHM has never been used in current inertial navigation systems (INSs) due to its extremely complex expression. In this paper, the feasibility and accuracy of a truncated SHM are discussed for application in a real-time free-INS with a precision demand better than 0.8 nm h −1 . In particular, the time and space complexity are analyzed mathematically to verify the feasibility of the SHM. Also, a test on a typical navigation computer shows a storable range of cut-off degrees. To further evaluate the appropriate degree and accuracy of the truncated SHM, analyses of covariance and truncation error are proposed. Finally, a SHM of degree 12 is demonstrated to be the appropriate model for routine INSs in the precision range of 0.4–0.75 nm h −1 . Flight simulations and road tests show its outstanding performance over the traditional NGM. (paper)
A Computer Model for Determining Operational Centers of Gravity
2002-05-31
current state of AI. For the beginner , the student text Artificial Intelligence: An Executive Overview (USMA 1994) is still useful for surveying the... flowchart that guides the determination. In preparing the model, the authors consulted numerous sources of opinion on the topic, to include doctrine...the logic of the general model in this manner resulted in a compact, unambiguous flowchart -style representation. The depiction of the general model
Martinec, Zdeněk; Fullea, Javier
2015-03-01
We aim to interpret the vertical gravity and vertical gravity gradient of the GOCE-GRACE combined gravity model over the southeastern part of the Congo basin to refine the published model of sedimentary rock cover. We use the GOCO03S gravity model and evaluate its spherical harmonic representation at or near the Earth's surface. In this case, the gradiometry signals are enhanced as compared to the original measured GOCE gradients at satellite height and better emphasize the spatial pattern of sedimentary geology. To avoid aliasing, the omission error of the modelled gravity induced by the sedimentary rocks is adjusted to that of the GOCO03S gravity model. The mass-density Green's functions derived for the a priori structure of the sediments show a slightly greater sensitivity to the GOCO03S vertical gravity gradient than to the vertical gravity. Hence, the refinement of the sedimentary model is carried out for the vertical gravity gradient over the basin, such that a few anomalous values of the GOCO03S-derived vertical gravity gradient are adjusted by refining the model. We apply the 5-parameter Helmert's transformation, defined by 2 translations, 1 rotation and 2 scale parameters that are searched for by the steepest descent method. The refined sedimentary model is only slightly changed with respect to the original map, but it significantly improves the fit of the vertical gravity and vertical gravity gradient over the basin. However, there are still spatial features in the gravity and gradiometric data that remain unfitted by the refined model. These may be due to lateral density variation that is not contained in the model, a density contrast at the Moho discontinuity, lithospheric density stratifications or mantle convection. In a second step, the refined sedimentary model is used to find the vertical density stratification of sedimentary rocks. Although the gravity data can be interpreted by a constant sedimentary density, such a model does not correspond to
Spin foam model for pure gauge theory coupled to quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oriti, Daniele; Pfeiffer, Hendryk
2002-01-01
We propose a spin foam model for pure gauge fields coupled to Riemannian quantum gravity in four dimensions. The model is formulated for the triangulation of a four-manifold which is given merely combinatorially. The Riemannian Barrett-Crane model provides the gravity sector of our model and dynamically assigns geometric data to the given combinatorial triangulation. The gauge theory sector is a lattice gauge theory living on the same triangulation and obtains from the gravity sector the geometric information which is required to calculate the Yang-Mills action. The model is designed so that one obtains a continuum approximation of the gauge theory sector at an effective level, similarly to the continuum limit of lattice gauge theory, when the typical length scale of gravity is much smaller than the Yang-Mills scale
Evaluation of using digital gravity field models for zoning map creation
Loginov, Dmitry
2018-05-01
At the present time the digital cartographic models of geophysical fields are taking a special significance into geo-physical mapping. One of the important directions to their application is the creation of zoning maps, which allow taking into account the morphology of geophysical field in the implementation automated choice of contour intervals. The purpose of this work is the comparative evaluation of various digital models in the creation of integrated gravity field zoning map. For comparison were chosen the digital model of gravity field of Russia, created by the analog map with scale of 1 : 2 500 000, and the open global model of gravity field of the Earth - WGM2012. As a result of experimental works the four integrated gravity field zoning maps were obtained with using raw and processed data on each gravity field model. The study demonstrates the possibility of open data use to create integrated zoning maps with the condition to eliminate noise component of model by processing in specialized software systems. In this case, for solving problem of contour intervals automated choice the open digital models aren't inferior to regional models of gravity field, created for individual countries. This fact allows asserting about universality and independence of integrated zoning maps creation regardless of detail of a digital cartographic model of geo-physical fields.
Recent developments in high-resolution global altimetric gravity field modeling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per; Berry, P. A .M.
2010-01-01
older gravity fields show accuracy improvement of the order of 20-40% due to a combination of retracking, enhanced processing, and the use of the new EGM2008 geoid model. In coastal and polar regions, accuracy improved in many places by 40-50% (or more) compared with older global marine gravity fields.......In recent years, dedicated effort has been made to improve high-resolution global marine gravity fields. One new global field is the Danish National Space Center (DNSC) 1-minute grid called DNSC08GRA, released in 2008. DNSC08GRA was derived from double-retracked satellite altimetry, mainly from...... the ERS-1 geodetic mission data, augmented with new retracked GEOSAT data which have significantly enhanced the range and hence the gravity field accuracy. DNSC08GRA is the first high-resolution global gravity field to cover the entire Arctic Ocean all the way to the North Pole. Comparisons with other...
Thermo-electric transport in gauge/gravity models with momentum dissipation
Amoretti, Andrea; Braggio, Alessandro; Maggiore, Nicola; Magnoli, Nicodemo; Musso, Daniele
2014-09-01
We present a systematic definition and analysis of the thermo-electric linear response in gauge/gravity systems focusing especially on models with massive gravity in the bulk and therefore momentum dissipation in the dual field theory. A precise treatment of finite counter-terms proves to be essential to yield a consistent physical picture whose hydrodynamic and beyond-hydrodynamics behaviors noticeably match with field theoretical expectations. The model furnishes a possible gauge/gravity description of the crossover from the quantum-critical to the disorder-dominated Fermi-liquid behaviors, as expected in graphene.
Estimating Gravity Biases with Wavelets in Support of a 1-cm Accurate Geoid Model
Ahlgren, K.; Li, X.
2017-12-01
Systematic errors that reside in surface gravity datasets are one of the major hurdles in constructing a high-accuracy geoid model at high resolutions. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) National Geodetic Survey (NGS) has an extensive historical surface gravity dataset consisting of approximately 10 million gravity points that are known to have systematic biases at the mGal level (Saleh et al. 2013). As most relevant metadata is absent, estimating and removing these errors to be consistent with a global geopotential model and airborne data in the corresponding wavelength is quite a difficult endeavor. However, this is crucial to support a 1-cm accurate geoid model for the United States. With recently available independent gravity information from GRACE/GOCE and airborne gravity from the NGS Gravity for the Redefinition of the American Vertical Datum (GRAV-D) project, several different methods of bias estimation are investigated which utilize radial basis functions and wavelet decomposition. We estimate a surface gravity value by incorporating a satellite gravity model, airborne gravity data, and forward-modeled topography at wavelet levels according to each dataset's spatial wavelength. Considering the estimated gravity values over an entire gravity survey, an estimate of the bias and/or correction for the entire survey can be found and applied. In order to assess the accuracy of each bias estimation method, two techniques are used. First, each bias estimation method is used to predict the bias for two high-quality (unbiased and high accuracy) geoid slope validation surveys (GSVS) (Smith et al. 2013 & Wang et al. 2017). Since these surveys are unbiased, the various bias estimation methods should reflect that and provide an absolute accuracy metric for each of the bias estimation methods. Secondly, the corrected gravity datasets from each of the bias estimation methods are used to build a geoid model. The accuracy of each geoid model
Calibrating vadose zone models with time-lapse gravity data
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Lars; Binning, Philip John; Rosbjerg, Dan
2011-01-01
The vadose zone plays an important role in the hydrologic cycle. Various geophysical methods can determine soil water content variations in time and space in volumes ranging from a few cubic centimeters to several cubic meters. In contrast to the established methods, time-lapse gravity measurements...... of changes in soil water content do not rely on a petrophysical relationship between the measured quantity and the water content but give a direct measure of the mass change in the soil. Only recently has the vadose zone been systematically incorporated when ground-based gravity data are used to infer...... hydrologic information. In this study, changes in the soil water content gave rise to a measurable signal in a forced infiltration experiment on a 107-m2 grassland area. Time-lapse gravity data were able to constrain the van Genuchten soil hydraulic parameters in both a synthetic example and a field...
New Interpretations of the Rayn Anticlines in the Arabian Basin Inferred from Gravity Modelling
AlMogren, S. M.; Mukhopadhyay, M.
2014-12-01
The Ryan Anticlines comprise of a regularly-spaced set of super-giant anticlines oriented NNW, developed due to E-W compression in the Arabian Basin. Most prominent of these being: the Ghawar Anticline, followed by the Summan, Khurais Anticlines and Qatar Arch. Gravity anomaly is largely characteristic for both Ryan Anticlines and its smaller size version the Jinadriah Anticline in the Riyadh Salt Basin. It displays a bipolar gravity field - a zone of gravity high running along the fold axis that is flanked by asymmetric gravity lows. Available structural models commonly infer structural uplift for the median gravity high but ignore the flanking lows. Here we interpret the bipolar gravity anomaly due primarily to such anticline structures, while, the flanking gravity lows are due to greater sediment thickness largely compacted and deformed over the basement depressions. Further complexities are created due to the salt layer and its migration at the lower horizons of sediment strata. Such diagnostic gravity anomaly pattern is taken here as an evidence for basement tectonics due to prevailing crustal dynamics in the Arabian Basin. Density inversion provides details on the subsurface density variation due to the folding and structural configuration for the sediment layers, including the salt layer, affected by basement deformation. This interpretation is largely supported by gravity forward and inversion models given in the present study what is partly constrained by the available seismic, MT and deep resistivity lines and surface geologic mapping. Most of the oil-gas fields in this part of the Arabian Basin are further known for salt diapirism. In this study the gravity interpretation help in identification of salt diapirism directly overlying the basement is firstly given here for Jinadriah Anticline; that is next extended to a regional geologic cross-section traversing the Ryan Anticlines to infer probable subsurface continuation of salt diapirs directly overlying
3D Gravity Modeling of Complex Salt Features in the Southern Gulf of Mexico
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mauricio Nava-Flores
2016-01-01
Full Text Available We present a three-dimensional (3D gravity modeling and inversion approach and its application to complex geological settings characterized by several allochthonous salt bodies embedded in terrigenous sediments. Synthetic gravity data were computed for 3D forward modeling of salt bodies interpreted from Prestack Depth Migration (PSDM seismic images. Density contrasts for the salt bodies surrounded by sedimentary units are derived from density-compaction curves for the northern Gulf of Mexico’s oil exploration surveys. By integrating results from different shape- and depth-source estimation algorithms, we built an initial model for the gravity anomaly inversion. We then applied a numerically optimized 3D simulated annealing gravity inversion method. The inverted 3D density model successfully retrieves the synthetic salt body ensemble. Results highlight the significance of integrating high-resolution potential field data for salt and subsalt imaging in oil exploration.
Exactly solvable models of 2D-quantum gravity on the lattice. Course 5
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kazakov, V.A.
1990-01-01
It is shown that statistical mechanical models defined on randomly triangulated surfaces can be solved exactly and that thereby the results on 2-D quantum gravity can be confirmed. (author). 32 refs.; 4 figs.; 2 tabs
Quantum mechanics vs. general covariance in gravity and string models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinec, E.J.
1984-01-01
Quantization of simple low-dimensional systems embodying general covariance is studied. Functional methods are employed in the calculation of effective actions for fermionic strings and 1 + 1 dimensional gravity. The author finds that regularization breaks apparent symmetries of the theory, providing new dynamics for the string and non-trivial dynamics for 1 + 1 gravity. The author moves on to consider the quantization of some generally covariant systems with a finite number of physical degrees of freedom, assuming the existence of an invariant cutoff. The author finds that the wavefunction of the universe in these cases is given by the solution to simple quantum mechanics problems
Constraining models of f(R) gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dossett, Jason; Parkinson, David; Hu, Bin
2014-01-01
In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking ''dark'' physics, we consider f(R) modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterizing the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter B 0 , we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on B 0 by an order of magnitude, giving log 10 (B 0 ) < −4.07 at 95% confidence limit. Finally, we test whether the effect of adding the lensing amplitude A Lens and the sum of the neutrino mass ∑m ν is able to reconcile current tensions present in these parameters, but find f(R) gravity an inadequate explanation
Towards the gravity/CYBE correspondence — the current status —
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matsumoto, Takuya; Yoshida, Kentaroh
2016-01-01
We give a brief summary of Yang-Baxter deformations of the AdS 5 × S 5 superstring by focusing upon four examples, 1) gravity duals for noncommutative gauge theories, 2) γ-deformations of S 5 , 3) Schrödinger spacetimes and 4) abelian twists of the global AdS 5 . (paper)
Isostatic Model and Isostatic Gravity Anomalies of the Arabian Plate and Surroundings
M. K. Kaban; Sami El Khrepy; Nassir Al-Arifi
2016-01-01
The isostatic modeling represents one of the most useful ‘‘geological’’ reduction methods of the gravity field. With the isostatic correction, it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Although there exist several isostatic compensation schemes, it is usually supposed that a choice of the model is not an important factor to first order, since the total weight of compensating m...
Slope wavenumber spectrum models of capillary and capillary-gravity waves
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
贾永君; 张杰; 王岩峰
2010-01-01
Capillary and capillary-gravity waves possess a random character, and the slope wavenumber spectra of them can be used to represent mean distributions of wave energy with respect to spatial scale of variability. But simple and practical models of the slope wavenumber spectra have not been put forward so far. In this article, we address the accurate definition of the slope wavenumber spectra of water surface capillary and capillary-gravity waves. By combining the existing slope wavenumber models and using th...
Deluna, Roperto Jr
2013-01-01
This study was conducted to investigate the issue of what Philippine merchandise trade flows would be if countries operated at the frontier of the gravity model. The study sought to estimate the coefficients of the gravity model. The estimated coefficients were used to estimate merchandise export potentials and technical efficiency of each country in the sample and these were also aggregated to measure impact of country groups, RTAs and inter-regional trading agreements. Result of the ...
Forward modeling of gravity data using geostatistically generated subsurface density variations
Phelps, Geoffrey
2016-01-01
Using geostatistical models of density variations in the subsurface, constrained by geologic data, forward models of gravity anomalies can be generated by discretizing the subsurface and calculating the cumulative effect of each cell (pixel). The results of such stochastically generated forward gravity anomalies can be compared with the observed gravity anomalies to find density models that match the observed data. These models have an advantage over forward gravity anomalies generated using polygonal bodies of homogeneous density because generating numerous realizations explores a larger region of the solution space. The stochastic modeling can be thought of as dividing the forward model into two components: that due to the shape of each geologic unit and that due to the heterogeneous distribution of density within each geologic unit. The modeling demonstrates that the internally heterogeneous distribution of density within each geologic unit can contribute significantly to the resulting calculated forward gravity anomaly. Furthermore, the stochastic models match observed statistical properties of geologic units, the solution space is more broadly explored by producing a suite of successful models, and the likelihood of a particular conceptual geologic model can be compared. The Vaca Fault near Travis Air Force Base, California, can be successfully modeled as a normal or strike-slip fault, with the normal fault model being slightly more probable. It can also be modeled as a reverse fault, although this structural geologic configuration is highly unlikely given the realizations we explored.
Measured and modelled absolute gravity changes in Greenland
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielsen, Jens Emil; Forsberg, René; Strykowski, Gabriel
2014-01-01
in Greenland. Theresult is compared with the initial measurements of absolute gravity (AG) change at selected GreenlandNetwork (GNET) sites.We find that observations are highly influenced by the direct attraction from the ice and ocean. Thisis especially evident in the measurements conducted at the GNET...
Global gravity and the geodynamic model of the Earth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nedoma, J.
1988-01-01
Plate tectonic hypotheses require the formation of a new oceanic lithosphere at mid-oceanic ridges and imply the further modification and continued evolution towards the continental type of lithosphere in the regions of island arcs and orogenic belts. All these phenomena observed on the Earths's surface are results of all geodynamic processes passing through the Earth's interior. Since geodynamic processes change through the geological epochs, the gravity field also changes during the same geological periods. Thus, the paper is concerned with physical relationships between the global gravity field and the geodynamic processes as well as all geophysical fields affected by the geodynamic processes inside the Earth. The aim of this paper is to analyse the inner and outer gravity field of the Earth during the evolution of the Earth in the course of the geological epochs, and to build the generalized theory of the global gravity field of the Earth from the point of view of the global and local geodynamic processes taking place within the Earth's interior. (author)
Mayr, Hans G.; Mengel, J. G.; Chan, K. L.; Huang, F. T.
2010-01-01
As Lindzen (1981) had shown, small-scale gravity waves (GW) produce the observed reversals of the zonal-mean circulation and temperature variations in the upper mesosphere. The waves also play a major role in modulating and amplifying the diurnal tides (DT) (e.g., Waltersheid, 1981; Fritts and Vincent, 1987; Fritts, 1995a). We summarize here the modeling studies with the mechanistic numerical spectral model (NSM) with Doppler spread parameterization for GW (Hines, 1997a, b), which describes in the middle atmosphere: (a) migrating and non-migrating DT, (b) planetary waves (PW), and (c) global-scale inertio gravity waves. Numerical experiments are discussed that illuminate the influence of GW filtering and nonlinear interactions between DT, PW, and zonal mean variations. Keywords: Theoretical modeling, Middle atmosphere dynamics, Gravity wave interactions, Migrating and non-migrating tides, Planetary waves, Global-scale inertio gravity waves.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Christiansen, Lars; Binning, Philip John; Rosbjerg, Dan
2011-01-01
hydrogeophysical inversion to decrease parameter correlation in groundwater models. This is demonstrated for a model of riverbank infiltration where combined inversion successfully constrains hydraulic conductivity and specific yield in both an analytical and a numerical groundwater model. A sensitivity study...... shows that time-lapse gravity data are especially useful to constrain specific yield. Furthermore, we demonstrate that evapotranspiration, and riverbed conductance are better constrained by coupled inversion to gravity and head data than to head data alone. When estimating the four parameters...... simultaneously, the six correlation coefficients were reduced from unity when only head data were employed to significantly lower values when gravity and head data were combined. Our analysis reveals that the estimated parameter values are not very sensitive to the choice of weighting between head and gravity...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creed, R.; Edwards, A.
1997-01-01
Gravity gradiometry forward models have been developed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental laboratory (INEEL) that can characterize gravity gradient changes with the development of a cone of depression or injection mound in water table aquifers. Difference measurements at long time intervals reduce delayed drainage effects and eliminate the need for determining an initial density structure. Qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of the gradient signal to determine changes in groundwater distribution with injection or pumping may be possible, particularly if the time varying nature of the signal is of interest. Gravity gradiometer instruments (such as the Gravity Gradient Survey System) have progressed to the point where the complete second order gravity gradient tensor can be measured with an instrument noise level of less than 1 Eotvos (0.1 microgals/meter). Modeling indicates direct gravity measurements for the injection mound perched aquifier case could produce similar signal to noise ratios. However gravity gradients provide 5 independent measurements and due to the common mode nature of the instruments are less susceptible to other effects (tide, latitude, elevation, etc.). The gradients also provide a sharper image of the edge of the anomaly. The systematic identification and removal of specific retention, rainfall and subsidence or uplift effects may be required to make gradiometry difference imaging practical for field use
Sartori, Martina; Schiavo, Stefano; Fracasso, Andrea; Riccaboni, Massimo
2017-12-01
The paper investigates how the topological features of the virtual water (VW) network and the size of the associated VW flows are likely to change over time, under different socio-economic and climate scenarios. We combine two alternative models of network formation -a stochastic and a fitness model, used to describe the structure of VW flows- with a gravity model of trade to predict the intensity of each bilateral flow. This combined approach is superior to existing methodologies in its ability to replicate the observed features of VW trade. The insights from the models are used to forecast future VW flows in 2020 and 2050, under different climatic scenarios, and compare them with future water availability. Results suggest that the current trend of VW exports is not sustainable for all countries. Moreover, our approach highlights that some VW importers might be exposed to "imported water stress" as they rely heavily on imports from countries whose water use is unsustainable.
Lerch, F. J.; Nerem, R. S.; Chinn, D. S.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Klosko, S. M.
1993-01-01
A new method has been developed to provide a direct test of the error calibrations of gravity models based on actual satellite observations. The basic approach projects the error estimates of the gravity model parameters onto satellite observations, and the results of these projections are then compared with data residual computed from the orbital fits. To allow specific testing of the gravity error calibrations, subset solutions are computed based on the data set and data weighting of the gravity model. The approach is demonstrated using GEM-T3 to show that the gravity error estimates are well calibrated and that reliable predictions of orbit accuracies can be achieved for independent orbits.
Farahani, H.H.
2013-01-01
The main focus of the thesis is modelling the static and time-varying parts of the Earth's gravity field at the global scale based on data acquired by the Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) and Gravity field and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE). In addition, a new
The current ability to test theories of gravity with black hole shadows
Mizuno, Yosuke; Younsi, Ziri; Fromm, Christian M.; Porth, Oliver; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Olivares, Hector; Falcke, Heino; Kramer, Michael; Rezzolla, Luciano
2018-04-01
Our Galactic Centre, Sagittarius A*, is believed to harbour a supermassive black hole, as suggested by observations tracking individual orbiting stars1,2. Upcoming submillimetre very-long baseline interferometry images of Sagittarius A* carried out by the Event Horizon Telescope collaboration (EHTC)3,4 are expected to provide critical evidence for the existence of this supermassive black hole5,6. We assess our present ability to use EHTC images to determine whether they correspond to a Kerr black hole as predicted by Einstein's theory of general relativity or to a black hole in alternative theories of gravity. To this end, we perform general-relativistic magnetohydrodynamical simulations and use general-relativistic radiative-transfer calculations to generate synthetic shadow images of a magnetized accretion flow onto a Kerr black hole. In addition, we perform these simulations and calculations for a dilaton black hole, which we take as a representative solution of an alternative theory of gravity. Adopting the very-long baseline interferometry configuration from the 2017 EHTC campaign, we find that it could be extremely difficult to distinguish between black holes from different theories of gravity, thus highlighting that great caution is needed when interpreting black hole images as tests of general relativity.
Francisco, E. P.; Espath, L. F. R.; Laizet, S.; Silvestrini, J. H.
2018-01-01
Three-dimensional highly resolved Direct Numerical Simulations (DNS) of particle-laden gravity currents are presented for the lock-exchange problem in an original basin configuration, similar to delta formation in lakes. For this numerical study, we focus on gravity currents over a flat bed for which density differences are small enough for the Boussinesq approximation to be valid. The concentration of particles is described in an Eulerian fashion by using a transport equation combined with the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, with the possibility of particles deposition but no erosion nor re-suspension. The focus of this study is on the influence of the Reynolds number and settling velocity on the development of the current which can freely evolve in the streamwise and spanwise direction. It is shown that the settling velocity has a strong influence on the spatial extent of the current, the sedimentation rate, the suspended mass and the shape of the lobe-and-cleft structures while the Reynolds number is mainly affecting the size and number of vortical structures at the front of the current, and the energy budget.
COLA with scale-dependent growth: applications to screened modified gravity models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Winther, Hans A.; Koyama, Kazuya; Wright, Bill S. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Manera, Marc [Centre for Theoretical Cosmology, Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Zhao, Gong-Bo, E-mail: hans.a.winther@gmail.com, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk, E-mail: manera.work@gmail.com, E-mail: bill.wright@port.ac.uk, E-mail: gong-bo.Zhao@port.ac.uk [National Astronomy Observatories, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing, 100012 (China)
2017-08-01
We present a general parallelized and easy-to-use code to perform numerical simulations of structure formation using the COLA (COmoving Lagrangian Acceleration) method for cosmological models that exhibit scale-dependent growth at the level of first and second order Lagrangian perturbation theory. For modified gravity theories we also include screening using a fast approximate method that covers all the main examples of screening mechanisms in the literature. We test the code by comparing it to full simulations of two popular modified gravity models, namely f ( R ) gravity and nDGP, and find good agreement in the modified gravity boost-factors relative to ΛCDM even when using a fairly small number of COLA time steps.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jomegi, A.
2007-01-01
Nowadays, satellite altimetry observations had made it possible to determine sea surface variations, in the global scale, to high degree of precision. Using satellite altimetry observations, Mean Sea Level (MSL) can be determined, which by Kowing Sea Surface Topography (SST), can be converted into high-resolution marine geoid. In this paper we are proposing a method for computation of the Earth's gravity field at the sea areas, which is different from usual methods. Indeed, our method is based on conversion of geoidal heights into gravity potential values at the reference ellipsoid 2 Ea,b , by using ellipsoidal Brun's formula, and forward application of solution of Fixed-Free Two Boundary Value Problem (FFTBVP), previously proposed by the authors for the geoid computations without application of Stokes formula. Numerical results of application of the proposed method at the test area of CoastalFars (at southern part of Iran) show the success of the method. Considering the low cost and high precision of satellite altimetry observations, the proposed method suggests an efficient substitution to shipborne gravity observations for gravity field molding at the sea areas
Multisensory integration and internal models for sensing gravity effects in primates.
Lacquaniti, Francesco; Bosco, Gianfranco; Gravano, Silvio; Indovina, Iole; La Scaleia, Barbara; Maffei, Vincenzo; Zago, Myrka
2014-01-01
Gravity is crucial for spatial perception, postural equilibrium, and movement generation. The vestibular apparatus is the main sensory system involved in monitoring gravity. Hair cells in the vestibular maculae respond to gravitoinertial forces, but they cannot distinguish between linear accelerations and changes of head orientation relative to gravity. The brain deals with this sensory ambiguity (which can cause some lethal airplane accidents) by combining several cues with the otolith signals: angular velocity signals provided by the semicircular canals, proprioceptive signals from muscles and tendons, visceral signals related to gravity, and visual signals. In particular, vision provides both static and dynamic signals about body orientation relative to the vertical, but it poorly discriminates arbitrary accelerations of moving objects. However, we are able to visually detect the specific acceleration of gravity since early infancy. This ability depends on the fact that gravity effects are stored in brain regions which integrate visual, vestibular, and neck proprioceptive signals and combine this information with an internal model of gravity effects.
Multisensory Integration and Internal Models for Sensing Gravity Effects in Primates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco Lacquaniti
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Gravity is crucial for spatial perception, postural equilibrium, and movement generation. The vestibular apparatus is the main sensory system involved in monitoring gravity. Hair cells in the vestibular maculae respond to gravitoinertial forces, but they cannot distinguish between linear accelerations and changes of head orientation relative to gravity. The brain deals with this sensory ambiguity (which can cause some lethal airplane accidents by combining several cues with the otolith signals: angular velocity signals provided by the semicircular canals, proprioceptive signals from muscles and tendons, visceral signals related to gravity, and visual signals. In particular, vision provides both static and dynamic signals about body orientation relative to the vertical, but it poorly discriminates arbitrary accelerations of moving objects. However, we are able to visually detect the specific acceleration of gravity since early infancy. This ability depends on the fact that gravity effects are stored in brain regions which integrate visual, vestibular, and neck proprioceptive signals and combine this information with an internal model of gravity effects.
Mitchell, Myles A.; He, Jian-hua; Arnold, Christian; Li, Baojiu
2018-06-01
We propose a new framework for testing gravity using cluster observations, which aims to provide an unbiased constraint on modified gravity models from Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) and X-ray cluster counts and the cluster gas fraction, among other possible observables. Focusing on a popular f(R) model of gravity, we propose a novel procedure to recalibrate mass scaling relations from Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) to f(R) gravity for SZ and X-ray cluster observables. We find that the complicated modified gravity effects can be simply modelled as a dependence on a combination of the background scalar field and redshift, fR(z)/(1 + z), regardless of the f(R) model parameter. By employing a large suite of N-body simulations, we demonstrate that a theoretically derived tanh fitting formula is in excellent agreement with the dynamical mass enhancement of dark matter haloes for a large range of background field parameters and redshifts. Our framework is sufficiently flexible to allow for tests of other models and inclusion of further observables, and the one-parameter description of the dynamical mass enhancement can have important implications on the theoretical modelling of observables and on practical tests of gravity.
Cosmological models in energy-momentum-squared gravity
Board, Charles V. R.; Barrow, John D.
2017-12-01
We study the cosmological effects of adding terms of higher order in the usual energy-momentum tensor to the matter Lagrangian of general relativity. This is in contrast to most studies of higher-order gravity which focus on generalizing the Einstein-Hilbert curvature contribution to the Lagrangian. The resulting cosmological theories give rise to field equations of similar form to several particular theories with different fundamental bases, including bulk viscous cosmology, loop quantum gravity, k -essence, and brane-world cosmologies. We find a range of exact solutions for isotropic universes, discuss their behaviors with reference to the early- and late-time evolution, accelerated expansion, and the occurrence or avoidance of singularities. We briefly discuss extensions to anisotropic cosmologies and delineate the situations where the higher-order matter terms will dominate over anisotropies on approach to cosmological singularities.
Active Absorption of Irregular Gravity Waves in BEM-Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Brorsen, Michael; Frigaard, Peter
1992-01-01
The boundary element method is applied to the computation of irregular gravity waves. The boundary conditions at the open boundaries are obtained by a digital filtering technique, where the surface elevations in front of the open boundary are filtered numerically yielding the velocity to be presc...... to be prescribed at the boundary. By numerical examples it is shown that well designed filters can reduce the wave reflection to a few per cent over a frequency range corresponding to a Jonswap spectrum....
Progress in the development of the GMM-2 gravity field model for Mars
Lemoine, F. G.; Smith, D. E.; Lerch, F. J.; Zuber, M. T.; Patel, G. B.
1994-01-01
Last year we published the GMM-1 (Goddard Mars Model-1) gravity model for Mars. We have completely re-analyzed the Viking and Mariner 9 tracking data in the development of the new field, designated GMM-2. The model is complete to degree and order 70. Various aspects of the model are discussed.
McWilliams, J. C.; Lane, E.; Melville, K.; Restrepo, J.; Sullivan, P.
2004-12-01
Oceanic surface gravity waves are approximately irrotational, weakly nonlinear, and conservative, and they have a much shorter time scale than oceanic currents and longer waves (e.g., infragravity waves) --- except where the primary surface waves break. This provides a framework for an asymptotic theory, based on separation of time (and space) scales, of wave-averaged effects associated with the conservative primary wave dynamics combined with a stochastic representation of the momentum transfer and induced mixing associated with non-conservative wave breaking. Such a theory requires only modest information about the primary wave field from measurements or operational model forecasts and thus avoids the enormous burden of calculating the waves on their intrinsically small space and time scales. For the conservative effects, the result is a vortex force associated with the primary wave's Stokes drift; a wave-averaged Bernoulli head and sea-level set-up; and an incremental material advection by the Stokes drift. This can be compared to the "radiation stress" formalism of Longuet-Higgins, Stewart, and Hasselmann; it is shown to be a preferable representation since the radiation stress is trivial at its apparent leading order. For the non-conservative breaking effects, a population of stochastic impulses is added to the current and infragravity momentum equations with distribution functions taken from measurements. In offshore wind-wave equilibria, these impulses replace the conventional surface wind stress and cause significant differences in the surface boundary layer currents and entrainment rate, particularly when acting in combination with the conservative vortex force. In the surf zone, where breaking associated with shoaling removes nearly all of the primary wave momentum and energy, the stochastic forcing plays an analogous role as the widely used nearshore radiation stress parameterizations. This talk describes the theoretical framework and presents some
Classically scale-invariant B–L model and conformal gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Oda, Ichiro
2013-01-01
We consider a coupling of conformal gravity to the classically scale-invariant B–L extended standard model which has been recently proposed as a phenomenologically viable model realizing the Coleman–Weinberg mechanism of breakdown of the electroweak symmetry. As in a globally scale-invariant dilaton gravity, it is also shown in a locally scale-invariant conformal gravity that without recourse to the Coleman–Weinberg mechanism, the B–L gauge symmetry is broken in the process of spontaneous symmetry breakdown of the local scale invariance (Weyl invariance) at the tree level and as a result the B–L gauge field becomes massive via the Higgs mechanism. As a bonus of conformal gravity, the massless dilaton field does not appear and the parameters in front of the non-minimal coupling of gravity are completely fixed in the present model. This observation clearly shows that the conformal gravity has a practical application even if the scalar field does not possess any dynamical degree of freedom owing to the local scale symmetry
Lunar Prospector Orbit Determination Uncertainties Using the High Resolution Lunar Gravity Models
Carranza, Eric; Konopliv, Alex; Ryne, Mark
1999-01-01
The Lunar Prospector (LP) mission began on January 6, 1998, when the LP spacecraft was launched from Cape Canaveral, Florida. The objectives of the mission were to determine whether water ice exists at the lunar poles, generate a global compositional map of the lunar surface, detect lunar outgassing, and improve knowledge of the lunar magnetic and gravity fields. Orbit determination of LP performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) is conducted as part of the principal science investigation of the lunar gravity field. This paper will describe the JPL effort in support of the LP Gravity Investigation. This support includes high precision orbit determination, gravity model validation, and data editing. A description of the mission and its trajectory will be provided first, followed by a discussion of the orbit determination estimation procedure and models. Accuracies will be examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution differences, as a function of oblateness model truncation, and inclination in the plane-of-sky. Long term predictions for several gravity fields will be compared to the reconstructed orbits to demonstrate the accuracy of the orbit determination and oblateness fields developed by the Principal Gravity Investigator.
