WorldWideScience

Sample records for gravitationally induced electromagnetic

  1. Gravitation and electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Apsel, D

    1979-01-01

    Through an examination of the Bohm-Aharonov experiment, a new theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is proposed. The fundamental assumption of the theory is that the motion of a particle in a combination of gravitational and electromagnetic fields is determined from a variational principle of the form delta integral /sub A//sup B /d tau =0. The form of the physical time is determined from an examination of the Maxwell-Einstein action function. The field and motion equations are formally identical to those of Maxwell-Einstein theory. The theory predicts that even in a field-free region of space, electromagnetic potentials can alter the phase of a wave function and the lifetime of a charged particle. The phase alteration has been observed in the Bohm-Aharonov experiment. There is an indication that the lifetime alteration has shown up in a recent CERN storage ring experiment. Experimental tests are proposed. (11 refs).

  2. Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.

    1980-01-01

    The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.

  3. Electromagnetic waves in gravitational wave spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haney, M.; Bini, D.; Ortolan, A.; Fortini, P.

    2013-01-01

    We have considered the propagation of electromagnetic waves in a space-time representing an exact gravitational plane wave and calculated the induced changes on the four-potential field Aμ of a plane electromagnetic wave. By choosing a suitable photon round-trip in a Michelson interferometer, we have been able to identify the physical effects of the exact gravitational wave on the electromagnetic field, i.e. phase shift, change of the polarization vector, angular deflection and delay. These results have been exploited to study the response of an interferometric gravitational wave detector beyond the linear approximation of the general theory of relativity. A much more detailed examination of this problem can be found in our paper recently published in Classical and Quantum Gravity (28 (2011) 235007).

  4. How to detect the gravitationally induced phase shift of electromagnetic waves by optical-fiber interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, K.

    1983-01-01

    Attention is called to a laboratory experiment of an optical-fiber interferometer which can show the gravitationally induced phase shift of optical waves. A phase shift of approx.10 -6 rad is anticipated for the Earth's gravitational potential difference of 1 m when a He-Ne laser and two multiple-turn optical-fiber loops of length 5 km are used. The phase shift can be varied by rotating the loops about an axis parallel to the Earth's surface. This order of phase shifts can be detected by current optical-fiber interferometric techniques

  5. Gravitational radiation from electromagnetic systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikishov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that the spectrum of gravitational radiation of a charge e with mass m, undergoing finite motion in an electromagnetic field, smoothly varying in the neighborhood of the orbit over a region of the order of the radius of curvature, differs in the ultrarelativistic limit from the spectrum of the charge's electromagnetic radiation. The difference consists of the frequency-independent coefficient 4πGm 2 Λ 2 /e 2 , where Λ is of the order of the Lorentz factor of the charge and depends on the direction of the wave vector and on the behavior of the field in the above-indicated region. For a plane-wave external field the gravitational and electromagnetic spectra are strictly proportional to each other for arbitrary velocities of the charge. Localization of the external forces near the orbit violates this proportionality of the spectra and weakens the gravitational radiation by an amount of the order of the square of the Lorentz factor

  6. Understanding possible electromagnetic counterparts to loud gravitational wave events: Binary black hole effects on electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palenzuela, Carlos; Lehner, Luis; Yoshida, Shin

    2010-01-01

    In addition to producing loud gravitational waves, the dynamics of a binary black hole system could induce emission of electromagnetic radiation by affecting the behavior of plasmas and electromagnetic fields in their vicinity. We study how the electromagnetic fields are affected by a pair of orbiting black holes through the merger. In particular, we show how the binary's dynamics induce a variability in possible electromagnetically induced emissions as well as an enhancement of electromagnetic fields during the late-merge and merger epochs. These time dependent features will likely leave their imprint in processes generating detectable emissions and can be exploited in the detection of electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves.

  7. Production of gravitation waves by electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchner, K.; Rosca, R.

    1980-01-01

    An exact solution of Einstein's equations is presented that corresponds to an axisymmetric bundle of electromagnetic waves with finite cross section. Outside this bundle, there is gravitational radiation parallel to the electromagnetic radiation. If no static electromagnetic fields are present, the frequency of the gravitational waves is twice the frequency of the electromagnetic waves. Einstein's energy complex vanishes identically. The covariant energy complex, however, yields also a radial momentum. (author)

  8. Forces in electromagnetic field and gravitational field

    OpenAIRE

    Weng, Zihua

    2008-01-01

    The force can be defined from the linear momentum in the gravitational field and electromagnetic field. But this definition can not cover the gradient of energy. In the paper, the force will be defined from the energy and torque in a new way, which involves the gravitational force, electromagnetic force, inertial force, gradient of energy, and some other new force terms etc. One of these new force terms can be used to explain why the solar wind varies velocity along the magnetic force line in...

  9. Frequency-dependent squeeze-amplitude attenuation and squeeze-angle rotation by electromagnetically induced transparency for gravitational-wave interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Goda, Keisuke; Corbitt, Thomas; Mavalvala, Nergis

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of frequency-dependent squeeze-amplitude attenuation and squeeze-angle rotation by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) on gravitational-wave (GW) interferometers. We propose the use of low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass EIT filters, an S-shaped EIT filter, and an intracavity EIT filter to generate frequency-dependent squeezing for injection into the antisymmetric port of GW interferometers. We find that the EIT filters have several advantages over the previous filter designs with regard to optical losses, compactness, and the tunability of the filter linewidth

  10. Electromagnetic and gravitational scattering at Planckian energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.; Majumdar, P.

    1994-11-01

    The scattering of pointlike particles at very large center of mass energies and fixed low momentum transfers, occurring due to both their electromagnetic and gravitational interactions is re-examined in the particular case when one of the particles carries magnetic charge. At Planckian center-of-mass energies, when gravitational dominance is normally expected, the presence of magnetic charge is shown to produce dramatic modifications to the scattering cross section as well as to the holomorphic structure of the scattering amplitude. (author). 20 refs

  11. The structure of electromagnetism and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pommaret, J.F.

    1983-01-01

    The formalisms of gauge theory and continuum mechanics linked to the construction of the non-linear Spencer sequences in the formal theory of Lie pseudogroups give results showing that a contradiction exists between the two theories quoted above as the Yang-Mills ''potentials'' of physicists are sections of the first Spencer vector bundle, coming from connections, while the ''fields'' of mechanicians are sections of the same bundle, not coming from connections. The purpose of this Note is to explain this contradiction by showing that the electromagnetic model of gauge theory must be modified. Maxwell and Einstein equations then automatically appear in this differential framework that unifies electromagnetism and gravitation. These conclusions are imposed, not by the choice of physical assumptions, but by the use of a new mathematical tool [fr

  12. The electromagnetic interferent antennae for gravitational waves detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kulak, A.

