Gravity, particles and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wesson, P.S.
1980-01-01
The author deals with the relationship between gravitation and elementary particle physics, and the implications of these subjects for astrophysics. The text is split up into two parts. The first part represents a relatively non-technical overview of the subject, while the second part represents a technical examination of the most important aspects of non-Einsteinian gravitational theory and its relation to astrophysics. Relevant references from the fields of gravitation, elementary particle theory and astrophysics are included. (Auth.)
Relativistic astrophysics and theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zel'dovich, Ya.B.
1982-01-01
A brief historical review of the development of astrophysical science in the State Astrophysical Institute named after Shternberg (SAISh) has been given in a popular form. The main directions of the SAISh astrophysical investigations have been presented: relativistic theory of gravity, relativistic astrophysics of interplanetary medium and cosmology
Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica; Gregory, Ruth
2014-01-01
Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect
Astrophysical black holes in screened modified gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Davis, Anne-Christine; Jha, Rahul; Muir, Jessica [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Wilberforce Road, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth, E-mail: acd@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: r.a.w.gregory@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: r.jha@damtp.cam.ac.uk, E-mail: jlmuir@umich.edu [Centre for Particle Theory, South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)
2014-08-01
Chameleon, environmentally dependent dilaton, and symmetron gravity are three models of modified gravity in which the effects of the additional scalar degree of freedom are screened in dense environments. They have been extensively studied in laboratory, cosmological, and astrophysical contexts. In this paper, we present a preliminary investigation into whether additional constraints can be provided by studying these scalar fields around black holes. By looking at the properties of a static, spherically symmetric black hole, we find that the presence of a non-uniform matter distribution induces a non-constant scalar profile in chameleon and dilaton, but not necessarily symmetron gravity. An order of magnitude estimate shows that the effects of these profiles on in-falling test particles will be sub-leading compared to gravitational waves and hence observationally challenging to detect.
Investigating High Field Gravity using Astrophysical Techniques
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bloom, Elliott D.; /SLAC
2008-02-01
The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to astrophysical techniques. These techniques can help us understand certain phenomena important to particle physics that are currently impossible to address using standard particle physics experimental techniques. As the subject matter is vast, compromises are necessary in order to convey the central ideas to the reader. Many general references are included for those who want to learn more. The paragraphs below elaborate on the structure of these lectures. I hope this discussion will clarify my motivation and make the lectures easier to follow. The lectures begin with a brief review of more theoretical ideas. First, elements of general relativity are reviewed, concentrating on those aspects that are needed to understand compact stellar objects (white dwarf stars, neutron stars, and black holes). I then review the equations of state of these objects, concentrating on the simplest standard models from astrophysics. After these mathematical preliminaries, Sec. 2(c) discusses 'The End State of Stars'. Most of this section also uses the simplest standard models. However, as these lectures are for particle physicists, I also discuss some of the more recent approaches to the equation of state of very dense compact objects. These particle-physics-motivated equations of state can dramatically change how we view the formation of black holes. Section 3 focuses on the properties of the objects that we want to characterize and measure. X-ray binary systems and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are stressed because the lectures center on understanding very dense stellar objects, black hole candidates (BHCs), and their accompanying high gravitational fields. The use of x-ray timing and gamma-ray experiments is also introduced in this section. Sections 4 and 5 review information from x-ray and gamma-ray experiments. These sections also discuss the current state of the art in x-ray and gamma-ray satellite
Investigating High Field Gravity using Astrophysical Techniques
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bloom, Elliott D.
2008-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to introduce particle physicists to astrophysical techniques. These techniques can help us understand certain phenomena important to particle physics that are currently impossible to address using standard particle physics experimental techniques. As the subject matter is vast, compromises are necessary in order to convey the central ideas to the reader. Many general references are included for those who want to learn more. The paragraphs below elaborate on the structure of these lectures. I hope this discussion will clarify my motivation and make the lectures easier to follow. The lectures begin with a brief review of more theoretical ideas. First, elements of general relativity are reviewed, concentrating on those aspects that are needed to understand compact stellar objects (white dwarf stars, neutron stars, and black holes). I then review the equations of state of these objects, concentrating on the simplest standard models from astrophysics. After these mathematical preliminaries, Sec. 2(c) discusses 'The End State of Stars'. Most of this section also uses the simplest standard models. However, as these lectures are for particle physicists, I also discuss some of the more recent approaches to the equation of state of very dense compact objects. These particle-physics-motivated equations of state can dramatically change how we view the formation of black holes. Section 3 focuses on the properties of the objects that we want to characterize and measure. X-ray binary systems and Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are stressed because the lectures center on understanding very dense stellar objects, black hole candidates (BHCs), and their accompanying high gravitational fields. The use of x-ray timing and gamma-ray experiments is also introduced in this section. Sections 4 and 5 review information from x-ray and gamma-ray experiments. These sections also discuss the current state of the art in x-ray and gamma-ray satellite experiments and
Principles of astrophysics using gravity and stellar physics to explore the cosmos
Keeton, Charles
2014-01-01
This book gives a survey of astrophysics at the advanced undergraduate level. It originates from a two-semester course sequence at Rutgers University that is meant to appeal not only to astrophysics students but also more broadly to physics and engineering students. The organization is driven more by physics than by astronomy; in other words, topics are first developed in physics and then applied to astronomical systems that can be investigated, rather than the other way around. The first half of the book focuses on gravity. Gravity is the dominant force in many astronomical systems, so a tremendous amount can be learned by studying gravity, motion and mass. The theme in this part of the book, as well as throughout astrophysics, is using motion to investigate mass. The goal of Chapters 2-11 is to develop a progressively richer understanding of gravity as it applies to objects ranging from planets and moons to galaxies and the universe as a whole. The second half uses other aspects of physics to addr...
Gravity-mediated (or Composite) Dark Matter Confronts Astrophysical Data
Lee, Hyun Min; Sanz, Veronica
2014-01-01
We consider the astrophysical bounds on a new form of dark matter, the so called Gravity-mediated Dark Matter. In this scenario, dark matter communicates with us through a mediator sector composed of gravitational resonances, namely a new scalar (radion) and a massive spin-two resonance (massive graviton). We consider specific models motivated by natural electroweak symmetry breaking or weak-scale dark matter in the context of models in warped extra-dimensions and their composite duals. The main Dark Matter annihilation mechanism is due to the interactions of KK gravitons to gauge bosons that propagate in bulk. We impose the bounds on monochromatic or continuum photons from Fermi-LAT and HESS. We also explore scenarios in which the Fermi gamma-ray line could be a manifestation of Gravity-mediated Dark Matter.
Compact objects in relativistic theories of gravity
Okada da Silva, Hector
2017-05-01
In this dissertation we discuss several aspects of compact objects, i.e. neutron stars and black holes, in relativistic theories of gravity. We start by studying the role of nuclear physics (encoded in the so-called equation of state) in determining the properties of neutron stars in general relativity. We show that low-mass neutron stars are potentially useful astrophysical laboratories that can be used to constrain the properties of the equation of state. More specifically, we show that various bulk properties of these objects, such as their quadrupole moment and tidal deformability, are tightly correlated. Next, we develop a formalism that aims to capture how generic modifications from general relativity affect the structure of neutron stars, as predicted by a broad class of gravity theories, in the spirit of the parametrized post-Newtonian formalism (PPN). Our "post-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff" formalism provides a toolbox to study both stellar structure and the interior/exterior geometries of static, spherically symmetric relativistic stars. We also apply the formalism to parametrize deviations from general relativity in various astrophysical observables related with neutron stars, including surface redshift, apparent radius, Eddington luminosity. We then turn our attention to what is arguably the most well-motivated and well-investigated generalization of general relativity: scalar-tensor theory. We start by considering theories where gravity is mediated by a single extra scalar degree of freedom (in addition to the metric tensor). An interesting class of scalar-tensor theories passes all experimental tests in the weak-field regime of gravity, yet considerably deviates from general relativity in the strong-field regime in the presence of matter. A common assumption in modeling neutron stars is that the pressure within these object is spatially isotropic. We relax this assumption and examine how pressure anisotropy affects the mass, radius and moment of inertia
First advanced research workshop: Gravity, astrophysics and strings at the Black Sea. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiziev, P.; Todorov, M.
2002-01-01
The aim of the First Advanced Workshop ‘Gravity, Astrophysics, and Strings’ was: 1)Bringing together scientists from various branches of gravitational physics, astrophysics and string theory gave an opportunity for interdisciplinary exchange of views and enhanced possible collaborations; 2)Provided a unique opportunity to scientists from various countries to communicate with colleagues on the hottest topics of gravitational physics, astrophysics, and string theory; 3) Opened new venue to young talented scientists to communicate and work with major research groups on the topics of the conference. The workshop covered wide aspects of gravity, astrophysics, and string theory concerning the topics: Astrophysics; Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Simulations in Relativity; Astrophysics, and Strings; Relativistic Gravity; (Super)Strings. About 40 participants from Europe, America and Asia gave 30 invited talks and contributed presentations. The full text of 17 of them are included in this book
Astrophysical tests for the Novello-De Lorenci-Luciane theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mosquera Cuesta, H.J.
2001-01-01
The Novello-DeLorenci-Luciane (NDL) field theory of gravitation predicts that gravitational waves (GWs) follow geodesics of a modified (effective) geometry with a speed lower than the velocity of light. The theory also demonstrates that GWs exhibit the phenomenon of birefringence, formerly believed to be exclusive of electromagnetic waves. Here prospective astrophysical tests of these predictions are proposed. I point out that future measurements of gravitational waves in coincidence with a non-gravitational process such as a neutrino burst (and likely a burst of gamma-rays) may prove useful to discriminate among all the existing theories of gravity. It is also stressed that microlensing of gravitational waves emitted by known galactic sources (i.e., pulsars) in the bulge, lensed by either the Galaxy's central black hole (Sgr A*) or a MACHO object adrift among the Milky Way's stars, may provide a clean test of the birefringence phenomenon implied by the NDL gravity theory. (author)
Turbulence and Self-Organization Modeling Astrophysical Objects
Marov, Mikhail Ya
2013-01-01
This book focuses on the development of continuum models of natural turbulent media. It provides a theoretical approach to the solutions of different problems related to the formation, structure and evolution of astrophysical and geophysical objects. A stochastic modeling approach is used in the mathematical treatment of these problems, which reflects self-organization processes in open dissipative systems. The authors also consider examples of ordering for various objects in space throughout their evolutionary processes. This volume is aimed at graduate students and researchers in the fields of mechanics, astrophysics, geophysics, planetary and space science.
MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects Accretion, Winds and Jets
Beskin, Vasily S
2010-01-01
Accretion flows, winds and jets of compact astrophysical objects and stars are generally described within the framework of hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) flows. Analytical analysis of the problem provides profound physical insights, which are essential for interpreting and understanding the results of numerical simulations. Providing such a physical understanding of MHD Flows in Compact Astrophysical Objects is the main goal of this book, which is an updated translation of a successful Russian graduate textbook. The book provides the first detailed introduction into the method of the Grad-Shafranov equation, describing analytically the very broad class of hydrodynamical and MHD flows. It starts with the classical examples of hydrodynamical accretion onto relativistic and nonrelativistic objects. The force-free limit of the Grad-Shafranov equation allows us to analyze in detail the physics of the magnetospheres of radio pulsars and black holes, including the Blandford-Znajek process of energy e...
Stellar structure and compact objects before 1940: Towards relativistic astrophysics
Bonolis, Luisa
2017-06-01
Since the mid-1920s, different strands of research used stars as "physics laboratories" for investigating the nature of matter under extreme densities and pressures, impossible to realize on Earth. To trace this process this paper is following the evolution of the concept of a dense core in stars, which was important both for an understanding of stellar evolution and as a testing ground for the fast-evolving field of nuclear physics. In spite of the divide between physicists and astrophysicists, some key actors working in the cross-fertilized soil of overlapping but different scientific cultures formulated models and tentative theories that gradually evolved into more realistic and structured astrophysical objects. These investigations culminated in the first contact with general relativity in 1939, when J. Robert Oppenheimer and his students George Volkoff and Hartland Snyder systematically applied the theory to the dense core of a collapsing neutron star. This pioneering application of Einstein's theory to an astrophysical compact object can be regarded as a milestone in the path eventually leading to the emergence of relativistic astrophysics in the early 1960s.
Second advanced research workshop: Gravity, astrophysics and strings at the Black Sea. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiziev, P.; Todorov, M.
2005-01-01
The Second Advanced Workshop ‘Gravity, Astrophysics, and Strings’ held on 10-16 June 2004. It served four purposes: 1) Bringing together scientists from various branches of gravitational physics, astrophysics, and string theory gave an opportunity for interdisciplinary exchange of views and enhanced possible collaborations; 2) Provided a unique opportunity to scientists from various countries to communicate with colleagues on the hottest topics of gravitational physics, astrophysics, and string theory; 3) Opened new venue to young talented scientists to communicate and work with major research groups on the topics of the conference; 4) Stimulated creation of a new generation of young physicists for further development of the above basic topics in fundamental science. The workshop covered wide aspects of gravity, astrophysics, and string theory concerning the topics: Astrophysics; Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Simulations in Relativity; Relativistic Gravity; (Super)Strings. About 35 participants from Europe, America and Asia gave 28 invited talks and contributed presentations. They and guided general discussion as well, which took place confirmed the considerable interest to the themes of the workshop. The full text of 16 of the presented papers are included in this book
Astrophysical flows near [Formula: see text] gravity black holes.
Ahmed, Ayyesha K; Azreg-Aïnou, Mustapha; Bahamonde, Sebastian; Capozziello, Salvatore; Jamil, Mubasher
In this paper, we study the accretion process for fluids flowing near a black hole in the context of f ( T ) teleparallel gravity. Specifically, by performing a dynamical analysis by a Hamiltonian system, we are able to find the sonic points. After that, we consider different isothermal test fluids in order to study the accretion process when they are falling onto the black hole. We find that these flows can be classified according to the equation of state and the black hole features. Results are compared in f ( T ) and f ( R ) gravity.
Astrophysical flows near f(T) gravity black holes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ahmed, Ayyesha K.; Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan); Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Baglica Campus, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Capozziello, Salvatore [Universita di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Dipartimento di Fisica, Naples (Italy); Gran Sasso Science Institute (INFN), L' Aquila (Italy); INFN Sezione di Napoli, Naples (Italy)
2016-05-15
In this paper, we study the accretion process for fluids flowing near a black hole in the context of f(T) teleparallel gravity. Specifically, by performing a dynamical analysis by a Hamiltonian system, we are able to find the sonic points. After that, we consider different isothermal test fluids in order to study the accretion process when they are falling onto the black hole. We find that these flows can be classified according to the equation of state and the black hole features. Results are compared in f(T) and f(R) gravity. (orig.)
Astrophysical constraints on unparticle-inspired models of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertolami, O.; Paramos, J.; Santos, P.
2009-01-01
We use stellar dynamics arguments to constrain the relevant parameters of unparticle-inspired models of gravity. We show that resulting bounds do constrain the parameters of the theory of unparticles, as far as its energy scale satisfies the condition Λ U ≥1 TeV and d U is close to unity.
Astrophysical tests of scale-covariant gravity theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mansfield, V.N.; Malin, S.
1980-01-01
Starting from the most general form of the conservation laws in scale-covariant gravitation theory, a conservation of energy equation appropriate for stars is derived. Applications to white dwarfs and neutron stars reveal serious difficulties for some choices of gauge that have been frequently employed in the literature on scale-covariant gravity. We also show how to restrict some of the possible gauges that result from theories which are independent of the Large Numbers Hypothesis
Third advanced research workshop: Gravity, astrophysics and strings at the Black Sea. Proceedings
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fiziev, P.; Todorov, M.
2006-01-01
The Third Advanced Workshop ‘Gravity, Astrophysics, and Strings’ held on 13-20 June 2005. The workshop: 1) Bringing together scientists from various branches of gravitational physics, astrophysics, particle physics, fundamental interactions and string theory gave an opportunity for interdisciplinary exchange of views and enhanced possible collaborations; 2) Provided a unique opportunity to scientists from various countries to communicate with colleagues on the hottest topics of gravitational physics, astrophysics, particle physics, fundamental interactions and string theory; 3) Opened new venue to young talented scientists to communicate and work with major research groups on the topics of the conference; 4) Stimulated creation of a new generation of young physicists for further development of the above basic topics in fundamental science. The workshop covered wide aspects of gravitational physics, astrophysics, particle physics, fundamental interactions and string theory concerning the topics: Astrophysics; Mathematical Modeling and Numerical Simulations in Relativity; Relativistic Gravity; Particle Physics and Fundamental Interactions; (Super)Strings. About 40 participants from Europe, America and Asia gave 32 invited talks and contributed presentations. They and guided general discussion as well, which took place confirmed the considerable interest to the themes of the workshop. The full text of 22 of the presented papers are included in this book
Beyond Einstein Gravity A Survey of Gravitational Theories for Cosmology and Astrophysics
Faraoni, Valerio
2011-01-01
Beyond Einstein’s Gravity is a graduate level introduction to extended theories of gravity and cosmology, including variational principles, the weak-field limit, gravitational waves, mathematical tools, exact solutions, as well as cosmological and astrophysical applications. The book provides a critical overview of the research in this area and unifies the existing literature using a consistent notation. Although the results apply in principle to all alternative gravities, a special emphasis is on scalar-tensor and f(R) theories. They were studied by theoretical physicists from early on, and in the 1980s they appeared in attempts to renormalize General Relativity and in models of the early universe. Recently, these theories have seen a new lease of life, in both their metric and metric-affine versions, as models of the present acceleration of the universe without introducing the mysterious and exotic dark energy. The dark matter problem can also be addressed in extended gravity. These applications are contr...
Perceived object stability depends on multisensory estimates of gravity.
Barnett-Cowan, Michael; Fleming, Roland W; Singh, Manish; Bülthoff, Heinrich H
2011-04-27
How does the brain estimate object stability? Objects fall over when the gravity-projected centre-of-mass lies outside the point or area of support. To estimate an object's stability visually, the brain must integrate information across the shape and compare its orientation to gravity. When observers lie on their sides, gravity is perceived as tilted toward body orientation, consistent with a representation of gravity derived from multisensory information. We exploited this to test whether vestibular and kinesthetic information affect this visual task or whether the brain estimates object stability solely from visual information. In three body orientations, participants viewed images of objects close to a table edge. We measured the critical angle at which each object appeared equally likely to fall over or right itself. Perceived gravity was measured using the subjective visual vertical. The results show that the perceived critical angle was significantly biased in the same direction as the subjective visual vertical (i.e., towards the multisensory estimate of gravity). Our results rule out a general explanation that the brain depends solely on visual heuristics and assumptions about object stability. Instead, they suggest that multisensory estimates of gravity govern the perceived stability of objects, resulting in objects appearing more stable than they are when the head is tilted in the same direction in which they fall.
Perceived object stability depends on multisensory estimates of gravity.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Michael Barnett-Cowan
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: How does the brain estimate object stability? Objects fall over when the gravity-projected centre-of-mass lies outside the point or area of support. To estimate an object's stability visually, the brain must integrate information across the shape and compare its orientation to gravity. When observers lie on their sides, gravity is perceived as tilted toward body orientation, consistent with a representation of gravity derived from multisensory information. We exploited this to test whether vestibular and kinesthetic information affect this visual task or whether the brain estimates object stability solely from visual information. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In three body orientations, participants viewed images of objects close to a table edge. We measured the critical angle at which each object appeared equally likely to fall over or right itself. Perceived gravity was measured using the subjective visual vertical. The results show that the perceived critical angle was significantly biased in the same direction as the subjective visual vertical (i.e., towards the multisensory estimate of gravity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results rule out a general explanation that the brain depends solely on visual heuristics and assumptions about object stability. Instead, they suggest that multisensory estimates of gravity govern the perceived stability of objects, resulting in objects appearing more stable than they are when the head is tilted in the same direction in which they fall.
Gravity and the quantum pedagogical essays on cosmology, astrophysics, and quantum gravity
Engineer, Sunu
2017-01-01
This book provides a compilation of in-depth articles and reviews on key topics within gravitation, cosmology and related issues. It is a celebratory volume dedicated to Prof. Thanu Padmanabhan ("Paddy"), the renowned relativist and cosmologist from IUCAA, India, on the occasion of his 60th birthday. The authors, many of them leaders of their fields, are all colleagues, collaborators and former students of Paddy, who have worked with him over a research career spanning more than four decades. Paddy is a scientist of diverse interests, who attaches great importance to teaching. With this in mind, the aim of this compilation is to provide an accessible pedagogic introduction to, and overview of, various important topics in cosmology, gravitation and astrophysics. As such it will be an invaluable resource for scientists, graduate students and also advanced undergraduates seeking to broaden their horizons.
Astrophysical evidence for the non-Hermitian but PT-symmetric Hamiltonian of conformal gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mannheim, P.D.
2013-01-01
In this review we discuss the connection between two seemingly disparate topics, macroscopic gravity on astrophysical scales and Hamiltonians that are not Hermitian but PT symmetric on microscopic ones. In particular we show that the quantum-mechanical unitarity problem of the fourth-order derivative conformal gravity theory is resolved by recognizing that the scalar product appropriate to the theory is not the Dirac norm associated with a Hermitian Hamiltonian but is instead the norm associated with a non-Hermitian but PT-symmetric Hamiltonian. Moreover, the fourth-order theory Hamiltonian is not only not Hermitian, it is not even diagonalizable, being of Jordan-block form. With PT symmetry we establish that conformal gravity is consistent at the quantum-mechanical level. In consequence, we can apply the theory to data, to find that the theory is capable of naturally accounting for the systematics of the rotation curves of a large and varied sample of 138 spiral galaxies without any need for dark matter. The success of the fits provides evidence for the relevance of non-diagonalizable but PT-symmetric Hamiltonians to physics. (Copyright copyright 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)
Astrophysical tests of gravity: a screening map of the nearby universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cabré, Anna; Vikram, Vinu; Jain, Bhuvnesh [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA 19104-6396 (United States); Zhao, Gong-Bo; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: annanusca@gmail.com, E-mail: vinu@sas.upenn.edu, E-mail: gong-bo.zhao@port.ac.uk, E-mail: bjain@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: Kazuya.Koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Dennis Sciama Building, Burnaby Road, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)
2012-07-01
Astrophysical tests of modified gravity theories in the nearby universe have been emphasized recently by Hui 2009 and Jain 2011. A key element of such tests is the screening mechanism whereby general relativity is restored in massive halos or high density environments like the Milky Way. In chameleon theories of gravity, including all f(R) models, field dwarf galaxies may be unscreened and therefore feel an extra force, as opposed to screened galaxies. The first step to study differences between screened and unscreened galaxies is to create a 3D screening map. We use N-body simulations to test and calibrate simple approximations to determine the level of screening in galaxy catalogs. Sources of systematic errors in the screening map due to observational inaccuracies are modeled and their contamination is estimated. We then apply our methods to create a map out to 200 Mpc in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey footprint using data from the Sloan survey and other sources. In two companion papers this map will be used to carry out new tests of gravity using distance indicators and the disks of dwarf galaxies. We also make our screening map publicly available.
Automated gravity gradient tensor inversion for underwater object detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Lin; Tian, Jinwen
2010-01-01
Underwater abnormal object detection is a current need for the navigation security of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs). In this paper, an automated gravity gradient tensor inversion algorithm is proposed for the purpose of passive underwater object detection. Full-tensor gravity gradient anomalies induced by an object in the partial area can be measured with the technique of gravity gradiometry on an AUV. Then the automated algorithm utilizes the anomalies, using the inverse method to estimate the mass and barycentre location of the arbitrary-shaped object. A few tests on simple synthetic models will be illustrated, in order to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of the new algorithm. Moreover, the method is applied to a complicated model of an abnormal object with gradiometer and AUV noise, and interference from a neighbouring illusive smaller object. In all cases tested, the estimated mass and barycentre location parameters are found to be in good agreement with the actual values
Astrophysical tests of modified gravity: Constraints from distance indicators in the nearby universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jain, Bhuvnesh; Vikram, Vinu; Sakstein, Jeremy
2013-01-01
We use distance measurements in the nearby universe to carry out new tests of gravity, surpassing other astrophysical tests by over two orders of magnitude for chameleon theories. The three nearby distance indicators—cepheids, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) stars, and water masers—operate in gravitational fields of widely different strengths. This enables tests of scalar-tensor gravity theories because they are screened from enhanced forces to different extents. Inferred distances from cepheids and TRGB stars are altered (in opposite directions) over a range of chameleon gravity theory parameters well below the sensitivity of cosmological probes. Using published data, we have compared cepheid and TRGB distances in a sample of unscreened dwarf galaxies within 10 Mpc. We use a comparable set of screened galaxies as a control sample. We find no evidence for the order unity force enhancements expected in these theories. Using a two-parameter description of the models (the coupling strength and background field value), we obtain constraints on both the chameleon and symmetron screening scenarios. In particular we show that f(R) models with background field values f R0 above 5 × 10 –7 are ruled out at the 95% confidence level. We also compare TRGB and maser distances to the galaxy NGC 4258 as a second test for larger field values. While there are several approximations and caveats in our study, our analysis demonstrates the power of gravity tests in the local universe. We discuss the prospects for additional improved tests with future observations.
Astrophysical tests of modified gravity: Constraints from distance indicators in the nearby universe
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jain, Bhuvnesh; Vikram, Vinu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Sakstein, Jeremy [Department of Applied Mathematics and Theoretical Physics, Cambridge CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2013-12-10
We use distance measurements in the nearby universe to carry out new tests of gravity, surpassing other astrophysical tests by over two orders of magnitude for chameleon theories. The three nearby distance indicators—cepheids, tip of the red giant branch (TRGB) stars, and water masers—operate in gravitational fields of widely different strengths. This enables tests of scalar-tensor gravity theories because they are screened from enhanced forces to different extents. Inferred distances from cepheids and TRGB stars are altered (in opposite directions) over a range of chameleon gravity theory parameters well below the sensitivity of cosmological probes. Using published data, we have compared cepheid and TRGB distances in a sample of unscreened dwarf galaxies within 10 Mpc. We use a comparable set of screened galaxies as a control sample. We find no evidence for the order unity force enhancements expected in these theories. Using a two-parameter description of the models (the coupling strength and background field value), we obtain constraints on both the chameleon and symmetron screening scenarios. In particular we show that f(R) models with background field values f {sub R0} above 5 × 10{sup –7} are ruled out at the 95% confidence level. We also compare TRGB and maser distances to the galaxy NGC 4258 as a second test for larger field values. While there are several approximations and caveats in our study, our analysis demonstrates the power of gravity tests in the local universe. We discuss the prospects for additional improved tests with future observations.
Astrophysical Tests of Kinematical Conformal Cosmology in Fourth-Order Conformal Weyl Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Gabriele U. Varieschi
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In this work we analyze kinematical conformal cosmology (KCC, an alternative cosmological model based on conformal Weyl gravity (CG, and test it against current type Ia supernova (SNIa luminosity data and other astrophysical observations. Expanding upon previous work on the subject, we revise the analysis of SNIa data, confirming that KCC can explain the evidence for an accelerating expansion of the Universe without using dark energy or other exotic components. We obtain an independent evaluation of the Hubble constant, H0 = 67:53 kms-1 Mpc-1, very close to the current best estimates. The main KCC and CG parameters are re-evaluated and their revised values are found to be close to previous estimates. We also show that available data for the Hubble parameter as a function of redshift can be fitted using KCC and that this model does not suffer from any apparent age problem. Overall,
High Energy Astrophysics Tests of Lorentz Invariance and Quantum Gravity Models
Stecker, Floyd W.
2012-01-01
High energy astrophysics observations provide the best possibilities to detect a very small violation of Lorentz invariance such as may be related to the structure of space-time near the Planck scale of approx.10(exp -35) m. I will discuss the possible signatures of Lorentz invariance violation (LIV) that can be manifested by observing of the spectra, polarization, and timing of gamma-rays from active galactic nuclei and gamma-ray bursts. Other sensitive tests are provided by observations of the spectra of ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and neutrinos. Using the latest data from the Pierre Auger Observatory one can already derive an upper limit of 4.5 x 10(exp -23) on the fraction of LIV at a Lorentz factor of approx. 2 x 10(exp 11). This result has fundamental implications for quantum gravity models. I will also discuss the possibilities of using more sensitive space-based detection techniques to improve searches for LIV in the future. I will also discuss how the LIV formalism casts doubt on the OPERA superluminal neutrino claim.
Cloudless Atmospheres for Young Low-Gravity Substellar Objects
Tremblin, P.; Chabrier, G.; Baraffe, I.; Liu, Michael C.; Magnier, E. A.; Lagage, P.-O.; De Oliveira, C. Alves; Burgasser, A. J.; Amundsen, D. S.; Drummond, B.
2017-01-01
Atmospheric modeling of low-gravity (VL-G) young brown dwarfs remains challenging. The presence of very thick clouds is a possible source of this challenge, because of their extremely red near-infrared (NIR) spectra, but no cloud models provide a good fit to the data with a radius compatible with the evolutionary models for these objects. We show that cloudless atmospheres assuming a temperature gradient reduction caused by fingering convection provide a very good model to match the observed VL-G NIR spectra. The sequence of extremely red colors in the NIR for atmospheres with effective temperatures from approx. 2000 K down to approx. 1200 K is very well reproduced with predicted radii typical of young low-gravity objects. Future observations with NIRSPEC and MIRI on the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will provide more constraints in the mid-infrared, helping to confirm or refute whether or not the NIR reddening is caused by fingering convection. We suggest that the presence or absence of clouds will be directly determined by the silicate absorption features that can be observed with MIRI. JWST will therefore be able to better characterize the atmosphere of these hot young brown dwarfs and their low-gravity exoplanet analogs.
Numerical simulation in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miyama, Shoken
1985-01-01
There have been many numerical simulations of hydrodynamical problems in astrophysics, e.g. processes of star formation, supernova explosion and formation of neutron stars, and general relativistic collapse of star to form black hole. The codes are made to be suitable for computing such problems. In astrophysical hydrodynamical problems, there are the characteristics: problems of self-gravity or external gravity acting, objects of scales very large or very short, objects changing by short period or long time scale, problems of magnetic force and/or centrifugal force acting. In this paper, we present one of methods of numerical simulations which may satisfy these requirements, so-called smoothed particle methods. We then introduce the methods briefly. Then, we show one of the applications of the methods to astrophysical problem (fragmentation and collapse of rotating isothermal cloud). (Mori, K.)
Compact Objects in Astrophysics White Dwarfs, Neutron Stars and Black Holes
Camenzind, Max
2007-01-01
Compact objects are an important class of astronomical objects in current research. Supermassive black holes play an important role in the understanding of the formation of galaxies in the early Universe. Old white dwarfs are nowadays used to calibrate the age of the Universe. Mergers of neutron stars and black holes are the sources of intense gravitational waves which will be measured in the next ten years by gravitational wave detectors. Camenzind's Compact Objects in Astrophysics gives a comprehensive introduction and up-to-date overview about the physical processes behind these objects, covering the field from the beginning to most recent results, including all relevant observations. After a presentation of the taxonomy of compact objects, the basic principles of general relativity are given. The author then discusses in detail the physics and observations of white dwarfs and neutron stars (including the most recent equations of state for neutron star matter), the gravitational field of rapidly rotating c...
Scowen, Paul; Perez, Mario R.; Neff, Susan G.; Benford, Dominic J.
2012-01-01
Following several recommendations presented by the Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010 centered around the need to define "a future ultraviolet-optical space capability," on 2012 May 25, NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking persuasive ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength astrophysics science investigations. The goal was to develop a cohesive and compelling set of science objectives that motivate and support the development of the next generation of ultraviolet/visible space astrophysics missions. Responses were due on 10 August 2012 when 34 submissions were received addressing a number of potential science drivers. A UV/visible Mission RFI Workshop was held on 2012 September 20 where each of these submissions was summarized and discussed in the context of each other. We present a scientific analysis of these submissions and presentations and the pursuant measurement capability needs, which could influence ultraviolet/visible technology development plans for the rest of this decade. We also describe the process and requirements leading to the inception of this community RFI, subsequent workshop and the expected evolution of these ideas and concepts for the remainder of this decade.
Scowen, Paul A.; Perez, Mario R.; Neff, Susan G.; Benford, Dominic J.
2014-01-01
Following several recommendations presented by the Astrophysics Decadal Survey 2010 centered around the need to define "a future ultraviolet-optical space capability," on 2012 May 25, NASA issued a Request for Information (RFI) seeking persuasive ultraviolet (UV) and visible wavelength astrophysics science investigations. The goal was to develop a cohesive and compelling set of science objectives that motivate and support the development of the next generation of ultraviolet/visible space astrophysics missions. Responses were due on 10 August 2012 when 34 submissions were received addressing a number of potential science drivers. A UV/visible Mission RFI Workshop was held on 2012 September 20 where each of these submissions was summarized and discussed in the context of each other. We present a scientific analysis of these submissions and presentations and the pursuant measurement capability needs, which could influence ultraviolet/visible technology development plans for the rest of this decade. We also describe the process and requirements leading to the inception of this community RFI, subsequent workshop and the expected evolution of these ideas and concepts for the remainder of this decade.
Conditions for double layers in the earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects
Lyons, L. R.
1987-01-01
It is suggested that the features which govern the formation of the double layers are: (1) the divergence of the magnetospheric electric field, (2) the ionospheric conductivity, and (3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Also considered are conditions in other astrophysical objects that could lead to the formation of DLs in a manner analogous to what occurs in the earth's auroral zones. It is noted that two processes can drive divergent Pedersen currents within a collisional conducting layer: (1) sheared plasma flow applied anywhere along the magnetic field lines connected to the conducting layer and (2) a neutral flow with shear within the conducting layer.
Mimetic Gravity: A Review of Recent Developments and Applications to Cosmology and Astrophysics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lorenzo Sebastiani
2017-01-01
Full Text Available Mimetic gravity is a Weyl-symmetric extension of General Relativity, related to the latter by a singular disformal transformation, wherein the appearance of a dust-like perfect fluid can mimic cold dark matter at a cosmological level. Within this framework, it is possible to provide a unified geometrical explanation for dark matter, the late-time acceleration, and inflation, making it a very attractive theory. In this review, we summarize the main aspects of mimetic gravity, as well as extensions of the minimal formulation of the model. We devote particular focus to the reconstruction technique, which allows the realization of any desired expansionary history of the universe by an accurate choice of potential or other functions defined within the theory (as in the case of mimetic f(R gravity. We briefly discuss cosmological perturbation theory within mimetic gravity. As a case study within which we apply the concepts previously discussed, we study a mimetic Hořava-like theory, of which we explore solutions and cosmological perturbations in detail. Finally, we conclude the review by discussing static spherically symmetric solutions within mimetic gravity and apply our findings to the problem of galactic rotation curves. Our review provides an introduction to mimetic gravity, as well as a concise but self-contained summary of recent findings, progress, open questions, and outlooks on future research directions.
Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gold, Roman
2011-01-01
In this thesis we study the dynamics as well as the resulting gravitational radiation from eccentric binaries of compact objects in the non-linear regime of General Relativity. For this purpose we solve Einstein's field equation numerically in a 3+1 decomposition using the moving-puncture technique. We focus our study on very particular orbits, arising as a purely relativistic phenomenon of the two-body problem in General Relativity, which are associated with unstable circular orbits. They are governed by a fast, nearly circular revolution at a short distance followed by a slow, radial motion on a nearly elliptic trajectory. Due to the unique features of their orbital trajectories they are called zoom-whirl orbits. We analyze how the peculiar dynamics manifests itself in the emitted gravitational radiation and to which extent one can infer the orbital properties from observations of the gravitational waves. In the first part, we consider black hole binaries. We perform a comprehensive parameter study by varying the initial eccentricity, computing and characterizing the resulting gravitational waveforms. We address aspects, which can only be obtained from non-perturbative methods, and which are crucial to the astrophysical relevance of these orbits. In particular, our results imply a fairly low amount of fine-tuning necessary to spot zoom-whirl effects. We find whirl orbits for values of the eccentricities, which fall in disjunct intervals extending to rather low values. Furthermore, we show that whirl effects just before merger cause a signal with significant amplitude. In the second part, we investigate neutron star binaries on eccentric orbits in full General Relativity, which has not been studied so far. We explore their phenomenology and study the consequences for the matter after the neutron stars have merged. In these evolutions the merged neutron stars sooner or later collapse to form a black hole. During the collapse most of the matter is accreted on to the
Eccentric binaries of compact objects in strong-field gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gold, Roman
2011-09-27
In this thesis we study the dynamics as well as the resulting gravitational radiation from eccentric binaries of compact objects in the non-linear regime of General Relativity. For this purpose we solve Einstein's field equation numerically in a 3+1 decomposition using the moving-puncture technique. We focus our study on very particular orbits, arising as a purely relativistic phenomenon of the two-body problem in General Relativity, which are associated with unstable circular orbits. They are governed by a fast, nearly circular revolution at a short distance followed by a slow, radial motion on a nearly elliptic trajectory. Due to the unique features of their orbital trajectories they are called zoom-whirl orbits. We analyze how the peculiar dynamics manifests itself in the emitted gravitational radiation and to which extent one can infer the orbital properties from observations of the gravitational waves. In the first part, we consider black hole binaries. We perform a comprehensive parameter study by varying the initial eccentricity, computing and characterizing the resulting gravitational waveforms. We address aspects, which can only be obtained from non-perturbative methods, and which are crucial to the astrophysical relevance of these orbits. In particular, our results imply a fairly low amount of fine-tuning necessary to spot zoom-whirl effects. We find whirl orbits for values of the eccentricities, which fall in disjunct intervals extending to rather low values. Furthermore, we show that whirl effects just before merger cause a signal with significant amplitude. In the second part, we investigate neutron star binaries on eccentric orbits in full General Relativity, which has not been studied so far. We explore their phenomenology and study the consequences for the matter after the neutron stars have merged. In these evolutions the merged neutron stars sooner or later collapse to form a black hole. During the collapse most of the matter is accreted on
A strong astrophysical constraint on the violation of special relativity by quantum gravity.
Jacobson, T; Liberati, S; Mattingly, D
2003-08-28
Special relativity asserts that physical phenomena appear the same to all unaccelerated observers. This is called Lorentz symmetry and relates long wavelengths to short ones: if the symmetry is exact it implies that space-time must look the same at all length scales. Several approaches to quantum gravity, however, suggest that there may be a microscopic structure of space-time that leads to a violation of Lorentz symmetry. This might arise because of the discreteness or non-commutivity of space-time, or through the action of extra dimensions. Here we determine a very strong constraint on a type of Lorentz violation that produces a maximum electron speed less than the speed of light. We use the observation of 100-MeV synchrotron radiation from the Crab nebula to improve the previous limit by a factor of 40 million, ruling out this type of Lorentz violation, and thereby providing an important constraint on theories of quantum gravity.
Pringle, James E.; King, Andrew
2003-07-01
Almost all conventional matter in the Universe is fluid, and fluid dynamics plays a crucial role in astrophysics. This new graduate textbook provides a basic understanding of the fluid dynamical processes relevant to astrophysics. The mathematics used to describe these processes is simplified to bring out the underlying physics. The authors cover many topics, including wave propagation, shocks, spherical flows, stellar oscillations, the instabilities caused by effects such as magnetic fields, thermal driving, gravity, shear flows, and the basic concepts of compressible fluid dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics. The authors are Directors of the UK Astrophysical Fluids Facility (UKAFF) at the University of Leicester, and editors of the Cambridge Astrophysics Series. This book has been developed from a course in astrophysical fluid dynamics taught at the University of Cambridge. It is suitable for graduate students in astrophysics, physics and applied mathematics, and requires only a basic familiarity with fluid dynamics.• Provides coverage of the fundamental fluid dynamical processes an astrophysical theorist needs to know • Introduces new mathematical theory and techniques in a straightforward manner • Includes end-of-chapter problems to illustrate the course and introduce additional ideas
It's all relative: The role of object weight in toddlers' gravity bias.
Hast, Michael
2018-02-01
Work over the past 20 years has demonstrated a gravity bias in toddlers; when an object is dropped into a curved tube, they will frequently search at a point immediately beneath the entry of the tube rather than in the object's actual location. The current study tested 2- to 3½-year-olds' (N = 88) gravity bias under consideration of object weight. They were tested with either a heavy or light ball, and they had information about either one of the balls only or both balls. Evaluating their first search behavior showed that participants generally displayed the same age trends as other studies had demonstrated, with older toddlers passing more advanced task levels by being able to locate objects in the correct location. Object weight appeared to have no particular impact on the direction of these trends. However, where weight was accessible as relative information, toddlers were younger at passing levels and older at failing levels, although significantly so only from around 3 years of age onward. When they failed levels, toddlers made significantly more gravity errors with the heavy ball when they had information about both balls and made more correct choices with the light ball. As a whole, the findings suggest that nonvisual object variables, such as weight, affect young children's search behaviors in the gravity task, but only if these variables are presented in relation to other objects. This relational information has the potential to enhance or diminish the gravity bias. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
MOSAIC at the E-ELT: A multi-object spectrograph for astrophysics, IGM and cosmology
Hammer, F.; Barbuy, B.; Cuby, J.G.; Kaper, L.; Morris, S.; Evans, C.J.; Jagourel, P.; Dalton, G.; Rees, P.; Puech, M.; Rodriques, M.; Pearson, D.; Disseau, K.
2014-01-01
The Universe is comprised of hundreds of billions of galaxies, each populated by hundreds of billions of stars. Astrophysics aims to understand the complexity of this almost incommensurable number of stars, stellar clusters and galaxies, including their spatial distribution, formation, and current
Advances in astronomy and astrophysics
Kopal, Zdenek
1966-01-01
Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 4 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and starts with a description of objective prism and its application in space observations. The next chapter deals with the possibilities of deriving reliable models of the figure, density distribution, and gravity field of the Moon based on data obtained through Earth-bound telescopes. These topics are followed by a discussion on the ideal partially relativistic, partially degenerate gas in an exact manner. A ch
Remnant for all black objects due to gravity's rainbow
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ali, Ahmed Farag, E-mail: afarag@zewailcity.edu.eg [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Center for Fundamental Physics, Zewail City of Science and Technology, Giza 12588 (Egypt); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Benha University, Benha 13518 (Egypt); Faizal, Mir, E-mail: f2mir@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Khalil, Mohammed M., E-mail: moh.m.khalil@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Alexandria University, Alexandria 12544 (Egypt)
2015-05-15
We argue that a remnant is formed for all black objects in gravity's rainbow. This will be based on the observation that a remnant depends critically on the structure of the rainbow functions, and this dependence is a model independent phenomena. We thus propose general relations for the modified temperature and entropy of all black objects in gravity's rainbow. We explicitly check this to be the case for Kerr, Kerr–Newman-dS, charged-AdS, and higher dimensional Kerr–AdS black holes. We also try to argue that a remnant should form for black saturn in gravity's rainbow. This work extends our previous results on remnants of Schwarzschild black holes and black rings.
Conditions for double layers in the Earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyons, L.R.
1987-01-01
Double layers (i.e., electric fields parallel to B) form along auroral field lines in the Earth's magnetosphere. They form in order to maintain current continuity in the ionosphere in the presence of a magnetospheric electric field E with DEL.E not= O. Features which govern the formation of the double layers are: 1) the divergence of E; 2) the conductivity of the ionosphere; and 3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Astrophysical situations where DEL.E not= O is applied to a conducting plasma similar to the Earth's ionosphere are potential candidates for the formation of double layers. The region with DEL.E not= O can be generated within, or along field lines connected to, the conducting plasma. In addition to DEL.E, shear neutral flow in the conducting plasma can also form double layers. (author)
Conditions for double layers in the Earth's magnetosphere and perhaps in other astrophysical objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lyons, L.R.
1987-01-01
Double layers form along auroral field lines in the Earth's magnetosphere. They form in order to maintain current continuity in the ionosphere in the presence of a magnetospheric electric field E with nabla x E is not equal to 0. Features which govern the formation of the double layers are: (1) the divergence of E, (2) the conductivity of the ionosphere, and (3) the current-voltage characteristics of auroral magnetic field lines. Astrophysical situations where nabla x E is not equal to 0 is applied to a conducting plasma similar to the Earth's ionosphere are potential candidates for the formation of double layers. The region with nabla x E is not equal to 0 can be generated within, or along field lines connected to, the conducting plasma. In addition to nabla x E, shear neutral flow in the conducting plasma can also form double layers
Do massive compact objects without event horizon exist in infinite derivative gravity?
Koshelev, Alexey S.; Mazumdar, Anupam
2017-10-01
Einstein's general theory of relativity is plagued by cosmological and black-hole type singularities Recently, it has been shown that infinite derivative, ghost free, gravity can yield nonsingular cosmological and mini-black hole solutions. In particular, the theory possesses a mass-gap determined by the scale of new physics. This paper provides a plausible argument, not a no-go theorem, based on the Area-law of gravitational entropy that within infinite derivative, ghost free, gravity nonsingular compact objects in the static limit need not have horizons.
The optimal shape of an object for generating maximum gravity field at a given point in space
Wang, Xiao-Wei; Su, Yue
2014-01-01
How can we design the shape of an object, in the framework of Newtonian gravity, in order to generate maximum gravity at a given point in space? In this work we present a study on this interesting problem. We obtain compact solutions for all dimensional cases. The results are commonly characterized by a simple "physical" feature that any mass element unit on the object surface generates the same gravity strength at the considered point, in the direction along the rotational symmetry axis.
FLARE STARS—A FAVORABLE OBJECT FOR STUDYING MECHANISMS OF NONTHERMAL ASTROPHYSICAL PHENOMENA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oks, E. [Physics Department, 206 Allison Lab., Auburn University, Auburn, AL 36849 (United States); Gershberg, R. E. [Crimean Astrophysical Observatory, Nauchny, Bakhchisaray region, Crimea, 298409 (Russian Federation)
2016-03-01
We present a spectroscopic method for diagnosing a low-frequency electrostatic plasma turbulence (LEPT) in plasmas of flare stars. This method had been previously developed by one of us and successfully applied to diagnosing the LEPT in solar flares. In distinction to our previous applications of the method, here we use the latest advances in the theory of the Stark broadening of hydrogen spectral lines. By analyzing observed emission Balmer lines, we show that it is very likely that the LEPT was developed in several flares of AD Leo, as well as in one flare of EV Lac. We found the LEPT (though of different field strengths) both in the explosive/impulsive phase and at the phase of the maximum, as well as at the gradual phase of the stellar flares. While for solar flares our method allows diagnosing the LEPT only in the most powerful flares, for the flare stars it seems that the method allows revealing the LEPT practically in every flare. It should be important to obtain new and better spectrograms of stellar flares, allowing their analysis by the method outlined in the present paper. This can be the most favorable way to the detailed understanding of the nature of nonthermal astrophysical phenomena.
Baker, D. N.; Borovsky, Joseph E.; Benford, Gregory; Eilek, Jean A.
1988-01-01
A model of the inner portions of astrophysical jets is constructed in which a relativistic electron beam is injected from the central engine into the jet plasma. This beam drives electrostatic plasma wave turbulence, which leads to the collective emission of electromagnetic waves. The emitted waves are beamed in the direction of the jet axis, so that end-on viewing of the jet yields an extremely bright source (BL Lacertae object). The relativistic electron beam may also drive long-wavelength electromagnetic plasma instabilities (firehose and Kelvin-Helmholtz) that jumble the jet magnetic field lines. After a sufficient distance from the core source, these instabilities will cause the beamed emission to point in random directions and the jet emission can then be observed from any direction relative to the jet axis. This combination of effects may lead to the gap turn-on of astrophysical jets. The collective emission model leads to different estimates for energy transport and the interpretation of radio spectra than the conventional incoherent synchrotron theory.