A GOCE-only global gravity field model by the space-wise approach
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Migliaccio, Frederica; Reguzzoni, Mirko; Gatti, Andrea
2011-01-01
The global gravity field model computed by the spacewise approach is one of three official solutions delivered by ESA from the analysis of the GOCE data. The model consists of a set of spherical harmonic coefficients and the corresponding error covariance matrix. The main idea behind this approach...... the orbit to reduce the noise variance and correlation before gridding the data. In the first release of the space-wise approach, based on a period of about two months, some prior information coming from existing gravity field models entered into the solution especially at low degrees and low orders...... degrees; the second is an internally computed GOCE-only prior model to be used in place of the official quick-look model, thus removing the dependency on EIGEN5C especially in the polar gaps. Once the procedure to obtain a GOCE-only solution has been outlined, a new global gravity field model has been...
Gravity model improvement using the DORIS tracking system on the SPOT 2 satellite
Nerem, R. S.; Lerch, F. J.; Williamson, R. G.; Klosko, S. M.; Robbins, J. W.; Patel, G. B.
1994-01-01
A high-precision radiometric satellite tracking system, Doppler Orbitography and Radio-positioning Integrated by Satellite system (DORIS), has recently been developed by the French space agency, Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES). DORIS was designed to provide tracking support for missions such as the joint United States/French TOPEX/Poseidon. As part of the flight testing process, a DORIS package was flown on the French SPOT 2 satellite. A substantial quantity of geodetic quality tracking data was obtained on SPOT 2 from an extensive international DORIS tracking network. These data were analyzed to assess their accuracy and to evaluate the gravitational modeling enhancements provided by these data in combination with the Goddard Earth Model-T3 (GEM-T3) gravitational model. These observations have noise levels of 0.4 to 0.5 mm/s, with few residual systematic effects. Although the SPOT 2 satellite experiences high atmospheric drag forces, the precision and global coverage of the DORIS tracking data have enabled more extensive orbit parameterization to mitigate these effects. As a result, the SPOT 2 orbital errors have been reduced to an estimated radial accuracy in the 10-20 cm RMS range. The addition of these data, which encompass many regions heretofore lacking in precision satellite tracking, has significantly improved GEM-T3 and allowed greatly improved orbit accuracies for Sun-synchronous satellites like SPOT 2 (such as ERS 1 and EOS). Comparison of the ensuing gravity model with other contemporary fields (GRIM-4C2, TEG2B, and OSU91A) provides a means to assess the current state of knowledge of the Earth's gravity field. Thus, the DORIS experiment on SPOT 2 has provided a strong basis for evaluating this new orbit tracking technology and has demonstrated the important contribution of the DORIS network to the success of the TOPEX/Poseidon mission.
Three-dimensional gravity modeling and focusing inversion using rectangular meshes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Commer, M.
2011-03-01
Rectangular grid cells are commonly used for the geophysical modeling of gravity anomalies, owing to their flexibility in constructing complex models. The straightforward handling of cubic cells in gravity inversion algorithms allows for a flexible imposition of model regularization constraints, which are generally essential in the inversion of static potential field data. The first part of this paper provides a review of commonly used expressions for calculating the gravity of a right polygonal prism, both for gravity and gradiometry, where the formulas of Plouff and Forsberg are adapted. The formulas can be cast into general forms practical for implementation. In the second part, a weighting scheme for resolution enhancement at depth is presented. Modelling the earth using highly digitized meshes, depth weighting schemes are typically applied to the model objective functional, subject to minimizing the data misfit. The scheme proposed here involves a non-linear conjugate gradient inversion scheme with a weighting function applied to the non-linear conjugate gradient scheme's gradient vector of the objective functional. The low depth resolution due to the quick decay of the gravity kernel functions is counteracted by suppressing the search directions in the parameter space that would lead to near-surface concentrations of gravity anomalies. Further, a density parameter transformation function enabling the imposition of lower and upper bounding constraints is employed. Using synthetic data from models of varying complexity and a field data set, it is demonstrated that, given an adequate depth weighting function, the gravity inversion in the transform space can recover geologically meaningful models requiring a minimum of prior information and user interaction.
A 3D gravity and magnetic model for the Entenschnabel area (German North Sea)
Dressel, Ingo; Barckhausen, Udo; Heyde, Ingo
2018-01-01
In this study, we focus on structural configuration of the Entenschnabel area, a part of the German exclusive economic zone within the North Sea, by means of gravity and magnetic modelling. The starting point of the 3D modelling approach is published information on subseafloor structures for shallow depths, acquired by wells and seismic surveys. Subsequent gravity and magnetic modelling of the structures of the deeper subsurface builds on this geophysical and geological information and on gravity and magnetic data acquired during a research cruise to the Entenschnabel area. On the one hand, our 3D model shows the density and susceptibility distribution of the sediments and the crust. In addition, the potential field modelling provides evidence for a differentiation between lower and upper crust. The thickness distribution of the crust is also discussed with respect to the tectonic framework. Furthermore, gravity as well as magnetic modelling points to an intrusive complex beneath the Central Graben within the Entenschnabel area. On the other hand, this work provides a geological-geophysical consistent 3D gravity and magnetic model that can be used as a starting point for further investigation of this part of the German North Sea.
Allaerts, Dries; Meyers, Johan
2017-11-01
Wind farm design and control often relies on fast analytical wake models to predict turbine wake interactions and associated power losses. Essential input to these models are the inflow velocity and turbulent intensity at hub height, which come from prior measurement campaigns or wind-atlas data. Recent LES studies showed that in some situations large wind farms excite atmospheric gravity waves, which in turn affect the upstream wind conditions. In the current study, we develop a fast boundary-layer model that computes the excitation of gravity waves and the perturbation of the boundary-layer flow in response to an applied force. The core of the model is constituted by height-averaged, linearised Navier-Stokes equations for the inner and outer layer, and the effect of atmospheric gravity waves (excited by the boundary-layer displacement) is included via the pressure gradient. Coupling with analytical wake models allows us to study wind-farm wakes and upstream flow deceleration in various atmospheric conditions. Comparison with wind-farm LES results shows excellent agreement in terms of pressure and boundary-layer displacement levels. The authors acknowledge support from the European Research Council (FP7-Ideas, Grant No. 306471).
Thermosyphon Flooding in Reduced Gravity Environments
Gibson, Marc Andrew
2013-01-01
An innovative experiment to study the thermosyphon flooding limits was designed and flown on aparabolic flight campaign to achieve the Reduced Gravity Environments (RGE) needed to obtainempirical data for analysis. Current correlation models of Faghri and Tien and Chung do not agreewith the data. A new model is presented that predicts the flooding limits for thermosyphons inearths gravity and lunar gravity with a 95 confidence level of +- 5W.
Correspondence of f(R,∇R) Modified Gravity with Scalar Field Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jawad, Abdul; Debnath, Ujjal
2014-01-01
This paper is devoted to study the scalar field dark energy models by taking its different aspects in the framework of f(R,∇R) gravity. We consider flat FRW universe to construct the equation of state parameter governed by f(R,∇R) gravity. The stability of the model is discussed with the help of squared speed of sound parameter. It is found that models show quintessence behavior of the universe in stable as well as unstable modes. We also develop the correspondence of f(R,∇R) model with some scalar field dark energy models like quintessence, tachyonic field, k-essence, dilaton, hessence, and DBI-essence. The nature of scalar fields and corresponding scalar potentials is being analyzed in f(R,∇R) gravity graphically which show consistency with the present day observations about accelerated phenomenon
Influence of the Choice of Lunar Gravity Model on Orbit Determination for Lunar Orbiters
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Young-Rok Kim
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We examine the influence of the lunar gravity model on the orbit determination (OD of a lunar orbiter operating in a 100 km high, lunar polar orbit. Doppler and sequential range measurements by three Deep Space Network antennas and one Korea Deep Space Antenna were used. For measurement simulation and OD analysis, STK11 and ODTK6 were utilized. GLGM2, LP100K, LP150Q, GRAIL420A, and GRAIL660B were used for investigation of lunar gravity model selection effect. OD results were assessed by position and velocity uncertainties with error covariance and an external orbit comparison using simulated true orbit. The effect of the lunar gravity models on the long-term OD, degree and order level, measurement-acquisition condition, and lunar altitude was investigated. For efficiency verification, computational times for the five lunar gravity models were compared. Results showed that significant improvements to OD accuracy are observed by applying a GRAIL-based model; however, applying a full order and degree gravity modeling is not always the best strategy, owing to the computational burden. Consequently, we consider that OD using GRAIL660B with 70 × 70 degree and order is the most efficient strategy for mission preanalysis. This study provides useful guideline for KPLO OD analysis during nominal mission operation.
Study of some chaotic inflationary models in f(R) gravity
Sharif, M.; Nawazish, Iqra
2018-04-01
In this paper, we discuss an inflationary scenario via scalar field and fluid cosmology for an anisotropic homogeneous universe model in f(R) gravity. We consider an equation of state which corresponds to a quasi-de Sitter expansion and investigate the effect of the anisotropy parameter for different values of the deviation parameter. We evaluate potential models like linear, quadratic and quartic models which correspond to chaotic inflation. We construct the observational parameters for a power-law model of f(R) gravity and construct the graphical analysis of tensor-scalar ratio and spectral index which indicates the consistency of these parameters with Planck 2015 data.
Garel, F.; Kaminski, E.; Tait, S.; Limare, A.
2011-12-01
During an effusive volcanic eruption, the crisis management is mainly based on the prediction of lava flows advance and its velocity. As the spreading of lava flows is mainly controlled by its rheology and the eruptive mass flux, the key question is how to evaluate them during the eruption (rather than afterwards.) A relationship between the heat flux lost by the lava at its surface and the eruption rate is likely to exist, based on the first-order argument that higher eruption rates should correspond to larger power radiated by a lava flow. The semi-empirical formula developed by Harris and co-workers (e.g. Harris et al., Bull. Volc. 2007) is currently used to estimate lava flow rate from satellite surveys yielding the surface temperatures and area of the lava flow field. However, this approach is derived from a static thermal budget of the lava flow and does not explicitly model the time-evolution of the surface thermal signal. Here we propose laboratory experiments and theoretical studies of the cooling of a viscous axisymmetric gravity current fed at constant flux rate. We first consider the isoviscous case, for which the spreading is well-know. The experiments using silicon oil and the theoretical model both reveal the establishment of a steady surface thermal structure after a transient time. The steady state is a balance between surface cooling and heat advection in the flow. The radiated heat flux in the steady regime, a few days for a basaltic lava flow, depends mainly on the effusion rate rather than on the viscosity. In this regime, one thermal survey of the radiated power could provide a consistent estimate of the flow rate if the external cooling conditions (wind) are reasonably well constrained. We continue to investigate the relationship between the thermal radiated heat flux and the effusion rate by using in the experiments fluids with temperature-dependent viscosity (glucose syrup) or undergoing solidification while cooling (PEG wax). We observe a
An econometric model on bilateral trade in education using an augmented gravity model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christina Tay
2014-05-01
Full Text Available Purpose: Trade in education has become one of the most important trades for many economies. Yet, studies of education as a trade are scant owing to the conventional view of it being non-tradable. The purpose of this paper is to econometrically investigate trade in education using a nexus of international trade theories and the gravity model, one of the most widely used models in international trade in goods that has been scantly investigated on in studies on trade in education.Design/methodology/approach: A panel data analysis is broken down for 21 exporting countries and 50 importing countries, covering 1050 observations using new UNESCO database. A number of determinants of international trade including wealth of exporter & importer, domestic capacity of exporter & importer, transport costs, common religion, common language and trade restrictiveness of the importer are empirically tested on bilateral trade flows in education. An econometric model is formulated to test determinants of trade in education using an augmented gravity model.Findings: The augmented gravity model used in this study explains with high significance the determinants of trade in education including wealth of exporter & importer, domestic capacity of exporter & importer, transport costs, common religion, common language and trade restrictiveness of the importer.Research limitations/implications: Taking a macroscopic view of education as a trade may give us a myopic view of the elements important to determine what students or parents of students as well as institutions are concerned with. Nevertheless, the nexus of international trade theories and the gravity model used in this study that are largely and traditionally used on trade in goods and services, but scantly used in trade in education have been found to be highly significant and relevant in trade in education. Future studies on macro-level of analysis involving trade in education could include other determinants of
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jan Kostelecký
2015-06-01
Full Text Available The combined gravity field model EIGEN-6C4 (Förste et al., 2014 is the latest combined global gravity field model of GFZ Potsdam and GRGS Toulouse. EIGEN-6C4 has been generated including the satellite gravity gradiometry data of the entire GOCE mission (November 2009 till October 2013 and is of maximum spherical degree and order 2190. In this study EIGEN-6C4 has been compared with EGM2008 to its maximum degree and order via gravity disturbances and Tzz part of the Marussi tensor of the second derivatives of the disturbing potential. The emphasis is put on such areas where GOCE data (complete set of gradiometry measurements after reductions in EIGEN-6C4 obviously contributes to an improvement of the gravity field description. GNSS/levelling geoid heights are independent data source for the evaluation of gravity field models. Therefore, we use the GNSS/levelling data sets over the territories of Europe, Czech Republic and Slovakia for the evaluation of EIGEN-6C4 w.r.t. EGM2008.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barceló Carlos
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
Semi-Infinite Geology Modeling Algorithm (SIGMA): a Modular Approach to 3D Gravity
Chang, J. C.; Crain, K.
2015-12-01
Conventional 3D gravity computations can take up to days, weeks, and even months, depending on the size and resolution of the data being modeled. Additional modeling runs, due to technical malfunctions or additional data modifications, only compound computation times even further. We propose a new modeling algorithm that utilizes vertical line elements to approximate mass, and non-gridded (point) gravity observations. This algorithm is (1) magnitudes faster than conventional methods, (2) accurate to less than 0.1% error, and (3) modular. The modularity of this methodology means that researchers can modify their geology/terrain or gravity data, and only the modified component needs to be re-run. Additionally, land-, sea-, and air-based platforms can be modeled at their observation point, without having to filter data into a synthesized grid.
Tests of local Lorentz invariance violation of gravity in the standard model extension with pulsars.
Shao, Lijing
2014-03-21
The standard model extension is an effective field theory introducing all possible Lorentz-violating (LV) operators to the standard model and general relativity (GR). In the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension, nine coefficients describe dominant observable deviations from GR. We systematically implemented 27 tests from 13 pulsar systems to tightly constrain eight linear combinations of these coefficients with extensive Monte Carlo simulations. It constitutes the first detailed and systematic test of the pure-gravity sector of minimal standard model extension with the state-of-the-art pulsar observations. No deviation from GR was detected. The limits of LV coefficients are expressed in the canonical Sun-centered celestial-equatorial frame for the convenience of further studies. They are all improved by significant factors of tens to hundreds with existing ones. As a consequence, Einstein's equivalence principle is verified substantially further by pulsar experiments in terms of local Lorentz invariance in gravity.
Massive gravity from bimetric gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baccetti, Valentina; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt
2013-01-01
We discuss the subtle relationship between massive gravity and bimetric gravity, focusing particularly on the manner in which massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure is more delicate than currently appreciated. Specifically, this limiting procedure should not unnecessarily constrain the background metric, which must be externally specified by the theory of massive gravity itself. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit, leading to additional constraints besides the one set of equations of motion naively expected. Thus, since solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statement is not necessarily true, there is no complete continuity in the parameter space of the theory. In particular, we study the massive cosmological solutions which are continuous in the parameter space, showing that many interesting cosmologies belong to this class. (paper)
Theoretical modeling of mechanical homeostasis of a mammalian cell under gravity-directed vector.
Zhou, Lüwen; Zhang, Chen; Zhang, Fan; Lü, Shouqin; Sun, Shujin; Lü, Dongyuan; Long, Mian
2018-02-01
Translocation of dense nucleus along gravity vector initiates mechanical remodeling of a eukaryotic cell. In our previous experiments, we quantified the impact of gravity vector on cell remodeling by placing an MC3T3-E1 cell onto upward (U)-, downward (D)-, or edge-on (E)- orientated substrate. Our experimental data demonstrate that orientation dependence of nucleus longitudinal translocation is positively correlated with cytoskeletal (CSK) remodeling of their expressions and structures and also is associated with rearrangement of focal adhesion complex (FAC). However, the underlying mechanism how CSK network and FACs are reorganized in a mammalian cell remains unclear. In this paper, we developed a theoretical biomechanical model to integrate the mechanosensing of nucleus translocation with CSK remodeling and FAC reorganization induced by a gravity vector. The cell was simplified as a nucleated tensegrity structure in the model. The cell and CSK filaments were considered to be symmetrical. All elements of CSK filaments and cytomembrane that support the nucleus were simplified as springs. FACs were simplified as an adhesion cluster of parallel bonds with shared force. Our model proposed that gravity vector-directed translocation of the cell nucleus is mechanically balanced by CSK remodeling and FAC reorganization induced by a gravitational force. Under gravity, dense nucleus tends to translocate and exert additional compressive or stretching force on the cytoskeleton. Finally, changes of the tension force acting on talin by microfilament alter the size of FACs. Results from our model are in qualitative agreement with those from experiments.
African Journals Online (AJOL)
2005-08-25
Aug 25, 2005 ... control ling the current distribution latitudinally and vertically ... horizontal plane (v 3 constant) as a result oF the ... optimisation subroutine of licensed MATLAB 6.0 ... electrojct axis does not coincide with the dip equator.
Geoid Model and Altitude at Mount Aconcagua Region (Argentina) from Airborne Gravity Survey
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cristina Pacino, M.; Jaeger, Eric; Forsberg, René
2014-01-01
Aconcagua is part of the Southern Andes in the Argentine Province of Mendoza and it is the highest mountain in the Americas. The Aconcagua region is mostly inaccessible for land surveys. The existing gravity data are sparsely distributed, and mainly along the route currently used to climb the mou...
Power-law and intermediate inflationary models in f(T)-gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Rezazadeh, K. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan,Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Abdolmaleki, A. [Research Institute for Astronomy Astrophysics of Maragha (RIAAM),P.O. Box 55134-441, Maragha (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Karami, K. [Department of Physics, University of Kurdistan,Pasdaran St., Sanandaj (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-01-21
We study inflation in the framework of f(T)-gravity in the presence of a canonical scalar field. After reviewing the basic equations governing the background cosmology in f(T)-gravity, we turn to study the cosmological perturbations and obtain the evolutionary equations for the scalar and tensor perturbations. Solving those equations, we find the power spectra for the scalar and tensor perturbations. Then, we consider a power-law f(T) function and investigate the inflationary models with the power-law and intermediate scale factors. We see that in contrast with the standard inflationary scenario based on the Einstein gravity, the power-law and intermediate inflationary models in f(T)-gravity can be compatible with the observational results of Planck 2015 at 68% CL. We find that in our f(T) setting, the potentials responsible for the both power-law and intermediate inflationary models have the power-law form V(ϕ)∝ϕ{sup m} but the power m is different for them. Therefore, we can refine some of power-law inflationary potentials in the framework of f(T)-gravity while they are disfavored by the observational data in the standard inflationary scenario. Interestingly enough, is that the self-interacting quartic potential V(ϕ)∝ϕ{sup 4} which has special reheating properties, can be consistent with the Planck 2015 data in our f(T) scenario while it is ruled out in the standard inflationary scenario.
Power-law and intermediate inflationary models in f(T)-gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rezazadeh, K.; Abdolmaleki, A.; Karami, K.
2016-01-01
We study inflation in the framework of f(T)-gravity in the presence of a canonical scalar field. After reviewing the basic equations governing the background cosmology in f(T)-gravity, we turn to study the cosmological perturbations and obtain the evolutionary equations for the scalar and tensor perturbations. Solving those equations, we find the power spectra for the scalar and tensor perturbations. Then, we consider a power-law f(T) function and investigate the inflationary models with the power-law and intermediate scale factors. We see that in contrast with the standard inflationary scenario based on the Einstein gravity, the power-law and intermediate inflationary models in f(T)-gravity can be compatible with the observational results of Planck 2015 at 68% CL. We find that in our f(T) setting, the potentials responsible for the both power-law and intermediate inflationary models have the power-law form V(ϕ)∝ϕ m but the power m is different for them. Therefore, we can refine some of power-law inflationary potentials in the framework of f(T)-gravity while they are disfavored by the observational data in the standard inflationary scenario. Interestingly enough, is that the self-interacting quartic potential V(ϕ)∝ϕ 4 which has special reheating properties, can be consistent with the Planck 2015 data in our f(T) scenario while it is ruled out in the standard inflationary scenario.
Kennedy, Jeffrey R.; Ferre, Ty P.A.; Creutzfeldt, Benjamin
2016-01-01
Groundwater-level measurements in monitoring wells or piezometers are the most common, and often the only, hydrologic measurements made at artificial recharge facilities. Measurements of gravity change over time provide an additional source of information about changes in groundwater storage, infiltration, and for model calibration. We demonstrate that for an artificial recharge facility with a deep groundwater table, gravity data are more sensitive to movement of water through the unsaturated zone than are groundwater levels. Groundwater levels have a delayed response to infiltration, change in a similar manner at many potential monitoring locations, and are heavily influenced by high-frequency noise induced by pumping; in contrast, gravity changes start immediately at the onset of infiltration and are sensitive to water in the unsaturated zone. Continuous gravity data can determine infiltration rate, and the estimate is only minimally affected by uncertainty in water-content change. Gravity data are also useful for constraining parameters in a coupled groundwater-unsaturated zone model (Modflow-NWT model with the Unsaturated Zone Flow (UZF) package).
Effect of lunar gravity models on Chang'E-2 orbit determination using VLBI tracking data
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Erhu Wei
2016-11-01
Full Text Available The precise orbit determination of Chang'E-2 is the most important issue for successful mission and scientific applications, while the lunar gravity field model with big uncertainties has large effect on Chang'E-2 orbit determination. Recently, several new gravity models have been produced using the latest lunar satellites tracking data, such as LP165P, SGM150J, GL0900D and GRGM900C. In this paper, the four gravity models mentioned above were evaluated through the power spectra analysis, admittance and coherence analysis. Effect of four lunar gravity models on Chang'E-2 orbit determination performance is investigated and assessed using Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI tracking data. The overlap orbit analysis, the posteriori data residual, and the orbit prediction are used to evaluate the orbit precision between successive arcs. The LP165P model has better orbit overlap performance than the SGM150J model for Chang'E-2100 km × 100 km orbit and the SGM150J model performs better for Chang'E-2100 km × 15 km orbit, while GL0900D and GRGM900C have the best orbit overlap results for the two types of Chang'E-2 orbit. For the orbit prediction, GRGM900C has the best orbit prediction performance in the four models.
Using a Gravity Model to Predict Circulation in a Public Library System.
Ottensmann, John R.
1995-01-01
Describes the development of a gravity model based upon principles of spatial interaction to predict the circulation of libraries in the Indianapolis-Marion County Public Library (Indiana). The model effectively predicted past circulation figures and was tested by predicting future library circulation, particularly for a new branch library.…
GOCE in ocean modelling - Point mass method applied on GOCE gravity gradients
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herceg, Matija; Knudsen, Per
This presentation is an introduction to my Ph.D project. The main objective of the study is to improve the methodology for combining GOCE gravity field models with satellite altimetry to derive optimal dynamic ocean topography models for oceanography. Here a method for geoid determination using...
Using the gravity model to estimate the spatial spread of vector-borne diseases
Barrios, J.M.; Verstraeten, W.W.; Maes, P.; Aerts, J.; Farifteh, J.; Coppin, P.
2012-01-01
The gravity models are commonly used spatial interaction models. They have been widely applied in a large set of domains dealing with interactions amongst spatial entities. The spread of vector-borne diseases is also related to the intensity of interaction between spatial entities, namely, the
Identification of the Skirt Piled Gullfaks C Gravity Platform using ARMAV Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune
This paper presents the results from the system identification of the Gullfaks C gravity offshore platform excited by natural loads. The paper describes how modal parameters and mode shapes can be estimated by use of ARMAV models. The results estimated by an ARMAV model are compared with results...
Identification of the Skirt Piled Gullfaks C Gravity Platform using ARMAV Models
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.; Brincker, Rune
1996-01-01
This paper presents the results from the system identification of the Gullfaks C gravity offshore platform excited by natural loads. The paper describes how modal parameters and mode shapes can be estimated by use of ARMAV models. The results estimated by an ARMAV model are compared with results...
2 + 1 quantum gravity as a toy model for the 3 + 1 theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashtekar, A.; Husain, V.; Smolin, L.; Samuel, J.; Utah Univ., Salt Lake City, UT
1989-01-01
2 + 1 Einstein gravity is used as a toy model for testing a program for non-perturbative canonical quantisation of the 3 + 1 theory. The program can be successfully implemented in the model and leads to a surprisingly rich quantum theory. (author)
Modeling of micro thrusters for gravity probe B
Jones, Kenneth M.
1996-01-01
The concept of testing Einstein's general theory of relativity by means of orbiting gyroscopes was first proposed in 1959, which lead to the development of the Gravity Probe B experiment. Einstein's theory concerns the predictions of the relativistic precession of a gyroscope in orbit around earth. According to his theory, there will be two precessions due to the warping of space-time by the earth's gravitational field: the geodetic precession in the plane of the orbit, and the frame-dragging effect, in the direction of earth rotation. For a polar orbit, these components are orthogonal. In order to simplify the measurement of the precessions, Gravity Probe B (GP-B) will be placed in a circular polar orbit at 650 km, for which the predicted precessions will be 6.6 arcsec/year (geodetic) and 42 milli-arcsec/year (frame-dragging). As the gyroscope precesses, the orientation of its spin-axis will be measured with respect to the line-of-sight to Rigel, a star whose proper motion is known to be within the required accuracy. The line-of-sight to Rigel will be established using a telescope, and the orientation of the gyroscope spin axis will be measured using very sensitive SQUID (Superconducting Quantum Interference Device) magnetometers. The four gyroscopes will be coated with niobium. Below 2K, the niobium becomes superconducting and a dipole field will be generated which is precisely aligned with the gyroscope spin-axis. The change in orientation of these fields, as well as the spin-axis, is sensed by the SQUID magnetometers. In order to attain the superconducting temperatures for the gyroscopes and the SQUID's, the experiment package will be housed in a dewar filled with liquid helium. The helium flow through a GP-B micro thruster and into a vacuum is investigated using the Direct Simulation Monte Carlo method.
Gravity modeling of the Muertos Trough and tectonic implications (north-eastern Caribbean)
Granja, Bruna J.L.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; ten Brink, Uri S.; Carbó-Gorosabel, Andrés; Llanes, Estrada P.; Martín-Dávila, J.; Cordoba-Barba, D.; Catalan, Morollon M.
2010-01-01
The Muertos Trough in the northeast Caribbean has been interpreted as a subduction zone from seismicity, leading to infer a possible reversal subduction polarity. However, the distribution of the seismicity is very diffuse and makes definition of the plate geometry difficult. In addition, the compressive deformational features observed in the upper crust and sandbox kinematic modeling do not necessarily suggest a subduction process. We tested the hypothesized subduction of the Caribbean plate's interior beneath the eastern Greater Antilles island arc using gravity modeling. Gravity models simulating a subduction process yield a regional mass deficit beneath the island arc independently of the geometry and depth of the subducted slab used in the models. This mass deficit results from sinking of the less dense Caribbean slab beneath the lithospheric mantle replacing denser mantle materials and suggests that there is not a subducted Caribbean plateau beneath the island arc. The geologically more realistic gravity model which would explain the N-S shortening observed in the upper crust requires an overthrusted Caribbean slab extending at least 60 km northward from the deformation front, a progressive increase in the thrusting angle from 8?? to 30?? reaching a maximum depth of 22 km beneath the insular slope. This new tectonic model for the Muertos Margin, defined as a retroarc thrusting, will help to assess the seismic and tsunami hazard in the region. The use of gravity modeling has provided targets for future wide-angle seismic surveys in the Muertos Margin. ?? 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Modeling the benefits of an artificial gravity countermeasure coupled with exercise and vibration
Goel, Rahul; Kaderka, Justin; Newman, Dava
2012-01-01
The current, system-specific countermeasures to space deconditioning have limited success with the musculoskeletal system in long duration missions. Artificial gravity (AG) that is produced by short radius centrifugation has been hypothesized as an effective countermeasure because it reintroduces an acceleration field in space; however, AG alone might not be enough stimuli to preserve the musculoskeletal system. A novel combination of AG coupled with one-legged squats on a vibrating platform may preserve muscle and bone in the lower limbs to a greater extent than the current exercise paradigm. The benefits of the proposed countermeasure have been analyzed through the development of a simulation platform. Ground reaction force data and motion data were collected using a motion capture system while performing one-legged and two-legged squats in 1-G. The motion was modeled in OpenSim, an open-source software, and inverse dynamics were applied in order to determine the muscle and reaction forces of lower limb joints. Vibration stimulus was modeled by adding a 20 Hz sinusoidal force of 0.5 body weight to the force plate data. From the numerical model in a 1-G acceleration field, muscle forces for quadriceps femoris, plantar flexors and glutei increased substantially for one-legged squats with vibration compared to one- or two-legged squats without vibration. Additionally, joint reaction forces for one-legged squats with vibration also increased significantly compared to two-legged squats with or without vibration. Higher muscle forces and joint reaction forces might help to stimulate muscle activation and bone modeling and thus might reduce musculoskeletal deconditioning. These results indicate that the proposed countermeasure might surpass the performance of the current space countermeasures and should be further studied as a method of mitigating musculoskeletal deconditioning.
A 2D model of causal set quantum gravity: the emergence of the continuum
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brightwell, Graham; Henson, Joe; Surya, Sumati
2008-01-01
Non-perturbative theories of quantum gravity inevitably include configurations that fail to resemble physically reasonable spacetimes at large scales. Often, these configurations are entropically dominant and pose an obstacle to obtaining the desired classical limit. We examine this 'entropy problem' in a model of causal set quantum gravity corresponding to a discretization of 2D spacetimes. Using results from the theory of partial orders we show that, in the large volume or continuum limit, its partition function is dominated by causal sets which approximate to a region of 2D Minkowski space. This model of causal set quantum gravity thus overcomes the entropy problem and predicts the emergence of a physically reasonable geometry
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Gasparini
1997-06-01
Full Text Available The results of about 120 magnetotelluric soundings carried out in the Vulsini, Vico and Sabatini volcanic areas were modeled along with Bouguer and aeromagnetic anomalies to reconstruct a model of the structure of the shallow (less than 5 km of depth crust. The interpretations were constrained by the information gathered from the deep boreholes drilled for geothermal exploration. MT and aeromagnetic anomalies allow the depth to the top of the sedimentary basement and the thickness of the volcanic layer to be inferred. Gravity anomalies are strongly affected by the variations of morphology of the top of the sedimentary basement, consisting of a Tertiary flysch, and of the interface with the underlying Mesozoic carbonates. Gravity data have also been used to extrapolate the thickness of the neogenic unit indicated by some boreholes. There is no evidence for other important density and susceptibility heterogeneities and deeper sources of magnetic and/or gravity anomalies in all the surveyed area.
Yazid, N. M.; Din, A. H. M.; Omar, K. M.; Som, Z. A. M.; Omar, A. H.; Yahaya, N. A. Z.; Tugi, A.
2016-09-01
Global geopotential models (GGMs) are vital in computing global geoid undulations heights. Based on the ellipsoidal height by Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) observations, the accurate orthometric height can be calculated by adding precise and accurate geoid undulations model information. However, GGMs also provide data from the satellite gravity missions such as GRACE, GOCE and CHAMP. Thus, this will assist to enhance the global geoid undulations data. A statistical assessment has been made between geoid undulations derived from 4 GGMs and the airborne gravity data provided by Department of Survey and Mapping Malaysia (DSMM). The goal of this study is the selection of the best possible GGM that best matches statistically with the geoid undulations of airborne gravity data under the Marine Geodetic Infrastructures in Malaysian Waters (MAGIC) Project over marine areas in Sabah. The correlation coefficients and the RMS value for the geoid undulations of GGM and airborne gravity data were computed. The correlation coefficients between EGM 2008 and airborne gravity data is 1 while RMS value is 0.1499.In this study, the RMS value of EGM 2008 is the lowest among the others. Regarding to the statistical analysis, it clearly represents that EGM 2008 is the best fit for marine geoid undulations throughout South China Sea.
Energy balance in current sheets: From Petschek to gravity driven reconnection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mercier, C.; Heyvaerts, J.
1980-01-01
It has been shown earlier that energy balance processes play a very important role in the determination of the reconnection regime in the central diffusive region of a steady Petschek flow (usually considered elsewhere as isothermal and incompressible): as a consequence of the plasma thermal properties, abrupt transitions in the reconnection regime may occur for special external conditions. The regime becomes then a dynamical one, and it was suggested that onset of plasma microturbulence may result and act as a primary triggering mechanism in solar flares. In this paper we will reexamine the problem of onset of such dynamical transition and conclude that plasma microturbulence does not appear in a straightforward way. However it is possible that the canonical Petschek regime may evolute into a new one in which the dissipative sheet is no longer infinitesimal with respect to the dimensions of the structure, and in which gravity plays an important role. Flare triggering, if related to the reconnection regime, must then proceed by more complex processes, possibly related to tearing mode dynamics, or to more global properties of the magnetic structure of the active region. (orig.)