    1984-01-01

    An electromagnetic wave propagating in the toroidal waveguide is considered as an electromagnetic gravitational antenna. An interferometric method is applied to measure the disturbances of phase of the electromagnetic field caused by the incident gravitational wave. The calculations presented take into account the dispersive and dissipative phenomena occurring during the interaction between electromagnetic and gravitational fields. The active cross-section of the antenna interacting with coherent and pulsed gravitational radiation is estimated. Experimental possibilities presently available are discussed. Limiting fluxes in the astrophysical range of frequencies measured by the interferometric electromagnetic antenna are a factor of ten or so smaller than in the case of a classic mechanical antenna. Moreover the antenna could be used for carrying out a gravitational Hertz experiment. (author)

  13. The effect of gravitational wave on electromagnetic field and the possibility about electromagnetic detection of gravitational wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao Fuzhen; He Zhiqiang

    1983-01-01

    If the effect of gravitational wave on electromagnetic fields is used, and the gravitational wave is detected through the changes in electromagnetic fields, one can expect that the difficulty about the weakness of the signal of mechanical receiver can be avoided. Because of the effect of gravitational wave, the electromagnetic field emits energy, therefore, the energy which is detected will be higher than that by the mechanical receiver. The authors consider the Maxwell equations on the curved spacetime. They give solutions when the detecting fields are a free electromagnetic wave, standing wave and a constant field. (Auth.)

  14. Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolgov, A. [Dept. of Physics, Novosibirsk State University, Pirogova 2, 630090 Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Postnov, K., E-mail: dolgov@fe.infn.it, E-mail: kpostnov@gmail.com [Sternberg Astronomical Institute, Moscow M.V. Lomonosov State University, Universitetskij pr. 13, 119234 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2017-09-01

    The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.

  15. Electromagnetic radiation accompanying gravitational waves from black hole binaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.; Postnov, K.

    2017-01-01

    The transition of powerful gravitational waves, created by the coalescence of massive black hole binaries, into electromagnetic radiation in external magnetic fields is considered. In contrast to the previous calculations of the similar effect we study the realistic case of the gravitational radiation frequency below the plasma frequency of the surrounding medium. The gravitational waves propagating in the plasma constantly create electromagnetic radiation dragging it with them, despite the low frequency. The plasma heating by the unattenuated electromagnetic wave may be significant in hot rarefied plasma with strong magnetic field and can lead to a noticeable burst of electromagnetic radiation with higher frequency. The graviton-to-photon conversion effect in plasma is discussed in the context of possible electromagnetic counterparts of GW150914 and GW170104.

  16. INTEGRAL results on the electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mereghetti, S.; Savchenko, V.; Ferrigno, C.

    2018-01-01

    Thanks to its high orbit and a set of complementary detectors providing continuous coverage of the whole sky, the INTEGRAL satellite has unique capabilities for the identification and study of the electromagnetic radiation associated to gravitational waves signals and, more generally, for multi...

  17. Unification of Gravitation and Electromagnetism in a Relativistic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A theory of gravitation is considered in a relativistic version of Finslerian geometry. It is found that both the geodesic equations and the Finslerian analogue of the Einstein\\'s field equations have terms that involve the electromagnetic field tensor, thereby pointing out to the geometrization of electrodynamics and hence to a ...

  18. Precision cosmology from future lensed gravitational wave and electromagnetic signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Kai; Fan, Xi-Long; Ding, Xuheng; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2017-10-27

    The standard siren approach of gravitational wave cosmology appeals to the direct luminosity distance estimation through the waveform signals from inspiralling double compact binaries, especially those with electromagnetic counterparts providing redshifts. It is limited by the calibration uncertainties in strain amplitude and relies on the fine details of the waveform. The Einstein telescope is expected to produce 10 4 -10 5 gravitational wave detections per year, 50-100 of which will be lensed. Here, we report a waveform-independent strategy to achieve precise cosmography by combining the accurately measured time delays from strongly lensed gravitational wave signals with the images and redshifts observed in the electromagnetic domain. We demonstrate that just 10 such systems can provide a Hubble constant uncertainty of 0.68% for a flat lambda cold dark matter universe in the era of third-generation ground-based detectors.

  19. Scalar, electromagnetic, and gravitational fields interaction: Particlelike solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bronnikov, K.A.; Melnikov, V.N.; Shikin, G.N.; Staniukovich, K.P.

    1979-01-01

    Particlelike static spherically symmetric solutions to massless scalar and electromagnetic field equations combined with gravitational field equations are considered. Two criteria for particlelike solutions are formulated: the strong one (solutions are required to be singularity free) and the weak one (singularities are admitted but the total energy and material field energy should be finite). Exact solutions for the following physical systems are considered with their own gravitational field: (i) linear scalar (minimally coupled or conformal) plus electromagnetic field; (ii) the same fields with a bare mass source in the form of charged incoherent matter distributions; (iii) nonlinear electromagnetic field with an abritrary dependence on the invariant F/sub alphabeta/F/sup alphabeta/; and (iv) directly interacting scalar and electromagnetic fields. Case (i) solutions are not particlelike (except those with horizons, in which static regions formally satisfy the weak criterion). For systems (ii), examples of nonsingular models are constructed, in particular, a model for a particle--antiparticle pair of a Wheeler-handle type, without scalar field and explict electric charges. Besides, a number of limitations upon nonsingular model parameters is indicated. Systems (iii) are proved to violate the strong criterion for any type of nonlinearity but can satisfy the weak criterion (e.g., the Born--Infeld nonlinearity). For systems (iv) some particlelike solutions by the weak criterion are constructed and a regularizing role of gravitation is demonstrated. Finally, an example of a field system satisfying the strong criterion is given

  20. Electromagnetic-gravitational conversion cross sections in external electromagnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Ngoc Long; Dang Van Soa; Tuan Tran, A.

    1994-09-01

    The classical processes: the conversion of photons into gravitons in the static electromagnetic fields are considered by using Feynman perturbation techniques. The differential cross sections are presented for the conversion in the electric field of the flat condenser and the magnetic field of the solenoid. A numerical evaluation shows that the cross sections may have the observable value in the present technical scenario. (author). 11 refs

  1. Influence of gravitation on the propagation of electromagnetic radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mashhoon, B.