Gamow, George
2003-01-01
A distinguished physicist and teacher, George Gamow also possessed a special gift for making the intricacies of science accessible to a wide audience. In Gravity, he takes an enlightening look at three of the towering figures of science who unlocked many of the mysteries behind the laws of physics: Galileo, the first to take a close look at the process of free and restricted fall; Newton, originator of the concept of gravity as a universal force; and Einstein, who proposed that gravity is no more than the curvature of the four-dimensional space-time continuum.Graced with the author's own draw
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lehoucq, Roland; Klotz, Gregory
2015-11-01
Astronomy deals with the position and observation of the objects in our Universe, from planets to galaxies. It is the oldest of the sciences. Astrophysics is the study of the physical properties of these objects. It dates from the start of the 20. century. Nuclear astrophysics is the marriage of nuclear physics, a laboratory science concerned with the infinitely small, and astrophysics, the science of what is far away and infinitely large. Its aim is to explain the origin, evolution and abundance of the elements in the Universe. It was born in 1938 with the work of Hans Bethe, an American physicist who won the Nobel Prize for physics in 1967, on the nuclear reactions that can occur at the center of stars. It explains where the incredible energy of the stars and the Sun comes from and enables us to understand how they are born, live and die. The matter all around us and from which we are made, is made up of ninety-two chemical elements that can be found in every corner of the Universe. Nuclear astrophysics explains the origin of these chemical elements by nucleosynthesis, which is the synthesis of atomic nuclei in different astrophysical environments such as stars. Nuclear astrophysics provides answers to fundamental questions: - Our Sun and the stars in general shine because nuclear reactions are taking place within them. - The stars follow a sequence of nuclear reaction cycles. Nucleosynthesis in the stars enables us to explain the origin and abundance of elements essential to life, such as carbon, oxygen, nitrogen and iron. - Star explosions, in the form of supernovae, disperse the nuclei formed by nucleosynthesis into space and explain the formation of the heaviest chemical elements such as gold, platinum and lead. Nuclear astrophysics is still a growing area of science. (authors)
Gravity influences the visual representation of object tilt in parietal cortex.
Rosenberg, Ari; Angelaki, Dora E
2014-10-22
Sensory systems encode the environment in egocentric (e.g., eye, head, or body) reference frames, creating inherently unstable representations that shift and rotate as we move. However, it is widely speculated that the brain transforms these signals into an allocentric, gravity-centered representation of the world that is stable and independent of the observer's spatial pose. Where and how this representation may be achieved is currently unknown. Here we demonstrate that a subpopulation of neurons in the macaque caudal intraparietal area (CIP) visually encodes object tilt in nonegocentric coordinates defined relative to the gravitational vector. Neuronal responses to the tilt of a visually presented planar surface were measured with the monkey in different spatial orientations (upright and rolled left/right ear down) and then compared. This revealed a continuum of representations in which planar tilt was encoded in a gravity-centered reference frame in approximately one-tenth of the comparisons, intermediate reference frames ranging between gravity-centered and egocentric in approximately two-tenths of the comparisons, and in an egocentric reference frame in less than half of the comparisons. Altogether, almost half of the comparisons revealed a shift in the preferred tilt and/or a gain change consistent with encoding object orientation in nonegocentric coordinates. Through neural network modeling, we further show that a purely gravity-centered representation of object tilt can be achieved directly from the population activity of CIP-like units. These results suggest that area CIP may play a key role in creating a stable, allocentric representation of the environment defined relative to an "earth-vertical" direction. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414170-11$15.00/0.
TRANS-neptunian objects and comets Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy
Jewitt, David; Rauer, Heike
2007-01-01
In the last two decades of the 20th century, we obtained our first detailed look at a cometary nucleus and detected objects in the Kuiper-Edgeworth Belt for the first time. These two observations have resulted in a major leap forward in our understanding of small bodies in our Solar System. Combined with powerful new approaches to the study of Solar System dynamics, progress within the last 20 years has been staggering. This book attempts to synthesize these new findings in a manner which is readable for new graduate students in the field.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bratsolis Emmanuel
2005-01-01
Full Text Available Stellar spectral classification is not only a tool for labeling individual stars but is also useful in studies of stellar population synthesis. Extracting the physical quantities from the digitized spectral plates involves three main stages: detection, extraction, and classification of spectra. Low-dispersion objective prism images have been used and automated methods have been developed. The detection and extraction problems have been presented in previous works. In this paper, we present a classification method based on an artificial neural network (ANN. We make a brief presentation of the entire automated system and we compare the new classification method with the previously used method of maximum correlation coefficient (MCC. Digitized photographic material has been used here. The method can also be used on CCD spectral images.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
We study the cosmological dynamics for R p exp( λ R ) gravity theory in the metric formalism, using dynamical systems approach. Considering higher-dimensional FRW geometries in case of an imperfect fluid which has two different scale factors in the normal and extra dimensions, we find the exact solutions, and study its ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnould, M.; Takahashi, K.
1999-01-01
Nuclear astrophysics is that branch of astrophysics which helps understanding of the Universe, or at least some of its many faces, through the knowledge of the microcosm of the atomic nucleus. It attempts to find as many nuclear physics imprints as possible in the macrocosm, and to decipher what those messages are telling us about the varied constituent objects in the Universe at present and in the past. In the last decades much advance has been made in nuclear astrophysics thanks to the sometimes spectacular progress made in the modelling of the structure and evolution of the stars, in the quality and diversity of the astronomical observations, as well as in the experimental and theoretical understanding of the atomic nucleus and of its spontaneous or induced transformations. Developments in other subfields of physics and chemistry have also contributed to that advance. Notwithstanding the accomplishment, many long-standing problems remain to be solved, and the theoretical understanding of a large variety of observational facts needs to be put on safer grounds. In addition, new questions are continuously emerging, and new facts endangering old ideas. This review shows that astrophysics has been, and still is, highly demanding to nuclear physics in both its experimental and theoretical components. On top of the fact that large varieties of nuclei have to be dealt with, these nuclei are immersed in highly unusual environments which may have a significant impact on their static properties, the diversity of their transmutation modes, and on the probabilities of these modes. In order to have a chance of solving some of the problems nuclear astrophysics is facing, the astrophysicists and nuclear physicists are obviously bound to put their competence in common, and have sometimes to benefit from the help of other fields of physics, like particle physics, plasma physics or solid-state physics. Given the highly varied and complex aspects, we pick here some specific nuclear
The optimal shape of an object for generating maximum gravity field at a given point in space
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Xiao-Wei; Su, Yue
2015-01-01
How can we design the shape of an object, in the framework of Newtonian gravity, in order to generate maximum gravity at a given point in space? In this work we present a study on this interesting problem. We obtain compact solutions for all dimensional cases. The results are commonly characterized by a simple ‘physical’ feature that any mass element unit on the object surface generates the same gravity strength at the considered point, in the direction along the rotational symmetry axis. (paper)
Crevecoeur, F; McIntyre, J; Thonnard, J-L; Lefèvre, P
2014-07-15
Moving requires handling gravitational and inertial constraints pulling on our body and on the objects that we manipulate. Although previous work emphasized that the brain uses internal models of each type of mechanical load, little is known about their interaction during motor planning and execution. In this report, we examine visually guided reaching movements in the horizontal plane performed by naive participants exposed to changes in gravity during parabolic flight. This approach allowed us to isolate the effect of gravity because the environmental dynamics along the horizontal axis remained unchanged. We show that gravity has a direct effect on movement kinematics, with faster movements observed after transitions from normal gravity to hypergravity (1.8g), followed by significant movement slowing after the transition from hypergravity to zero gravity. We recorded finger forces applied on an object held in precision grip and found that the coupling between grip force and inertial loads displayed a similar effect, with an increase in grip force modulation gain under hypergravity followed by a reduction of modulation gain after entering the zero-gravity environment. We present a computational model to illustrate that these effects are compatible with the hypothesis that participants partially attribute changes in weight to changes in mass and scale incorrectly their motor commands with changes in gravity. These results highlight a rather direct internal mapping between the force generated during stationary holding against gravity and the estimation of inertial loads that limb and hand motor commands must overcome. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.
Black holes a laboratory for testing strong gravity
Bambi, Cosimo
2017-01-01
This textbook introduces the current astrophysical observations of black holes, and discusses the leading techniques to study the strong gravity region around these objects with electromagnetic radiation. More importantly, it provides the basic tools for writing an astrophysical code and testing the Kerr paradigm. Astrophysical black holes are an ideal laboratory for testing strong gravity. According to general relativity, the spacetime geometry around these objects should be well described by the Kerr solution. The electromagnetic radiation emitted by the gas in the inner part of the accretion disk can probe the metric of the strong gravity region and test the Kerr black hole hypothesis. With exercises and examples in each chapter, as well as calculations and analytical details in the appendix, the book is especially useful to the beginners or graduate students who are familiar with general relativity while they do not have any background in astronomy or astrophysics.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guendelman, E.
2004-01-01
Full Text:The Volume Element of Space Time can be considered as a geometrical object which can be independent of the metric. The use in the action of a volume element which is metric independent leads to the appearance of a measure of integration which is metric independent. This can be applied to all known generally coordinate invariant theories, we will discuss three very important cases: 1. 4-D theories describing gravity and matter fields, 2. Parametrization invariant theories of extended objects and 3. Higher dimensional theories including gravity and matter fields. In case 1, a large number of new effects appear: (i) spontaneous breaking of scale invariance associated to integration of degrees of freedom related to the measure, (ii) under normal particle physics laboratory conditions fermions split into three families, but when matter is highly diluted, neutrinos increase their mass and become suitable candidates for dark matter, (iii) cosmic coincidence between dark energy and dark matter is natural, (iv) quintessence scenarios with automatic decoupling of the quintessence scalar to ordinary matter, but not dark matter are obtained (2) For theories or extended objects, the use of a measure of integration independent of the metric leads to (i) dynamical tension, (ii) string models of non abelian confinement (iii) The possibility of new Weyl invariant light-like branes (WTT.L branes). These Will branes dynamically adjust themselves to sit at black hole horizons and in the context of higher dimensional theories can provide examples of massless 4-D particles with nontrivial Kaluza Klein quantum numbers, (3) In Bronx and Kaluza Klein scenarios, the use of a measure independent of the metric makes it possible to construct naturally models where only the extra dimensions get curved and the 4-D observable space-time remain flat
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lusanna, Luca
2006-01-01
This is a review of the chrono-geometrical structure of special and general relativity with a special emphasis on the role of non-inertial frames and of the conventions for the synchronization of distant clocks. ADM canonical metric and tetrad gravity are analyzed in a class of space-times suitable to incorporate particle physics by using Dirac theory of constraints, which allows to arrive at a separation of the genuine degrees of freedom of the gravitational field, the Dirac observables describing generalized tidal effects, from its gauge variables, describing generalized inertial effects. A background-independent formulation (the rest-frame instant form of tetrad gravity) emerges, since the chosen boundary conditions at spatial infinity imply the existence of an asymptotic flat metric. By switching off the Newton constant in presence of matter this description deparametrizes to the rest-frame instant form for such matter in the framework of parametrized Minkowski theories. The problem of the objectivity of the spacetime point-events, implied by Einstein's Hole Argument, is analyzed
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gribbin, John.
1990-01-01
This paper looks at Einstein's Theory of General Relativity and lists its accomplishments in explaining many problems in gravitation and astrophysics. It was Einstin's genius that led to our present comprehensive theory of gravity. Various ideas central to the theory are explained, such as the bending of space and time by massive objects, geodesics, the origin of the universe. In astrophysics, recent discoveries such as black holes, quasars, gravitational lenses, gravitational radiation, such as that coming from pulsars, can all be explained and understood using Einstein's ideas. (UK)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Keeton, Charles R.; Petters, A.O.
2006-01-01
We study gravitational lensing by compact objects in gravity theories that can be written in a post-post-Newtonian (PPN) framework: i.e., the metric is static and spherically symmetric, and can be written as a Taylor series in m /r, where m is the gravitational radius of the compact object. Working invariantly, we compute corrections to standard weak-deflection lensing observables at first and second order in the perturbation parameter ε=θ/θ E , where θ is the angular gravitational radius and θ E is the angular Einstein ring radius of the lens. We show that the first-order corrections to the total magnification and centroid position vanish universally for gravity theories that can be written in the PPN framework. This arises from some surprising, fundamental relations among the lensing observables in PPN gravity models. We derive these relations for the image positions, magnifications, and time delays. A deep consequence is that any violation of the universal relations would signal the need for a gravity model outside the PPN framework (provided that some basic assumptions hold). In practical terms, the relations will guide observational programs to test general relativity, modified gravity theories, and possibly the cosmic censorship conjecture. We use the new relations to identify lensing observables that are accessible to current or near-future technology, and to find combinations of observables that are most useful for probing the spacetime metric. We give explicit applications to the galactic black hole, microlensing, and the binary pulsar J0737-3039
An object-oriented model of the cardiopulmonary system with emphasis on the gravity effect.
Chuong Ngo; Herranz, Silvia Briones; Misgeld, Berno; Vollmer, Thomas; Leonhardt, Steffen
2016-08-01
We introduce a novel comprehensive model of the cardiopulmonary system with emphasis on perfusion and ventilation distribution along the vertical thorax axis under the gravity effect. By using an object-oriented environment, the complex physiological system can be represented by a network of electrical, lumped-element compartments. The lungs are divided into three zones: upper, middle, and lower zone. Blood flow increases with the distance from the apex to the base of the lungs. The upper zone is characterized by a complete collapse of the pulmonary capillary vasculature; thus, there is no flow in this zone. The second zone has a "waterfall effect" where the blood flow is determined by the difference between the pulmonary-arterial and alveolar pressures. At resting position, the upper lobes of the lungs are more expanded than the middle and lower lobes. However, during spontaneous breathing, ventilation is nonuniform with more air entering the lower lobes than the middle and upper lobes. A simulative model of the complete system is developed which shows results in good agreement with the literature.
Testing Gravity Using Dwarf Stars
Sakstein, Jeremy
2015-01-01
Generic scalar-tensor theories of gravity predict deviations from Newtonian physics inside astrophysical bodies. In this paper, we point out that low mass stellar objects, red and brown dwarf stars, are excellent probes of these theories. We calculate two important and potentially observable quantities: the radius of brown dwarfs and the minimum mass for hydrogen burning in red dwarfs. The brown dwarf radius can differ significantly from the GR prediction and upcoming surveys that probe the m...
Hoson, Takayuki; Akamatsu, Haruhiko; Soga, Kouichi; Wakabayashi, Kazuyuki; Hashimoto, Hirofumi; Yamashita, Masamichi; Hasegawa, Katsuya; Yano, Sachiko; Omori, Katsunori; Ishioka, Noriaki; Matsumoto, Shohei; Kasahara, Haruo; Shimazu, Toru; A. Baba, Shoji; Hashimoto, Takashi
Gravity resistance is a principal graviresponse in plants. In resistance to hypergravity, the gravity signal may be perceived by the mechanoreceptors located on the plasma membrane, and then transformed and transduced via the structural continuum or physiological continuity of cortical microtubules-plasma membrane-cell wall, leading to an increase in the cell wall rigidity as the final response. The Resist Tubule experiment, which will be conducted in the Kibo Module on the International Space Station, aims to confirm that this hypothesis is applicable to resistance to 1 G gravity. There are two major objectives in the Resist Tubule experiment. One is to quantify the contributions of cortical microtubules to gravity resistance using Arabidopsis tubulin mutants with different degrees of defects. Another objective is to analyze the modifications to dynamics of cortical microtubules and membrane rafts under microgravity conditions on-site by observing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-expressing Arabidopsis lines with the fluorescence microscope in the Kibo. We have selected suitable mutants, developed necessary hardware, and fixed operation procedure for the experiment.
Do massive compact objects without event horizon exist in infinite derivative gravity
Koshelev, Alexey S.; Mazumdar, Anupam
2017-01-01
Einstein’s general theory of relativity is plagued by cosmological and black-hole type singularities Recently, it has been shown that infinite derivative, ghost free, gravity can yield nonsingular cosmological and mini-black hole solutions. In particular, the theory possesses a mass-gap determined
De Sá Teixeira, Nuno
2016-01-01
Visual memory for the spatial location where a moving target vanishes has been found to be systematically displaced downward in the direction of gravity. Moreover, it was recently reported that the magnitude of the downward error increases steadily with increasing retention intervals imposed after object's offset and before observers are allowed to perform the spatial localization task, in a pattern where the remembered vanishing location drifts downward as if following a falling trajectory. This outcome was taken to reflect the dynamics of a representational model of earth's gravity. The present study aims to establish the spatial and temporal features of this downward drift by taking into account the dynamics of the motor response. The obtained results show that the memory for the last location of the target drifts downward with time, thus replicating previous results. Moreover, the time taken for completion of the behavioural localization movements seems to add to the imposed retention intervals in determining the temporal frame during which the visual memory is updated. Overall, it is reported that the representation of spatial location drifts downward by about 3 pixels for each two-fold increase of time until response. The outcomes are discussed in relation to a predictive internal model of gravity which outputs an on-line spatial update of remembered objects' location.
Senot, Patrice; Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco; McIntyre, Joseph
2005-12-01
Intercepting an object requires a precise estimate of its time of arrival at the interception point (time to contact or "TTC"). It has been proposed that knowledge about gravitational acceleration can be combined with first-order, visual-field information to provide a better estimate of TTC when catching falling objects. In this experiment, we investigated the relative role of visual and nonvisual information on motor-response timing in an interceptive task. Subjects were immersed in a stereoscopic virtual environment and asked to intercept with a virtual racket a ball falling from above or rising from below. The ball moved with different initial velocities and could accelerate, decelerate, or move at a constant speed. Depending on the direction of motion, the acceleration or deceleration of the ball could therefore be congruent or not with the acceleration that would be expected due to the force of gravity acting on the ball. Although the best success rate was observed for balls moving at a constant velocity, we systematically found a cross-effect of ball direction and acceleration on success rate and response timing. Racket motion was triggered on average 25 ms earlier when the ball fell from above than when it rose from below, whatever the ball's true acceleration. As visual-flow information was the same in both cases, this shift indicates an influence of the ball's direction relative to gravity on response timing, consistent with the anticipation of the effects of gravity on the flight of the ball.
Scaling law in laboratory astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Xia Jiangfan; Zhang Jie
2001-01-01
The use of state-of-the-art lasers makes it possible to produce, in the laboratory, the extreme conditions similar to those in astrophysical processes. The introduction of astrophysics-relevant ideas in laser-plasma interaction experiments is propitious to the understanding of astrophysical phenomena. However, the great difference between laser-produced plasma and astrophysical objects makes it awkward to model the latter by laser-plasma experiments. The author presents the physical reasons for modeling astrophysical plasmas by laser plasmas, connecting these two kinds of plasmas by scaling laws. This allows the creation of experimental test beds where observation and models can be quantitatively compared with laboratory data
Astrophysics Decoding the cosmos
Irwin, Judith A
2007-01-01
Astrophysics: Decoding the Cosmos is an accessible introduction to the key principles and theories underlying astrophysics. This text takes a close look at the radiation and particles that we receive from astronomical objects, providing a thorough understanding of what this tells us, drawing the information together using examples to illustrate the process of astrophysics. Chapters dedicated to objects showing complex processes are written in an accessible manner and pull relevant background information together to put the subject firmly into context. The intention of the author is that the book will be a 'tool chest' for undergraduate astronomers wanting to know the how of astrophysics. Students will gain a thorough grasp of the key principles, ensuring that this often-difficult subject becomes more accessible.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Font, J. A.
2015-01-01
The relativistic astrophysics is the field of astrophysics employing the theory of relativity Einstein as physical-mathematical model is to study the universe. This discipline analyzes astronomical contexts in which the laws of classical mechanics of Newton's law of gravitation are not valid. (Author)
Lang, Kenneth R
2013-01-01
Essential Astrophysics is a book to learn or teach from, as well as a fundamental reference volume for anyone interested in astronomy and astrophysics. It presents astrophysics from basic principles without requiring any previous study of astronomy or astrophysics. It serves as a comprehensive introductory text, which takes the student through the field of astrophysics in lecture-sized chapters of basic physical principles applied to the cosmos. This one-semester overview will be enjoyed by undergraduate students with an interest in the physical sciences, such as astronomy, chemistry, engineering or physics, as well as by any curious student interested in learning about our celestial science. The mathematics required for understanding the text is on the level of simple algebra, for that is all that is needed to describe the fundamental principles. The text is of sufficient breadth and depth to prepare the interested student for more advanced specialized courses in the future. Astronomical examples are provide...
Gravity a very short introduction
Clifton, Timothy
2017-01-01
Gravity is one of the four fundamental interactions that exist in nature. It also has the distinction of being the oldest, weakest, and most difficult force to quantize. Understanding gravity is not only essential for understanding the motion of objects on Earth, but also the motion of all celestial objects, and even the expansion of the Universe itself. It was the study of gravity that led Einstein to his profound realizations about the nature of space and time. Gravity is not only universal, it is also essential for understanding the behavior of the Universe, and all astrophysical bodies within it. In this Very Short Introduction Timothy Clifton looks at the development of our understanding of gravity since the early observations of Kepler and Newtonian theory. He discusses Einstein's theory of gravity, which now supplants Newton's, showing how it allows us to understand why the frequency of light changes as it passes through a gravitational field, why GPS satellites need their clocks corrected as they orbi...
Zago, Myrka; Lacquaniti, Francesco
2005-09-01
Prevailing views on how we time the interception of a moving object assume that the visual inputs are informationally sufficient to estimate the time-to-contact from the object's kinematics. However, there are limitations in the visual system that raise questions about the general validity of these theories. Most notably, vision is poorly sensitive to arbitrary accelerations. How then does the brain deal with the motion of objects accelerated by Earth's gravity? Here we review evidence in favor of the view that the brain makes the best estimate about target motion based on visually measured kinematics and an a priori guess about the causes of motion. According to this theory, a predictive model is used to extrapolate time-to-contact from the expected kinetics in the Earth's gravitational field.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Haxton, W.C.
1992-01-01
The problem of core-collapse supernovae is used to illustrate the many connections between nuclear astrophysics and the problems nuclear physicists study in terrestrial laboratories. Efforts to better understand the collapse and mantle ejection are also motivated by a variety of interdisciplinary issues in nuclear, particle, and astrophysics, including galactic chemical evolution, neutrino masses and mixing, and stellar cooling by the emission of new particles. The current status of theory and observations is summarized
Demianski, Marek
2013-01-01
Relativistic Astrophysics brings together important astronomical discoveries and the significant achievements, as well as the difficulties in the field of relativistic astrophysics. This book is divided into 10 chapters that tackle some aspects of the field, including the gravitational field, stellar equilibrium, black holes, and cosmology. The opening chapters introduce the theories to delineate gravitational field and the elements of relativistic thermodynamics and hydrodynamics. The succeeding chapters deal with the gravitational fields in matter; stellar equilibrium and general relativity
Constraints on modified gravity models from white dwarfs
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Banerjee, Srimanta; Singh, Tejinder P. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, Mumbai 400005, Maharashtra (India); Shankar, Swapnil, E-mail: srimanta.banerjee@tifr.res.in, E-mail: swapnil.shankar@cbs.ac.in, E-mail: tpsingh@tifr.res.in [Department of Physics, Centre for Excellence in Basic Sciences, Mumbai 400098, Maharashtra (India)
2017-10-01
Modified gravity theories can introduce modifications to the Poisson equation in the Newtonian limit. As a result, we expect to see interesting features of these modifications inside stellar objects. White dwarf stars are one of the most well studied stars in stellar astrophysics. We explore the effect of modified gravity theories inside white dwarfs. We derive the modified stellar structure equations and solve them to study the mass-radius relationships for various modified gravity theories. We also constrain the parameter space of these theories from observations.
Nuclear reactions in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arnould, M.; Rayet, M.
1990-01-01
At all times and at all astrophysical scales, nuclear reactions have played and continue to play a key role. This concerns the energetics as well as the production of nuclides (nucleosynthesis). After a brief review of the observed composition of various objects in the universe, and especially of the solar system, the basic ingredients that are required in order to build up models for the chemical evolution of galaxies are sketched. Special attention is paid to the evaluation of the stellar yields through an overview of the important burning episodes and nucleosynthetic processes that can develop in non-exploding or exploding stars. Emphasis is put on the remaining astrophysical and nuclear physics uncertainties that hamper a clear understanding of the observed characteristics, and especially compositions, of a large variety of astrophysical objects
Dynamic optimal grasping of a circular object with gravity using robotic soft-fingertips
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
García-Rodríguez Rodolfo
2016-06-01
Full Text Available Object manipulation usually requires dexterity, encoded as the ability to roll, which is very difficult to achieve with robotic hands based on point contact models (subject to holonomic constraints. As an alternative for dexterous manipulation, deformable contact with hemispherical shape fingertips has been proposed to yield naturally a rolling constraint. It entails dexterity at the expense of dealing with normal and tangential forces, as well as more elaborated models and control schemes. Furthermore, the essential feature of the quality of grasp can be addressed with this type of robot hands, but it has been overlooked for deformable contact. In this paper, a passivity-based controller that considers an optimal grasping measure is proposed for robotic hands with hemispherical deformable fingertips, to manipulate circular dynamic objects. Optimal grasping that minimizes the contact wrenches is achieved through fingertip rolling until normal forces pass through the center of mass of the object, aligning the relative angle between these normal forces. The case of a circular object is developed in detail, though our proposal can be extended to objects with an arbitrary shape that admit a local decomposition by a circular curvature. Simulation and experimental results show convergence under various conditions, wherein rolling and tangent forces become instrumental to achieve such a quality of grasp.
Harwit, Martin
2006-01-01
This classic text, aimed at senior undergraduates and beginning graduate students in physics and astronomy, presents a wide range of astrophysical concepts in sufficient depth to give the reader a quantitative understanding of the subject. Emphasizing physical concepts, the book outlines cosmic events but does not portray them in detail: it provides a series of astrophysical sketches. For this fourth edition, nearly every part of the text has been reconsidered and rewritten, new sections have been added to cover recent developments, and others have been extensively revised and brought up to date. The book begins with an outline of the scope of modern astrophysics and enumerates some of the outstanding problems faced in the field today. The basic physics needed to tackle these questions are developed in the next few chapters using specific astronomical processes as examples. The second half of the book enlarges on these topics and shows how we can obtain quantitative insight into the structure and evolution of...
Kaplan, S A; ter Haar, D
2013-01-01
Plasma Astrophysics is a translation from the Russian language; the topics discussed are based on lectures given by V.N. Tsytovich at several universities. The book describes the physics of the various phenomena and their mathematical formulation connected with plasma astrophysics. This book also explains the theory of the interaction of fast particles plasma, their radiation activities, as well as the plasma behavior when exposed to a very strong magnetic field. The text describes the nature of collective plasma processes and of plasma turbulence. One author explains the method of elementary
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Roulet, E.
2001-01-01
A general overview of neutrino physics and astrophysics is given, starting with a historical account of the development of our understanding of neutrinos and how they helped to unravel the structure of the Standard Model. We discuss why it is so important to establish if neutrinos are massive and introduce the main scenarios to provide them a mass. The present bounds and the positive indications in favor of non-zero neutrino masses are discussed, including the recent results on atmospheric and solar neutrinos. The major role that neutrinos play in astrophysics and cosmology is illustrated. (author)
Burrage, Clare; Sakstein, Jeremy
2018-03-01
Theories of modified gravity, where light scalars with non-trivial self-interactions and non-minimal couplings to matter—chameleon and symmetron theories—dynamically suppress deviations from general relativity in the solar system. On other scales, the environmental nature of the screening means that such scalars may be relevant. The highly-nonlinear nature of screening mechanisms means that they evade classical fifth-force searches, and there has been an intense effort towards designing new and novel tests to probe them, both in the laboratory and using astrophysical objects, and by reinterpreting existing datasets. The results of these searches are often presented using different parametrizations, which can make it difficult to compare constraints coming from different probes. The purpose of this review is to summarize the present state-of-the-art searches for screened scalars coupled to matter, and to translate the current bounds into a single parametrization to survey the state of the models. Presently, commonly studied chameleon models are well-constrained but less commonly studied models have large regions of parameter space that are still viable. Symmetron models are constrained well by astrophysical and laboratory tests, but there is a desert separating the two scales where the model is unconstrained. The coupling of chameleons to photons is tightly constrained but the symmetron coupling has yet to be explored. We also summarize the current bounds on f( R) models that exhibit the chameleon mechanism (Hu and Sawicki models). The simplest of these are well constrained by astrophysical probes, but there are currently few reported bounds for theories with higher powers of R. The review ends by discussing the future prospects for constraining screened modified gravity models further using upcoming and planned experiments.
Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX
2012-01-01
The Gravity and Extreme Magnetism SMEX mission will be the first mission to catalogue the X-ray polarisation of many astrophysical objects including black-holes and pulsars. This first of its kind mission is enabled by the novel use of a time projection chamber as an X-ray polarimeter. The detector has been developed over the last 5 years, with the current effort charged toward a demonstration of it's technical readiness to be at level 6 prior to the preliminary design review. This talk will describe the design GEMS polarimeter and the results to date from the engineering test unit.
Price, R H
1993-01-01
Work reported in the workshop on relativistic astrophysics spanned a wide varicy of topics. Two speciﬁc areas seemed of particular interest. Much attention was focussed on gravitational wave sources, especially on the waveforms they produce, and progress was reported in theoretical and observational aspects of accretion disks.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cameron, A.G.W.
1984-01-01
Examining recent history, current trends, and future possibilities, the author reports the frontiers of research on the solar system, stars, galactic physics, and cosmological physics. The book discusses the great discoveries in astronomy and astrophysics and examines the circumstances in which they occurred. It discusses the physics of white dwarfs, the inflationary universe, the extinction of dinosaurs, black hole, cosmological models, and much more
Physics of Relativistic Objects in Compact Binaries: From Birth to Coalescence
Colpi, Monica; Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Possenti, Andrea
2009-01-01
This book provides a comprehensive, authoritative and timely review of the astrophysical approach to the investigation of gravity theories. Particular attention is paid to strong-field tests of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity, performed using collapsed objects (neutron stars, black holes and white dwarfs) in relativistic binaries as laboratories. The book starts with an introduction which gives the background linking experimental gravity in cosmic laboratories to astrophysics and fundamental physics. Subsequent chapters cover observational and theoretical aspects of the following topics: from binaries as test-beds of gravity theories to binary pulsars as cosmic laboratories; from binary star evolution to the formation of relativistic binaries; from short gamma-ray bursts to low mass X-ray binaries; from stellar-mass black hole binaries to coalescing super-massive black holes in galaxy mergers. The book will be useful to researchers, PhD and graduate students in Astrophysics, Cosmology, ...
Léna, Pierre; Lebrun, François; Mignard, François; Pelat, Didier
2012-01-01
This is the updated, widely revised, restructured and expanded third edition of Léna et al.'s successful work Observational Astrophysics. It presents a synthesis on tools and methods of observational astrophysics of the early 21st century. Written specifically for astrophysicists and graduate students, this textbook focuses on fundamental and sometimes practical limitations on the ultimate performance that an astronomical system may reach, rather than presenting particular systems in detail. In little more than a decade there has been extraordinary progress in imaging and detection technologies, in the fields of adaptive optics, optical interferometry, in the sub-millimetre waveband, observation of neutrinos, discovery of exoplanets, to name but a few examples. The work deals with ground-based and space-based astronomy and their respective fields. And it also presents the ambitious concepts behind space missions aimed for the next decades. Avoiding particulars, it covers the whole of the electromagnetic spec...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dartois E.
2014-02-01
Full Text Available Clathrate hydrates, ice inclusion compounds, are of major importance for the Earth’s permafrost regions and may control the stability of gases in many astrophysical bodies such as the planets, comets and possibly interstellar grains. Their physical behavior may provide a trapping mechanism to modify the absolute and relative composition of icy bodies that could be the source of late-time injection of gaseous species in planetary atmospheres or hot cores. In this study, we provide and discuss laboratory-recorded infrared signatures of clathrate hydrates in the near to mid-infrared and the implications for space-based astrophysical tele-detection in order to constrain their possible presence.
Smith, Robert C
1995-01-01
Combining a critical account of observational methods (telescopes and instrumentation) with a lucid description of the Universe, including stars, galaxies and cosmology, Smith provides a comprehensive introduction to the whole of modern astrophysics beyond the solar system. The first half describes the techniques used by astronomers to observe the Universe: optical telescopes and instruments are discussed in detail, but observations at all wavelengths are covered, from radio to gamma-rays. After a short interlude describing the appearance of the sky at all wavelengths, the role of positional astronomy is highlighted. In the second half, a clear description is given of the contents of the Universe, including accounts of stellar evolution and cosmological models. Fully illustrated throughout, with exercises given in each chapter, this textbook provides a thorough introduction to astrophysics for all physics undergraduates, and a valuable background for physics graduates turning to research in astronomy.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1987-01-01
A number of studies in the field of steller astrophysics were undertaken by the South African Astronomical Observatory in 1986. These studies included; evolutionary effects on the surface abundances of an early-type supergiant; hydrogen deficient stars; t tauri stars; rotational modulation and flares on RS CVn and BY Dra stars; carbon and heavy element stars, and slow variability and circumstellar shells of red variable stars. 4 figs
Astrophysical constraints on Planck scale dissipative phenomena.
Liberati, Stefano; Maccione, Luca
2014-04-18
The emergence of a classical spacetime from any quantum gravity model is still a subtle and only partially understood issue. If indeed spacetime is arising as some sort of large scale condensate of more fundamental objects, then it is natural to expect that matter, being a collective excitation of the spacetime constituents, will present modified kinematics at sufficiently high energies. We consider here the phenomenology of the dissipative effects necessarily arising in such a picture. Adopting dissipative hydrodynamics as a general framework for the description of the energy exchange between collective excitations and the spacetime fundamental degrees of freedom, we discuss how rates of energy loss for elementary particles can be derived from dispersion relations and used to provide strong constraints on the base of current astrophysical observations of high-energy particles.
Bardeen, J. M.
The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bardeen, J.M.
1986-01-01
The last several years have seen a tremendous ferment of activity in astrophysical cosmology. Much of the theoretical impetus has come from particle physics theories of the early universe and candidates for dark matter, but what promise to be even more significant are improved direct observations of high z galaxies and intergalactic matter, deeper and more comprehensive redshift surveys, and the increasing power of computer simulations of the dynamical evolution of large scale structure. Upper limits on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation are gradually getting tighter and constraining more severely theoretical scenarios for the evolution of the universe. 47 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dvali, Gia; Kolanovic, Marko; Nitti, Francesco; Gabadadze, Gregory
2002-01-01
We propose a framework in which the quantum gravity scale can be as low as 10 -3 eV. The key assumption is that the standard model ultraviolet cutoff is much higher than the quantum gravity scale. This ensures that we observe conventional weak gravity. We construct an explicit brane-world model in which the brane-localized standard model is coupled to strong 5D gravity of infinite-volume flat extra space. Because of the high ultraviolet scale, the standard model fields generate a large graviton kinetic term on the brane. This kinetic term 'shields' the standard model from the strong bulk gravity. As a result, an observer on the brane sees weak 4D gravity up to astronomically large distances beyond which gravity becomes five dimensional. Modeling quantum gravity above its scale by the closed string spectrum we show that the shielding phenomenon protects the standard model from an apparent phenomenological catastrophe due to the exponentially large number of light string states. The collider experiments, astrophysics, cosmology and gravity measurements independently point to the same lower bound on the quantum gravity scale, 10 -3 eV. For this value the model has experimental signatures both for colliders and for submillimeter gravity measurements. Black holes reveal certain interesting properties in this framework
High Time Resolution Astrophysics
Phelan, Don; Shearer, Andrew
2008-01-01
High Time Resolution Astrophysics (HTRA) is an important new window to the universe and a vital tool in understanding a range of phenomena from diverse objects and radiative processes. This importance is demonstrated in this volume with the description of a number of topics in astrophysics, including quantum optics, cataclysmic variables, pulsars, X-ray binaries and stellar pulsations to name a few. Underlining this science foundation, technological developments in both instrumentation and detectors are described. These instruments and detectors combined cover a wide range of timescales and can measure fluxes, spectra and polarisation. These advances make it possible for HTRA to make a big contribution to our understanding of the Universe in the next decade.
Astrophysics of Red Supergiants
Levesque, Emily M.
2017-12-01
'Astrophysics of Red Supergiants' is the first book of its kind devoted to our current knowledge of red supergiant stars, a key evolutionary phase that is critical to our larger understanding of massive stars. It provides a comprehensive overview of the fundamental physical properties of red supergiants, their evolution, and their extragalactic and cosmological applications. It serves as a reference for researchers from a broad range of fields (including stellar astrophysics, supernovae, and high-redshift galaxies) who are interested in red supergiants as extreme stages of stellar evolution, dust producers, supernova progenitors, extragalactic metallicity indicators, members of massive binaries and mergers, or simply as compelling objects in their own right. The book is accessible to a range of experience levels, from graduate students up to senior researchers.
Nuclear reactions in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cardenas, M.
1976-01-01
It is revised the nuclear reactions which present an interest in astrophysics regarding the explanation of some problems such as the relative quantity of the elements, the structure and evolution of the stars. The principal object of the study is the determination of the experimental possibilities in the field of astrophysics, of an accelerator Van de Graaff's 700 KeV type. Two hundred nuclear reactions approximately, were found, and nothing or very little has been done in the intervals of energy which are of interest. Since the bombardment energies and the involved sections are low in some cases, there are real possibilities, for the largest number of stars to obtain important statistical data with the above mentioned accelerator, taking some necessary precautions. (author)
Existence of relativistic stars in f(R) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Upadhye, Amol; Hu, Wayne
2009-01-01
We refute recent claims in the literature that stars with relativistically deep potentials cannot exist in f(R) gravity. Numerical examples of stable stars, including relativistic (GM * /r * ∼0.1), constant density stars, are studied. As a star is made larger, nonlinear 'chameleon' effects screen much of the star's mass, stabilizing gravity at the stellar center. Furthermore, we show that the onset of this chameleon screening is unrelated to strong gravity. At large central pressures P>ρ/3, f(R) gravity, like general relativity, does have a maximum gravitational potential, but at a slightly smaller value: GM * /r * | max =0.345<4/9 for constant density and one choice of parameters. This difference is associated with negative central curvature R under general relativity not being accessed in the f(R) model, but does not apply to any known astrophysical object.
Neutron stars structure in the context of massive gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hendi, S.H.; Bordbar, G.H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S., E-mail: hendi@shirazu.ac.ir, E-mail: ghbordbar@shirazu.ac.ir, E-mail: behzad.eslampanah@gmail.com, E-mail: sh.panahiyan@gmail.com [Physics Department and Biruni Observatory, College of Sciences, Shiraz University, Shiraz 71454 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2017-07-01
Motivated by the recent interests in spin−2 massive gravitons, we study the structure of neutron star in the context of massive gravity. The modifications of TOV equation in the presence of massive gravity are explored in 4 and higher dimensions. Next, by considering the modern equation of state for the neutron star matter (which is extracted by the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV18 potential), different physical properties of the neutron star (such as Le Chatelier's principle, stability and energy conditions) are investigated. It is shown that consideration of the massive gravity has specific contributions into the structure of neutron star and introduces new prescriptions for the massive astrophysical objects. The mass-radius relation is examined and the effects of massive gravity on the Schwarzschild radius, average density, compactness, gravitational redshift and dynamical stability are studied. Finally, a relation between mass and radius of neutron star versus the Planck mass is extracted.
Neutron stars structure in the context of massive gravity
Hendi, S. H.; Bordbar, G. H.; Eslam Panah, B.; Panahiyan, S.
2017-07-01
Motivated by the recent interests in spin-2 massive gravitons, we study the structure of neutron star in the context of massive gravity. The modifications of TOV equation in the presence of massive gravity are explored in 4 and higher dimensions. Next, by considering the modern equation of state for the neutron star matter (which is extracted by the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV18 potential), different physical properties of the neutron star (such as Le Chatelier's principle, stability and energy conditions) are investigated. It is shown that consideration of the massive gravity has specific contributions into the structure of neutron star and introduces new prescriptions for the massive astrophysical objects. The mass-radius relation is examined and the effects of massive gravity on the Schwarzschild radius, average density, compactness, gravitational redshift and dynamical stability are studied. Finally, a relation between mass and radius of neutron star versus the Planck mass is extracted.
Neutron stars structure in the context of massive gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hendi, S.H.; Bordbar, G.H.; Panah, B. Eslam; Panahiyan, S.
2017-01-01
Motivated by the recent interests in spin−2 massive gravitons, we study the structure of neutron star in the context of massive gravity. The modifications of TOV equation in the presence of massive gravity are explored in 4 and higher dimensions. Next, by considering the modern equation of state for the neutron star matter (which is extracted by the lowest order constrained variational (LOCV) method with the AV18 potential), different physical properties of the neutron star (such as Le Chatelier's principle, stability and energy conditions) are investigated. It is shown that consideration of the massive gravity has specific contributions into the structure of neutron star and introduces new prescriptions for the massive astrophysical objects. The mass-radius relation is examined and the effects of massive gravity on the Schwarzschild radius, average density, compactness, gravitational redshift and dynamical stability are studied. Finally, a relation between mass and radius of neutron star versus the Planck mass is extracted.
High energy astrophysics. An introduction
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Courvoisier, Thierry J.L. [Geneva Univ., Versoix (Switzerland). ISDC, Data Centre for Astrophysics
2013-07-01
Based on observational examples this book reveals and explains high-energy astrophysical processes. Presents the theory of astrophysical processes in a didactic approach by deriving equations step by step. With several attractive astronomical pictures. High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad basis on which they should be able to build the more specific knowledge they will need. While in the first part of the book the physical processes are described and derived in detail, the second part studies astrophysical objects in which high-energy astrophysics plays a crucial role. This two-pronged approach will help students recognise physical processes by their observational signatures in contexts that may differ widely from those presented here.
Magnetohydrodynamic models of astrophysical jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Beskin, Vasily S
2010-01-01
In this review, analytical results obtained for a wide class of stationary axisymmetric flows in the vicinity of compact astrophysical objects are analyzed, with an emphasis on quantitative predictions for specific sources. Recent years have witnessed a great increase in understanding the formation and properties of astrophysical jets. This is due not only to new observations but also to advances in analytical theory which has produced fairly simple relations, and to what can undoubtedly be called a breakthrough in numerical simulation which has enabled confirmation of theoretical predictions. Of course, we are still very far from fully understanding the physical processes occurring in compact sources. Nevertheless, the progress made raises hopes for near-future test observations that can give insight into the physical processes occurring in active astrophysical objects. (reviews of topical problems)
Compressed Baryonic Matter of Astrophysics
Guo, Yanjun; Xu, Renxin
2013-01-01
Baryonic matter in the core of a massive and evolved star is compressed significantly to form a supra-nuclear object, and compressed baryonic matter (CBM) is then produced after supernova. The state of cold matter at a few nuclear density is pedagogically reviewed, with significant attention paid to a possible quark-cluster state conjectured from an astrophysical point of view.
Daston, Lorraine
2010-01-01
Objectivity has a history, and it is full of surprises. In Objectivity, Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison chart the emergence of objectivity in the mid-nineteenth-century sciences--and show how the concept differs from its alternatives, truth-to-nature and trained judgment. This is a story of lofty epistemic ideals fused with workaday practices in the making of scientific images. From the eighteenth through the early twenty-first centuries, the images that reveal the deepest commitments of the empirical sciences--from anatomy to crystallography--are those featured in scientific atlases, the compendia that teach practitioners what is worth looking at and how to look at it. Galison and Daston use atlas images to uncover a hidden history of scientific objectivity and its rivals. Whether an atlas maker idealizes an image to capture the essentials in the name of truth-to-nature or refuses to erase even the most incidental detail in the name of objectivity or highlights patterns in the name of trained judgment is a...
Advances in astronomy and astrophysics
Kopal, Zdenek
1963-01-01
Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 2 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of six chapters and begins with a summary of observational record on twilight extensions of the Venus cusps. The next chapter deals with the common and related properties of binary stars, with emphasis on the evaluation of their cataclysmic variables. Cataclysmic variables refer to an object in one of three classes: dwarf nova, nova, or supernova. These topics are followed by discussions on the eclipse phenomena and the eclipses i
Advances in astronomy and astrophysics
Kopal, Zdenek
1962-01-01
Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 1 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This book is divided into five chapters and begins with an observational summary of the shock-wave theory of novae. The subsequent chapter provides the properties and problems of T tauri stars and related objects. These topics are followed by discussions on the structure and origin of meteorites and cosmic dust, as well as the models for evaluation of mass distribution in oblate stellar systems. The final chapter describes the methods of polarization mea
High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics
Lebedev, Sergey V
2007-01-01
During the past decade, research teams around the world have developed astrophysics-relevant research utilizing high energy-density facilities such as intense lasers and z-pinches. Every two years, at the International conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophysics, scientists interested in this emerging field discuss the progress in topics covering: - Stellar evolution, stellar envelopes, opacities, radiation transport - Planetary Interiors, high-pressure EOS, dense plasma atomic physics - Supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, exploding systems, strong shocks, turbulent mixing - Supernova remnants, shock processing, radiative shocks - Astrophysical jets, high-Mach-number flows, magnetized radiative jets, magnetic reconnection - Compact object accretion disks, x-ray photoionized plasmas - Ultrastrong fields, particle acceleration, collisionless shocks. These proceedings cover many of the invited and contributed papers presented at the 6th International Conference on High Energy Density Laboratory Astrophys...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.
2010-01-01
The International Year of Astronomy 2009 (IYA2009) was declared by the 62nd General Assembly of the United Nations and was also endorsed by UNESCO. Investigations in the realms of particle and nuclear physicsmake a large contribution in the development of our ideas of the properties of the Universe. The present article discusses some problems of the evolution of the Universe, nucleosyntheses, and cosmochronology from the point of view of nuclear and particle physics. Processes occurring in the Universe are compared with the mechanisms of the production and decay of nuclei, as well as with the mechanisms of their interaction at high energies. Examples that demonstrate the potential of nuclearphysics methods for studying cosmic objects and the properties of the Universe are given. The results that come from investigations into nuclear reactions induced by beams of radioactive nuclei and which make it possible to take a fresh look at the nucleosynthesis scenario in the range at light nuclei are presented.
Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein's theories.
Bennett, Charles L
2005-02-11
Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Einstein's insights, including gravitational redshifts, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, the Lense-Thirring effect, and modern cosmology. A complete understanding of cosmology, from the earliest moments to the ultimate fate of the universe, will require developments in physics beyond Einstein, to a unified theory of gravity and quantum physics.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bender, P. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Bloom, E. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Cominsky, L. [Sonoma State Univ., Rohnert Park, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy] [and others
1995-07-01
Black-hole astrophysics is not just the investigation of yet another, even if extremely remarkable type of celestial body, but a test of the correctness of the understanding of the very properties of space and time in very strong gravitational fields. Physicists` excitement at this new prospect for testing theories of fundamental processes is matched by that of astronomers at the possibility to discover and study a new and dramatically different kind of astronomical object. Here the authors review the currently known ways that black holes can be identified by their effects on their neighborhood--since, of course, the hole itself does not yield any direct evidence of its existence or information about its properties. The two most important empirical considerations are determination of masses, or lower limits thereof, of unseen companions in binary star systems, and measurement of luminosity fluctuations on very short time scales.
Exotic nuclei and astrophysics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Penionzhkevich Yu.