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Herceg, Matija; Thybo, Hans; Artemieva, Irina
2013-01-01
We present a new regional model for the density structure of the upper mantle below Siberia. The residual mantle gravity anomalies are based on gravity data derived from the GOCE gravity gradients and geopotential models, with crustal correction to the gravity field being calculated from a new...... on regional and global crustal models. We analyze how uncertainties and errors in the crustal model propagate from crustal densities to mantle residual gravity anomalies and the density model of the upper mantle. The new regional density model for the Siberian craton and the West Siberian Basin complements...... regional crustal model. This newly compiled database on the crustal seismic structure, complemented by additional constraints from petrological analysis of near-surface rocks and lower crustal xenoliths, allows for a high-resolution correction of the crustal effects as compared to previous studies based...
Electric current model of magnetosphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfen, H.
1979-05-01
A dualism between the field and the particle approach exists also in plasma physics. A number of phenomena, such as the formation of double layers and the energy transport form one region to another, can be understood only by the particle (electric current) description. Hence a translation of the traditional field description into a particle (electric current) description is essential. Such a translation has earlier been made for the heliosphere. The purpose of this paper is to outline a similar application to the magnetosphere, focussing on the energy transfer from the solar wind. As a first approximation a magnetic field consisting of a dipole field and homogeneous magnetic field is used whereas in a second approximation the configuration is more realistic. (author)
Asgharian, Bahman; Price, Owen; Oberdörster, Gunter
2006-06-01
Inhalation of particles generated as a result of thermal degradation from fire or smoke, as may occur on spacecraft, is of major health concern to space-faring countries. Knowledge of lung airflow and particle transport under different gravity environments is required to addresses this concern by providing information on particle deposition. Gravity affects deposition of particles in the lung in two ways. First, the airflow distribution among airways is changed in different gravity environments. Second, particle losses by sedimentation are enhanced with increasing gravity. In this study, a model of airflow distribution in the lung that accounts for the influence of gravity was used for a mathematical description of particle deposition in the human lung to calculate lobar, regional, and local deposition of particles in different gravity environments. The lung geometry used in the mathematical model contained five lobes that allowed the assessment of lobar ventilation distribution and variation of particle deposition. At zero gravity, it was predicted that all lobes of the lung expanded and contracted uniformly, independent of body position. Increased gravity in the upright position increased the expansion of the upper lobes and decreased expansion of the lower lobes. Despite a slight increase in predicted deposition of ultrafine particles in the upper lobes with decreasing gravity, deposition of ultrafine particles was generally predicted to be unaffected by gravity. Increased gravity increased predicted deposition of fine and coarse particles in the tracheobronchial region, but that led to a reduction or even elimination of deposition in the alveolar region for coarse particles. The results from this study show that existing mathematical models of particle deposition at 1 G can be extended to different gravity environments by simply correcting for a gravity constant. Controlled studies in astronauts on future space missions are needed to validate these predictions.
A RENORMALIZATION PROCEDURE FOR TENSOR MODELS AND SCALAR-TENSOR THEORIES OF GRAVITY
SASAKURA, NAOKI
2010-01-01
Tensor models are more-index generalizations of the so-called matrix models, and provide models of quantum gravity with the idea that spaces and general relativity are emergent phenomena. In this paper, a renormalization procedure for the tensor models whose dynamical variable is a totally symmetric real three-tensor is discussed. It is proven that configurations with certain Gaussian forms are the attractors of the three-tensor under the renormalization procedure. Since these Gaussian config...
Radugina, Elena A.; Almeida, Eduardo; Grigoryan, Eleonora
factors and are expressed during development, we hypothesized they may play a role newt tail regenerative morphogenesis under altered g-levels. Specifically there is increasing evidence for HSPs expression changes as a result of hyper-and microgravity. HSPs are also expressed throughout regeneration, rather than just after surgery. To test this hypothesis we performed heat shock on intact and regenerating newts and collected tail tissues. In these experiments we observed that some tails had uplifted tips while others mimicked hook-like regenerates at 1g or 2g. These findings suggest that heat shock, and HSPs induction, may be involved in the mechanism responsible for gravity effects on morphogenesis, or at least interact with them. Current work underway is focused on analyzing the expression of mRNA and localization of proteins for two members of the group, Hsp70 and Hsp90. In summary, we developed and characterized a new practical animal model in which gravity mechanostimulation at 1g, versus unloading in aquaria, causes prominent effects on newt tail regenerative morphogenesis. This model can be achieved without the use of a centrifuge, significantly simplifying its research applications. Initial results using this model suggest that induction of HSPs may be involved in gravity regulation of newt tail regenerative morphogenesis. Further research based on this simple model may help to unravel mechanisms of gravity influence relevant not only to newt tail regeneration, but also to a broad range of other biological processes in amphibian models.
THE ANALYSIS OF FLAT GLASS EXPORTS FOR ROMANIA USING THE GRAVITY MODEL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Draghescu Florin
2015-07-01
Full Text Available The intense international competition and reduced rates of economics growth force the companies at dynamic and appropriate strategies to address internal and external market. The manufacturing industry from Romania has competitive advantages defined by tradition, qualified labour force, indigenous raw materials, and its products serve various industries – construction, automotive, food – that is expected to experience a future sustained development. With approximately 2,500 employees, the glassware sector from Romania is part of the manufacturing industry which has constantly decreased in the last 25 years. Romania has a long tradition in the glassware sector and remains a strategic player in the region being integrated in the global flows from the industry. Geographical orientation of Romanian trade of flat glass for export is analyzed using the gravity model. The purpose of this article is to determine the essential factors of flat glass export level from Romania to states with which has commercial partnerships using both a gravity static model, but also a gravity dynamic model – a common model in the literature, used to analyze the trade flows between world countries or polarization strength of cities and commercial centres. The empirical results of both models have shown that the gravity attraction of local and destination economies, transport costs – measured by the distances between capitals and lack of common border –, language interconnectivity, and also belonging to the BSEC (Organization of the Black Sea Economic Cooperation are the most important factors affecting the Romanian exports of the flat glass.
Risk analysis of gravity dam instability using credibility theory Monte Carlo simulation model.
Xin, Cao; Chongshi, Gu
2016-01-01
Risk analysis of gravity dam stability involves complicated uncertainty in many design parameters and measured data. Stability failure risk ratio described jointly by probability and possibility has deficiency in characterization of influence of fuzzy factors and representation of the likelihood of risk occurrence in practical engineering. In this article, credibility theory is applied into stability failure risk analysis of gravity dam. Stability of gravity dam is viewed as a hybrid event considering both fuzziness and randomness of failure criterion, design parameters and measured data. Credibility distribution function is conducted as a novel way to represent uncertainty of influence factors of gravity dam stability. And combining with Monte Carlo simulation, corresponding calculation method and procedure are proposed. Based on a dam section, a detailed application of the modeling approach on risk calculation of both dam foundation and double sliding surfaces is provided. The results show that, the present method is feasible to be applied on analysis of stability failure risk for gravity dams. The risk assessment obtained can reflect influence of both sorts of uncertainty, and is suitable as an index value.
Guglielmetti, L.; Comina, C.; Abdelfettah, Y.; Schill, E.; Mandrone, G.
2013-11-01
Thermal sources are common manifestations of geothermal energy resources in Alpine regions. The up-flow of the fluid is well-known to be often linked to cross-cutting fault zones providing a significant volume of fractures. Since conventional exploration methods are challenging in such areas of high topography and complicated logistics, 3D geological modeling based on structural investigation becomes a useful tool for assessing the overall geology of the investigated sites. Geological modeling alone is, however, less effective if not integrated with deep subsurface investigations that could provide a first order information on geological boundaries and an imaging of geological structures. With this aim, in the present paper the combined use of 3D geological modeling and gravity surveys for geothermal prospection of a hydrothermal area in the western Alps was carried out on two sites located in the Argentera Massif (NW Italy). The geothermal activity of the area is revealed by thermal anomalies with surface evidences, such as hot springs, at temperatures up to 70 °C. Integration of gravity measurements and 3D modeling investigates the potential of this approach in the context of geothermal exploration in Alpine regions where a very complex geological and structural setting is expected. The approach used in the present work is based on the comparison between the observed gravity and the gravity effect of the 3D geological models, in order to enhance local effects related to the geothermal system. It is shown that a correct integration of 3D modeling and detailed geophysical survey could allow a better characterization of geological structures involved in geothermal fluids circulation. Particularly, gravity inversions have successfully delineated the continuity in depth of low density structures, such as faults and fractured bands observed at the surface, and have been of great help in improving the overall geological model.
Constraint on reconstructed f(R) gravity models from gravitational waves
Lee, Seokcheon
2018-06-01
The gravitational wave (GW) detection of a binary neutron star inspiral made by the Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo paves the unprecedented way for multi-messenger observations. The propagation speed of this GW can be scrutinized by comparing the arrival times between GW and neutrinos or photons. It provides the constraint on the mass of the graviton. f(R) gravity theories have the habitual non-zero mass gravitons in addition to usual massless ones. Previously, we show that the model independent f(R) gravity theories can be constructed from the both background evolution and the matter growth with one undetermined parameter. We show that this parameter can be constrained from the graviton mass bound obtained from GW detection. Thus, the GW detection provides the invaluable constraint on the validity of f(R) gravity theories.
Exact solution in the cosmological chaotic inflation model with induced gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Wenfu
2004-01-01
We present a new, exact solution in the cosmological chaotic inflation model with induced gravity. The spectral index of the scalar density fluctuations, n s , is computed, and is consistent with the analyses of BOOMERANG data. The effective cosmological constant Λ eff tends to zero when inflation ends
Logit Estimation of a Gravity Model of the College Enrollment Decision.
Leppel, Karen
1993-01-01
A study investigated the factors influencing students' decisions about attending a college to which they had been admitted. Logit analysis confirmed gravity model predictions that geographic distance and student ability would most influence the enrollment decision and found other variables, although affecting earlier stages of decision making, did…
The Footfall of Shopping Centres in Olomouc (Czech Republic): An Application of the Gravity Model
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klapka, Pavel; Erlebach, M.; Král, O.; Lehnert, M.; Mička, T.
2013-01-01
Roč. 21, č. 3 (2013), s. 12-26 ISSN 1210-8812 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : footfall * spatial interaction * gravity model * shopping centre * Olomouc Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography Impact factor: 0.341, year: 2013 http://www.geonika.cz/EN/research/ENMgr/MGR_2013_03.pdf
Modeling corewood-outerwood transition in loblolly pine using wood specific gravity
Christian R. Mora; H. Lee Allen; Richard F. Daniels; Alexander Clark
2007-01-01
A modified logistic function was used for modeling specific-gravity profiles obtained from X-ray densitometry analysis in 675 loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) trees in four regeneration trials. Trees were 21 or 22 years old at the time of the study. The function was used for demarcating corewood, transitional, and outerwood zones. Site and silvicultural effects were...
Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia; Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio
2012-01-01
We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.
Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model
Reyes, Luz M.; Moreno, Claudia; Madriz Aguilar, José Edgar; Bellini, Mauricio
2012-10-01
We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.
Gravitational waves during inflation from a 5D large-scale repulsive gravity model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reyes, Luz M., E-mail: luzmarinareyes@gmail.com [Departamento de Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e ingenierias (CUCEI), Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG), Av. Revolucion 1500, S.R. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Moreno, Claudia, E-mail: claudia.moreno@cucei.udg.mx [Departamento de Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e ingenierias (CUCEI), Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG), Av. Revolucion 1500, S.R. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Madriz Aguilar, Jose Edgar, E-mail: edgar.madriz@red.cucei.udg.mx [Departamento de Matematicas, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Exactas e ingenierias (CUCEI), Universidad de Guadalajara (UdG), Av. Revolucion 1500, S.R. 44430, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico); Bellini, Mauricio, E-mail: mbellini@mdp.edu.ar [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata (UNMdP), Funes 3350, C.P. 7600, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR) - Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina)
2012-10-22
We investigate, in the transverse traceless (TT) gauge, the generation of the relic background of gravitational waves, generated during the early inflationary stage, on the framework of a large-scale repulsive gravity model. We calculate the spectrum of the tensor metric fluctuations of an effective 4D Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on cosmological scales. This metric is obtained after implementing a planar coordinate transformation on a 5D Ricci-flat metric solution, in the context of a non-compact Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity. We found that the spectrum is nearly scale invariant under certain conditions. One interesting aspect of this model is that it is possible to derive the dynamical field equations for the tensor metric fluctuations, valid not just at cosmological scales, but also at astrophysical scales, from the same theoretical model. The astrophysical and cosmological scales are determined by the gravity-antigravity radius, which is a natural length scale of the model, that indicates when gravity becomes repulsive in nature.
Gravity field models from kinematic orbits of CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE satellites
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bezděk, Aleš; Sebera, Josef; Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kostelecký, J.
2014-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 3 (2014), s. 412-429 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13071; GA ČR GA13-36843S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravity field models * kinematic orbits * generalized least squares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014
The anisotropic cosmological models in f(R, T) gravity with (T )
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2017-03-15
Mar 15, 2017 ... Recent evidences coming from the observational data [1–6] on the late-time ... theoretical challenge to gravitational theories.The cosmic microwave ... that at large scales the Einstein gravity model of general relativity breaks ...
(2+1) gravity for higher genus in the polygon model
Kádár, Zoltán; Loll, R.
2004-01-01
We construct explicitly a (12g − 12)-dimensional space P of unconstrained and independent initial data for ’t Hooft’s polygon model of (2+1) gravity for vacuum spacetimes with compact genus-g spacelike slices, for any g ≥ 2. Our method relies on interpreting the boost parameters of the gluing
Wińska, Małgorzata; Nastula, Jolanta
2017-04-01
Large scale mass redistribution and its transport within the Earth system causes changes in the Earth's rotation in space, gravity field and Earth's ellipsoid shape. These changes are observed in the ΔC21, ΔS21, and ΔC20 spherical harmonics gravity coefficients, which are proportional to the mass load-induced Earth rotational excitations. In this study, linear trend, decadal, inter-annual, and seasonal variations of low degree spherical harmonics coefficients of Earth's gravity field, determined from different space geodetic techniques, Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), satellite laser ranging (SLR), Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS), Earth rotation, and climate models, are examined. In this way, the contribution of each measurement technique to interpreting the low degree surface mass density of the Earth is shown. Especially, we evaluate an usefulness of several climate models from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) to determine the low degree Earth's gravity coefficients using GRACE satellite observations. To do that, Terrestrial Water Storage (TWS) changes from several CMIP5 climate models are determined and then these simulated data are compared with the GRACE observations. Spherical harmonics ΔC21, ΔS21, and ΔC20 changes are calculated as the sum of atmosphere and ocean mass effect (GAC values) taken from GRACE and a land surface hydrological estimate from the selected CMIP5 climate models. Low degree Stokes coefficients of the surface mass density determined from GRACE, SLR, GNSS, Earth rotation measurements and climate models are compared to each other in order to assess their consistency. The comparison is done by using different types of statistical and signal processing methods.
Assessment of motion-induced fluidization of dense pyroclastic gravity currents
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Salatino
2005-06-01
Full Text Available The paper addresses some fundamental aspects of the dynamics of dense granular flows down inclines relevant to pyroclastic density currents. A simple mechanistic framework is presented to analyze the dynamics of the frontal zone, with a focus on the establishment of conditions that promote air entrainment at the head of the current and motion-induced self-fluidization of the flow. The one-dimensional momentum balance on the current along the incline is considered under the hypothesis of strongly turbulent flow and pseudo-homogeneous behaviour of the two-phase gas-solid flow. Departures from one-dimensional flow in the frontal region are also analyzed and provide the key to the assessment of air cross-flow and fluidization of the solids in the head of the current. The conditions for the establishment of steady motion of pyroclastic flows down an incline, in either the fluidized or «dry» granular states, are examined.
Near-surface current meter array measurements of internal gravity waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jones, H.B.E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)
1994-11-15
We have developed various processing algorithms used to estimate the wave forms produced by hydrodynamic Internal Waves. Furthermore, the estimated Internal Waves are used to calculate the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) which relates the current and strain rate subsurface fields to surface scattering phenomenon imaged by radar. Following a brief discussion of LLNL`s measurement platform (a 10 sensor current meter array) we described the generation of representative current and strain rate space-time images from measured or simulated data. Then, we present how our simulation capability highlighted limitations in estimating strain rate. These limitations spurred the application of beamforming techniques to enhance our estimates, albeit at the expense of collapsing our space-time images to 1-D estimates. Finally, we discuss progress with regard to processing the current meter array data captured during the recent Loch Linnhe field trials.
Gravity and Nonconservative Force Model Tuning for the GEOSAT Follow-On Spacecraft
Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Rowlands, David D.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Chinn, Douglas S.; Marr, Gregory C.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)
2000-01-01
The US Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On spacecraft was launched on February 10, 1998 and the primary objective of the mission was to map the oceans using a radar altimeter. Three radar altimeter calibration campaigns have been conducted in 1999 and 2000. The spacecraft is tracked by satellite laser ranging (SLR) and Doppler beacons and a limited amount of data have been obtained from the Global Positioning Receiver (GPS) on board the satellite. Even with EGM96, the predicted radial orbit error due to gravity field mismodelling (to 70x70) remains high at 2.61 cm (compared to 0.88 cm for TOPEX). We report on the preliminary gravity model tuning for GFO using SLR, and altimeter crossover data. Preliminary solutions using SLR and GFO/GFO crossover data from CalVal campaigns I and II in June-August 1999, and January-February 2000 have reduced the predicted radial orbit error to 1.9 cm and further reduction will be possible when additional data are added to the solutions. The gravity model tuning has improved principally the low order m-daily terms and has reduced significantly the geographically correlated error present in this satellite orbit. In addition to gravity field mismodelling, the largest contributor to the orbit error is the non-conservative force mismodelling. We report on further nonconservative force model tuning results using available data from over one cycle in beta prime.
Modeling and Testing Dark Energy and Gravity with Galaxy Cluster Data
Rapetti, David; Cataneo, Matteo; Heneka, Caroline; Mantz, Adam; Allen, Steven W.; Von Der Linden, Anja; Schmidt, Fabian; Lombriser, Lucas; Li, Baojiu; Applegate, Douglas; Kelly, Patrick; Morris, Glenn
2018-06-01
The abundance of galaxy clusters is a powerful probe to constrain the properties of dark energy and gravity at large scales. We employed a self-consistent analysis that includes survey, observable-mass scaling relations and weak gravitational lensing data to obtain constraints on f(R) gravity, which are an order of magnitude tighter than the best previously achieved, as well as on cold dark energy of negligible sound speed. The latter implies clustering of the dark energy fluid at all scales, allowing us to measure the effects of dark energy perturbations at cluster scales. For this study, we recalibrated the halo mass function using the following non-linear characteristic quantities: the spherical collapse threshold, the virial overdensity and an additional mass contribution for cold dark energy. We also presented a new modeling of the f(R) gravity halo mass function that incorporates novel corrections to capture key non-linear effects of the Chameleon screening mechanism, as found in high resolution N-body simulations. All these results permit us to predict, as I will also exemplify, and eventually obtain the next generation of cluster constraints on such models, and provide us with frameworks that can also be applied to other proposed dark energy and modified gravity models using cluster abundance observations.
GRGM900C: A Degree 900 Lunar Gravity Model from GRAIL Primary and Extended Mission Data
Lemoine, Frank G.; Goossens, Sander; Sabaka, Terence J.; Nicholas, Joseph B.; Mazarico, Erwan; Rowlands, David D.; Bryant, D. Loomis; Chinn, Douglas S.; Neumann, Gregory A.; Smith, David E.;
2014-01-01
We have derived a gravity field solution in spherical harmonics to degree and order 900, GRGM900C, from the tracking data of the Gravity Recovery and Interior Laboratory (GRAIL) Primary (1 March to 29 May 2012) and Extended Missions (30 August to 14 December 2012). A power law constraint of 3.6 × 10(exp -4)/l(exp 2) was applied only for degree l greater than 600. The model produces global correlations of gravity, and gravity predicted from lunar topography of greater than or equal to 0.98 through degree 638. The model's degree strength varies from a minimum of 575-675 over the central nearside and farside to 900 over the polar regions. The model fits the Extended Mission Ka-Band Range Rate data through 17 November 2012 at 0.13 micrometers/s RMS, whereas the last month of Ka-Band Range-Rate data obtained from altitudes of 2-10 km fit at 0.98 micrometers/s RMS, indicating that there is still signal inherent in the tracking data beyond degree 900.
Improvement of density models of geological structures by fusion of gravity data and cosmic muon radiographies
Jourde, K.; Gibert, D.; Marteau, J.
2015-08-01
This paper examines how the resolution of small-scale geological density models is improved through the fusion of information provided by gravity measurements and density muon radiographies. Muon radiography aims at determining the density of geological bodies by measuring their screening effect on the natural flux of cosmic muons. Muon radiography essentially works like a medical X-ray scan and integrates density information along elongated narrow conical volumes. Gravity measurements are linked to density by a 3-D integration encompassing the whole studied domain. We establish the mathematical expressions of these integration formulas - called acquisition kernels - and derive the resolving kernels that are spatial filters relating the true unknown density structure to the density distribution actually recovered from the available data. The resolving kernel approach allows one to quantitatively describe the improvement of the resolution of the density models achieved by merging gravity data and muon radiographies. The method developed in this paper may be used to optimally design the geometry of the field measurements to be performed in order to obtain a given spatial resolution pattern of the density model to be constructed. The resolving kernels derived in the joined muon-gravimetry case indicate that gravity data are almost useless for constraining the density structure in regions sampled by more than two muon tomography acquisitions. Interestingly, the resolution in deeper regions not sampled by muon tomography is significantly improved by joining the two techniques. The method is illustrated with examples for the La Soufrière volcano of Guadeloupe.
Selfduality of d=2 reduction of gravity coupled to a σ-model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paulot, Louis
2005-01-01
Dimensional reduction in two dimensions of gravity in higher dimension, or more generally of d=3 gravity coupled to a σ-model on a symmetric space, is known to possess an infinite number of symmetries. We show that such a bidimensional model can be embedded in a covariant way into a σ-model on an infinite symmetric space, built on the semidirect product of an affine group by the Witt group. The finite theory is the solution of a covariant selfduality constraint on the infinite model. It has therefore the symmetries of the infinite symmetric space. (We give explicit transformations of the gauge algebra.) The usual physical fields are recovered in a triangular gauge, in which the equations take the form of the usual linear systems which exhibit the integrable structure of the models. Moreover, we derive the constraint equation for the conformal factor, which is associated to the central term of the affine group involved
Xiang, Yongqing; Yakushin, Sergei B; Cohen, Bernard; Raphan, Theodore
2006-12-01
A neural network model was developed to explain the gravity-dependent properties of gain adaptation of the angular vestibuloocular reflex (aVOR). Gain changes are maximal at the head orientation where the gain is adapted and decrease as the head is tilted away from that position and can be described by the sum of gravity-independent and gravity-dependent components. The adaptation process was modeled by modifying the weights and bias values of a three-dimensional physiologically based neural network of canal-otolith-convergent neurons that drive the aVOR. Model parameters were trained using experimental vertical aVOR gain values. The learning rule aimed to reduce the error between eye velocities obtained from experimental gain values and model output in the position of adaptation. Although the model was trained only at specific head positions, the model predicted the experimental data at all head positions in three dimensions. Altering the relative learning rates of the weights and bias improved the model-data fits. Model predictions in three dimensions compared favorably with those of a double-sinusoid function, which is a fit that minimized the mean square error at every head position and served as the standard by which we compared the model predictions. The model supports the hypothesis that gravity-dependent adaptation of the aVOR is realized in three dimensions by a direct otolith input to canal-otolith neurons, whose canal sensitivities are adapted by the visual-vestibular mismatch. The adaptation is tuned by how the weights from otolith input to the canal-otolith-convergent neurons are adapted for a given head orientation.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Barceló
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
(2 + 1)-dimensional interacting model of two massless spin-2 fields as a bi-gravity model
Hoseinzadeh, S.; Rezaei-Aghdam, A.
2018-06-01
We propose a new group-theoretical (Chern-Simons) formulation for the bi-metric theory of gravity in (2 + 1)-dimensional spacetime which describe two interacting massless spin-2 fields. Our model has been formulated in terms of two dreibeins rather than two metrics. We obtain our Chern-Simons gravity model by gauging mixed AdS-AdS Lie algebra and show that it has a two dimensional conformal field theory (CFT) at the boundary of the anti de Sitter (AdS) solution. We show that the central charge of the dual CFT is proportional to the mass of the AdS solution. We also study cosmological implications of our massless bi-gravity model.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodriguez Diana Marcela; Hernandez Orlando; Kammer Andreas
2009-01-01
The aim of this research is to apply spectral correlation, local favorability indexes and Poisson's theorem as numerical methods for data processing and interpretation of potential field data associated with structural features; these techniques are applied to theoretical and real gravity and magnetic data of the Soapaga fault, located in the Boyaca Department, in the eastern Andean Mountains. Theoretical data of the Soapaga fault was obtained by forward modeling of geological and structural sections. Real data of the Soapaga fault included compiled gravity data and acquired magnetic data along four profiles oriented perpendicular to the fault. As a result, the geometry of the fault and its structural characteristics were obtained by interactive forward and inverse modeling. This methodology allows highlighting anomaly trends associated with density and magnetic susceptibility contrast that occur along the Soapaga fault zone. Additionally, this work provides a quantitative approach to establish the relationship between gravity and magnetic anomalies, supported by a rigorous mathematical methodology rather than isolated data interpretation to better understand the gravity and magnetic signatures of outcropping and hidden structural features.
Kepaptsoglou, Konstantinos; Karlaftis, Matthew G.; Tsamboulas, Dimitrios
2010-01-01
The gravity model has been extensively used in international trade research for the last 40 years because of its considerable empirical robustness and explanatory power. Since their introduction in the 1960's, gravity models have been used for assessing trade policy implications and, particularly recently, for analyzing the effects of Free Trade Agreements on international trade. The objective of this paper is to review the recent empirical literature on gravity models, highlight best practic...
NLO QCD Corrections to Drell-Yan in TeV-scale Gravity Models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathews, Prakash; Ravindran, V.
2006-01-01
In TeV scale gravity models, we present the NLO-QCD corrections for the double differential cross sections in the scattering angle for dilepton production at hadron colliders. The quantitative impact of QCD corrections for extra dimension searches at LHC and Tevatron are investigated for both ADD and RS models through K-factors. We also show how the inclusion of QCD corrections to NLO stabilises the cross section with respect to renormalisation and factorisation scale variations
Late time acceleration of the universe in f(R) gravity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukherjee, Ankan
2014-01-01
In this work, a new way to look at the nature of late time dynamics of the universe for f(R) gravity models using the contracted Bianchi Identity has been proposed. As the Einstein field equations contain derivatives of the curvature scalar R, the contracted Bianchi identity yields a second order nonlinear differential equation in H, the Hubble parameter. This equation is studied for two particular forms of f(R), and the late time behaviour of the model is discussed. (author)
Superconducting current in a bisoliton superconductivity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ermakov, V.N.; Kruchinin, S.P.; Ponezha, E.A.
1991-01-01
It is shown that the transition into a superconducting state with the current which is described by a bisoliton superconductivity model is accompanied by the deformation of the spectrum of one-particle states of the current carriers. The deformation value is proportional to the conducting current force. The residuaby resistance in such state is absent
Unitary truncations and critical gravity : a toy model
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; de Haan, Sjoerd; Merbis, Wout; Porrati, Massimo; Rosseel, Jan
We investigate a higher-derivative scalar field model in a fixed d+1 dimensional AdS background as a toy model for a gravitational dual to a higher-rank logarithmic CFT. The holographic two-point correlation functions on the boundary agree with higher-rank LCFT correlation functions. For odd rank,
Modeling Repulsive Gravity with Creation R. G. Vishwakarma & J. V. ...
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
nation to the various explosive phenomena occurring in local (z < 0.1) and extra galactic ... to scalar field models called quintessence whose function is to cause the scale factor .... to be general outliers which are missed by all the models.
Fucugauchi, J. U.; Ortiz-Aleman, C.; Martin, R.
2017-12-01
Large complex craters are characterized by central uplifts that represent large-scale differential movement of deep basement from the transient cavity. Here we investigate the central sector of the large multiring Chicxulub crater, which has been surveyed by an array of marine, aerial and land-borne geophysical methods. Despite high contrasts in physical properties,contrasting results for the central uplift have been obtained, with seismic reflection surveys showing lack of resolution in the central zone. We develop an integrated seismic and gravity model for the main structural elements, imaging the central basement uplift and melt and breccia units. The 3-D velocity model built from interpolation of seismic data is validated using perfectly matched layer seismic acoustic wave propagation modeling, optimized at grazing incidence using shift in the frequency domain. Modeling shows significant lack of illumination in the central sector, masking presence of the central uplift. Seismic energy remains trapped in an upper low velocity zone corresponding to the sedimentary infill, melt/breccias and surrounding faulted blocks. After conversion of seismic velocities into a volume of density values, we use massive parallel forward gravity modeling to constrain the size and shape of the central uplift that lies at 4.5 km depth, providing a high-resolution image of crater structure.The Bouguer anomaly and gravity response of modeled units show asymmetries, corresponding to the crater structure and distribution of post-impact carbonates, breccias, melt and target sediments
Development and analysis of a twelfth degree and order gravity model for Mars
Christensen, E. J.; Balmino, G.
1979-01-01
Satellite geodesy techniques previously applied to artificial earth satellites have been extended to obtain a high-resolution gravity field for Mars. Two-way Doppler data collected by 10 Deep Space Network (DSN) stations during Mariner 9 and Viking 1 and 2 missions have been processed to obtain a twelfth degree and order spherical harmonic model for the martian gravitational potential. The quality of this model was evaluated by examining the rms residuals within the fit and the ability of the model to predict the spacecraft state beyond the fit. Both indicators show that more data and higher degree and order harmonics will be required to further refine our knowledge of the martian gravity field. The model presented shows much promise, since it resolves local gravity features which correlate highly with the martian topography. An isostatic analysis based on this model, as well as an error analysis, shows rather complete compensation on a global (long wavelength) scale. Though further model refinements are necessary to be certain, local (short wavelength) features such as the shield volcanos in Tharsis appear to be uncompensated. These are interpreted to place some bounds on the internal structure of Mars.
New models of gauge- and gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Poppitz, E.; Trivedi, S.P.
1997-01-01
We show that supersymmetry breaking in a class of theories with SU(N)xSU(N-2) gauge symmetry can be studied in a calculable σ model. We use the σ model to show that the supersymmetry-breaking vacuum in these theories leaves a large subgroup of flavor symmetries intact, and to calculate the masses of the low-lying states. By embedding the standard model gauge groups in the unbroken flavor symmetry group we construct a class of models in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated by both gravitational and gauge interactions. One distinguishing feature of these models is that the messenger fields, responsible for the gauge-mediated communication of supersymmetry breaking, are an integral part of the supersymmetry-breaking sector. We also show how, by lowering the scale that suppresses the nonrenormalizable operators, a class of purely gauge-mediated models with a combined supersymmetry-breaking-cum-messenger sector can be built. We briefly discuss the phenomenological features of the models we construct. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society
Modeling and Error Analysis of a Superconducting Gravity Gradiometer.
1979-08-01
quantum (bij magnetic flux linking elements i and u b N noise flux of SQUID W natural angular frequency W f angular frequency of forcing function Wi...SQUID superconducting quantum interference device TBAN tolerable background acceleration noise VIC voltage to current converter -xxiii- .4 Chapter I...to detect the minute vibrations induced in a 1 ton, cryogenically cooled and magnetically levitated gravitational wave antenna. The antenna concept
Modelling airborne gravity data by means of adapted Space-Wise approach
Sampietro, Daniele; Capponi, Martina; Hamdi Mansi, Ahmed; Gatti, Andrea
2017-04-01
Regional gravity field modelling by means of remove - restore procedure is nowadays widely applied to predict grids of gravity anomalies (Bouguer, free-air, isostatic, etc.) in gravimetric geoid determination as well as in exploration geophysics. Considering this last application, due to the required accuracy and resolution, airborne gravity observations are generally adopted. However due to the relatively high acquisition velocity, presence of atmospheric turbulence, aircraft vibration, instrumental drift, etc. airborne data are contaminated by a very high observation error. For this reason, a proper procedure to filter the raw observations both in the low and high frequency should be applied to recover valuable information. In this work, a procedure to predict a grid or a set of filtered along track gravity anomalies, by merging GGM and airborne dataset, is presented. The proposed algorithm, like the Space-Wise approach developed by Politecnico di Milano in the framework of GOCE data analysis, is based on a combination of along track Wiener filter and Least Squares Collocation adjustment and properly considers the different altitudes of the gravity observations. Among the main differences with respect to the satellite application of the Space-Wise approach there is the fact that, while in processing GOCE data the stochastic characteristics of the observation error can be considered a-priori well known, in airborne gravimetry, due to the complex environment in which the observations are acquired, these characteristics are unknown and should be retrieved from the dataset itself. Some innovative theoretical aspects focusing in particular on the theoretical covariance modelling are presented too. In the end, the goodness of the procedure is evaluated by means of a test on real data recovering the gravitational signal with a predicted accuracy of about 0.25 mGal.
On the two-dimensional model of quantum Regge gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khatsimovskij, V.M.
1991-01-01
The Ashtekar-like variables are introduced in the Regge calculus. A simplified model of the resulting theory is quantized canonically. The consequences related to quantization of Regge areas are obtained. 10 refs
De Sá Teixeira, Nuno Alexandre
2014-12-01
Given its conspicuous nature, gravity has been acknowledged by several research lines as a prime factor in structuring the spatial perception of one's environment. One such line of enquiry has focused on errors in spatial localization aimed at the vanishing location of moving objects - it has been systematically reported that humans mislocalize spatial positions forward, in the direction of motion (representational momentum) and downward in the direction of gravity (representational gravity). Moreover, spatial localization errors were found to evolve dynamically with time in a pattern congruent with an anticipated trajectory (representational trajectory). The present study attempts to ascertain the degree to which vestibular information plays a role in these phenomena. Human observers performed a spatial localization task while tilted to varying degrees and referring to the vanishing locations of targets moving along several directions. A Fourier decomposition of the obtained spatial localization errors revealed that although spatial errors were increased "downward" mainly along the body's longitudinal axis (idiotropic dominance), the degree of misalignment between the latter and physical gravity modulated the time course of the localization responses. This pattern is surmised to reflect increased uncertainty about the internal model when faced with conflicting cues regarding the perceived "downward" direction.