    1975-01-01

    The existence of a general helicity-rotation coupling is demonstrated for electromagnetic waves propagating in the field of a slowly rotating body and in the Goedel universe. This coupling leads to differential focusing of circularly polarized radiation by a gravitational field which is detectable for a rapidly rotating collapsed body. The electromagnetic perturbations and their frequency spectrum are given for the Goedel universe. The spectrum of frequencies is bounded from below by the characteristic rotation frequency of the Goedel universe. If the universe were rotating, the differential focusing effect would be extremely small due to the present upper limit on the anisotropy of the microwave background radiation.

  2. On propagation of electromagnetic and gravitational waves in the expanding Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gladyshev, V O

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to obtain an equation for the propagation time of electromagnetic and gravitational waves in the expanding Universe. The velocity of electromagnetic waves propagation depends on the velocity of the interstellar medium in the observer's frame of reference. Gravitational radiation interacts weakly with the substance, so electromagnetic and gravitational waves propagate from a remote astrophysical object to the terrestrial observer at different time. Gravitational waves registration enables the inverse problem solution - by the difference in arrival time of electromagnetic and gravitational-wave signal, we can determine the characteristics of the emitting area of the astrophysical object. (paper)

  3. Propagation of electromagnetic radiation in a random field of gravitational waves and space radio interferometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braginsky, V.B.; Kardashev, N.S.; Polnarev, A.G.; Novikov, I.D.

    1989-12-01

    Propagation of an electromagnetic wave in the field of gravitational waves is considered. Attention is given to the principal difference between the electromagnetic wave propagation in the field of random gravitational waves and the electromagnetic wave propagation in a medium with a randomly-inhomogeneous refraction index. It is shown that in the case of the gravitation wave field the phase shift of an electromagnetic wave does not increase with distance. The capability of space radio interferometry to detect relic gravitational waves as well as gravitational wave bursts of non cosmological origin are analyzed. (author). 64 refs, 2 figs

  4. Some electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pollock, M.D.

    1978-08-01

    The dissertation is concerned with the changes which take place in a Kerr black hole which is subjected to electromagnetic or gravitational perturbations, in particular idealized configurations. A calculation is made of the interaction between a slowly rotating black hole and a uniform, weak magnetic field. The method used is to solve the tensorial Maxwell equations in the background geometry of the hole and then calculate the torque on the sources of the field, hence deducing the spin-down law of the hole. The calculation is extended to include black holes rotating with arbitrary angular velocity by a different method, which is based on Newman-Penrose spinor formalism and applies some work of Chandrasekhar. The analogous gravitational problem, in which the centrally located hole is perturbed by a spinning shell of matter is solved by drawing on the results of Chrzanowski on factorized Green functions and horizon multipole moments. Formulae are presented for the spin-down behaviour of a black hole under these two kinds of perturbation. In addition to these effects produced by the fields, there are also linear precessional effects in the gravitational case, but not in the electromagnetic case. (author)

  5. On the Induced Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Becerra Laura

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The induced gravitational collapse (IGC paradigm has been applied to explain the long gamma ray burst (GRB associated with type Ic supernova, and recently the Xray flashes (XRFs. The progenitor is a binary systems of a carbon-oxygen core (CO and a neutron star (NS. The CO core collapses and undergoes a supernova explosion which triggers the hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion (up to 10-2 M⊙s-1. For the binary driven hypernova (BdHNe, the binary system is enough bound, the NS reach its critical mass, and collapse to a black hole (BH with a GRB emission characterized by an isotropic energy Eiso > 1052 erg. Otherwise, for binary systems with larger binary separations, the hypercritical accretion onto the NS is not sufficient to induced its gravitational collapse, a X-ray flash is produced with Eiso < 1052 erg. We’re going to focus in identify the binary parameters that limits the BdHNe systems with the XRFs systems.

  6. Electromagnetic signatures of far-field gravitational radiation in the 1 + 3 approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chua, Alvin J K; Cañizares, Priscilla; Gair, Jonathan R

    2015-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) from astrophysical sources can interact with background electromagnetic fields, giving rise to distinctive and potentially detectable electromagnetic signatures. In this paper, we study such interactions for far-field gravitational radiation using the 1 + 3 approach to relativity. Linearized equations for the electromagnetic field on perturbed Minkowski space are derived and solved analytically. The inverse Gertsenshteĭn conversion of GWs in a static electromagnetic field is rederived, and the resultant electromagnetic radiation is shown to be significant for highly magnetized pulsars in compact binary systems. We also obtain a variety of nonlinear interference effects for interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves, although wave–wave resonances previously described in the literature are absent when the electric–magnetic self-interaction is taken into account. The fluctuation and amplification of electromagnetic energy flux as the GW strength increases towards the gravitational–electromagnetic frequency ratio is a possible signature of gravitational radiation from extended astrophysical sources. (paper)

  7. Radiation reaction force and unification of electromagnetic and gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo, C.Y.; Goldstein, G.R.; Napier, A.

    1981-04-01

    A unified theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields should modify classical electrodynamics such that the radiation reaction force is accounted for. The analysis leads to a five-dimensional unified theory of five variables. The theory is supported by showing that, for the case of a charged particle moving in a constant magnetic field, the radiation reaction force is indeed included. Moreover, this example shows explicitly that physical changes are associated with the fifth variable. Thus, the notion of a physical five-dimensional space should be seriously taken into consideration

  8. Optimizing searches for electromagnetic counterparts of gravitational wave triggers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Michael W.; Tao, Duo; Chan, Man Leong; Chatterjee, Deep; Christensen, Nelson; Ghosh, Shaon; Greco, Giuseppe; Hu, Yiming; Kapadia, Shasvath; Rana, Javed; Salafia, Om Sharan; Stubbs11, Christopher

    2018-04-01

    With the detection of a binary neutron star system and its corresponding electromagnetic counterparts, a new window of transient astronomy has opened. Due to the size of the sky localization regions, which can span hundreds to thousands of square degrees, there are significant benefits to optimizing tilings for these large sky areas. The rich science promised by gravitational-wave astronomy has led to the proposal for a variety of proposed tiling and time allocation schemes, and for the first time, we make a systematic comparison of some of these methods. We find that differences of a factor of 2 or more in efficiency are possible, depending on the algorithm employed. For this reason, with future surveys searching for electromagnetic counterparts, care should be taken when selecting tiling, time allocation, and scheduling algorithms to optimize counterpart detection.

  9. Electromagnetic Waves in a Uniform Gravitational Field and Planck's Postulate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acedo, Luis; Tung, Michael M.