2012-12-01
Full Text Available In recent years, nuclear physics investigations of the laws of the microscopic world contributed significantly to extension of our knowledge of phenomena occurring in the macroscopic world (Universe and made a formidable contribution to the development of astrophysical and cosmological theories. First of all, this concerns the expanding universe model, the evolution of stars, and the abundances of elements, as well as the properties of various stars and cosmic objects, including “cold” and neutron stars, black holes, and pulsars. Without claiming to give a full account of all cosmological problems, we will dwell upon those of them that, in my opinion, have much in common with nuclear-matter properties manifesting themselves in nuclear interactions.
Space astronomy and astrophysics program by NASA
Hertz, Paul L.
2014-07-01
The National Aeronautics and Space Administration recently released the NASA Strategic Plan 20141, and the NASA Science Mission Directorate released the NASA 2014 Science Plan3. These strategic documents establish NASA's astrophysics strategic objectives to be (i) to discover how the universe works, (ii) to explore how it began and evolved, and (iii) to search for life on planets around other stars. The multidisciplinary nature of astrophysics makes it imperative to strive for a balanced science and technology portfolio, both in terms of science goals addressed and in missions to address these goals. NASA uses the prioritized recommendations and decision rules of the National Research Council's 2010 decadal survey in astronomy and astrophysics2 to set the priorities for its investments. The NASA Astrophysics Division has laid out its strategy for advancing the priorities of the decadal survey in its Astrophysics 2012 Implementation Plan4. With substantial input from the astrophysics community, the NASA Advisory Council's Astrophysics Subcommittee has developed an astrophysics visionary roadmap, Enduring Quests, Daring Visions5, to examine possible longer-term futures. The successful development of the James Webb Space Telescope leading to a 2018 launch is an Agency priority. One important goal of the Astrophysics Division is to begin a strategic mission, subject to the availability of funds, which follows from the 2010 decadal survey and is launched after the James Webb Space Telescope. NASA is studying a Wide Field Infrared Survey Telescope as its next large astrophysics mission. NASA is also planning to partner with other space agencies on their missions as well as increase the cadence of smaller Principal Investigator led, competitively selected Astrophysics Explorers missions.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zielinska, M.; Zawislawski, Z.; Strugalska-Gola, E.; Strugalski, Z.
1991-01-01
It is shown how it is possible to transform known data on radial distribution of the matter layer thickness to unknown radial distribution of the matter density inside spherically symmetric objects. Appropriate formulas and testing of them are presented. An application of the method for the radial distribution of the matter density inside a target nucleus is discussed as an example. 2 refs.; 2 figs
Cosmological tests of modified gravity.
Koyama, Kazuya
2016-04-01
We review recent progress in the construction of modified gravity models as alternatives to dark energy as well as the development of cosmological tests of gravity. Einstein's theory of general relativity (GR) has been tested accurately within the local universe i.e. the Solar System, but this leaves the possibility open that it is not a good description of gravity at the largest scales in the Universe. This being said, the standard model of cosmology assumes GR on all scales. In 1998, astronomers made the surprising discovery that the expansion of the Universe is accelerating, not slowing down. This late-time acceleration of the Universe has become the most challenging problem in theoretical physics. Within the framework of GR, the acceleration would originate from an unknown dark energy. Alternatively, it could be that there is no dark energy and GR itself is in error on cosmological scales. In this review, we first give an overview of recent developments in modified gravity theories including f(R) gravity, braneworld gravity, Horndeski theory and massive/bigravity theory. We then focus on common properties these models share, such as screening mechanisms they use to evade the stringent Solar System tests. Once armed with a theoretical knowledge of modified gravity models, we move on to discuss how we can test modifications of gravity on cosmological scales. We present tests of gravity using linear cosmological perturbations and review the latest constraints on deviations from the standard [Formula: see text]CDM model. Since screening mechanisms leave distinct signatures in the non-linear structure formation, we also review novel astrophysical tests of gravity using clusters, dwarf galaxies and stars. The last decade has seen a number of new constraints placed on gravity from astrophysical to cosmological scales. Thanks to on-going and future surveys, cosmological tests of gravity will enjoy another, possibly even more, exciting ten years.
Astrophysical Hydrodynamics An Introduction
Shore, Steven N
2007-01-01
This latest edition of the proven and comprehensive treatment on the topic -- from the bestselling author of ""Tapestry of Modern Astrophysics"" -- has been updated and revised to reflect the newest research results. Suitable for AS0000 and AS0200 courses, as well as advanced astrophysics and astronomy lectures, this is an indispensable theoretical backup for studies on celestial body formation and astrophysics. Includes exercises with solutions.
Yingling, Bao; Li, Chen; Honglin, Wang; Xiwen, Yu; Zongcheng, Yan
2011-09-01
Cold enzymatic hydrolysis conditions for bioethanol production were optimized using multi-objective optimization. Response surface methodology was used to optimize the effects of α-amylase, glucoamylase, liquefaction temperature and liquefaction time on S. cerevisiae biomass, ethanol concentration and starch utilization ratio. The optimum hydrolysis conditions were: 224 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 694 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 77°C and 104 min for biomass; 264 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 392 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 60°C and 85 min for ethanol concentration; 214 IU/g(starch) α-amylase, 398 IU/g(starch) glucoamylase, 79°C and 117 min for starch utilization ratio. The hydrolysis conditions were subsequently evaluated by multi-objectives optimization utilizing the weighted coefficient methods. The Pareto solutions for biomass (3.655-4.380×10(8)cells/ml), ethanol concentration (15.96-18.25 wt.%) and starch utilization ratio (92.50-94.64%) were obtained. The optimized conditions were shown to be feasible and reliable through verification tests. This kind of multi-objective optimization is of potential importance in industrial bioethanol production. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Particle Physics & Astrophysics (PPA)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — Scientists at SLAC's Particle Physics and Astrophysics develop and utilize unique instruments from underground to outer space to explore the ultimate laws of nature...
Analogue Hawking radiation from astrophysical black-hole accretion
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Das, Tapas K
2004-01-01
We show that spherical accretion onto astrophysical black holes can be considered as a natural example of an analogue system. We provide, for the first time, an exact analytical scheme for calculating the analogue Hawking temperature and surface gravity for general relativistic accretion onto astrophysical black holes. Our calculation may bridge the gap between the theory of transonic astrophysical accretion and the theory of analogue Hawking radiation. We show that the domination of the analogue Hawking temperature over the actual Hawking temperature may be a real astrophysical phenomenon, though observational tests of this fact will at best be difficult and at worst might prove to be impossible. We also discuss the possibilities of the emergence of analogue white holes around astrophysical black holes. Our calculation is general enough to accommodate accreting black holes with any mass
High energy astrophysics an introduction
Courvoisier, Thierry J -L
2013-01-01
High-energy astrophysics has unveiled a Universe very different from that only known from optical observations. It has revealed many types of objects in which typical variability timescales are as short as years, months, days, and hours (in quasars, X-ray binaries, and other objects), and even down to milli-seconds in gamma ray bursts. The sources of energy that are encountered are only very seldom nuclear fusion, and most of the time gravitation, a paradox when one thinks that gravitation is, by many orders of magnitude, the weakest of the fundamental interactions. The understanding of these objects' physical conditions and the processes revealed by high-energy astrophysics in the last decades is nowadays part of astrophysicists' culture, even of those active in other domains of astronomy. This book evolved from lectures given to master and PhD students at the University of Geneva since the early 1990s. It aims at providing astronomers and physicists intending to be active in high-energy astrophysics a broad...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia
2011-01-01
Extended Theories of Gravity can be considered as a new paradigm to cure shortcomings of General Relativity at infrared and ultraviolet scales. They are an approach that, by preserving the undoubtedly positive results of Einstein’s theory, is aimed to address conceptual and experimental problems recently emerged in astrophysics, cosmology and High Energy Physics. In particular, the goal is to encompass, in a self-consistent scheme, problems like inflation, dark energy, dark matter, large scale structure and, first of all, to give at least an effective description of Quantum Gravity. We review the basic principles that any gravitational theory has to follow. The geometrical interpretation is discussed in a broad perspective in order to highlight the basic assumptions of General Relativity and its possible extensions in the general framework of gauge theories. Principles of such modifications are presented, focusing on specific classes of theories like f(R)-gravity and scalar–tensor gravity in the metric and Palatini approaches. The special role of torsion is also discussed. The conceptual features of these theories are fully explored and attention is paid to the issues of dynamical and conformal equivalence between them considering also the initial value problem. A number of viability criteria are presented considering the post-Newtonian and the post-Minkowskian limits. In particular, we discuss the problems of neutrino oscillations and gravitational waves in extended gravity. Finally, future perspectives of extended gravity are considered with possibility to go beyond a trial and error approach.
Stellar pulsations in beyond Horndeski gravity theories
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sakstein, Jeremy [Center for Particle Cosmology, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 S. 33rd St., Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kenna-Allison, Michael; Koyama, Kazuya, E-mail: sakstein@physics.upenn.edu, E-mail: mka1g13@soton.ac.uk, E-mail: kazuya.koyama@port.ac.uk [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth PO1 3FX (United Kingdom)
2017-03-01
Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class recover the predictions of general relativity in the solar system whilst admitting novel cosmologies, including late-time de Sitter solutions in the absence of a cosmological constant. Deviations from Newton's law are predicted inside astrophysical bodies, which allow for falsifiable, smoking-gun tests of the theory. In this work we study the pulsations of stars by deriving and solving the wave equation governing linear adiabatic oscillations to find the modified period of pulsation. Using both semi-analytic and numerical models, we perform a preliminary survey of the stellar zoo in an attempt to identify the best candidate objects for testing the theory. Brown dwarfs and Cepheid stars are found to be particularly sensitive objects and we discuss the possibility of using both to test the theory.
Stellar pulsations in beyond Horndeski gravity theories
Sakstein, Jeremy; Kenna-Allison, Michael; Koyama, Kazuya
2017-03-01
Theories of gravity in the beyond Horndeski class recover the predictions of general relativity in the solar system whilst admitting novel cosmologies, including late-time de Sitter solutions in the absence of a cosmological constant. Deviations from Newton's law are predicted inside astrophysical bodies, which allow for falsifiable, smoking-gun tests of the theory. In this work we study the pulsations of stars by deriving and solving the wave equation governing linear adiabatic oscillations to find the modified period of pulsation. Using both semi-analytic and numerical models, we perform a preliminary survey of the stellar zoo in an attempt to identify the best candidate objects for testing the theory. Brown dwarfs and Cepheid stars are found to be particularly sensitive objects and we discuss the possibility of using both to test the theory.
Astrophysical Institute, Potsdam
Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
Built upon a tradition of almost 300 years, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam (AIP) is in an historical sense the successor of one of the oldest astronomical observatories in Germany. It is the first institute in the world which incorporated the term `astrophysical' in its name, and is connected with distinguished scientists such as Karl Schwarzschild and Albert Einstein. The AIP constitutes on...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blandford, R.D.; Thorne, K.S.
1979-01-01
Following an introductory section, the subject is discussed under the headings: on the character of research in black hole astrophysics; isolated holes produced by collapse of normal stars; black holes in binary systems; black holes in globular clusters; black holes in quasars and active galactic nuclei; primordial black holes; concluding remarks on the present state of research in black hole astrophysics. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulsrud, R.M.
1982-10-01
Two examples of plasma phenomena of importance to astrophysics are reviewed. These are examples where astrophysical understanding hinges on further progress in plasma physics understanding. The two examples are magnetic reconnection and the collisionless interaction between a population of energetic particles and a cooler gas or plasma, in particular the interaction between galactic cosmic rays and the interstellar medium
Focusing Telescopes in Nuclear Astrophysics
Ballmoos, Peter von
2007-01-01
This volume is the first of its kind on focusing gamma-ray telescopes. Forty-eight refereed papers provide a comprehensive overview of the scientific potential and technical challenges of this nascent tool for nuclear astrophysics. The book features articles dealing with pivotal technologies such as grazing incident mirrors, multilayer coatings, Laue- and Fresnel-lenses - and even an optic using the curvature of space-time. The volume also presents an overview of detectors matching the ambitious objectives of gamma ray optics, and facilities for operating such systems on the ground and in space. The extraordinary scientific potential of focusing gamma-ray telescopes for the study of the most powerful sources and the most violent events in the Universe is emphasized in a series of introductory articles. Practicing professionals, and students interested in experimental high-energy astrophysics, will find this book a useful reference
Comets As Objects of High Energy Astrophysics
Ibadov, S.
2000-10-01
Strong soft X-ray emission from comet Hyakutake C/1996 B2 was discovered with ROSAT in March 27, 1996 (Lisse et al. 1996, Science 274, 205-209) and the results of a theoretical approach (Ibadov 1990, Icarus 86, 283-288) served as a motive for that observations (Dennerl, Lisse and Truemper 1998, Private Communications). It is now well established that comets emit EUV and X-rays regularly (Dennerl, Englhauser and Truemper 1997, Science 277, 1625-1630; Dennerl 1998, Proc. 16th Int. Conf. Atomic Physics, Windsor, Ontario, Canada). To explain this phenomenon different theoretical models were proposed (Krasnopolsky 1997, Icarus 128, 365-385; Ibadov 1998, Proc. First XMM Workshop, Noordwijk, The Netherlands, and references therein). In the paper the problem of identifying X-ray generation mechanisms in comets will be considered.
Traversable braneworld wormholes supported by astrophysical observations
Wang, Deng; Meng, Xin-He
2018-02-01
In this study, we investigate the characteristics and properties of a traversable wormhole constrained by the current astrophysical observations in the framework of modified theories of gravity (MOG). As a concrete case, we study traversable wormhole space-time configurations in the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati (DGP) braneworld scenario, which are supported by the effects of the gravity leakage of extra dimensions. We find that the wormhole space-time structure will open in terms of the 2 σ confidence level when we utilize the joint constraints supernovae (SNe) Ia + observational Hubble parameter data (OHD) + Planck + gravitational wave (GW) and z based on various energy conditions; (ii) we can offer a strict restriction to the local wormhole space-time structure by using the current astrophysical observations; and (iii) we can clearly identify a physical gravitational resource for the wormholes supported by astrophysical observations, namely the dark energy components of the universe or equivalent space-time curvature effects from MOG. Moreover, we find that the strong energy condition is always violated at low redshifts.
Maoz, Dan
2007-01-01
A concise but thorough introduction to the observational data and theoretical concepts underlying modern astronomy, Astrophysics in a Nutshell is designed for advanced undergraduate science majors taking a one-semester course. This well-balanced and up-to-date textbook covers the essentials of modern astrophysics--from stars to cosmology--emphasizing the common, familiar physical principles that govern astronomical phenomena, and the interplay between theory and observation. In addition to traditional topics such as stellar remnants, galaxies, and the interstellar medium, Astrophysics in a N
Padmanabhan, Thanu
2006-01-01
This unique book provides a clear and lucid description of several aspects of astrophysics and cosmology in a language understandable to a physicist or beginner in astrophysics. It presents the key topics in all branches of astrophysics and cosmology in a simple and concise language. The emphasis is on currently active research areas and exciting new frontiers rather than on more pedantic topics. Many complicated results are introduced with simple, novel derivations which strengthen the conceptual understanding of the subject. The book also contains over one hundred exercises which will help s
Advances in instrumentation for nuclear astrophysics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
S. D. Pain
2014-04-01
Full Text Available The study of the nuclear physics properties which govern energy generation and nucleosynthesis in the astrophysical phenomena we observe in the universe is crucial to understanding how these objects behave and how the chemical history of the universe evolved to its present state. The low cross sections and short nuclear lifetimes involved in many of these reactions make their experimental determination challenging, requiring developments in beams and instrumentation. A selection of developments in nuclear astrophysics instrumentation is discussed, using as examples projects involving the nuclear astrophysics group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. These developments will be key to the instrumentation necessary to fully exploit nuclear astrophysics opportunities at the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams which is currently under construction.
Frè, Pietro Giuseppe
2013-01-01
‘Gravity, a Geometrical Course’ presents general relativity (GR) in a systematic and exhaustive way, covering three aspects that are homogenized into a single texture: i) the mathematical, geometrical foundations, exposed in a self consistent contemporary formalism, ii) the main physical, astrophysical and cosmological applications, updated to the issues of contemporary research and observations, with glimpses on supergravity and superstring theory, iii) the historical development of scientific ideas underlying both the birth of general relativity and its subsequent evolution. The book is divided in two volumes. Volume One is dedicated to the development of the theory and basic physical applications. It guides the reader from the foundation of special relativity to Einstein field equations, illustrating some basic applications in astrophysics. A detailed account of the historical and conceptual development of the theory is combined with the presentation of its mathematical foundations. Differe...
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 38; Issue 1. Plane Symmetric Cosmological Model with Quark and Strange Quark Matter in f ( R , T ) Theory of Gravity. P. K. AGRAWAL D. D. PAWAR. Research Article Volume 38 Issue 1 March 2017 Article ID 2 ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Engel, A.R.
1979-01-01
High energy astrophysical research carried out at the Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London is reviewed. Work considered includes cosmic ray particle detection, x-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, gamma and x-ray bursts. (U.K.)
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
user
This publication of the Academy on Astronomy and Astrophysics is unique in ... bring out position papers on societal issues where science plays a major ..... funding agencies, the Astronomical Society of ..... orbit very close to the parent star.
Topics in Nuclear Astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chung, K.C.
1982-01-01
Some topics in nuclear astrophysics are discussed, e.g.: highly evolved stellar cores, stellar evolution (through the temperature analysis of stellar surface), nucleosynthesis and finally the solar neutrino problem. (L.C.) [pt
Collisionless plasmas in astrophysics
Belmont, Gerard; Mottez, Fabrice; Pantellini, Filippo; Pelletier, Guy
2013-01-01
Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics examines the unique properties of media without collisions in plasma physics. Experts in this field, the authors present the first book to concentrate on collisionless conditions in plasmas, whether close or not to thermal equilibrium. Filling a void in scientific literature, Collisionless Plasmas in Astrophysics explains the possibilities of modeling such plasmas, using a fluid or a kinetic framework. It also addresses common misconceptions that even professionals may possess, on phenomena such as "collisionless (Landau) damping". Abundant illustrations
Nonlinear dynamics and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vallejo, J. C.; Sanjuan, M. A. F.
2000-01-01
Concepts and techniques from Nonlinear Dynamics, also known as Chaos Theory, have been applied successfully to several astrophysical fields such as orbital motion, time series analysis or galactic dynamics, providing answers to old questions but also opening a few new ones. Some of these topics are described in this review article, showing the basis of Nonlinear Dynamics, and how it is applied in Astrophysics. (Author)
Breaking the EOS-gravity degeneracy with masses and pulsating frequencies of neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, Weikang; Li, Bao-An; Chen, Lie-Wen; Wen, De-Hua; Xu, Jun
2014-01-01
A thorough understanding of many astrophysical phenomena associated with compact objects requires reliable knowledge about both the equation of state (EOS) of super-dense nuclear matter and the theory of strong-field gravity simultaneously because of the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Currently, variations of the neutron star (NS) mass–radius correlation from using alternative gravity theories are much larger than those from changing the NS matter EOS within known constraints. At least two independent observables are required to break the EOS-gravity degeneracy. Using model EOSs for hybrid stars and a Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, we investigate both the mass–radius correlation and pulsating frequencies of NSs. While the maximum mass of NSs increases, the frequencies of the f, p 1 , p 2 , and w I pulsating modes are found to decrease with the increasing strength of the Yukawa-type non-Newtonian gravity, providing a useful reference for future determination simultaneously of both the strong-field gravity and the supranuclear EOS by combining data of x-ray and gravitational wave emissions of NSs. (paper)
Laboratory Astrophysics Prize: Laboratory Astrophysics with Nuclei
Wiescher, Michael
2018-06-01
Nuclear astrophysics is concerned with nuclear reaction and decay processes from the Big Bang to the present star generation controlling the chemical evolution of our universe. Such nuclear reactions maintain stellar life, determine stellar evolution, and finally drive stellar explosion in the circle of stellar life. Laboratory nuclear astrophysics seeks to simulate and understand the underlying processes using a broad portfolio of nuclear instrumentation, from reactor to accelerator from stable to radioactive beams to map the broad spectrum of nucleosynthesis processes. This talk focuses on only two aspects of the broad field, the need of deep underground accelerator facilities in cosmic ray free environments in order to understand the nucleosynthesis in stars, and the need for high intensity radioactive beam facilities to recreate the conditions found in stellar explosions. Both concepts represent the two main frontiers of the field, which are being pursued in the US with the CASPAR accelerator at the Sanford Underground Research Facility in South Dakota and the FRIB facility at Michigan State University.
Toward observational neutrino astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koshiba, M.
1988-01-01
It is true that: (1) The first observation of the neutrino burst from the supernova SN1987a by Kamiokande-II which was immediately confirmed by IBM; and (2) the first real-time, directional, and spectral observation of solar 8 B neutrinos also by Kamiokande-II could perhaps be considered as signalling the birth of observational astrophysics. The field, however, is still in its infancy and is crying out for tender loving care. Namely, while the construction of astronomy requires the time and the direction of the signal and that of astrophysics requires, in addition to the spectral information, the observations of (1) could not give the directional information and the results of both (1) and (2) are still suffering from the meager statistics. How do we remedy this situation to let this new born science of observational neutrino astrophysics grow healthy. This is what the author addresses in this talk. 15 refs., 8 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longair, M.
1989-01-01
The author offers a review of advances in astrophysics since 1945 when astronomers started to explore the universe beyond the bounds of the optical wavelength of the electromagnetic spectrum, especially in the fields of radio, x ray and gamma ray, cosmic ray, ultraviolet and infrared astronomies, as well as neutral hydrogen and molecular line studies. Theoretical and technological advances have also kept pace. An overview of the new astrophysics is offered focusing on the large-scale distribution of matter and the background microwave radiation, galaxies, stellar evolution and the interstellar media (dust, gas and high energy particles). Nucleosynthesis in stars is mentioned in a broader discussion of stellar evolution, and dead stars including supernovae. Active galaxies and quasars are discussed. After considering what should be included in astrophysical cosmology, the author looks to the future of the science. (U.K.)
de Rham, Claudia
2014-01-01
We review recent progress in massive gravity. We start by showing how different theories of massive gravity emerge from a higher-dimensional theory of general relativity, leading to the Dvali–Gabadadze–Porrati model (DGP), cascading gravity, and ghost-free massive gravity. We then explore their theoretical and phenomenological consistency, proving the absence of Boulware–Deser ghosts and reviewing the Vainshtein mechanism and the cosmological solutions in these models. Finally, we present alt...
Mason, John W
2006-01-01
"Astrophysics Updates" is intended to serve the information needs of professional astronomers and postgraduate students about areas of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology that are rich and active research spheres. Observational methods and the latest results of astronomical research are presented as well as their theoretical foundations and interrelations. The contributed commissioned articles are written by leading exponents in a format that will appeal to professional astronomers and astrophysicists who are interested in topics outside their own specific areas of research. This collection of timely reviews may also attract the interest of advanced amateur astronomers seeking scientifically rigorous coverage.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Huebner, W.F.; Merts, A.L.; Magee, N.H. Jr.; Argo, M.F.
1977-08-01
The astrophysical elements opacity library includes equation of state data, various mean opacities, and 2000 values of the frequency-dependent extinction coefficients in equally spaced intervals u identical with hν/kT from 0 to 20 for 41 degeneracy parameters eta from -28 (nondegenerate) to 500 and 46 temperatures kT from 1 eV to 100 keV. Among available auxiliary quantities are the free electron density, mass density, and plasma cutoff frequency. A library-associated program can produce opacities for mixtures with up to 20 astrophysically abundant constituent elements at 4 levels of utility for the user
Theoretical astrophysics an introduction
Bartelmann, Matthias
2013-01-01
A concise yet comprehensive introduction to the central theoretical concepts of modern astrophysics, presenting hydrodynamics, radiation, and stellar dynamics all in one textbook. Adopting a modular structure, the author illustrates a small number of fundamental physical methods and principles, which are sufficient to describe and understand a wide range of seemingly very diverse astrophysical phenomena and processes. For example, the formulae that define the macroscopic behavior of stellar systems are all derived in the same way from the microscopic distribution function. This function it
Maoz, Dan
2016-01-01
Winner of the American Astronomical Society's Chambliss Award, Astrophysics in a Nutshell has become the text of choice in astrophysics courses for science majors at top universities in North America and beyond. In this expanded and fully updated second edition, the book gets even better, with a new chapter on extrasolar planets; a greatly expanded chapter on the interstellar medium; fully updated facts and figures on all subjects, from the observed properties of white dwarfs to the latest results from precision cosmology; and additional instructive problem sets. Throughout, the text features the same focused, concise style and emphasis on physics intuition that have made the book a favorite of students and teachers.
Introduction to Nuclear Astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iliadis, Christian
2010-01-01
In the first lecture of this volume, we will present the basic fundamental ideas regarding nuclear processes occurring in stars. We start from stellar observations, will then elaborate on some important quantum-mechanical phenomena governing nuclear reactions, continue with how nuclear reactions proceed in a hot stellar plasma and, finally, we will provide an overview of stellar burning stages. At the end, the current knowledge regarding the origin of the elements is briefly summarized. This lecture is directed towards the student of nuclear astrophysics. Our intention is to present seemingly unrelated phenomena of nuclear physics and astrophysics in a coherent framework.
Nonlocal gravity simulates dark matter
Hehl, Friedrich W.; Mashhoon, Bahram
2009-01-01
A nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation is constructed within the framework of the translational gauge theory of gravity. In the linear approximation, the nonlocal theory can be interpreted as linearized general relativity but in the presence of "dark matter" that can be simply expressed as an integral transform of matter. It is shown that this approach can accommodate the Tohline-Kuhn treatment of the astrophysical evidence for dark matter.
Further stable neutron star models from f(R) gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Astashenok, Artyom V. [I. Kant Baltic Federal University, Institute of Physics and Technology, Nevskogo st. 14, Kaliningrad, 236041 (Russian Federation); Capozziello, Salvatore [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Napoli ' ' Federico II' ' , Via Cinthia, 9, Napoli, I–80126 (Italy); Odintsov, Sergei D., E-mail: artyom.art@gmail.com, E-mail: capozziello@na.infn.it, E-mail: odintsov@ieec.uab.es [Instituciò Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avançats (ICREA), Barcelona (Spain)
2013-12-01
Neutron star models in perturbative f(R) gravity are considered with realistic equations of state. In particular, we consider the FPS, SLy and other equations of state and a case of piecewise equation of state for stars with quark cores. The mass-radius relations for f(R) = R+R(e{sup −R/R{sub 0}}−1) model and for R{sup 2} models with logarithmic and cubic corrections are obtained. In the case of R{sup 2} gravity with cubic corrections, we obtain that at high central densities (ρ > 10ρ{sub ns}, where ρ{sub ns} = 2.7 × 10{sup 14} g/cm{sup 3} is the nuclear saturation density), stable star configurations exist. The minimal radius of such stars is close to 9 km with maximal mass ∼ 1.9M{sub ⊙} (SLy equation). A similar situation takes place for AP4 and BSK20 EoS. Such an effect can give rise to more compact stars than in General Relativity. If observationally identified, such objects could constitute a formidable signature for modified gravity at astrophysical level. Another interesting result can be achieved in modified gravity with only a cubic correction. For some EoS, the upper limit of neutron star mass increases and therefore these EoS can describe realistic star configurations (although, in General Relativity, these EoS are excluded by observational constraints)
Further stable neutron star models from f(R) gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astashenok, Artyom V.; Capozziello, Salvatore; Odintsov, Sergei D.
2013-01-01
Neutron star models in perturbative f(R) gravity are considered with realistic equations of state. In particular, we consider the FPS, SLy and other equations of state and a case of piecewise equation of state for stars with quark cores. The mass-radius relations for f(R) = R+R(e −R/R 0 −1) model and for R 2 models with logarithmic and cubic corrections are obtained. In the case of R 2 gravity with cubic corrections, we obtain that at high central densities (ρ > 10ρ ns , where ρ ns = 2.7 × 10 14 g/cm 3 is the nuclear saturation density), stable star configurations exist. The minimal radius of such stars is close to 9 km with maximal mass ∼ 1.9M ⊙ (SLy equation). A similar situation takes place for AP4 and BSK20 EoS. Such an effect can give rise to more compact stars than in General Relativity. If observationally identified, such objects could constitute a formidable signature for modified gravity at astrophysical level. Another interesting result can be achieved in modified gravity with only a cubic correction. For some EoS, the upper limit of neutron star mass increases and therefore these EoS can describe realistic star configurations (although, in General Relativity, these EoS are excluded by observational constraints)
Astrophysical contributions of the International Ultraviolet Explorer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kondo, Y.; Boggess, A.; Maran, S.P.
1989-01-01
Findings that have been made by the IUE in a variety of astrophysical areas are reviewed. Results on stellar chromospheres and transition regions, evolutionary processes in interacting binaries, winds from early-type stars, the ISM, SN 1987A, active galactic nuclei, and solar system objects are addressed. 158 refs
Loeb, Abraham; Imara, Nia
2017-01-01
Are there examples of "astrophysical Russian dolls," and what could we learn from their similarities? In this article, we list a few such examples, including disks, filaments, and clusters. We suggest that forging connections across disciplinary borders enhances our perception of beauty, while simultaneously leading to a more comprehensive understanding of the Universe.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shklorsky, I.S.
1979-01-01
A selected list of articles of accessible recent review articles and conference reports, wherein up-to-date summaries of various topics in the field of high energy astrophysics can be found, is presented. A special report outlines work done in the Soviet Union in this area. (Auth.)
Zebulum, Ricardo S.
2011-01-01
NASA's scientists are enjoying unprecedented access to astronomy data from space, both from missions launched and operated only by NASA, as well as missions led by other space agencies to which NASA contributed instruments or technology. This paper describes the NASA astrophysics program for the next decade, including NASA's response to the ASTRO2010 Decadal Survey.
Advances in astronomy and astrophysics 7
Kopal, Zdenek
2013-01-01
Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 7 covers reviews about the advances in astronomy and astrophysics. The book presents reviews on the scattering of electrons by diatomic molecules and on Babcock's theory of the 22-year solar cycle and the latitude drift of the sunspot zone. The text then describes reviews on the structures of the terrestrial planets (Earth, Venus, Mars, Mercury) and on type III solar radio bursts. The compact and dispersed cosmic matter is also considered with regard to the search for new cosmic objects and phenomena and on the nature of the ref shift from compact
Magnetic processes in astrophysics theory, simulations, experiments
Rüdiger, Günther; Hollerbach, Rainer
2013-01-01
In this work the authors draw upon their expertise in geophysical and astrophysical MHD to explore the motion of electrically conducting fluids, the so-called dynamo effect, and describe the similarities and differences between different magnetized objects. They also explain why magnetic fields are crucial to the formation of the stars, and discuss promising experiments currently being designed to investigate some of the relevant physics in the laboratory. This interdisciplinary approach will appeal to a wide audience in physics, astrophysics and geophysics. This second edition covers such add
‘Firewall’ phenomenology with astrophysical neutrinos
Afshordi, Niayesh; Yazdi, Yasaman K.
2016-12-01
One of the most fundamental features of a black hole in general relativity is its event horizon: a boundary from which nothing can escape. There has been a recent surge of interest in the nature of these event horizons and their local neighbourhoods. In an attempt to resolve black hole information paradox(es), and more generally, to better understand the path towards quantum gravity, ‘firewalls’ have been proposed as an alternative to black hole event horizons. In this paper, we explore the phenomenological implications of black holes possessing a surface or ‘firewall’, and predict a potentially detectable signature of these firewalls in the form of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux. We compute the spectrum of this neutrino flux in different models and show that it is a possible candidate for the source of the PeV neutrinos recently detected by IceCube. This opens up a new area of research, bridging the non-perturbative physics of quantum gravity with the observational black hole and high energy astrophysics.
‘Firewall’ phenomenology with astrophysical neutrinos
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Afshordi, Niayesh; Yazdi, Yasaman K
2016-01-01
One of the most fundamental features of a black hole in general relativity is its event horizon: a boundary from which nothing can escape. There has been a recent surge of interest in the nature of these event horizons and their local neighbourhoods. In an attempt to resolve black hole information paradox(es), and more generally, to better understand the path towards quantum gravity, ‘firewalls’ have been proposed as an alternative to black hole event horizons. In this paper, we explore the phenomenological implications of black holes possessing a surface or ‘firewall’, and predict a potentially detectable signature of these firewalls in the form of a high energy astrophysical neutrino flux. We compute the spectrum of this neutrino flux in different models and show that it is a possible candidate for the source of the PeV neutrinos recently detected by IceCube. This opens up a new area of research, bridging the non-perturbative physics of quantum gravity with the observational black hole and high energy astrophysics. (paper)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Ambjørn
1995-07-01
Full Text Available The 2-point function is the natural object in quantum gravity for extracting critical behavior: The exponential falloff of the 2-point function with geodesic distance determines the fractal dimension dH of space-time. The integral of the 2-point function determines the entropy exponent γ, i.e. the fractal structure related to baby universes, while the short distance behavior of the 2-point function connects γ and dH by a quantum gravity version of Fisher's scaling relation. We verify this behavior in the case of 2d gravity by explicit calculation.
Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Von Ballmoos, P.; Knodlseder, R.; Sazonov, S.; Griffiths, R.; Bastie, P.; Halloin, H.; Pareschi, G.; Ramsey, B.; Jensen, C.; Buis, E.J.; Ulmer, M.; Giommi, P.; Colafrancesco, S.; Comastri, A.; Barret, D.; Leising, M.; Hernanz, M.; Smith, D.; Abrosimov, N.; Smither, B.; Ubertini, P.; Olive, J.F.; Lund, N.; Pisa, A.; Courtois, P.; Roa, D.; Harrison, F.; Pareschi, G.; Frontera, F.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Barriere, N.; Rando, N.; Borde, J.; Hinglais, E.; Cledassou, R.; Duchon, P.; Sghedoni, M.; Huet, B.; Takahashi, T.; Caroli, E.; Quadrinin, L.; Buis, E.J.; Skinner, G.; Krizmanic, J.; Pareschi, G.; Loffredo, G.; Wunderer, C.; Weidenspointner, G.; Wunderer, C.; Koechlin, L.; Bignami, G.; Von Ballmoos, P.; Tueller, J.; Andritschke, T.; Laurens, A.; Evrard, J.
2005-01-01
The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations
Focusing telescopes in nuclear astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Von Ballmoos, P; Knodlseder, R; Sazonov, S; Griffiths, R; Bastie, P; Halloin, H; Pareschi, G; Ramsey, B; Jensen, C; Buis, E J; Ulmer, M; Giommi, P; Colafrancesco, S; Comastri, A; Barret, D; Leising, M; Hernanz, M; Smith, D; Abrosimov, N; Smither, B; Ubertini, P; Olive, J F; Lund, N; Pisa, A; Courtois, P; Roa, D; Harrison, F; Pareschi, G; Frontera, F; Von Ballmoos, P; Barriere, N; Rando, N; Borde, J; Hinglais, E; Cledassou, R; Duchon, P; Sghedoni, M; Huet, B; Takahashi, T; Caroli, E; Quadrinin, L; Buis, E J; Skinner, G; Krizmanic, J; Pareschi, G; Loffredo, G; Wunderer, C; Weidenspointner, G; Wunderer, C; Koechlin, L; Bignami, G; Von Ballmoos, P; Tueller, J; Andritschke, T; Laurens, A; Evrard, J
2005-07-01
The objective of this workshop is to consider the next generation of instrumentation to be required within the domain of nuclear astrophysics. A small, but growing community has been pursuing various techniques for the focusing of hard X-rays and gamma-rays with the aim of achieving a factor of up to 100 improvement in sensitivity over present technologies. Balloon flight tests of both multilayer mirrors and a Laue lens have been performed and ideas abound. At present, implementation scenarios for space missions are being studied at Esa, CNES, and elsewhere. The workshop will provide a first opportunity for this new community to meet, exchange technological know-how, discuss scientific objectives and synergies, and consolidate implementation approaches within National and European Space Science programs. This document gathers the slides of all the presentations.
Plasma Astrophysics, part II Reconnection and Flares
Somov, Boris V
2007-01-01
This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.
Plasma Astrophysics, Part I Fundamentals and Practice
Somov, Boris V
2006-01-01
This well-illustrated monograph is devoted to classic fundamentals, current practice, and perspectives of modern plasma astrophysics. The first part is unique in covering all the basic principles and practical tools required for understanding and working in plasma astrophysics. The second part presents the physics of magnetic reconnection and flares of electromagnetic origin in space plasmas within the solar system; single and double stars, relativistic objects, accretion disks, and their coronae are also covered. This book is designed mainly for professional researchers in astrophysics. However, it will also be interesting and useful to graduate students in space sciences, geophysics, as well as advanced students in applied physics and mathematics seeking a unified view of plasma physics and fluid mechanics.
Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics
2002-01-01
Interstellar medium, Light, Magnetisphere, Matter, Planet Earth, Public Impact, Solar Activity, Solar Heliosphere, Solar Interior, Solar Systems, Space, Stellar Astrophysics, Stellar Populations, Telescopes, Time The Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics covers 30 major subject areas, such as Active galaxies, Astrometry, Astrophysical theory, Atmospheres, Binary stars, Biography, Clusters, Coordinates, Cosmology, Earth, Education, Galaxies,
Indirect techniques in nuclear astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mukhamedzhanov, A.M.; Tribble, R.E.; Blokhintsev, L.D.; Cherubini, S.; Spitaleri, C.; Kroha, V.; Nunes, F.M.
2005-01-01
It is very difficult or often impossible to measure in the lab conditions nuclear cross sections at astrophysically relevant energies. That is why different indirect techniques are used to extract astrophysical information. In this talk different experimental possibilities to get astrophysical information using radioactive and stable beams will be addressed. 1. The asymptotic normalization coefficient (ANC) method. 2. Radiative neutron captures are determined by the spectroscopic factors (SP). A new experimental technique to determine the neutron SPs will be addressed. 3. 'Trojan Horse' is another unique indirect method, which allows one to extract the astrophysical factors for direct and resonant nuclear reactions at astrophysically relevant energies. (author)
Kundt, Wolfgang
2005-01-01
For a quantitative understanding of the physics of the universe - from the solar system through the milky way to clusters of galaxies all the way to cosmology - these edited lecture notes are perhaps among the most concise and also among the most critical ones: Astrophysics has not yet stood the redundancy test of laboratory physics, hence should be wary of early interpretations. Special chapters are devoted to magnetic and radiation processes, supernovae, disks, black-hole candidacy, bipolar flows, cosmic rays, gamma-ray bursts, image distortions, and special sources. At the same time, planet earth is viewed as the arena for life, with plants and animals having evolved to homo sapiens during cosmic time. -- This text is unique in covering the basic qualitative and quantitative tools, formulae as well as numbers, needed for the precise interpretation of frontline phenomena in astrophysical research. The author compares mainstream interpretations with new and even controversial ones he wishes to emphasize. The...
Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo; Treves, Aldo; Colpi, Monica
2016-01-01
Based on graduate school lectures in contemporary relativity and gravitational physics, this book gives a complete and unified picture of the present status of theoretical and observational properties of astrophysical black holes. The chapters are written by internationally recognized specialists. They cover general theoretical aspects of black hole astrophysics, the theory of accretion and ejection of gas and jets, stellar-sized black holes observed in the Milky Way, the formation and evolution of supermassive black holes in galactic centers and quasars as well as their influence on the dynamics in galactic nuclei. The final chapter addresses analytical relativity of black holes supporting theoretical understanding of the coalescence of black holes as well as being of great relevance in identifying gravitational wave signals. With its introductory chapters the book is aimed at advanced graduate and post-graduate students, but it will also be useful for specialists.
Nuclear astrophysics at DRAGON
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hager, U.
2014-01-01
The DRAGON recoil separator is located at the ISAC facility at TRIUMF, Vancouver. It is designed to measure radiative alpha and proton capture reactions of astrophysical importance. Over the last years, the DRAGON collaboration has measured several reactions using both radioactive and high-intensity stable beams. For example, the 160(a, g) cross section was recently measured. The reaction plays a role in steady-state helium burning in massive stars, where it follows the 12C(a, g) reaction. At astrophysically relevant energies, the reaction proceeds exclusively via direct capture, resulting in a low rate. In this measurement, the unique capabilities of DRAGON enabled determination not only of the total reaction rates, but also of decay branching ratios. In addition, results from other recent measurements will be presented
Allen's astrophysical quantities
2000-01-01
This new, fourth, edition of Allen's classic Astrophysical Quantities belongs on every astronomer's bookshelf. It has been thoroughly revised and brought up to date by a team of more than ninety internationally renowned astronomers and astrophysicists. While it follows the basic format of the original, this indispensable reference has grown to more than twice the size of the earlier editions to accommodate the great strides made in astronomy and astrophysics. It includes detailed tables of the most recent data on: - General constants and units - Atoms, molecules, and spectra - Observational astronomy at all wavelengths from radio to gamma-rays, and neutrinos - Planetary astronomy: Earth, planets and satellites, and solar system small bodies - The Sun, normal stars, and stars with special characteristics - Stellar populations - Cataclysmic and symbiotic variables, supernovae - Theoretical stellar evolution - Circumstellar and interstellar material - Star clusters, galaxies, quasars, and active galactic nuclei ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Longair, M.
1993-01-01
The various themes developed are: radioastronomy, X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray, ultraviolet, neutral hydrogen and molecular line astronomy, optical and theoretical astronomy; the large scale distribution of matter and radiation in the universe, the galaxies, stars and stellar evolution, the interstellar medium (gas, dust) and star formation, galaxies and clusters of galaxies, active galaxies and quasars, astrophysical cosmology, the astronomy of the future. 86 figs., 60 refs
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Langevin type stochastic differential equation; BL Lac objects. ... are described by using a Langevin type equation with a damping term and a random, white noise type force. ... Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | News ...
Ogilvie, Gordon I.
2016-06-01
> These lecture notes and example problems are based on a course given at the University of Cambridge in Part III of the Mathematical Tripos. Fluid dynamics is involved in a very wide range of astrophysical phenomena, such as the formation and internal dynamics of stars and giant planets, the workings of jets and accretion discs around stars and black holes and the dynamics of the expanding Universe. Effects that can be important in astrophysical fluids include compressibility, self-gravitation and the dynamical influence of the magnetic field that is `frozen in' to a highly conducting plasma. The basic models introduced and applied in this course are Newtonian gas dynamics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) for an ideal compressible fluid. The mathematical structure of the governing equations and the associated conservation laws are explored in some detail because of their importance for both analytical and numerical methods of solution, as well as for physical interpretation. Linear and nonlinear waves, including shocks and other discontinuities, are discussed. The spherical blast wave resulting from a supernova, and involving a strong shock, is a classic problem that can be solved analytically. Steady solutions with spherical or axial symmetry reveal the physics of winds and jets from stars and discs. The linearized equations determine the oscillation modes of astrophysical bodies, as well as their stability and their response to tidal forcing.
Shape: A 3D Modeling Tool for Astrophysics.
Steffen, Wolfgang; Koning, Nicholas; Wenger, Stephan; Morisset, Christophe; Magnor, Marcus
2011-04-01
We present a flexible interactive 3D morpho-kinematical modeling application for astrophysics. Compared to other systems, our application reduces the restrictions on the physical assumptions, data type, and amount that is required for a reconstruction of an object's morphology. It is one of the first publicly available tools to apply interactive graphics to astrophysical modeling. The tool allows astrophysicists to provide a priori knowledge about the object by interactively defining 3D structural elements. By direct comparison of model prediction with observational data, model parameters can then be automatically optimized to fit the observation. The tool has already been successfully used in a number of astrophysical research projects.
Astronomical optical interferometry, II: Astrophysical results
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jankov S.
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Optical interferometry is entering a new age with several ground- based long-baseline observatories now making observations of unprecedented spatial resolution. Based on a great leap forward in the quality and quantity of interferometric data, the astrophysical applications are not limited anymore to classical subjects, such as determination of fundamental properties of stars; namely, their effective temperatures, radii, luminosities and masses, but the present rapid development in this field allowed to move to a situation where optical interferometry is a general tool in studies of many astrophysical phenomena. Particularly, the advent of long-baseline interferometers making use of very large pupils has opened the way to faint objects science and first results on extragalactic objects have made it a reality. The first decade of XXI century is also remarkable for aperture synthesis in the visual and near-infrared wavelength regimes, which provided image reconstructions from stellar surfaces to Active Galactic Nuclei. Here I review the numerous astrophysical results obtained up to date, except for binary and multiple stars milliarcsecond astrometry, which should be a subject of an independent detailed review, taking into account its importance and expected results at microarcsecond precision level. To the results obtained with currently available interferometers, I associate the adopted instrumental settings in order to provide a guide for potential users concerning the appropriate instruments which can be used to obtain the desired astrophysical information.
Self-similar dynamic converging shocks - I. An isothermal gas sphere with self-gravity
Lou, Yu-Qing; Shi, Chun-Hui
2014-07-01
We explore novel self-similar dynamic evolution of converging spherical shocks in a self-gravitating isothermal gas under conceivable astrophysical situations. The construction of such converging shocks involves a time-reversal operation on feasible flow profiles in self-similar expansion with a proper care for the increasing direction of the specific entropy. Pioneered by Guderley since 1942 but without self-gravity so far, self-similar converging shocks are important for implosion processes in aerodynamics, combustion, and inertial fusion. Self-gravity necessarily plays a key role for grossly spherical structures in very broad contexts of astrophysics and cosmology, such as planets, stars, molecular clouds (cores), compact objects, planetary nebulae, supernovae, gamma-ray bursts, supernova remnants, globular clusters, galactic bulges, elliptical galaxies, clusters of galaxies as well as relatively hollow cavity or bubble structures on diverse spatial and temporal scales. Large-scale dynamic flows associated with such quasi-spherical systems (including collapses, accretions, fall-backs, winds and outflows, explosions, etc.) in their initiation, formation, and evolution are likely encounter converging spherical shocks at times. Our formalism lays an important theoretical basis for pertinent astrophysical and cosmological applications of various converging shock solutions and for developing and calibrating numerical codes. As examples, we describe converging shock triggered star formation, supernova explosions, and void collapses.
Nevada Isostatic Residual Gravity Over Basement
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This study of gravity data from Nevada is part of a statewide analysis of mineral resources. The main objective of the gravity study were: 1) to infer the structure...
Measurements of radiative material properties for astrophysical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, James E.