Can representational trajectory reveal the nature of an internal model of gravity?
De Sá Teixeira, Nuno; Hecht, Heiko
2014-05-01
The memory for the vanishing location of a horizontally moving target is usually displaced forward in the direction of motion (representational momentum) and downward in the direction of gravity (representational gravity). Moreover, this downward displacement has been shown to increase with time (representational trajectory). However, the degree to which different kinematic events change the temporal profile of these displacements remains to be determined. The present article attempts to fill this gap. In the first experiment, we replicate the finding that representational momentum for downward-moving targets is bigger than for upward motions, showing, moreover, that it increases rapidly during the first 300 ms, stabilizing afterward. This temporal profile, but not the increased error for descending targets, is shown to be disrupted when eye movements are not allowed. In the second experiment, we show that the downward drift with time emerges even for static targets. Finally, in the third experiment, we report an increased error for upward-moving targets, as compared with downward movements, when the display is compatible with a downward ego-motion by including vection cues. Thus, the errors in the direction of gravity are compatible with the perceived event and do not merely reflect a retinotopic bias. Overall, these results provide further evidence for an internal model of gravity in the visual representational system.
GRACE gravity data help constraining seismic models of the 2004 Sumatran earthquake
Cambiotti, G.; Bordoni, A.; Sabadini, R.; Colli, L.
2011-10-01
The analysis of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) Level 2 data time series from the Center for Space Research (CSR) and GeoForschungsZentrum (GFZ) allows us to extract a new estimate of the co-seismic gravity signal due to the 2004 Sumatran earthquake. Owing to compressible self-gravitating Earth models, including sea level feedback in a new self-consistent way and designed to compute gravitational perturbations due to volume changes separately, we are able to prove that the asymmetry in the co-seismic gravity pattern, in which the north-eastern negative anomaly is twice as large as the south-western positive anomaly, is not due to the previously overestimated dilatation in the crust. The overestimate was due to a large dilatation localized at the fault discontinuity, the gravitational effect of which is compensated by an opposite contribution from topography due to the uplifted crust. After this localized dilatation is removed, we instead predict compression in the footwall and dilatation in the hanging wall. The overall anomaly is then mainly due to the additional gravitational effects of the ocean after water is displaced away from the uplifted crust, as first indicated by de Linage et al. (2009). We also detail the differences between compressible and incompressible material properties. By focusing on the most robust estimates from GRACE data, consisting of the peak-to-peak gravity anomaly and an asymmetry coefficient, that is given by the ratio of the negative gravity anomaly over the positive anomaly, we show that they are quite sensitive to seismic source depths and dip angles. This allows us to exploit space gravity data for the first time to help constraining centroid-momentum-tensor (CMT) source analyses of the 2004 Sumatran earthquake and to conclude that the seismic moment has been released mainly in the lower crust rather than the lithospheric mantle. Thus, GRACE data and CMT source analyses, as well as geodetic slip distributions aided
Second generation diffusion model of interacting gravity waves on the surface of deep fluid
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
A. Pushkarev
2004-01-01
Full Text Available We propose a second generation phenomenological model for nonlinear interaction of gravity waves on the surface of deep water. This model takes into account the effects of non-locality of the original Hasselmann diffusion equation still preserving important properties of the first generation model: physically consistent scaling, adherence to conservation laws and the existence of Kolmogorov-Zakharov solutions. Numerical comparison of both models with the original Hasselmann equation shows that the second generation models improves the angular distribution in the evolving wave energy spectrum.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hinderer, J.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Lemoine, F.
2006-01-01
This paper is devoted to the investigation of seasonal changes of the Earth's gravity field from GRACE satellites and the comparison with surface gravity measurements in Europe from the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) sub-network, as well as with recent hydrology models for continental soil...... moisture and snow. We used gravity maps in Europe retrieved from the initial GRACE monthly solutions spanning a 21 -month duration from April 2002 to December 2003 for various truncation levels of the initial spherical harmonic decomposition of the field. The transfer function between satellite......-derived and ground gravity changes due to continental hydrology is studied and we also compute the theoretical ratio of gravity versus radial displacement (in mu Gal/mm) involved in the hydrological loading process. The 'mean' value (averaged in time and in space over Europe) from hydrologic forward modeling...
An Evaluation of Recent Gravity Models wrt. Altimeter Satellite Missions
Lemoine, Frank G.; Zelensky, N. P.; Luthcke, S. B.; Beckley, B. D.; Chinn, D. S.; Rowlands, D. D.
2003-01-01
With the launch of CHAMP and GRACE, we have entered a new phase in the history of satellite geodesy. For the first time, geopotential models are now available based almost exclusively on satellite-satellite tracking either with GPS in the case of the CHAMP-based geopotential models, or co-orbital intersatellite ultra-precise ranging in the case of GRACE. Different groups have analyzed these data, and produced a series of geopotential models (e.g., EIGENlS, EIGEN2, GGM0lS, GGMOlC) that incorporate the new data. We will compare the performance of these "newer" geopotential models with the standard models now used for computations, (e.g., JGM-3, BGM-96, PGS7727, and GRIMS-C1) for TOPEX, JASON, Geosat-Follow-On (GFO), and Envisat using standard metrics such as SLR RMS of fit, altimeter crossovers, and orbit overlaps. Where covariances are available we can evaluate the predicted geographically correlated orbit error. These predicted results can be compared with the Earth-fixed differences between dynamic and reduced-dynamic orbits to test the predictive accuracy of the covariances, as well as to calibrate the error of the solutions.
Signal analysis of accelerometry data using gravity-based modeling
Davey, Neil P.; James, Daniel A.; Anderson, Megan E.
2004-03-01
Triaxial accelerometers have been used to measure human movement parameters in swimming. Interpretation of data is difficult due to interference sources including interaction of external bodies. In this investigation the authors developed a model to simulate the physical movement of the lower back. Theoretical accelerometery outputs were derived thus giving an ideal, or noiseless dataset. An experimental data collection apparatus was developed by adapting a system to the aquatic environment for investigation of swimming. Model data was compared against recorded data and showed strong correlation. Comparison of recorded and modeled data can be used to identify changes in body movement, this is especially useful when cyclic patterns are present in the activity. Strong correlations between data sets allowed development of signal processing algorithms for swimming stroke analysis using first the pure noiseless data set which were then applied to performance data. Video analysis was also used to validate study results and has shown potential to provide acceptable results.
Emergent gravity on covariant quantum spaces in the IKKT model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Steinacker, Harold C. [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)
2016-12-30
We study perturbations of 4-dimensional fuzzy spheres as backgrounds in the IKKT or IIB matrix model. Gauge fields and metric fluctuations are identified among the excitation modes with lowest spin, supplemented by a tower of higher-spin fields. They arise from an internal structure which can be viewed as a twisted bundle over S{sup 4}, leading to a covariant noncommutative geometry. The linearized 4-dimensional Einstein equations are obtained from the classical matrix model action under certain conditions, modified by an IR cutoff. Some one-loop contributions to the effective action are computed using the formalism of string states.
Bielik, M.; Tasarova, Z. A.; Goetze, H.; Mikuska, J.; Pasteka, R.
2007-12-01
The 3-D forward modeling was performed for the Western Carpathians and the Pannonian Basin system. The density model includes 31 cross-sections, extends to depth of 220 km. By means of the combined 3-D modeling, new estimates of the density distribution of the crust and upper mantle, as well as depths of the Moho were derived. These data allowed to perform gravity stripping, which in the area of the Pannonian Basin is crucial for the signal analysis of the gravity field. In this region, namely, two pronounced features (i.e. the deep sedimentary basins and shallow Moho) with opposite gravity effects make it impossible to analyze the Bouguer anomaly by field separation or filtering. The results revealed a significantly different nature of the Western Carpathian- Pannonian region (ALACAPA and Tisza-Dacia microplates) from the European Platform lithosphere (i.e. these microplates to be much less dense than the surrounding European Platform lithosphere). The calculation of the transformed gravity maps by means of new method provided the additional information on the lithospheric structure. The use of existing elevation information represents an independent approach to the problem of transformation of gravity maps. Instead of standard separation and transformation methods both in wave-number and spatial domains, this method is based on the estimating of really existing linear trends within the values of complete Bouguer anomalies (CBA), which are understood as a function defined in 3D space. An important assumption that the points with known input values of CBA lie on a horizontal plane is therefore not required. Instead, the points with known CBA and elevation values are treated in their original positions, i.e. on the Earth surface.
Gravity Models of Trade-based Money Laundering
Ferwerda, J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526; Kattenberg, M.A.C.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357208986; Chang, H.-S.; Unger, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290994926; Groot, L.F.M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398; Bikker, J.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X
2011-01-01
Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is tradebased money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade
Gravity Models of Trade-Based Money Laundering
Ferwerda, Joras|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314405526; Kattenberg, Marc|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357208986; Chang, Han-Hsin|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/357209370; Unger, Brigitte|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/290994926; Groot, Loek|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/073642398; Bikker, Jaap|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/06912261X
Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is trade-based money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade
Quantum analysis of Jackiw and Teitelboim's model for (1+1)D gravity and topological gauge theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Terao, Haruhiko
1993-01-01
We study the BRST quantization of the (1+1)-dimensional gravity model proposed by Jackiw and Teitelboim and also the topological gauge model which is equivalent to the gravity model at least classically. The gravity model quantized in the light-cone gauge is found to be a free theory with a nilpotent BRST charge. We show also that there exist twisted N=2 superconformal algebras in the Jackiw-Teitelboim model as well as in the topological gauge model. We discuss the quantum equivalence between the gravity theory and the topological gauge theory. It is shown that these theories are indeed equivalent to each other in the light-cone gauge. (orig.)
Theoretical model of gravitational perturbation of current collector axisymmetric flow field
Walker, John S.; Brown, Samuel H.; Sondergaard, Neal A.
1990-05-01
Some designs of liquid-metal current collectors in homopolar motors and generators are essentially rotating liquid-metal fluids in cylindrical channels with free surfaces and will, at critical rotational speeds, become unstable. An investigation at David Taylor Research Center is being performed to understand the role of gravity in modifying this ejection instability. Some gravitational effects can be theoretically treated by perturbation techniques on the axisymmetric base flow of the liquid metal. This leads to a modification of previously calculated critical-current-collector ejection values neglecting gravity effects. The purpose of this paper is to document the derivation of the mathematical model which determines the perturbation of the liquid-metal base flow due to gravitational effects. Since gravity is a small force compared with the centrifugal effects, the base flow solutions can be expanded in inverse powers of the Froude number and modified liquid-flow profiles can be determined as a function of the azimuthal angle. This model will be used in later work to theoretically study the effects of gravity on the ejection point of the current collector.
Relating covariant and canonical approaches to triangulated models of quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnsdorf, Matthias
2002-01-01
In this paper we explore the relation between covariant and canonical approaches to quantum gravity and BF theory. We will focus on the dynamical triangulation and spin-foam models, which have in common that they can be defined in terms of sums over spacetime triangulations. Our aim is to show how we can recover these covariant models from a canonical framework by providing two regularizations of the projector onto the kernel of the Hamiltonian constraint. This link is important for the understanding of the dynamics of quantum gravity. In particular, we will see how in the simplest dynamical triangulation model we can recover the Hamiltonian constraint via our definition of the projector. Our discussion of spin-foam models will show how the elementary spin-network moves in loop quantum gravity, which were originally assumed to describe the Hamiltonian constraint action, are in fact related to the time-evolution generated by the constraint. We also show that the Immirzi parameter is important for the understanding of a continuum limit of the theory
Gravity model improvement using GEOS 3 /GEM 9 and 10/. [and Seasat altimetry data
Lerch, F. J.; Wagner, C. A.; Klosko, S. M.; Laubscher, R. E.
1979-01-01
Although errors in previous gravity models have produced large uncertainties in the orbital position of GEOS 3, significant improvement has been obtained with new geopotential solutions, Goddard Earth Model (GEM) 9 and 10. The GEM 9 and 10 solutions for the potential coefficients and station coordinates are presented along with a discussion of the new techniques employed. Also presented and discussed are solutions for three fundamental geodetic reference parameters, viz. the mean radius of the earth, the gravitational constant, and mean equatorial gravity. Evaluation of the gravity field is examined together with evaluation of GEM 9 and 10 for orbit determination accuracy. The major objectives of GEM 9 and 10 are achieved. GEOS 3 orbital accuracies from these models are about 1 m in their radial components for 5-day arc lengths. Both models yield significantly improved results over GEM solutions when compared to surface gravimetry, Skylab and GEOS 3 altimetry, and highly accurate BE-C (Beacon Explorer-C) laser ranges. The new values of the parameters discussed are given.
Numerical Models of Human Circulatory System under Altered Gravity: Brain Circulation
Kim, Chang Sung; Kiris, Cetin; Kwak, Dochan; David, Tim
2003-01-01
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) approach is presented to model the blood flow through the human circulatory system under altered gravity conditions. Models required for CFD simulation relevant to major hemodynamic issues are introduced such as non-Newtonian flow models governed by red blood cells, a model for arterial wall motion due to fluid-wall interactions, a vascular bed model for outflow boundary conditions, and a model for auto-regulation mechanism. The three-dimensional unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations coupled with these models are solved iteratively using the pseudocompressibility method and dual time stepping. Moving wall boundary conditions from the first-order fluid-wall interaction model are used to study the influence of arterial wall distensibility on flow patterns and wall shear stresses during the heart pulse. A vascular bed modeling utilizing the analogy with electric circuits is coupled with an auto-regulation algorithm for multiple outflow boundaries. For the treatment of complex geometry, a chimera overset grid technique is adopted to obtain connectivity between arterial branches. For code validation, computed results are compared with experimental data for steady and unsteady non-Newtonian flows. Good agreement is obtained for both cases. In sin-type Gravity Benchmark Problems, gravity source terms are added to the Navier-Stokes equations to study the effect of gravitational variation on the human circulatory system. This computational approach is then applied to localized blood flows through a realistic carotid bifurcation and two Circle of Willis models, one using an idealized geometry and the other model using an anatomical data set. A three- dimensional anatomical Circle of Willis configuration is reconstructed from human-specific magnetic resonance images using an image segmentation method. The blood flow through these Circle of Willis models is simulated to provide means for studying gravitational effects on the brain
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hernandez, Orlando; Khurama, Sait; Alexander, Gretta C
2011-01-01
A prominent positive free-air gravity anomaly mapped over a roughly 50-km diameter basin is consistent with a mascon centered on (4 degrades 30 minutes N, 69 degrades 15 minutes W) in the Vichada Department, Colombia, South America. Ground follow up gravity and magnetic anomalies were modeled confirming the regional free air gravity anomalies. These potential field anomalies infer a hidden complex impact basin structure filled with tertiary sedimentary rocks and recent quaternary deposits. Negative Bouguer anomalies of 8 mgals to 15 mgals amplitude are associated with a concentric sedimentary basin with a varying thickness from 100 m to 500 m in the outer rings to 700 m to 1000 m at the center of the impact crater basin. Strong positive magnetic anomalies of 100 nt to 300 nt amplitude infer the presence of a local Precambrian crystalline basement that was affected by intensive faulting producing tectonic blocks dipping to the center of the structure, showing a typical domino structure of impact craters such as that of Sudbury, Ontario, Canada. Basic to intermediate mineralized veins and dikes with contrasting density and magnetic susceptibility properties could be emplaced along these faulting zones, as inferred from local gravity and magnetic highs. The geologic mapping of the area is limited by the flat topography and absence of outcrops/ geomorphologic units. Nevertheless, local normal faults along the inner ring together with radially sparse irregular blocks over flat terrains can be associated with terraced rims or collapse of the inner crater structure and eject blanket, respectively. A detailed airborne electromagnetic survey is recommended to confirm the gravity and magnetic anomalies together with a seismic program to evaluate the economic implications for energy and mineral exploration of the Vichada impact structure.
A gravity model for crustal dynamics (GEM-L2)
Lerch, F. J.; Klosko, S. M.; Patel, G. B.; Wagner, C. A.
1985-01-01
The Laser Geodynamics Satellite (Lageos) was the first NASA satellite which was placed into orbit exclusively for laser ranging applications. Lageos was designed to permit extremely accurate measurements of the earth's rotation and the movement of the tectonic plates. The Goddard earth model, GEM-L2, was derived mainly on the basis of the precise laser ranging data taken on many satellites. Douglas et al. (1984) have demonstrated the utility of GEM-L2 in detecting the broadest ocean circulations. As Lageos data constitute the most extensive set of satellite laser observations ever collected, the incorporation of 2-1/2 years of these data into the Goddard earth models (GEM) has substantially advanced the geodynamical objectives. The present paper discusses the products of the GEM-L2 solution.
A schematic model of crater modification by gravity
Melosh, H. J.
1982-01-01
The morphology of craters found on planets and moons of the solar system is examined and a development model which can account for the observed crater characteristics is discussed. The prompt collapse of craters to form flat floors, terraced walls, and central peak structures is considered to be the result of an approximate Bingham plastic rheology of the material surrounding the crater. This rheology is induced dynamically by the strong incoherent acoustic 'noise' accompanying excavation of the crater. Central pits, peak rings, and other multiple symmetric-profile rings originate by oscillation of this fluid. Large craters with transient depths comparable to the lithosphere thickness are subject to collapse by fragmentation of the lithosphere as well as fluidization. The considered concepts are developed mathematically. A model emerges which appears capable of explaining most of the qualitative features of large impact structures.
Luznik, L.; Lust, E.; Flack, K. A.
2014-12-01
There are few studies describing the interaction between marine current turbines and an overlying surface gravity wave field. In this work we present an experimental study on the effects of surface gravity waves of different wavelengths on the wave phase averaged performance characteristics of a marine current turbine model. Measurements are performed with a 1/25 scale (diameter D=0.8m) two bladed horizontal axis turbine towed in the large (116m long) towing tank at the U.S. Naval Academy equipped with a dual-flap, servo-controlled wave maker. Three regular waves with wavelengths of 15.8, 8.8 and 3.9m with wave heights adjusted such that all waveforms have the same energy input per unit width are produced by the wave maker and model turbine is towed into the waves at constant carriage speed of 1.68 m/s. This representing the case of waves travelling in the same direction as the mean current. Thrust and torque developed by the model turbine are measured using a dynamometer mounted in line with the turbine shaft. Shaft rotation speed and blade position are measured using in in-house designed shaft position indexing system. The tip speed ratio (TSR) is adjusted using a hysteresis brake which is attached to the output shaft. Free surface elevation and wave parameters are measured with two optical wave height sensors, one located in the turbine rotor plane and other one diameter upstream of the rotor. All instruments are synchronized in time and data is sampled at a rate of 700 Hz. All measured quantities are conditionally sampled as a function of the measured surface elevation and transformed to wave phase space using the Hilbert Transform. Phenomena observed in earlier experiments with the same turbine such as phase lag in the torque signal and an increase in thrust due to Stokes drift are examined and presented with the present data as well as spectral analysis of the torque and thrust data.
Surface state decoherence in loop quantum gravity, a first toy model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Feller, Alexandre; Livine, Etera R
2017-01-01
The quantum-to-classical transition through decoherence is a major facet of the semi-classical analysis of quantum models that are supposed to admit a classical regime, as quantum gravity should be. A particular problem of interest is the decoherence of black hole horizons and holographic screens induced by the bulk-boundary coupling with interior degrees of freedom. Here in this paper we present a first toy-model, in the context of loop quantum gravity, for the dynamics of a surface geometry as an open quantum system. We discuss the resulting decoherence and recoherence and compare the exact density matrix evolution to the commonly used master equation approximation à la Lindblad underlining its merits and limitations. The prospect of this study is to have a clearer understanding of the boundary decoherence of black hole horizons seen by outside observers. (paper)
Quantization of coset space σ-models coupled to two-dimensional gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Korotkin, D.; Samtleben, H.
1996-07-01
The mathematical framework for an exact quantization of the two-dimensional coset space σ-models coupled to dilaton gravity, that arise from dimensional reduction of gravity and supergravity theories, is presented. The two-time Hamiltonian formulation is obtained, which describes the complete phase space of the model in the whole isomonodromic sector. The Dirac brackets arising from the coset constraints are calculated. Their quantization allows to relate exact solutions of the corresponding Wheeler-DeWitt equations to solutions of a modified (Coset) Knizhnik-Zamolodchikov system. On the classical level, a set of observables is identified, that is complete for essential sectors of the theory. Quantum counterparts of these observables and their algebraic structure are investigated. Their status in alternative quantization procedures is discussed, employing the link with Hamiltonian Chern-Simons theory. (orig.)
Gauge vs. gravity mediation in models with anomalous U(1)'s
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dudas, E.; Mambrini, Y.; Romagnoni, A.; Trapletti, M.; Pokorski, S.
2009-01-01
In an attempt to implement gauge mediation in string theory, we study string effective supergravity models of supersymmetry breaking, containing anomalous gauge factors. We discuss subtleties related to gauge invariance and the stabilization of the Green-Schwarz moduli, which set non-trivial constraints on the transmission of supersymmetry breaking to MSSM via gauge interactions. Given those constraints, it is difficult to obtain the dominance of gauge mediation over gravity mediation. Furthermore, generically the gauge contributions to soft terms contain additional non-standard terms coming from D-term contributions. Motivated by this, we study the phenomenology of recently proposed hybrid models, where gravity and gauge mediations compete at the GUT scale, and show that such a scenario can respect WMAP constraints and would be easily testable at LHC.
Modification of the gravity model and application to the metropolitan Seoul subway system.
Goh, Segun; Lee, Keumsook; Park, Jong Soo; Choi, M Y
2012-08-01
The Metropolitan Seoul Subway system is examined through the use of the gravity model. Exponents describing the power-law dependence on the time distance between stations are obtained, which reveals a universality for subway lines of the same topology. In the short (time) distance regime the number of passengers between stations does not grow with the decrease in the distance, thus deviating from the power-law behavior. It is found that such reduction in passengers is well described by the Hill function. Further, temporal fluctuations in the passenger flow data, fitted to the gravity model modified by the Hill function, are analyzed to reveal the Yule-type nature inherent in the structure of Seoul.
Emergent gravity and noncommutative branes from Yang-Mills matrix models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Steinacker, Harold
2009-01-01
The framework of emergent gravity arising from Yang-Mills matrix models is developed further, for general noncommutative branes embedded in R D . The effective metric on the brane turns out to have a universal form reminiscent of the open string metric, depending on the dynamical Poisson structure and the embedding metric in R D . A covariant form of the tree-level equations of motion is derived, and the Newtonian limit is discussed. This points to the necessity of branes in higher dimensions. The quantization is discussed qualitatively, which singles out the IKKT model as a prime candidate for a quantum theory of gravity coupled to matter. The Planck scale is then identified with the scale of N=4 SUSY breaking. A mechanism for avoiding the cosmological constant problem is exhibited
Finite element modeling of ground deformation and gravity field at Mt. Etna
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
G. Ganci
2008-06-01
Full Text Available An elastic 3-D axi-symmetric model based on Finite Element Method (FEM is proposed to compute ground deformation and gravity changes caused by overpressure sources in volcanic areas. The numerical computations are focused on the modeling of a complex description of Mt Etna in order to evaluate the effect of topography, medium heterogeneities and source geometries. Both ground deformation and gravity changes are investigated by solving a coupled numerical problem considering a simplified ground surface profile and a multi-layered crustal structure inferred from seismic tomography. The role of the source geometry is also explored taking into account spherical and ellipsoidal volumetric sources. The comparison between numerical results and those predicted by analytical solutions disclosed significant discrepancies. These differences constrain the applicability of simple spherical source and homogeneous half-space hypotheses, which are usually implicitly assumed when analytical solutions are applied.
The Gravity Model Approach: An Application on the Eco Was Trading Bloc
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Luqman Afolabi O.
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This study aims to examine bilateral trade flows across ECOWAS-15 nations with the use of a panel and cross section for the period of 1981-2013. The methodology carried out to achieve this objective involves the use of various techniques of estimation for the gravity model (Static and dynamic. More specifically, this study aims to investigate the formational impact of regional trade integration agreements on trade flows within a group of countries using the same currencies and ECOWAS at large. The main use of regional variables into gravity models is intended to determine whether RTAs lead to trade creation, or diversion. The results show the presence of a strong relationship among the factors of both RIAs and trade flows.
Gravity mediated Dark Matter models in the de Sitter space
Vancea, Ion V.
2018-01-01
In this paper, we generalize the simplified Dark Matter models with graviton mediator to the curved space-time, in particular to the de Sitter space. We obtain the generating functional of the Green's functions in the Euclidean de Sitter space for the covariant free gravitons. We determine the generating functional of the interacting theory between Dark Matter particles and the covariant gravitons. Also, we calculate explicitly the 2-point and 3-point interacting Green's functions for the sym...
Gravity, CPT, and the standard-model extension
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tasson, Jay D., E-mail: tasson1@stolaf.edu [St. Olaf College (United States)
2015-08-15
Exotic atoms provide unique opportunities to search for new physics. The search for CPT and Lorentz violation in the context of the general field-theory based framework of the gravitational Standard-Model Extension (SME) is one such opportunity. This work summarizes the implications of Lorentz and CPT violation for gravitational experiments with antiatoms and atoms containing higher-generation matter as well as recent nongravitational proposals to test CPT and Lorentz symmetry with muons and muonic systems.
Gravity Models of Trade-Based Money Laundering
Ferwerda, Joras; Kattenberg, Marc; Chang, Han-Hsin; Unger, Brigitte; Groot, Loek; Bikker, Jaap
2011-01-01
Several attempts have been made in the economics literature to measure money laundering. However, the adequacy of these models is difficult to assess, as money laundering takes place secretly and, hence, goes unobserved. An exception is tradebased money laundering (TBML), a special form of trade abuse that has been discovered only recently. TBML refers to criminal proceeds that are transferred around the world using fake invoices that under- or overvalue imports and exports. This article is a...
The ring structure of chiral operators for minimal models coupled to 2D gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sarmadi, M.H.
1992-09-01
The BRST cohomology ring for (p,q) models coupled to gravity is discussed. In addition to the generators of the ghost number zero ring, the existence of a generator of ghost number - 1 and its inverse is proved and used to construct the entire ring. Some comments are made regarding the algebra of the vector fields on the ring and the supersymmetric extension. (author). 13 refs
Gravity models of forest products trade: applications to forecasting and policy analysis
Joseph Buongiorno
2016-01-01
To predict the value of trade between countries, a differential gravity model of bilateral trade flowswas formulatedÂ and estimated with panel data from 2005 to 2014 for each of the commodity groups HS44 (wood and articles ofÂ wood), HS47 (pulp of wood, fibrous cellulosic material) and HS48 (paper and paperboard). The parameters wereÂ estimated with a large database by...
Instability of a two-step Rankine vortex in a reduced gravity QG model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Perrot, Xavier [Laboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Normale Supérieure, 24 rue Lhomond, F-75005 Paris (France); Carton, Xavier, E-mail: xperrot@lmd.ens.fr, E-mail: xcarton@univ-brest.fr [Laboratoire de Physique des Océans, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 6 avenue Le Gorgeu, F-29200 Brest (France)
2014-06-01
We investigate the stability of a steplike Rankine vortex in a one-active-layer, reduced gravity, quasi-geostrophic model. After calculating the linear stability with a normal mode analysis, the singular modes are determined as a function of the vortex shape to investigate short-time stability. Finally we determine the position of the critical layer and show its influence when it lies inside the vortex. (papers)
An Improved Model of Cryogenic Propellant Stratification in a Rotating, Reduced Gravity Environment
Oliveira, Justin; Kirk, Daniel R.; Schallhorn, Paul A.; Piquero, Jorge L.; Campbell, Mike; Chase, Sukhdeep
2007-01-01
This paper builds on a series of analytical literature models used to predict thermal stratification within rocket propellant tanks. The primary contribution to the literature is to add the effect of tank rotation and to demonstrate the influence of rotation on stratification times and temperatures. This work also looks levels of thermal stratification for generic propellant tanks (cylindrical shapes) over a parametric range of upper-stage coast times, heating levels, rotation rates, and gravity levels.
Vacuum solutions of a gravity model with vector-induced spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.
2005-01-01
We study the vacuum solutions of a gravity model where Lorentz symmetry is spontaneously broken once a vector field acquires a vacuum expectation value. Results are presented for the purely radial Lorentz symmetry breaking (LSB), radial/temporal LSB and axial/temporal LSB. The purely radial LSB result corresponds to new black hole solutions. When possible, parametrized post-Newtonian parameters are computed and observational boundaries used to constrain the Lorentz symmetry breaking scale
New force or model-dependent effect in the mine gravity measurements?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Y.E.; Klepacki, D.J.; Hinze, W.J.
1987-01-01
The exact solution for the oblate spheroidal layer model of the earth is applied to recent gravity data measured at the Hilton mine, Mount Isa, Queensland. We find that our extracted values of the gravitational constant from the Hilton mine data are consistent with the laboratory value within the accuracy of the mass density profile determination made at the Hilton mine and the surrounding area. (orig.)
Analytic modeling of axisymmetric disruption halo currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Humphreys, D.A.; Kellman, A.G.
1999-01-01
Currents which can flow in plasma facing components during disruptions pose a challenge to the design of next generation tokamaks. Induced toroidal eddy currents and both induced and conducted poloidal ''halo'' currents can produce design-limiting electromagnetic loads. While induction of toroidal and poloidal currents in passive structures is a well-understood phenomenon, the driving terms and scalings for poloidal currents flowing on open field lines during disruptions are less well established. A model of halo current evolution is presented in which the current is induced in the halo by decay of the plasma current and change in enclosed toroidal flux while being convected into the halo from the core by plasma motion. Fundamental physical processes and scalings are described in a simplified analytic version of the model. The peak axisymmetric halo current is found to depend on halo and core plasma characteristics during the current quench, including machine and plasma dimensions, resistivities, safety factor, and vertical stability growth rate. Two extreme regimes in poloidal halo current amplitude are identified depending on the minimum halo safety factor reached during the disruption. A 'type I' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor that remains relatively high (typically 2 - 3, comparable to the predisruption safety factor), and a relatively low poloidal halo current. A 'type II' disruption is characterized by a minimum safety factor comparable to unity and a relatively high poloidal halo current. Model predictions for these two regimes are found to agree well with halo current measurements from vertical displacement event disruptions in DIII-D [T. S. Taylor, K. H. Burrell, D. R. Baker, G. L. Jackson, R. J. La Haye, M. A. Mahdavi, R. Prater, T. C. Simonen, and A. D. Turnbull, open-quotes Results from the DIII-D Scientific Research Program,close quotes in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference, Yokohama, 1998, to be published in
Cosmology of a holographic induced gravity model with curvature effects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bouhmadi-Lopez, Mariam; Errahmani, Ahmed; Ouali, Taoufiq
2011-01-01
We present a holographic model of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati scenario with a Gauss-Bonnet term in the bulk. We concentrate on the solution that generalizes the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch. It is well known that this branch cannot describe the late-time acceleration of the universe even with the inclusion of a Gauss-Bonnet term. Here, we show that this branch in the presence of a Gauss-Bonnet curvature effect and a holographic dark energy with the Hubble scale as the infrared cutoff can describe the late-time acceleration of the universe. It is worthwhile to stress that such an energy density component cannot do the same job on the normal Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati branch (without Gauss-Bonnet modifications) nor in a standard four-dimensional relativistic model. The acceleration on the brane is also presented as being induced through an effective dark energy which corresponds to a balance between the holographic one and geometrical effects encoded through the Hubble parameter.
Why did the apple fall? A new model to explain Einstein’s gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stannard, Warren; Blair, David; Zadnik, Marjan; Kaur, Tejinder
2017-01-01
Newton described gravity as an attractive force between two masses but Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity provides a very different explanation. Implicit in Einstein’s theory is the idea that gravitational effects are the result of a distortion in the shape of space-time. Despite its elegance, Einstein’s concept of gravity is rarely encountered outside of an advanced physics course as it is often considered to be too complex and too mathematical. This paper describes a new conceptual and quantitative model of gravity based on General Relativity at a level most science students should be able to understand. The model illustrates geodesics using analogies with paths of navigation on the surface of the Earth. This is extended to space and time maps incorporating the time warping effects of General Relativity. Using basic geometry, the geodesic path of a falling object near the surface of the Earth is found. From this the acceleration of an object in free fall is calculated. The model presented in this paper can answer the question, ‘Why do things fall?’ without resorting to Newton’s gravitational force. (paper)
Why did the apple fall? A new model to explain Einstein’s gravity
Stannard, Warren; Blair, David; Zadnik, Marjan; Kaur, Tejinder
2017-01-01
Newton described gravity as an attractive force between two masses but Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity provides a very different explanation. Implicit in Einstein’s theory is the idea that gravitational effects are the result of a distortion in the shape of space-time. Despite its elegance, Einstein’s concept of gravity is rarely encountered outside of an advanced physics course as it is often considered to be too complex and too mathematical. This paper describes a new conceptual and quantitative model of gravity based on General Relativity at a level most science students should be able to understand. The model illustrates geodesics using analogies with paths of navigation on the surface of the Earth. This is extended to space and time maps incorporating the time warping effects of General Relativity. Using basic geometry, the geodesic path of a falling object near the surface of the Earth is found. From this the acceleration of an object in free fall is calculated. The model presented in this paper can answer the question, ‘Why do things fall?’ without resorting to Newton’s gravitational force.