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational redshift forms the central part of the majority of the classical tests for the general theory of relativity. It could be successfully checked even in laboratory experiments on the earth's surface. The standard derivation of this effect is based on the distortion of the local structure of spacetime induced by large masses. The…

  10. Conversion of electromagnetic to gravitational waves in the Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crispino, Luis C.B.; Oliveira, Ednilton S.; Higuchi, Atsushi

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Wave scattering by black holes is a subject that has received much attention in the 1970s, and has been extensively studied since then. Some recent works have been devoted to computing the scalar absorption and scattering cross sections of charged black holes. The presence of a background electromagnetic field leads to a coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations. To study the propagation of the electromagnetic field in Reissner-Nordstroem spacetime, one has to take into account this electromagnetic-gravitational mixing. In this work we compute numerically the absorption cross section of Reissner-Nordstroem black holes for the electromagnetic field for arbitrary frequencies, taking into account the coupling of the electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations. We also compute the conversion coefficients of electromagnetic to gravitational waves by scattering from a Reissner-Nordstroem black hole. (author)

  11. Classical particles with spin in electromagnetic and gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amorim, R.M. de.

    1977-02-01

    Following a review of several problems connected with classical particles with intrinsic angular momentum are reproduced the Frenkel equations (with the condition S sup(μν)U sub(ν)=0) by means of a holonomic variational principle, and have related them to Bargann, Michel and Tededgie equations. The treatment is then generalized to the case in wich S sup(μν)U sub(ν)=0 and the resulting equation coincide in the linearized limit with those obtained by Suttorp and de Groot. Also, by using variational principles, the generalizations to Frenkel equations are obtained, as well as to those of Suttorp and de Groot when electromagnetic and gravitational interactions are considered. Finally, those equations are analysed according to a scheme proposed by Oliveira and Tiommo where the gravitational interactions are described by gravielectric and gravimagnetic fields. The analogies in these equations of motion between the gravitational and eletromagnetic interactions, in the case in which the particle has a giromagnetic factor g=1, are shown. The last results complete a previous study by wald. (Author) [pt

  12. Effect of a gravitational wave on electromagnetic radiation confined in a cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tourrenc, P.

    1978-01-01

    Gravitational radiation is considered within the first-order approximation. A pattern of an electromagnetic cavity is studied: Gravitational waves give rise to a deformation of the planes limiting the cavity. This deformation alters the electromagnetic radiation. Several cases are studied and orders of magnitude are put forward. (author)

  13. Parametric transformation of weak gravitational wave into electromagnetic one in a three-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagirov, Eh.A.

    1985-01-01

    A model of resonance parametric transformation of a gravitational wave to electromagnetic one is considered. Two plane monochromatic waves: a strong electromagnetic and weak gravitational - interacting in a medium generate at difference and sum frequencies an electromagnetic wave in a direction determined with the condition of spatial wave synchronism. Rarefied cold gas or beam of elementary emitters (''molecules'') serve as a medium model. Coefficients of parametric transformation have been determined

  14. Speed of Gravitational Waves from Strongly Lensed Gravitational Waves and Electromagnetic Signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xi-Long; Liao, Kai; Biesiada, Marek; Piórkowska-Kurpas, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong

    2017-03-03

    We propose a new model-independent measurement strategy for the propagation speed of gravitational waves (GWs) based on strongly lensed GWs and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. This can be done in two ways: by comparing arrival times of GWs and their EM counterparts and by comparing the time delays between images seen in GWs and their EM counterparts. The lensed GW-EM event is perhaps the best way to identify an EM counterpart. Conceptually, this method does not rely on any specific theory of massive gravitons or modified gravity. Its differential setting (i.e., measuring the difference between time delays in GW and EM domains) makes it robust against lens modeling details (photons and GWs travel in the same lensing potential) and against internal time delays between GW and EM emission acts. It requires, however, that the theory of gravity is metric and predicts gravitational lensing similar to general relativity. We expect that such a test will become possible in the era of third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, when about 10 lensed GW events would be observed each year. The power of this method is mainly limited by the timing accuracy of the EM counterpart, which for kilonovae is around 10^{4}  s. This uncertainty can be suppressed by a factor of ∼10^{10}, if strongly lensed transients of much shorter duration associated with the GW event can be identified. Candidates for such short transients include short γ-ray bursts and fast radio bursts.

  15. ARRIVAL TIME DIFFERENCES BETWEEN GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND ELECTROMAGNETIC SIGNALS DUE TO GRAVITATIONAL LENSING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Ryuichi [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan)

    2017-01-20

    In this study we demonstrate that general relativity predicts arrival time differences between gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) signals caused by the wave effects in gravitational lensing. The GW signals can arrive earlier than the EM signals in some cases if the GW/EM signals have passed through a lens, even if both signals were emitted simultaneously by a source. GW wavelengths are much larger than EM wavelengths; therefore, the propagation of the GWs does not follow the laws of geometrical optics, including the Shapiro time delay, if the lens mass is less than approximately 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}( f /Hz){sup −1}, where f is the GW frequency. The arrival time difference can reach ∼0.1 s ( f /Hz){sup −1} if the signals have passed by a lens of mass ∼8000 M {sub ⊙}( f /Hz){sup −1} with the impact parameter smaller than the Einstein radius; therefore, it is more prominent for lower GW frequencies. For example, when a distant supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) in a galactic center is lensed by an intervening galaxy, the time lag becomes of the order of 10 days. Future pulsar timing arrays including the Square Kilometre Array and X-ray detectors may detect several time lags by measuring the orbital phase differences between the GW/EM signals in the SMBHBs. Gravitational lensing imprints a characteristic modulation on a chirp waveform; therefore, we can deduce whether a measured arrival time lag arises from intrinsic source properties or gravitational lensing. Determination of arrival time differences would be extremely useful in multimessenger observations and tests of general relativity.

  16. Radiatively-induced gravitational leptogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, J.I., E-mail: pymcdonald@swansea.ac.uk; Shore, G.M., E-mail: g.m.shore@swansea.ac.uk

    2015-12-17

    We demonstrate how loop effects in gravitational backgrounds lead to a difference in the propagation of matter and antimatter, and show this is forbidden in flat space due to CPT and translation invariance. This mechanism, which is naturally present in beyond the standard model (BSM) theories exhibiting C and CP violation, generates a curvature-dependent chemical potential for leptons in the low-energy effective Lagrangian, allowing a matter–antimatter asymmetry to be generated in thermodynamic equilibrium, below the BSM scale.

  17. Quantization of electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations of a Kerr black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelas, P.; Chrzanowski, P.; Howard, K.W.