2010-01-01
The new generation of z-pinch, laser, and XFEL facilities opens the possibility to produce astrophysically-relevant laboratory plasmas with energy densities beyond what was previously possible. Furthermore, macroscopic plasmas with uniform conditions can now be created, enabling more accurate determination of the material properties. This presentation will provide an overview of our research at the Z facility investigating stellar interior opacities, AGN warm-absorber photoionized plasmas, and white dwarf photospheres. Atomic physics in plasmas heavily influence these topics. Stellar opacities are an essential ingredient of stellar models and they affect what we know about the structure and evolution of stars. Opacity models have become highly sophisticated, but laboratory tests have not been done at the conditions existing inside stars. Our research is presently focused on measuring Fe at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, where the electron temperature and density are believed to be 190 eV and 9 x 10 22 e/cc, respectively. The second project is aimed at testing atomic kinetics models for photoionized plasmas. Photoionization is an important process in many astrophysical plasmas and the spectral signatures are routinely used to infer astrophysical object's characteristics. However, the spectral synthesis models at the heart of these interpretations have been the subject of very limited experimental tests. Our current research examines photoionization of neon plasma subjected to radiation flux similar to the warm absorber that surrounds active galactic nuclei. The third project is a recent initiative aimed at producing a white dwarf photosphere in the laboratory. Emergent spectra from the photosphere are used to infer the star's effective temperature and surface gravity. The results depend on knowledge of H, He, and C spectral line profiles under conditions where complex physics such as quasi-molecule formation may be important. These
Nonlocal astrophysics dark matter, dark energy and physical vacuum
Alexeev, Boris V
2017-01-01
Non-Local Astrophysics: Dark Matter, Dark Energy and Physical Vacuum highlights the most significant features of non-local theory, a highly effective tool for solving many physical problems in areas where classical local theory runs into difficulties. The book provides the fundamental science behind new non-local astrophysics, discussing non-local kinetic and generalized hydrodynamic equations, non-local parameters in several physical systems, dark matter, dark energy, black holes and gravitational waves. Devoted to the solution of astrophysical problems from the position of non-local physics Provides a solution for dark matter and dark energy Discusses cosmological aspects of the theory of non-local physics Includes a solution for the problem of the Hubble Universe expansion, and of the dependence of the orbital velocity from the center of gravity
Quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lee, Jungjai; Yang, Hyunseok
2014-01-01
We review a novel and authentic way to quantize gravity. This novel approach is based on the fact that Einstein gravity can be formulated in terms of a symplectic geometry rather than a Riemannian geometry in the context of emergent gravity. An essential step for emergent gravity is to realize the equivalence principle, the most important property in the theory of gravity (general relativity), from U(1) gauge theory on a symplectic or Poisson manifold. Through the realization of the equivalence principle, which is an intrinsic property in symplectic geometry known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma, one can understand how diffeomorphism symmetry arises from noncommutative U(1) gauge theory; thus, gravity can emerge from the noncommutative electromagnetism, which is also an interacting theory. As a consequence, a background-independent quantum gravity in which the prior existence of any spacetime structure is not a priori assumed but is defined by using the fundamental ingredients in quantum gravity theory can be formulated. This scheme for quantum gravity can be used to resolve many notorious problems in theoretical physics, such as the cosmological constant problem, to understand the nature of dark energy, and to explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. In particular, it leads to a remarkable picture of what matter is. A matter field, such as leptons and quarks, simply arises as a stable localized geometry, which is a topological object in the defining algebra (noncommutative *-algebra) of quantum gravity.
Quantum gravity from noncommutative spacetime
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lee, Jungjai [Daejin University, Pocheon (Korea, Republic of); Yang, Hyunseok [Korea Institute for Advanced Study, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)
2014-12-15
We review a novel and authentic way to quantize gravity. This novel approach is based on the fact that Einstein gravity can be formulated in terms of a symplectic geometry rather than a Riemannian geometry in the context of emergent gravity. An essential step for emergent gravity is to realize the equivalence principle, the most important property in the theory of gravity (general relativity), from U(1) gauge theory on a symplectic or Poisson manifold. Through the realization of the equivalence principle, which is an intrinsic property in symplectic geometry known as the Darboux theorem or the Moser lemma, one can understand how diffeomorphism symmetry arises from noncommutative U(1) gauge theory; thus, gravity can emerge from the noncommutative electromagnetism, which is also an interacting theory. As a consequence, a background-independent quantum gravity in which the prior existence of any spacetime structure is not a priori assumed but is defined by using the fundamental ingredients in quantum gravity theory can be formulated. This scheme for quantum gravity can be used to resolve many notorious problems in theoretical physics, such as the cosmological constant problem, to understand the nature of dark energy, and to explain why gravity is so weak compared to other forces. In particular, it leads to a remarkable picture of what matter is. A matter field, such as leptons and quarks, simply arises as a stable localized geometry, which is a topological object in the defining algebra (noncommutative *-algebra) of quantum gravity.
Extreme gravity tests with gravitational waves from compact binary coalescences: (II) ringdown
Berti, Emanuele; Yagi, Kent; Yang, Huan; Yunes, Nicolás
2018-05-01
The LIGO/Virgo detections of binary black hole mergers marked a watershed moment in astronomy, ushering in the era of precision tests of Kerr dynamics. We review theoretical and experimental challenges that must be overcome to carry out black hole spectroscopy with present and future gravitational wave detectors. Among other topics, we discuss quasinormal mode excitation in binary mergers, astrophysical event rates, tests of black hole dynamics in modified theories of gravity, parameterized "post-Kerr" ringdown tests, exotic compact objects, and proposed data analysis methods to improve spectroscopic tests of Kerr dynamics by stacking multiple events.
Wormholes in R{sup 2}-gravity within the f(R, T) formalism
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sahoo, P.K.; Sahoo, Parbati [Birla Institute of Technology and Science-Pilani, Department of Mathematics, Hyderabad (India); Moraes, P.H.R.S. [ITA-Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica, Departamento de Fisica, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil)
2018-01-15
We propose, as a novelty in the literature, the modeling of wormholes within a particular case of f(R, T) gravity, namely f(R, T) = R + αR{sup 2} + λT, with R and T being the Ricci scalar and trace of the energy-momentum tensor, respectively, while α and λ are constants. Although such a functional form application can be found in the literature, those concern compact astrophysical objects, such that no wormhole analysis has been done so far. The quadratic geometric and linear material corrections of this theory render the matter content of the wormhole remarkably able to obey the energy conditions. (orig.)
Modifications of Einstein's theory of gravity at large distances
2015-01-01
In the last few years modified gravity theories have been proposed as extensions of Einstein's theory of gravity. Their main motivation is to explain the latest cosmological and astrophysical data on dark energy and dark matter. The study of general relativity at small scales has already produced important results (cf e.g. LNP 863 Quantum Gravity and Quantum Cosmology) while its study at large scales is challenging because recent and upcoming observational results will provide important information on the validity of these modified theories. In this volume, various aspects of modified gravity at large scales will be discussed: high-curvature gravity theories; general scalar-tensor theories; Galileon theories and their cosmological applications; F(R) gravity theories; massive, new massive and topologically massive gravity; Chern-Simons modifications of general relativity (including holographic variants) and higher-spin gravity theories, to name but a few of the most important recent developments. Edite...
Mashhoon, Bahram
2017-01-01
Relativity theory is based on a postulate of locality, which means that the past history of the observer is not directly taken into account. This book argues that the past history should be taken into account. In this way, nonlocality---in the sense of history dependence---is introduced into relativity theory. The deep connection between inertia and gravitation suggests that gravity could be nonlocal, and in nonlocal gravity the fading gravitational memory of past events must then be taken into account. Along this line of thought, a classical nonlocal generalization of Einstein's theory of gravitation has recently been developed. A significant consequence of this theory is that the nonlocal aspect of gravity appears to simulate dark matter. According to nonlocal gravity theory, what astronomers attribute to dark matter should instead be due to the nonlocality of gravitation. Nonlocality dominates on the scale of galaxies and beyond. Memory fades with time; therefore, the nonlocal aspect of gravity becomes wea...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ehlers, J.; Perry, J.J.; Walker, M.
1980-01-01
Papers are presented on recent developments in relativistic astrophysics in the fields of extragalactic sources, galaxy formation and cosmology, gamma-ray astronomy, gravitation theory and fundamental interactions, supernovae and gravitational collapse, neutron stars, pulsars and supernova remnants and X-ray astronomy. Specific topics include the properties of BL Lac objects, the emission-line spectra of active galactic nuclei and quasars, current knowledge of the cosmic microwave background, the limits to observational verification in cosmology, the gravitational instability theory of galaxy formation and clustering, COS-B observations of Galactic high-energy gamma rays, isolated systems in general relativity and quantum gravity. Attention is also given to the evolution and explosion of massive stars, neutrino astronomy, pulsar radiation mechanisms, evidence of gravitational radiation from measurements of the binary pulsar PSR 1913+13, the X-ray spectra of accreting degenerate stars, and theoretical aspects of X-ray binaries
Astrophysics is easy! an introduction for the amateur astronomer
Inglis, Mike
2007-01-01
With some justification, many amateur astronomers believe astrophysics is a very difficult subject, requiring at least degree-level mathematics to understand it properly. This isn’t necessarily the case. Mike Inglis' quantitative approach to the subject explains all aspects of astrophysics in simple terms and cuts through the incomprehensible mathematics with which this fascinating subject is all too often associated. Astrophysics is Easy! begins by looking at the H-R diagram and other basic tools of astrophysics, then ranges across the universe, from a first look at the interstellar medium and nebulae, through the birth, evolution and death of stars, to the physics of galaxies and clusters of galaxies. A unique feature of this book is the way that Dr. Inglis lists example objects for practical observation at every stage, so that practical astronomers can go and look at the object or objects under discussion – using only easily-available commercial amateur equipment.
Research in nuclear astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lattimer, J.M.; Yahil, A.
1989-01-01
The interaction between nuclear theory and some outstanding problems in astrophysics is examined. We are actively researching both the astrophysics of gravitational collapse, neutron star birth, and the emission of neutrinos from supernovae, on the one hand, and the nuclear physics of the equation of state of hot, dense matter on the other hand. There is close coupling between nuclear theory and the supernova phenomenon; in fact, nuclear matter properties, especially at supernuclear densities, might be best delineated by astrophysical considerations. Our research has also focused on the neutrinos emitted from supernovae, since they are the only available observables of the internal supernova mechanism. The recent observations of neutrinos from SN 1987A proved to be in remarkable agreement with models we pioneered in the one and one half years prior to its explosion in February 1987. We have also developed a novel hydrodynamical code in which shocks are treated via Riemann resolution rather than with artificial viscosity. We propose to modify it to use implicit differencing and to include multi-group neutrino diffusion and General Relativity. In parallel, we are extending calculations of the birth of a neutron star to include convection and mass accretion, by incorporating a hydrodynamic envelope onto a hydrostatic core. In view of the possible recent discovery of a pulsar in SN1987A, we are including the effects of rotation. We are undertaking a detailed comparison of current equations of state, focusing on disagreements regarding the nuclear incompressibly, symmetry energy and specific heat. Especially important is the symmetry energy, which below nuclear density controls free proton fractions and weak interaction rates and above this density critically influences the neutron star maximum mass and binding energy. 60 refs
Experimental studies of nuclear astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He Jianjun; Zhou Xiaohong; Zhang Yuhu
2013-01-01
Nuclear astrophysics is an interdisciplinary subject combining micro-scale nuclear physics and macro-scale astrophysics. Its main aims are to understand the origin and evolution of the elements in the universe, the time scale of stellar evolution, the stellar environment and sites, the energy generation of stars from thermonuclear processes and its impact on stellar evolution and the mechanisms driving astrophysical phenomena, and the structure and property of compact stars. This paper presents the significance and current research status of nuclear astrophysics; we introduce some fundamental concepts, the nuclear physics input parameters required by certain astrophysics models, and some widely-used experimental approaches in nuclear astrophysics research. The potential and feasibility of research in this field using China’s current and planned large-scale scientific facilities are analyzed briefly. Finally, the prospects of the establishing a deep underground science and engineering laboratory in China are envisaged. (authors)
Trimble, V; Aschwanden, MJ
2000-01-01
The year 1999 saw the arrival of a star with three planets, a universe with three parameters, and a solar corona that could be heated at least three ways. In addition, there were at least three papers on every question that has ever been asked in astrophysics, from "Will the Universe expand forever?" to "Does mantle convection occur in one or two layers?" The answers generally were, "Yes," "No," and "None of the above," to each of the questions. The authors have done their best to organize th...
Massive gravity from bimetric gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Baccetti, Valentina; Martín-Moruno, Prado; Visser, Matt
2013-01-01
We discuss the subtle relationship between massive gravity and bimetric gravity, focusing particularly on the manner in which massive gravity may be viewed as a suitable limit of bimetric gravity. The limiting procedure is more delicate than currently appreciated. Specifically, this limiting procedure should not unnecessarily constrain the background metric, which must be externally specified by the theory of massive gravity itself. The fact that in bimetric theories one always has two sets of metric equations of motion continues to have an effect even in the massive gravity limit, leading to additional constraints besides the one set of equations of motion naively expected. Thus, since solutions of bimetric gravity in the limit of vanishing kinetic term are also solutions of massive gravity, but the contrary statement is not necessarily true, there is no complete continuity in the parameter space of the theory. In particular, we study the massive cosmological solutions which are continuous in the parameter space, showing that many interesting cosmologies belong to this class. (paper)
Compact stars in alternative theories of gravity: Einstein-Dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pani, Paolo; Berti, Emanuele; Cardoso, Vitor; Read, Jocelyn
2011-01-01
We develop a theoretical framework to study slowly rotating compact stars in a rather general class of alternative theories of gravity, with the ultimate goal of investigating constraints on alternative theories from electromagnetic and gravitational-wave observations of compact stars. Our Lagrangian includes as special cases scalar-tensor theories (and indirectly f(R) theories) as well as models with a scalar field coupled to quadratic curvature invariants. As a first application of the formalism, we discuss (for the first time in the literature) compact stars in Einstein-Dilaton-Gauss-Bonnet gravity. We show that compact objects with central densities typical of neutron stars cannot exist for certain values of the coupling constants of the theory. In fact, the existence and stability of compact stars sets more stringent constraints on the theory than the existence of black hole solutions. This work is a first step in a program to systematically rule out (possibly using Bayesian model selection) theories that are incompatible with astrophysical observations of compact stars.
Global kinetic theory of astrophysical jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chang, T.
1989-01-01
We suggest that an astrophysical plasma stream flowing outward from a central object aling an open magnetic field line with decreasing field strength generally will have anisotropic velocity distributions. I particular, the electron distribution function of this type of plasma streams will contain a 'thermally populated' region and a stretche out high energy tail (or 'jet-like') region collimated in the utward direction of the magnetic field line. Our argument is based on a global, collisional, kinetic theory. Because the 'kinetic jets' are always pointed aling the outward direction of the field lines, thy are automatically collimated and will assume whatever the peculiar geometries dictated by the magnetic field. This result should be useful in the understanding of the basic structures of such diverse astrophysical objects as the extragalactic radio jets, stellar winds, the solar wind, planetary polar winds, and galactic jets. (author). 8 refs.; 2 figs
Planck Scale Effects in Astrophysics and Cosmology
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Padmanabhan, Thanu [Astrophysics (IUCAA), Poona University Campus, Post Bag No. 4, Ganeshkhind, Pune 411007 (India)
2007-08-07
It has been generally agreed that putting together the principles of quantum theory and general relativity will usher the next revolution in physics. The trouble, of course, is that we have been now waiting for several decades for this revolution to take place. While people get excited about different directions of development every once in a while (with some excitements propped up by a larger number of researchers than others), it is probably fair to say that nothing which can be called definitive progress has taken place in the last several decades. Given the state of affairs it is definitely worthwhile to keep an open mind regarding new ideas and have at least a small fraction of researchers working somewhat away from the mainstream. This could possibly lead to new insights which have been missed by the more conventional mainstream approaches and could even finally provide a much awaited breakthrough. The collection of articles in this book should probably be viewed against such a backdrop. A few of the articles contained in the book deal with topics which are probably not mainstream. But all the speakers have presented their ideas clearly and in a proper setting, making many of the articles quite useful for a person who wants to obtain a bird's eye view. The connecting thread is essentially whether some aspects of quantum gravitational physics can lead to potentially observable effects or provide explanations for known effects. The book also contains a few overview articles of exceptional clarity. In particular I would like to mention the one by E Alvarez on quantum gravity, the one by L Smolin on loop quantum gravity and J Martin's article on the origin of cosmological perturbations. The rest of the articles are more focussed on possible quantum gravity phenomenology and discuss diverse topics such as astrophysical bounds of Lorentz violations, doubly special relativity and the role of quantum form in quantum gravity phenomenon. I thoroughly enjoyed
Astrophysical evidence for weak new forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burgess, C.; Cloutier, J.
1988-01-01
Recent observations of the orbital precession rate for eclipsing binary star systems appear to be in disagreement with the predictions of general relativity. We here analyse whether these discrepancies can be interpreted as being due to the existence of a new, long range, very weak force. We find that, with a conservative estimate of the astrophysical errors involved, the binary-star data by itself is consistent with what would be expected of a new force. The coupling and range required to fit the data can be consistent with the present limits on the existence of new forces. The strongest constraints come from recent terrestrial searches for a ''fifth force''. This analysis underlines the fact that these binary star systems are sensitive to forces whose coupling strength can be as low as 10 -5 that of gravity
THE SZ EFFECT IN THE PLANCK ERA: ASTROPHYSICAL AND COSMOLOGICAL IMPACT
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sergio Colafrancesco
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect (SZE is a relevant probe for cosmology and particle astrophysics. The Planck Era marks a definite step forward in the use of this probe for astrophysics and cosmology. Astrophysical applications to galaxy clusters, galaxies, radiogalaxies and large-scale structures are discussed. Cosmological relevance for the Dark Energy equation of state, modified Gravity scenarios, Dark Matter search, cosmic magnetism and other cosmological applications is also reviewed. Future directions for the study of the SZE and its polarization are finally outlined.
Lujan, Richard E.
2001-01-01
A mechanical gravity brake that prevents hoisted loads within a shaft from free-falling when a loss of hoisting force occurs. A loss of hoist lifting force may occur in a number of situations, for example if a hoist cable were to break, the brakes were to fail on a winch, or the hoist mechanism itself were to fail. Under normal hoisting conditions, the gravity brake of the invention is subject to an upward lifting force from the hoist and a downward pulling force from a suspended load. If the lifting force should suddenly cease, the loss of differential forces on the gravity brake in free-fall is translated to extend a set of brakes against the walls of the shaft to stop the free fall descent of the gravity brake and attached load.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Barceló Carlos
2005-12-01
Full Text Available Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
Alvarez, Enrique
2004-01-01
Gravitons should have momentum just as photons do; and since graviton momentum would cause compression rather than elongation of spacetime outside of matter; it does not appear that gravitons are compatible with Swartzchild's spacetime curvature. Also, since energy is proportional to mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the energy of matter is proportional to gravity. The energy of matter could thus contract space within matter; and because of the inter-connectedness of space, cause the...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Skielboe, Andreas
Gravity governs the evolution of the universe on the largest scales, and powers some of the most extreme objects at the centers of galaxies. Determining the masses and kinematics of galaxy clusters provides essential constraints on the large-scale structure of the universe, and act as direct probes...
Important plasma problems in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kulsrud, R.M.
1995-01-01
In astrophysics, plasmas occur under very extreme conditions. For example, there are ultrastrong magnetic fields in neutron stars, relativistic plasmas around black holes and in jets, extremely energetic particles such as cosmic rays in the interstellar medium, extremely dense plasmas in accretion disks, and extremely large magnetic Reynolds numbers in the interstellar medium. These extreme limits for astrophysical plasmas make plasma phenomena much simpler to analyze in astrophysics than in the laboratory. An understanding of such phenomena often results in an interesting way, by simply taking the extreme limiting case of a known plasma theory. The author will describe one of the more exciting examples and will attempt to convey the excitement he felt when he was first exposed to it. However, not all plasma astrophysical phenomena are so simple. There are certain important plasma phenomena in astrophysics that have not been so easily resolved. In fact, a resolution of them is blocking significant progress in astrophysical research. They have not yet yielded to attacks by theoretical astrophysicists nor to extensive numerical simulation. The author will attempt to describe one of the more important of these plasma--astrophysical problems, and discuss why its resolution is so important to astrophysics. This significant example is fast, magnetic reconnection. Another significant example is the large-magnetic-Reynolds number magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) dynamos
Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Michael S.; Hix, W. Raphael; Bardayan, Daniel W.; Blackmon, Jeffery C.; Lingerfelt, Eric J.; Scott, Jason P.; Nesaraja, Caroline D.; Chae, Kyungyuk; Guidry, Michael W.; Koura, Hiroyuki; Meyer, Richard A.
2006-01-01
A Computational Infrastructure for Nuclear Astrophysics has been developed to streamline the inclusion of the latest nuclear physics data in astrophysics simulations. The infrastructure consists of a platform-independent suite of computer codes that is freely available online at nucastrodata.org. Features of, and future plans for, this software suite are given
Cyberinfrastructure for Computational Relativistic Astrophysics
Ott, Christian
2012-01-01
Poster presented at the NSF Office of Cyberinfrastructure CyberBridges CAREER PI workshop. This poster discusses the computational challenges involved in the modeling of complex relativistic astrophysical systems. The Einstein Toolkit is introduced. It is an open-source community infrastructure for numerical relativity and computational astrophysics.
Computational Astrophysics Towards Exascale Computing and Big Data
Astsatryan, H. V.; Knyazyan, A. V.; Mickaelian, A. M.
2016-06-01
Traditionally, Armenia has a leading position both within the computer science and Information Technology and Astronomy and Astrophysics sectors in the South Caucasus region and beyond. For instance recent years Information Technology (IT) became one of the fastest growing industries of the Armenian economy (EIF 2013). The main objective of this article is to highlight the key activities that will spur Armenia to strengthen its computational astrophysics capacity thanks to the analysis made of the current trends of e-Infrastructures worldwide.
Radiation processes in astrophysics
Tucker, Wallace H
1975-01-01
The purpose of this book is twofold: to provide a brief, simple introduction to the theory of radiation and its application in astrophysics and to serve as a reference manual for researchers. The first part of the book consists of a discussion of the basic formulas and concepts that underlie the classical and quantum descriptions of radiation processes. The rest of the book is concerned with applications. The spirit of the discussion is to present simple derivations that will provide some insight into the basic physics involved and then to state the exact results in a form useful for applications. The reader is referred to the original literature and to reviews for rigorous derivations.The wide range of topics covered is illustrated by the following table of contents: Basic Formulas for Classical Radiation Processes; Basic Formulas for Quantum Radiation Processes; Cyclotron and Synchrotron Radiation; Electron Scattering; Bremsstrahlung and Collision Losses; Radiative Recombination; The Photoelectric Effect; a...
NASA's Astrophysics Data Archives
Hasan, H.; Hanisch, R.; Bredekamp, J.
2000-09-01
The NASA Office of Space Science has established a series of archival centers where science data acquired through its space science missions is deposited. The availability of high quality data to the general public through these open archives enables the maximization of science return of the flight missions. The Astrophysics Data Centers Coordinating Council, an informal collaboration of archival centers, coordinates data from five archival centers distiguished primarily by the wavelength range of the data deposited there. Data are available in FITS format. An overview of NASA's data centers and services is presented in this paper. A standard front-end modifyer called `Astrowbrowse' is described. Other catalog browsers and tools include WISARD and AMASE supported by the National Space Scince Data Center, as well as ISAIA, a follow on to Astrobrowse.
Astrophysics Faces the Millennium
Trimble, Virginia
2001-03-01
The Medieval synthesis of Aristotelian philosophy and church doctrine, due largely to Thomas Aquinas, insisted that the universe outside the earth's atmosphere must be immutable, single-centered, fully inventoried, immaculate or perfect, including perfectly spherical, and much else that sounds strange to modern ears. The beginnings of modern astronomy can be largely described as the overthrow of these various concepts by a combination of new technologies and new ways of thinking, and many current questions in astrophysics can be directly tied to developments of those same concepts. Indeed they probably all can be, but not over time, ending with questions like: Do other stars have spots? What does it mean when quasar jets look like they are moving faster than the speed of light? Is there anything special about our star, our galaxy, our planet, or our universe? How did these all form, and what is their long-term fate?
Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics
Garfinkle, David
2017-01-01
Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.
High energy astrophysical techniques
Poggiani, Rosa
2017-01-01
This textbook presents ultraviolet and X-ray astronomy, gamma-ray astronomy, cosmic ray astronomy, neutrino astronomy, and gravitational wave astronomy as distinct research areas, focusing on the astrophysics targets and the requirements with respect to instrumentation and observation methods. The purpose of the book is to bridge the gap between the reference books and the specialized literature. For each type of astronomy, the discussion proceeds from the orders of magnitude for observable quantities. The physical principles of photon and particle detectors are then addressed, and the specific telescopes and combinations of detectors, presented. Finally the instruments and their limits are discussed with a view to assisting readers in the planning and execution of observations. Astronomical observations with high-energy photons and particles represent the newest additions to multimessenger astronomy and this book will be of value to all with an interest in the field.
Numerical relativity beyond astrophysics.
Garfinkle, David
2017-01-01
Though the main applications of computer simulations in relativity are to astrophysical systems such as black holes and neutron stars, nonetheless there are important applications of numerical methods to the investigation of general relativity as a fundamental theory of the nature of space and time. This paper gives an overview of some of these applications. In particular we cover (i) investigations of the properties of spacetime singularities such as those that occur in the interior of black holes and in big bang cosmology. (ii) investigations of critical behavior at the threshold of black hole formation in gravitational collapse. (iii) investigations inspired by string theory, in particular analogs of black holes in more than 4 spacetime dimensions and gravitational collapse in spacetimes with a negative cosmological constant.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Falgarone, Edith; Rieutord, Michel; Richard, Denis; Zahn, Jean-Paul; Dauchot, Olivier; Daviaud, Francois; Dubrulle, Berengere; Laval, Jean-Philippe; Noullez, Alain; Bourgoin, Mickael; Odier, Philippe; Pinton, Jean-Francois; Leveque, Emmanuel; Chainais, Pierre; Abry, Patrice; Mordant, Nicolas; Michel, Olivier; Marie, Louis; Chiffaudel, Arnaud; Daviaud, Francois; Petrelis, Francois; Fauve, Stephan; Nore, C.; Brachet, M.-E.; Politano, H.; Pouquet, A.; Leorat, Jacques; Grapin, Roland; Brun, Sacha; Delour, Jean; Arneodo, Alain; Muzy, Jean-Francois; Magnaudet, Jacques; Braza, Marianna; Boree, Jacques; Maurel, S.; Ben, L.; Moreau, J.; Bazile, R.; Charnay, G.; Lewandowski, Roger; Laveder, Dimitri; Bouchet, Freddy; Sommeria, Joel; Le Gal, P.; Eloy, C.; Le Dizes, S.; Schneider, Kai; Farge, Marie; Bottausci, Frederic; Petitjeans, Philippe; Maurel, Agnes; Carlier, Johan; Anselmet, Fabien
2001-05-01
This publication gathers extended summaries of presentations proposed during two days on astrophysics and magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). The first session addressed astrophysics and MHD: The cold interstellar medium, a low ionized turbulent plasma; Turbulent convection in stars; Turbulence in differential rotation; Protoplanetary disks and washing machines; gravitational instability and large structures; MHD turbulence in the sodium von Karman flow; Numerical study of the dynamo effect in the Taylor-Green eddy geometry; Solar turbulent convection under the influence of rotation and of the magnetic field. The second session addressed the description of turbulence: Should we give up cascade models to describe the spatial complexity of the velocity field in a developed turbulence?; What do we learn with RDT about the turbulence at the vicinity of a plane surface?; Qualitative explanation of intermittency; Reduced model of Navier-Stokes equations: quickly extinguished energy cascade; Some mathematical properties of turbulent closure models. The third session addressed turbulence and coherent structures: Alfven wave filamentation and formation of coherent structures in dispersive MHD; Statistical mechanics for quasi-geo-strophic turbulence: applications to Jupiter's coherent structures; Elliptic instabilities; Physics and modelling of turbulent detached unsteady flows in aerodynamics and fluid-structure interaction; Intermittency and coherent structures in a washing machine: a wavelet analysis of joint pressure/velocity measurements; CVS filtering of 3D turbulent mixing layer using orthogonal wavelets. The last session addressed experimental methods: Lagrangian velocity measurements; Energy dissipation and instabilities within a locally stretched vortex; Study by laser imagery of the generation and breakage of a compressed eddy flow; Study of coherent structures of turbulent boundary layer at high Reynolds number
Nuclear physics and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.
1992-09-01
We have investigated a variety of research topics on the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics during the past year. We have continued our study of dihyperon states in dense matter and have started to make a connection between their properties in the core of neutron stars with the ongoing experimental searches at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We started to build a scenario for the origin of gamma-ray bursts using the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars close to an active galactic nucleous. We have been reconsidering the constraints due to neutron star cooling rates on the equation of state for high density matter in the light, of recent findings which show that the faster direct Urca cooling process is possible for a range of nuclear compositions. We have developed a model for the formation of primordial magnetic fields due to the dynamics of the quark-hadron phase transition. Encouraged by the most recent observational developments, we have investigated the possible origin of the boron and beryllium abundances. We have greatly improved the calculations of the primordial abundances of these elements I>y augmenting the reaction networks and by updating the most recent experimental nuclear reaction rates. Our calculations have shown that the primordial abundances are much higher than previously thought but that the observed abundances cannot be explained by primordial sources alone. We have also studied the origin of the boron and beryllium abundances due to cosmic ray spallation. Finally, we have continued to address the solar neutrino problem by investigating the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the MSW solution for a full three-family treatment of MSW mixing
Nuclear physics and astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.
1992-09-01
We have investigated a variety of research topics on the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics during the past year. We have continued our study of dihyperon states in dense matter and have started to make a connection between their properties in the core of neutron stars with the ongoing experimental searches at Brookhaven National Laboratory. We started to build a scenario for the origin of gamma-ray bursts using the conversion of neutron stars to strange stars close to an active galactic nucleous. We have been reconsidering the constraints due to neutron star cooling rates on the equation of state for high density matter in the light, of recent findings which show that the faster direct Urca cooling process is possible for a range of nuclear compositions. We have developed a model for the formation of primordial magnetic fields due to the dynamics of the quark-hadron phase transition. Encouraged by the most recent observational developments, we have investigated the possible origin of the boron and beryllium abundances. We have greatly improved the calculations of the primordial abundances of these elements I>y augmenting the reaction networks and by updating the most recent experimental nuclear reaction rates. Our calculations have shown that the primordial abundances are much higher than previously thought but that the observed abundances cannot be explained by primordial sources alone. We have also studied the origin of the boron and beryllium abundances due to cosmic ray spallation. Finally, we have continued to address the solar neutrino problem by investigating the impact of astrophysical uncertainties on the MSW solution for a full three-family treatment of MSW mixing.
Exploring Astrophysical Magnetohydrodynamics in the Laboratory
Manuel, Mario
2014-10-01
Plasma evolution in many astrophysical systems is dominated by magnetohydrodynamics. Specifically of interest to this talk are collimated outflows from accretion systems. Away from the central object, the Euler equations can represent the plasma dynamics well and may be scaled to a laboratory system. We have performed experiments to investigate the effects of a background magnetic field on an otherwise hydrodynamically collimated plasma. Laser-irradiated, cone targets produce hydrodynamically collimated plasma jets and a pulse-powered solenoid provides a constant background magnetic field. The application of this field is shown to completely disrupt the original flow and a new magnetically-collimated, hollow envelope is produced. Results from these experiments and potential implications for their astrophysical analogs will be discussed.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Carlos Barceló
2011-05-01
Full Text Available Analogue gravity is a research programme which investigates analogues of general relativistic gravitational fields within other physical systems, typically but not exclusively condensed matter systems, with the aim of gaining new insights into their corresponding problems. Analogue models of (and for gravity have a long and distinguished history dating back to the earliest years of general relativity. In this review article we will discuss the history, aims, results, and future prospects for the various analogue models. We start the discussion by presenting a particularly simple example of an analogue model, before exploring the rich history and complex tapestry of models discussed in the literature. The last decade in particular has seen a remarkable and sustained development of analogue gravity ideas, leading to some hundreds of published articles, a workshop, two books, and this review article. Future prospects for the analogue gravity programme also look promising, both on the experimental front (where technology is rapidly advancing and on the theoretical front (where variants of analogue models can be used as a springboard for radical attacks on the problem of quantum gravity.
Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology: A Primer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Abramowicz, Marek A
2007-01-01
'Relativistic Astrophysics and Cosmology: A Primer' by Peter Hoyng, was published last year by Springer. The book is based on lectures given by the author at University of Utrecht to advanced undergraduates. This is a short and scholarly book. In about 300 pages, the author has covered the most interesting and important applications of Albert Einstein's general relativity in present-day astrophysics and cosmology: black holes, neutron stars, gravitational waves, and the cosmic microwave background. The book stresses theory, but also discusses several experimental and observational topics, such as the Gravity Probe B mission, interferometer detectors of gravitational waves and the power spectrum of the cosmic microwave background. The coverage is not uniform. Some topics are discussed in depth, others are only briefly mentioned. The book obviously reflects the author's own research interests and his preferences for specific mathematical methods, and the choice of the original artwork that illustrates the book (and appears on its cover) is a very personal one. I consider this personal touch an advantage, even if I do not always agree with the author's choices. For example, I employ Killing vectors as a very useful mathematical tool not only in my research on black holes, but also in my classes. I find that my students prefer it when discussions of particle, photon and fluid motion in the Schwarzschild and Kerr spacetimes are based explicitly and directly on the Killing vectors rather than on coordinate calculations. The latter approach is, of course, the traditional one, and is used in Peter Hoyng's book. Reading the book is a stimulating experience, because the reader can almost feel the author's presence. The author's opinions, his mathematical taste, his research pleasures, and his pedagogical passion are apparent everywhere. Lecturers contemplating a new course on relativistic astrophysics could adopt Hoyng's book as the text. Their students will be in the author
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Giribet, G E
2005-01-01
Claus Kiefer presents his book, Quantum Gravity, with his hope that '[the] book will convince readers of [the] outstanding problem [of unification and quantum gravity] and encourage them to work on its solution'. With this aim, the author presents a clear exposition of the fundamental concepts of gravity and the steps towards the understanding of its quantum aspects. The main part of the text is dedicated to the analysis of standard topics in the formulation of general relativity. An analysis of the Hamiltonian formulation of general relativity and the canonical quantization of gravity is performed in detail. Chapters four, five and eight provide a pedagogical introduction to the basic concepts of gravitational physics. In particular, aspects such as the quantization of constrained systems, the role played by the quadratic constraint, the ADM decomposition, the Wheeler-de Witt equation and the problem of time are treated in an expert and concise way. Moreover, other specific topics, such as the minisuperspace approach and the feasibility of defining extrinsic times for certain models, are discussed as well. The ninth chapter of the book is dedicated to the quantum gravitational aspects of string theory. Here, a minimalistic but clear introduction to string theory is presented, and this is actually done with emphasis on gravity. It is worth mentioning that no hard (nor explicit) computations are presented, even though the exposition covers the main features of the topic. For instance, black hole statistical physics (within the framework of string theory) is developed in a pedagogical and concise way by means of heuristical arguments. As the author asserts in the epilogue, the hope of the book is to give 'some impressions from progress' made in the study of quantum gravity since its beginning, i.e., since the end of 1920s. In my opinion, Kiefer's book does actually achieve this goal and gives an extensive review of the subject. (book review)
Nuclear astrophysics with radioactive beams
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertulani, C.A.; Gade, A.
2010-01-01
The quest to comprehend how nuclear processes influence astrophysical phenomena is driving experimental and theoretical research programs worldwide. One of the main goals in nuclear astrophysics is to understand how energy is generated in stars, how elements are synthesized in stellar events and what the nature of neutron stars is. New experimental capabilities, the availability of radioactive beams and increased computational power paired with new astronomical observations have advanced the present knowledge. This review summarizes the progress in the field of nuclear astrophysics with a focus on the role of indirect methods and reactions involving beams of rare isotopes.
Nuclear Astrophysics Experiments at CIAE
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liu Weiping; Li Zhihong; Bai Xixiang; Lian Gang; Guo Bing; Zeng, Sheng; Yan Shengquan; Wang Baoxiang; Shu Nengchuan; Wu Kaisu; Chen Yongshou
2005-01-01
This paper describes nuclear astrophysical studies using the unstable ion beam facility GIRAFFE. We measured the angular distributions for some low energy reactions, such as 7 Be(d, n) 8 B, 11 C(d, n) 12 N, 8 Li(d, n) 9 Be and 8 Li(d, p) 9 Li in inverse kinematics, and indirectly derived the astrophysical S-factors or reaction rates of 7 Be(p, γ) 8 B, 11 C(p, γ) 12 N, 8 Li(n, γ) 9 Li at astrophysically relevant energies
Testing a Dilaton Gravity Model Using Nucleosynthesis
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Boran, S.; Kahya, E. O.
2014-01-01
Big bang nucleosynthesis (BBN) offers one of the most strict evidences for the Λ-CDM cosmology at present, as well as the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. In this work, our main aim is to present the outcomes of our calculations related to primordial abundances of light elements, in the context of higher dimensional steady-state universe model in the dilaton gravity. Our results show that abundances of light elements (primordial D, 3 He, 4 He, T, and 7 Li) are significantly different for some cases, and a comparison is given between a particular dilaton gravity model and Λ-CDM in the light of the astrophysical observations
Hawking radiation and strong gravity black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Qadir, A.; Sayed, W.A.
1979-01-01
It is shown that the strong gravity theory of Salam et al. places severe restrictions on black hole evaporation. Two major implications are that: mini blck holes (down to masses approximately 10 -16 kg) would be stable in the present epoch; and that some suggested mini black hole mechanisms to explain astrophysical phenomena would not work. The first result implies that f-gravity appears to make black holes much safer by removing the possibility of extremely violent black hole explosions suggested by Hawking. (Auth.)
Eissner, W; Hummer, D; Percival, I
1983-01-01
It is hard to appreciate but nevertheless true that Michael John Seaton, known internationally for the enthusiasm and skill with which he pursues his research in atomic physics and astrophysics, will be sixty years old on the 16th of January 1983. To mark this occasion some of his colleagues and former students have prepared this volume. It contains articles that de scribe some of the topics that have attracted his attention since he first started his research work at University College London so many years ago. Seaton's association with University College London has now stretched over a period of some 37 years, first as an undergraduate student, then as a research student, and then, successively, as Assistant Lecturer, Lecturer, Reader, and Professor. Seaton arrived at University College London in 1946 to become an undergraduate in the Physics Department, having just left the Royal Air Force in which he had served as a navigator in the Pathfinder Force of Bomber Command. There are a number of stories of ho...
Photonuclear reactions: astrophysical implications
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nedorezov, V.G.
2005-01-01
Full text: Brief review on astrophysical aspects in photonuclear studies is presented. Main attention is paid on the two kind experiments. The first one was performed at ESRF by GRAAL collaboration using the back scattering laser photons technique to study light speed anisotropy with respect to the dipole of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) radiation. This is a modern analog of the Michelson - Morley experiment. The results obtained are not only methologically different from those of the above mentioned experiments but also provide stronger constrains on the light speed anisotropy in CMB frame. Second subject is related to the electron scattering on exotic nuclei which can play significant role in explosive phenomena such as novae, supernovae and neutron stars. Such approach may be considered as the alternative to traditional low energy accelerator experiments. Exotic nuclei for these purposes can be obtained at CSI (ELISe project). The experiment is foreseen to be installed at the New Experimental Storage Ring (NESR) at RAIR where cooled secondary beams of radioactive ions will collide with an intense electron beam circulating in a small electron storage beam
Astrophysical implications of periodicity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Muller, R.A.
1988-01-01
Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed
Nuclear physics and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schramm, D.N.; Olinto, A.V.
1993-06-01
The authors report on recent progress of research at the interface of nuclear physics and astrophysics. During the past year, the authors continued to work on Big Bang and stellar nucleosynthesis, the solar neutrino problem, the equation of state for dense matter, the quark-hadron phase transition, and the origin of gamma-ray bursts; and began studying the consequences of nuclear reaction rates in the presence of strong magnetic fields. They have shown that the primordial production of B and Be cannot explain recent detections of these elements in halo stars and have looked at spallation as the likely source of these elements. By looking at nucleosynthesis with inhomogeneous initial conditions, they concluded that the Universe must have been very smooth before nucleosynthesis. They have also constrained neutrino oscillations and primordial magnetic fields by Big Bang nucleosynthesis. On the solar neutrino problem, they have analyzed the implications of the SAGE and GALLEX experiments. They also showed that the presence of dibaryons in neutron stars depends weakly on uncertainties of nuclear equations of state. They have started to investigate the consequences of strong magnetic fields on nuclear reactions and implications for neutron star cooling and supernova nucleosynthesis
An introduction to observational astrophysics
Gallaway, Mark
2016-01-01
Observational Astrophysics follows the general outline of an astrophysics undergraduate curriculum targeting practical observing information to what will be covered at the university level. This includes the basics of optics and coordinate systems to the technical details of CCD imaging, photometry, spectography and radio astronomy. General enough to be used by students at a variety of institutions and advanced enough to be far more useful than observing guides targeted at amateurs, the author provides a comprehensive and up-to-date treatment of observational astrophysics at undergraduate level to be used with a university’s teaching telescope. The practical approach takes the reader from basic first year techniques to those required for a final year project. Using this textbook as a resource, students can easily become conversant in the practical aspects of astrophysics in the field as opposed to the classroom.
Pipinos, Savas
2010-01-01
This article describes one classroom activity in which the author simulates the Newtonian gravity, and employs the Euclidean Geometry with the use of new technologies (NT). The prerequisites for this activity were some knowledge of the formulae for a particle free fall in Physics and most certainly, a good understanding of the notion of similarity…
F.C. Gruau; J.T. Tromp (John)
1999-01-01
textabstractWe consider the problem of establishing gravity in cellular automata. In particular, when cellular automata states can be partitioned into empty, particle, and wall types, with the latter enclosing rectangular areas, we desire rules that will make the particles fall down and pile up on
Recent progress on astrophysical opacity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rogers, F.J.; Iglesias, C.A.
1992-08-01
Improvements in the calculation of the opacity of astrophysical plasmas has helped to resolve several long-standing puzzles in the modeling of variable stars. The most significant opacity enhancements over the Los Alamos Astrophysical Library (LAOL) are due to improvements in the equation of state and atomic physics. Comparison with experiment has corroborated the predicted large opacity increases due to transitions in M-shell iron. We give a summary of recent developments
An introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics
Shore, Steven N
1992-01-01
This book is an introduction to astrophysical hydrodynamics for both astronomy and physics students. It provides a comprehensive and unified view of the general problems associated with fluids in a cosmic context, with a discussion of fluid dynamics and plasma physics. It is the only book on hydrodynamics that addresses the astrophysical context. Researchers and students will find this work to be an exceptional reference. Contents include chapters on irrotational and rotational flows, turbulence, magnetohydrodynamics, and instabilities.
Heavy ion irradiation of astrophysical ice analogs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Duarte, Eduardo Seperuelo; Domaracka, Alicja; Boduch, Philippe; Rothard, Hermann; Balanzat, Emmanuel; Dartois, Emmanuel; Pilling, Sergio; Farenzena, Lucio; Frota da Silveira, Enio
2009-01-01
Icy grain mantles consist of small molecules containing hydrogen, carbon, oxygen and nitrogen atoms (e.g. H 2 O, GO, CO 2 , NH 3 ). Such ices, present in different astrophysical environments (giant planets satellites, comets, dense clouds, and protoplanetary disks), are subjected to irradiation of different energetic particles: UV radiation, ion bombardment (solar and stellar wind as well as galactic cosmic rays), and secondary electrons due to cosmic ray ionization of H 2 . The interaction of these particles with astrophysical ice analogs has been the object of research over the last decades. However, there is a lack of information on the effects induced by the heavy ion component of cosmic rays in the electronic energy loss regime. The aim of the present work is to simulate of the astrophysical environment where ice mantles are exposed to the heavy ion cosmic ray irradiation. Sample ice films at 13 K were irradiated by nickel ions with energies in the 1-10 MeV/u range and analyzed by means of FTIR spectrometry. Nickel ions were used because their energy deposition is similar to that deposited by iron ions, which are particularly abundant cosmic rays amongst the heaviest ones. In this work the effects caused by nickel ions on condensed gases are studied (destruction and production of molecules as well as associated cross sections, sputtering yields) and compared with respective values for light ions and UV photons. (authors)
Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sereno, Mauro
2003-01-01
Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity is discussed. I introduce a generalized approximate metric element, inclusive of both post-post-Newtonian contributions and a gravitomagnetic field. Following Fermat's principle and standard hypotheses, I derive the time delay function and deflection angle caused by an isolated mass distribution. Several astrophysical systems are considered. In most of the cases, the gravitomagnetic correction offers the best perspectives for an observational detection. Actual measurements distinguish only marginally different metric theories from each other
Minicourses in Astrophysics, Modular Approach, Vol. I.
Illinois Univ., Chicago.
This is the first volume of a two-volume minicourse in astrophysics. It contains chapters on the following topics: planetary atmospheres; X-ray astronomy; radio astrophysics; molecular astrophysics; and gamma-ray astrophysics. Each chapter gives much technical discussion, mathematical treatment, diagrams, and examples. References are included with…
Special relativity in general frames from particles to astrophysics
Gourgoulhon, Éric
2013-01-01
Special relativity is the basis of many fields in modern physics: particle physics, quantum field theory, high-energy astrophysics, etc. This theory is presented here by adopting a four-dimensional point of view from the start. An outstanding feature of the book is that it doesn’t restrict itself to inertial frames but considers accelerated and rotating observers. It is thus possible to treat physical effects such as the Thomas precession or the Sagnac effect in a simple yet precise manner. In the final chapters, more advanced topics like tensorial fields in spacetime, exterior calculus and relativistic hydrodynamics are addressed. In the last, brief chapter the author gives a preview of gravity and shows where it becomes incompatible with Minkowsky spacetime. Well illustrated and enriched by many historical notes, this book also presents many applications of special relativity, ranging from particle physics (accelerators, particle collisions, quark-gluon plasma) to astrophysics (relativistic jets, active g...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pani, Paolo; Cardoso, Vitor
2009-01-01
It is generally accepted that Einstein's theory will get some as yet unknown corrections, possibly large in the strong-field regime. An ideal place to look for these modifications is in the vicinities of compact objects such as black holes. Here, we study dilatonic black holes, which arise in the framework of Gauss-Bonnet couplings and one-loop corrected four-dimensional effective theory of heterotic superstrings at low energies. These are interesting objects as a prototype for alternative, yet well-behaved gravity theories: they evade the 'no-hair' theorem of general relativity but were proven to be stable against radial perturbations. We investigate the viability of these black holes as astrophysical objects and try to provide some means to distinguish them from black holes in general relativity. We start by extending previous works and establishing the stability of these black holes against axial perturbations. We then look for solutions of the field equations describing slowly rotating black holes and study geodesic motion around this geometry. Depending on the values of mass, dilaton charge, and angular momentum of the solution, one can have differences in the innermost-stable-circular-orbit location and orbital frequency, relative to black holes in general relativity. In the most favorable cases, the difference amounts to a few percent. Given the current state-of-the-art, we discuss the difficulty of distinguishing the correct theory of gravity from electromagnetic observations or even with gravitational-wave detectors.
Avinash-Shukla mass limit for the maximum dust mass supported against gravity by electric fields
Avinash, K.
2010-08-01
The existence of a new class of astrophysical objects, where gravity is balanced by the shielded electric fields associated with the electric charge on the dust, is shown. Further, a mass limit MA for the maximum dust mass that can be supported against gravitational collapse by these fields is obtained. If the total mass of the dust in the interstellar cloud MD > MA, the dust collapses, while if MD < MA, stable equilibrium may be achieved. Heuristic arguments are given to show that the physics of the mass limit is similar to the Chandrasekar's mass limit for compact objects and the similarity of these dust configurations with neutron and white dwarfs is pointed out. The effect of grain size distribution on the mass limit and strong correlation effects in the core of such objects is discussed. Possible location of these dust configurations inside interstellar clouds is pointed out.
Stability of multihypernuclear objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ikram, M.; Rather, Asloob A.; Usmani, A.A.; Patra, S.K.