Simplicity constraints: A 3D toy model for loop quantum gravity
Charles, Christoph
2018-05-01
In loop quantum gravity, tremendous progress has been made using the Ashtekar-Barbero variables. These variables, defined in a gauge fixing of the theory, correspond to a parametrization of the solutions of the so-called simplicity constraints. Their geometrical interpretation is however unsatisfactory as they do not constitute a space-time connection. It would be possible to resolve this point by using a full Lorentz connection or, equivalently, by using the self-dual Ashtekar variables. This leads however to simplicity constraints or reality conditions which are notoriously difficult to implement in the quantum theory. We explore in this paper the possibility of using completely degenerate actions to impose such constraints at the quantum level in the context of canonical quantization. To do so, we define a simpler model, in 3D, with similar constraints by extending the phase space to include an independent vielbein. We define the classical model and show that a precise quantum theory by gauge unfixing can be defined out of it, completely equivalent to the standard 3D Euclidean quantum gravity. We discuss possible future explorations around this model as it could help as a stepping stone to define full-fledged covariant loop quantum gravity.
Modeling Volcanic Eruption Parameters by Near-Source Internal Gravity Waves.
Ripepe, M; Barfucci, G; De Angelis, S; Delle Donne, D; Lacanna, G; Marchetti, E
2016-11-10
Volcanic explosions release large amounts of hot gas and ash into the atmosphere to form plumes rising several kilometers above eruptive vents, which can pose serious risk on human health and aviation also at several thousands of kilometers from the volcanic source. However the most sophisticate atmospheric models and eruptive plume dynamics require input parameters such as duration of the ejection phase and total mass erupted to constrain the quantity of ash dispersed in the atmosphere and to efficiently evaluate the related hazard. The sudden ejection of this large quantity of ash can perturb the equilibrium of the whole atmosphere triggering oscillations well below the frequencies of acoustic waves, down to much longer periods typical of gravity waves. We show that atmospheric gravity oscillations induced by volcanic eruptions and recorded by pressure sensors can be modeled as a compact source representing the rate of erupted volcanic mass. We demonstrate the feasibility of using gravity waves to derive eruption source parameters such as duration of the injection and total erupted mass with direct application in constraining plume and ash dispersal models.
An introduction to atmospheric gravity waves
Nappo, Carmen J
2012-01-01
Gravity waves exist in all types of geophysical fluids, such as lakes, oceans, and atmospheres. They play an important role in redistributing energy at disturbances, such as mountains or seamounts and they are routinely studied in meteorology and oceanography, particularly simulation models, atmospheric weather models, turbulence, air pollution, and climate research. An Introduction to Atmospheric Gravity Waves provides readers with a working background of the fundamental physics and mathematics of gravity waves, and introduces a wide variety of applications and numerous recent advances. Nappo provides a concise volume on gravity waves with a lucid discussion of current observational techniques and instrumentation.An accompanying website contains real data, computer codes for data analysis, and linear gravity wave models to further enhance the reader's understanding of the book's material. Companion web site features animations and streaming video Foreword by George Chimonas, a renowned expert on the interac...
Computer modelling of superconductive fault current limiters
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Weller, R.A.; Campbell, A.M.; Coombs, T.A.; Cardwell, D.A.; Storey, R.J. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Interdisciplinary Research Centre in Superconductivity (IRC); Hancox, J. [Rolls Royce, Applied Science Division, Derby (United Kingdom)
1998-05-01
Investigations are being carried out on the use of superconductors for fault current limiting applications. A number of computer programs are being developed to predict the behavior of different `resistive` fault current limiter designs under a variety of fault conditions. The programs achieve solution by iterative methods based around real measured data rather than theoretical models in order to achieve accuracy at high current densities. (orig.) 5 refs.
Numerical modeling of transformer inrush currents
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cardelli, E. [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, I-06125 Perugia (Italy); Center for Electric and Magnetic Applied Research (Italy); Faba, A., E-mail: faba@unipg.it [Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Perugia, I-06125 Perugia (Italy); Center for Electric and Magnetic Applied Research (Italy)
2014-02-15
This paper presents an application of a vector hysteresis model to the prediction of the inrush current due the arbitrary initial excitation of a transformer after a fault. The approach proposed seems promising in order to predict the transient overshoot in current and the optimal time to close the circuit after the fault.
A 70th Degree Lunar Gravity Model (GLGM-2) from Clementine and other tracking data
Lemonie, Frank G. R.; Smith, David E.; Zuber, Maria T.; Neumann, Gregory A.
1997-01-01
A spherical harmonic model of the lunar gravity field complete to degree and order 70 has been developed from S band Doppler tracking data from the Clementine mission, as well as historical tracking data from Lunar Orbiters 1-5 and the Apollo 15 and 16 subsatellites. The model combines 361,000 Doppler observations from Clementine with 347,000 historical observations. The historical data consist of mostly 60-s Doppler with a noise of 0.25 to several mm/s. The Clementine data consist of mostly 10-s Doppler data, with a data noise of 0.25 mm/s for the observations from the Deep Space Network, and 2.5 mm/s for the data from a naval tracking station at Pomonkey, Maryland. Observations provided Clementine, provide the strongest satellite constraint on the Moon's low-degree field. In contrast the historical data, collected by spacecraft that had lower periapsis altitudes, provide distributed regions of high-resolution coverage within +/- 29 deg of the nearside lunar equator. To obtain the solution for a high-degree field in the absence of a uniform distribution of observations, we applied an a priori power law constraint of the form 15 x 10(exp -5)/sq l which had the effect of limiting the gravitational power and noise at short wavelengths. Coefficients through degree and order 18 are not significantly affected by the constraint, and so the model permits geophysical analysis of effects of the major basins at degrees 10-12. The GLGM-2 model confirms major features of the lunar gravity field shown in previous gravitational field models but also reveals significantly more detail, particularly at intermediate wavelengths (10(exp 3) km). Free-air gravity anomaly maps derived from the new model show the nearside and farside highlands to be gravitationally smooth, reflecting a state of isostatic compensation. Mascon basins (including Imbrium, Serenitatis, Crisium, Smythii, and Humorum) are denoted by gravity highs first recognized from Lunar Orbiter tracking. All of the major
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ediar Usman
2017-07-01
Full Text Available Banggai-Sula Basin is one of the basins with character of the micro-continent derived from northern part of Australia. Some traces the migration in the central part of Papua are slate, schist, and gneiss, current movement is facilitated by the Sorong Fault, which runs from the northern part of Papua to eastern part of Sulawesi. Results of gravity anomaly model (2D and 3D, seepage distribution, seismic and fields existing of oil and gas production in the western part of the Banggai-Sula Basin obtained a new prospect area in the northern part of Peleng Island, western part of Banggai Island, southern part of Banggai-Taliabu Islands, western and eastern part of Sulabesi Island. The new prospect area is reflected in the centre with form of the low morphology on gravity model and prospect trap on seismic data in the western part of Tolo Bay. Results of chemical analysis on the source rock of Buya Formation on Tmax vs Hydrogen Index (Tmax vs HI Diagram shows the type III kerogen quality and the Oxygen Index vs Hydrogen Index (OI vs HI Diagram shows the gas prone Type II, so that giving the impression that this area has the potential to containing the gas. The quality of the gas is included in the category of immature to mature type.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory
2002-01-01
We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework
Static current-sheet models of quiescent prominences
Wu, F.; Low, B. C.
1986-12-01
A particular class of theoretical models idealize the prominence to be a discrete flat electric-current sheet suspended vertically in a potential magnetic field. The weight of the prominence is supported by the Lorentz force in the current sheet. These models can be extended to have curved electric-current sheets and to vary three-dimensionally. The equation for force balance is 1 over 4 pi (del times B) times Bdel p- p9 z=zero. Using Cartesian coordinates we take, for simplicity, a uniform gravity with constant acceleration g in the direction -z. If we are interested not in the detailed internal structure of the prominence, but in the global magnetic configuration around the prominence, we may take prominence plasma to be cold. Consideration is given to how such equilibrium states can be constructed. To simplify the mathematical problem, suppose there is no electric current in the atmosphere except for the discrete currents in the cold prominence sheet. Let us take the plane z =0 to be the base of the atmosphere and restrict our attention to the domain z greater than 0. The task we have is to solve for a magnetic field which is everywhere potential except on some free surface S, subject to suit able to boundary conditions. The surface S is determined by requiring that it possesses a discrete electric current density such that the Lorentz force on it is everywhere vertically upward to balance the weight of the material m(S). Since the magnetic field is potential in the external atmosphere, the latter is decoupled from the magnetic field and its plane parallel hydrostatic pressure and density can be prescribed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai; Durante, Daniele; Finocchiaro, Stefano; Iess, Luciano
2017-01-01
The upcoming Juno spacecraft measurements have the potential of improving our knowledge of Jupiter’s gravity field. The analysis of the Juno Doppler data will provide a very accurate reconstruction of spatial gravity variations, but these measurements will be very accurate only over a limited latitudinal range. In order to deduce the full gravity field of Jupiter, additional information needs to be incorporated into the analysis, especially regarding the Jovian flow structure and its depth, which can influence the measured gravity field. In this study we propose a new iterative method for the estimation of the Jupiter gravity field, using a simulated Juno trajectory, a trajectory estimation model, and an adjoint-based inverse model for the flow dynamics. We test this method both for zonal harmonics only and with a full gravity field including tesseral harmonics. The results show that this method can fit some of the gravitational harmonics better to the “measured” harmonics, mainly because of the added information from the dynamical model, which includes the flow structure. Thus, it is suggested that the method presented here has the potential of improving the accuracy of the expected gravity harmonics estimated from the Juno and Cassini radio science experiments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Galanti, Eli; Kaspi, Yohai [Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Weizmann Institute of Science, Rehovot (Israel); Durante, Daniele; Finocchiaro, Stefano; Iess, Luciano, E-mail: eli.galanti@weizmann.ac.il [Dipartimento di Ingegneria Meccanica e Aerospaziale, Sapienza Universita di Roma, Rome (Italy)
2017-07-01
The upcoming Juno spacecraft measurements have the potential of improving our knowledge of Jupiter’s gravity field. The analysis of the Juno Doppler data will provide a very accurate reconstruction of spatial gravity variations, but these measurements will be very accurate only over a limited latitudinal range. In order to deduce the full gravity field of Jupiter, additional information needs to be incorporated into the analysis, especially regarding the Jovian flow structure and its depth, which can influence the measured gravity field. In this study we propose a new iterative method for the estimation of the Jupiter gravity field, using a simulated Juno trajectory, a trajectory estimation model, and an adjoint-based inverse model for the flow dynamics. We test this method both for zonal harmonics only and with a full gravity field including tesseral harmonics. The results show that this method can fit some of the gravitational harmonics better to the “measured” harmonics, mainly because of the added information from the dynamical model, which includes the flow structure. Thus, it is suggested that the method presented here has the potential of improving the accuracy of the expected gravity harmonics estimated from the Juno and Cassini radio science experiments.
Trade potential of climate smart goods of Vietnam: An application of gravity model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Trung Van Vu
2016-01-01
Full Text Available This paper examines the trade potential of climate smart goods (CSG of Vietnam. In particular, the study employs gravity model with panel data for bilateral trade between Vietnam and its 45 partners from 2002 to 2013 with an objective of identifying the determinants explaining Vietnam's trade of climate smart products. The estimation results reveal that economic size, market size, distance, real exchange rate, border, and the quality of infrastructure of both Vietnam and its trading partners play a major role in bilateral trade of CSG. Additionally, the paper applies the method using speed of convergence and the estimated gravity equation to answer whether Vietnam has fully realized the potential trade of CSG. Accordingly, Vietnam has strong opportunity for trade expansion with 19 out of 45 countries in the scope of this paper.
MODEL FOR THE CORRECTION OF THE SPECIFIC GRAVITY OF BIODIESEL FROM RESIDUAL OIL
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tatiana Aparecida Rosa da Silva
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Biodiesel is a important fuel with economic benefits, social and environmental. The production cost of the biodiesel can be significantly lowered if the raw material is replaced by a alternative material as residual oil. In this study, the variation of specific gravity with temperature increase for diesel and biodiesel from residual oil obtained by homogeneous basic catalysis. All properties analyzed for biodiesel are within specification Brazil. The determination of the correction algorithm for the specific gravity function of temperature is also presented, and the slope of the line to diesel fuel, methylic biodiesel (BMR and ethylic biodiesel (BER from residual oil were respectively the values -0.7089, -0.7290 and -0.7277. This demonstrates the existence of difference of the model when compared chemically different fuels, like diesel and biodiesel from different sources, indicating the importance of determining the specific algorithm for the operations of conversion of volume to the reference temperature.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Deepagoda Thuduwe Kankanamge Kelum, Chamindu; Jones, Scott B.; Tuller, Markus
2014-01-01
utilization to conserve energy and to limit transport costs, native materials mined on Moon or Mars are of primary interest for plant growth media in a future outpost, while terrestrial porous substrates with optimal growth media characteristics will be useful for onboard plant growth during space missions....... Due to limited experimental opportunities and prohibitive costs, liquid and gas behavior in porous substrates under reduced gravity conditions has been less studied and hence remains poorly understood. Based on ground-based measurements, this study examined water retention, oxygen diffusivity and air...... that estimates the gas percolation threshold based on the pore size distribution. The model successfully captured measured data for all investigated media and demonstrated the implications of the poorly-understood shift in gas percolation threshold with improved gas percolation in reduced gravity. Finally, using...
Students’ mental model in electric current
Pramesti, Y. S.; Setyowidodo, I.
2018-05-01
Electricity is one of essential topic in learning physics. This topic was studied in elementary until university level. Although electricity was related to our daily activities, but it doesn’t ensure that students have the correct concept. The aim of this research was to investigate and then categorized the students’ mental model. Subject consisted of 59 students of mechanical engineering that studied Physics for Engineering. This study was used a qualitative approach that used in this research is phenomenology. Data were analyzed qualitatively by using pre-test, post-test, and investigation for discovering further information. Three models were reported, showing a pattern which related to individual way of thinking about electric current. The mental model that was discovered in this research are: 1) electric current as a flow; 2) electric current as a source of energy, 3) electric current as a moving charge.
Godah, Walyeldeen; Krynski, Jan; Szelachowska, Malgorzata
2018-05-01
The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of absolute gravity data for the validation of Global Geopotential Models (GGMs). It is also aimed at improving quasigeoid heights determined from satellite-only GGMs using absolute gravity data. The area of Poland, as a unique one, covered with a homogeneously distributed set of absolute gravity data, has been selected as a study area. The gravity anomalies obtained from GGMs were validated using the corresponding ones determined from absolute gravity data. The spectral enhancement method was implemented to overcome the spectral inconsistency in data being validated. The quasigeoid heights obtained from the satellite-only GGM as well as from the satellite-only GGM in combination with absolute gravity data were evaluated with high accuracy GNSS/levelling data. Estimated accuracy of gravity anomalies obtained from GGMs investigated is of 1.7 mGal. Considering omitted gravity signal, e.g. from degree and order 101 to 2190, satellite-only GGMs can be validated at the accuracy level of 1 mGal using absolute gravity data. An improvement up to 59% in the accuracy of quasigeoid heights obtained from the satellite-only GGM can be observed when combining the satellite-only GGM with absolute gravity data.
Experimental modeling of eddy current inspection capabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Junker, W.R.; Clark, W.G.
1984-01-01
This chapter examines the experimental modeling of eddy current inspection capabilities based upon the use of liquid mercury samples designed to represent metal components containing discontinuities. A brief summary of past work with mercury modeling and a detailed discussion of recent experiments designed to further evaluate the technique are presented. The main disadvantages of the mercury modeling concept are that mercury is toxic and must be handled carefully, liquid mercury can only be used to represent nonferromagnetic materials, and wetting and meniscus problems can distort the effective size of artificial discontinuities. Artificial discontinuities placed in a liquid mercury sample can be used to represent discontinuities in solid metallic structures. Discontinuity size and type cannot be characterized from phase angle and signal amplitude data developed with a surface scanning, pancake-type eddy current probe. It is concluded that the mercury model approach can greatly enhance the overall understanding and applicability of eddy current inspection techniques
Current density and continuity in discretized models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boykin, Timothy B; Luisier, Mathieu; Klimeck, Gerhard
2010-01-01
Discrete approaches have long been used in numerical modelling of physical systems in both research and teaching. Discrete versions of the Schroedinger equation employing either one or several basis functions per mesh point are often used by senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in computational physics projects. In studying discrete models, students can encounter conceptual difficulties with the representation of the current and its divergence because different finite-difference expressions, all of which reduce to the current density in the continuous limit, measure different physical quantities. Understanding these different discrete currents is essential and requires a careful analysis of the current operator, the divergence of the current and the continuity equation. Here we develop point forms of the current and its divergence valid for an arbitrary mesh and basis. We show that in discrete models currents exist only along lines joining atomic sites (or mesh points). Using these results, we derive a discrete analogue of the divergence theorem and demonstrate probability conservation in a purely localized-basis approach.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giribet, G E
2005-01-01
Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)
High resolution time-lapse gravity field from GRACE for hydrological modelling
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Krogh, Pernille Engelbredt
Calibration of large scale hydrological models have traditionally been performed using point observations, which are often sparsely distributed. The Gravity Recovery And Climate Experiment (GRACE) mission provides global remote sensing information about mass fluxes with unprecedented accuracy...... than for the mascon only solution, but later than the GLDAS/Noah TWS and the CNES/GRGS SH solutions. The deviations are 10–20 days. From this point of view, the tuning of hydrological models with KBRR data is certainly feasible, though highly time consuming and complicated at the moment. The method...
Modelling the Interior Structure of Enceladus Based on the 2014's Cassini Gravity Data.
Taubner, R-S; Leitner, J J; Firneis, M G; Hitzenberger, R
2016-06-01
We present a model for the internal structure of Saturn's moon Enceladus. This model allows us to estimate the physical conditions at the bottom of the satellite's potential subsurface water reservoir and to determine the radial distribution of pressure and gravity. This leads to a better understanding of the physical and chemical conditions at the water/rock boundary. This boundary is the most promising area on icy moons for astrobiological studies as it could serve as a potential habitat for extraterrestrial life similar to terrestrial microbes that inhabit rocky mounds on Earth's sea floors.
Cosmological models with a hybrid scale factor in an extended gravity theory
Mishra, B.; Tripathy, S. K.; Tarai, Sankarsan
2018-03-01
A general formalism to investigate Bianchi type V Ih universes is developed in an extended theory of gravity. A minimally coupled geometry and matter field is considered with a rescaled function of f(R,T) substituted in place of the Ricci scalar R in the geometrical action. Dynamical aspects of the models are discussed by using a hybrid scale factor (HSF) that behaves as power law in an initial epoch and as an exponential form at late epoch. The power law behavior and the exponential behavior appear as two extreme cases of the present model.
Mixmaster cosmological model in theories of gravity with a quadratic Lagrangian
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrow, J.D.; Sirousse-Zia, H.
1989-01-01
We use the method of matched asymptotic expansions to examine the behavior of the vacuum Bianchi type-IX mixmaster universe in a gravity theory derived from a purely quadratic gravitational Lagrangian. The chaotic behavior characteristic of the general-relativistic mixmaster model disappears and the asymptotic behavior is of the monotonic, nonchaotic form found in the exactly soluble Bianchi type-I models of the quadratic theory. The asymptotic behavior far from the singularity is also found to be of monotonic nonchaotic type
Borsa, Adrian
2008-01-01
The salar de Uyuni is a massive dry salt lake that lies at the lowest point of an internal drainage basin in the Bolivian Altiplano. A kinematic GPS survey of the salar in September 2002 found a topographic range of only 80 cm over a 54 × 45 km area and subtle surface features that appeared to correlate with mapped gravity. In order to confirm the correlation between topography and gravity/geopotential, we use local gravity measurements and the EGM96 global geopotential model to construct a c...
A gravity model for the spread of a pollinator-borne plant pathogen.
Ferrari, Matthew J; Bjørnstad, Ottar N; Partain, Jessica L; Antonovics, Janis
2006-09-01
Many pathogens of plants are transmitted by arthropod vectors whose movement between individual hosts is influenced by foraging behavior. Insect foraging has been shown to depend on both the quality of hosts and the distances between hosts. Given the spatial distribution of host plants and individual variation in quality, vector foraging patterns may therefore produce predictable variation in exposure to pathogens. We develop a "gravity" model to describe the spatial spread of a vector-borne plant pathogen from underlying models of insect foraging in response to host quality using the pollinator-borne smut fungus Microbotryum violaceum as a case study. We fit the model to spatially explicit time series of M. violaceum transmission in replicate experimental plots of the white campion Silene latifolia. The gravity model provides a better fit than a mean field model or a model with only distance-dependent transmission. The results highlight the importance of active vector foraging in generating spatial patterns of disease incidence and for pathogen-mediated selection for floral traits.
CERN. Geneva
2017-01-01
Extensions of Einstein’s theory of General Relativity are under investigation as a potential explanation of the accelerating expansion rate of the universe. I’ll present a cosmologist’s overview of attempts to test these ideas in an efficient and unbiased manner. I’ll start by introducing the bestiary of alternative gravity theories that have been put forwards. This proliferation of models motivates us to develop model-independent, agnostic tools for comparing the theory space to cosmological data. I’ll introduce the effective field theory for cosmological perturbations, a framework designed to unify modified gravity theories in terms of a manageable set of parameters. Having outlined the formalism, I’ll talk about the current constraints on this framework, and the improvements expected from the next generation of large galaxy clustering, weak lensing and intensity mapping experiments.
Superconducting gravity gradiometer for sensitive gravity measurements. II. Experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chan, H.A.; Moody, M.V.; Paik, H.J.
1987-01-01
A sensitive superconducting gravity gradiometer has been constructed and tested. Coupling to gravity signals is obtained by having two superconducting proof masses modulate magnetic fields produced by persistent currents. The induced electrical currents are differenced by a passive superconducting circuit coupled to a superconducting quantum interference device. The experimental behavior of this device has been shown to follow the theoretical model closely in both signal transfer and noise characteristics. While its intrinsic noise level is shown to be 0.07 E Hz/sup -1/2/ (1 Eequivalent10/sup -9/ sec/sup -2/), the actual performance of the gravity gradiometer on a passive platform has been limited to 0.3--0.7 E Hz/sup -1/2/ due to its coupling to the environmental noise. The detailed structure of this excess noise is understood in terms of an analytical error model of the instrument. The calibration of the gradiometer has been obtained by two independent methods: by applying a linear acceleration and a gravity signal in two different operational modes of the instrument. This device has been successfully operated as a detector in a new null experiment for the gravitational inverse-square law. In this paper we report the design, fabrication, and detailed test results of the superconducting gravity gradiometer. We also present additional theoretical analyses which predict the specific dynamic behavior of the gradiometer and of the test
Structure formation in the Deser-Woodard nonlocal gravity model: a reappraisal
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Nersisyan, Henrik; Cid, Adrian Fernandez; Amendola, Luca, E-mail: h.nersisyan@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: fernandez@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de, E-mail: l.amendola@thphys.uni-heidelberg.de [Institut für Theoretische Physik, Ruprecht-Karls-Universität Heidelberg, Philosophenweg 16, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)
2017-04-01
In this work, we extend previous analyses of the structure formation in the f (□{sup −1} R ) model of nonlocal gravity proposed by Deser and Woodard (DW), which reproduces the background expansion of ΛCDM with no need of a cosmological constant nor of any dimensional constant beside Newton's one. A previous analysis based on redshift-space distortions (RSD) data concluded that the model was ruled out. In this work we revisit the issue and find that, when recast in a localized model, the DW model is not ruled out and actually gives a better fit to RSD data than ΛCDM. In fact, the DW model presents a suppressed growth of matter perturbations with respect to ΛCDM and a slightly lower value of σ{sub 8}, as favored by observations. We also produce analytical approximations of the two modified gravity functions, i.e. the anisotropic stress η and the relative change of Newton's constant Y , and of f σ{sub 8}( z ) as a function of redshift. Finally, we also show how much the fit depends on initial conditions when these are generalized with respect to a standard matter-dominated era.
Gravity and magnetic anomaly modeling and correlation using the SPHERE program and Magsat data
Braile, L. W.; Hinze, W. J. (Principal Investigator); Vonfrese, R. R. B.
1980-01-01
The spherical Earth inversion, modeling, and contouring software were tested and modified for processing data in the Southern Hemisphere. Preliminary geologic/tectonic maps and selected cross sections for South and Central America and the Caribbean region are being compiled and as well as gravity and magnetic models for the major geological features of the area. A preliminary gravity model of the Andeas Beniff Zone was constructed so that the density columns east and west of the subducted plates are in approximate isostatic equilibrium. The magnetic anomaly for the corresponding magnetic model of the zone is being computed with the SPHERE program. A test tape containing global magnetic measurements was converted to a tape compatible with Purdue's CDC system. NOO data were screened for periods of high diurnal activity and reduced to anomaly form using the IGS-75 model. Magnetic intensity anomaly profiles were plotted on the conterminous U.S. map using the track lines as the anomaly base level. The transcontinental magnetic high seen in POGO and MAGSAT data is also represented in the NOO data.
Flavor changing processes in supersymmetric models with hybrid gauge- and gravity-mediation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hiller, Gudrun; Hochberg, Yonit; Nir, Yosef
2009-01-01
We consider supersymmetric models where gauge mediation provides the dominant contributions to the soft supersymmetry breaking terms while gravity mediation provides sub-dominant yet non-negligible contributions. We further assume that the gravity-mediated contributions are subject to selection rules that follow from a Froggatt-Nielsen symmetry. This class of models constitutes an example of viable and natural non-minimally flavor violating models. The constraints from K 0 -K-bar 0 mixing imply that the modifications to the Standard Model predictions for B d -B-bar d and B s - B-bar s mixing are generically at most at the percent level, but can be of order ten percent for large tan β. The modifications for D 0 -D-bar 0 mixing are generically at most of order a few percent, but in a special subclass of models they can be of order one. We point out ΔB = 1 processes relevant for flavor violation in hybrid mediation.
Structure formation in the Deser-Woodard nonlocal gravity model: a reappraisal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nersisyan, Henrik; Cid, Adrian Fernandez; Amendola, Luca
2017-01-01
In this work, we extend previous analyses of the structure formation in the f (□ −1 R ) model of nonlocal gravity proposed by Deser and Woodard (DW), which reproduces the background expansion of ΛCDM with no need of a cosmological constant nor of any dimensional constant beside Newton's one. A previous analysis based on redshift-space distortions (RSD) data concluded that the model was ruled out. In this work we revisit the issue and find that, when recast in a localized model, the DW model is not ruled out and actually gives a better fit to RSD data than ΛCDM. In fact, the DW model presents a suppressed growth of matter perturbations with respect to ΛCDM and a slightly lower value of σ 8 , as favored by observations. We also produce analytical approximations of the two modified gravity functions, i.e. the anisotropic stress η and the relative change of Newton's constant Y , and of f σ 8 ( z ) as a function of redshift. Finally, we also show how much the fit depends on initial conditions when these are generalized with respect to a standard matter-dominated era.
MASCOTTE: analytical model of eddy current signals
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Delsarte, G.; Levy, R.
1992-01-01
Tube examination is a major application of the eddy current technique in the nuclear and petrochemical industries. Such examination configurations being specially adapted to analytical modes, a physical model is developed on portable computers. It includes simple approximations made possible by the effective conditions of the examinations. The eddy current signal is described by an analytical formulation that takes into account the tube dimensions, the sensor conception, the physical characteristics of the defect and the examination parameters. Moreover, the model makes it possible to associate real signals and simulated signals
Koneshov, V. N.; Nepoklonov, V. B.
2018-05-01
The development of studies on estimating the accuracy of the Earth's modern global gravity models in terms of the spherical harmonics of the geopotential in the problematic regions of the world is discussed. The comparative analysis of the results of reconstructing quasi-geoid heights and gravity anomalies from the different models is carried out for two polar regions selected within a radius of 1000 km from the North and South poles. The analysis covers nine recently developed models, including six high-resolution models and three lower order models, including the Russian GAOP2012 model. It is shown that the modern models determine the quasi-geoid heights and gravity anomalies in the polar regions with errors of 5 to 10 to a few dozen cm and from 3 to 5 to a few dozen mGal, respectively, depending on the resolution. The accuracy of the models in the Arctic is several times higher than in the Antarctic. This is associated with the peculiarities of gravity anomalies in every particular region and with the fact that the polar part of the Antarctic has been comparatively less explored by the gravity methods than the polar Arctic.
The role of satellite altimetry in gravity field modelling in coastal areas
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, Ole Baltazar; Knudsen, Per
2000-01-01
global uniform gravity information with very high resolution, and these global marine gravity fields are registered on a two by two minute grid corresponding to 4 by 4 kilometres at the equator. In this presentation several coastal complications in deriving the marine gravity field from satellite...... altimetry will be investigated using the KMS98 gravity field. Comparison with other sources of gravity field information like airborne and marine gravity observations will be carried out and two fundamentally different test areas (Azores and Skagerak) will be studied to investigated the different role...
Invariant models in the inversion of gravity and magnetic fields and their derivatives
Ialongo, Simone; Fedi, Maurizio; Florio, Giovanni
2014-11-01
In potential field inversion problems we usually solve underdetermined systems and realistic solutions may be obtained by introducing a depth-weighting function in the objective function. The choice of the exponent of such power-law is crucial. It was suggested to determine it from the field-decay due to a single source-block; alternatively it has been defined as the structural index of the investigated source distribution. In both cases, when k-order derivatives of the potential field are considered, the depth-weighting exponent has to be increased by k with respect that of the potential field itself, in order to obtain consistent source model distributions. We show instead that invariant and realistic source-distribution models are obtained using the same depth-weighting exponent for the magnetic field and for its k-order derivatives. A similar behavior also occurs in the gravity case. In practice we found that the depth weighting-exponent is invariant for a given source-model and equal to that of the corresponding magnetic field, in the magnetic case, and of the 1st derivative of the gravity field, in the gravity case. In the case of the regularized inverse problem, with depth-weighting and general constraints, the mathematical demonstration of such invariance is difficult, because of its non-linearity, and of its variable form, due to the different constraints used. However, tests performed on a variety of synthetic cases seem to confirm the invariance of the depth-weighting exponent. A final consideration regards the role of the regularization parameter; we show that the regularization can severely affect the depth to the source because the estimated depth tends to increase proportionally with the size of the regularization parameter. Hence, some care is needed in handling the combined effect of the regularization parameter and depth weighting.
Isostatic models and isostatic gravity anomalies of the Arabian plate and surroundings
Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir
2015-04-01
Isostaic anomalies represent one of the most useful "geological" reduction of the gravity field. With the isostatic correction it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. This correction is based on the fact that a major part of the near-surface load is compensated by variations of the lithosphere boundaries (chiefly the Moho and LAB) and by density variations within the crust and upper mantle. It is usually supposed that it is less important to a first order, what is the actual compensation model when reducing the effect of compensating masses, since their total weight is exactly opposite to the near-surface load. We compare several compensating models for the Arabian plate and surrounding area. The Airy model gives very significant regional isostatic anomalies, which can not be explained by the upper crust structure or disturbances of the isostatic equilibrium. Also the predicted "isostatic" Moho is very different from the existing observations. The second group of the isostatic models includes the Moho, which is based on existing seismic determinations. Additional compensation is provided by density variations within the lithosphere (chiefly in the upper mantle). In this way we minimize regional anomalies over the Arabian plate. The residual local anomalies well correspond to tectonic structure of the plate. Still very significant anomalies are associated with the Zagros fold belt, the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.
Drell-Yan and diphoton production at hadron colliders and low scale gravity model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cheung, Kingman; Landsberg, Greg
2000-01-01
In the model of Arkani-Hamed, Dimopoulos, and Dvali where gravity is allowed to propagate in the extra dimensions of very large size, virtual graviton exchange between the standard model particles can give rise to signatures that can be tested in collider experiments. We study these effects in dilepton and diphoton production at hadron colliders. Specifically, we examine the double differential cross section in the invariant mass and scattering angle, which is found to be useful in separating the gravity effects from the standard model. In this work, sensitivity obtained using the double differential cross section is higher than that in previous studies based on single differential distributions. Assuming no excess of events over the standard model predictions, we obtain the following 95% confidence level lower limits on the effective Planck scale: 0.9-1.5 TeV in the Fermilab Tevatron run I, 1.3-2.5 TeV in run IIa, 1.7-3.5 TeV in run IIb, and 6.5-12.8 TeV at the CERN LHC. The range of numbers corresponds to the number of extra dimensions n=7-2. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society
Gravity and Macro-Model Tuning for the Geosat Follow-on Spacecraft
Lemoine, Frank G.; Rowlands, David D.; Marr, Gregory C.; Zelensky, Nikita P.; Luthcke, Scott B.; Cox, Christopher M.
1999-01-01
The US Navy's GEOSAT Follow-On (GFO) spacecraft was launched on February 10, 1998 and the primary objective of the mission was to map the oceans using a radar altimeter. The spacecraft tracking complement consisted of GPS receivers, a laser retroreflector and Doppler beacons. Since the GPS receivers have not yet returned reliable data, the only means of providing high-quality precise orbits has been though satellite laser ranging (SLR). The spacecraft has been tracked by the international satellite laser ranging network since April 22, 1998, and an average of 7.4 passes per day have been obtained from US and participating foreign stations. Since the predicted radial orbit error due to the gravity field is two to three cm, the largest contributor to the high SLR residuals (7-10 cm RMS for five day arcs) is the mismodelling of the non-conservative forces, not withstanding the development of a three-dimensional eight-panel model and an analytical attitude model for the GFO spacecraft. The SLR residuals show a clear correlation with beta-prime (solar elevation) angle, peaking in mid-August 1998 when the beta-prime angle reached -80 to -90 degrees. In this paper we discuss the tuning of the non-conservative force model, for GFO and report the subsequent addition of the GFO tracking data to the Earth gravity model solutions.