    1981-01-01

    The electromagnetic and gravitational fluctuations about the classical gravitational field of a rotating black hole are quantized by imposing commutation relations on the Newman-Penrose quantities phi 0 and psi 0 . Two examples which illustrate the utility of the formalism concern the vacuum expectation value of the stress-energy tensor for the electromagnetic field in the Boulware vacuum and the response of an Unruh box coupled to fluctuations of the gravitational field. These quantities are computed in the vicinity of the horizon

  18. Radiatively-induced gravitational leptogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. McDonald

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate how loop effects in gravitational backgrounds lead to a difference in the propagation of matter and antimatter, and show this is forbidden in flat space due to CPT and translation invariance. This mechanism, which is naturally present in beyond the standard model (BSM theories exhibiting C and CP violation, generates a curvature-dependent chemical potential for leptons in the low-energy effective Lagrangian, allowing a matter–antimatter asymmetry to be generated in thermodynamic equilibrium, below the BSM scale.

  19. Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, V; Rabinovitch, A; Bahat, D

    2003-01-01

    In our laboratory, we combine accurate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements during fracture of rocks (carbonate and igneous) and transparent materials (glass, PMMA and glass ceramics) with careful fractographic methods. A critical analysis of experimental observations, accumulated here during the last decade together with supporting material from the works of other authors are used in this study to demonstrate the failure of all current models to explain the properties of EMR arising from fracture. The basic elements of a new model are proposed. These are (a) the EMR amplitude increases as long as the crack continues to grow, since new atomic bonds are severed and their contribution is added to the EMR. As a result, the atoms on both sides of the bonds are moved to 'non-equilibrium' positions relative to their steady state ones and begin to oscillate collectively in a manner similar to Debye model bulk oscillations - 'surface vibrational optical waves'; (b) when the crack halts, the waves and the EMR pulse amplitude decay by relaxation. These basic elements are already enough to describe the characteristics of the experimentally obtained isolated individual EMR pulses. These characteristics include the shape of the EMR pulse envelope, and the frequency, time duration and rise - fall time of the pulse

  20. Fracture induced electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V [Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Rabinovitch, A [Physics Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Bahat, D [Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2003-07-07

    In our laboratory, we combine accurate electromagnetic radiation (EMR) measurements during fracture of rocks (carbonate and igneous) and transparent materials (glass, PMMA and glass ceramics) with careful fractographic methods. A critical analysis of experimental observations, accumulated here during the last decade together with supporting material from the works of other authors are used in this study to demonstrate the failure of all current models to explain the properties of EMR arising from fracture. The basic elements of a new model are proposed. These are (a) the EMR amplitude increases as long as the crack continues to grow, since new atomic bonds are severed and their contribution is added to the EMR. As a result, the atoms on both sides of the bonds are moved to 'non-equilibrium' positions relative to their steady state ones and begin to oscillate collectively in a manner similar to Debye model bulk oscillations - 'surface vibrational optical waves'; (b) when the crack halts, the waves and the EMR pulse amplitude decay by relaxation. These basic elements are already enough to describe the characteristics of the experimentally obtained isolated individual EMR pulses. These characteristics include the shape of the EMR pulse envelope, and the frequency, time duration and rise - fall time of the pulse.

  1. Induced forces in the gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voracek, P.

    1979-01-01

    In this paper the expression for the magnitude of the so-called induced force, acting on a mass particle, is deduced. The origin of this force is causally connected to the increase of the rest mass of the particle in the gravitational field. (orig.)

  2. Ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes in self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamun, A.A.

    1999-07-01

    Obliquely propagating ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic waves in a self-gravitating, warm, magnetized two fluid dusty plasma system have been investigated. Two special cases, namely, dust-Alfven mode propagating parallel to the external magnetic field and dust-magnetosonic mode propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field have also been considered. It has been shown that effects of self-gravitational field, dust fluid temperature, and obliqueness significantly modify the dispersion properties of these ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes. It is also found that these effects of self-gravitational field and dust/ion fluid temperature play no role in parallel propagating dust-Alfven mode, but in obliquely propagating dust-Alfven mode or perpendicular propagating dust-magnetosonic mode the effect of self-gravitational field plays a destabilizing role whereas the effect of dust/ion fluid temperature plays a stabilizing role. (author)

  3. Optical-Gravitation Nonlinearity: A Change of Gravitational Coefficient G induced by Gravitation Field

    OpenAIRE

    R. Vlokh; M. Kostyrko

    2006-01-01

    Nonlinear effect of the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the gravitational coefficient G has been analysed. In frame of the approaches of parametric optics and gravitation nonlinearity we have shown that the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass can lead to changes in the gravitational coefficient G.

  4. Lorentz invariance violation and simultaneous emission of electromagnetic and gravitational waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Passos

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we compute some phenomenological bounds for the electromagnetic and massive gravitational high-derivative extensions supposing that it is possible to have an astrophysical process that generates simultaneously gravitational and electromagnetic waves. We present Lorentz invariance violating (LIV higher-order derivative models, following the Myers–Pospelov approach, to electrodynamics and massive gravitational waves. We compute the corrected equation of motion of these models, their dispersion relations and the velocities. The LIV parameters for the gravitational and electromagnetic sectors, ξg and ξγ, respectively, were also obtained for three different approaches: luminal photons, time delay of flight and the difference of graviton and photon velocities. These LIV parameters depend on the mass scales where the LIV-terms become relevant, M for the electromagnetic sector and M1 for the gravitational one. We obtain, using the values for M and M1 found in the literature, that ξg∼10−2, which is expected to be phenomenologically relevant and ξγ∼103, which cannot be suitable for an effective LIV theory. However, we show that ξγ can be interesting in a phenomenological point of view if M≫M1. Finally the relation between the variation of the velocities of the photon and the graviton in relation to the speed of light was calculated and resulted in Δvg/Δvγ≲1.82×10−3.

  5. On the equivalence of electromagnetic and clock-transport synchronization in noninertial frames and gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rumpf, H.

    1984-01-01

    Synchronization by slow clock transport is shown to be equivalent so that by electromagnetic signals for clocks moving along the trajectories of a timelike Killing vector field, provided the gravitational redshift is corrected for and the synchronization paths are the same. (Author)

  6. Continuous Quantum Nondemolition Measurements of a Particle in Electromagnetic and Gravitational Fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Chunhua; Zha Chaozheng

    2005-01-01

    The detection of a particle in electromagnetic plus gravitational fields is investigated. We obtain a set of quantum nondemolition variables. The continuous measurements of these nondemolition parameters are analyzed in the framework of restricted path integral formalism. We manipulate the corresponding propagators, and deduce the probabilities associated with the possible measurement outputs.