2016-01-01
In present work, we analyze the stability of multi-hypernuclear objects having higher content of strangeness. The aim of this work is to test the stability of such objects which might be produced in heavy-ion reactions. Studies of such type of systems might have great implication to nuclear-astrophysics
Planck Scale Effects in Astrophysics and Cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Padmanabhan, Thanu
2007-01-01
It has been generally agreed that putting together the principles of quantum theory and general relativity will usher the next revolution in physics. The trouble, of course, is that we have been now waiting for several decades for this revolution to take place. While people get excited about different directions of development every once in a while (with some excitements propped up by a larger number of researchers than others), it is probably fair to say that nothing which can be called definitive progress has taken place in the last several decades. Given the state of affairs it is definitely worthwhile to keep an open mind regarding new ideas and have at least a small fraction of researchers working somewhat away from the mainstream. This could possibly lead to new insights which have been missed by the more conventional mainstream approaches and could even finally provide a much awaited breakthrough. The collection of articles in this book should probably be viewed against such a backdrop. A few of the articles contained in the book deal with topics which are probably not mainstream. But all the speakers have presented their ideas clearly and in a proper setting, making many of the articles quite useful for a person who wants to obtain a bird's eye view. The connecting thread is essentially whether some aspects of quantum gravitational physics can lead to potentially observable effects or provide explanations for known effects. The book also contains a few overview articles of exceptional clarity. In particular I would like to mention the one by E Alvarez on quantum gravity, the one by L Smolin on loop quantum gravity and J Martin's article on the origin of cosmological perturbations. The rest of the articles are more focussed on possible quantum gravity phenomenology and discuss diverse topics such as astrophysical bounds of Lorentz violations, doubly special relativity and the role of quantum form in quantum gravity phenomenon. I thoroughly enjoyed reading
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isham, C.
1989-01-01
Gravitational effects are seen as arising from a curvature in spacetime. This must be reconciled with gravity's apparently passive role in quantum theory to achieve a satisfactory quantum theory of gravity. The development of grand unified theories has spurred the search, with forces being of equal strength at a unification energy of 10 15 - 10 18 GeV, with the ''Plank length'', Lp ≅ 10 -35 m. Fundamental principles of general relativity and quantum mechanics are outlined. Gravitons are shown to have spin-0, as mediators of gravitation force in the classical sense or spin-2 which are related to the quantisation of general relativity. Applying the ideas of supersymmetry to gravitation implies partners for the graviton, especially the massless spin 3/2 fermion called a gravitino. The concept of supersymmetric strings is introduced and discussed. (U.K.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Markov, M.A.; West, P.C.
1984-01-01
This book discusses the state of the art of quantum gravity, quantum effects in cosmology, quantum black-hole physics, recent developments in supergravity, and quantum gauge theories. Topics considered include the problems of general relativity, pregeometry, complete cosmological theories, quantum fluctuations in cosmology and galaxy formation, a new inflationary universe scenario, grand unified phase transitions and the early Universe, the generalized second law of thermodynamics, vacuum polarization near black holes, the relativity of vacuum, black hole evaporations and their cosmological consequences, currents in supersymmetric theories, the Kaluza-Klein theories, gauge algebra and quantization, and twistor theory. This volume constitutes the proceedings of the Second Seminar on Quantum Gravity held in Moscow in 1981
Precision Astrophysics Experiments with the Kepler Satellite
Jackiewicz, Jason
2012-10-01
Long photometric observations from space of tens of thousands of stars, such as those provided by Kepler, offer unique opportunities to carry out ensemble astrophysics as well as detailed studies of individual objects. One of the primary tools at our disposal for understanding pulsating stars is asteroseismology, which uses observed stellar oscillation frequencies to determine interior properties. This can provide very strict constraints on theories of stellar evolution, structure, and the population characteristics of stars in the Milky Way galaxy. This talk will focus on several of the exciting insights Kepler has enabled through asteroseismology of stars across the H-R diagram.
Schultz, David
As recognized prominently by the APRA program, interpretation of NASA astrophysical mission observations requires significant products of laboratory astrophysics, for example, spectral lines and transition probabilities, electron-, proton-, or heavy-particle collision data. Availability of these data underpin robust and validated models of astrophysical emissions and absorptions, energy, momentum, and particle transport, dynamics, and reactions. Therefore, measured or computationally derived, analyzed, and readily available laboratory astrophysics data significantly enhances the scientific return on NASA missions such as HST, Spitzer, and JWST. In the present work a comprehensive set of data will be developed for the ubiquitous proton-hydrogen and hydrogen-hydrogen collisions in astrophysical environments including ISM shocks, supernova remnants and bubbles, HI clouds, young stellar objects, and winds within stellar spheres, covering the necessary wide range of energy- and charge-changing channels, collision energies, and most relevant scattering parameters. In addition, building on preliminary work, a transport and reaction simulation will be developed incorporating the elastic and inelastic collision data collected and produced. The work will build upon significant previous efforts of the principal investigators and collaborators, will result in a comprehensive data set required for modeling these environments and interpreting NASA astrophysical mission observations, and will benefit from feedback from collaborators who are active users of the work proposed.
Recent results in nuclear astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Coc, Alain; Kiener, Juergen [CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite Paris Sud 11, UMR 8609, Centre de Sciences Nucleaires et de Sciences de la Matiere (CSNSM), Orsay Campus (France); Hammache, Fairouz [CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite Paris Sud 11, UMR 8608, Institut de Physique Nucleaire d' Orsay (IPNO), Orsay Campus (France)
2015-03-01
In this review, we emphasize the interplay between astrophysical observations, modeling, and nuclear physics laboratory experiments. Several important nuclear cross sections for astrophysics have long been identified, e.g., {sup 12}C(α, γ){sup 16}O for stellar evolution, or {sup 13}C(α, n){sup 16}O and {sup 22}Ne(α, n){sup 25}Mg as neutron sources for the s-process. More recently, observations of lithium abundances in the oldest stars, or of nuclear gamma-ray lines from space, have required new laboratory experiments. New evaluation of thermonuclear reaction rates now includes the associated rate uncertainties that are used in astrophysical models to i) estimate final uncertainties on nucleosynthesis yields and ii) identify those reactions that require further experimental investigation. Sometimes direct cross section measurements are possible, but more generally the use of indirect methods is compulsory in view of the very low cross sections. Non-thermal processes are often overlooked but are also important for nuclear astrophysics, e.g., in gamma-ray emission from solar flares or in the interaction of cosmic rays with matter, and also motivate laboratory experiments. Finally, we show that beyond the historical motivations of nuclear astrophysics, understanding i) the energy sources that drive stellar evolution and ii) the origin of the elements can also be used to give new insights into physics beyond the standard model. (orig.)
Recent results in nuclear astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coc, Alain; Kiener, Juergen; Hammache, Fairouz
2015-01-01
In this review, we emphasize the interplay between astrophysical observations, modeling, and nuclear physics laboratory experiments. Several important nuclear cross sections for astrophysics have long been identified, e.g., 12 C(α, γ) 16 O for stellar evolution, or 13 C(α, n) 16 O and 22 Ne(α, n) 25 Mg as neutron sources for the s-process. More recently, observations of lithium abundances in the oldest stars, or of nuclear gamma-ray lines from space, have required new laboratory experiments. New evaluation of thermonuclear reaction rates now includes the associated rate uncertainties that are used in astrophysical models to i) estimate final uncertainties on nucleosynthesis yields and ii) identify those reactions that require further experimental investigation. Sometimes direct cross section measurements are possible, but more generally the use of indirect methods is compulsory in view of the very low cross sections. Non-thermal processes are often overlooked but are also important for nuclear astrophysics, e.g., in gamma-ray emission from solar flares or in the interaction of cosmic rays with matter, and also motivate laboratory experiments. Finally, we show that beyond the historical motivations of nuclear astrophysics, understanding i) the energy sources that drive stellar evolution and ii) the origin of the elements can also be used to give new insights into physics beyond the standard model. (orig.)
Is nonrelativistic gravity possible?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kocharyan, A. A.
2009-01-01
We study nonrelativistic gravity using the Hamiltonian formalism. For the dynamics of general relativity (relativistic gravity) the formalism is well known and called the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner (ADM) formalism. We show that if the lapse function is constrained correctly, then nonrelativistic gravity is described by a consistent Hamiltonian system. Surprisingly, nonrelativistic gravity can have solutions identical to relativistic gravity ones. In particular, (anti-)de Sitter black holes of Einstein gravity and IR limit of Horava gravity are locally identical.
Characterization of the Lovelock gravity by Bianchi derivative
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Characterization of the Lovelock gravity by Bianchi derivative. NARESH DADHICH. Inter-University Centre for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Post Bag 4, Pune 411 007, India. E-mail: nkd@iucaa.ernet.in. MS received 30 November 2009; revised 15 February 2010; accepted 19 February 2010. Abstract. We prove the theorem: ...
Astrophysics a very short introduction
Binney, James
2016-01-01
Astrophysics is the physics of the stars, and more widely the physics of the Universe. It enables us to understand the structure and evolution of planetary systems, stars, galaxies, interstellar gas, and the cosmos as a whole. In this Very Short Introduction, the leading astrophysicist James Binney shows how the field of astrophysics has expanded rapidly in the past century, with vast quantities of data gathered by telescopes exploiting all parts of the electromagnetic spectrum, combined with the rapid advance of computing power, which has allowed increasingly effective mathematical modelling. He illustrates how the application of fundamental principles of physics - the consideration of energy and mass, and momentum - and the two pillars of relativity and quantum mechanics, has provided insights into phenomena ranging from rapidly spinning millisecond pulsars to the collision of giant spiral galaxies. This is a clear, rigorous introduction to astrophysics for those keen to cut their teeth on a conceptual trea...
Miniaturised Gravity Sensors for Remote Gravity Surveys.
Middlemiss, R. P.; Bramsiepe, S. G.; Hough, J.; Paul, D. J.; Rowan, S.; Samarelli, A.; Hammond, G.
2016-12-01
Gravimetry lets us see the world from a completely different perspective. The ability to measure tiny variations in gravitational acceleration (g), allows one to see not just the Earth's gravitational pull, but the influence of smaller objects. The more accurate the gravimeter, the smaller the objects one can see. Gravimetry has applications in many different fields: from tracking magma moving under volcanoes before eruptions; to locating hidden tunnels. The top commercial gravimeters weigh tens of kg and cost at least $100,000, limiting the situations in which they can be used. By contrast, smart phones use a MEMS (microelectromechanical system) accelerometer that can measure the orientation of the device. These are not nearly sensitive or stable enough to be used for the gravimetry but they are cheap, light-weight and mass-producible. At Glasgow University we have developed a MEMS device with both the stability and sensitivity for useful gravimetric measurements. This was demonstrated by a measurement of the Earth tides - the first time this has been achieved with a MEMS sensor. A gravimeter of this size opens up the possiblility for new gravity imaging modalities. Thousands of gravimeters could be networked over a survey site, storing data on an SD card or communicating wirelessly to a remote location. These devices could also be small enough to be carried by a UAVs: airborne gravity surveys could be carried out at low altitude by mulitple UAVs, or UAVs could be used to deliver ground based gravimeters to remote or inaccessible locations.
A Phase Space Diagram for Gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xavier Hernandez
2012-05-01
Full Text Available In modified theories of gravity including a critical acceleration scale a_{0}, a critical length scale r_{M} = (GM/a_{0}^{1/2} will naturally arise with the transition from the Newtonian to the dark matter mimicking regime occurring for systems larger than r_{M}. This adds a second critical scale to gravity, in addition to the one introduced by the criterion v < c of the Schwarzschild radius, r_{S }= 2GM/c^{2}. The distinct dependencies of the two above length scales give rise to non-trivial phenomenology in the (mass, length plane for astrophysical structures, which we explore here. Surprisingly, extrapolation to atomic scales suggests gravity should be at the dark matter mimicking regime there.
Advanced LIGO: sources and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Creighton, Teviet
2003-01-01
Second-generation detectors in LIGO will take us from the discovery phase of gravitational-wave observations to the phase of true gravitational-wave astrophysics, with hundreds or thousands of potential sources. This paper surveys the most likely and interesting potential sources for Advanced LIGO, and the astrophysical processes that each one will probe. I conclude that binary inspiral signals are expected, while continuous signals from pulsars are plausible but not guaranteed. Other sources, such as core-collapse bursts, cosmic strings and primordial stochastic backgrounds, are speculative sources for Advanced LIGO, but also potentially the most interesting, since they push the limits of our theoretical knowledge
Nuclear astrophysics away from stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mathews, G.J.; Howard, W.M.; Takahashi, K.; Ward, R.A.
1985-08-01
Explosive astrophysical environments invariably lead to the production of nuclei away from stability. An understanding of the dynamics and nucleosynthesis in such environments is inextricably coupled to an understanding of the properties of the synthesized nuclei. In this talk a review is presented of the basic explosive nucleosynthesis mechanisms (s-process, r-process, n-process, p-process, and rp-process). Specific stellar model calculations are discussed and a summary of the pertinent nuclear data is presented. Possible experiments and nuclear-model calculations are suggested that could facilitate a better understanding of the astrophysical scenarios. 39 refs., 4 figs
White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics
Arcones, Almudena; Bardayan, Dan W.; Beers, Timothy C.; Berstein, Lee A.; Blackmon, Jeffrey C.; Messer, Bronson; Brown, B. Alex; Brown, Edward F.; Brune, Carl R.; Champagne, Art E.; Chieffi, Alessandro; Couture, Aaron J.; Danielewicz, Pawel; Diehl, Roland; El-Eid, Mounib
2016-01-01
This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21-23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town mee...
Nuclear astrophysics lessons from INTEGRAL.
Diehl, Roland
2013-02-01
Measurements of high-energy photons from cosmic sources of nuclear radiation through ESA's INTEGRAL mission have advanced our knowledge: new data with high spectral resolution showed that characteristic gamma-ray lines from radioactive decays occur throughout the Galaxy in its interstellar medium. Although the number of detected sources and often the significance of the astrophysical results remain modest, conclusions derived from this unique astronomical window of radiation originating from nuclear processes are important, complementing the widely-employed atomic-line based spectroscopy. We review the results and insights obtained in the past decade from gamma-ray line measurements of cosmic sources in the context of their astrophysical questions.
Advances in astronomy and astrophysics
Kopal, Zdenek
1968-01-01
Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 6 brings together numerous research works on different aspects of astronomy and astrophysics. This volume is composed of five chapters, and starts with the description of improved methods for analyzing and classifying families of periodic orbits in a conservative dynamical system with two degrees of freedom. The next chapter describes the variation of fractional luminosity of distorted components of close binary systems in the course of their revolution, or the accompanying changes in radial velocity. This topic is followed by discussions on vari
Nuclear astrophysics data at ORNL
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, M.S.; Blackmon, J.C.
1998-01-01
There is a new program of evaluation and dissemination of nuclear data of critical importance for nuclear astrophysics within the Physics Division of Oak Ridge National Laboratory. Recent activities include determining the rates of the important 14 O(α,p) 17 F and 17 F(p,γ) 18 Ne reactions, disseminating the Caughlan and Fowler reaction rate compilation on the World Wide Web, and evaluating the 17 O(p,α) 14 N reaction rate. These projects, which are closely coupled to current ORNL nuclear astrophysics research, are briefly discussed along with future plans
Atomic physics through astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dalgarno, A.
1987-01-01
Astronomical environments encompass an extreme range of physical conditions of temperature, density, pressure and radiation fields and unusual situations abound. In this lecture, the author describes some of the objects found in the Universe and discussed the atomic processes that occur. 45 references, 8 figures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schupp, P.
2007-01-01
Heuristic arguments suggest that the classical picture of smooth commutative spacetime should be replaced by some kind of quantum / noncommutative geometry at length scales and energies where quantum as well as gravitational effects are important. Motivated by this idea much research has been devoted to the study of quantum field theory on noncommutative spacetimes. More recently the focus has started to shift back to gravity in this context. We give an introductory overview to the formulation of general relativity in a noncommutative spacetime background and discuss the possibility of exact solutions. (author)
The CATS Service: An Astrophysical Research Tool
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
O V Verkhodanov
2009-03-01
Full Text Available We describe the current status of CATS (astrophysical CATalogs Support system, a publicly accessible tool maintained at Special Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences (SAO RAS (http://cats.sao.ru allowing one to search hundreds of catalogs of astronomical objects discovered all along the electromagnetic spectrum. Our emphasis is mainly on catalogs of radio continuum sources observed from 10 MHz to 245 GHz, and secondly on catalogs of objects such as radio and active stars, X-ray binaries, planetary nebulae, HII regions, supernova remnants, pulsars, nearby and radio galaxies, AGN and quasars. CATS also includes the catalogs from the largest extragalactic surveys with non-radio waves. In 2008 CATS comprised a total of about 109 records from over 400 catalogs in the radio, IR, optical and X-ray windows, including most source catalogs deriving from observations with the Russian radio telescope RATAN-600. CATS offers several search tools through different ways of access, e.g. via Web-interface and e-mail. Since its creation in 1997 CATS has managed about 105requests. Currently CATS is used by external users about 1500 times per day and since its opening to the public in 1997 has received about 4000 requests for its selection and matching tasks.
NASA Astrophysics Technology Needs
Stahl, H. Philip
2012-01-01
July 2010, NASA Office of Chief Technologist (OCT) initiated an activity to create and maintain a NASA integrated roadmap for 15 key technology areas which recommend an overall technology investment strategy and prioritize NASA?s technology programs to meet NASA?s strategic goals. Science Instruments, Observatories and Sensor Systems(SIOSS) roadmap addresses technology needs to achieve NASA?s highest priority objectives -- not only for the Science Mission Directorate (SMD), but for all of NASA.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hooft, G.
2012-01-01
The dynamical degree of freedom for the gravitational force is the metric tensor, having 10 locally independent degrees of freedom (of which 4 can be used to fix the coordinate choice). In conformal gravity, we split this field into an overall scalar factor and a nine-component remainder. All unrenormalizable infinities are in this remainder, while the scalar component can be handled like any other scalar field such as the Higgs field. In this formalism, conformal symmetry is spontaneously broken. An imperative demand on any healthy quantum gravity theory is that black holes should be described as quantum systems with micro-states as dictated by the Hawking-Bekenstein theory. This requires conformal symmetry that may be broken spontaneously but not explicitly, and this means that all conformal anomalies must cancel out. Cancellation of conformal anomalies yields constraints on the matter sector as described by some universal field theory. Thus black hole physics may eventually be of help in the construction of unified field theories. (author)
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Department of Physics and GXU-NAOC Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences, Guangxi University, Nanning 530004, China. National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China. Key Laboratory for the Structure and Evolution of Celestial Objects, Chinese ...
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. 258 pages Volume 38 Issue 3 September 2017. Special issue on "Physics of Neutron Stars and Related Objects". Guest Editors: Dipankar Bhattacharya, K. S. Dwarakanath and Sushan Konar. 116 pages Volume 38 Issue 2 June 2017. Special Section on "AstroStat". Guest Editors: S ...
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 38; Issue 3. Issue front cover thumbnail. Volume 38, Issue 3. September 2017. Special issue on "Physics of Neutron Stars and Related Objects". Article ID 36 Editorial. Editorial · Dipankar Bhattacharya K. S. Dwarakanath Sushan Konar · More Details Abstract ...
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
2016-01-27
Jan 27, 2016 ... Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy; Volume 22; Issue 4. Volume 22, Issue 4. December 2001, pages 263-349. pp 263-282. Variability of Extragalactic Objects in Relation to Redshift, Color, Radio Spectral Index and Absorption Lines · D. Basu · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
Distance Measurement Solves Astrophysical Mysteries
2003-08-01
Location, location, and location. The old real-estate adage about what's really important proved applicable to astrophysics as astronomers used the sharp radio "vision" of the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) to pinpoint the distance to a pulsar. Their accurate distance measurement then resolved a dispute over the pulsar's birthplace, allowed the astronomers to determine the size of its neutron star and possibly solve a mystery about cosmic rays. "Getting an accurate distance to this pulsar gave us a real bonanza," said Walter Brisken, of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO) in Socorro, NM. Monogem Ring The Monogem Ring, in X-Ray Image by ROSAT satellite CREDIT: Max-Planck Institute, American Astronomical Society (Click on Image for Larger Version) The pulsar, called PSR B0656+14, is in the constellation Gemini, and appears to be near the center of a circular supernova remnant that straddles Gemini and its neighboring constellation, Monoceros, and is thus called the Monogem Ring. Since pulsars are superdense, spinning neutron stars left over when a massive star explodes as a supernova, it was logical to assume that the Monogem Ring, the shell of debris from a supernova explosion, was the remnant of the blast that created the pulsar. However, astronomers using indirect methods of determining the distance to the pulsar had concluded that it was nearly 2500 light-years from Earth. On the other hand, the supernova remnant was determined to be only about 1000 light-years from Earth. It seemed unlikely that the two were related, but instead appeared nearby in the sky purely by a chance juxtaposition. Brisken and his colleagues used the VLBA to make precise measurements of the sky position of PSR B0656+14 from 2000 to 2002. They were able to detect the slight offset in the object's apparent position when viewed from opposite sides of Earth's orbit around the Sun. This effect, called parallax, provides a direct measurement of
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
27
Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala 2nd Block, Bangalore. 560034, India .... the hydrogen rich thermosphere so significantly that the internal energy of the gas becomes greater than the gravitational potential energy. This leads ... way greenhouse, water vapor would reach the stratosphere where it would.
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
65
Northern IMF as simulated by PIC code in parallel with MHD model-Journal of Astrophysics ... The global structure of the collisionless bow shock was inves- tigated by ..... international research community, access to modern space science simulations. ...... LaTeX Font Info: Redeclaring math alphabet \\mathbf on input line 29.
An introduction to nuclear astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Norman, E.B.
1987-09-01
The role of nuclear reactions in astrophysics is described. Stellar energy generation and heavy element nucleosynthesis is explained in terms of specific sequences of charged-particle and neutron induced reactions. The evolution and final states of stars are examined. 20 refs. 11 figs., 2 tabs
Nuclear astrophysics of light nuclei
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Fynbo, Hans Otto Uldall
2013-01-01
A review of nuclear astrophysics of light nuclei using radioactive beams or techniques developed for radioactive beams is given. We discuss Big Bang nucleosynthesis, with special focus on the lithium problem, aspects of neutrino-physics, helium-burning and finally selected examples of studies...
Astronomy & Astrophysics: an international journal
Bertout, C.
2011-07-01
After a brief historical introduction, we review the scope, editorial process, and production organization of A&A, one of the leading journals worldwide dedicated to publishing the results of astrophysical research. We then briefly discuss the economic model of the Journal and some current issues in scientific publishing.
Electric Currents along Astrophysical Jets
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ioannis Contopoulos
2017-10-01
Full Text Available Astrophysical black holes and their surrounding accretion disks are believed to be threaded by grand design helical magnetic fields. There is strong theoretical evidence that the main driver of their winds and jets is the Lorentz force generated by these fields and their associated electric currents. Several researchers have reported direct evidence for large scale electric currents along astrophysical jets. Quite unexpectedly, their directions are not random as would have been the case if the magnetic field were generated by a magnetohydrodynamic dynamo. Instead, in all kpc-scale detections, the inferred electric currents are found to flow away from the galactic nucleus. This unexpected break of symmetry suggests that a battery mechanism is operating around the central black hole. In the present article, we summarize observational evidence for the existence of large scale electric currents and their associated grand design helical magnetic fields in kpc-scale astrophysical jets. We also present recent results of general relativistic radiation magnetohydrodynamic simulations which show the action of the Cosmic Battery in the vicinity of astrophysical black holes.
Astrophysics at very high energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aharonian, Felix; Bergstroem, Lars; Dermer, Charles
2013-01-01
Presents three complementary lectures on very-high-energy astrophysics given by worldwide leaders in the field. Reviews the recent advances in and prospects of gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Prepares readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors. With the success of Cherenkov Astronomy and more recently with the launch of NASA's Fermi mission, very-high-energy astrophysics has undergone a revolution in the last years. This book provides three comprehensive and up-to-date reviews of the recent advances in gamma-ray astrophysics and of multi-messenger astronomy. Felix Aharonian and Charles Dermer address our current knowledge on the sources of GeV and TeV photons, gleaned from the precise measurements made by the new instrumentation. Lars Bergstroem presents the challenges and prospects of astro-particle physics with a particular emphasis on the detection of dark matter candidates. The topics covered by the 40th Saas-Fee Course present the capabilities of current instrumentation and the physics at play in sources of very-high-energy radiation to students and researchers alike. This book will encourage and prepare readers for using space and ground-based gamma-ray observatories, as well as neutrino and other multi-messenger detectors.
Indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertulani, C.A.; Shubhchintak; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Kadyrov, A. S.; Kruppa, A.; Pang, D. Y.
2016-01-01
We discuss recent developments in indirect methods used in nuclear astrophysics to determine the capture cross sections and subsequent rates of various stellar burning processes, when it is difficult to perform the corresponding direct measurements. We discuss in brief, the basic concepts of Asymptotic Normalization Coefficients, the Trojan Horse Method, the Coulomb Dissociation Method, (d,p), and charge-exchange reactions. (paper)
Hughes, Stephen W.
2010-01-01
In this article some basic laboratory bench experiments are described that are useful for teaching high school students some of the basic principles of stellar astrophysics. For example, in one experiment, students slam a plastic water-filled bottle down onto a bench, ejecting water towards the ceiling, illustrating the physics associated with a…
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data base (14,559 records) was received in January 1986. Principal gravity parameters include elevation and observed gravity. The observed gravity values are...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NGS Absolute Gravity data (78 stations) was received in July 1993. Principal gravity parameters include Gravity Value, Uncertainty, and Vertical Gradient. The...
Nuclear astrophysics: An application of nuclear physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fueloep, Z.
2005-01-01
Nuclear astrophysics, a fruitful combination of nuclear physics and astrophysics can be viewed as a special application of nuclear physics where the study of nuclei and their reactions are motivated by astrophysical problems. Nuclear astrophysics is also a good example for the state of the art interdisciplinary research. The origin of elements studied by geologists is explored by astrophysicists using nuclear reaction rates provided by the nuclear physics community. Due to the high interest in the field two recent Nuclear Physics Divisional Conferences of the European Physical Society were devoted to nuclear astrophysics and a new conference series entitled 'Nuclear Physics in Astrophysics' has been established. Selected problems of nuclear astrophysics will be presented emphasizing the interplay between nuclear physics and astrophysics. As an example the role of 14 N(p,r) 15 O reaction rate in the determination of the age of globular clusters will be discussed in details
International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics
Soonthornthum, B.; Kunjaya, C.
2011-01-01
The International Olympiad on Astronomy and Astrophysics, an annual astronomy and astrophysics competition for high school students, is described. Examples of problems and solutions from the competition are also given. (Contains 3 figures.)
The 2050 Decadal Survey of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Longair, Malcolm
2011-05-01
Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology have changed out of all recognition over the last 40 years. The lecture will review some of the key scientific, technological and sociological changes which have contributed to that revolution and seek to understand the issues of maintaining that drive for discovery and understanding over the next 40 years. Some science objectives are well defined, but others may need new concepts, unexpected discoveries and quite a bit of good luck. A personal perspective will be presented on topics which the community should take seriously for the advance of astronomy and astrophysics and the role it can play for the betterment of society.
Astrophysics and the exploration of the universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turck-Chieze, S.; Garcia, R.A.; Brun, A.S.; Minier, V.; Andre, Ph.; Motte, F.; Mathis, St.; Foglizzo, Th.; Decourchelle, A.; Ballet, J.; Chaty, S.; Corbel, St.; Rodriguez, J.; Brahic, A.; Charnoz, S.; Ferrari, C.; Lagage, P.O.; Masset, F.; Pantin, E.; Sauvage, M.; Galliano, F.; Goldwurm, A.; Ballet, J.; Decourchelle, A.; Grenier, I.; Daddi, E.; Elbaz, D.; Bournaud, F.; Yvon, D.; Arnaud, M.; Teyssier, R.; Lehoucq, R.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Lehoucq, R.; Cirelli, M.; Bonvin, C.; Mansoulie, B.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.; Refregier, A.; Brax, Ph.; Lavignac, St.; Starck, J.L.; Talvard, M.; Sauvage, M.; Cara, Ch.; Lagage, P.O.; Ferrari, C.; Rodriguez, L.; Sauvageot, J.L.; Lebrun, F.; Grenier, I.; Glicenstein, J.F.; Gerbier, G.
2009-01-01
This special issue of Clefs CEA journal is entirely devoted to astrophysics and to the exploration and probing of the Universe. A first part of this dossier, described here, makes a status of our present day knowledge about stars, planets, galaxies, the Universe structure and dark matter. Content: 1 - Stars seed the Universe: What does the Sun tell us?, Probing stellar interiors, From the Sun to the stars, A tour of stellar nurseries, How heavy elements arise, How supernovae explode, Supernova remnants, High-energy objects - sources for astonishment, Focus: A Probing the Universe across the entire light spectrum; 2 - Planets: a dance of small bodies, swirling around up to the finale of their birth: How our world was born, The rings of Saturn: a magnificent research laboratory, Planetary cocoons; 3 - Galaxies: a richly paradoxical evolution: The active life of galaxies, A mysterious black hole, Elucidating the cosmic ray acceleration mechanism, Seeking out the great ancestors, The formation of galaxies: a story of paradoxes, The morphogenesis of galaxies; 4 - The Universe, a homogeneous 'soup' that has turned into a hierarchical structure: The grand thermal history of the Universe, The cosmic web, The formation of the structures of the Universe: the interplay of models, Does the Universe have a shape? Is it finite, or infinite?; 5 - Odyssey across the dark side of the Universe: The puzzle of dark matter, Astrophysics and the observation of dark matter, The theory of dark matter, Could dark matter be generated some day at LHC? A Universe dominated by dark energy, Astrophysics and the observation of dark energy, Theories of dark energy, The matter-antimatter asymmetry of the Universe; 6 - Journey into the lights of the Universe: Microwave - ESA Planck Surveyor, Submillimeter and infrared - ArTeMis, Herschel Space Observatory, VLT-VISIR, Cassini-CIRS, Visible - SoHo-GOLF, X-ray - XMM-Newton, Gamma ray - INTEGRAL, Fermi Gamma-Ray Space Telescope, HESS, EDELWEISS
General Astrophysics with the HabEx Workhorse Camera
Stern, Daniel; Clarke, John; Gaudi, B. Scott; Kiessling, Alina; Krause, Oliver; Martin, Stefan; Scowen, Paul; Somerville, Rachel; HabEx STDT
2018-01-01
The Habitable Exoplanet Imaging Mission (HabEx) concept has been designed to enable an extensive suite of science, broadly put under the rubric of General Astrophysics, in addition to its exoplanet direct imaging science. General astrophysics directly addresses multiple NASA programmatic branches, and HabEx will enable investigations ranging from cosmology, to galaxy evolution, to stellar population studies, to exoplanet transit spectroscopy, to Solar System studies. This poster briefly describes one of the two primary HabEx General Astrophysics instruments, the HabEx Workhorse Camera (HWC). HWC will be a dual-detector UV-to-near-IR imager and multi-object grism spectrometer with a microshutter array and a moderate (3' x 3') field-of-view. We detail some of the key science we expect HWC to undertake, emphasizing unique capabilities enabled by a large-aperture, highly stable space-borne platform at these wavelengths.
Experimental astrophysics with high power lasers and Z pinches
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Remington, B A; Drake, R P; Ryutov, D D
2004-12-10
With the advent of high energy density (HED) experimental facilities, such as high-energy lasers and fast Z-pinch, pulsed-power facilities, mm-scale quantities of matter can be placed in extreme states of density, temperature, and/or velocity. This has enabled the emergence of a new class of experimental science, HED laboratory astrophysics, wherein the properties of matter and the processes that occur under extreme astrophysical conditions can be examined in the laboratory. Areas particularly suitable to this class of experimental astrophysics include the study of opacities relevant to stellar interiors; equations of state relevant to planetary interiors; strong shock driven nonlinear hydrodynamics and radiative dynamics, relevant to supernova explosions and subsequent evolution; protostellar jets and high Mach-number flows; radiatively driven molecular clouds and nonlinear photoevaporation front dynamics; and photoionized plasmas relevant to accretion disks around compact objects, such as black holes and neutron stars.
Searches for astrophysical neutrinos with IceCube
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, D.
2014-01-01
Powerful astrophysical objects such as active galactic nuclei (AGN), core collapse supernovae and gamma ray bursts (GRBs) are potential sources of the highest energy cosmic rays. Many models of cosmic ray proton acceleration predict a corresponding flux of neutrinos in the TeV-PeV energy range. The detection of astrophysical neutrinos requires the largest neutrino detector ever built: IceCube, a cubic-kilometer array located near the geographic South Pole. IceCube has been collecting data throughout its construction, which was complete in December 2010. Data from the partial IceCube detector have already set interesting limits on astrophysical neutrino fluxes, including stringent limits on neutrino production in GRBs. (authors)
14th International School of Cosmic Ray Astrophysics
Stanev, Todor; Wefel, John P; Neutrinos and explosive events in the universe
2005-01-01
This volume contains the Lectures and selected participant contributions to the 14th Course of the International School of Cosmic Rays Astrophysics, a NATO Advanced Study Institute. Well known astrophysicists and astronomers discuss different aspects of the generation of high energy signals in powerful astrophysical objects concentrating on the production of neutrinos and gamma rays from high energy particle interactions. Recent results from new experiments and observatories are presented. Topics cover a wide range including the Spitzer infrared observatory, TeV gamma ray observations, dark matter, and neutrino telescopes. The combination of basic knowledge about the production of high energy signals with information about the data analysis of ongoing observations places the book between the usual levels of a textbook and a conference proceedings. It will give the reader a good introduction to the current field of astroparticle physics, and some of the fascinating astrophysics being addressed.
The Explorer program for astronomy and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Savage, B.D.; Becklin, E.E.; Cassinelli, J.P.; Dupree, A.K.; Elliot, J.L.; Hoffmann, W.F.; Hudson, H.S.; Jura, M.; Kurfess, J.; Murray, S.S.
1986-01-01
This report was prepared to provide NASA with a strategy for proceeding with Explorer-class programs for research in space astronomy and astrophysics. The role of Explorers in astronomy and astrophysics and their past accomplishments are discussed, as are current and future astronomy and astrophysics Explorers. Specific cost needs for an effective Explorer program are considered
The importance of CNO isotopes in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Audoze, J.
1977-01-01
The research into CNO isotopes in astrophysics includes many different subfields of astrophysics such as meteoretical studies, experimental and theoretical nuclear astrophysics, optical astronomy, radio astronomy, etc. The purpose of this paper is to give some overview of the topic and guideline among these different subfields. (G.T.H.)
Newtonian gravity in loop quantum gravity
Smolin, Lee
2010-01-01
We apply a recent argument of Verlinde to loop quantum gravity, to conclude that Newton's law of gravity emerges in an appropriate limit and setting. This is possible because the relationship between area and entropy is realized in loop quantum gravity when boundaries are imposed on a quantum spacetime.
Hydrodynamic Instability, Integrated Code, Laboratory Astrophysics, and Astrophysics
Takabe, Hideaki
2016-10-01
This is an article for the memorial lecture of Edward Teller Medal and is presented as memorial lecture at the IFSA03 conference held on September 12th, 2003, at Monterey, CA. The author focuses on his main contributions to fusion science and its extension to astrophysics in the field of theory and computation by picking up five topics. The first one is the anomalous resisitivity to hot electrons penetrating over-dense region through the ion wave turbulence driven by the return current compensating the current flow by the hot electrons. It is concluded that almost the same value of potential as the average kinetic energy of the hot electrons is realized to prevent the penetration of the hot electrons. The second is the ablative stabilization of Rayleigh-Taylor instability at ablation front and its dispersion relation so-called Takabe formula. This formula gave a principal guideline for stable target design. The author has developed an integrated code ILESTA (ID & 2D) for analyses and design of laser produced plasma including implosion dynamics. It is also applied to design high gain targets. The third is the development of the integrated code ILESTA. The forth is on Laboratory Astrophysics with intense lasers. This consists of two parts; one is review on its historical background and the other is on how we relate laser plasma to wide-ranging astrophysics and the purposes for promoting such research. In relation to one purpose, I gave a comment on anomalous transport of relativistic electrons in Fast Ignition laser fusion scheme. Finally, I briefly summarize recent activity in relation to application of the author's experience to the development of an integrated code for studying extreme phenomena in astrophysics.
Colpi, Monica; Gorini, Vittorio; Moschella, Ugo
2016-01-01
This book presents an overview of the current understanding of gravitation, with a focus on the current efforts to test its theories, especially general relativity. It shows how the quest for a deeper understanding, which would possibly incorporate gravity in the quantum realm, is more than ever an open field. The majority of the contributions deals with the manifold facets of “experimental gravitation”, but the book goes beyond this and covers a broad range of subjects from the foundations of gravitational theories to astrophysics and cosmology. The book is divided into three parts. The first part deals with foundations and Solar System tests. An introductory pedagogical chapter reviews first Newtonian gravitational theory, special relativity, the equivalence principle and the basics of general relativity. Then it focuses on approximation methods, mainly the post-Newtonian formalism and the relaxed Einstein equations, with a discussion on how they are used in treating experimental tests and in the proble...
Communicating the Science from NASA's Astrophysics Missions
Hasan, Hashima; Smith, Denise A.
2015-01-01
Communicating science from NASA's Astrophysics missions has multiple objectives, which leads to a multi-faceted approach. While a timely dissemination of knowledge to the scientific community follows the time-honored process of publication in peer reviewed journals, NASA delivers newsworthy research result to the public through news releases, its websites and social media. Knowledge in greater depth is infused into the educational system by the creation of educational material and teacher workshops that engage students and educators in cutting-edge NASA Astrophysics discoveries. Yet another avenue for the general public to learn about the science and technology through NASA missions is through exhibits at museums, science centers, libraries and other public venues. Examples of the variety of ways NASA conveys the excitement of its scientific discoveries to students, educators and the general public will be discussed in this talk. A brief overview of NASA's participation in the International Year of Light will also be given, as well as of the celebration of the twenty-fifth year of the launch of the Hubble Space Telescope.
Black Hole Astrophysics The Engine Paradigm
Meier, David L
2012-01-01
As a result of significant research over the past 20 years, black holes are now linked to some of the most spectacular and exciting phenomena in the Universe, ranging in size from those that have the same mass as stars to the super-massive objects that lie at the heart of most galaxies, including our own Milky Way. This book first introduces the properties of simple isolated holes, then adds in complications like rotation, accretion, radiation, and magnetic fields, finally arriving at a basic understanding of how these immense engines work. Black Hole Astrophysics • reviews our current knowledge of cosmic black holes and how they generate the most powerful observed pheonomena in the Universe; • highlights the latest, most up-to-date theories and discoveries in this very active area of astrophysical research; • demonstrates why we believe that black holes are responsible for important phenomena such as quasars, microquasars and gammaray bursts; • explains to the reader the nature of the violent and spe...
New Capabilities in the Astrophysics Multispectral Archive Search Engine
Cheung, C. Y.; Kelley, S.; Roussopoulos, N.
The Astrophysics Multispectral Archive Search Engine (AMASE) uses object-oriented database techniques to provide a uniform multi-mission and multi-spectral interface to search for data in the distributed archives. We describe our experience of porting AMASE from Illustra object-relational DBMS to the Informix Universal Data Server. New capabilities and utilities have been developed, including a spatial datablade that supports Nearest Neighbor queries.
High-Energy Spectroscopic Astrophysics Swiss Society for Astrophysics and Astronomy
Kahn, Steven M; von Ballmoos, Peter
2005-01-01
After three decades of intense research in X-ray and gamma-ray astronomy, the time was ripe to summarize basic knowledge on X-ray and gamma-ray spectroscopy for interested students and researchers ready to become involved in new high-energy missions. This volume exposes both the scientific basics and modern methods of high-energy spectroscopic astrophysics. The emphasis is on physical principles and observing methods rather than a discussion of particular classes of high-energy objects, but many examples and new results are included in the three chapters as well.
Multifragmentation model for astrophysical strangelets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biswas, Sayan; De, J.N.; Joarder, Partha S.; Raha, Sibaji; Syam, Debapriyo
2012-01-01
A model for the possible size distribution of astrophysical strangelets, that fragment out of the warm strange quark matter ejected during the merger of binary strange stars in the Galaxy, is presented here by invoking the statistical multifragmentation model. A simplified assumption of zero quark mass has been considered to obtain such mass-spectrum for the strangelets. An approximate estimate for the intensity of such strangelets in the galactic cosmic rays is also attempted by using a diffusion approximation.
Ongoing Space Physics - Astrophysics Connections
Eichler, David
2005-01-01
I review several ongoing connections between space physics and astrophysics: a) Measurements of energetic particle spectra have confirmed theoretical prediction of the highest energy to which shocks can accelerate particles, and this has direct bearing on the origin of the highest energy cosmic rays. b) Mass ejection in solar flares may help us understand photon ejection in the giant flares of magnetar outbursts. c) Measurements of electron heat fluxes in the solar wind can help us understand...
Rounding Up the Astrophysical Weeds
McMillan, James P.
2016-09-01
New instruments used for astronomy such as ALMA, Herschel, and SOFIA have greatly increased the quality of available astrophysical data. These improved data contain spectral lines and features which are not accounted for in the quantum mechanical (QM) catalogs. A class of molecules has been identified as being particularly problematic, the so-called "weeds". These molecules have numerous transitions, of non-trivial intensity, which are difficult to model due to highly perturbed low lying vibrational states. The inability to properly describe the complete contribution of these weeds to the astrophysical data has led directly to the misidentification of other target molecules. Ohio State's Microwave Laboratory has developed an alternative approach to this problem. Rather than relying on complex QM calculations, we have developed a temperature dependent approach to laboratory based terahertz spectroscopy. We have developed a set of simple packages, in addition to traditional line list catalogs, that enable astronomers to successfully remove the weed signals from their data. This dissertation will detail my laboratory work and analysis of three keys weeds: methanol, methyl formate and methyl cyanide. Also, discussed will be the analytical technique I used to apply these laboratory results to astrophysical data.
Toward Understanding Astrophysical Phenomena
Luan, Jing
2015-06-01
mass/angular momentum loss, which might cause e1 to grow rather than decay. Several pairs of solar system satellites occupy mean motion resonances (MMRs). We divide these into two groups according to their proximity to exact resonance. Proximity is measured by the existence of a separatrix in phase space. MMRs between Io-Europa, Europa-Ganymede and Enceladus-Dione are too distant from exact resonance for a separatrix to appear. A separatrix is present only in the phase spaces of the Mimas-Tethys and Titan-Hyperion MMRs and their resonant arguments are the only ones to exhibit substantial librations. When a separatrix is present, tidal damping of eccentricity or inclination excites overstable librations that can lead to passage through resonance on the damping timescale. However, after investigation, we conclude that the librations in the Mimas-Tethys and Titan-Hyperion MMRs are fossils and do not result from overstability. Rubble piles are common in the solar system. Monolithic elements touch their neighbors in small localized areas. Voids occupy a significant fraction of the volume. In a fluid-free environment, heat cannot conduct through voids; only radiation can transfer energy across them. We model the effective thermal conductivity of a rubble pile and show that it is proportional the square root of the pressure, P, for P ≤ epsilon 3Ymu where epsilonY is the material's yield strain and mu its shear modulus. Our model provides an excellent fit to the depth dependence of the thermal conductivity in the top 140cm of the lunar regolith. It also offers an explanation for the low thermal inertias of rocky asteroids and icy satellites. Lastly, we discuss how rubble piles slow down the cooling of small bodies such as asteroids. In this paper, we propose a computationally efficient time-domain algorithm capable of detecting gravitational waves (GWs) from coalescing binaries of compact objects with nearly zero time delay. In case when the signal is strong enough, our
Internal structure of relativistic astrophysical objects in the wave approximation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bogdanov, I.V.; Demkov, Yu.N.
1987-01-01
Spherically symmetric inverse problems for the scattering of quantum particles by a static gravitational field are considered within the framework of general relativity theory. Methods are developed for determining the metric tensor on the basis of scattering data for a fixed energy or zero angular momentum for the Klein-Fock-Gordon equation in the Schwarzschild metric. The relation between the S-matrix and squared 4-momentum operator in curved space is investigated. The main elements of the algorithms developed are two definite nonlinear ordinary differential equations of the third and fourth order based on the scattering data. On the one hand, the inverse problems studied extend the classical inverse problems for the gravitational field, solved previously, to the quantum case. On the other hand, they extend the Marchenko and Regge-Newton methods familiar in quantum theory to the case of a gravitational field. An analogy is established between the motion of a scalar particle in a strong gravitational field and the motion in a field with a potential depending on the angular momentum or energy in nonrelativistic quantum mechanics
Byrne, Michael
1999-01-01
Einstein said that gravity is an acceleration like any other acceleration. But gravity causes relativistic effects at non-relativistic speeds; so gravity could have relativistic origins. And since the strong force is thought to cause most of mass, and mass is proportional to gravity; the strong force is therefore also proportional to gravity. The strong force could thus cause relativistic increases of mass through the creation of virtual gluons; along with a comparable contraction of space ar...
Astrophysical life extinctions what killed the dinosaurs?
Dar, Arnon
1999-01-01
Geological records indicate that the exponential diversification of marine and continental life on Earth in the past 500 My was interrupted by many life extinctions. They also indicate that the major mass extinctions were correlated in time with large meteoritic impacts, gigantic volcanic eruptions, sea regressions and drastic changes in global climate. Some of these catastrophes coincided in time. The astrophysical life extinction mechanisms which were proposed so far, in particular, meteoritic impacts, nearby supernova explosions, passage through molecular or dark matter clouds, and Galactic gamma/cosmic ray bursts cannot explain the time coincidences between these catastrophes. However, recent observations suggest that many planetary-mass objects may be present in the outer solar system between the Kuiper belt and the Oort cloud. Gravitational perturbations may occasionally bring them into the inner solar system. Their passage near Earth could have generated gigantic tidal waves, large volcanic eruptions, ...
General relativity with applications to astrophysics
Straumann, Norbert
2004-01-01
This text provides a comprehensive and timely introduction to general relativity The foundations of the theory in Part I are thoroughly developed together with the required mathematical background from differential geometry in Part III The six chapters in Part II are devoted to tests of general relativity and to many of its applications Binary pulsars are studied in considerable detail Much space is devoted to the study of compact objects, especially to black holes This includes a detailed derivation of the Kerr solution, Israel's proof of his uniqueness theorem, and derivations of the basic laws of black hole physics The final chapter of this part contains Witten's proof of the positive energy theorem The book addresses undergraduate and graduate students in physics, astrophysics and mathematics It is very well structured and should become a standard text for a modern treatment of gravitational physics The clear presentation of differential geometry makes it also useful for string theory and other fields of ...
f(T) teleparallel gravity and cosmology.