Localizing gravity on Maxwell gauged CP1 model in six dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kodama, Yuta; Kokubu, Kento; Sawado, Nobuyuki
2008-01-01
We shall consider a 3-brane embedded in six-dimensional space-time with a negative bulk cosmological constant. The 3-brane is constructed by a topological soliton solution living in two-dimensional axially symmetric transverse subspace. Similar to most previous works of six-dimensional soliton models, our Maxwell gauged CP 1 brane model can also achieve localizing gravity around the 3-brane. The CP 1 field is described by a scalar doublet and derived from the O(3) sigma model by projecting it onto two-dimensional complex space. In that sense, our framework is more effective than other solitonic brane models concerning gauge theory. We shall also discuss the linear stability analysis for our new model by fluctuating all fields.
Current definition and a generalized federbush model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, L.P.S.; Hagen, C.R.
1978-01-01
The Federbush model is studied, with particular attention being given to the definition of currents. Inasmuch as there is no a priori restriction of local gauge invariance, the currents in the interacting case can be defined more generally than in Q.E.D. It is found that two arbitrary parameters are thereby introduced into the theory. Lowest order perturbation calculations for the current correlation functions and the Fermion propagators indicate that the theory admits a whole class of solutions dependent upon these parameters with the closed solution of Federbush emerging as a special case. The theory is shown to be locally covariant, and a conserved energy--momentum tensor is displayed. One finds in addition that the generators of gauge transformations for the fields are conserved. Finally it is shown that the general theory yields the Federbush solution if suitable Thirring model type counterterms are added
Virtual Universities: Current Models and Future Trends.
Guri-Rosenblit, Sarah
2001-01-01
Describes current models of distance education (single-mode distance teaching universities, dual- and mixed-mode universities, extension services, consortia-type ventures, and new technology-based universities), including their merits and problems. Discusses future trends in potential student constituencies, faculty roles, forms of knowledge…
Microscopic models for bridging electrostatics and currents
Borghi, L.; DeAmbrosis, A.; Mascheretti, P.
2007-03-01
A teaching sequence based on the use of microscopic models to link electrostatic phenomena with direct currents is presented. The sequence, devised for high school students, was designed after initial work carried out with student teachers attending a school of specialization for teaching physics at high school, at the University of Pavia. The results obtained with them are briefly presented, because they directed our steps for the development of the teaching sequence. For both the design of the experiments and their interpretation, we drew inspiration from the original works of Alessandro Volta; in addition, a structural model based on the particular role of electrons as elementary charges both in electrostatic phenomena and in currents was proposed. The teaching sequence starts from experiments on charging objects by rubbing and by induction, and engages students in constructing microscopic models to interpret their observations. By using these models and by closely examining the ideas of tension and capacitance, the students acknowledge that a charging (or discharging) process is due to the motion of electrons that, albeit for short time intervals, represent a current. Finally, they are made to see that the same happens in transients of direct current circuits.
The quantum group structure of 2D gravity and minimal models. Pt. 1
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gervais, J.L.
1990-01-01
On the unit circle, an infinite family of chiral operators is constructed, whose exchange algebra is given by the universal R-matrix of the quantum group SL(2) q . This establishes the precise connection between the chiral algebra of two dimensional gravity or minimal models and this quantum group. The method is to relate the monodromy properties of the operator differential equations satisfied by the generalized vertex operators with the exchange algebra of SL(2) q . The formulae so derived, which generalize an earlier particular case worked out by Babelon, are remarkably compact and may be entirely written in terms of 'q-deformed' factorials and binomial coefficients. (orig.)
Exact solution to the 'auxiliary extra-dimension' model of massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, S.F.; Rosen, Rachel A.
2011-01-01
The 'auxiliary extra-dimension' model was proposed in order to provide a geometrical interpretation to modifications of general relativity, in particular to non-linear massive gravity. In this context, the theory was shown to be ghost free to third order in perturbations, in the decoupling limit. In this work, we exactly solve the equation of motion in the extra dimension, to obtain a purely 4-dimensional theory. Using this solution, it is shown that the ghost appears at the fourth order and beyond. We explore potential modifications to address the ghost issue and find that their consistent implementation requires going beyond the present framework.
Higgs mass range from standard model false vacuum inflation in scalar-tensor gravity
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Masina, I.; Notari, A.
2012-01-01
If the standard model is valid up to very high energies it is known that the Higgs potential can develop a local minimum at field values around 10(15)-10(17) GeV, for a narrow band of values of the top quark and Higgs masses. We show that in a scalar-tensor theory of gravity such Higgs false vacu....... This prediction could be soon tested at the Large Hadron Collider. Our inflationary scenario could also be further checked by better constraining the spectral index and the tensor-to-scalar ratio....
Cascading Gravity Extending the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati Model to Higher Dimension
de Rham, Claudia; Hofmann, Stefan; Khoury, Justin; Pujolas, Oriol; Redi, Michele; Tolley, Andrew J
2008-01-01
We present a higher codimension generalization of the DGP scenario which, unlike previous attempts, is free of ghost instabilities. The 4D propagator is made regular by embedding our visible 3-brane within a 4-brane, each with their own induced gravity terms, in a flat 6D bulk. The model is ghost-free if the tension on the 3-brane is larger than a certain critical value, while the induced metric remains flat. The gravitational force law `cascades' from a 6D behavior at the largest distances followed by a 5D and finally a 4D regime at the shortest scales.
Cascading Gravity: Extending the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati Model to Higher Dimension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rham, Claudia de; Dvali, Gia; Hofmann, Stefan; Khoury, Justin; Tolley, Andrew J.; Pujolas, Oriol; Redi, Michele
2008-01-01
We present a generalization of the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati scenario to higher codimensions which, unlike previous attempts, is free of ghost instabilities. The 4D propagator is made regular by embedding our visible 3-brane within a 4-brane, each with their own induced gravity terms, in a flat 6D bulk. The model is ghost-free if the tension on the 3-brane is larger than a certain critical value, while the induced metric remains flat. The gravitational force law ''cascades'' from a 6D behavior at the largest distances followed by a 5D and finally a 4D regime at the shortest scales
Higher spin currents in the critical O(N) vector model at 1/N2
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Manashov, A.N.; Strohmaier, M.
2017-06-01
We calculate the anomalous dimensions of higher spin singlet currents in the critical O(N) vector model at order 1/N 2 . The results are shown to be in agreement with the four-loop perturbative computation in φ 4 theory in 4-2ε dimensions. It is known that the order 1/N anomalous dimensions of higher-spin currents happen to be the same in the Gross-Neveu and the critical vector model. On the contrary, the order 1/N 2 corrections are different. The results can also be interpreted as a prediction for the two-loop computation in the dual higher-spin gravity.
Wu, Dong L.; Zhang, Fuqing
2004-01-01
Satellite microwave data are used to study gravity wave properties and variabilities over the northeastern United States and the North Atlantic in the December-January periods. The gravity waves in this region, found in many winters, can reach the stratopause with growing amplitude. The Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit-A (AMSU-A) observations show that the wave occurrences are correlated well with the intensity and location of the tropospheric baroclinic jet front systems. To further investigate the cause(s) and properties of the North Atlantic gravity waves, we focus on a series of wave events during 19-21 January 2003 and compare AMSU-A observations to simulations from a mesoscale model (MM5). The simulated gravity waves compare qualitatively well with the satellite observations in terms of wave structures, timing, and overall morphology. Excitation mechanisms of these large-amplitude waves in the troposphere are complex and subject to further investigations.
Kohn, Florian P M; Ritzmann, Ramona
2018-03-01
For decades it has been shown that acute changes in gravity have an effect on neuronal systems of human and animals on different levels, from the molecular level to the whole nervous system. The functional properties and gravity-dependent adaptations of these system levels have been investigated with no or barely any interconnection. This review summarizes the gravity-dependent adaptation processes in human and animal organisms from the in vitro cellular level with its biophysical properties to the in vivo motor responses and underlying sensorimotor functions of human subjects. Subsequently, a first model for short-term adaptation of neuronal transmission is presented and discussed for the first time, which integrates the responses of the different levels of organization to changes in gravity.
Sainz-Maza, S.; Montesinos, F. G.; Martí, J.; Arnoso, J.; Calvo, M.; Borreguero, A.
2017-08-01
Recent volcanism in El Hierro Island is mostly concentrated along three elongated and narrow zones which converge at the center of the island. These zones with extensive volcanism have been identified as rift zones. The presence of similar structures is common in many volcanic oceanic islands, so understanding their origin, dynamics and structure is important to conduct hazard assessment in such environments. There is still not consensus on the origin of the El Hierro rift zones, having been associated with mantle uplift or interpreted as resulting from gravitational spreading and flank instability. To further understand the internal structure and origin of the El Hierro rift systems, starting from the previous gravity studies, we developed a new 3D gravity inversion model for its shallower layers, gathering a detailed picture of this part of the island, which has permitted a new interpretation about these rifts. Previous models already identified a main central magma accumulation zone and several shallower high density bodies. The new model allows a better resolution of the pathways that connect both levels and the surface. Our results do not point to any correspondence between the upper parts of these pathways and the rift identified at the surface. Non-clear evidence of progression toward deeper parts into the volcanic system is shown, so we interpret them as very shallow structures, probably originated by local extensional stresses derived from gravitational loading and flank instability, which are used to facilitate the lateral transport of magma when it arrives close to the surface.
He, Jun; Gao, Feng; Bai, Yongjun; Wu, Shengfu
2013-11-01
The large capacity servo press is traditionally realized by means of redundant actuation, however there exist the over-constraint problem and interference among actuators, which increases the control difficulty and the product cost. A new type of press mechanism with parallel topology is presented to develop the mechanical servo press with high stamping capacity. The dynamic model considering gravity counterbalance is proposed based on the virtual work principle, and then the effect of counterbalance cylinder on the dynamic performance of the servo press is studied. It is found that the motor torque required to operate the press is a lot less than the others when the ratio of the counterbalance force to the gravity of ram is in the vicinity of 1.0. The stamping force of the real press prototype can reach up to 25 MN on the position of 13 mm away from the bottom dead center. The typical deep-drawing process with 1 200 mm stroke at 8 strokes per minute is proposed by means of five order polynomial. On this process condition, the driving torques are calculated based on the above dynamic model and the torque measuring test is also carried out on the prototype. It is shown that the curve trend of calculation torque is consistent to the measured result and that the average error is less than 15%. The parallel mechanism is introduced into the development of large capacity servo press to avoid the over-constraint and interference of traditional redundant actuation, and its dynamic characteristics with gravity counterbalance are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Oscar H. Lücke
2010-01-01
Full Text Available The map of complete Bouguer anomaly of Costa Rica shows an elongated NW-SE trending gravity low in the central region. This gravity low coincides with the geographical region known as the Cordillera Volcánica Central. It is built by geologic and morpho-tectonic units which consist of Quaternary volcanic edifices. For quantitative interpretation of the sources of the anomaly and the characterization of fluid pathways and reservoirs of arc magmatism, a constrained 3D density model of the upper crust was designed by means of forward modeling. The density model is constrained by simplified surface geology, previously published seismic tomography and P-wave velocity models, which stem from wide-angle refraction seismic, as well as results from methods of direct interpretation of the gravity field obtained for this work. The model takes into account the effects and influence of subduction-related Neogene through Quaternary arc magmatism on the upper crust.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.
1984-01-01
This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981
Large scale structures in the kinetic gravity braiding model that can be unbraided
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kimura, Rampei; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro
2011-01-01
We study cosmological consequences of a kinetic gravity braiding model, which is proposed as an alternative to the dark energy model. The kinetic braiding model we study is characterized by a parameter n, which corresponds to the original galileon cosmological model for n = 1. We find that the background expansion of the universe of the kinetic braiding model is the same as the Dvali-Turner's model, which reduces to that of the standard cold dark matter model with a cosmological constant (ΛCDM model) for n equal to infinity. We also find that the evolution of the linear cosmological perturbation in the kinetic braiding model reduces to that of the ΛCDM model for n = ∞. Then, we focus our study on the growth history of the linear density perturbation as well as the spherical collapse in the nonlinear regime of the density perturbations, which might be important in order to distinguish between the kinetic braiding model and the ΛCDM model when n is finite. The theoretical prediction for the large scale structure is confronted with the multipole power spectrum of the luminous red galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky survey. We also discuss future prospects of constraining the kinetic braiding model using a future redshift survey like the WFMOS/SuMIRe PFS survey as well as the cluster redshift distribution in the South Pole Telescope survey
Effect of gravity on liquid plug transport through an airway bifurcation model.
Zheng, Y; Anderson, J C; Suresh, V; Grotberg, J B
2005-10-01
Many medical therapies require liquid plugs to be instilled into and delivered throughout the pulmonary airways. Improving these treatments requires a better understanding of how liquid distributes throughout these airways. In this study, gravitational and surface mechanisms determining the distribution of instilled liquids are examined experimentally using a bench-top model of a symmetrically bifurcating airway. A liquid plug was instilled into the parent tube and driven through the bifurcation by a syringe pump. The effect of gravity was adjusted by changing the roll angle (phi) and pitch angle (gamma) of the bifurcation (phi = gamma =0 deg was isogravitational). Phi determines the relative gravitational orientation of the two daughter tubes: when phi not equal to 0 deg, one daughter tube was lower (gravitationally favored) compared to the other. Gamma determines the component of gravity acting along the axial direction of the parent tube: when gamma not equal to 0 deg, a nonzero component of gravity acts along the axial direction of the parent tube. A splitting ratio Rs, is defined as the ratio of the liquid volume in the upper daughter to the lower just after plug splitting. We measured the splitting ratio, Rs, as a function of: the parent-tube capillary number (Cap); the Bond number (Bo); phi; gamma; and the presence of pre-existing plugs initially blocking either daughter tube. A critical capillary number (Cac) was found to exist below which no liquid entered the upper daughter (Rs = 0), and above which Rs increased and leveled off with Cap. Cac increased while Rs decreased with increasing phi, gamma, and Bo for blocked and unblocked cases at a given Cap > Ca,. Compared to the nonblockage cases, Rs decreased (increased) at a given Cap while Cac increased (decreased) with an upper (lower) liquid blockage. More liquid entered the unblocked daughter with a blockage in one daughter tube, and this effect was larger with larger gravity effect. A simple theoretical
Droplet evaporation on a horizontal substrate under gravity field by mesoscopic modeling.
Xie, Chiyu; Zhang, Jianying; Bertola, Volfango; Wang, Moran
2016-02-01
The evaporation of water drop deposited on a horizontal substrate is investigated using a lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) for multiphase flows with a large-density ratio. To account for the variation of evaporation flux distribution along the drop interface, a novel evaporation scheme is introduced into the LBM framework, and validated by comparison with experimental data. We aim at discovering the effect of gravity on the evaporating drop in detail, and various evaporation conditions are considered as well as different wetting properties of the substrates. An effective diameter is introduced as an indicator of the critical drop size under which gravity is negligible. Our results show that such critical diameter is much smaller than the capillary length, which has been widely accepted as the critical size in previous and current works. The critical diameter is found to be almost independent of the evaporation conditions and the surface wettability. A correlation between this critical diameter and the capillary length is also proposed for easy use in applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Isostatic Model and Isostatic Gravity Anomalies of the Arabian Plate and Surroundings
Kaban, Mikhail K.; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir
2016-04-01
The isostatic modeling represents one of the most useful "geological" reduction methods of the gravity field. With the isostatic correction, it is possible to remove a significant part of the effect of deep density heterogeneity, which dominates in the Bouguer gravity anomalies. Although there exist several isostatic compensation schemes, it is usually supposed that a choice of the model is not an important factor to first order, since the total weight of compensating masses remains the same. We compare two alternative models for the Arabian plate and surrounding area. The Airy model gives very significant regional isostatic anomalies, which cannot be explained by the upper crust structure or disturbances of the isostatic equilibrium. Also, the predicted "isostatic" Moho is very different from existing seismic observations. The second isostatic model includes the Moho, which is based on seismic determinations. Additional compensation is provided by density variations within the lithosphere (chiefly in the upper mantle). According to this model, the upper mantle under the Arabian Shield is less dense than under the Platform. In the Arabian platform, the maximum density coincides with the Rub' al Khali, one of the richest oil basin in the world. This finding agrees with previous studies, showing that such basins are often underlain by dense mantle, possibly related to an eclogite layer that has caused their subsidence. The mantle density variations might be also a result of variations of the lithosphere thickness. With the combined isostatic model, it is possible to minimize regional anomalies over the Arabian plate. The residual local anomalies correspond well to tectonic structure of the plate. Still very significant anomalies, showing isostatic disturbances of the lithosphere, are associated with the Zagros fold belt, the collision zone of the Arabian and Eurasian plates.
Towards Spherical Mesh Gravity and Magnetic Modelling in an HPC Environment
Lane, R. J.; Brodie, R. C.; de Hoog, M.; Navin, J.; Chen, C.; Du, J.; Liang, Q.; Wang, H.; Li, Y.
2013-12-01
Staff at Geoscience Australia (GA), Australia's Commonwealth Government geoscientific agency, have routinely performed 3D gravity and magnetic modelling as part of geoscience investigations. For this work, we have used software programs that have been based on a Cartesian mesh spatial framework. These programs have come as executable files that were compiled to operate in a Windows environment on single core personal computers (PCs). To cope with models with higher resolution and larger extents, we developed an approach whereby a large problem could be broken down into a number of overlapping smaller models (';tiles') that could be modelled separately, with the results combined back into a single output model. To speed up the processing, we established a Condor distributed network from existing desktop PCs. A number of factors have caused us to consider a new approach to this modelling work. The drivers for change include; 1) models with very large lateral extents where the effects of Earth curvature are a consideration, 2) a desire to ensure that the modelling of separate regions is carried out in a consistent and managed fashion, 3) migration of scientific computing to off-site High Performance Computing (HPC) facilities, and 4) development of virtual globe environments for integration and visualization of 3D spatial objects. Some of the more surprising realizations to emerge have been that; 1) there aren't any readily available commercial software packages for modelling gravity and magnetic data in a spherical mesh spatial framework, 2) there are many different types of HPC environments, 3) no two HPC environments are the same, and 4) the most common virtual globe environment (i.e., Google Earth) doesn't allow spatial objects to be displayed below the topographic/bathymetric surface. Our response has been to do the following; 1) form a collaborative partnership with researchers at the Colorado School of Mines (CSM) and the China University of Geosciences (CUG
Current algebra, statistical mechanics and quantum models
Vilela Mendes, R.
2017-11-01
Results obtained in the past for free boson systems at zero and nonzero temperatures are revisited to clarify the physical meaning of current algebra reducible functionals which are associated to systems with density fluctuations, leading to observable effects on phase transitions. To use current algebra as a tool for the formulation of quantum statistical mechanics amounts to the construction of unitary representations of diffeomorphism groups. Two mathematical equivalent procedures exist for this purpose. One searches for quasi-invariant measures on configuration spaces, the other for a cyclic vector in Hilbert space. Here, one argues that the second approach is closer to the physical intuition when modelling complex systems. An example of application of the current algebra methodology to the pairing phenomenon in two-dimensional fermion systems is discussed.
Softened Gravity and the Extension of the Standard Model up to Infinite Energy
Giudice, Gian F.; Salvio, Alberto; Strumia, Alessandro
2015-02-23
Attempts to solve naturalness by having the weak scale as the only breaking of classical scale invariance have to deal with two severe difficulties: gravity and the absence of Landau poles. We show that solutions to the first problem require premature modifications of gravity at scales no larger than $10^{11}$ GeV, while the second problem calls for many new particles at the weak scale. To build models that fulfil these properties, we classify 4-dimensional Quantum Field Theories that satisfy Total Asymptotic Freedom (TAF): the theory holds up to infinite energy, where all coupling constants flow to zero. We develop a technique to identify such theories and determine their low-energy predictions. Since the Standard Model turns out to be asymptotically free only under the unphysical conditions $g_1 = 0$, $M_t = 186$ GeV, $M_\\tau = 0$, $M_h = 163$ GeV, we explore some of its weak-scale extensions that satisfy the requirements for TAF.
Softened gravity and the extension of the standard model up to infinite energy
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Giudice, Gian F. [CERN, Theory Division,CH-1211 Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Isidori, Gino [Physik-Institut, Universität Zürich,CH-8057, Zürich (Switzerland); INFN, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati,I-00044 Frascati (Italy); Salvio, Alberto [Departamento de Física Teórica, Universidad Autónoma de Madridand Instituto de Física Teórica IFT-UAM/CSIC, Cantoblanco, Madrid 28049 (Spain); Strumia, Alessandro [INFN - Sezione di Pisa e Dipartimento di Fisica dell’Università di Pisa,I-56127 Pisa (Italy); National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Akadeemia tee 23, 12618 Tallinn (Estonia)
2015-02-23
Attempts to solve naturalness by having the weak scale as the only breaking of classical scale invariance have to deal with two severe difficulties: gravity and the absence of Landau poles. We show that solutions to the first problem require premature modifications of gravity at scales no larger than 10{sup 11} GeV, while the second problem calls for many new particles at the weak scale. To build models that fulfill these properties, we classify 4-dimensional Quantum Field Theories that satisfy Total Asymptotic Freedom (TAF): the theory holds up to infinite energy, where all coupling constants flow to zero. We develop a technique to identify such theories and determine their low-energy predictions. Since the Standard Model turns out to be asymptotically free only under the unphysical conditions g{sub 1}=0, M{sub t}=186 GeV, M{sub τ}=0, M{sub h}=163 GeV, we explore some of its weak-scale extensions that satisfy the requirements for TAF.
Charged black holes in a generalized scalar–tensor gravity model
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yves Brihaye
2017-09-01
Full Text Available We study 4-dimensional charged and static black holes in a generalized scalar–tensor gravity model, in which a shift symmetry for the scalar field exists. For vanishing scalar field the solution corresponds to the Reissner–Nordström (RN solution, while solutions of the full scalar-gravity model have to be constructed numerically. We demonstrate that these black holes support Galilean scalar hair up to a maximal value of the scalar–tensor coupling that depends on the value of the charge and can be up to roughly twice as large as that for uncharged solutions. The Hawking temperature TH of the hairy black holes at maximal scalar–tensor coupling decreases continuously with the increase of the charge and reaches TH=0 for the highest possible charge that these solutions can carry. However, in this limit, the scalar–tensor coupling needs to vanish. The limiting solution hence corresponds to the extremal RN solution, which does not support regular Galilean scalar hair due to its AdS2×S2 near-horizon geometry.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Memduh Alper Demir
2017-12-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the bilateral machinery and transport equipment trade efficiency of selected fourteen Asian countries by applying stochastic frontier gravity model. These selected countries have the top machinery and transport equipment trade (both export and import volumes in Asia. The model we use includes variables such as income, market size of trading partners, distance, common culture, common border, common language and global economic crisis similar to earlier studies using the stochastic frontier gravity models. Our work, however, includes an extra variable called normalized revealed comparative advantage (NRCA index additionally. The NRCA index is comparable across commodity, country and time. Thus, the NRCA index is calculated and then included in our stochastic frontier gravity model to see the impact of competitiveness (here measured by the NRCA index on the efficiency of trade.
Dual resonance models and their currents
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Johnson, E.A.
1978-01-01
It is shown how dual resonance models were rederived from the concept of a string tracing out a surface in space-time. Thus, interacting strings reproduce the dual amplitudes. A scheme for tackling the unitarity problem began to develop. As a consistent theory of hadronic processes began to be built, workers at the same time were naturally led to expect that leptons could be included with hadrons in a unified dual theory. Thus, there is a search for dual amplitudes which would describe interactions between hadrons and currents (for example, electrons), as well as interactions involving only hadrons. Such amplitudes, it is believed, will be the correct ones, describing the real world. Such amplitudes will provide valuable information concerning such things as hadronic form factors. The great difficulties in building current-amplitudes with the required properties of proper factorization on a good spectrum, duality, current algebra, and proper asymptotic behavior are described. Dual models at the present time require for consistency, an intercept value of α 0 = 1 and a dimension value of d = 26 (or d = 10). There have been speculations that the unphysical dimension may be made physical by associating the ''extra dimensions'' with certain internal degrees of freedom. However, it is desired that the theory itself, force the dimension d = 4. It is quite possible that the dimension problem and the intercept problem are tied together and that resolving either problem will resolve the other. Order by order, a new dual current is constructed that is manifestly factorizable and which appears to be valid for arbitrary space-time dimension. The fact that this current is not bound at d = 26, leads to interesting speculations on the nature of dual currents
Beyond the Standard Model with noncommutative geometry, strolling towards quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Martinetti, Pierre
2015-01-01
Noncommutative geometry in its many incarnations appears at the crossroad of many researches in theoretical and mathematical physics: from models of quantum spacetime(with or without breaking of Lorentz symmetry) to loop gravity and string theory, from early considerations on UV-divergenciesin quantum field theory to recent models of gauge theories on noncommutatives pacetime, from Connes description of the standard model of elementary particles to recent Pati-Salam like extensions. We list several of these applications, emphasizing also the original point of view brought by noncommutative geometry on the nature of time. This text serves as an introduction to the volume of proceedings of the parallel session “Noncommutative geometry and quantum gravity”, as a part of the conference “Conceptual and technical challenges in quantum gravity” organized at the University of Rome La Sapienza sin September 2014. (paper)
A Possible Universe in Pulsation by Using a Hydro-Dynamical Model for Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Corneliu BERBENTE
2016-12-01
Full Text Available By using a hydro-dynamical model for gravity previously given by the author, a pulsating universe is possible to describe. This is possible because two hydro-dynamical sources are in attraction both when they are emitting and absorbing fluid. In our model, bodies (matter and energy are interacting via an incompressible fluid made of gravitons (photon-like particles having a wave length of the order of magnitude of the radius of universe. One considers the universe uniform at large scale, the effects of general relativity type being local and negligible at global scale. An “elastic sphere” model for the universe is suggested to describe the possible inversion. The expansion of the universe stops when the “elastic energy” overcomes the kinetic one; this takes place near the point of maximal emission speed of the fluid of gravitons. The differential equation for the universe in expansion is adapted to contraction. Analytical solutions are given.
A model of unified quantum chromodynamics and Yang-Mills gravity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HSU Jong-Ping
2012-01-01
Based on a generalized Yang-Mills framework,gravitational and strong interactions can be unified in analogy with the unification in the clectroweak theory.By gauging T(4) × [SU(3)]color in fiat space-time,we have a unified model of chromo-gravity with a new tensor gauge field,which couples universally to all gluons,quarks and anti-quarks.The space-time translational gauge symmetry assures that all wave equations of quarks and gluons reduce to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the same ‘effective Riemann metric tensors' in the geometric-optics (or classical) limit.The emergence of effective metric tensors in the classical limit is essential for the unified model to agree with experiments.The unified model suggests that all gravitational,strong and electroweak interactions appear to be dictated by gauge symmetries in the generalized Yang-Mills framework.
Estimating Small-Body Gravity Field from Shape Model and Navigation Data
Park, Ryan S.; Werner, Robert A.; Bhaskaran, Shyam
2008-01-01
This paper presents a method to model the external gravity field and to estimate the internal density variation of a small-body. We first discuss the modeling problem, where we assume the polyhedral shape and internal density distribution are given, and model the body interior using finite elements definitions, such as cubes and spheres. The gravitational attractions computed from these approaches are compared with the true uniform-density polyhedral attraction and the level of accuracies are presented. We then discuss the inverse problem where we assume the body shape, radiometric measurements, and a priori density constraints are given, and estimate the internal density variation by estimating the density of each finite element. The result shows that the accuracy of the estimated density variation can be significantly improved depending on the orbit altitude, finite-element resolution, and measurement accuracy.
Propagator with positive cosmological constant in the 3D Euclidean quantum gravity toy model
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bunting, William E; Rovelli, Carlo
2014-01-01
We study the propagator on a single tetrahedron in a three-dimensional toy model of quantum gravity with positive cosmological constant. The cosmological constant is included in the model via q-deformation of the spatial symmetry algebra, that is, we use the Turaev–Viro amplitude. The expected repulsive effect of dark energy is recovered in numerical and analytic calculations of the propagator at large scales comparable to the infrared cutoff. However, due to the simplicity of the model, we do not obtain the exact Newton limit of the propagator. This is a first step toward the similar calculation in the full 3+1 dimensional theory with larger numbers of simplicies. (paper)
Testing a generalized cubic Galileon gravity model with the Coma Cluster
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Terukina, Ayumu; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Okabe, Nobuhiro [Department of Physical Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-3-1 Kagamiyama, Higashi-Hiroshima, Hiroshima 739-8526 (Japan); Matsushita, Kyoko; Sasaki, Toru, E-mail: telkina@theo.phys.sci.hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: kazuhiro@hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: okabe@hiroshima-u.ac.jp, E-mail: matusita@rs.kagu.tus.ac.jp, E-mail: j1213703@ed.tus.ac.jp [Department of Physics, Tokyo University of Science, 1-3 Kagurazaka, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 162-8601 (Japan)
2015-10-01
We obtain a constraint on the parameters of a generalized cubic Galileon gravity model exhibiting the Vainshtein mechanism by using multi-wavelength observations of the Coma Cluster. The generalized cubic Galileon model is characterized by three parameters of the turning scale associated with the Vainshtein mechanism, and the amplitude of modifying a gravitational potential and a lensing potential. X-ray and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) observations of the intra-cluster medium are sensitive to the gravitational potential, while the weak-lensing (WL) measurement is specified by the lensing potential. A joint fit of a complementary multi-wavelength dataset of X-ray, SZ and WL measurements enables us to simultaneously constrain these three parameters of the generalized cubic Galileon model for the first time. We also find a degeneracy between the cluster mass parameters and the gravitational modification parameters, which is influential in the limit of the weak screening of the fifth force.
A model of unified quantum chromodynamics and Yang-Mills gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
HSU Jongping
2012-01-01
Based on a generalized Yang-Mills framework, gravitational and strong interactions can be unified in analogy with the unification in the electroweak theory. By gauging T(4) × [SU(3)] color in flat space-time, we have a unified model of chromo-gravity with a new tensor gauge field, which couples universally to all gluons, quarks and anti-quarks. The space-time translational gauge symmetry assures that all wave equations of quarks and gluons reduce to a Hamilton-Jacobi equation with the same 'effective Riemann metric tensors’ in the geometric-optics (or classical) limit. The emergence of effective metric tensors in the classical limit is essential for the unified model to agree with experiments. The unified model suggests that all gravitational, strong and electroweak interactions appear to be dictated by gauge symmetries in the generalized Yang-Mills framework. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mielke, Eckehard W.
2006-01-01
Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F and F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed
Raichlen, David A
2008-09-01
The dynamic similarity hypothesis (DSH) suggests that differences in animal locomotor biomechanics are due mostly to differences in size. According to the DSH, when the ratios of inertial to gravitational forces are equal between two animals that differ in size [e.g. at equal Froude numbers, where Froude = velocity2/(gravity x hip height)], their movements can be made similar by multiplying all time durations by one constant, all forces by a second constant and all linear distances by a third constant. The DSH has been generally supported by numerous comparative studies showing that as inertial forces differ (i.e. differences in the centripetal force acting on the animal due to variation in hip heights), animals walk with dynamic similarity. However, humans walking in simulated reduced gravity do not walk with dynamically similar kinematics. The simulated gravity experiments did not completely account for the effects of gravity on all body segments, and the importance of gravity in the DSH requires further examination. This study uses a kinematic model to predict the effects of gravity on human locomotion, taking into account both the effects of gravitational forces on the upper body and on the limbs. Results show that dynamic similarity is maintained in altered gravitational environments. Thus, the DSH does account for differences in the inertial forces governing locomotion (e.g. differences in hip height) as well as differences in the gravitational forces governing locomotion.
Unified cosmic history in modified gravity: From F(R) theory to Lorentz non-invariant models
Nojiri, Shin'Ichi; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2011-08-01
The classical generalization of general relativity is considered as the gravitational alternative for a unified description of the early-time inflation with late-time cosmic acceleration. The structure and cosmological properties of a number of modified theories, including traditional F(R) and Hořava-Lifshitz F(R) gravity, scalar-tensor theory, string-inspired and Gauss-Bonnet theory, non-local gravity, non-minimally coupled models, and power-counting renormalizable covariant gravity are discussed. Different representations of and relations between such theories are investigated. It is shown that some versions of the above theories may be consistent with local tests and may provide a qualitatively reasonable unified description of inflation with the dark energy epoch. The cosmological reconstruction of different modified gravities is provided in great detail. It is demonstrated that eventually any given universe evolution may be reconstructed for the theories under consideration, and the explicit reconstruction is applied to an accelerating spatially flat Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) universe. Special attention is paid to Lagrange multiplier constrained and conventional F(R) gravities, for latter F(R) theory, the effective ΛCDM era and phantom divide crossing acceleration are obtained. The occurrences of the Big Rip and other finite-time future singularities in modified gravity are reviewed along with their solutions via the addition of higher-derivative gravitational invariants.
Klees, R.; Slobbe, D. C.; Farahani, H. H.