  7. Ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes in self-gravitating magnetized dusty plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banerjee, A.K.; Alam, M.N.; Mamun, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    Obliquely propagating ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic waves in a self-gravitating, warm, magnetized, two fluid dusty plasma system have been investigated. Two special cases, namely, dust-Alfven mode propagating parallel to the external magnetic field and dust- magnetosonic mode propagating perpendicular to the external magnetic field have also been considered. It has been shown that effects of self-gravitational field, dust fluid temperature, and obliqueness significantly modify the dispersion properties of these ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes. It is also found that in parallel propagating dust-Alfven mode these effects play no role, but in obliquely propagating dust-Alfven mode or perpendicular propagating dust-magnetosonic mode the effect of self-gravitational field plays destabilizing role whereas the effect of dust/ion fluid temperature plays stabilizing role. (author)

  8. Merger of binary neutron stars: Gravitational waves and electromagnetic counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, Masaru

    2016-12-15

    Late inspiral and merger phases of binary neutron stars are the valuable new experimental fields for exploring nuclear physics because (i) gravitational waves from them will bring information for the neutron-star equation of state and (ii) the matter ejected after the onset of the merger could be the main site for the r-process nucleosynthesis. We will summarize these aspects of the binary neutron stars, describing the current understanding for the merger process of binary neutron stars that has been revealed by numerical-relativity simulations.

  9. On the creation of gravitational wave by photon in external electromagnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoang Ngoc Long; Le Khac Huong

    1989-08-01

    The creation of the gravitational wave by the photon in an electromagnetic field is considered. We show that when the momentum of the photon is perpendicular to the field, the probability of the gravitational wave creation is largest in the direction of the motion of the photon. A numerical evaluation shows that the probability of creation in the direction mentioned is much larger than that in the direction considered, namely in the direction perpendicular to the photon momentum and may have the observable value in the present technical conditions. (author). 10 refs

  10. Linear coupling of electromagnetic and Jeans modes in self-gravitating plasma streams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaroshenko, Victoria V.; Voitenko, Yuriy; Goossens, Marcel

    2002-01-01

    A new mechanism of linear coupling between electromagnetic (nonpotential) and gravitational disturbances is found for oblique propagation relatively to particle streams. The general dispersion law is derived and applied to the case of two countersteaming dust beams of equal strength and quiasiperpendicular propagation. It reveals a strong linear coupling between the low-frequency aperiodically unstable electromagnetic (AEM) and the Jeans (JM) modes. The coupling is of a mode conversion type, resulting in a frequency gap in the dispersion, and thus significantly modifies the instability criteria. It is shown that, in contrast to the electrostatic case, AEM and JM coupling in streaming self-gravitating plasmas can actually appear even if the plasma frequencies of the dust species greatly exceed the corresponding Jeans frequencies

  11. Observable gravitational and electromagnetic orbits and trajectories in discrete physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noyes, H.P.; McGoveran, D.O.

    1988-01-01

    Our discrete and finite version of relativistic quantum mechanics provides an elementary particle physics consistent with the standard model of quarks and leptons. Our recent relativistic calculation of the bound state spectrum of hydrogen has allowed us to make a combinatorial correction to the first order estimate of 1/α = /Dirac h/c/e 2 = 137 derived from the combinatorial hierarchy and achieve agreement with experiment up to terms of order α 3 . The same theory requires that to first order /Dirac h/c/Gm/sub p/ 2 = 2 127 + 136 ≅ 1.7 /times/ 10 38 . Using the emission and absorption of spin 1 photons and spin 2 gravitons in this framework, we try to show that we can meet the three additional tests of general relativity---solar red shift, solar bending of light, and precession of the perihelion of Mercury. We predict that a macroscopic electromagnetic orbit would have four times the Sommerfeld precession for basically the same reason that Mercury has six times the Sommerfeld precession. 20 refs

  12. Electromagnetic transients as triggers in searches for gravitational waves from compact binary mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Luke Zoltan; Mandel, Ilya; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico

    2013-06-01

    The detection of an electromagnetic transient which may originate from a binary neutron star merger can increase the probability that a given segment of data from the LIGO-Virgo ground-based gravitational-wave detector network contains a signal from a binary coalescence. Additional information contained in the electromagnetic signal, such as the sky location or distance to the source, can help rule out false alarms and thus lower the necessary threshold for a detection. Here, we develop a framework for determining how much sensitivity is added to a gravitational-wave search by triggering on an electromagnetic transient. We apply this framework to a variety of relevant electromagnetic transients, from short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) to signatures of r-process heating to optical and radio orphan afterglows. We compute the expected rates of multimessenger observations in the advanced detector era and find that searches triggered on short GRBs—with current high-energy instruments, such as Fermi—and nucleosynthetic “kilonovae”—with future optical surveys, like the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope—can boost the number of multimessenger detections by 15% and 40%, respectively, for a binary neutron star progenitor model. Short GRB triggers offer precise merger timing but suffer from detection rates decreased by beaming and the high a priori probability that the source is outside the LIGO-Virgo sensitive volume. Isotropic kilonovae, on the other hand, could be commonly observed within the LIGO-Virgo sensitive volume with an instrument roughly an order of magnitude more sensitive than current optical surveys. We propose that the most productive strategy for making multimessenger gravitational-wave observations is using triggers from future deep, optical all-sky surveys, with characteristics comparable to the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope, which could make as many as ten such coincident observations a year.

  13. The origin of electromagnetically induced absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong Dae; Hwang, Sung Tae; Lee, Ho Seong; Park, Sung Jong; Cho, Hyuck; Choi, Won Sik

    2000-01-01

    Recently, there have been a lot of interests in the coherence superposition of atomic states which are formed by laser fields. Coherent population trapping(CTP), electromagnetically induced transparency(EIT), enhancement of the refractive index without absorption, lasing without inversion(LWI), and electromagnetically induced absorption(EIA) are the examples where coherence effects are important. Previously, the spontaneous transfer of the light-induced coherence from the excited level to the ground one was emphasized for the essential ingredient for electromagnetically induced absorption. In this paper, we have considered a case where linearly polarized coupling laser and probe laser are applied to the same degenerated ground and excited levels. We have solved the master equations for density matrix using time varying Hamiltonian and studied the absorption spectra at various conditions. We demonstrate that EIA can be observed without spontaneous transfer of the light-induced coherence in F g = 1 -> F e = 2 D2 transitions of Hydrogen atoms