Cai, Yi-Fu; Capozziello, Salvatore; De Laurentis, Mariafelicia; Saridakis, Emmanuel N
2016-10-01
Over recent decades, the role of torsion in gravity has been extensively investigated along the main direction of bringing gravity closer to its gauge formulation and incorporating spin in a geometric description. Here we review various torsional constructions, from teleparallel, to Einstein-Cartan, and metric-affine gauge theories, resulting in extending torsional gravity in the paradigm of f (T) gravity, where f (T) is an arbitrary function of the torsion scalar. Based on this theory, we further review the corresponding cosmological and astrophysical applications. In particular, we study cosmological solutions arising from f (T) gravity, both at the background and perturbation levels, in different eras along the cosmic expansion. The f (T) gravity construction can provide a theoretical interpretation of the late-time universe acceleration, alternative to a cosmological constant, and it can easily accommodate with the regular thermal expanding history including the radiation and cold dark matter dominated phases. Furthermore, if one traces back to very early times, for a certain class of f (T) models, a sufficiently long period of inflation can be achieved and hence can be investigated by cosmic microwave background observations-or, alternatively, the Big Bang singularity can be avoided at even earlier moments due to the appearance of non-singular bounces. Various observational constraints, especially the bounds coming from the large-scale structure data in the case of f (T) cosmology, as well as the behavior of gravitational waves, are described in detail. Moreover, the spherically symmetric and black hole solutions of the theory are reviewed. Additionally, we discuss various extensions of the f (T) paradigm. Finally, we consider the relation with other modified gravitational theories, such as those based on curvature, like f (R) gravity, trying to illuminate the subject of which formulation, or combination of formulations, might be more suitable
NASA Announces 2009 Astronomy and Astrophysics Fellows
2009-02-01
WASHINGTON -- NASA has selected fellows in three areas of astronomy and astrophysics for its Einstein, Hubble, and Sagan Fellowships. The recipients of this year's post-doctoral fellowships will conduct independent research at institutions around the country. "The new fellows are among the best and brightest young astronomers in the world," said Jon Morse, director of the Astrophysics Division in NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington. "They already have contributed significantly to studies of how the universe works, the origin of our cosmos and whether we are alone in the cosmos. The fellowships will serve as a springboard for scientific leadership in the years to come, and as an inspiration for the next generation of students and early career researchers." Each fellowship provides support to the awardees for three years. The fellows may pursue their research at any host university or research center of their choosing in the United States. The new fellows will begin their programs in the fall of 2009. "I cannot tell you how much I am looking forward to spending the next few years conducting research in the U.S., thanks to the fellowships," said Karin Oberg, a graduate student in Leiden, The Netherlands. Oberg will study the evolution of water and ices during star formation when she starts her fellowship at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, Mass. People Who Read This Also Read... Milky Way's Super-efficient Particle Accelerators Caught in The Act Cosmic Heavyweights in Free-for-all Galaxies Coming of Age in Cosmic Blobs Cassiopeia A Comes Alive Across Time and Space A diverse group of 32 young scientists will work on a wide variety of projects, such as understanding supernova hydrodynamics, radio transients, neutron stars, galaxy clusters and the intercluster medium, supermassive black holes, their mergers and the associated gravitational waves, dark energy, dark matter and the reionization process. Other research topics include
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, K.R.W.
1995-01-01
We develop a nonlinear quantum theory of Newtonian gravity consistent with an objective interpretation of the wavefunction. Inspired by the ideas of Schroedinger, and Bell, we seek a dimensional reduction procedure to map complex wavefunctions in configuration space onto a family of observable fields in space-time. Consideration of quasi-classical conservation laws selects the reduced one-body quantities as the basis for an explicit quasi-classical coarse-graining. These we interpret as describing the objective reality of the laboratory. Thereafter, we examine what may stand in the role of the usual Copenhagen observer to localise this quantity against macroscopic dispersion. Only a tiny change is needed, via a generically attractive self-potential. A nonlinear treatment of gravitational self-energy is thus advanced. This term sets a scale for all wavepackets. The Newtonian cosmology is thus closed, without need of an external observer. Finally, the concept of quantisation is re-interpreted as a nonlinear eigenvalue problem. To illustrate, we exhibit an elementary family of gravitationally self-bound solitary waves. Contrasting this theory with its canonically quantised analogue, we find that the given interpretation is empirically distinguishable, in principle. This result encourages deeper study of nonlinear field theories as a testable alternative to canonically quantised gravity. (author). 46 refs., 5 figs
Chiral gravity, log gravity, and extremal CFT
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maloney, Alexander; Song Wei; Strominger, Andrew
2010-01-01
We show that the linearization of all exact solutions of classical chiral gravity around the AdS 3 vacuum have positive energy. Nonchiral and negative-energy solutions of the linearized equations are infrared divergent at second order, and so are removed from the spectrum. In other words, chirality is confined and the equations of motion have linearization instabilities. We prove that the only stationary, axially symmetric solutions of chiral gravity are BTZ black holes, which have positive energy. It is further shown that classical log gravity--the theory with logarithmically relaxed boundary conditions--has finite asymptotic symmetry generators but is not chiral and hence may be dual at the quantum level to a logarithmic conformal field theories (CFT). Moreover we show that log gravity contains chiral gravity within it as a decoupled charge superselection sector. We formally evaluate the Euclidean sum over geometries of chiral gravity and show that it gives precisely the holomorphic extremal CFT partition function. The modular invariance and integrality of the expansion coefficients of this partition function are consistent with the existence of an exact quantum theory of chiral gravity. We argue that the problem of quantizing chiral gravity is the holographic dual of the problem of constructing an extremal CFT, while quantizing log gravity is dual to the problem of constructing a logarithmic extremal CFT.
Dark matter: the astrophysical case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silk, J.
2012-01-01
The identification of dark matter is one of the most urgent problems in cosmology. I describe the astrophysical case for dark matter, from both an observational and a theoretical perspective. This overview will therefore focus on the observational motivations rather than the particle physics aspects of dark matter constraints on specific dark matter candidates. First, however, I summarize the astronomical evidence for dark matter, then I highlight the weaknesses of the standard cold dark matter model (LCDM) to provide a robust explanation of some observations. The greatest weakness in the dark matter saga is that we have not yet identified the nature of dark matter itself
Nuclear astrophysics with indirect methods
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shubhchintak
2016-01-01
In the area of astrophysics, it is well known that several different type of nuclear reactions are involved in the production of elements and for energy generation in stars. The knowledge of rates and cross section of these reactions is necessary in order to understand the origin of elements in the universe. Particularly, interests are there in the processes like pp-chain, CNO cycle, r-process and s-process, which are responsible for the formation of majority of the nuclei via various reactions like (p, γ), (n, γ), (α, γ) etc
The Juno Gravity Science Instrument
Asmar, Sami W.; Bolton, Scott J.; Buccino, Dustin R.; Cornish, Timothy P.; Folkner, William M.; Formaro, Roberto; Iess, Luciano; Jongeling, Andre P.; Lewis, Dorothy K.; Mittskus, Anthony P.; Mukai, Ryan; Simone, Lorenzo
2017-11-01
The Juno mission's primary science objectives include the investigation of Jupiter interior structure via the determination of its gravitational field. Juno will provide more accurate determination of Jupiter's gravity harmonics that will provide new constraints on interior structure models. Juno will also measure the gravitational response from tides raised on Jupiter by Galilean satellites. This is accomplished by utilizing Gravity Science instrumentation to support measurements of the Doppler shift of the Juno radio signal by NASA's Deep Space Network at two radio frequencies. The Doppler data measure the changes in the spacecraft velocity in the direction to Earth caused by the Jupiter gravity field. Doppler measurements at X-band (˜ 8 GHz) are supported by the spacecraft telecommunications subsystem for command and telemetry and are used for spacecraft navigation as well as Gravity Science. The spacecraft also includes a Ka-band (˜ 32 GHz) translator and amplifier specifically for the Gravity Science investigation contributed by the Italian Space Agency. The use of two radio frequencies allows for improved accuracy by removal of noise due to charged particles along the radio signal path.
Nuclear physics in astrophysics. Part 2. Abstracts
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gyuerky, Gy.; Fueloep, Zs.
2005-01-01
The proceedings of the 20. International Nuclear Physics Divisional Conference of the European Physical Society covers a wide range of topics in nuclear astrophysics. The topics addressed are big bang nucleosynthesis, stellar nucleosynthesis, measurements and nuclear data for astrophysics, nuclear structure far from stability, neutrino physics, and rare-ion-beam facilities and experiments. The perspectives of nuclear physics and astrophysics are also overviewed. 77 items are indexed separately for the INIS database. (K.A.)
Hurtado-Cardador, Manuel; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, Jaime
2006-12-01
Since 1947 Petroleos Mexicanos (Pemex) has conducted oil exploration projects using potential field methods. Geophysical exploration companies under contracts with Pemex carried out gravity anomaly surveys that were referred to different floating data. Each survey comprises observations of gravity stations along highways, roads and trails at intervals of about 500 m. At present, 265 separate gravimeter surveys that cover 60% of the Mexican territory (mainly in the oil producing regions of Mexico) are available. This gravity database represents the largest, highest spatial resolution information, and consequently has been used in the geophysical data compilations for the Mexico and North America gravity anomaly maps. Regional integration of gravimeter surveys generates gradients and spurious anomalies in the Bouguer anomaly maps at the boundaries of the connected surveys due to the different gravity base stations utilized. The main objective of this study is to refer all gravimeter surveys from Pemex to a single new first-order gravity base station network, in order to eliminate problems of gradients and spurious anomalies. A second objective is to establish a network of permanent gravity base stations (BGP), referred to a single base from the World Gravity System. Four regional loops of BGP covering eight States of Mexico were established to support the tie of local gravity base stations from each of the gravimeter surveys located in the vicinity of these loops. The third objective is to add the gravity constants, measured and calculated, for each of the 265 gravimeter surveys to their corresponding files in the Pemex and Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo database. The gravity base used as the common datum is the station SILAG 9135-49 (Latin American System of Gravity) located in the National Observatory of Tacubaya in Mexico City. We present the results of the installation of a new gravity base network in northeastern Mexico, reference of the 43 gravimeter surveys
Novel laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets
Brady, Parrish Clawson
This thesis was motivated by the promise that some physical aspects of astrophysical jets and collimation processes can be scaled to laboratory parameters through hydrodynamic scaling laws. The simulation of astrophysical jet phenomena with laser-produced plasmas was attractive because the laser- target interaction can inject energetic, repeatable plasma into an external environment. Novel laboratory simulations of astrophysical jets involved constructing and using the YOGA laser, giving a 1064 nm, 8 ns pulse laser with energies up to 3.7 + 0.2 J . Laser-produced plasmas were characterized using Schlieren, interferometry and ICCD photography for their use in simulating jet and magnetosphere physics. The evolution of the laser-produced plasma in various conditions was compared with self-similar solutions and HYADES computer simulations. Millimeter-scale magnetized collimated outflows were produced by a centimeter scale cylindrically symmetric electrode configuration triggered by a laser-produced plasma. A cavity with a flared nozzle surrounded the center electrode and the electrode ablation created supersonic uncollimated flows. This flow became collimated when the center electrode changed from an anodeto a cathode. The plasma jets were in axially directed permanent magnetic fields with strengths up to 5000 Gauss. The collimated magnetized jets were 0.1-0. 3 cm wide, up to 2.0 cm long, and had velocities of ~4.0 × 10 6 cm/s. The dynamics of the evolution of the jet were compared qualitatively and quantitatively with fluxtube simulations from Bellan's formulation [6] giving a calculated estimate of ~2.6 × 10 6 cm/s for jet evolution velocity and evidence for jet rotation. The density measured with interferometry was 1.9 ± 0.2 × 10 17 cm -3 compared with 2.1 × 10 16 cm -3 calculated with Bellan's pressure balance formulation. Kinks in the jet column were produced consistent with the Kruskal-Shafranov condition which allowed stable and symmetric jets to form with
PREFACE: 2nd International Symposium on the Modern Physics of Compact Stars and Relativistic Gravity
Edvard Chubaryan, Professor; Aram Saharian, Professor; Armen Sedrakian, Professor
2014-03-01
The international conference ''The Modern Physics of Compact Stars and Relativistic Gravity'' took place in Yerevan, Armenia, from 18-21 September 2013. This was the second in a series of conferences which aim to bring together people working in astrophysics of compact stars, physics of dense matter, gravitation and cosmology, observations of pulsars and binary neutron stars and related fields. The conference was held on the occasion of 100th birthday of the founder of the Theoretical Physics Chair at the Department of Physics of Yerevan State University and prominent Armenian scientist Academician Gurgen S Sahakyan. The field of compact stars has seen extraordinary development since the discovery of pulsars in 1967. Even before this discovery, pioneering work of a number of theoretical groups had laid the foundation for this development. A pioneer of this effort was Professor G S Sahakyan who, together with Professor Victor Ambartsumyan and a group of young scientists, started in the early sixties their fundamental work on the properties of superdense matter and on the relativistic structure of compact stellar objects. This conference explored the vast diversity of the manifestations of compact stars, including the modern aspects of the equation of state of superdense matter, its magnetic and thermal properties, rotational dynamics, superfluidity and superconductivity, phase transition from hadronic to quark matter, etc. The articles on these subjects collected in this volume are evidence of liveliness of the field and of the continuous feedback between theory and the experiment. A part of this volume is devoted to the cosmology and the theories of gravity — the subfields of astrophysics that are of fundamental importance to our understanding of the universe. The reader will find here articles touching on the most diverse aspects of these fields such as modern problems in Einstein's classical theory of gravity and its alternatives, string theory motivated
High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The High Energy Astrophysics Science Archive Research Center (HEASARC) is the primary archive for NASA missions dealing with extremely energetic phenomena, from...
Double layers and circuits in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Alfven, H.
1986-05-01
As the rate of energy release in a double layer with voltage DeltaV is P corresponding to IDeltaV, a double layer must be treated part of a circuit which delivers the current I. As neither double layer nor circuit can be derived from magnetofluid models of a plasma, such models are useless for treating energy transfer by menas of double layers. They must be replaced by particle models and circuit theory. A simple circuit is suggested which is applied to the energizing of auroroal particles, to solar flares, and to intergalactic double radio sources. Application to the heliospheric current systems leads to the prediction of two double layers on the sun's axis which may give radiations detectable from earth. Double layers in space should be classified as a new type of celestial object (one example is the double radio sources). It is tentatively suggested in X-ray and gamma-ray bursts may be due to exploding double layers (although annihilation is an alternative energy source). A study of how a number of the most used textbooks in astrophysics treat important concepts like double layers, critical velocity, pinch effects and circuits is made. It is found that students using these textbooks remain essentially ignorant of even the existence of these, in spite of the fact that some of them have been well known for half a centry (e.g., double layers, Langmuir, 1929: pinch effect, Bennet, 1934). The conclusion is that astrophysics is too important to be left in the hands of the astrophysicist. Earth bound and space telescope data must be treated by scientists who are familiar with laboratory and magnetospheric physics and circuit theory, and of course with modern plasma theory. At least by volume the universe consists to more than 99 percent of plasma, and electromagnetic forces are 10/sup39/ time stronger than gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Liang, G Y; Li, F; Wang, F L; Zhong, J Y; Zhao, G; Wu, Y
2014-01-01
Spectroscopic researches in astronomy are significantly dependent on theoretical modelling methods, such as Chianti, Xstar, Cloudy etc. Recently, a different research community - Laboratory Astrophysics tries to benchmark these theoretical models or simulate the astrophysical phenomenon directly in conditions accessed in ground laboratory. Those unavoidable differences between the astrophysical objects and laboratory provide a need for a self-consistent model to make a bridge for the two cases. So we setup a visualized simulation package for soft X-ray and EUV spectroscopy in astrophysical and laboratory plasmas.
Recent astrophysical applications of the Trojan Horse Method to nuclear astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Crucilla, V.; Gulino, M.; La Cognata, M.; Lamia, L.; Pizzone, R. G.; Puglia, S. M. R.; Rapisarda, G. G.; Romano, S.; Sergi, M. L.; Tumino, A.; Fu, C.; Tribble, R.; Banu, A.; Al-Abdullah, T.; Goldberg, V.; Mukhamedzhanov, A.; Tabacaru, G.; Trache, L.
2008-01-01
The Trojan Horse Method (THM) is an unique indirect technique allowing to measure astrophysical rearrangement reactions down to astrophysical relevant energies. The basic principle and a review of the recent applications of the Trojan Horse Method are presented. The applications aiming to the extraction of the bare astrophysical S b (E) for some two-body processes are discussed
Laboratory studies of photoionized plasma related to astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yang Peiqiang; Wang Feilu; Zhao Gang
2011-01-01
Photoionized plasma is universal in astronomy and has great importance on account of its close relation to compact astrophysical objects such as black holes. Recently, with the development of high energy density lasers and Z-pinch facilities, it has become possible to simulate astronomical photoionized plasma in the laboratory. These experiments help us to benchmark and modify the photoionization models, and to understand the photoionization processes to diagnose related astronomical plasma environments. (authors)
Horava-Lifshitz Theory and Applications to Cosmology and Astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wang, Anzhong [Baylor Univ., Waco, TX (United States). Department of Physics
2014-08-14
This final report describes the activities of the Baylor University Gravity, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (GCAP) group on the project: Horava-Lifshitz Theory and Applications to Cosmology and Astrophysics, during the time, August 15, 2010 - August 14, 2014. We are grateful for the financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy for this research, which leads to our exceptional success. We are very proud to say that we have achieved all the goals set up in our project and made significant contributions to the understanding of the field. In particular, with this DOE support, we have published 38 articles in the prestigious national/international journals, which have already received about 1000 citations so far.
Parallel Multiscale Algorithms for Astrophysical Fluid Dynamics Simulations
Norman, Michael L.
1997-01-01
Our goal is to develop software libraries and applications for astrophysical fluid dynamics simulations in multidimensions that will enable us to resolve the large spatial and temporal variations that inevitably arise due to gravity, fronts and microphysical phenomena. The software must run efficiently on parallel computers and be general enough to allow the incorporation of a wide variety of physics. Cosmological structure formation with realistic gas physics is the primary application driver in this work. Accurate simulations of e.g. galaxy formation require a spatial dynamic range (i.e., ratio of system scale to smallest resolved feature) of 104 or more in three dimensions in arbitrary topologies. We take this as our technical requirement. We have achieved, and in fact, surpassed these goals.
Horava-Lifshitz Theory and Applications to Cosmology and Astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, Anzhong
2014-01-01
This final report describes the activities of the Baylor University Gravity, Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics (GCAP) group on the project: Horava-Lifshitz Theory and Applications to Cosmology and Astrophysics, during the time, August 15, 2010 - August 14, 2014. We are grateful for the financial support provided by the U.S. Department of Energy for this research, which leads to our exceptional success. We are very proud to say that we have achieved all the goals set up in our project and made significant contributions to the understanding of the field. In particular, with this DOE support, we have published 38 articles in the prestigious national/international journals, which have already received about 1000 citations so far.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schoutens, K.; van Nieuwenhuizen, P.; State Univ. of New York, Stony Brook, NY
1991-11-01
We briefly review some results in the theory of quantum W 3 gravity in the chiral gauge. We compare them with similar results in the analogous but simpler cases of d = 2 induced gauge theories and d = 2 induced gravity
... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003587.htm Urine specific gravity test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Urine specific gravity is a laboratory test that shows the concentration ...
Cadiz, California Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (32 records) were gathered by Mr. Seth I. Gutman for AridTech Inc., Denver, Colorado using a Worden Prospector gravity meter. This data base...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Central Andes gravity data (6,151 records) were compiled by Professor Gotze and the MIGRA Group. This data base was received in April, 1997. Principal gravity...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Decade of North American Geology (DNAG) gravity grid values, spaced at 6 km, were used to produce the Gravity Anomaly Map of North America (1987; scale...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinheiro, R.
1979-01-01
The properties and production of gravitational radiation are described. The prospects for their detection are considered including the Weber apparatus and gravity-wave telescopes. Possibilities of gravity-wave astronomy are noted
Northern Oklahoma Gravity Data
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (710 records) were compiled by Professor Ahern. This data base was received in June 1992. Principal gravity parameters include latitude,...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (24,284 records) were compiled by the U. S. Geological Survey. This data base was received on February 23, 1993. Principal gravity...
Spin Entanglement Witness for Quantum Gravity.
Bose, Sougato; Mazumdar, Anupam; Morley, Gavin W; Ulbricht, Hendrik; Toroš, Marko; Paternostro, Mauro; Geraci, Andrew A; Barker, Peter F; Kim, M S; Milburn, Gerard
2017-12-15
Understanding gravity in the framework of quantum mechanics is one of the great challenges in modern physics. However, the lack of empirical evidence has lead to a debate on whether gravity is a quantum entity. Despite varied proposed probes for quantum gravity, it is fair to say that there are no feasible ideas yet to test its quantum coherent behavior directly in a laboratory experiment. Here, we introduce an idea for such a test based on the principle that two objects cannot be entangled without a quantum mediator. We show that despite the weakness of gravity, the phase evolution induced by the gravitational interaction of two micron size test masses in adjacent matter-wave interferometers can detectably entangle them even when they are placed far apart enough to keep Casimir-Polder forces at bay. We provide a prescription for witnessing this entanglement, which certifies gravity as a quantum coherent mediator, through simple spin correlation measurements.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vega, H.J. de
1990-01-01
One of the main challenges in theoretical physics today is the unification of all interactions including gravity. At present, string theories appear as the most promising candidates to achieve such a unification. However, gravity has not completely been incorporated in string theory, many technical and conceptual problems remain and a full quantum theory of gravity is still non-existent. Our aim is to properly understand strings in the context of quantum gravity. Attempts towards this are reviewed. (author)
NASA Astrophysics EPO Resources For Engaging Girls in Science
Sharma, M.; Mendoza, D.; Smith, D.; Hasan, H.
2011-09-01
A new collaboration among the NASA Science Mission Directorate (SMD) Astrophysics EPO community is to engage girls in science who do not self-select as being interested in science, through the library setting. The collaboration seeks to (i) improve how girls view themselves as someone who knows about, uses, and sometimes contributes to science, and (ii) increase the capacity of EPO practitioners and librarians (both school and public) to engage girls in science. As part of this collaboration, we are collating the research on audience needs and best practices, and SMD EPO resources, activities and projects that focus on or can be recast toward engaging girls in science. This ASP article highlights several available resources and individual projects, such as: (i) Afterschool Universe, an out-of-school hands-on astronomy curriculum targeted at middle school students and an approved Great Science for Girls curriculum; (ii) Big Explosions and Strong Gravity, a Girl Scout patch-earning event for middle school aged girls to learn astronomy through hands-on activities and interaction with actual astronomers; and (iii) the JWST-NIRCAM Train the Trainer workshops and activities for Girl Scouts of USA leaders; etc. The NASA Astrophysics EPO community welcomes the broader EPO community to discuss with us how best to engage non-science-attentive girls in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM), and to explore further collaborations on this theme.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
La, H.
1992-01-01
A new geometric formulation of Liouville gravity based on the area preserving diffeo-morphism is given and a possible alternative to reinterpret Liouville gravity is suggested, namely, a scalar field coupled to two-dimensional gravity with a curvature constraint
Bergshoeff, E.; Pope, C.N.; Stelle, K.S.
1990-01-01
We discuss the notion of higher-spin covariance in w∞ gravity. We show how a recently proposed covariant w∞ gravity action can be obtained from non-chiral w∞ gravity by making field redefinitions that introduce new gauge-field components with corresponding new gauge transformations.
Induced quantum conformal gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Novozhilov, Y.V.; Vassilevich, D.V.
1988-11-01
Quantum gravity is considered as induced by matter degrees of freedom and related to the symmetry breakdown in the low energy region of a non-Abelian gauge theory of fundamental fields. An effective action for quantum conformal gravity is derived where both the gravitational constant and conformal kinetic term are positive. Relation with induced classical gravity is established. (author). 15 refs
Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni
2003-01-01
Comment: 9 pages, LaTex. These notes were prepared while working on an invited contribution to the November 2003 issue of Physics World, which focused on quantum gravity. They intend to give a non-technical introduction (accessible to readers from outside quantum gravity) to "Quantum Gravity Phenomenology"
MacKeown, P. K.
1984-01-01
Clarifies two concepts of gravity--those of a fictitious force and those of how space and time may have geometry. Reviews the position of Newton's theory of gravity in the context of special relativity and considers why gravity (as distinct from electromagnetics) lends itself to Einstein's revolutionary interpretation. (JN)
Massive magnetic monopoles in cosmology and astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kolb, E.W.
1984-01-01
The astrophysical and cosmological consequences of magnetic monopoles are discussed. The production of monopoles during phase transition in the early universe is addressed, and proposals which have been made to alleviate the monopole problem are summarized. Astrophysical limits on galactic magnetic monopoles are discussed along with experimental efforts to detect monopoles. Finally, monopole-induced proton decay is addressed. 48 references
Highlights of modern astrophysics: Concepts and controversies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Shapiro, S.L.; Teukolsky, V.
1986-01-01
In this book, physicists and astronomers review issues in astrophysics. The book stresses accomplishments of observational and theoretical work, and demonstrates how to reveal information about stars and galaxies by applying the basic principles of physics. It pinpoints conflicting views and findings on important topics and indicates possibilities for future research in the field of modern astrophysics
Astrophysics with small satellites in Scandinavia
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lund, Niels
2003-01-01
The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved.......The small-satellites activities in the Scandinavian countries are briefly surveyed with emphasis on astrophysics research. (C) 2002 COSPAR. Published by Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....
The AFGL (Air Force Geophysics Laboratory) Absolute Gravity System’s Error Budget Revisted.
1985-05-08
also be induced by equipment not associated with the system. A systematic bias of 68 pgal was observed by the Istituto di Metrologia "G. Colonnetti...Laboratory Astrophysics, Univ. of Colo., Boulder, Colo. IMGC: Istituto di Metrologia "G. Colonnetti", Torino, Italy Table 1. Absolute Gravity Values...measurements were made with three Model D and three Model G La Coste-Romberg gravity meters. These instruments were operated by the following agencies
Gravity field and ocean tides modeling for precise orbit determination of doris satellites
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Štěpánek, P.; Bezděk, Aleš; Kostelecký, J.; Filler, V.
2016-01-01
Roč. 13, č. 1 (2016), s. 27-40 ISSN 1214-9705 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LG14026 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GC15-24730J Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravity field truncation degree * ocean tides * time variable gravity Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 0.699, year: 2016
Demographics in Astronomy and Astrophysics
Ulvestad, James S.
2011-05-01
Astronomy has been undergoing a significant demographic shift over the last several decades, as shown by data presented in the 2000 National Research Council (NRC) report "Federal Funding of Astronomical Research," and the 2010 NRC report, "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics." For example, the number of advertised postdoctoral positions in astronomy has increased much more rapldly than the number of faculty positions, contributing to a holding pattern of early-career astronomers in multiple postdoctoral positions. This talk will summarize some of the current demographic trends in astronomy, including information about gender and ethnic diversity, and describe some of the possible implications for the future. I thank the members of the Astro2010 Demographics Study Group, as well as numerous white-paper contributors to Astro2010, for providing data and analyses.
Silica aerogel and space astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Koch-Miramond, L.
1985-09-01
Silica aerogels have been produced in large and transparent blocks for space astrophysics experiments since the beginning of the 1970's. They were used in cosmic ray experiments on board balloons by the Saclay group. A new space venture where aerogel Cerenkov radiators will play a decisive role is currently being prepared by a large collaboration of European and US Institutes. It will be part of the so-called International Solar Polar Mission (ISPM) which will explore the heliosphere over the full range of solar latitudes from the ecliptic (equatorial) plane to the magnetic poles of the sun. Comments on properties and long term behaviour of silica aerogel cerenkov radiators in space environment are given
Axions in astrophysics and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sikivie, P.
1984-07-01
Axion models often have a spontaneously broken exact discrete symmetry. In that case, they have discretely degenerate vacua and hence domain walls. The properties of the domain walls, the cosmological catastrophe they produce and the ways in which this catastrophe may be avoided are explained. Cosmology and astrophysics provide arguments that imply the axion decay constant should lie in the range 10 8 GeV less than or equal to f/sub a/ less than or equal to 10 12 GeV. Reasons are given why axions are an excellent candidate to constitute the dark matter of galactic halos. Using the coupling of the axions to the electromagnetic field, detectors are described to look for axions floating about in the halo of our galaxy and for axions emitted by the sun
The fundamentals of stellar astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Collins, G.W. II.
1989-01-01
A broad overview of theoretical stellar astrophysics is presented in a textbook intended for graduate students. Chapters are devoted to fundamental principles, assumptions, theorems, and polytropes; energy sources and sinks; the flow of energy through the star and the construction of stellar models; the theory of stellar evolution; relativistic stellar structure; the structure of distorted stars; stellar pulsation and oscillation. Also discussed are the flow of radiation through the stellar atmosphere, the solution of the radiative-transfer equation, the environment of the radiation field, the construction of a stellar model atmosphere, the formation and shape of spectral lines, LTE breakdown, illuminated and extended stellar atmospheres, and the transfer of polarized radiation. Diagrams, graphs, and sample problems are provided. 164 refs
Nuclear astrophysics of the sun
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kocharov, G.E.
1980-01-01
In the first chapter we will discuss the problem of nuclear reactions in the interior of the sun and consider the modern aspects of the neutrino astrophysics of the Sun. The second chapter is devoted to the high energy interactions in the solar atmosphere during the flares. Among a great number of events during the solar flares we shall consider mainly the nuclear reactions. Special attention will be paid to the genetic connection between the different components of solar electromagnetic and corpuscular radiation. The idea of the unity of processes in different parts of the Sun, from hot and dense interior up to the rare plasma of the solar corona will be the main line of the book. (orig./WL) 891 WL/orig.- 892 HIS
Special relativity - from particles to astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gourgoulhon, E.
2010-01-01
Special relativity is not a particular theory of physics but rather a theoretical framework through which various dynamical theories can be expressed. The main advantage of this book is to highlight the essential structures of special relativity before illustrating them with applications. One of these structures is the important Minkowski 4-dimensional space-time whose basic object is the quadri-vector. This mathematical framework is defined as early as the first chapter, which gives special relativity a more axiomatic approach than in other manuals. Another feature of this account of special relativity is to base the discussion of measurable physics effects on the point of view of a general observer who is no more restricted to be in a uniform motion, he can be accelerating or rotating. As a consequence the Lorentz transformation appears here less essential than in other presentations. In the second part of this book that begins with the 14. chapter, the main physical object is no more a particle but a field. The book ends with the issue of gravitation. The author highlights applications from particle physics (accelerators, particle collisions or quark-gluon plasmas), to astrophysics (relativistic jets or active cores of galaxies) via more practical applications such as Sagnac effect gyro-meters, synchrotron radiation or global positioning systems. (A.C.)
Large-Scale Astrophysical Visualization on Smartphones
Becciani, U.; Massimino, P.; Costa, A.; Gheller, C.; Grillo, A.; Krokos, M.; Petta, C.
2011-07-01
Nowadays digital sky surveys and long-duration, high-resolution numerical simulations using high performance computing and grid systems produce multidimensional astrophysical datasets in the order of several Petabytes. Sharing visualizations of such datasets within communities and collaborating research groups is of paramount importance for disseminating results and advancing astrophysical research. Moreover educational and public outreach programs can benefit greatly from novel ways of presenting these datasets by promoting understanding of complex astrophysical processes, e.g., formation of stars and galaxies. We have previously developed VisIVO Server, a grid-enabled platform for high-performance large-scale astrophysical visualization. This article reviews the latest developments on VisIVO Web, a custom designed web portal wrapped around VisIVO Server, then introduces VisIVO Smartphone, a gateway connecting VisIVO Web and data repositories for mobile astrophysical visualization. We discuss current work and summarize future developments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Durazo, R.; Hernandez, X.; Sánchez, S. F. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Apartado Postal 70-264 C.P. 04510 México D.F., México (Mexico); Sodi, B. Cervantes [Instituto de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia, A.P. 3-72, C.P. 58089 Michoacán, México (Mexico)
2017-03-10
For any MONDian extended theory of gravity where the rotation curves of spiral galaxies are explained through a change in physics rather than the hypothesis of dark matter, a generic dynamical behavior is expected for pressure supported systems: an outer flattening of the velocity dispersion profile occurring at a characteristic radius, where both the amplitude of this flat velocity dispersion and the radius at which it appears are predicted to show distinct scalings with the total mass of the system. By carefully analyzing the dynamics of globular clusters and elliptical galaxies, we are able to significantly extend the astronomical diversity of objects in which MONDian gravity has been tested, from spiral galaxies to the much larger mass range covered by pressure supported systems. We show that a universal projected velocity dispersion profile accurately describes various classes of pressure supported systems, and further, that the expectations of extended gravity are met across seven orders of magnitude in mass. These observed scalings are not expected under dark matter cosmology, and would require particular explanations tuned at the scales of each distinct astrophysical system.
Cosmology and modifications of gravity at large distances
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ziour, R.
2010-01-01
In the framework of General Relativity, the observed current acceleration of the expansion of the Universe requires the presence of a Dark Energy component, whose nature is not well understood. In order to explain the acceleration of the Universe without introducing such a tantalizing source of energy, other gravitation theories have been designed. This thesis is devoted to the study of some of these modified gravity theories, as well as to the observation methods that could constrain them. The first part of this thesis presents a review of modified gravity theories and their motivations. The second part is devoted to the study of the massive gravity theories and of the so-called Vainshtein's mechanism, which allows some of the solutions of Massive Gravity to strongly differ from General Relativity at cosmological scales while satisfying the experimental constraints inside the solar system. For the first time, the validity of the Vainshtein's mechanism is demonstrated, through the study of specific spherically symmetric solutions. The third part deals with scalar modification of gravity; a new model of this sort is presented, inspired by the Vainshtein's mechanism in Massive Gravity. Finally, the fourth part discusses local, astrophysical and cosmological observations that might constrain modified gravity theories. (author)
Astrophysical targets of the Fresnel diffractive imager
Koechlin, L.; Deba, P.; Raksasataya, T.
2017-11-01
The Fresnel Diffractive imager is an innovative concept of distributed space telescope, for high resolution (milli arc-seconds) spectro-imaging in the IR, visible and UV domains. This paper presents its optical principle and the science that can be done on potential astrophysical targets. The novelty lies in the primary optics: a binary Fresnel array, akin to a binary Fresnel zone plate. The main interest of this approach is the relaxed manufacturing and positioning constraints. While having the resolution and imaging capabilities of lens or mirrors of equivalent size, no optical material is involved in the focusing process: just vacuum. A Fresnel array consists of millions void subapertures punched into a large and thin opaque membrane, that focus light by diffraction into a compact and highly contrasted image. The positioning law of the aperture edges drives the image quality and contrast. This optical concept allows larger and lighter apertures than solid state optics, aiming to high angular resolution and high dynamic range imaging, in particular for UV applications. Diffraction focusing implies very long focal distances, up to dozens of kilometers, which requires at least a two-vessel formation flying in space. The first spacecraft, "the Fresnel Array spacecraft", holds the large punched foil: the Fresnel Array. The second, the "Receiver spacecraft" holds the field optics and focal instrumentation. A chromatism correction feature enables moderately large (20%) relative wavebands, and fields of a few to a dozen arc seconds. This Fresnel imager is adapted to high contrast stellar environments: dust disks, close companions and (we hope) exoplanets. Specific to the particular grid-like pattern of the primary focusing zone plate, is the very high dynamic range achieved in the images, in the case of compact objects. Large stellar photospheres may also be mapped with Fresnel arrays of a few meters opertaing in the UV. Larger and more complex fields can be imaged with
Astrophysics of black holes from fundamental aspects to latest developments
2016-01-01
This book discusses the state of the art of the basic theoretical and observational topics related to black hole astrophysics. It covers all the main topics in this wide field, from the theory of accretion disks and formation mechanisms of jet and outflows, to their observed electromagnetic spectrum, and attempts to measure the spin of these objects. Black holes are one of the most fascinating predictions of general relativity and are currently a very hot topic in both physics and astrophysics. In the last five years there have been significant advances in our understanding of these systems, and in the next five years it should become possible to use them to test fundamental physics, in particular to predict the general relativity in the strong field regime. The book is both a reference work for researchers and a textbook for graduate students.
Criteria for Scaled Laboratory Simulations of Astrophysical MHD Phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ryutov, D. D.; Drake, R. P.; Remington, B. A.
2000-01-01
We demonstrate that two systems described by the equations of the ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) evolve similarly, if the initial conditions are geometrically similar and certain scaling relations hold. The thermodynamic properties of the gas must be such that the internal energy density is proportional to the pressure. The presence of the shocks is allowed. We discuss the applicability conditions of the ideal MHD and demonstrate that they are satisfied with a large margin both in a number of astrophysical objects, and in properly designed simulation experiments with high-power lasers. This allows one to perform laboratory experiments whose results can be used for quantitative interpretation of various effects of astrophysical MHD. (c) 2000 The American Astronomical Society
Nuclear astrophysics. Irfu - IN2P3 prospective of 2012
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Assie, M.; Hammache, F.; Khan, E.; Margueron, J.; Sereville, N. de; Bastin, B.; Oliveira Santos, F. de; Ploszajczak, M.; Sorlin, O.; Bernard, D.; Chieze, J.-P.; Decourchelle, A.; Ducret, J. E.; Foglizzo, T.; Gilles, D.; Schanne, S.; Turck-Chieze, S.; Coc, A.; Duprat, J.; Kiener, J.; Lefebvre-Schuhl, A.; Tatischeff, V.; Courtin, S.; Dufour, M.; Haas, F.; Gulminelli, F.; Gunsing, F.; Obertelli, A.; Maurin, D.; Renaud, M.; Smirnova, N.
2011-01-01
This document proposes a rather detailed overview of the different research works performed by nuclear astrophysicists belonging to the Irfu and to the IN2P3. It also presents the main results and envisaged researches. These issues are herein presented by distinguishing four main themes. The first one concerns the main issues of the field: cosmology and nuclear physics, hydrostatic nucleosynthesis and stellar evolution, explosive nucleosynthesis (supernovae, novae, X-bursts), neutron stars and protostars, galactic cosmic radiation and nuclear astrophysics, formation of the Solar System. The second theme concerns means of observation: astro-seismology, X astronomy, nuclear gamma astronomy, meteorites and micro-meteorites. The third theme concerns measurements in laboratory: steady beam accelerators, radioactive beam accelerators, neutron beams, production of radioactive targets, power lasers, isotopic analysis of extraterrestrial matter. The fourth theme concerns nuclear theories for astrophysics. Appendices propose summaries of objectives of current projects, and tables indicating involved staff and budgets
Solar system astrophysics planetary atmospheres and the outer solar system
Milone, Eugene F
2008-01-01
Solar System Astrophysics opens with coverage of the atmospheres, ionospheres and magnetospheres of the Earth, Venus and Mars and the magnetosphere of Mercury. The book then provides an introduction to meteorology and treating the physics and chemistry of these areas in considerable detail. What follows are the structure, composition, particle environments, satellites, and rings of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, making abundant use of results from space probes. Solar System Astrophysics follows the history, orbits, structure, origin and demise of comets and the physics of meteors and provides a thorough treatment of meteorites, the asteroids and, in the outer solar system, the Kuiper Belt objects. The methods and results of extrasolar planet searches, the distinctions between stars, brown dwarfs, and planets, and the origins of planetary systems are examined. Historical introductions precede the development and discussion in most chapters. A series of challenges, useful as homework assignments or as foc...
Electrostatic analogy for symmetron gravity
Ogden, Lillie; Brown, Katherine; Mathur, Harsh; Rovelli, Kevin
2017-12-01
The symmetron model is a scalar-tensor theory of gravity with a screening mechanism that suppresses the effect of the symmetron field at high densities characteristic of the Solar System and laboratory scales but allows it to act with gravitational strength at low density on the cosmological scale. We elucidate the screening mechanism by showing that in the quasistatic Newtonian limit there are precise analogies between symmetron gravity and electrostatics for both strong and weak screening. For strong screening we find that large dense bodies behave in a manner analogous to perfect conductors in electrostatics. Based on this analogy we find that the symmetron field exhibits a lightning rod effect wherein the field gradients are enhanced near the ends of pointed or elongated objects. An ellipsoid placed in a uniform symmetron gradient is shown to experience a torque. By symmetry there is no gravitational torque in this case. Hence this effect unmasks the symmetron and might serve as the basis for future laboratory experiments. The symmetron force between a point mass and a large dense body includes a component corresponding to the interaction of the point mass with its image in the larger body. None of these effects have counterparts in the Newtonian limit of Einstein gravity. We discuss the similarities between symmetron gravity and the chameleon model as well as the differences between the two.
Light-Ring Stability for Ultracompact Objects
Cunha, Pedro V. P.; Berti, Emanuele; Herdeiro, Carlos A. R.
2017-12-01
We prove the following theorem: axisymmetric, stationary solutions of the Einstein field equations formed from classical gravitational collapse of matter obeying the null energy condition, that are everywhere smooth and ultracompact (i.e., they have a light ring) must have at least two light rings, and one of them is stable. It has been argued that stable light rings generally lead to nonlinear spacetime instabilities. Our result implies that smooth, physically and dynamically reasonable ultracompact objects are not viable as observational alternatives to black holes whenever these instabilities occur on astrophysically short time scales. The proof of the theorem has two parts: (i) We show that light rings always come in pairs, one being a saddle point and the other a local extremum of an effective potential. This result follows from a topological argument based on the Brouwer degree of a continuous map, with no assumptions on the spacetime dynamics, and, hence, it is applicable to any metric gravity theory where photons follow null geodesics. (ii) Assuming Einstein's equations, we show that the extremum is a local minimum of the potential (i.e., a stable light ring) if the energy-momentum tensor satisfies the null energy condition.
Einstein gravity emerging from quantum weyl gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zee, A.
1983-01-01
We advocate a conformal invariant world described by the sum of the Weyl, Dirac, and Yang-Mills action. Quantum fluctuations bring back Einstein gravity so that the long-distance phenomenology is as observed. Formulas for the induced Newton's constant and Eddington's constant are derived in quantized Weyl gravity. We show that the analogue of the trace anomaly for the Weyl action is structurally similar to that for the Yang-Mills action
Frontier Research in Astrophysics - II
2016-05-01
The purpose of this international workshop is to bring together astrophysicists and physicists who are involved in various topics at the forefront of modern astrophysics and particle physics. The workshop will discuss the most recent experimental and theoretical results in order to advance our understanding of the physics governing our Universe. To accomplish the goals of the workshop, we believe it is necessary to use data from ground-based and space-based experiments and results from theoretical developments: work on the forefront of science which has resulted (or promises to result in) high-impact scientific papers. Hence, the main purpose of the workshop is to discuss in a unique and collaborative setting a broad range of topics in modern astrophysics, from the Big Bang to Planets and Exoplanets. We believe that this can provide a suitable framework for each participant who (while obviously not involved in all the topics discussed), will be able to acquire a general view of the main experimental and theoretical results currently obtained. Such an up-to-date view of the current research on cosmic sources can help guide future research projects by the participants, and will encourage collaborative efforts across various topical areas of research. The proceedings will be published in Proceedings of Science (PoS)- SISSA and will provide a powerful resource for all the scientific community and will be especially helpful for PhD students. The following items will be reviewed: Cosmology: Cosmic Background, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Clusters of Galaxies. Physics of the Diffuse Cosmic Sources. Physics of Cosmic Rays. Physics of Discrete Cosmic Sources. Extragalactic Sources: Active Galaxies, Normal Galaxies, Gamma-Ray Bursts. Galactic Sources: Star Formation, Pre-Main-Sequence and Main- Sequence Stars, the Sun, Cataclysmic Variables and Novae, Supernovae and SNRs, X-Ray Binary Systems, Pulsars, Black Holes, Gamma-Ray Sources, Nucleosynthesis, Asteroseismology
Astrophysics at RIA (ARIA) Working Group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Smith, Michael S.; Schatz, Hendrik; Timmes, Frank X.; Wiescher, Michael; Greife, Uwe
2006-01-01
The Astrophysics at RIA (ARIA) Working Group has been established to develop and promote the nuclear astrophysics research anticipated at the Rare Isotope Accelerator (RIA). RIA is a proposed next-generation nuclear science facility in the U.S. that will enable significant progress in studies of core collapse supernovae, thermonuclear supernovae, X-ray bursts, novae, and other astrophysical sites. Many of the topics addressed by the Working Group are relevant for the RIKEN RI Beam Factory, the planned GSI-Fair facility, and other advanced radioactive beam facilities
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klokočník, Jaroslav; Wagner, C. A.; Kostelecký, J.; Bezděk, Aleš
2015-01-01
Roč. 56, č. 6 (2015), 1146-1160 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-36843S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravity field of the Earth * resonant/repeat orbit missions * ground track density Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.409, year: 2015
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kostelecký, J.; Kalvoda, J.; Eppelbaum, L.V.; Bezděk, Aleš
2014-01-01
Roč. 2, č. 3 (2014), s. 88-101 ISSN 2330-1740 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-36843S Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GCP209/12/J068 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : Earth gravitational model * gravity disturbances * marussi tensor Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics
Gravity field models from kinematic orbits of CHAMP, GRACE and GOCE satellites
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bezděk, Aleš; Sebera, Josef; Klokočník, Jaroslav; Kostelecký, J.
2014-01-01
Roč. 53, č. 3 (2014), s. 412-429 ISSN 0273-1177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LH13071; GA ČR GA13-36843S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : gravity field models * kinematic orbits * generalized least squares Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.358, year: 2014
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Bouman, J.; Bosch, W.; Sebera, Josef
2011-01-01
Roč. 34, č. 2 (2011), s. 85-107 ISSN 0149-0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : satellite altimetry * gravity gradients * GOCE Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 1.329, year: 2011
Phenomenology of bouncing black holes in quantum gravity: a closer look
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barrau, Aurélien; Bolliet, Boris; Weimer, Celine; Vidotto, Francesca
2016-01-01
It was recently shown that black holes could be bouncing stars as a consequence of quantum gravity. We investigate the astrophysical signals implied by this hypothesis, focusing on primordial black holes. We consider different possible bounce times and study the integrated diffuse emission
Local models of astrophysical discs
Latter, Henrik N.; Papaloizou, John
2017-12-01
Local models of gaseous accretion discs have been successfully employed for decades to describe an assortment of small-scale phenomena, from instabilities and turbulence, to dust dynamics and planet formation. For the most part, they have been derived in a physically motivated but essentially ad hoc fashion, with some of the mathematical assumptions never made explicit nor checked for consistency. This approach is susceptible to error, and it is easy to derive local models that support spurious instabilities or fail to conserve key quantities. In this paper we present rigorous derivations, based on an asympototic ordering, and formulate a hierarchy of local models (incompressible, Boussinesq and compressible), making clear which is best suited for a particular flow or phenomenon, while spelling out explicitly the assumptions and approximations of each. We also discuss the merits of the anelastic approximation, emphasizing that anelastic systems struggle to conserve energy unless strong restrictions are imposed on the flow. The problems encountered by the anelastic approximation are exacerbated by the disc's differential rotation, but also attend non-rotating systems such as stellar interiors. We conclude with a defence of local models and their continued utility in astrophysical research.
Mass-23 nuclei in astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fraser, P R; Amos, K; Van der Kniff, D; Canton, L; Karataglidis, S; Svenne, J P
2015-01-01
The formation of mass-23 nuclei by radiative capture is of great interest in astrophysics. A topical problem associated with these isobars is the so-called 22 Na puzzle of ONe white dwarf novae, where the abundance of 22 Na observed is not as is predicted by current stellar models, indicating there is more to learn about how the distribution of elements in the universe occurred. Another concerns unexplained variations in elements abundance on the surface of aging red giant stars. One method for theoretically studying nuclear scattering is the Multi-Channel Algebraic Scattering (MCAS) formalism. Studies to date have used a simple collective-rotor prescription to model the target states which couple to projectile nucleons. While, in general, the target states considered all belong to the ground state rotor band, for some systems it is necessary to include coupling to states outside of this band. Herein we discuss an extension of MCAS to allow coupling of different strengths between such states and the ground state band. This consideration is essential when studying the scattering of neutrons from 22 Ne, a necessary step in studying the mass-23 nuclei mentioned above. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, J.D.
1988-01-01
This book addresses the subject of gravity theories in two and three spacetime dimensions. The prevailing philosophy is that lower dimensional models of gravity provide a useful arena for developing new ideas and insights, which are applicable to four dimensional gravity. The first chapter consists of a comprehensive introduction to both two and three dimensional gravity, including a discussion of their basic structures. In the second chapter, the asymptotic structure of three dimensional Einstein gravity with a negative cosmological constant is analyzed. The third chapter contains a treatment of the effects of matter sources in classical two dimensional gravity. The fourth chapter gives a complete analysis of particle pair creation by electric and gravitational fields in two dimensions, and the resulting effect on the cosmological constant
Gravity interpretation via EULDPH
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ebrahimzadeh Ardestani, V.