2018-03-01
The posed question arises for instance in regional gravity field modelling using weighted least-squares techniques if the gravity field functionals are synthesised from the spherical harmonic coefficients of a satellite-only global gravity model (GGM), and are used as one of the noisy datasets. The associated noise covariance matrix, appeared to be extremely ill-conditioned with a singular value spectrum that decayed gradually to zero without any noticeable gap. We analysed three methods to deal with the ill-conditioned noise covariance matrix: Tihonov regularisation of the noise covariance matrix in combination with the standard formula for the weighted least-squares estimator, a formula of the weighted least-squares estimator, which does not involve the inverse noise covariance matrix, and an estimator based on Rao's unified theory of least-squares. Our analysis was based on a numerical experiment involving a set of height anomalies synthesised from the GGM GOCO05s, which is provided with a full noise covariance matrix. We showed that the three estimators perform similar, provided that the two regularisation parameters each method knows were chosen properly. As standard regularisation parameter choice rules do not apply here, we suggested a new parameter choice rule, and demonstrated its performance. Using this rule, we found that the differences between the three least-squares estimates were within noise. For the standard formulation of the weighted least-squares estimator with regularised noise covariance matrix, this required an exceptionally strong regularisation, much larger than one expected from the condition number of the noise covariance matrix. The preferred method is the inversion-free formulation of the weighted least-squares estimator, because of its simplicity with respect to the choice of the two regularisation parameters.
Gravity Data Analysis and Modelling for Basin Sedimen of Eastern Java Blocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Khoirunnia, Luthfia
2016-01-01
The study of Eastern Java Basin was conducted by 3D modelling subsurface structure using gravity anomaly. The aims of this research are to describe and 3D modelling basin sedimentary system of Eastern Java Blocks based on gravity anomaly. The modelling construction was performed by inversion technique applying Singular Value Decomposition (SVD) method and Occam optimization. This projection method used equivalent central mass of Dampney with height 5.5 km and error data 1,84 × 10 -17 . Separation of residual anomaly from the complete Bouguer anomaly on a flat plane was done using the upward continuation. This process uses the principle of low pass filter which passes low frequency. Sedimentary basin appears at a depth of 0.2 km to 1.4 km, is shown by their low anomaly in the area, as well as the visible appearance of basin in 3D modeling shown in figure. The result of inversion with Occam h has an error of 1,2% and the SVD has an error of 11%. Sedimentary basin was dominant in Probolinggo, partially in Besuki and Lumajang. The formation occurs due to tectonic processes where the tectonic evolution of the material without significant lateral shift is called as the otokton models, and accompanied by the formation of the basin that follows the development of the subduction system, which is semi-concentric pattern. Sediments are dominated by volcanic sediment, the result of sedimentation because of volcanism events and types of volcanic sediments pyroclasts generally occur in a process or event explosive volcanic magma degassing (paper)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tajahmad, Behzad [University of Tabriz, Faculty of Physics, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-04-15
In this paper, we present the Noether symmetries of flat FRW spacetime in the context of a new action in teleparallel gravity which we construct based on the f(R) version. This modified action contains a coupling between the scalar field potential and magnetism. Also, we introduce an innovative approach, the beyond Noether symmetry (B.N.S.) approach, for exact solutions which carry more conserved currents than the Noether approach. By data analysis of the exact solutions, obtained from the Noether approach, late-time acceleration and phase crossing are realized, and some deep connections with observational data such as the age of the universe, the present value of the scale factor as well as the state and deceleration parameters are observed. In the B.N.S. approach, we consider the dark energy dominated era. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tajahmad, Behzad
2017-01-01
In this paper, we present the Noether symmetries of flat FRW spacetime in the context of a new action in teleparallel gravity which we construct based on the f(R) version. This modified action contains a coupling between the scalar field potential and magnetism. Also, we introduce an innovative approach, the beyond Noether symmetry (B.N.S.) approach, for exact solutions which carry more conserved currents than the Noether approach. By data analysis of the exact solutions, obtained from the Noether approach, late-time acceleration and phase crossing are realized, and some deep connections with observational data such as the age of the universe, the present value of the scale factor as well as the state and deceleration parameters are observed. In the B.N.S. approach, we consider the dark energy dominated era. (orig.)
Hadronic form factor models and spectroscopy within the gauge/gravity correspondence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
de Teramond, Guy
2012-01-01
We show that the nonperturbative light-front dynamics of relativistic hadronic bound states has a dual semiclassical gravity description on a higher dimensional warped AdS space in the limit of zero quark masses. This mapping of AdS gravity theory to the boundary quantum field theory, quantized at fixed light-front time, allows one to establish a precise relation between holographic wave functions in AdS space and the light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons. The resulting AdS/QCD model gives a remarkably good accounting of the spectrum, elastic and transition form factors of the light-quark hadrons in terms of one parameter, the QCD gap scale. The light-front holographic approach described here thus provides a frame-independent first approximation to the light-front Hamiltonian problem for QCD. This article is based on lectures at the Niccolo Cabeo International School of Hadronic Physics, Ferrara, Italy, May 2011.
A one-dimensional model of the semiannual oscillation driven by convectively forced gravity waves
Sassi, Fabrizio; Garcia, Rolando R.
1994-01-01
A one-dimensional model that solves the time-dependent equations for the zonal mean wind and a wave of specified zonal wavenumber has been used to illustrate the ability of gravity waves forced by time-dependent tropospheric heating to produce a semiannual oscillation (SAO) in the middle atmosphere. When the heating has a strong diurnal cycle, as observed over tropical landmasses, gravity waves with zonal wavelengths of a few thousand kilometers and phase velocities in the range +/- 40-50 m/sec are excited efficiently by the maximum vertical projection criterion (vertical wavelength approximately equals 2 x forcing depth). Calculations show that these waves can account for large zonal mean wind accelerations in the middle atmosphere, resulting in realistic stratopause and mesopause oscillations. Calculations of the temporal evolution of a quasi-conserved tracer indicate strong down-welling in the upper stratosphere near the equinoxes, which is associated with the descent of the SAO westerlies. In the upper mesosphere, there is a semiannual oscillation in tracer mixing ratio driven by seasonal variability in eddy mixing, which increases at the solstices and decreases at the equinoxes.
Hadronic form factor models and spectroscopy within the gauge/gravity correspondence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
de Teramond, Guy F.; /Costa Rica U.; Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC
2012-03-20
We show that the nonperturbative light-front dynamics of relativistic hadronic bound states has a dual semiclassical gravity description on a higher dimensional warped AdS space in the limit of zero quark masses. This mapping of AdS gravity theory to the boundary quantum field theory, quantized at fixed light-front time, allows one to establish a precise relation between holographic wave functions in AdS space and the light-front wavefunctions describing the internal structure of hadrons. The resulting AdS/QCD model gives a remarkably good accounting of the spectrum, elastic and transition form factors of the light-quark hadrons in terms of one parameter, the QCD gap scale. The light-front holographic approach described here thus provides a frame-independent first approximation to the light-front Hamiltonian problem for QCD. This article is based on lectures at the Niccolo Cabeo International School of Hadronic Physics, Ferrara, Italy, May 2011.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nesseris, Savvas
2009-01-01
We consider theories with an arbitrary coupling between matter and gravity and obtain the perturbation equation of matter on subhorizon scales. Also, we derive the effective gravitational constant $G_{eff}$ and two parameters $\\Sigma$ and $\\eta$, which along with the perturbation equation...... of the matter density are useful to constrain the theory from growth factor and weak lensing observations. Finally, we use a completely solvable toy model which exhibits nontrivial phenomenology to investigate specific features of the theory. We obtain the analytic solution of the modified Friedmann equation...... for the scale factor $a$ in terms of time $t$ and use the age of the oldest star clusters and the primordial nucleosynthesis bounds in order to constrain the parameters of our toy model....
An assessment of gravity model improvements using TOPEX/Poseidon TDRSS observations
Putney, B. H.; Teles, J.; Eddy, W. F.; Klosko, S. M.
1992-01-01
The contribution of TOPEX/Poseidon (T/P) TDRSS data to geopotential model recovery is assessed. Simulated TDRSS one-way and Bilateration Ranging Transponder System (BRTS) observations have been generated and orbitally reduced to form normal equations for geopotential parameters. These normals have been combined with those of the latest prelaunch T/P gravity model solution using data from over 30 satellites. A study of the resulting solution error covariance shows that TDRSS can make important contributions to geopotential recovery, especially for improving T/P specific effects like those arising from orbital resonance. It is argued that future effort is desirable both to establish TDRSS orbit determination limits in a reference frame compatible with that used for the precise laser/DORIS orbits, and the reduction of these TDRSS data for geopotential recovery.
Constraining models of f(R) gravity with Planck and WiggleZ power spectrum data
Dossett, Jason; Hu, Bin; Parkinson, David
2014-03-01
In order to explain cosmic acceleration without invoking ``dark'' physics, we consider f(R) modified gravity models, which replace the standard Einstein-Hilbert action in General Relativity with a higher derivative theory. We use data from the WiggleZ Dark Energy survey to probe the formation of structure on large scales which can place tight constraints on these models. We combine the large-scale structure data with measurements of the cosmic microwave background from the Planck surveyor. After parameterizing the modification of the action using the Compton wavelength parameter B0, we constrain this parameter using ISiTGR, assuming an initial non-informative log prior probability distribution of this cross-over scale. We find that the addition of the WiggleZ power spectrum provides the tightest constraints to date on B0 by an order of magnitude, giving log10(B0) explanation.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nesseris, Savvas
2009-01-01
We consider theories with an arbitrary coupling between matter and gravity and obtain the perturbation equation of matter on subhorizon scales. Also, we derive the effective gravitational constant G eff and two parameters Σ and η, which along with the perturbation equation of the matter density are useful to constrain the theory from growth factor and weak lensing observations. Finally, we use a completely solvable toy model which exhibits nontrivial phenomenology to investigate specific features of the theory. We obtain the analytic solution of the modified Friedmann equation for the scale factor a in terms of time t and use the age of the oldest star clusters and the primordial nucleosynthesis bounds in order to constrain the parameters of our toy model.
Kaban, Mikhail K.; Stolk, Ward; Tesauro, Magdala; El Khrepy, Sami; Al-Arifi, Nassir; Beekman, Fred; Cloetingh, Sierd A P L
2016-01-01
We construct a new-generation 3D density model of the upper mantle of Asia and its surrounding areas based on a joint interpretation of several data sets. A recent model of the crust combining nearly all available seismic data is employed to calculate the impact of the crust on the gravity anomalies
Computer modelling of eddy current probes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sullivan, S.P.
1992-01-01
Computer programs have been developed for modelling impedance and transmit-receive eddy current probes in two-dimensional axis-symmetric configurations. These programs, which are based on analytic equations, simulate bobbin probes in infinitely long tubes and surface probes on plates. They calculate probe signal due to uniform variations in conductor thickness, resistivity and permeability. These signals depend on probe design and frequency. A finite element numerical program has been procured to calculate magnetic permeability in non-linear ferromagnetic materials. Permeability values from these calculations can be incorporated into the above analytic programs to predict signals from eddy current probes with permanent magnets in ferromagnetic tubes. These programs were used to test various probe designs for new testing applications. Measurements of magnetic permeability in magnetically biased ferromagnetic materials have been performed by superimposing experimental signals, from special laboratory ET probes, on impedance plane diagrams calculated using these programs. (author). 3 refs., 2 figs
Chrysikopoulos, Constantinos V; Syngouna, Vasiliki I
2014-06-17
The role of gravitational force on colloid transport in water-saturated columns packed with glass beads was investigated. Transport experiments were performed with colloids (clays: kaolinite KGa-1b, montmorillonite STx-1b). The packed columns were placed in various orientations (horizontal, vertical, and diagonal) and a steady flow rate of Q = 1.5 mL/min was applied in both up-flow and down-flow modes. All experiments were conducted under electrostatically unfavorable conditions. The experimental data were fitted with a newly developed, analytical, one-dimensional, colloid transport model. The effect of gravity is incorporated in the mathematical model by combining the interstitial velocity (advection) with the settling velocity (gravity effect). The results revealed that flow direction influences colloid transport in porous media. The rate of particle deposition was shown to be greater for up-flow than for down-flow direction, suggesting that gravity was a significant driving force for colloid deposition.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Leitch
2018-01-01
Full Text Available Complex engineering systems often require extensive coordination between different expert areas in order to avoid costly design iterations and rework. Cyber-physics system (CPS engineering methods could provide valuable insights to help model these interactions and optimize the design of such systems. In this work, steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD, a complex oil extraction process that requires deep understanding of several physical-chemical phenomena, is examined whereby the complexities and interdependencies of the system are explored. Based on an established unified feature modeling scheme, a software modeling framework is proposed to manage the design process of the production tools used for SAGD oil extraction. Applying CPS methods to unify complex phenomenon and engineering models, the proposed CPS model combines effective simulation with embedded knowledge of completion tooling design in order to optimize reservoir performance. The system design is expressed using graphical diagrams of the unified modelling language (UML convention. To demonstrate the capability of this system, a distributed research group is described, and their activities coordinated using the described CPS model.
Astronomical Constraints on Some Long-Range Models of Modified Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenzo Iorio
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We use the corrections to the Newton-Einstein secular precessions of the longitudes of the perihelia of the inner planets, phenomenologically estimated E.V. Pitjeva by fitting almost one century of data with the EPM2004 ephemerides, to constrain some long-range models of modified gravity recently put forth to address the dark energy and dark matter problems. They are the four-dimensional ones obtained with the addition of inverse powers and logarithm of some curvature invariants, and the DGP multidimensional braneworld model. After working out the analytical expressions of the secular perihelion precessions induced by the corrections to the Newtonian potential of such models, we compare them to the estimated extra-rates of perihelia by taking their ratio for different pairs of planets instead of using one perihelion at a time for each planet separately, as done so far in literature. The curvature invariants-based models are ruled out, even by rescaling by a factor 10 the errors in the estimated planetary orbital parameters. Less neat is the situation for the DGP model. Only the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect, not included, as the other exotic models considered here, by Pitjeva in the EPM force models, passes such a test.
Shear-free axial model in massive Brans–Dicke gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sharif, M., E-mail: msharif.math@pu.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Manzoor, Rubab, E-mail: rubab.manzoor@umt.edu.pk [Department of Mathematics, University of the Punjab, Quaid-e-Azam Campus, Lahore-54590 (Pakistan); Department of Mathematics, University of Management and Technology, Johar Town Campus, Lahore-54782 (Pakistan)
2017-01-15
This paper explores the influences of dark energy on the shear-free axially symmetric evolution by considering self-interacting Brans–Dicke gravity as a dark energy candidate. We describe energy source of the model and derive all the effective dynamical variables as well as effective structure scalars. It is found that scalar field is one of the sources of anisotropy and dissipation. The resulting effective structure scalars help to study the dynamics associated with dark energy in any axial configuration. In order to investigate shear-free evolution, we formulate a set of governing equations along with heat transport equation. We discuss consequences of shear-free condition upon different SBD fluid models like dissipative non-geodesic and geodesic models. For dissipative non-geodesic case, the rotational distribution turns out to be the necessary and sufficient condition for radiating model. The dissipation depends upon inhomogeneous expansion. The geodesic model is found to be irrotational and non-radiating. The non-dissipative geodesic model leads to FRW model for positive values of the expansion parameter.
Modeling the Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia as an Equipotential Surface of Earth's Gravity Field
Borsa, Adrian; Bills, Bruce
2004-01-01
The salar de Uyuni is a massive dry salt lake that lies at the lowest point of an internal/drainage basin in the Bolivian Altiplano. Its topography is remarkable for its extraordinary flatness over almost a full degree of latitude and longitude. We surveyed a 54 x 45 km region of the salar with kinematic GPS in September, 2002 and found a topographic range of only 80 cm over the entire surveyed area. Furthermore, the survey revealed distinct surface features with several dominant wavelengths and orientations. Some of these appear to be aligned with orographic features that intersect the salar, leading us to conjecture that they are the surface expression of high-density mountains that have been buried by low-density basin sediments. Over the oceans, a similar correspondence between basin bathymetry and surface topography is exploited to map the seafloor using sea-surface satellite altimetry measurements, with the sea surface following geoid undulations due to the underwater mass distribution. On the salar, annual flooding creates a shallow lake whose surface also lies on a equipotential surface shaped by the distribution of underlying mass. The link to the actual salar surface is via the dissolution and redeposition of salt by the lake waters, which appears to push the system to an equilibrium of constant water depth and the coincidence of the shapes of the lake surface and bottom. To test our hypothesis about the origin of the surface features on the salar, we compare our GPS survey elevations with the equipotential surface generated from local gravity measurements in conjunction with gravity and potential values from the EGM96 global geopotential model. 50% of the variance of the GPS elevations can be explained by equipotential surface undulations from the EGM96 model alone, and an additional 40% is explained by the shorter-wavelength equipotential surface derived from local gravity. We examine the unexplained 10% of elevation variance from the standpoint of
The Determinants of Foreign Investment in Pakistan: A gravity model analysis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Syed Waqar Azeem
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Background: During the last two decades Pakistan was one of the most attractive countries that received Foreign Direct Investment (FDI among developing economies, and especially in first half of the last decade the growth was so rapid and sustainable in different industries as well as in agriculture. In Pakistani economy the role of Foreign Direct Investment is very important. Policies are clear about the foreign investment even then adjustments are made according to the time, objective, needs and economic circumstances in the country. Methods: The present study aims to investigate the determinants of foreign investment in Pakistan by using Gravity model. By using panel data of FDI which is used as dependent variable and Gross domestic product, Gross domestic product per capita, Gross domestic product growth rate, Inflation rate, Trade, Total government expenditure, Population growth and Distance used as independent variable from 1999 to 2009 for empirical consequences, the study encompasses the examination of Foreign Direct Investment inflows from different countries and their geographical distance from Pakistan. Results: Two type of test is used (1 fixed and (2 random effect to check the relationship among foreign direct investment and independent variables. In our both models distance shows a negative impact on the decision to make an investment by investing partner while GDP and GDP growth have a positive and significant impact. Gravity in this regards does not effect that much for foreign direct investment attraction because results are negatively significant in this case that shows higher distance is a hurdle for the inflow of foreign investment but rest of the variables are significantly positive and related to the inflow of foreign investment except population growth which is negatively correlated. Conclusion: This research concludes that there is a strong evidence of existence of gravity between Pakistan and its investing
Modeling of Tsunami Currents in Harbors
Lynett, P. J.
2010-12-01
Extreme events, such as large wind waves and tsunamis, are well recognized as a damaging hazard to port and harbor facilities. Wind wave events, particularly those with long period spectral components or infragravity wave generation, can excite resonance inside harbors leading to both large vertical motions and strong currents. Tsunamis can cause great damage as well. The geometric amplification of these very long waves can create large vertical motions in the interior of a harbor. Additionally, if the tsunami is composed of a train of long waves, which it often is, resonance can be easily excited. These long wave motions create strong currents near the node locations of resonant motions, and when interacting with harbor structures such as breakwaters, can create intense turbulent rotational structures, typical in the form of large eddies or gyres. These gyres have tremendous transport potential, and have been observed to break mooring lines, and even cause ships to be trapped inside the rotation, moving helplessly with the flow until collision, grounding, or dissipation of the eddy (e.g. Okal et al., 2006). This presentation will introduce the traditional theory used to predict wave impacts on harbors, discussing both how these models are practically useful and in what types of situations require a more accurate tool. State-of-the-art numerical models will be introduced, with a focus on recent developments in Boussinesq-type modeling. The Boussinesq equations model can account the dispersive, turbulent and rotational flow properties frequently observed in nature. Also they have the ability to coupling currents and waves and can predict nonlinear wave propagation over uneven bottom from deep (or intermediate) water area to shallow water area. However, during the derivation of a 2D-horizontal equation set, some 3D flow features, such those driven by as the dispersive stresses and the effects of the unresolved small scale 3D turbulence, are excluded. Consequently
He, Yingbin; Chen, Youqi; Tang, Huajun; Yao, Yanmin; Yang, Peng; Chen, Zhongxin
2011-04-01
Spatially explicit ecosystem services valuation and change is a newly developing area of research in the field of ecology. Using the Beijing region as a study area, the authors have developed a spatially explicit ecosystem services value index and implemented this to quantify and spatially differentiate ecosystem services value at 1-km grid resolution. A gravity model was developed to trace spatial change in the total ecosystem services value of the Beijing study area from a holistic point of view. Study results show that the total value of ecosystem services for the study area decreased by 19.75% during the period 1996-2006 (3,226.2739 US$×10(6) in 1996, 2,589.0321 US$×10(6) in 2006). However, 27.63% of the total area of the Beijing study area increased in ecosystem services value. Spatial differences in ecosystem services values for both 1996 and 2006 are very clear. The center of gravity of total ecosystem services value for the study area moved 32.28 km northwestward over the 10 years due to intensive human intervention taking place in southeast Beijing. The authors suggest that policy-makers should pay greater attention to ecological protection under conditions of rapid socio-economic development and increase the area of green belt in the southeastern part of Beijing.
Bulk-boundary correlators in the hermitian matrix model and minimal Liouville gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourgine, Jean-Emile; Ishiki, Goro; Rim, Chaiho
2012-01-01
We construct the one matrix model (MM) correlators corresponding to the general bulk-boundary correlation numbers of the minimal Liouville gravity (LG) on the disc. To find agreement between both discrete and continuous approach, we investigate the resonance transformation mixing boundary and bulk couplings. It leads to consider two sectors, depending on whether the matter part of the LG correlator is vanishing due to the fusion rules. In the vanishing case, we determine the explicit transformation of the boundary couplings at the first order in bulk couplings. In the non-vanishing case, no bulk-boundary resonance is involved and only the first order of pure boundary resonances have to be considered. Those are encoded in the matrix polynomials determined in our previous paper. We checked the agreement for the bulk-boundary correlators of MM and LG in several non-trivial cases. In this process, we developed an alternative method to derive the boundary resonance encoding polynomials.
Gamma-Ray, Cosmic Ray and Neutrino Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models
Stecker, Floyd
2011-01-01
High-energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approximately 10(exp -35) m. I will discuss here the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) from observations of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) to the amount of LIV of at a proton Lorentz factor of approximately 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future.
Smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics modeling of dissipation mechanisms in gravity waves.
Colagrossi, Andrea; Souto-Iglesias, Antonio; Antuono, Matteo; Marrone, Salvatore
2013-02-01
The smoothed-particle-hydrodynamics (SPH) method has been used to study the evolution of free-surface Newtonian viscous flows specifically focusing on dissipation mechanisms in gravity waves. The numerical results have been compared with an analytical solution of the linearized Navier-Stokes equations for Reynolds numbers in the range 50-5000. We found that a correct choice of the number of neighboring particles is of fundamental importance in order to obtain convergence towards the analytical solution. This number has to increase with higher Reynolds numbers in order to prevent the onset of spurious vorticity inside the bulk of the fluid, leading to an unphysical overdamping of the wave amplitude. This generation of spurious vorticity strongly depends on the specific kernel function used in the SPH model.
Guo, Jinyun; Mu, Dapeng; Liu, Xin; Yan, Haoming; Dai, Honglei
2014-08-01
The Level-2 monthly GRACE gravity field models issued by Center for Space Research (CSR), GeoForschungs Zentrum (GFZ), and Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) are treated as observations used to extract the equivalent water height (EWH) with the robust independent component analysis (RICA). The smoothing radii of 300, 400, and 500 km are tested, respectively, in the Gaussian smoothing kernel function to reduce the observation Gaussianity. Three independent components are obtained by RICA in the spatial domain; the first component matches the geophysical signal, and the other two match the north-south strip and the other noises. The first mode is used to estimate EWHs of CSR, JPL, and GFZ, and compared with the classical empirical decorrelation method (EDM). The EWH STDs for 12 months in 2010 extracted by RICA and EDM show the obvious fluctuation. The results indicate that the sharp EWH changes in some areas have an important global effect, like in Amazon, Mekong, and Zambezi basins.
On the use of airborne gravimetry in gravity field modelling: Experiences from the AGMASCO project
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Bastos, L.; Cunha, S.; Forsberg, René
2000-01-01
of the vertical accelerations acting on the airborne platform from the natural gravity signal. With the advances in DGPS techniques new prospects arise for gravity field recovery which are of great importance for geodesy, geophysics oceanography and satellite navigation. Furthermore, airborne gravimetric...... and the methods validated. Recovery of the gravity values directly from measurements with the Lacoste & Romberg air/sea gravimeter and from measurements with the inertial sensors was analysed. The potential of these sensors to recover gravity and the experience gained within this project are reported here....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guendelman, E.
2004-01-01
Full Text:The Volume Element of Space Time can be considered as a geometrical object which can be independent of the metric. The use in the action of a volume element which is metric independent leads to the appearance of a measure of integration which is metric independent. This can be applied to all known generally coordinate invariant theories, we will discuss three very important cases: 1. 4-D theories describing gravity and matter fields, 2. Parametrization invariant theories of extended objects and 3. Higher dimensional theories including gravity and matter fields. In case 1, a large number of new effects appear: (i) spontaneous breaking of scale invariance associated to integration of degrees of freedom related to the measure, (ii) under normal particle physics laboratory conditions fermions split into three families, but when matter is highly diluted, neutrinos increase their mass and become suitable candidates for dark matter, (iii) cosmic coincidence between dark energy and dark matter is natural, (iv) quintessence scenarios with automatic decoupling of the quintessence scalar to ordinary matter, but not dark matter are obtained (2) For theories or extended objects, the use of a measure of integration independent of the metric leads to (i) dynamical tension, (ii) string models of non abelian confinement (iii) The possibility of new Weyl invariant light-like branes (WTT.L branes). These Will branes dynamically adjust themselves to sit at black hole horizons and in the context of higher dimensional theories can provide examples of massless 4-D particles with nontrivial Kaluza Klein quantum numbers, (3) In Bronx and Kaluza Klein scenarios, the use of a measure independent of the metric makes it possible to construct naturally models where only the extra dimensions get curved and the 4-D observable space-time remain flat
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mariev Oleg
2016-09-01
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is twofold. First, it is to answer the question of whether Russia is successful in attracting foreign direct investment (FDI. Second, it is to identify partner countries that “overinvest” and “underinvest” in the Russian economy. We do this by calculating potential FDI inflows to Russia and comparing them with actual values. This research is associated with the empirical estimation of factors explaining FDI flows between countries. The methodological foundation used for the research is the gravity model of foreign direct investment. In discussing the pros and cons of different econometric methods of the estimation gravity equation, we conclude that the Poisson pseudo maximum likelihood method with instrumental variables (IV PPML is one of the best options in our case. Using a database covering about 70% of FDI flows for the period of 2001-2011, we discover the following factors that explain the variance of bilateral FDI flows in the world economy: GDP value of investing country, GDP value of recipient country, distance between countries, remoteness of investor country, remoteness of recipient country, level of institutions development in host country, wage level in host country, membership of two countries in a regional economic union, common official language, common border and colonial relationships between countries in the past. The potential values of FDI inflows are calculated using coefficients of regressors from the econometric model. We discover that the Russian economy performs very well in attracting FDI: the actual FDI inflows exceed potential values by 1.72 times. Large developed countries (France, Germany, UK, Italy overinvest in the Russian economy, while smaller and less developed countries (Czech Republic, Belarus, Denmark, Ukraine underinvest in Russia. Countries of Southeast Asia (China, South Korea, Japan also underinvest in the Russian economy.
Agradient velocity, vortical motion and gravity waves in a rotating shallow-water model
Sutyrin Georgi, G.
2004-07-01
A new approach to modelling slow vortical motion and fast inertia-gravity waves is suggested within the rotating shallow-water primitive equations with arbitrary topography. The velocity is exactly expressed as a sum of the gradient wind, described by the Bernoulli function,B, and the remaining agradient part, proportional to the velocity tendency. Then the equation for inverse potential vorticity,Q, as well as momentum equations for agradient velocity include the same source of intrinsic flow evolution expressed as a single term J (B, Q), where J is the Jacobian operator (for any steady state J (B, Q) = 0). Two components of agradient velocity are responsible for the fast inertia-gravity wave propagation similar to the traditionally used divergence and ageostrophic vorticity. This approach allows for the construction of balance relations for vortical dynamics and potential vorticity inversion schemes even for moderate Rossby and Froude numbers assuming the characteristic value of |J(B, Q)| = to be small. The components of agradient velocity are used as the fast variables slaved to potential vorticity that allows for diagnostic estimates of the velocity tendency, the direct potential vorticity inversion with the accuracy of 2 and the corresponding potential vorticity-conserving agradient velocity balance model (AVBM). The ultimate limitations of constructing the balance are revealed in the form of the ellipticity condition for balanced tendency of the Bernoulli function which incorporates both known criteria of the formal stability: the gradient wind modified by the characteristic vortical Rossby wave phase speed should be subcritical. The accuracy of the AVBM is illustrated by considering the linear normal modes and coastal Kelvin waves in the f-plane channel with topography.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, J.D.
1988-01-01
This book addresses the subject of gravity theories in two and three spacetime dimensions. The prevailing philosophy is that lower dimensional models of gravity provide a useful arena for developing new ideas and insights, which are applicable to four dimensional gravity. The first chapter consists of a comprehensive introduction to both two and three dimensional gravity, including a discussion of their basic structures. In the second chapter, the asymptotic structure of three dimensional Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is analyzed. The third chapter contains a treatment of the effects of matter sources in classical two dimensional gravity. The fourth chapter gives a complete analysis of particle pair creation by electric and gravitational fields in two dimensions, and the resulting effect on the cosmological constant
Global gravity field from recent satellites (DTU15) - Arctic improvements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, O. B.; Knudsen, P.; Kenyon, S.
2017-01-01
Global marine gravity field modelling using satellite altimetry is currently undergoing huge improvement with the completion of the Jason-1 end-of-life geodetic mission, but particularly with the continuing Cryosat-2 mission. These new satellites provide three times as many geodetic mission...... altimetric sea surface height observations as ever before. The impact of these new geodetic mission data is a dramatic improvement of particularly the shorter wavelength of the gravity field (10-20 km) which is now being mapped at significantly higher accuracy. The quality of the altimetric gravity field...... is in many places surpassing the quality of gravity fields derived using non-commercial marine gravity observations. Cryosat-2 provides for the first time altimetry throughout the Arctic Ocean up to 88°N. Here, the huge improvement in marine gravity mapping is shown through comparison with high quality...
Yustin Kamah, Muhammad; Armando, Adilla; Larasati Rahmani, Dinda; Paramitha, Shabrina
2017-12-01
Geophysical methods such as gravity and magnetotelluric methods commonly used in conventional and unconventional energy exploration, notably for exploring geothermal prospect. They used to identify the subsurface geology structures which is estimated as a path of fluid flow. This study was conducted in Kamojang Geothermal Field with the aim of highlighting the volcanic lineament in West Java, precisely in Guntur-Papandayan chain where there are three geothermal systems. Kendang Fault has predominant direction NE-SW, identified by magnetotelluric techniques and gravity data processing techniques. Gravity techniques such as spectral analysis, derivative solutions, and Euler deconvolution indicate the type and geometry of anomaly. Magnetotelluric techniques such as inverse modeling and polar diagram are required to know subsurface resistivity charactersitics and major orientation. Furthermore, the result from those methods will be compared to geology information and some section of well data, which is sufficiently suitable. This research is very useful to trace out another potential development area.
Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy
2018-03-01
Theories of modified gravity, where light scalars with non-trivial self-interactions and non-minimal couplings to matter—chameleon and symmetron theories—dynamically suppress deviations from general relativity in the solar system. On other scales, the environmental nature of the screening means that such scalars may be relevant. The highly-nonlinear nature of screening mechanisms means that they evade classical fifth-force searches, and there has been an intense effort towards designing new and novel tests to probe them, both in the laboratory and using astrophysical objects, and by reinterpreting existing datasets. The results of these searches are often presented using different parametrizations, which can make it difficult to compare constraints coming from different probes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the present state-of-the-art searches for screened scalars coupled to matter, and to translate the current bounds into a single parametrization to survey the state of the models. Presently, commonly studied chameleon models are well-constrained but less commonly studied models have large regions of parameter space that are still viable. Symmetron models are constrained well by astrophysical and laboratory tests, but there is a desert separating the two scales where the model is unconstrained. The coupling of chameleons to photons is tightly constrained but the symmetron coupling has yet to be explored. We also summarize the current bounds on f( R) models that exhibit the chameleon mechanism (Hu and Sawicki models). The simplest of these are well constrained by astrophysical probes, but there are currently few reported bounds for theories with higher powers of R. The review ends by discussing the future prospects for constraining screened modified gravity models further using upcoming and planned experiments.
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)
2017-05-15
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)
Braun, M; Limbach, C
2006-12-01
Gravitropically tip-growing rhizoids and protonemata of characean algae are well-established unicellular plant model systems for research on gravitropism. In recent years, considerable progress has been made in the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying gravity sensing and gravity-oriented growth. While in higher-plant statocytes the role of cytoskeletal elements, especially the actin cytoskeleton, in the mechanisms of gravity sensing is still enigmatic, there is clear evidence that in the characean cells actin is intimately involved in polarized growth, gravity sensing, and the gravitropic response mechanisms. The multiple functions of actin are orchestrated by a variety of actin-binding proteins which control actin polymerisation, regulate the dynamic remodelling of the actin filament architecture, and mediate the transport of vesicles and organelles. Actin and a steep gradient of cytoplasmic free calcium are crucial components of a feedback mechanism that controls polarized growth. Experiments performed in microgravity provided evidence that actomyosin is a key player for gravity sensing: it coordinates the position of statoliths and, upon a change in the cell's orientation, directs sedimenting statoliths to specific areas of the plasma membrane, where contact with membrane-bound gravisensor molecules elicits short gravitropic pathways. In rhizoids, gravitropic signalling leads to a local reduction of cytoplasmic free calcium and results in differential growth of the opposite subapical cell flanks. The negative gravitropic response of protonemata involves actin-dependent relocation of the calcium gradient and displacement of the centre of maximal growth towards the upper flank. On the basis of the results obtained from the gravitropic model cells, a similar fine-tuning function of the actomyosin system is discussed for the early steps of gravity sensing in higher-plant statocytes.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Knudsen, Per; Bingham, R.; Andersen, Ole Baltazar
2011-01-01
The Gravity and steady-state Ocean Circulation Explorer (GOCE) satellite mission measures Earth’s gravity field with an unprecedented accuracy at short spatial scales. In doing so, it promises to significantly advance our ability to determine the ocean’s general circulation. In this study, an ini...