  14. Probing extra dimension through gravitational wave observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Hao; Gu, Bao-Min; Wang, Yong-Qiang; Liu, Yu-Xiao [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Huang, Fa Peng [Theoretical Physics Division, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Meng, Xin-He, E-mail: yuh13@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: gubm15@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: huangfp@ihep.ac.cn, E-mail: yqwang@lzu.edu.cn, E-mail: xhm@nankai.edu.cn, E-mail: liuyx@lzu.edu.cn [School of Physics, Nankai University, Tianjin 300071 (China)

    2017-02-01

    The future gravitational wave (GW) observations of compact binaries and their possible electromagnetic counterparts may be used to probe the nature of the extra dimension. It is widely accepted that gravitons and photons are the only two completely confirmed objects that can travel along null geodesics in our four-dimensional space-time. However, if there exist extra dimensions and only GWs can propagate freely in the bulk, the causal propagations of GWs and electromagnetic waves (EMWs) are in general different. In this paper, we study null geodesics of GWs and EMWs in a five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time in the presence of the curvature of the universe. We show that for general cases the horizon radius of GW is longer than EMW within equal time. Taking the GW150914 event detected by the Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and the X-ray event detected by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor as an example, we study how the curvature k and the constant curvature radius l affect the horizon radii of GW and EMW in the de Sitter and Einstein-de Sitter models of the universe. This provides an alternative method for probing extra dimension through future GW observations of compact binaries and their electromagnetic counterparts.

  15. Electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Xihua; Sheng Jiteng; Xiao Min

    2011-01-01

    We conduct theoretical studies on electromagnetically induced absorption via incoherent collisions in an inhomogeneously broadened ladder-type three-level system with the density-matrix approach. The effects of the collision-induced coherence decay rates as well as the probe laser field intensity on the probe field absorption are examined. It is shown that with the increase of the collisional decay rates in a moderate range, a narrow dip due to electromagnetically induced transparency superimposed on the Doppler-broadened absorption background can be turned into a narrow peak under the conditions that the probe field intensity is not very weak as compared to the pump field, which results from the enhancement of constructive interference and suppression of destructive interference between one-photon and multiphoton transition pathways. The physical origin of the collision-assisted electromagnetically induced absorption is analyzed with a power-series solution of the density-matrix equations.

  16. Gravitationally self-induced phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Duque, S.L.S.

    1990-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism by means of which a phase transition can be stimulated by self-gravitating matter. We suggest that this model could be used to explain the observed isotropy of the Universe. (orig.)

  17. A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, S. J.; Chen, T.-W.; Jerkstrand, A.; Coughlin, M.; Kankare, E.; Sim, S. A.; Fraser, M.; Inserra, C.; Maguire, K.; Chambers, K. C.; Huber, M. E.; Krühler, T.; Leloudas, G.; Magee, M.; Shingles, L. J.; Smith, K. W.; Young, D. R.; Tonry, J.; Kotak, R.; Gal-Yam, A.; Lyman, J. D.; Homan, D. S.; Agliozzo, C.; Anderson, J. P.; Angus, C. R.; Ashall, C.; Barbarino, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Berton, M.; Botticella, M. T.; Bulla, M.; Bulger, J.; Cannizzaro, G.; Cano, Z.; Cartier, R.; Cikota, A.; Clark, P.; De Cia, A.; Della Valle, M.; Denneau, L.; Dennefeld, M.; Dessart, L.; Dimitriadis, G.; Elias-Rosa, N.; Firth, R. E.; Flewelling, H.; Flörs, A.; Franckowiak, A.; Frohmaier, C.; Galbany, L.; González-Gaitán, S.; Greiner, J.; Gromadzki, M.; Guelbenzu, A. Nicuesa; Gutiérrez, C. P.; Hamanowicz, A.; Hanlon, L.; Harmanen, J.; Heintz, K. E.; Heinze, A.; Hernandez, M.-S.; Hodgkin, S. T.; Hook, I. M.; Izzo, L.; James, P. A.; Jonker, P. G.; Kerzendorf, W. E.; Klose, S.; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z.; Kowalski, M.; Kromer, M.; Kuncarayakti, H.; Lawrence, A.; Lowe, T. B.; Magnier, E. A.; Manulis, I.; Martin-Carrillo, A.; Mattila, S.; McBrien, O.; Müller, A.; Nordin, J.; O'Neill, D.; Onori, F.; Palmerio, J. T.; Pastorello, A.; Patat, F.; Pignata, G.; Podsiadlowski, Ph.; Pumo, M. L.; Prentice, S. J.; Rau, A.; Razza, A.; Rest, A.; Reynolds, T.; Roy, R.; Ruiter, A. J.; Rybicki, K. A.; Salmon, L.; Schady, P.; Schultz, A. S. B.; Schweyer, T.; Seitenzahl, I. R.; Smith, M.; Sollerman, J.; Stalder, B.; Stubbs, C. W.; Sullivan, M.; Szegedi, H.; Taddia, F.; Taubenberger, S.; Terreran, G.; van Soelen, B.; Vos, J.; Wainscoat, R. J.; Walton, N. A.; Waters, C.; Weiland, H.; Willman, M.; Wiseman, P.; Wright, D. E.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Yaron, O.

    2017-11-01

    Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short γ-ray burst. The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 ± 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 ± 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 ± 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.

  18. A kilonova as the electromagnetic counterpart to a gravitational-wave source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smartt, S J; Chen, T-W; Jerkstrand, A; Coughlin, M; Kankare, E; Sim, S A; Fraser, M; Inserra, C; Maguire, K; Chambers, K C; Huber, M E; Krühler, T; Leloudas, G; Magee, M; Shingles, L J; Smith, K W; Young, D R; Tonry, J; Kotak, R; Gal-Yam, A; Lyman, J D; Homan, D S; Agliozzo, C; Anderson, J P; Angus, C R; Ashall, C; Barbarino, C; Bauer, F E; Berton, M; Botticella, M T; Bulla, M; Bulger, J; Cannizzaro, G; Cano, Z; Cartier, R; Cikota, A; Clark, P; De Cia, A; Della Valle, M; Denneau, L; Dennefeld, M; Dessart, L; Dimitriadis, G; Elias-Rosa, N; Firth, R E; Flewelling, H; Flörs, A; Franckowiak, A; Frohmaier, C; Galbany, L; González-Gaitán, S; Greiner, J; Gromadzki, M; Guelbenzu, A Nicuesa; Gutiérrez, C P; Hamanowicz, A; Hanlon, L; Harmanen, J; Heintz, K E; Heinze, A; Hernandez, M-S; Hodgkin, S T; Hook, I M; Izzo, L; James, P A; Jonker, P G; Kerzendorf, W E; Klose, S; Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Z; Kowalski, M; Kromer, M; Kuncarayakti, H; Lawrence, A; Lowe, T B; Magnier, E A; Manulis, I; Martin-Carrillo, A; Mattila, S; McBrien, O; Müller, A; Nordin, J; O'Neill, D; Onori, F; Palmerio, J T; Pastorello, A; Patat, F; Pignata, G; Podsiadlowski, Ph; Pumo, M L; Prentice, S J; Rau, A; Razza, A; Rest, A; Reynolds, T; Roy, R; Ruiter, A J; Rybicki, K A; Salmon, L; Schady, P; Schultz, A S B; Schweyer, T; Seitenzahl, I R; Smith, M; Sollerman, J; Stalder, B; Stubbs, C W; Sullivan, M; Szegedi, H; Taddia, F; Taubenberger, S; Terreran, G; van Soelen, B; Vos, J; Wainscoat, R J; Walton, N A; Waters, C; Weiland, H; Willman, M; Wiseman, P; Wright, D E; Wyrzykowski, Ł; Yaron, O