2003-01-01
Euler's homogeneity equation for determining the coordinates of the source body especially to estimate the depth (EULDPH) is discussed at this paper. This method is applied to synthetic and high-resolution real data such as gradiometric or microgravity data. Low-quality gravity data especially in the areas with a complex geology structure has rarely been used. The Bouguer gravity anomalies are computed from absolute gravity data after the required corrections. Bouguer anomaly is transferred to residual gravity anomaly. The gravity gradients are estimated from residual anomaly values. Bouguer anomaly is the gravity gradients, using EULDPH. The coordinates of the perturbing body will be determined. Two field examples one in the east of Tehran (Mard Abad) where we would like to determine the location of the anomaly (hydrocarbon) and another in the south-east of Iran close to the border with Afghanistan (Nosrat Abad) where we are exploring chromite are presented
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mielke, Eckehard W.
2006-01-01
Anomalies in Yang-Mills type gauge theories of gravity are reviewed. Particular attention is paid to the relation between the Dirac spin, the axial current j5 and the non-covariant gauge spin C. Using diagrammatic techniques, we show that only generalizations of the U(1)- Pontrjagin four-form F and F = dC arise in the chiral anomaly, even when coupled to gravity. Implications for Ashtekar's canonical approach to quantum gravity are discussed
Causal properties of nonlinear gravitational waves in modified gravity
Suvorov, Arthur George; Melatos, Andrew
2017-09-01
Some exact, nonlinear, vacuum gravitational wave solutions are derived for certain polynomial f (R ) gravities. We show that the boundaries of the gravitational domain of dependence, associated with events in polynomial f (R ) gravity, are not null as they are in general relativity. The implication is that electromagnetic and gravitational causality separate into distinct notions in modified gravity, which may have observable astrophysical consequences. The linear theory predicts that tachyonic instabilities occur, when the quadratic coefficient a2 of the Taylor expansion of f (R ) is negative, while the exact, nonlinear, cylindrical wave solutions presented here can be superluminal for all values of a2. Anisotropic solutions are found, whose wave fronts trace out time- or spacelike hypersurfaces with complicated geometric properties. We show that the solutions exist in f (R ) theories that are consistent with Solar System and pulsar timing experiments.
Isometric embeddings in cosmology and astrophysics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
embedding theory, a given spacetime (or 'brane') is embedded in a higher- ..... If one recalls that the motivation (at least in part) for non-compact extra ... to successfully embed (apparently perfect fluid) astrophysical models, we typically need to.
Transport processes in space physics and astrophysics
Zank, Gary P
2014-01-01
Transport Processes in Space Physics and Astrophysics' is aimed at graduate level students to provide the necessary mathematical and physics background to understand the transport of gases, charged particle gases, energetic charged particles, turbulence, and radiation in an astrophysical and space physics context. Subjects emphasized in the work include collisional and collisionless processes in gases (neutral or plasma), analogous processes in turbulence fields and radiation fields, and allows for a simplified treatment of the statistical description of the system. A systematic study that addresses the common tools at a graduate level allows students to progress to a point where they can begin their research in a variety of fields within space physics and astrophysics. This book is for graduate students who expect to complete their research in an area of plasma space physics or plasma astrophysics. By providing a broad synthesis in several areas of transport theory and modeling, the work also benefits resear...
Magnetic Fields Versus Gravity
Hensley, Kerry
2018-04-01
Deep within giant molecular clouds, hidden by dense gas and dust, stars form. Unprecedented data from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) reveal the intricate magnetic structureswoven throughout one of the most massive star-forming regions in the Milky Way.How Stars Are BornThe Horsehead Nebulasdense column of gas and dust is opaque to visible light, but this infrared image reveals the young stars hidden in the dust. [NASA/ESA/Hubble Heritage Team]Simple theory dictates that when a dense clump of molecular gas becomes massive enough that its self-gravity overwhelms the thermal pressure of the cloud, the gas collapses and forms a star. In reality, however, star formation is more complicated than a simple give and take between gravity and pressure. Thedusty molecular gas in stellar nurseries is permeated with magnetic fields, which are thought to impede the inward pull of gravity and slow the rate of star formation.How can we learn about the magnetic fields of distant objects? One way is by measuring dust polarization. An elongated dust grain will tend to align itself with its short axis parallel to the direction of the magnetic field. This systematic alignment of the dust grains along the magnetic field lines polarizes the dust grains emission perpendicular to the local magnetic field. This allows us to infer the direction of the magnetic field from the direction of polarization.Magnetic field orientations for protostars e2 and e8 derived from Submillimeter Array observations (panels a through c) and ALMA observations (panels d and e). Click to enlarge. [Adapted from Koch et al. 2018]Tracing Magnetic FieldsPatrick Koch (Academia Sinica, Taiwan) and collaborators used high-sensitivity ALMA observations of dust polarization to learn more about the magnetic field morphology of Milky Way star-forming region W51. W51 is one of the largest star-forming regions in our galaxy, home to high-mass protostars e2, e8, and North.The ALMA observations reveal
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Animesh Mukherjee
1991-01-01
Full Text Available Based upon Biot's [1965] theory of initial stresses of hydrostatic nature produced by the effect of gravity, a study is made of surface waves in higher order visco-elastic media under the influence of gravity. The equation for the wave velocity of Stonely waves in the presence of viscous and gravitational effects is obtained. This is followed by particular cases of surface waves including Rayleigh waves and Love waves in the presence of viscous and gravity effects. In all cases the wave-velocity equations are found to be in perfect agreement with the corresponding classical results when the effects of gravity and viscosity are neglected.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burkhard, N.R.
1979-01-01
The gravity inversion code applies stabilized linear inverse theory to determine the topography of a subsurface density anomaly from Bouguer gravity data. The gravity inversion program consists of four source codes: SEARCH, TREND, INVERT, and AVERAGE. TREND and INVERT are used iteratively to converge on a solution. SEARCH forms the input gravity data files for Nevada Test Site data. AVERAGE performs a covariance analysis on the solution. This document describes the necessary input files and the proper operation of the code. 2 figures, 2 tables
Classical Weyl transverse gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Oda, Ichiro [University of the Ryukyus, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Nishihara, Okinawa (Japan)
2017-05-15
We study various classical aspects of the Weyl transverse (WTDiff) gravity in a general space-time dimension. First of all, we clarify a classical equivalence among three kinds of gravitational theories, those are, the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity, Einstein's general relativity and the WTDiff gravity via the gauge-fixing procedure. Secondly, we show that in the WTDiff gravity the cosmological constant is a mere integration constant as in unimodular gravity, but it does not receive any radiative corrections unlike the unimodular gravity. A key point in this proof is to construct a covariantly conserved energy-momentum tensor, which is achieved on the basis of this equivalence relation. Thirdly, we demonstrate that the Noether current for the Weyl transformation is identically vanishing, thereby implying that the Weyl symmetry existing in both the conformally invariant scalar tensor gravity and the WTDiff gravity is a ''fake'' symmetry. We find it possible to extend this proof to all matter fields, i.e. the Weyl-invariant scalar, vector and spinor fields. Fourthly, it is explicitly shown that in the WTDiff gravity the Schwarzschild black hole metric and a charged black hole one are classical solutions to the equations of motion only when they are expressed in the Cartesian coordinate system. Finally, we consider the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) cosmology and provide some exact solutions. (orig.)
Nuclear astrophysics and nuclei far from stability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schatz, H.
2003-01-01
Unstable nuclei play a critical role in a number of astrophysical scenarios and are important for our understanding of the origin of the elements. Among the most important scenarios are the r-process (Supernovae), Novae, X-ray bursters, and Superbursters. For these astrophysical events I review the open questions, recent developments in astronomy, and how nuclear physics, in particular experiments with radioactive beams, needs to contribute to find the answers. (orig.)
Cosmological and astrophysical neutrino mass measurements
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Abazajian, K.N.; Calabrese, E.; Cooray, A.
2011-01-01
Cosmological and astrophysical measurements provide powerful constraints on neutrino masses complementary to those from accelerators and reactors. Here we provide a guide to these different probes, for each explaining its physical basis, underlying assumptions, current and future reach.......Cosmological and astrophysical measurements provide powerful constraints on neutrino masses complementary to those from accelerators and reactors. Here we provide a guide to these different probes, for each explaining its physical basis, underlying assumptions, current and future reach....
Technology Development for a Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chaloupka, V.; Cole, T.; Crawford, H.J.; He, Y.D.; Jackson, S.; Kleinfelder, S.; Lai, K.W.; Learned, J.; Ling, J.; Liu, D.; Lowder, D.; Moorhead, M.; Morookian, J.M.; Nygren, D.R.; Price, P.B.; Richards, A.; Shapiro, G.; Shen, B.; Smoot, George F.; Stokstad, R.G.; VanDalen, G.; Wilkes, J.; Wright, F.; Young, K.
1996-01-01
We propose a set of technology developments relevant to the design of an optimized Cerenkov detector for the study of neutrino interactions of astrophysical interest. Emphasis is placed on signal processing innovations that enhance significantly the quality of primary data. These technical advances, combined with field experience from a follow-on test deployment, are intended to provide a basis for the engineering design for a kilometer-scale Neutrino Astrophysical Observatory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tagliente, G.; Colonna, N.; Maronne, S.; Terlizzi, R.; Abondanno, U.; Fujii, K.; Milazzo, P.M.; Moreau, C.; Belloni, F.; Aerts, G.; Berthoumieux, E.; Andriamonje, S.; Dridi, W.; Gunsing, F.; Pancin, J.; Perrot, L.; Alvarez, H.; Duran, I.; Paradela, C.; Alvarez-Velarde, F.; Cano-Ott, D.; Embid-Segura, M.; Guerrero, C.; Martinez, T.; Villamarin, D.; Vincente, M.C.; Gonzalez-Romero, E.; Andrzejewski, J.; Marganiec, J.; Assimakopoulos, P.; Karamanis, D.; Audouin, L.; Dillman, I.; Heil, M.; Kappeler, F.; Mosconi, M.; Plag, R.; Voss, F.; Walter, S.; Wissak, K.; Badurek, G.; Jericha, E.; Leeb, H.; Oberhummer, H.; Pigni, M.T.; Baumann, P.; David, S.; Kerveno, M.; Rudolf, G.; Lukic, S.; Becvar, F.; Krticka, M.; Bisterzo, S.; Ferrant, L.; Gallino, R.; Calvino, F.; Poch, A.; Pretel, C.; Calviani, M.; Gramegna, F.; Mastinu, P.; Capote, R.; Mengoni, A.; Capote, R.; Lozano, M.; Quesada, J.; Carrapico, C.; Salgado, J.; Santos, C.; Tavora, L.; Vaz, P.; Cennini, P.; Chiaveri, E.; Dahlfors, M.; Kadi, Y.; Sarchiapone, L.; Vlachoudis, V.; Wendler, H.; Chepel, V.; Ferreira-Marques, R.; Goncalves, I.; Lindote, A.; Lopes, I.; Neves, F.; Couture, A.; Cox, J.; O'Brien, S.; Wiescher, M.; Dominga-Pardo, C.; Tain, J.L.; Eleftheriadis, C.; Lamboudis, C.; Savvidis, I.; Stephan, C.; Tassan-Got, L.; Furman, W.; Haas, B.; Haight, R.; Reifarth, R.; Igashira, M.; Koehler, P.; Massimi, C.; Vannini, G.; Papadopoulos, C.; Pavlik, A.; Pavlopoulos, P.; Plomen, A.; Rullhusen, P.; Rauscher, T.; Rubbia, C.; Ventura, A.
2009-01-01
The neutron time of flight (n T OF) facility at CERN is a neutron spallation source, its white neutron energy spectrum ranges from thermal to several GeV, covering the full energy range of interest for nuclear astrophysics, in particular for measurements of the neutron capture cross-section required in s-process nucleosynthesis. This contribution gives an overview on the astrophysical program made at n T OF facility, the results and the implications will be considered.
Plasma phenomenology in astrophysical systems: Radio-sources and jets
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Montani, Giovanni; Petitta, Jacopo
2014-01-01
We review the plasma phenomenology in the astrophysical sources which show appreciable radio emissions, namely Radio-Jets from Pulsars, Microquasars, Quasars, and Radio-Active Galaxies. A description of their basic features is presented, then we discuss in some details the links between their morphology and the mechanisms that lead to the different radio-emissions, investigating especially the role played by the plasma configurations surrounding compact objects (Neutron Stars, Black Holes). For the sake of completeness, we briefly mention observational techniques and detectors, whose structure set them apart from other astrophysical instruments. The fundamental ideas concerning angular momentum transport across plasma accretion disks—together with the disk-source-jet coupling problem—are discussed, by stressing their successes and their shortcomings. An alternative scenario is then inferred, based on a parallelism between astrophysical and laboratory plasma configurations, where small-scale structures can be found. We will focus our attention on the morphology of the radio-jets, on their coupling with the accretion disks and on the possible triggering phenomena, viewed as profiles of plasma instabilities
The Science and Prospects of Astrophysical Observations with New Horizons
Nguyen, Chi; Zemcov, Michael; Cooray, Asantha; Lisse, Carey; Poppe, Andrew
2018-01-01
Astrophysical observation from the outer solar system provides a unique and quiet vantage point from which to understand our cosmos. If properly designed, such observations enable several niche science cases that are difficult or impossible to perform near Earth. NASA's New Horizons mission includes several instruments with ~10cm telescopes that provide imaging capability from UV to near-IR wavelengths with moderate spectral resolution. A carefully designed survey can optimize the expendable propellant and limited data telemetry bandwidth to allow several unique measurements, including a detailed understanding of the cosmic extragalactic background light in the optical and near-IR, studies of the local and extragalactic UV background, measurements of the properties of dust and ice in the outer solar system, searches for moons and other faint structures around exoplanets, and determinations of the mass of planets far from their parent stars using gravitational microlensing. New Horizons is currently in an extended mission, that will conclude in 2021, designed to survey distant objects in the Kuiper Belt at high phase angles and perform a close flyby of KBO 2014 MU69. Afterwards, the astrophysics community will have a unique, generational opportunity to use this mission for astronomical observations at heliocentric distances beyond 50 AU. In this poster, we present the science case for an extended 2021 - 2026 astrophysics mission, and discuss some of the practical considerations that must be addressed to maximize the potential science return.
Hydrodynamic instabilities in astrophysics and ICF
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Paul Drake, R.
2005-01-01
Inertial fusion systems and astrophysical systems both involve hydrodynamic effects, including sources of pressure, shock waves, rarefactions, and plasma flows. In the evolution of such systems, hydrodynamic instabilities naturally evolve. As a result, a fundamental understanding of hydrodynamic instabilities is necessary to understand their behavior. In addition, high-energy-density facilities designed for ICF purposes can be used to provide and experimental basis for understanding astrophysical processes. In this talk. I will discuss the instabilities that appear in astrophysics and ICF from the common perspective of the basic mechanisms at work. Examples will be taken from experiments aimed at ICF, from astrophysical systems, and from experiments using ICF systems to address issues in astrophysics. The high-energy-density research facilities of today can accelerate small but macroscopic amounts of material to velocities above 100 km/s, can heat such material to temperature above 100 eV, can produce pressures far above a million atmospheres (10''12 dybes/cm''2 or 0.1 TPascal), and can do experiments under these conditions that address basic physics issues. This enables on to devise experiments aimed directly at important process such as the Rayleigh Taylor instability at an ablating surface or at an embedded interface that is accelerating, the Richtmeyer Meshkov evolution of shocked interfaces, and the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability of shear flows. The talk will include examples of such phenomena from the laboratory and from astrophysics, and will discuss experiments to study them. (Author)
Radiative properties of astrophysical matter: a quest to reproduce astrophysical conditions on earth
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bailey, James E.
2010-01-01
Experiments in terrestrial laboratories can be used to evaluate the physical models that interpret astronomical observations. The properties of matter in astrophysical objects are essential components of these models, but terrestrial laboratories struggle to reproduce the extreme conditions that often exist. Megajoule-class DOE/NNSA facilities such as the National Ignition Facility and Z can create unprecedented amounts of matter at extreme conditions, providing new capabilities to test astrophysical models with high accuracy. Experiments at these large facilities are challenging, and access is very competitive. However, the cylindrically-symmetric Z source emits radiation in all directions, enabling multiple physics experiments to be driven with a single Z discharge. This helps ameliorate access limitations. This article describes research efforts under way at Sandia National Laboratories Z facility investigating radiation transport through stellar interior matter, population kinetics of atoms exposed to the intense radiation emitted by accretion powered objects, and spectral line formation in white dwarf (WD) photospheres. Opacity quantifies the absorption of radiation by matter and strongly influences stellar structure and evolution, since radiation dominates energy transport deep inside stars. Opacity models have become highly sophisticated, but laboratory tests at the conditions existing inside stars have not been possible - until now. Z research is presently focused on measuring iron absorption at conditions relevant to the base of the solar convection zone, where the electron temperature and density are 190 eV and 9 x 10 22 e/cc, respectively. Creating these conditions in a sample that is sufficiently large, long-lived, and uniform is extraordinarily challenging. A source of radiation that streams through the relatively-large samples can produce volumetric heating and thus, uniform conditions, but to achieve high temperatures a strong source is required. Z
Nuclear astrophysics: a new era
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiescher, Michael; Aprahamian, Ani [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame (United States); Regan, Paddy [Department of Physics, University of Surrey (United Kingdom)
2002-02-01
The latest generation of radioactive-ion-beam facilities promises to shed light on the complex nuclear processes that control the evolution of stars and stellar explosions. The most fundamental question in nature is where do we come from, or, put another way, what are we made of? The late Carl Sagan poetically said that we are all made of stardust, but the origin of the elements has fascinated scientists for thousands of years. Many of the greatest medieval and renaissance scientists dabbled in alchemy, trying to create the elements that make up the cosmos, but we had to wait until the early 20th century to recognize that elements are really defined by the number of protons in the nucleus. According to our current understanding, after the big bang most of the normal or baryonic material in the universe consisted of the lightest two elements, hydrogen and helium, with only trace amounts of lithium and beryllium. All the heavier elements that occur naturally on Earth were created from this original material via a series of nuclear reactions in the cores of stars or in stellar explosions. Over the last decade, ground-based telescopes and satellite-based Observatories have opened new windows on the stars across the electromagnetic spectrum, from infrared to gamma radiation. New technology now makes it possible to observe and analyse short-lived stellar explosions. Indeed, the distribution of elements in 'planetary nebula' and in the ejecta of supernovae and novae give a direct glimpse of individual nucleosynthesis processes. In the February issue of Physics World, Michael Wiescher, Paddy Regan and Ani Aprahamian describe how sate-of-the-art facilities are set to plug many of the gaps in our understanding of nuclear astrophysics. (U.K.)
Brito, Richard; Pani, Paolo
2015-01-01
This volume gives a unified picture of the multifaceted subject of superradiance, with a focus on recent developments in the field, ranging from fundamental physics to astrophysics. Superradiance is a radiation enhancement process that involves dissipative systems. With a 60 year-old history, superradiance has played a prominent role in optics, quantum mechanics and especially in relativity and astrophysics. In Einstein's General Relativity, black-hole superradiance is permitted by dissipation at the event horizon, which allows energy extraction from the vacuum, even at the classical level. When confined, this amplified radiation can give rise to strong instabilities known as "blackhole bombs'', which have applications in searches for dark matter, in physics beyond the Standard Model and in analog models of gravity. This book discusses and draws together all these fascinating aspects of superradiance.
Development of new test procedures for measuring fine and coarse aggregates specific gravity.
2009-09-01
The objective of the research is to develop and evaluate new test methods at determining the specific gravity and absorption of both fine and coarse aggregates. Current methods at determining the specific gravity and absorption of fine and coarse agg...
Interior Alaska Bouguer Gravity Anomaly
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A 1 kilometer Complete Bouguer Anomaly gravity grid of interior Alaska. Only those grid cells within 10 kilometers of a gravity data point have gravity values....
Consistency of orthodox gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bellucci, S. [INFN, Frascati (Italy). Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati; Shiekh, A. [International Centre for Theoretical Physics, Trieste (Italy)
1997-01-01
A recent proposal for quantizing gravity is investigated for self consistency. The existence of a fixed-point all-order solution is found, corresponding to a consistent quantum gravity. A criterion to unify couplings is suggested, by invoking an application of their argument to more complex systems.
Generalized pure Lovelock gravity
Concha, Patrick; Rodríguez, Evelyn
2017-11-01
We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure) Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.
Generalized pure Lovelock gravity
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Patrick Concha
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We present a generalization of the n-dimensional (pure Lovelock Gravity theory based on an enlarged Lorentz symmetry. In particular, we propose an alternative way to introduce a cosmological term. Interestingly, we show that the usual pure Lovelock gravity is recovered in a matter-free configuration. The five and six-dimensional cases are explicitly studied.
Physics and astrophysics with gamma-ray telescopes
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Vandenbroucke, J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Department of Physics and SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)
2012-08-15
In the past few years gamma-ray astronomy has entered a golden age. A modern suite of telescopes is now scanning the sky over both hemispheres and over six orders of magnitude in energy. At {approx}TeV energies, only a handful of sources were known a decade ago, but the current generation of ground-based imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes (H.E.S.S., MAGIC, and VERITAS) has increased this number to nearly one hundred. With a large field of view and duty cycle, the Tibet and Milagro air shower detectors have demonstrated the promise of the direct particle detection technique for TeV gamma rays. At {approx}GeV energies, the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has increased the number of known sources by nearly an order of magnitude in its first year of operation. New classes of sources that were previously theorized to be gamma-ray emitters have now been confirmed observationally. Moreover, there have been surprise discoveries of GeV gamma-ray emission from source classes for which no theory predicted it was possible. In addition to elucidating the processes of high-energy astrophysics, gamma-ray telescopes are making essential contributions to fundamental physics topics including quantum gravity, gravitational waves, and dark matter. I summarize the current census of astrophysical gamma-ray sources, highlight some recent discoveries relevant to fundamental physics, and describe the synergetic connections between gamma-ray and neutrino astronomy. This is a brief overview intended in particular for particle physicists and neutrino astronomers, based on a presentation at the Neutrino 2010 conference in Athens, Greece. I focus in particular on results from Fermi (which was launched soon after Neutrino 2008), and conclude with a description of the next generation of instruments, namely HAWC and the Cherenkov Telescope Array.
Gravity model improvement investigation. [improved gravity model for determination of ocean geoid
Siry, J. W.; Kahn, W. D.; Bryan, J. W.; Vonbun, F. F.
1973-01-01
This investigation was undertaken to improve the gravity model and hence the ocean geoid. A specific objective is the determination of the gravity field and geoid with a space resolution of approximately 5 deg and a height resolution of the order of five meters. The concept of the investigation is to utilize both GEOS-C altimeter and satellite-to-satellite tracking data to achieve the gravity model improvement. It is also planned to determine the geoid in selected regions with a space resolution of about a degree and a height resolution of the order of a meter or two. The short term objectives include the study of the gravity field in the GEOS-C calibration area outlined by Goddard, Bermuda, Antigua, and Cape Kennedy, and also in the eastern Pacific area which is viewed by ATS-F.
The magnetic universe geophysical and astrophysical dynamo theory
Rüdiger, Günther
2004-01-01
Magnetism is one of the most pervasive features of the Universe, with planets, stars and entire galaxies all having associated magnetic fields. All of these fields are generated by the motion of electrically conducting fluids, the so-called dynamo effect. The precise details of what drives the motion, and indeed what the fluid consists of, differ widely though. In this work the authors draw upon their expertise in geophysical and astrophysical MHD to explore some of these phenomena, and describe the similarities and differences between different magnetized objects. They also explain why magn
Bubuianu, Laurenţiu; Vacaru, Sergiu I.
2018-05-01
We elaborate on the anholonomic frame deformation method, AFDM, for constructing exact solutions with quasiperiodic structure in modified gravity theories, MGTs, and general relativity, GR. Such solutions are described by generic off-diagonal metrics, nonlinear and linear connections and (effective) matter sources with coefficients depending on all spacetime coordinates via corresponding classes of generation and integration functions and (effective) matter sources. There are studied effective free energy functionals and nonlinear evolution equations for generating off-diagonal quasiperiodic deformations of black hole and/or homogeneous cosmological metrics. The physical data for such functionals are stated by different values of constants and prescribed symmetries for defining quasiperiodic structures at cosmological scales, or astrophysical objects in nontrivial gravitational backgrounds some similar forms as in condensed matter physics. It is shown how quasiperiodic structures determined by general nonlinear, or additive, functionals for generating functions and (effective) sources may transform black hole like configurations into cosmological metrics and inversely. We speculate on possible implications of quasiperiodic solutions in dark energy and dark matter physics. Finally, it is concluded that geometric methods for constructing exact solutions consist an important alternative tool to numerical relativity for investigating nonlinear effects in astrophysics and cosmology.
Distinguishing modified gravity models
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brax, Philippe; Davis, Anne-Christine
2015-01-01
Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations
Distinguishing modified gravity models
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brax, Philippe [Institut de Physique Théorique, Université Paris-Saclay, CEA, CNRS, F-91191 Gif/Yvette Cedex (France); Davis, Anne-Christine, E-mail: philippe.brax@cea.fr, E-mail: A.C.Davis@damtp.cam.ac.uk [DAMTP, Centre for Mathematical Sciences, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0WA (United Kingdom)
2015-10-01
Modified gravity models with screening in local environments appear in three different guises: chameleon, K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms. We propose to look for differences between these classes of models by considering cosmological observations at low redshift. In particular, we analyse the redshift dependence of the fine structure constant and the proton to electron mass ratio in each of these scenarios. When the absorption lines belong to unscreened regions of space such as dwarf galaxies, a time variation would be present for chameleons. For both K-mouflage and Vainshtein mechanisms, the cosmological time variation of the scalar field is not suppressed in both unscreened and screened environments, therefore enhancing the variation of constants and their detection prospect. We also consider the time variation of the redshift of distant objects using their spectrocopic velocities. We find that models of the K-mouflage and Vainshtein types have very different spectroscopic velocities as a function of redshift and that their differences with the Λ-CDM template should be within reach of the future ELT-HIRES observations.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Bernard S. Kay
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We give a review, in the style of an essay, of the author’s 1998 matter-gravity entanglement hypothesis which, unlike the standard approach to entropy based on coarse-graining, offers a definition for the entropy of a closed system as a real and objective quantity. We explain how this approach offers an explanation for the Second Law of Thermodynamics in general and a non-paradoxical understanding of information loss during black hole formation and evaporation in particular. It also involves a radically different from usual description of black hole equilibrium states in which the total state of a black hole in a box together with its atmosphere is a pure state—entangled in just such a way that the reduced state of the black hole and of its atmosphere are each separately approximately thermal. We also briefly recall some recent work of the author which involves a reworking of the string-theory understanding of black hole entropy consistent with this alternative description of black hole equilibrium states and point out that this is free from some unsatisfactory features of the usual string theory understanding. We also recall the author’s recent arguments based on this alternative description which suggest that the Anti de Sitter space (AdS/conformal field theory (CFT correspondence is a bijection between the boundary CFT and just the matter degrees of freedom of the bulk theory.
CRKSPH: A new meshfree hydrodynamics method with applications to astrophysics
Owen, John Michael; Raskin, Cody; Frontiere, Nicholas
2018-01-01
The study of astrophysical phenomena such as supernovae, accretion disks, galaxy formation, and large-scale structure formation requires computational modeling of, at a minimum, hydrodynamics and gravity. Developing numerical methods appropriate for these kinds of problems requires a number of properties: shock-capturing hydrodynamics benefits from rigorous conservation of invariants such as total energy, linear momentum, and mass; lack of obvious symmetries or a simplified spatial geometry to exploit necessitate 3D methods that ideally are Galilean invariant; the dynamic range of mass and spatial scales that need to be resolved can span many orders of magnitude, requiring methods that are highly adaptable in their space and time resolution. We have developed a new Lagrangian meshfree hydrodynamics method called Conservative Reproducing Kernel Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics, or CRKSPH, in order to meet these goals. CRKSPH is a conservative generalization of the meshfree reproducing kernel method, combining the high-order accuracy of reproducing kernels with the explicit conservation of mass, linear momentum, and energy necessary to study shock-driven hydrodynamics in compressible fluids. CRKSPH's Lagrangian, particle-like nature makes it simple to combine with well-known N-body methods for modeling gravitation, similar to the older Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method. Indeed, CRKSPH can be substituted for SPH in existing SPH codes due to these similarities. In comparison to SPH, CRKSPH is able to achieve substantially higher accuracy for a given number of points due to the explicitly consistent (and higher-order) interpolation theory of reproducing kernels, while maintaining the same conservation principles (and therefore applicability) as SPH. There are currently two coded implementations of CRKSPH available: one in the open-source research code Spheral, and the other in the high-performance cosmological code HACC. Using these codes we have applied
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Belyaev, V. S.; Batishchev, P. A.; Bolshakov, V. V.; Elkin, K. S.; Karabadzhak, G. F.; Kovkov, D. V.; Matafonov, A. P.; Raykunov, G. G.; Yakhin, R. A.; Pikuz, S. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Fortov, V. E.; Krainov, V. P.; Rozanov, V. B.
2013-01-01
The results of work on choosing and substantiating promising lines of research in the realms of laboratory astrophysics with the aid of powerful lasers are presented. These lines of research are determined by the possibility of simulating, under laboratory conditions, problematic processes of presentday astrophysics, such as (i) the generation and evolution of electromagnetic fields in cosmic space and the role of magnetic fields there at various spatial scales; (ii) the mechanisms of formation and evolution of cosmic gamma-ray bursts and relativistic jets; (iii) plasma instabilities in cosmic space and astrophysical objects, plasma jets, and shock waves; (iv) supernova explosions and mechanisms of the explosion of supernovae featuring a collapsing core; (v) nuclear processes in astrophysical objects; (vi) cosmic rays and mechanisms of their production and acceleration to high energies; and (vii) astrophysical sources of x-ray radiation. It is shown that the use of existing powerful lasers characterized by an intensity in the range of 10 18 –10 22 W/cm 2 and a pulse duration of 0.1 to 1 ps and high-energy lasers characterized by an energy in excess of 1 kJ and a pulse duration of 1 to 10 ns makes it possible to perform investigations in laboratory astrophysics along all of the chosen promising lines. The results obtained by experimentally investigating laser plasma with the aid of the laser facility created at Central Research Institute of Machine Building (TsNIIMash) and characterized by a power level of 10 TW demonstrate the potential of such facilities for performing a number of experiments in the realms of laboratory astrophysics.
Astrophysical phenomena related to supermassive black holes
Pott, Jörg-Uwe
2006-12-01
astrophysical context of the observation. The observational techniques chosen vary in dependence of the observed phenomenon. One major goal of especially Chapters 3 and 4 is to prove by successful explorative observations the scientific perspectives of the new instruments. Chapter 3 deals with the pioneering interferometric infrared study of stellar sources and their surroundings in the immediate vicinity of the SMBH at the center of the Milky Way. I was able to use the resolving power of an optical large baseline interferometer (OLBI) to investigate for the first time the different structures and excitation conditions of interstellar and circumstellar dust in 200 mpc distance to the SMBH. It is unknown whether the standard models for star and dust formation, which themselves dominate the infrared appearance of an inactive galaxy as the Milky Way, still apply under the strong tidal forces of gravity, exerted by the central SMBH. During the course of my doctoral research, I worked 2.5 years within the VLT Interferometry (VLTI) group of the European Southern Observatory (ESO) in M"unchen and Chile. I obtained the very first infrared fringes on GC sources and investigated the different instrument capabilities at the current sensitivity limit of the VLTI. The VLTI is the world leading stellar interferometric facility providing the infrastructure to combine the light of up to four 8m-class Adaptive Optics corrected telescopes, which themselves represent the state-of-the-art of optical-infrared telescope technology. The accomplished work includes the investigation of different data reduction techniques with respect to maximum accuracy and signal-to-noise ratios. The VLTI is right in the process of construction. While first modes are already open to the astronomical community, several advanced modes and instruments are still at different preliminary stages, ranging from early design studies to advanced instrument commissioning. The experiences of my VLTI observations, fully exploiting
Astrophysical disks Collective and Stochastic Phenomena
Fridman, Alexei M; Kovalenko, Ilya G
2006-01-01
The book deals with collective and stochastic processes in astrophysical discs involving theory, observations, and the results of modelling. Among others, it examines the spiral-vortex structure in galactic and accretion disks , stochastic and ordered structures in the developed turbulence. It also describes sources of turbulence in the accretion disks, internal structure of disk in the vicinity of a black hole, numerical modelling of Be envelopes in binaries, gaseous disks in spiral galaxies with shock waves formation, observation of accretion disks in a binary system and mass distribution of luminous matter in disk galaxies. The editors adaptly brought together collective and stochastic phenomena in the modern field of astrophysical discs, their formation, structure, and evolution involving the methodology to deal with, the results of observation and modelling, thereby advancing the study in this important branch of astrophysics and benefiting Professional Researchers, Lecturers, and Graduate Students.
The Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON)
Smith. M. W. E.; Fox, D. B.; Cowen, D. F.; Meszaros, P.; Tesic, G.; Fixelle, J.; Bartos, I.; Sommers, P.; Ashtekar, Abhay; Babu, G. Jogesh;
2013-01-01
We summarize the science opportunity, design elements, current and projected partner observatories, and anticipated science returns of the Astrophysical Multimessenger Observatory Network (AMON). AMON will link multiple current and future high-energy, multimessenger, and follow-up observatories together into a single network, enabling near real-time coincidence searches for multimessenger astrophysical transients and their electromagnetic counterparts. Candidate and high-confidence multimessenger transient events will be identified, characterized, and distributed as AMON alerts within the network and to interested external observers, leading to follow-up observations across the electromagnetic spectrum. In this way, AMON aims to evoke the discovery of multimessenger transients from within observatory subthreshold data streams and facilitate the exploitation of these transients for purposes of astronomy and fundamental physics. As a central hub of global multimessenger science, AMON will also enable cross-collaboration analyses of archival datasets in search of rare or exotic astrophysical phenomena.
Astrophysical hints of axion-like particles
Roncadelli, M.; Galanti, G.; Tavecchio, F.; Bonnoli, G.
2015-01-01
After reviewing three astrophysical hints of the existence of axion-like particles (ALPs), we describe in more detail a new similar hint involving flat spectrum radio quasars (FSRQs). Detection of FSRQs above about 20GeV pose a challenge to very-high-energy (VHE) astrophysics, because at those energies the ultraviolet emission from their broad line region should prevent photons produced by the central engine to leave the source. Although a few astrophysical explanations have been put forward, they are totally ad hoc. We show that a natural explanation instead arises within the conventional models of FSRQs provided that photon-ALP oscillations occur inside the source. Our analysis takes the FSRQ PKR 1222+206 as an example, and it looks tantalizing that basically the same choice of the free model parameters adopted in this case is consistent with those that provide the other three hints of the existence of ALPs.
The Astrophysics Science Division Annual Report 2008
Oegerle, William; Reddy, Francis; Tyler, Pat
2009-01-01
The Astrophysics Science Division (ASD) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) is one of the largest and most diverse astrophysical organizations in the world, with activities spanning a broad range of topics in theory, observation, and mission and technology development. Scientific research is carried out over the entire electromagnetic spectrum from gamma rays to radio wavelengths as well as particle physics and gravitational radiation. Members of ASD also provide the scientific operations for three orbiting astrophysics missions WMAP, RXTE, and Swift, as well as the Science Support Center for the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. A number of key technologies for future missions are also under development in the Division, including X-ray mirrors, and new detectors operating at gamma-ray, X-ray, ultraviolet, infrared, and radio wavelengths. This report includes the Division's activities during 2008.
Doppler tomography in fusion plasmas and astrophysics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Salewski, Mirko; Geiger, B.; Heidbrink, W. W.
2015-01-01
Doppler tomography is a well-known method in astrophysics to image the accretion flow, often in the shape of thin discs, in compact binary stars. As accretion discs rotate, all emitted line radiation is Doppler-shifted. In fast-ion Dα (FIDA) spectroscopy measurements in magnetically confined plasma......, the Dα-photons are likewise Doppler-shifted ultimately due to gyration of the fast ions. In either case, spectra of Doppler-shifted line emission are sensitive to the velocity distribution of the emitters. Astrophysical Doppler tomography has lead to images of accretion discs of binaries revealing bright...... and limits, analogies and differences in astrophysical and fusion plasma Doppler tomography and what can be learned by comparison of these applications....
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jevicki, A.; Ninomiya, M.
1985-01-01
We are concerned with applications of the simplicial discretization method (Regge calculus) to two-dimensional quantum gravity with emphasis on the physically relevant string model. Beginning with the discretization of gravity and matter we exhibit a discrete version of the conformal trace anomaly. Proceeding to the string problem we show how the direct approach of (finite difference) discretization based on Nambu action corresponds to unsatisfactory treatment of gravitational degrees. Based on the Regge approach we then propose a discretization corresponding to the Polyakov string. In this context we are led to a natural geometric version of the associated Liouville model and two-dimensional gravity. (orig.)
CERN. Geneva
2007-01-01
Of the four fundamental forces, gravity has been studied the longest, yet gravitational physics is one of the most rapidly developing areas of science today. This talk will give a broad brush survey of the past achievements and future prospects of general relativistic gravitational physics. Gravity is a two frontier science being important on both the very largest and smallest length scales considered in contemporary physics. Recent advances and future prospects will be surveyed in precision tests of general relativity, gravitational waves, black holes, cosmology and quantum gravity. The aim will be an overview of a subject that is becoming increasingly integrated with experiment and other branches of physics.
Laboratory Astrophysics Division of The AAS (LAD)
Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.
2012-10-01
The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.
Laboratory Astrophysics Division of the AAS (LAD)
Salama, Farid; Drake, R. P.; Federman, S. R.; Haxton, W. C.; Savin, D. W.
2012-01-01
The purpose of the Laboratory Astrophysics Division (LAD) is to advance our understanding of the Universe through the promotion of fundamental theoretical and experimental research into the underlying processes that drive the Cosmos. LAD represents all areas of astrophysics and planetary sciences. The first new AAS Division in more than 30 years, the LAD traces its history back to the recommendation from the scientific community via the White Paper from the 2006 NASA-sponsored Laboratory Astrophysics Workshop. This recommendation was endorsed by the Astronomy and Astrophysics Advisory Committee (AAAC), which advises the National Science Foundation (NSF), the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on selected issues within the fields of astronomy and astrophysics that are of mutual interest and concern to the agencies. In January 2007, at the 209th AAS meeting, the AAS Council set up a Steering Committee to formulate Bylaws for a Working Group on Laboratory Astrophysics (WGLA). The AAS Council formally established the WGLA with a five-year mandate in May 2007, at the 210th AAS meeting. From 2008 through 2012, the WGLA annually sponsored Meetings in-a-Meeting at the AAS Summer Meetings. In May 2011, at the 218th AAS meeting, the AAS Council voted to convert the WGLA, at the end of its mandate, into a Division of the AAS and requested draft Bylaws from the Steering Committee. In January 2012, at the 219th AAS Meeting, the AAS Council formally approved the Bylaws and the creation of the LAD. The inaugural gathering and the first business meeting of the LAD were held at the 220th AAS meeting in Anchorage in June 2012. You can learn more about LAD by visiting its website at http://lad.aas.org/ and by subscribing to its mailing list.
Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory as Cultural Centre
Mickaelian, A. M.; Farmanyan, S. V.
2017-07-01
NAS RA V. Ambartsumian Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory is presented as a cultural centre for Armenia and the Armenian nation in general. Besides being scientific and educational centre, the Observatory is famous for its unique architectural ensemble, rich botanical garden and world of birds, as well as it is one of the most frequently visited sightseeing of Armenia. In recent years, the Observatory has also taken the initiative of the coordination of the Cultural Astronomy in Armenia and in this field, unites the astronomers, historians, archaeologists, ethnographers, culturologists, literary critics, linguists, art historians and other experts. Keywords: Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory, architecture, botanic garden, tourism, Cultural Astronomy.
Theoretical nuclear structure and astrophysics at FAIR
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rodríguez, Tomás R
2014-01-01
Next generation of radioactive ion beam facilities like FAIR will open a bright future for nuclear structure and nuclear astrophysics research. In particular, very exotic nuclei (mainly neutron rich) isotopes will be produced and a lot of new exciting experimental data will help to test and improve the current nuclear models. In addition, these data (masses, reaction cross sections, beta decay half-lives, etc.) combined with the development of better theoretical approaches will be used as the nuclear physics input for astrophysical simulations. In this presentation I will review some of the state-of-the-art nuclear structure methods and their applications.
Sources and astrophysical effects of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rees, M.J.
1974-01-01
The probable sources of short intense gravitational wave emissions are discussed and it is concluded, on the basis of current astrophysical ideas, that the number of events detected by an apparatus such as Weber's would not be more than one pulse par century. Some proposed explanations of a higher event rate are examined briefly but it is suggested that the sensitivity would probably have to be improved by a factor 10 8 if a few events per year due to extragalactic supernovae are to be detectable. The article concludes by mentioning several other kinds of gravitational waves of potential interest in astrophysics
Advances in astronomy and astrophysics 9
Kopal, Zdenek
1972-01-01
Advances in Astronomy and Astrophysics, Volume 9 covers reviews on the advances in astronomy and astrophysics. The book presents reviews on the Roche model and its applications to close binary systems. The text then describes the part played by lunar eclipses in the evolution of astronomy; the classical theory of lunar eclipses; deviations from geometrical theory; and the methods of photometric observations of eclipses. The problems of other phenomena related in one way or another to lunar eclipses are also considered. The book further tackles the infrared observation on the eclipsed moon, as
Astrophysical relevance of γ transition energies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rauscher, Thomas
2008-01-01
The relevant γ energy range is explicitly identified where additional γ strength must be located to have an impact on astrophysically relevant reactions. It is shown that folding the energy dependences of the transmission coefficients and the level density leads to maximal contributions for γ energies of 2≤E γ ≤4 unless quantum selection rules allow isolated states to contribute. Under this condition, electric dipole transitions dominate. These findings allow us to more accurately judge the relevance of modifications of the γ strength for astrophysics
Spherical Panoramas for Astrophysical Data Visualization
Kent, Brian R.
2017-05-01
Data immersion has advantages in astrophysical visualization. Complex multi-dimensional data and phase spaces can be explored in a seamless and interactive viewing environment. Putting the user in the data is a first step toward immersive data analysis. We present a technique for creating 360° spherical panoramas with astrophysical data. The three-dimensional software package Blender and the Google Spatial Media module are used together to immerse users in data exploration. Several examples employing these methods exhibit how the technique works using different types of astronomical data.
On the saturation of astrophysical dynamos
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Dorch, Bertil; Archontis, Vasilis
2004-01-01
In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate in the li......In the context of astrophysical dynamos we illustrate that the no-cosines flow, with zero mean helicity, can drive fast dynamo action and we study the dynamo's mode of operation during both the linear and non-linear saturation regimes. It turns out that in addition to a high growth rate...
Bibliometric indicators of young authors in astrophysics
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Havemann, Frank; Larsen, Birger
2015-01-01
We test 16 bibliometric indicators with respect to their validity at the level of the individual researcher by estimating their power to predict later successful researchers. We compare the indicators of a sample of astrophysics researchers who later co-authored highly cited papers before...... their first landmark paper with the distributions of these indicators over a random control group of young authors in astronomy and astrophysics. We find that field and citation-window normalisation substantially improves the predicting power of citation indicators. The sum of citation numbers normalised...
Equation of state in the presence of gravity
Kim, Hyeong-Chan; Kang, Gungwon
2016-11-01
We investigate how an equation of state for matter is affected when a gravity is present. For this purpose, we consider a box of ideal gas in the presence of Newtonian gravity. In addition to the ordinary thermodynamic quantities, a characteristic variable that represents a weight per unit area relative to the average pressure is required in order to describe a macroscopic state of the gas. Although the density and the pressure are not uniform due to the presence of gravity, the ideal gas law itself is satisfied for the thermodynamic quantities when averaged over the system. Assuming that the system follows an adiabatic process further, we obtain a new relation between the averaged pressure and density, which differs from the conventional equation of state for the ideal gas in the absence of gravity. Applying our results to a small volume in a Newtonian star, however, we find that the conventional one is reliable for most astrophysical situations when the characteristic scale is small. On the other hand, gravity effects become significant near the surface of a Newtonian star.
White Paper on Nuclear Astrophysics and Low Energy Nuclear Physics - Part 1. Nuclear Astrophysics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Arcones, Almudena [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Escher, Jutta E. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Others, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)
2016-04-04
This white paper informs the nuclear astrophysics community and funding agencies about the scientific directions and priorities of the field and provides input from this community for the 2015 Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It summarizes the outcome of the nuclear astrophysics town meeting that was held on August 21 - 23, 2014 in College Station at the campus of Texas A&M University in preparation of the NSAC Nuclear Science Long Range Plan. It also reflects the outcome of an earlier town meeting of the nuclear astrophysics community organized by the Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics (JINA) on October 9 - 10, 2012 Detroit, Michigan, with the purpose of developing a vision for nuclear astrophysics in light of the recent NRC decadal surveys in nuclear physics (NP2010) and astronomy (ASTRO2010). The white paper is furthermore informed by the town meeting of the Association of Research at University Nuclear Accelerators (ARUNA) that took place at the University of Notre Dame on June 12 - 13, 2014. In summary we find that nuclear astrophysics is a modern and vibrant field addressing fundamental science questions at the intersection of nuclear physics and astrophysics. These questions relate to the origin of the elements, the nuclear engines that drive life and death of stars, and the properties of dense matter. A broad range of nuclear accelerator facilities, astronomical observatories, theory efforts, and computational capabilities are needed. With the developments outlined in this white paper, answers to long-standing key questions are well within reach in the coming decade.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (71 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received in...
Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Townsend, Paul K.
2012-01-01
We present a brief review of New Massive Gravity, which is a unitary theory of massive gravitons in three dimensions obtained by considering a particular combination of the Einstein-Hilbert and curvature squared terms.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (65,164 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. The data base was received...