Power-law cosmic expansion in f(R) gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goheer, Naureen; Larena, Julien; Dunsby, Peter K. S.
2009-01-01
We show that within the class of f(R) gravity theories, Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker power-law perfect fluid solutions only exist for R n gravity. This significantly restricts the set of exact cosmological solutions which have similar properties to what is found in standard general relativity.
GRAPHIC-ANALYTICAL METHODS FOR CALCULATING THE GRAVITY CENTER OF A MODEL AIRPLANE
DIACONESCU Olivian
2012-01-01
This paper presents a stage of the realization of an airplane capable to work with low capacity motors between 2.5 cmc and 4 cmc, as it presents the gravity center calculation. Firstly for an airplane to fly properly we must calculate the gravity center, the top speed which is necessary for picking the servomotors that equip the airplane.
Kaluza-Klein cosmological model in f(R, T) gravity with Λ(T)
Sahoo, P. K.; Mishra, B.; Tripathy, S. K.
2016-04-01
A class of Kaluza-Klein cosmological models in $f(R,T)$ theory of gravity have been investigated. In the work, we have considered the functional $f(R,T)$ to be in the form $f(R,T)=f(R)+f(T)$ with $f(R)=\\lambda R$ and $f(T)=\\lambda T$. Such a choice of the functional $f(R,T)$ leads to an evolving effective cosmological constant $\\Lambda$ which depends on the stress energy tensor. The source of the matter field is taken to be a perfect cosmic fluid. The exact solutions of the field equations are obtained by considering a constant deceleration parameter which leads two different aspects of the volumetric expansion namely a power law and an exponential volumetric expansion. Keeping an eye on the accelerating nature of the universe in the present epoch, the dynamics and physical behaviour of the models have been discussed. From statefinder diagnostic pair we found that the model with exponential volumetric expansion behaves more like a $\\Lambda$CDM model.
Processing of angular motion and gravity information through an internal model.
Laurens, Jean; Straumann, Dominik; Hess, Bernhard J M
2010-09-01
The vestibular organs in the base of the skull provide important information about head orientation and motion in space. Previous studies have suggested that both angular velocity information from the semicircular canals and information about head orientation and translation from the otolith organs are centrally processed in an internal model of head motion, using the principles of optimal estimation. This concept has been successfully applied to model behavioral responses to classical vestibular motion paradigms. This study measured the dynamic of the vestibuloocular reflex during postrotatory tilt, tilt during the optokinetic afternystagmus, and off-vertical axis rotation. The influence of otolith signal on the VOR was systematically varied by using a series of tilt angles. We found that the time constants of responses varied almost identically as a function of gravity in these paradigms. We show that Bayesian modeling could predict the experimental results in an accurate and consistent manner. In contrast to other approaches, the Bayesian model also provides a plausible explanation of why these vestibulooculo motor responses occur as a consequence of an internal process of optimal motion estimation.
From polymers to quantum gravity: Triple-scaling in rectangular random matrix models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Myers, R.C.; Periwal, V.
1993-01-01
Rectangular NxM matrix models can be solved in several qualitatively distinct large-N limits, since two independent parameters govern the size of the matrix. Regarded as models of random surfaces, these matrix models interpolate between branched polymer behaviour and two-dimensional quantum gravity. We solve such models in a 'triple-scaling' regime in this paper, with N and M becoming large independently. A correspondence between phase transitions and singularities of mappings from R 2 to R 2 is indicated. At different critical points, the scaling behaviour is determined by (i) two decoupled ordinary differential equations; (ii) an ordinary differential equation and a finite-difference equation; or (iii) two coupled partial differential equations. The Painleve II equation arises (in conjunction with a difference equation) at a point associated with branched polymers. For critical points described by partial differential equations, there are dual weak-coupling/strong-coupling expansions. It is conjectured that the new physics is related to microscopic topology fluctuations. (orig.)
Supergravity contributions to inflation in models with non-minimal coupling to gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Das, Kumar; Dutta, Koushik [Theory Division, Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, 1/AF Saltlake, Kolkata 700064 (India); Domcke, Valerie, E-mail: kumar.das@saha.ac.in, E-mail: valerie.domcke@apc.univ-paris7.fr, E-mail: koushik.dutta@saha.ac.in [AstroParticule et Cosmologie (APC), Paris Centre for Cosmological Physics (PCCP), Université Paris Diderot, 75013 Paris (France)
2017-03-01
This paper provides a systematic study of supergravity contributions relevant for inflationary model building in Jordan frame supergravity. In this framework, canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame result in the separation of the Jordan frame scalar potential into a tree-level term and a supergravity contribution which is potentially dangerous for sustaining inflation. We show that if the vacuum energy necessary for driving inflation originates dominantly from the F-term of an auxiliary field (i.e. not the inflaton), the supergravity corrections to the Jordan frame scalar potential are generically suppressed. Moreover, these supergravity contributions identically vanish if the superpotential vanishes along the inflationary trajectory. On the other hand, if the F-term associated with the inflaton dominates the vacuum energy, the supergravity contributions are generically comparable to the globally supersymmetric contributions. In addition, the non-minimal coupling to gravity inherent to Jordan frame supergravity significantly impacts the inflationary model depending on the size and sign of this coupling. We discuss the phenomenology of some representative inflationary models, and point out the relation to the recently much discussed cosmological 'attractor' models.
Gravity-driven groundwater flow and slope failure potential: 1. Elastic effective-stress model
Iverson, Richard M.; Reid, Mark E.
1992-01-01
Hilly or mountainous topography influences gravity-driven groundwater flow and the consequent distribution of effective stress in shallow subsurface environments. Effective stress, in turn, influences the potential for slope failure. To evaluate these influences, we formulate a two-dimensional, steady state, poroelastic model. The governing equations incorporate groundwater effects as body forces, and they demonstrate that spatially uniform pore pressure changes do not influence effective stresses. We implement the model using two finite element codes. As an illustrative case, we calculate the groundwater flow field, total body force field, and effective stress field in a straight, homogeneous hillslope. The total body force and effective stress fields show that groundwater flow can influence shear stresses as well as effective normal stresses. In most parts of the hillslope, groundwater flow significantly increases the Coulomb failure potential Φ, which we define as the ratio of maximum shear stress to mean effective normal stress. Groundwater flow also shifts the locus of greatest failure potential toward the slope toe. However, the effects of groundwater flow on failure potential are less pronounced than might be anticipated on the basis of a simpler, one-dimensional, limit equilibrium analysis. This is a consequence of continuity, compatibility, and boundary constraints on the two-dimensional flow and stress fields, and it points to important differences between our elastic continuum model and limit equilibrium models commonly used to assess slope stability.
Supergravity contributions to inflation in models with non-minimal coupling to gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Kumar; Dutta, Koushik; Domcke, Valerie
2017-01-01
This paper provides a systematic study of supergravity contributions relevant for inflationary model building in Jordan frame supergravity. In this framework, canonical kinetic terms in the Jordan frame result in the separation of the Jordan frame scalar potential into a tree-level term and a supergravity contribution which is potentially dangerous for sustaining inflation. We show that if the vacuum energy necessary for driving inflation originates dominantly from the F-term of an auxiliary field (i.e. not the inflaton), the supergravity corrections to the Jordan frame scalar potential are generically suppressed. Moreover, these supergravity contributions identically vanish if the superpotential vanishes along the inflationary trajectory. On the other hand, if the F-term associated with the inflaton dominates the vacuum energy, the supergravity contributions are generically comparable to the globally supersymmetric contributions. In addition, the non-minimal coupling to gravity inherent to Jordan frame supergravity significantly impacts the inflationary model depending on the size and sign of this coupling. We discuss the phenomenology of some representative inflationary models, and point out the relation to the recently much discussed cosmological 'attractor' models.
Matter Loops Corrected Modified Gravity in Palatini Formulation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng Xinhe; Wang Peng
2008-01-01
Recently, corrections to the standard Einstein-Hilbert action were proposed to explain the current cosmic acceleration in stead of introducing dark energy. In the Palatini formulation of those modified gravity models, there is an important observation due to Arkani-Hamed: matter loops will give rise to a correction to the modified gravity action proportional to the Ricci scalar of the metric. In the presence of such a term, we show that the current forms of modified gravity models in Palatini formulation, specifically, the 1/R gravity and ln R gravity, will have phantoms. Then we study the possible instabilities due to the presence of phantom fields. We show that the strong instability in the metric formulation of 1/R gravity indicated by Dolgov and Kawasaki will not appear and the decay timescales for the phantom fields may be long enough for the theories to make sense as effective field theory. On the other hand, if we change the sign of the modification terms to eliminate the phantoms, some other inconsistencies will arise for the various versions of the modified gravity models. Finally, we comment on the universal property of the Palatini formulation of the matter loops corrected modified gravity models and its implications
Energy infrastructure modeling for the oil sands industry: Current situation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lazzaroni, Edoardo Filippo; Elsholkami, Mohamed; Arbiv, Itai; Martelli, Emanuele; Elkamel, Ali; Fowler, Michael
2016-01-01
Highlights: • A simulation-based modelling of energy demands of oil sands operations is proposed. • Aspen simulations used to simulate delayed coking-based upgrading of bitumen. • The energy infrastructure is simulated using Aspen Plus achieving self-sufficiency. • Various scenarios affecting energy demand intensities are investigated. • Energy and CO_2 emission intensities of integrated SAGD/upgrading are estimated. - Abstract: In this study, the total energy requirements associated with the production of bitumen from oil sands and its upgrading to synthetic crude oil (SCO) are modeled and quantified. The production scheme considered is based on the commercially applied steam assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) for bitumen extraction and delayed coking for bitumen upgrading. In addition, the model quantifies the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions associated with the production of energy required for these operations from technologies utilized in the currently existing oil sands energy infrastructure. The model is based on fundamental engineering principles, and Aspen HYSYS and Aspen Plus simulations. The energy demand results are expressed in terms of heat, power, hydrogen, and process fuel consumption rates for SAGD extraction and bitumen upgrading. Based on the model’s output, a range of overall energy and emission intensity factors are estimated for a bitumen production rate of 112,500 BPD (or 93,272 BPD of SCO), which were determined to be 262.5–368.5 MJ/GJ_S_C_O and 14.17–19.84 gCO_2/MJ_S_C_O, respectively. The results of the model indicate that the majority of GHG emissions are generated during SAGD extraction (up to 60% of total emissions) due to the combustion of natural gas for steam production, and the steam-to-oil ratio is a major parameter affecting total GHG emissions. The developed model can be utilized as a tool to predict the energy demand requirements for integrated SAGD/upgrading projects under different operating conditions, and
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ngo, Tri-Dat
2016-01-01
This work deals with the mathematical modeling and the numerical simulation of the migration under gravity and capillarity effects of the supercritical CO 2 injected into a geological heterogeneous sequestration site. The simulations are performed with the code DuMux. Particularly, we consider the up-scaling, from the cell scale to the reservoir scale, of a two-phase (CO 2 -brine) flow model within a periodic stratified medium made up of horizontal low permeability barriers, continuous or discontinuous. The up-scaling is done by the two-scale asymptotic method. First, we consider perfectly layered media. An homogenized model is developed and validated by numerical simulation for different values of capillary number and the incident flux of CO 2 . The homogenization method is then applied to the case of a two-dimensional medium made up of discontinuous layers. Due to the gravity effect, the CO 2 accumulates under the low permeability layers, which leads to a non-standard local mathematical problem. This stratification is modeled using the gravity current approach. This approach is then extended to the case of semi-permeable strata taking into account the capillarity. The up-scaled model is compared with numerical simulations for different types of layers, with or without capillary pressure, and its limit of validity is discussed in each of these cases. The final part of this thesis is devoted to the study of the parallel computing performances of the code DuMux to simulate the injection and migration of CO 2 in three-dimensional heterogeneous media (layered periodic media, fluvial media and reservoir model SPE 10). (author) [fr
A numerical algorithm for modelling boson-fermion stars in dilatonic gravity
Boyadzhiev, T L; Todorov, M D; Yazadjiev, S S
2002-01-01
We investigate numerically the class of models of the static spherically symmetric boson-fermion stars in the scalar-tensor theory of gravity with massive dilaton field. The proper mathematical model of such stars is interpreted as a nonlinear two-parametric eigenvalue problem. The first of the parameters is the unknown internal boundary (the radius of the fermionic part of the star) R sub s , and the second one represents the frequency OMEGA of the time oscillations of the boson field. To solve this problem, the whole space [0, infinity) is splitted into two domains: internal [0, R sub s] (inside the star) and external [R sub s , infinity) (outside the star). In each domain the physical model leads to two nonlinear boundary value problems in respect to metric functions, the functions describing the fermionic and bosonic matter, and the dilaton field. These boundary value problems have different dimensions inside and outside the star, respectively. The solutions in these regions are obtained separately and ma...
Zettergren, M. D.; Snively, J. B.; Inchin, P.; Komjathy, A.; Verkhoglyadova, O. P.
2017-12-01
Ocean and solid earth responses during earthquakes are a significant source of large amplitude acoustic and gravity waves (AGWs) that perturb the overlying ionosphere-thermosphere (IT) system. IT disturbances are routinely detected following large earthquakes (M > 7.0) via GPS total electron content (TEC) observations, which often show acoustic wave ( 3-4 min periods) and gravity wave ( 10-15 min) signatures with amplitudes of 0.05-2 TECU. In cases of very large earthquakes (M > 8.0) the persisting acoustic waves are estimated to have 100-200 m/s compressional velocities in the conducting ionospheric E and F-regions and should generate significant dynamo currents and magnetic field signatures. Indeed, some recent reports (e.g. Hao et al, 2013, JGR, 118, 6) show evidence for magnetic fluctuations, which appear to be related to AGWs, following recent large earthquakes. However, very little quantitative information is available on: (1) the detailed spatial and temporal dependence of these magnetic fluctuations, which are usually observed at a small number of irregularly arranged stations, and (2) the relation of these signatures to TEC perturbations in terms of relative amplitudes, frequency, and timing for different events. This work investigates space- and time-dependent behavior of both TEC and magnetic fluctuations following recent large earthquakes, with the aim to improve physical understanding of these perturbations via detailed, high-resolution, two- and three-dimensional modeling case studies with a coupled neutral atmospheric and ionospheric model, MAGIC-GEMINI (Zettergren and Snively, 2015, JGR, 120, 9). We focus on cases inspired by the large Chilean earthquakes from the past decade (viz., the M > 8.0 earthquakes from 2010 and 2015) to constrain the sources for the model, i.e. size, frequency, amplitude, and timing, based on available information from ocean buoy and seismometer data. TEC data are used to validate source amplitudes and to constrain
A mathematical model to optimize the drain phase in gravity-based peritoneal dialysis systems.
Akonur, Alp; Lo, Ying-Cheng; Cizman, Borut
2010-01-01
Use of patient-specific drain-phase parameters has previously been suggested to improve peritoneal dialysis (PD) adequacy. Improving management of the drain period may also help to minimize intraperitoneal volume (IPV). A typical gravity-based drain profile consists of a relatively constant initial fast-flow period, followed by a transition period and a decaying slow-flow period. That profile was modeled using the equation VD(t) = (V(D0) - Q(MAX) x t) xphi + (V(D0) x e(-alphat)) x (1 - phi), where V(D)(t) is the time-dependent dialysate volume; V(D0), the dialysate volume at the start of the drain; Q(MAX), the maximum drain flow rate; alpha, the exponential drain constant; and phi, the unit step function with respect to the flow transition. We simulated the effects of the assumed patient-specific maximum drain flow (Q(MAX)) and transition volume (psi), and the peritoneal volume percentage when transition occurs,for fixed device-specific drain parameters. Average patient transport parameters were assumed during 5-exchange therapy with 10 L of PD solution. Changes in therapy performance strongly depended on the drain parameters. Comparing 400 mL/85% with 200 mL/65% (Q(MAX/psi), drain time (7.5 min vs. 13.5 min) and IPV (2769 mL vs. 2355 mL) increased when the initial drain flow was low and the transition quick. Ultrafiltration and solute clearances remained relatively similar. Such differences were augmented up to a drain time of 22 minutes and an IPV of more than 3 L when Q(MAX) was 100 mL/min. The ability to model individual drain conditions together with water and solute transport may help to prevent patient discomfort with gravity-based PD. However, it is essential to note that practical difficulties such as displaced catheters and obstructed flow paths cause variability in drain characteristics even for the same patient, limiting the clinical applicability of this model.
Ecological models and pesticide risk assessment: current modeling practice.
Schmolke, Amelie; Thorbek, Pernille; Chapman, Peter; Grimm, Volker
2010-04-01
Ecological risk assessments of pesticides usually focus on risk at the level of individuals, and are carried out by comparing exposure and toxicological endpoints. However, in most cases the protection goal is populations rather than individuals. On the population level, effects of pesticides depend not only on exposure and toxicity, but also on factors such as life history characteristics, population structure, timing of application, presence of refuges in time and space, and landscape structure. Ecological models can integrate such factors and have the potential to become important tools for the prediction of population-level effects of exposure to pesticides, thus allowing extrapolations, for example, from laboratory to field. Indeed, a broad range of ecological models have been applied to chemical risk assessment in the scientific literature, but so far such models have only rarely been used to support regulatory risk assessments of pesticides. To better understand the reasons for this situation, the current modeling practice in this field was assessed in the present study. The scientific literature was searched for relevant models and assessed according to nine characteristics: model type, model complexity, toxicity measure, exposure pattern, other factors, taxonomic group, risk assessment endpoint, parameterization, and model evaluation. The present study found that, although most models were of a high scientific standard, many of them would need modification before they are suitable for regulatory risk assessments. The main shortcomings of currently available models in the context of regulatory pesticide risk assessments were identified. When ecological models are applied to regulatory risk assessments, we recommend reviewing these models according to the nine characteristics evaluated here. (c) 2010 SETAC.
Modelling earth current precursors in earthquake prediction
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
R. Di Maio
1997-06-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with the theory of earth current precursors of earthquake. A dilatancy-diffusion-polarization model is proposed to explain the anomalies of the electric potential, which are observed on the ground surface prior to some earthquakes. The electric polarization is believed to be the electrokinetic effect due to the invasion of fluids into new pores, which are opened inside a stressed-dilated rock body. The time and space variation of the distribution of the electric potential in a layered earth as well as in a faulted half-space is studied in detail. It results that the surface response depends on the underground conductivity distribution and on the relative disposition of the measuring dipole with respect to the buried bipole source. A field procedure based on the use of an areal layout of the recording sites is proposed, in order to obtain the most complete information on the time and space evolution of the precursory phenomena in any given seismic region.
Hinderer, Jacques; Andersen, Ole; Lemoine, Frank; Crossley, David; Boy, Jean-Paul
2006-01-01
This paper is devoted to the investigation of seasonal changes of the Earth's gravity field from GRACE satellites and the comparison with surface gravity measurements in Europe from the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP) sub-network, as well as with recent hydrology models for continental soil moisture and snow. We used gravity maps in Europe retrieved from the initial GRACE monthly solutions spanning a 21-month duration from April 2002 to December 2003 for various truncation levels of the initial spherical harmonic decomposition of the field. The transfer function between satellite-derived and ground gravity changes due to continental hydrology is studied and we also compute the theoretical ratio of gravity versus radial displacement (in μGal/mm) involved in the hydrological loading process. The 'mean' value (averaged in time and in space over Europe) from hydrologic forward modeling is found to be close to -1.0 μGal/mm and we show that this value can be explained by a strong low degree ( n = 5-6) peak in the hydrology amplitude spectrum. The dominant time-variable signal from GRACE is found to be annual with an amplitude and a phase both of which are in fair agreement with predictions in Europe from recent hydrology models. Initial results suggest that all three data sets (GRACE, hydrology and GGP) respond to annual changes in near-surface water in Europe of a few μGal (at length scales of ˜1000 km) that show a high value in winter and a summer minimum. Despite the limited time span of our analysis and the uncertainties in separating purely local effects from regional ones in superconducting gravimeter data, the calibration and validation aspects of the GRACE data processing based on the annual hydrology cycle in Europe are in progress.
Alothman, Abdulaziz; Elsaka, Basem
2016-04-01
A new gravimetric quasi-geoid, known as KSAG0, has been developed recently by Remove-Compute-Restore techniques (RCR), provided by the GRAVSOFT software, using gravimetric free air anomalies. The terrestrial gravity data used in this computations are: 1145 gravity field anomalies observed by ARAMCO (Saudi Arabian Oil Company) and 2470 Gravity measurements from BGI (Bureau Gravimétrique International). The computations were carried out implementing the least squares collocation method through the RCR techniques. The KSAG01 is based on merging in addition to the terrestrial gravity observations, GOCE satellite model (Eigen-6C4) and global gravity model (EGM2008) have been utilized in the computations. The long, medium and short wavelength spectrum of the height anomalies were compensated from Eigen-6C4 and EGM2008 geoid models truncated up to Degree and order (d/o) up to 2190. KSAG01 geoid covers 100 per cent of the kingdom, with geoid heights range from - 37.513 m in the southeast to 23.183 m in the northwest of the country. The accuracy of the geoid is governed by the accuracy, distribution, and spacing of the observations. The standard deviation of the predicted geoid heights is 0.115 m, with maximum errors of about 0.612 m. The RMS of geoid noise ranges from 0.019 m to 0.04 m. Comparison of the predicted gravimetric geoid with EGM, GOCE, and GPS/Levelling geoids, reveals a considerable improvements of the quasi-geoid heights over Saudi Arabia.
An object-oriented model of the cardiopulmonary system with emphasis on the gravity effect.
Chuong Ngo; Herranz, Silvia Briones; Misgeld, Berno; Vollmer, Thomas; Leonhardt, Steffen
2016-08-01
We introduce a novel comprehensive model of the cardiopulmonary system with emphasis on perfusion and ventilation distribution along the vertical thorax axis under the gravity effect. By using an object-oriented environment, the complex physiological system can be represented by a network of electrical, lumped-element compartments. The lungs are divided into three zones: upper, middle, and lower zone. Blood flow increases with the distance from the apex to the base of the lungs. The upper zone is characterized by a complete collapse of the pulmonary capillary vasculature; thus, there is no flow in this zone. The second zone has a "waterfall effect" where the blood flow is determined by the difference between the pulmonary-arterial and alveolar pressures. At resting position, the upper lobes of the lungs are more expanded than the middle and lower lobes. However, during spontaneous breathing, ventilation is nonuniform with more air entering the lower lobes than the middle and upper lobes. A simulative model of the complete system is developed which shows results in good agreement with the literature.
High degree gravitational sensitivity from Mars orbiters for the GMM-1 gravity model
Lerch, F. J.; Smith, D. E.; Chan, J. C.; Patel, G. B.; Chinn, D. S.
1994-01-01
Orbital sensitivity of the gravity field for high degree terms (greater than 30) is analyzed on satellites employed in a Goddard Mars Model GMM-1, complete in spherical harmonics through degree and order 50. The model is obtained from S-band Doppler data on Mariner 9 (M9), Viking Orbiter 1 (VO1), and Viking Orbiter 2 (VO2) spacecraft, which were tracked by the NASA Deep Space Network on seven different highly eccentric orbits. The main sensitivity of the high degree terms is obtained from the VO1 and VO2 low orbits (300 km periapsis altitude), where significant spectral sensitivity is seen for all degrees out through degree 50. The velocity perturbations show a dominant effect at periapsis and significant effects out beyond the semi-latus rectum covering over 180 degrees of the orbital groundtrack for the low altitude orbits. Because of the wideband of periapsis motion covering nearly 180 degrees in w and +39 degrees in latitude coverage, the VO1 300 km periapsis altitude orbit with inclination of 39 degrees gave the dominant sensitivity in the GMM-1 solution for the high degree terms. Although the VO2 low periapsis orbit has a smaller band of periapsis mapping coverage, it strongly complements the VO1 orbit sensitivity for the GMM-1 solution with Doppler tracking coverage over a different inclination of 80 degrees.
Conformal internal symmetry of 2d σ-models coupled to gravity and a dilaton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Julia, B.
1996-01-01
General relativity reduced to two dimensions possesses a large group of symmetries that exchange classical solutions. The associated Lie algebra is known to contain the affine Kac-Moody algebra A 1 (1) and half of a real Witt algebra. In this paper we exhibit the full symmetry under the semi-direct product of Lie(A 1 (1) ) by the Witt algebra Lie(W). Furthermore we exhibit the corresponding hidden gauge symmetries. We show that the theory can be understood in terms of an infinite dimensional potential space involving all degrees of freedom: the dilaton as well as matter and gravitation. In the dilaton sector the linear system that extends the previously known Lax pair has the form of a twisted self-duality constraint that is the analog of the self-duality constraint arising in extended supergravities in higher space-time dimensions. Our results furnish a group theoretical explanation for the simultaneous occurrence of two spectral parameters, a constant one (=y) and a variable one (=t). They hold for all 2d non-linear σ-models that are obtained by dimensional reduction of G/H models in three dimensions coupled to pure gravity. (orig./WL) (orig.)
Conformal internal symmetry of 2d σ-models coupled to gravity and a dilaton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Julia, B.; Nicolai, H.
1996-08-01
General relativity reduced to two dimensions possesses a large group of symmetries that exchange classical solutions. The associated Lie algebra is known to contain the affine Kac-Moody algebra A 1 (1) and half of a real Witt algebra. In this paper we exhibit the full symmetry under the semi-direct product of Lie(A 1 (1) ) by the Witt algebra Lie(W). Furthermore we exhibit the corresponding hidden gauge symmetries. We show that the theory can be understood in terms of an infinite dimensional potential space involving all degrees of freedom: The dilaton as well as matter and gravitation. In the dilaton sector the linear system that extends the previously known Lax pair has the form of a twisted self-duality constraint that is the analog of the self-duality constraint arising in extended supergravities in higher spacetime dimensions. Our results furnish a group theoretical explanation for the simultaneous occurrence of two spectral parameters, a constant one (=y) and a variable one (=t). They hold for all 2d non-linear σ-models that are obtained by dimensional reduction of G/H models in three dimensions coupled to pure gravity. In that case the Lie algebra is Lie(W∝G (1) ); this symmetry acts on a set of off shell fields (in a fixed gauge) and preserves the equations of motion. (orig.)
Buchdahl-Vaidya-Tikekar model for stellar interior in pure Lovelock gravity
Molina, Alfred; Dadhich, Naresh; Khugaev, Avas
2017-07-01
In the paper (Khugaev et al. in Phys Rev D94:064065. arXiv: 1603.07118, 2016), we have shown that for perfect fluid spheres the pressure isotropy equation for Buchdahl-Vaidya-Tikekar metric ansatz continues to have the same Gauss form in higher dimensions, and hence higher dimensional solutions could be obtained by redefining the space geometry characterizing Vaidya-Tikekar parameter K. In this paper we extend this analysis to pure Lovelock gravity; i.e. a (2N+2)-dimensional solution with a given K_{2N+2} can be taken over to higher n-dimensional pure Lovelock solution with K_n=(K_{2N+2}-n+2N+2)/(n-2N-1) where N is degree of Lovelock action. This ansatz includes the uniform density Schwarzshild and the Finch-Skea models, and it is interesting that the two define the two ends of compactness, the former being the densest and while the latter rarest. All other models with this ansatz lie in between these two limiting distributions.
Compositional modeling of three-phase flow with gravity using higher-order finite element methods
Moortgat, Joachim
2011-05-11
A wide range of applications in subsurface flow involve water, a nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) or oil, and a gas phase, such as air or CO2. The numerical simulation of such processes is computationally challenging and requires accurate compositional modeling of three-phase flow in porous media. In this work, we simulate for the first time three-phase compositional flow using higher-order finite element methods. Gravity poses complications in modeling multiphase processes because it drives countercurrent flow among phases. To resolve this issue, we propose a new method for the upwinding of three-phase mobilities. Numerical examples, related to enhanced oil recovery and carbon sequestration, are presented to illustrate the capabilities of the proposed algorithm. We pay special attention to challenges associated with gravitational instabilities and take into account compressibility and various phase behavior effects, including swelling, viscosity changes, and vaporization. We find that the proposed higher-order method can capture sharp solution discontinuities, yielding accurate predictions of phase boundaries arising in computational three-phase flow. This work sets the stage for a broad extension of the higher-order methods for numerical simulation of three-phase flow for complex geometries and processes.
Dark energy and dark matter from hidden symmetry of gravity model with a non-Riemannian volume form
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Guendelman, Eduardo [Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Department of Physics, Beersheba (Israel); Nissimov, Emil; Pacheva, Svetlana [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy, Sofia (Bulgaria)
2015-10-15
We show that dark energy and dark matter can be described simultaneously by ordinary Einstein gravity interacting with a single scalar field provided the scalar field Lagrangian couples in a symmetric fashion to two different spacetime volume forms (covariant integration measure densities) on the spacetime manifold - one standard Riemannian given by √(-g) (square root of the determinant of the pertinent Riemannian metric) and another non-Riemannian volume form independent of the Riemannian metric, defined in terms of an auxiliary antisymmetric tensor gauge field of maximal rank. Integration of the equations of motion of the latter auxiliary gauge field produce an a priori arbitrary integration constant that plays the role of a dynamically generated cosmological constant or dark energy. Moreover, the above modified scalar field action turns out to possess a hidden Noether symmetry whose associated conserved current describes a pressureless ''dust'' fluid which we can identify with the dark matter completely decoupled from the dark energy. The form of both the dark energy and dark matter that results from the above class of models is insensitive to the specific form of the scalar field Lagrangian. By adding an appropriate perturbation, which breaks the above hidden symmetry and along with this couples dark matter and dark energy, we also suggest a way to obtain growing dark energy in the present universe's epoch without evolution pathologies. (orig.)
Foerste, C.; Flechtner, F.; Stubenvoll, R.; Rothacher, M.; Kusche, J.; Neumayer, H. K.; Biancale, R.; Lemoine, J.; Barthelmes, F.; Bruinsma, S.; Koenig, R.; Dahle, C.
2008-12-01
Global gravity field models play a fundamental role in geodesy and Earth sciences, ranging from practical purposes, like precise orbit determination, to applications in geosciences, like investigations of the density structure of the Earth's interior. In this presentation we report on the latest, recently released EIGEN-model, EIGEN-5C (EIGEN = European Improved Gravity model of the Earth by New techniques) and its associated satellite-only model EIGEN-5S. The global gravity field model EIGEN-5C is complete to degree and order 360 (corresponding to half-wavelength of 55 km) and was jointly elaborated by GFZ Potsdam and CNES/GRGS Toulouse. As its precursor EIGEN-GL04C (released in March 2006), this model is inferred from a combination of GRACE and LAGEOS satellite tracking data with surface gravity data, based on the accumulation of normal equations. However, this new model presents remarkable changes and improvements compared to its precursors. EIGEN-5C incorporates a further extended GRACE and LAGEOS data set, covering almost the entire GRACE period from mid 2002 to end of 2007, but also newly available gravity anomaly data sets for Europe and Australia. New processing features are the complete reprocessing of the GRACE and LAGEOS data using the recent RL04 standards and background models by GFZ (combined with the GRACE/LAGEOS 10-days time series derived at GRGS based on nearly identical standards and background models) and a further extension of the full normal equations (in contrast to block diagonal form) derived from terrestrial data to a maximum degree and order of 280 (which was restricted to 179 for EIGEN-GL04C). In particular, this presentation focuses on the inter-comparison of this latest EIGEN model with the recently presented EGM08 model, which was developed by the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA) of the USA. The EIGEN-5C model and its associated satellite-only model EIGEN-5S are available for download at the ICGEM data base (International
Traykovski, P.; Wiberg, P. L.; Geyer, W. R.
2007-02-01
A mooring and tripod array was deployed from the fall of 2002 through the spring of 2003 on the Po prodelta to measure sediment transport processes associated with sediment delivered from the Po River. Observations on the prodelta revealed wave-supported gravity flows of high concentration mud suspensions that are dynamically and kinematically similar to those observed on the Eel shelf [Traykovski, P., Geyer, W.R., Irish, J.D., Lynch, J.F., 2000. The role of wave-induced density-driven fluid mud flows for cross-shelf transport on the Eel River continental shelf. Continental Shelf Research 20, 2113-2140]. Due to the dynamic similarity between the two sites, a simple one-dimensional (1D) across-shelf model with the appropriate bottom boundary condition was used to examine fluxes associated with this transport mechanism at both locations. To calculate the sediment concentrations associated with the wave-dominated and wave-current resuspension, a bottom boundary condition using a reference concentration was combined with an "active layer" formulation to limit the amount of sediment in suspension. Whereas the wave-supported gravity flow mechanism dominated the transport on the Eel shelf, on the Po prodelta flux due to this mechanism is equal in magnitude to transport due to wave resuspension and wind-forced mean currents in the cross-shore direction. Southward transport due to wave resuspension and wind forced mean currents move an order of magnitude more sediment along-shore than the down-slope flux associated wave-supported gravity flows.