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The gravity station data (55,907 records) were gathered by various governmental organizations (and academia) using a variety of methods. This data base was received...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hertog, Thomas; Hollands, Stefan
2005-01-01
We study the stability of designer gravity theories, in which one considers gravity coupled to a tachyonic scalar with anti-de Sitter (AdS) boundary conditions defined by a smooth function W. We construct Hamiltonian generators of the asymptotic symmetries using the covariant phase space method of Wald et al and find that they differ from the spinor charges except when W = 0. The positivity of the spinor charge is used to establish a lower bound on the conserved energy of any solution that satisfies boundary conditions for which W has a global minimum. A large class of designer gravity theories therefore have a stable ground state, which the AdS/CFT correspondence indicates should be the lowest energy soliton. We make progress towards proving this by showing that minimum energy solutions are static. The generalization of our results to designer gravity theories in higher dimensions involving several tachyonic scalars is discussed
Carroll versus Galilei gravity
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bergshoeff, Eric [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Gomis, Joaquim [Departament de Física Cuàntica i Astrofísica and Institut de Ciències del Cosmos,Universitat de Barcelona,Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Rollier, Blaise [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands); Rosseel, Jan [Faculty of Physics, University of Vienna,Boltzmanngasse 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Veldhuis, Tonnis ter [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen,Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)
2017-03-30
We consider two distinct limits of General Relativity that in contrast to the standard non-relativistic limit can be taken at the level of the Einstein-Hilbert action instead of the equations of motion. One is a non-relativistic limit and leads to a so-called Galilei gravity theory, the other is an ultra-relativistic limit yielding a so-called Carroll gravity theory. We present both gravity theories in a first-order formalism and show that in both cases the equations of motion (i) lead to constraints on the geometry and (ii) are not sufficient to solve for all of the components of the connection fields in terms of the other fields. Using a second-order formalism we show that these independent components serve as Lagrange multipliers for the geometric constraints we found earlier. We point out a few noteworthy differences between Carroll and Galilei gravity and give some examples of matter couplings.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Williams, Ruth M
2006-01-01
A review is given of a number of approaches to discrete quantum gravity, with a restriction to those likely to be relevant in four dimensions. This paper is dedicated to Rafael Sorkin on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday
Preface: Eighth European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Claudio, Spitaleri; Livio, Lamia; Gianluca, Pizzone Rosario
2016-01-01
In this book a collection of the lecture notes given during the Eighth European Summer School on Experimental Nuclear Astrophysics is given. The school, whose first edition was first held in 2003, took place from 13 to 20 of September 2015 in Santa Tecla, a small village about 15 km north of Catania, characterized by its position on the volcanic shores of the Ionian Sea, surrounded by the spectacular “Timpa” area, a green protected park specific for its mediterranean vegetation. 80 young students and researchers from more than 20 countries attended the lectures and were also encouraged to present their work and results. The school, has tried once more to present to the young students the global picture of nuclear astrophysics research in the last years. Thus the scientific program of the school covered a wide range of topics dealing with various aspects of nuclear astrophysics, such as stellar evolution and nucleosynthesis, neutrino physics, the Big Bang, direct and indirect methods and radioactive ion beams. Nuclear astrophysics plays a key role in understanding energy production in stars, stellar evolution and the concurrent synthesis of the chemical elements and their isotopes. It is also a fundamental tool to explain the ashes of the early universe, to determine the age of the universe through the study of pristine stellar objects and to predict the evolution of the Sun or Stars. The “bone structure” for the above aspects is based on nuclear reactions, whose rates need to be determined in laboratories. Although impressive progress has been made over the past decades, which was rewarded by Nobel prizes, several open questions are still unsolved, which challenge the basis of the present understanding. A list of the lecture topics is given below: —Big Bang Nucleosynthesis —Stellar evolution and Nucleosynthesis —radioactive ion beams —detector and facilities for nuclear astrophysics —indirect methods in nuclear astrophysics —plasma physics An
Garland, G D; Wilson, J T
2013-01-01
The Earth's Shape and Gravity focuses on the progress of the use of geophysical methods in investigating the interior of the earth and its shape. The publication first offers information on gravity, geophysics, geodesy, and geology and gravity measurements. Discussions focus on gravity measurements and reductions, potential and equipotential surfaces, absolute and relative measurements, and gravity networks. The text then elaborates on the shape of the sea-level surface and reduction of gravity observations. The text takes a look at gravity anomalies and structures in the earth's crust; interp
Streaming gravity mode instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang Shui.
1989-05-01
In this paper, we study the stability of a current sheet with a sheared flow in a gravitational field which is perpendicular to the magnetic field and plasma flow. This mixing mode caused by a combined role of the sheared flow and gravity is named the streaming gravity mode instability. The conditions of this mode instability are discussed for an ideal four-layer model in the incompressible limit. (author). 5 refs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Accioly, A.J.
1987-01-01
A possible classical route conducting towards a general relativity theory with higher-derivatives starting, in a sense, from first principles, is analysed. A completely causal vacuum solution with the symmetries of the Goedel universe is obtained in the framework of this higher-derivative gravity. This very peculiar and rare result is the first known vcuum solution of the fourth-order gravity theory that is not a solution of the corresponding Einstein's equations.(Author) [pt
Nelson, George
2004-01-01
Gravity is the name given to the phenomenon that any two masses, like you and the Earth, attract each other. One pulls on the Earth and the Earth pulls on one the same amount. And one does not have to be touching. Gravity acts over vast distances, like the 150 million kilometers (93 million miles) between the Earth and the Sun or the billions of…
Guerrero, Natalia; Glidden, Ana; Fausnaugh, Michael; TESS Team
2018-01-01
We describe the search for TESS Objects of Interest (TOIs), led by the MIT branch of the TESS Science Office (TSO). TSO has developed a tool called TESS Exoplanet Vetter (TEV) to facilitate this process. Individuals independently examine data validation products for each target and assign a category to the object: planet candidate, eclipsing binary, other astrophysical, stellar variability, or instrument noise/systematic. TEV assigns a preliminary follow-up priority designation to each object and allows for modification when final dispositions are decided on in a group setting. When all targets are vetted, TEV exports a catalogue of TOIs which is delivered to the TESS Follow-Up Observing Program (TFOP), working with ExoFOP-TESS, and made publicly available on the official TESS website and the Mikulski Archive for Space Telescopes (MAST).
Automated borehole gravity meter system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lautzenhiser, Th.V.; Wirtz, J.D.
1984-01-01
An automated borehole gravity meter system for measuring gravity within a wellbore. The gravity meter includes leveling devices for leveling the borehole gravity meter, displacement devices for applying forces to a gravity sensing device within the gravity meter to bring the gravity sensing device to a predetermined or null position. Electronic sensing and control devices are provided for (i) activating the displacement devices, (ii) sensing the forces applied to the gravity sensing device, (iii) electronically converting the values of the forces into a representation of the gravity at the location in the wellbore, and (iv) outputting such representation. The system further includes electronic control devices with the capability of correcting the representation of gravity for tidal effects, as well as, calculating and outputting the formation bulk density and/or porosity
Gravity Before Einstein and Schwinger Before Gravity
Trimble, Virginia L.
2012-05-01
Julian Schwinger was a child prodigy, and Albert Einstein distinctly not; Schwinger had something like 73 graduate students, and Einstein very few. But both thought gravity was important. They were not, of course, the first, nor is the disagreement on how one should think about gravity that is being highlighted here the first such dispute. The talk will explore, first, several of the earlier dichotomies: was gravity capable of action at a distance (Newton), or was a transmitting ether required (many others). Did it act on everything or only on solids (an odd idea of the Herschels that fed into their ideas of solar structure and sunspots)? Did gravitational information require time for its transmission? Is the exponent of r precisely 2, or 2 plus a smidgeon (a suggestion by Simon Newcomb among others)? And so forth. Second, I will try to say something about Scwinger's lesser known early work and how it might have prefigured his "source theory," beginning with "On the Interaction of Several Electrons (the unpublished, 1934 "zeroth paper," whose title somewhat reminds one of "On the Dynamics of an Asteroid," through his days at Berkeley with Oppenheimer, Gerjuoy, and others, to his application of ideas from nuclear physics to radar and of radar engineering techniques to problems in nuclear physics. And folks who think good jobs are difficult to come by now might want to contemplate the couple of years Schwinger spent teaching elementary physics at Purdue before moving on to the MIT Rad Lab for war work.
Black holes, strings and quantum gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maldacena, Juan
2001-01-01
Most physical phenomena can be explained by 'Quantum Mechanics' and 'Einstein Theory of Gravity'. Quantum mechanics is needed for descriptions involving small objects (atoms, nuclei, molecules, etc.) whereas gravity is required for understanding big objects (planets, galaxies). Since, usually small objects are light while big ones are heavy, when one theory is called for, the other is not relevant. Interestingly enough, if we pretend to use both theories simultaneously, for instance when small and very heavy objects are considered (as those in the beginning of our universe), we find that they are mutually inconsistent. Thus, a new theory, so called 'Quantum Gravity', is needed. This works comments on above inconsistencies and indicates how the string theory, rather than a pointlike particle theory, could provide us with a quantum theory of gravity. Though a discussion of black holes it shows us how a string theory on certain space, ca be equivalently described by a particle theory on its boundary, like a sort of hologram. (author)
An affine model of the dynamics of astrophysical discs
Ogilvie, Gordon I.
2018-06-01
Thin astrophysical discs are very often modelled using the equations of 2D hydrodynamics. We derive an extension of this model that describes more accurately the behaviour of a thin disc in the absence of self-gravity, magnetic fields, and complex internal motions. The ideal fluid theory is derived directly from Hamilton's Principle for a 3D fluid after making a specific approximation to the deformation gradient tensor. We express the equations in Eulerian form after projection on to a reference plane. The disc is thought of as a set of fluid columns, each of which is capable of a time-dependent affine transformation, consisting of a translation together with a linear transformation in three dimensions. Therefore, in addition to the usual 2D hydrodynamics in the reference plane, the theory allows for a deformation of the mid-plane (as occurs in warped discs) and for the internal shearing motions that accompany such deformations. It also allows for the vertical expansions driven in non-circular discs by a variation of the vertical gravitational field around the horizontal streamlines, or by a divergence of the horizontal velocity. The equations of the affine model embody conservation laws for energy and potential vorticity, even for non-planar discs. We verify that they reproduce exactly the linear theories of 3D warped and eccentric discs in a secular approximation. However, the affine model does not rely on any secular or small-amplitude assumptions and should be useful in more general circumstances.
Some problems in classical mechanics and relativistic astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hut, P.
1981-01-01
The first part of this thesis is indirectly related to high energy astrophysics. It concerns the study of binary systems consisting of a normal star and a neutronstar or a black hole. To interpret the observations from such a system; in X-ray, UV, optical, infrared and radio wavelengths; it is helpful to have a general idea of the evolution of the orbital and rotational parameters. Here we enter the old field of classical mechanics, in the form of celestial mechanics. In particular the effects of tidal interaction, precession, and sudden mass loss are treated. The second part starts with an article on thought experiments with a charged black hole enclosed in a huge box and in equilibrium with its own radiation. In this way the thermodynamic aspects of the Hawking radiation are fully explored. The connection between physical and kinematical cosmological parameters, as predicted by general relativity are explored. It is shown how the standard big bang model of cosmology restricts the possible properties of some elementary particle types. The theory of white dwarf structure is compared with observations in order to put low-energy constraints on (super) gravity theories. (Auth.)
Order out of Randomness: Self-Organization Processes in Astrophysics
Aschwanden, Markus J.; Scholkmann, Felix; Béthune, William; Schmutz, Werner; Abramenko, Valentina; Cheung, Mark C. M.; Müller, Daniel; Benz, Arnold; Chernov, Guennadi; Kritsuk, Alexei G.; Scargle, Jeffrey D.; Melatos, Andrew; Wagoner, Robert V.; Trimble, Virginia; Green, William H.
2018-03-01
Self-organization is a property of dissipative nonlinear processes that are governed by a global driving force and a local positive feedback mechanism, which creates regular geometric and/or temporal patterns, and decreases the entropy locally, in contrast to random processes. Here we investigate for the first time a comprehensive number of (17) self-organization processes that operate in planetary physics, solar physics, stellar physics, galactic physics, and cosmology. Self-organizing systems create spontaneous " order out of randomness", during the evolution from an initially disordered system to an ordered quasi-stationary system, mostly by quasi-periodic limit-cycle dynamics, but also by harmonic (mechanical or gyromagnetic) resonances. The global driving force can be due to gravity, electromagnetic forces, mechanical forces (e.g., rotation or differential rotation), thermal pressure, or acceleration of nonthermal particles, while the positive feedback mechanism is often an instability, such as the magneto-rotational (Balbus-Hawley) instability, the convective (Rayleigh-Bénard) instability, turbulence, vortex attraction, magnetic reconnection, plasma condensation, or a loss-cone instability. Physical models of astrophysical self-organization processes require hydrodynamic, magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD), plasma, or N-body simulations. Analytical formulations of self-organizing systems generally involve coupled differential equations with limit-cycle solutions of the Lotka-Volterra or Hopf-bifurcation type.
Astrophysical applications of the post-Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff formalism
Glampedakis, Kostas; Pappas, George; Silva, Hector O.; Berti, Emanuele
2016-08-01
The bulk properties of spherically symmetric stars in general relativity can be obtained by integrating the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff (TOV) equations. In previous work [K. Glampedakis, G. Pappas, H. O. Silva, and E. Berti, Phys. Rev. D 92, 024056 (2015)], we developed a "post-TOV" formalism—inspired by parametrized post-Newtonian theory—which allows us to classify in a parametrized, phenomenological form all possible perturbative deviations from the structure of compact stars in general relativity that may be induced by modified gravity at second post-Newtonian order. In this paper we extend the formalism to deal with the stellar exterior, and we compute several potential astrophysical observables within the post-TOV formalism: the surface redshift zs, the apparent radius Rapp, the Eddington luminosity at infinity LE∞ and the orbital frequencies. We show that, at leading order, all of these quantities depend on just two post-TOV parameters μ1 and χ , and we discuss the possibility to measure (or set upper bounds on) these parameters.
Broadband Polarimetry with the Square Kilometre Array: A Unique Astrophysical Probe
Gaensler, B.; Agudo, I.; Akahori, T.; Banfield, J.; Beck, R.; Carretti, E.; Farnes, J.; Haverkorn, M.; Heald, G.; Jones, D.; Landecker, T.; Mao, S. A.; Norris, R.; O'Sullivan, S.; Rudnick, L.; Schnitzeler, D.; Seymour, N.; Sun, X.
2015-01-01
Faraday rotation of polarised background sources is a unique probe of astrophysical magnetic fields in a diverse range of foreground objects. However, to understand the properties of the polarised sources themselves and of depolarising phenomena along the line of sight, we need to complement Faraday
Strong constraints on cosmological gravity from GW170817 and GRB 170817A
Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database
Baker, T.; Bellini, E.; Ferreira, P.G.; Lagos, M.; Noller, J.; Sawicki, Ignacy
2017-01-01
Roč. 119, č. 25 (2017), s. 1-6, č. článku 251301. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_003/0000437 Grant - others:OP VVV - CoGraDS(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_003/0000437 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : alternative gravity theories, * dark energy * graviational waves Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016
Fermions in noncommutative emergent gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Klammer, D.
2010-01-01
Noncommutative emergent gravity is a novel framework disclosing how gravity is contained naturally in noncommutative gauge theory formulated as a matrix model. It describes a dynamical space-time which itself is a four-dimensional brane embedded in a higher-dimensional space. In noncommutative emergent gravity, the metric is not a fundamental object of the model; rather it is determined by the Poisson structure and by the induced metric of the embedding. In this work the coupling of fermions to these matrix models is studied from the point of view of noncommutative emergent gravity. The matrix Dirac operator as given by the IKKT matrix model defines an appropriate coupling for fermions to an effective gravitational metric of noncommutative four-dimensional spaces that are embedded into a ten-dimensional ambient space. As it turns out this coupling is non-standard due to a spin connection that vanishes in the preferred but unobservable coordinates defined by the model. The purpose of this work is to study the one-loop effective action of this approach. Standard results of the literature cannot be applied due to this special coupling of the fermions. However, integrating out these fields in a nontrivial geometrical background induces indeed the Einstein-Hilbert action of the effective metric, as well as additional terms which couple the noncommutative structure to the Riemann tensor, and a dilaton-like term. It remains to be understood what the effects of these terms are and whether they can be avoided. In a second step, the existence of a duality between noncommutative gauge theory and gravity which explains the phenomenon of UV/IR mixing as a gravitational effect is discussed. We show how the gravitational coupling of fermions can be interpreted as a coupling of fermions to gauge fields, which suffers then from UV/IR mixing. This explanation does not render the model finite but it reveals why some UV/IR mixing remains even in supersymmetric models, except in the N
Shuler, Robert
2018-04-01
The goal of this paper is to take a completely fresh approach to metric gravity, in which the metric principle is strictly adhered to but its properties in local space-time are derived from conservation principles, not inferred from a global field equation. The global field strength variation then gains some flexibility, but only in the regime of very strong fields (2nd-order terms) whose measurement is now being contemplated. So doing provides a family of similar gravities, differing only in strong fields, which could be developed into meaningful verification targets for strong fields after the manner in which far-field variations were used in the 20th century. General Relativity (GR) is shown to be a member of the family and this is demonstrated by deriving the Schwarzschild metric exactly from a suitable field strength assumption. The method of doing so is interesting in itself because it involves only one differential equation rather than the usual four. Exact static symmetric field solutions are also given for one pedagogical alternative based on potential, and one theoretical alternative based on inertia, and the prospects of experimentally differentiating these are analyzed. Whether the method overturns the conventional wisdom that GR is the only metric theory of gravity and that alternatives must introduce additional interactions and fields is somewhat semantical, depending on whether one views the field strength assumption as a field and whether the assumption that produces GR is considered unique in some way. It is of course possible to have other fields, and the local space-time principle can be applied to field gravities which usually are weak-field approximations having only time dilation, giving them the spatial factor and promoting them to full metric theories. Though usually pedagogical, some of them are interesting from a quantum gravity perspective. Cases are noted where mass measurement errors, or distributions of dark matter, can cause one
Evolution and seismic tools for stellar astrophysics
Monteiro, Mario JPFG
2008-01-01
A collection of articles published by the journal "Astrophysics and Space Science, Volume 316, Number 1-4", August 2008. This work covers 10 evolution codes and 9 oscillation codes. It is suitable for researchers and research students working on the modeling of stars and on the implementation of seismic test of stellar models.
The Trojan Horse Method in nuclear astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spitaleri, C.; Cherubini, S.; Del Zoppo, A.; Di Pietrob, A.; Figuerab, P.; Gulino, M.; Lattuadab, M.; Miljanic, Dstroke; Musumarra, A.; Pellegriti, M.G.; Pizzone, R.G.; Rolfs, C.; Romano, S.; Tudisco, S.; Tumino, A.
2003-01-01
The basic features of the Trojan Horse Method are discussed together with a review of recent applications, aimed to extract the bare astrophysical S(E)-factor for several two-body processes. In this framework information on electron screening potential U e was obtained from the comparison with direct experiments
Nuclear astrophysics and the Trojan Horse Method
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Spitaleri, C. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); La Cognata, M.; Pizzone, R.G. [Laboratori Nazionali del Sud - INFN, Catania (Italy); Lamia, L. [University of Catania, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Catania (Italy); Mukhamedzhanov, A.M. [Texas A and M University, Cyclotron Institute, College Station, TX (United States)
2016-04-15
In this review, we discuss the new recent results of the Trojan Horse Method that is used to determine reaction rates for nuclear processes in several astrophysical scenarios. The theory behind this technique is shortly presented. This is followed by an overview of some new experiments that have been carried out using this indirect approach. (orig.)
Studying shocks in model astrophysical flows
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chakrabarti, S.K.
1989-01-01
We briefly discuss some properties of the shocks in the existing models for quasi two-dimensional astrophysical flows. All of these models which allow the study of shock analytically have some unphysical characteristics due to inherent assumptions made. We propose a hybrid model for a thin flow which has fewer unpleasant features and is suitable for the study of shocks. (author). 5 refs
Neutrino Masses and Mixings and Astrophysics
Fuller, George M.
1998-10-01
Here we discuss the implications of light neutrino masses and neutrino flavor/type mixing for dark matter, big bang nucleosynthesis, and models of heavy element nucleosynthesis in super novae. We will also argue the other way and discuss possible constraints on neutrino physics from these astrophysical considerations.
Nuclear astrophysics experiments with Pohang neutron facility
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Yeong Duk; Yoo, Gwang Ho
1998-01-01
Nuclear astrophysics experiments for fundamental understanding of Big Bang nucleosynthesis was performed at Pohang Neutron Facility. Laboratory experiments, inhomogeneous Big Bang nucleosynthesis and S-process were used for nucleosynthesis. For future study, more study on S-process for the desired data and nuclear network calculation are necessary
Astrophysics, cosmology and high energy physics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rees, M.J.
1983-01-01
A brief survey is given of some topics in astrophysics and cosmology, with special emphasis on the inter-relation between the properties of the early Universe and recent ideas in high energy physics, and on simple order-of-magnitude arguments showing how the scales and dimensions of cosmic phenomena are related to basic physical constants. (orig.)
Particle physics-astrophysics working group
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cronin, J.W.; Kolb, E.W.
1989-01-01
The working group met each afternoon and listened to mini-symposia on a broad range of subjects covering all aspects of particle physics---astrophysics both theoretical and experimental. This paper reports that as a result, a number of papers which follow were commissioned to reflect the present status and future prospects of the field
Workshop on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Discussions related to gravitational wave experiments viz. LIGO and LISA as well as to observations of supermassive black holes dominated the workshop sessions on gravitational waves and relativistic astrophysics in the ICGC-2004. A summary of seven papers that were presented in these workshop sessions has been ...
Exotic nuclear beta transitions astrophysical examples
Takahashi, K
1981-01-01
A theoretical study of nuclear beta -transitions under various astrophysical circumstances is reviewed by illustrative examples: 1) continuum-state electron captures in a matter in the nuclear statistical equiplibrium, and ii) bound-state beta -decays in stars in connection with a cosmochronometer and with the s-process branchings. (45 refs).
Challenges and opportunities in laboratory plasma astrophysics
Drake, R. Paul
2017-06-01
We are in a period of explosive success and opportunity in the laboratory study of plasma phenomena that are relevant to astrophysics. In this talk I will share with you several areas in which recent work, often foreshadowed 20 or 30 years ago, has produced dramatic initial success with prospects for much more. To begin, the talk will provide a brief look at the types of devices used and the regimes they access, showing how they span many orders of magnitude in parameters of interest. It will then illustrate the types of work one can do with laboratory plasmas that are relevant to astrophysics, which range from direct measurement of material properties to the production of scaled models of certain dynamics to the pursuit of complementary understanding. Examples will be drawn from the flow of energy and momentum in astrophysics, the formation and structure of astrophysical systems, and magnetization and its consequences. I hope to include some discussion of collisionless shocks, very dense plasmas, work relevant to the end of the Dark Ages, reconnection, and dynamos. The talk will conclude by highlighting some topics where it seems that we may be on the verge of exciting new progress.The originators of work discussed, and collaborators and funding sources when appropriate, will be included in the talk.
Statistics and Informatics in Space Astrophysics
Feigelson, E.
2017-12-01
The interest in statistical and computational methodology has seen rapid growth in space-based astrophysics, parallel to the growth seen in Earth remote sensing. There is widespread agreement that scientific interpretation of the cosmic microwave background, discovery of exoplanets, and classifying multiwavelength surveys is too complex to be accomplished with traditional techniques. NASA operates several well-functioning Science Archive Research Centers providing 0.5 PBy datasets to the research community. These databases are integrated with full-text journal articles in the NASA Astrophysics Data System (200K pageviews/day). Data products use interoperable formats and protocols established by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance. NASA supercomputers also support complex astrophysical models of systems such as accretion disks and planet formation. Academic researcher interest in methodology has significantly grown in areas such as Bayesian inference and machine learning, and statistical research is underway to treat problems such as irregularly spaced time series and astrophysical model uncertainties. Several scholarly societies have created interest groups in astrostatistics and astroinformatics. Improvements are needed on several fronts. Community education in advanced methodology is not sufficiently rapid to meet the research needs. Statistical procedures within NASA science analysis software are sometimes not optimal, and pipeline development may not use modern software engineering techniques. NASA offers few grant opportunities supporting research in astroinformatics and astrostatistics.
Balance in the NASA Astrophysics Program
Elvis, Martin
2017-08-01
The Decadal studies are usually instructed to come up with a “balanced program” for the coming decade of astrophysics initiatives, both on the ground and in space. The meaning of “balance” is left up to the Decadal panels. One meaning is that there should be a diversity of mission costs in the portfolio. Another that there should be a diversity of science questions addressed. A third is that there should be a diversity of signals (across electromagnetic wavebands, and of non-em carriers). It is timely for the astronomy community to debate the meaning of balance in the NASA astrophysics program as the “Statement of Task” (SoT) that defines the goals and process of the 2020 Astrophysics Decadal review are now being formulated.Here I propose some ways in which the Astro2020 SoT could be made more specific in order to make balance more evident and so avoid the tendency for a single science question, and a single mission to answer that question, to dominate the program. As an example of an alternative ambitious approach, I present a proof-of-principle program of 6, mostly “probe-class” missions, that would fit the nominal funding profile for the 2025-2035 NASA Astrophysics Program, while being more diverse in ambitious science goals and in wavelength coverage.
Microphysics, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hoyle, F.
1974-01-01
The discussion of microphysics, cosmology, and high energy astrophysics includes particle motion in an electromagnetic field, conformal transformations, conformally invariant theory of gravitation, particle orbits, Friedman models with k = 0, +-1, the history and present status of steady-state cosmology, and the nature of mass. (U.S.)
Pulsars as tools for fundamental physics & astrophysics
Cordes, J.M.; Kramer, M.; Lazio, T.J.W.; Stappers, B.W.; Backer, D.C.; Johnston, S.
2004-01-01
The sheer number of pulsars discovered by the SKA, in combination with the exceptional timing precision it can provide, will revolutionize the field of pulsar astrophysics. The SKA will provide a complete census of pulsars in both the Galaxy and in Galactic globular clusters that can be used to
Cosmological grand unification monopoles: astrophysical constraints
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fry, J.N.
1982-01-01
I review the general arguments which suggest that relic GU magnetic monopoles should emerge from the early universe, and I discuss several astrophysical settings in which their effects could be, but are not, observed. This places limits on their possible flux, and their abundance bound to more ordinary material
Minicourses in Astrophysics, Modular Approach, Vol. II.
Illinois Univ., Chicago.
This is the second of a two-volume minicourse in astrophysics. It contains chapters on the following topics: stellar nuclear energy sources and nucleosynthesis; stellar evolution; stellar structure and its determination; and pulsars. Each chapter gives much technical discussion, mathematical treatment, diagrams, and examples. References are…
Teaching Astrophysics to Upper Level Undergraduates
Van Dorn Bradt, Hale
2010-03-01
A Socratic peer-instruction method for teaching upper level undergraduates is presented. Basically, the instructor sits with the students and guides their presentations of the material. My two textbooks* (on display) as well as many others are amenable to this type of teaching. *Astronomy Methods - A Physical Approach to Astronomical Observations (CUP 2004) *Astrophysics Processes-The Physics of Astronomical Phenomena (CUP 2008)
Kovalenko, I. D.; Eismont, N. A.
2018-04-01
Spectrum-Röntgen-Gamma (SRG) is a space observatory designed to observe astrophysical objects in the X-ray range of the electromagnetic spectrum. SRG is planned to be launched in 2019 by a Proton-M launch vehicle with a DM3 upper stage. The spacecraft will be delivered to an orbit around the Sun-Earth collinear libration point L2 located at a distance of 1.5 million km from the Earth. Although the SRG launch scheme has already been determined at present, in this paper we consider an alternative spacecraft transfer scenario using a lunar gravity-assist maneuver. The proposed scenario allows a oneimpulse transfer from a low Earth orbit to a small-amplitude orbit around the libration point to be performed while fulfilling the technical constraints and the scientific requirements of the mission.
Relativistic theory of gravity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1985-01-01
This work presents an unambiguous construction of the relativistic theory of gravity (RTG) in the framework of relativity and the geometrization principle. The gauge principle has been formulated, and the Lagrangian density of the gravitational field has thus been constructed. This theory explains the totality of the available experimental data on the solar system and predicts the existence of gravitational waves of the Faraday-Maxwell type. According to the RTG, the Universe is infinite and ''flat'', hence it follows that its matter density should be equal to its critical density. Therefore, an appreciable ''hidden mass'' exceeding the presently observed mass of the matter almost 40-fold should exist in the Universe in some form of the matter or other. In accordance with the RTG, a massive body having a finite density ceases to contract under gravitational forces within a finite interval of proper time. From the viewpoint of an external reference frame, the brightness of the body decreases exponentially (it is getting darker), but nothing extraordinary happens in this case because its density always remains finite and, for example, for a body with the mass of about 10 8 M 0 it is equal to 2 g/cm 3 . That is why it follows from the RTG that there could be no object whatsoever (black holes) in which gravitational collapse of matter develops to an infinite density. As has been shown, the presence of a cosmological term necessarily requires the introduction of a term with an explicit dependence on the Minkowski metrics. For the long-range gravitational forces the cosmological constant vanishes
Astronomy and astrophysics in the new millennium: Panel reports
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Astronomy and Astrophysics Survey Committee, Board on Physics and Astronomy, Space Studies Board, National Research Council
2001-01-01
In preparing the report, Astronomy and Astrophysics in the New Millenium , the AASC made use of a series of panel reports that address various aspects of ground- and space-based astronomy and astrophysic...
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Since 1977, papers in Astrophysics and Astronomy appeared as a special section in Pramana. ... The journal publishes original research papers on all aspects of astrophysics and ... Articles are also visible in Web of Science immediately.
A directory of computer software applications: astronomy and astrophysics, 1970-May, 1979
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
1979-05-01
Astronomy and astrophysics reports that list computer programs and/or their documentation are cited. These software applications pertain to topics such as solar activity, atmospheric radiative transfer, stellar and galactic structure, lunar and planetary studies, and astrophysical data reduction. The directory contains complete bibliographic data for each report as well as a subject and a corporate author index. The computer software offered by NTIS was created by a variety of Federal agencies to meet their diverse but quite specific objectives. It is provided without installation, support, or maintenance services and sometimes requires customer modifications to run effectively in customer environments
Laboratory Plasma Source as an MHD Model for Astrophysical Jets
Mayo, Robert M.
1997-01-01
The significance of the work described herein lies in the demonstration of Magnetized Coaxial Plasma Gun (MCG) devices like CPS-1 to produce energetic laboratory magneto-flows with embedded magnetic fields that can be used as a simulation tool to study flow interaction dynamic of jet flows, to demonstrate the magnetic acceleration and collimation of flows with primarily toroidal fields, and study cross field transport in turbulent accreting flows. Since plasma produced in MCG devices have magnetic topology and MHD flow regime similarity to stellar and extragalactic jets, we expect that careful investigation of these flows in the laboratory will reveal fundamental physical mechanisms influencing astrophysical flows. Discussion in the next section (sec.2) focuses on recent results describing collimation, leading flow surface interaction layers, and turbulent accretion. The primary objectives for a new three year effort would involve the development and deployment of novel electrostatic, magnetic, and visible plasma diagnostic techniques to measure plasma and flow parameters of the CPS-1 device in the flow chamber downstream of the plasma source to study, (1) mass ejection, morphology, and collimation and stability of energetic outflows, (2) the effects of external magnetization on collimation and stability, (3) the interaction of such flows with background neutral gas, the generation of visible emission in such interaction, and effect of neutral clouds on jet flow dynamics, and (4) the cross magnetic field transport of turbulent accreting flows. The applicability of existing laboratory plasma facilities to the study of stellar and extragalactic plasma should be exploited to elucidate underlying physical mechanisms that cannot be ascertained though astrophysical observation, and provide baseline to a wide variety of proposed models, MHD and otherwise. The work proposed herin represents a continued effort on a novel approach in relating laboratory experiments to
Study of aluminum emission spectra in astrophysical plasmas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jin Zhan; Zhang Jie
2001-01-01
High temperature, high density and strong magnetic fields in plasmas produced by ultra-high intensity and ultrashort laser pulses are similar to the main characteristics of astrophysical plasmas. This makes it possible to simulate come astrophysical processes at laboratories. The author presents the theoretic simulation of aluminum emission spectra in astrophysical plasmas. It can be concluded that using laser produced plasmas, the authors can obtain rich information on astrophysical spectroscopy, which is unobservable for astronomer
Smith, Denise; Lestition, Kathleen; Squires, Gordon; Biferno, Anya A.; Cominsky, Lynn; Manning, Colleen; NASA's Universe of Learning Team
2018-01-01
NASA's Universe of Learning creates and delivers science-driven, audience-driven resources and experiences designed to engage and immerse learners of all ages and backgrounds in exploring the universe for themselves. The project is the result of a unique partnership between the Space Telescope Science Institute, Caltech/IPAC, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, and Sonoma State University, and is one of 27 competitively-selected cooperative agreements within the NASA Science Mission Directorate STEM Activation program. The NASA's Universe of Learning team draws upon cutting-edge science and works closely with Subject Matter Experts (scientists and engineers) from across the NASA Astrophysics Physics of the Cosmos, Cosmic Origins, and Exoplanet Exploration themes. Together we develop and disseminate data tools and participatory experiences, multimedia and immersive experiences, exhibits and community programs, and professional learning experiences that meet the needs of our audiences, with attention to underserved and underrepresented populations. In doing so, scientists and educators from the partner institutions work together as a collaborative, integrated Astrophysics team to support NASA objectives to enable STEM education, increase scientific literacy, advance national education goals, and leverage efforts through partnerships. Robust program evaluation is central to our efforts, and utilizes portfolio analysis, process studies, and studies of reach and impact. This presentation will provide an overview of NASA's Universe of Learning, our direct connection to NASA Astrophysics, and our collaborative work with the NASA Astrophysics science community.
Kepler Planet Reliability Metrics: Astrophysical Positional Probabilities for Data Release 25
Bryson, Stephen T.; Morton, Timothy D.
2017-01-01
This document is very similar to KSCI-19092-003, Planet Reliability Metrics: Astrophysical Positional Probabilities, which describes the previous release of the astrophysical positional probabilities for Data Release 24. The important changes for Data Release 25 are:1. The computation of the astrophysical positional probabilities uses the Data Release 25 processed pixel data for all Kepler Objects of Interest.2. Computed probabilities now have associated uncertainties, whose computation is described in x4.1.3.3. The scene modeling described in x4.1.2 uses background stars detected via ground-based high-resolution imaging, described in x5.1, that are not in the Kepler Input Catalog or UKIRT catalog. These newly detected stars are presented in Appendix B. Otherwise the text describing the algorithms and examples is largely unchanged from KSCI-19092-003.
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Home; Journals; Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Anjan A. Sen. Articles written in Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. Volume 37 Issue 4 December 2016 pp 33 Review. Cosmology and Astrophysics using the Post-Reionization HI · Tapomoy Guha Sarkar Anjan A. Sen · More Details Abstract Fulltext PDF.
3rd Session of the Sant Cugat Forum on Astrophysics
Gravitational wave astrophysics
2015-01-01
This book offers review chapters written by invited speakers of the 3rd Session of the Sant Cugat Forum on Astrophysics — Gravitational Waves Astrophysics. All chapters have been peer reviewed. The book goes beyond normal conference proceedings in that it provides a wide panorama of the astrophysics of gravitational waves and serves as a reference work for researchers in the field.
Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy | Indian Academy of Sciences
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Indian Institute of Astrophysics, Koramangala, Bangalore 560 034, India. Kavli Institute for Astronomy & Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871, China. National Research Council of Canada, Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, British Columbia, Canada. Thirty Meter Project Office, ...
Astrophysical interpretation of molecular spectra
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scoville, N.Z.
1984-01-01
As sensitive, high resolution spectrometers are developed throughout the infrared great progress is anticipated in understanding not only the young-stellar objects but also the active galaxy nuclei so luminous in the far-infrared. In the infrared the variety of atomic and molecular spectroscopic transitions is capable of probing conditions ranging from hot circumstellar HII regions, molecular envelopes, and shock fronts at > 2000 K down to cold, low density interstellar gas at < 10 K. The ability to measure both physical conditions and kinematics aids in the separation of the physical regimes and in the building of a coherent dynamic/evolutionary model. The author briefly reviews the characteristics of some of the observed molecular transitions and theoretical considerations important for understanding their excitation. (Auth.)
75 FR 2893 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting
2010-01-19
... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... of the Astrophysics Subcommittee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC). This Subcommittee reports to the... following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --Updates on Select Astrophysics Missions --Discussion of...
78 FR 2293 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting
2013-01-10
... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics... meeting includes the following topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --NASA Astrophysics Roadmapping It...
78 FR 66384 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting
2013-11-05
... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics...: --Astrophysics Division Update --Presentation of Astrophysics Roadmap --Reports from Program Analysis Groups...
75 FR 51116 - NASA Advisory Council; Science Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting
2010-08-18
... Committee; Astrophysics Subcommittee; Meeting AGENCY: National Aeronautics and Space Administration. ACTION... amended, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) announces a meeting of the Astrophysics... topics: --Astrophysics Division Update --2010 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal Survey --Update on...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Lopdrup-Hjorth, Thomas
2015-01-01
This paper explores the erosion and problematization of ‘the organization’ as a demarcated entity. Utilizing Foucault's reflections on ‘state-phobia’ as a source of inspiration, I show how an organization-phobia has gained a hold within Organization Theory (OT). By attending to the history...... of this organization-phobia, the paper argues that OT has become increasingly incapable of speaking about its core object. I show how organizations went from being conceptualized as entities of major importance to becoming theoretically deconstructed and associated with all kinds of ills. Through this history......, organizations as distinct entities have been rendered so problematic that they have gradually come to be removed from the center of OT. The costs of this have been rather significant. Besides undermining the grounds that gave OT intellectual credibility and legitimacy to begin with, the organization-phobia...
Internal model of gravity influences configural body processing.
Barra, Julien; Senot, Patrice; Auclair, Laurent
2017-01-01
Human bodies are processed by a configural processing mechanism. Evidence supporting this claim is the body inversion effect, in which inversion impairs recognition of bodies more than other objects. Biomechanical configuration, as well as both visual and embodied expertise, has been demonstrated to play an important role in this effect. Nevertheless, the important factor of body inversion effect may also be linked to gravity orientation since gravity is one of the most fundamental constraints of our biology, behavior, and perception on Earth. The visual presentation of an inverted body in a typical body inversion paradigm turns the observed body upside down but also inverts the implicit direction of visual gravity in the scene. The orientation of visual gravity is then in conflict with the direction of actual gravity and may influence configural processing. To test this hypothesis, we dissociated the orientations of the body and of visual gravity by manipulating body posture. In a pretest we showed that it was possible to turn an avatar upside down (inversion relative to retinal coordinates) without inverting the orientation of visual gravity when the avatar stands on his/her hands. We compared the inversion effect in typical conditions (with gravity conflict when the avatar is upside down) to the inversion effect in conditions with no conflict between visual and physical gravity. The results of our experiment revealed that the inversion effect, as measured by both error rate and reaction time, was strongly reduced when there was no gravity conflict. Our results suggest that when an observed body is upside down (inversion relative to participants' retinal coordinates) but the orientation of visual gravity is not, configural processing of bodies might still be possible. In this paper, we discuss the implications of an internal model of gravity in the configural processing of observed bodies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
NASA Astrophysics Funds Strategic Technology Development
Seery, Bernard D.; Ganel, Opher; Pham, Bruce
2016-01-01
The COR and PCOS Program Offices (POs) reside at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), serving as the NASA Astrophysics Division's implementation arm for matters relating to the two programs. One aspect of the PO's activities is managing the COR and PCOS Strategic Astrophysics Technology (SAT) program, helping mature technologies to enable and enhance future astrophysics missions. For example, the SAT program is expected to fund key technology developments needed to close gaps identified by Science and Technology Definition Teams (STDTs) planned to study several large mission concept studies in preparation for the 2020 Decadal Survey.The POs are guided by the National Research Council's "New Worlds, New Horizons in Astronomy and Astrophysics" Decadal Survey report, NASA's Astrophysics Implementation Plan, and the visionary Astrophysics Roadmap, "Enduring Quests, Daring Visions." Strategic goals include dark energy, gravitational waves, and X-ray observatories. Future missions pursuing these goals include, e.g., US participation in ESA's Euclid, Athena, and L3 missions; Inflation probe; and a large UV/Optical/IR (LUVOIR) telescope.To date, 65 COR and 71 PCOS SAT proposals have been received, of which 15 COR and 22 PCOS projects were funded. Notable successes include maturation of a new far-IR detector, later adopted by the SOFIA HAWC instrument; maturation of the H4RG near-IR detector, adopted by WFIRST; development of an antenna-coupled transition-edge superconducting bolometer, a technology deployed by BICEP2/BICEP3/Keck to measure polarization in the CMB signal; advanced UV reflective coatings implemented on the optics of GOLD and ICON, two heliophysics Explorers; and finally, the REXIS instrument on OSIRIS-REx is incorporating CCDs with directly deposited optical blocking filters developed by another SAT-funded project.We discuss our technology development process, with community input and strategic prioritization informing calls for SAT proposals and
VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
2017-01-01
VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics 17-25 November 2015, Chiapas, Mexico The VI School on Cosmic Rays and Astrophysics was held at the MCTP, at the Autonomous University of Chiapas (UNACH), Tuxtla Gutiérrez, Chiapas, Mexico thanks to the Science for Development ICTP-UNACH-UNESCO Regional Seminar, 17-25 November 2015 (http://mctp.mx/e-VI-School-on-Cosmic-Rays-and-Astrophysics.html). The School series started in La Paz, Bolivia in 2004 and it has been, since then, hosted by several Latin American countires: 1.- La Paz, Bolivia (August, 2004), 2.- Puebla, Mexico (September, 2006), 3.- Arequipa, Peru (September, 2008), 4.- Santo André, Brazil (September, 2010), 5.- La Paz, Bolivia (August, 2012). It aims to promote Cosmic Ray (CR) Physics and Astrophysics in the Latin American community and to provide a general overview of theoretical and experimental issues on these topics. It is directed to undergraduates, postgraduates and active researchers in the field. The lectures introduce fundamental Cosmic Ray Physics and Astrophysics with a review of standards of the field. It is expected the school continues happening during the next years following a tradition. In this edition, the list of seminars included topics such as experimental techniques of CR detection, development of CR showers and hadronic interactions, composition and energy spectrum of primary CR, Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs), neutrino Astrophysics, spacecraft detectors, simulations, solar modulation, and the current state of development and results of several astroparticle physics experiments such as The Pierre Auger Observatory in Argentina, HAWC in Mexico, KASCADE and KASCADE Grande, HESS, IceCube, JEM-EUSO, Fermi-LAT, and others. This time the school has been complemented with the ICTP-UNACH-UNESCO Seminar of theory on Particle and Astroparticle Physics. The organization was done by MCTP, the Mesoamerican Centre for Theoretical Physics. The school had 46 participants, 30 students from Honduras, Brazil
AstroMail: Electronic mail for the astrophysics community
Scherrer, Phillip H.; Bogart, Richard S.
1993-01-01
As part of the NASA Science Internet User Support Services program, NASA Goddard was interested in R&D which could extend the SolarMail system developed by members of the Wilcox Space Observatory at Stanford University to support a larger astrophysics user community. Specific objectives of the R&D effort were to include: a clone of the existing SolarMail system with additional documentation, enabling a parallel mail system to be established by populating the database; a cloned version of SolarMail functioning with a user database similar to that of the High Energy Astrophysics Division (HEAD) of the American Astronomical Society; a report on the status and surveyed usage of SolarMail and its clones into an extendable distributed mail system to serve as the basis for AstroMail, including a draft declaration of policy; a prototype AstroMail system based on the above specifications and including at least SolarMail and one of its clones supporting a set of astronomy user databases as subsets; and a report on the status of the prototype AstroMail with recommendations for future modifications to AstroMail.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cahill R. T.
2015-10-01
Full Text Available A new quantum gravity experiment is reported with the data confirming the generali- sation of the Schrödinger equation to include the interaction of the wave function with dynamical space. Dynamical space turbulence, via this interaction process, raises and lowers the energy of the electron wave function, which is detected by observing conse- quent variations in the electron quantum barrier tunnelling rate in reverse-biased Zener diodes. This process has previously been reported and enabled the measurement of the speed of the dynamical space flow, which is consistent with numerous other detection experiments. The interaction process is dependent on the angle between the dynamical space flow velocity and the direction of the electron flow in the diode, and this depen- dence is experimentally demonstrated. This interaction process explains gravity as an emergent quantum process, so unifying quantum phenomena and gravity. Gravitational waves are easily detected.
Ortín, Tomás
2015-01-01
Self-contained and comprehensive, this definitive new edition of Gravity and Strings is a unique resource for graduate students and researchers in theoretical physics. From basic differential geometry through to the construction and study of black-hole and black-brane solutions in quantum gravity - via all the intermediate stages - this book provides a complete overview of the intersection of gravity, supergravity, and superstrings. Now fully revised, this second edition covers an extensive array of topics, including new material on non-linear electric-magnetic duality, the electric-tensor formalism, matter-coupled supergravity, supersymmetric solutions, the geometries of scalar manifolds appearing in 4- and 5-dimensional supergravities, and much more. Covering reviews of important solutions and numerous solution-generating techniques, and accompanied by an exhaustive index and bibliography, this is an exceptional reference work.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goetz, G.
1988-01-01
It is shown that the plane-wave solutions for the equations governing the motion of a self-gravitating isothermal fluid in Newtonian hydrodynamics are generated by a sine-Gordon equation which is solvable by an 'inverse scattering' transformation. A transformation procedure is outlined by means of which one can construct solutions of the gravity system out of a pair of solutions of the sine-Gordon equation, which are interrelated via an auto-Baecklund transformation. In general the solutions to the gravity system are obtained in a parametric representation in terms of characteristic coordinates. All solutions of the gravity system generated by the one-and two-soliton solutions of the sine-Gordon equation can be constructed explicitly. These might provide models for the evolution of flat structures as they are predicted to arise in the process of galaxy formation. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rumpf, H.
1987-01-01
We begin with a naive application of the Parisi-Wu scheme to linearized gravity. This will lead into trouble as one peculiarity of the full theory, the indefiniteness of the Euclidean action, shows up already at this level. After discussing some proposals to overcome this problem, Minkowski space stochastic quantization will be introduced. This will still not result in an acceptable quantum theory of linearized gravity, as the Feynman propagator turns out to be non-causal. This defect will be remedied only after a careful analysis of general covariance in stochastic quantization has been performed. The analysis requires the notion of a metric on the manifold of metrics, and a natural candidate for this is singled out. With this a consistent stochastic quantization of Einstein gravity becomes possible. It is even possible, at least perturbatively, to return to the Euclidean regime. 25 refs. (Author)
Linder, Eric V.
2018-03-01
A subclass of the Horndeski modified gravity theory we call No Slip Gravity has particularly interesting properties: 1) a speed of gravitational wave propagation equal to the speed of light, 2) equality between the effective gravitational coupling strengths to matter and light, Gmatter and Glight, hence no slip between the metric potentials, yet difference from Newton's constant, and 3) suppressed growth to give better agreement with galaxy clustering observations. We explore the characteristics and implications of this theory, and project observational constraints. We also give a simple expression for the ratio of the gravitational wave standard siren distance to the photon standard candle distance, in this theory and others, and enable a direct comparison of modified gravity in structure growth and in gravitational waves, an important crosscheck.
Gerhardt, Claus
2018-01-01
A unified quantum theory incorporating the four fundamental forces of nature is one of the major open problems in physics. The Standard Model combines electro-magnetism, the strong force and the weak force, but ignores gravity. The quantization of gravity is therefore a necessary first step to achieve a unified quantum theory. In this monograph a canonical quantization of gravity has been achieved by quantizing a geometric evolution equation resulting in a gravitational wave equation in a globally hyperbolic spacetime. Applying the technique of separation of variables we obtain eigenvalue problems for temporal and spatial self-adjoint operators where the temporal operator has a pure point spectrum with eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$ and related eigenfunctions, while, for the spatial operator, it is possible to find corresponding eigendistributions for each of the eigenvalues $\\lambda_i$, if the Cauchy hypersurface is asymptotically Euclidean or if the quantized spacetime is a black hole with a negative cosmological ...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for EN08 (2013)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, Massachusettes, Maine, and Canada collected in 2013 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for TS01 (2014)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands collected in 2009 over 1 survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the...
Airborne Gravity: NGS' Gravity Data for AN08 (2016)
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Airborne gravity data for Alaska collected in 2016 over one survey. This data set is part of the Gravity for the Re-definition of the American Vertical Datum...