    2017-11-02

    Gravitational waves were discovered with the detection of binary black-hole mergers and they should also be detectable from lower-mass neutron-star mergers. These are predicted to eject material rich in heavy radioactive isotopes that can power an electromagnetic signal. This signal is luminous at optical and infrared wavelengths and is called a kilonova. The gravitational-wave source GW170817 arose from a binary neutron-star merger in the nearby Universe with a relatively well confined sky position and distance estimate. Here we report observations and physical modelling of a rapidly fading electromagnetic transient in the galaxy NGC 4993, which is spatially coincident with GW170817 and with a weak, short γ-ray burst. The transient has physical parameters that broadly match the theoretical predictions of blue kilonovae from neutron-star mergers. The emitted electromagnetic radiation can be explained with an ejected mass of 0.04 ± 0.01 solar masses, with an opacity of less than 0.5 square centimetres per gram, at a velocity of 0.2 ± 0.1 times light speed. The power source is constrained to have a power-law slope of -1.2 ± 0.3, consistent with radioactive powering from r-process nuclides. (The r-process is a series of neutron capture reactions that synthesise many of the elements heavier than iron.) We identify line features in the spectra that are consistent with light r-process elements (atomic masses of 90-140). As it fades, the transient rapidly becomes red, and a higher-opacity, lanthanide-rich ejecta component may contribute to the emission. This indicates that neutron-star mergers produce gravitational waves and radioactively powered kilonovae, and are a nucleosynthetic source of the r-process elements.

  19. Unified theory of gravitation, electromagnetism, and the Yang-Mills field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borchsenius, K.

    1976-01-01

    The recent modification and extension of Einstein's nonsymmetric unified field theory for gravitation and electromagnetism is generalized to include the Yang-Mills field theory. The generalization consists in assuming that the components of the linear connection and of the fundamental tensor are not ordinary c numbers but are matrices related to some unitary symmetry. As an example we consider the SU(2) case. The theory is applied to the gauge-covariant formulation of electrically and isotopically charged spin-1/2 field theories

  20. Gravitational and electromagnetic fields near an anti-de Sitter-like infinity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krtous, Pavel; Podolsky, Jiri

    2004-01-01

    We analyze the asymptotic structure of general gravitational and electromagnetic fields near an anti-de Sitter-like conformal infinity. The dependence of the radiative component of the fields on a null direction along which the infinity is approached is obtained. The directional pattern of outgoing and ingoing radiation, which supplements standard peeling property, is determined by the algebraic (Petrov) type of the fields and also by the orientation of the principal null directions with respect to timelike infinity. The dependence on the orientation is a new feature if compared to spacelike infinity

  1. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency In Rydberg Atomic Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Li; Cong, Lu; Chen, Ai-Xi

    2018-03-01

    Due to possessing big principal quantum number, Rydberg atom has some unique properties, for example: its radiative lifetime is long, dipole moment is large, and interaction between atoms is strong and so on. These properties make one pay attention to Rydberg atoms. In this paper we investigate the effects of Rydberg dipole-dipole interactions on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) schemes and group velocity in three-level systems of ladder type, which provides theoretical foundation for exploring the linear and nonlinear characteristics of light in a Rydberg electromagnetically-induced-transparency medium.

  2. The Final Merger of Massive Black Holes: Recoils, Gravitational Waves, and Electromagnetic Signatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan M.

    2010-01-01

    The final merger of two massive black holes produces a powerful burst of gravitational radiation, emitting more energy than all the stars in the observable universe combined. The resulting gravitational waveforms will be easily detectable by the space-based LISA out to redshifts z greater than 10, revealing the masses and spins of the black holes to high precision. If the merging black holes have unequal masses, or asymmetric spins, the final black hole that forms can recoil with a velocity exceeding 1000 km/s. And, when the black holes merge in the presence of gas and magnetic fields, various types of electromagnetic signals may also be produced. For more than 30 years, scientists have tried to compute black hole mergers using the methods of numerical relativity. The resulting computer codes have been plagued by instabilities, causing them to crash well before the black holes in the binary could complete even a single orbit. Within the past few years, however, this situation has changed dramatically, with a series of remarkable breakthroughs. This talk will focus on new results that are revealing the dynamics and waveforms of binary black hole mergers, recoil velocities, and the possibility of accompanying electromagnetic outbursts.

  3. Unified theory of gravitation and electromagnetism based on the conformal group SOsub(4,2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pavsic, M.

    1977-01-01

    It is done a ''minimal'' change in the existing 4-dimensional relativity, by extending it to the 6-dimensional conformal (etasup(a))-space (flat or curved one) with the metric tensor gsub(ab) (a, b=0, 1, 2, 3, 5, 6), where all components of the 6-vector etasup(a)=(etasup(μ)=kxsup(μ), k, lambda) are considered as independent physical degrees of freedom. All basic equations of (special and general) relativity in 6-dimensional (flat or curved) conformal (etasup(a))-space have the same form as the corresponding equations in the 4-dimensional space. The novel feature of such an extended theory (named ''conformal relativity'') is the introduction of the scale degree of freedom k, which can be different from 1 and can change along the particle world-line. However, if k=1, then the conformal relativity reduces to the usual 4-dimensional relativity. Geodesics in the curved (etasup(a))-space correspond to the motion of electrically charged test particles in gravitational and/or electromagnetic fields. The field equations for the metric tensor gsub(ab) are Einstein equations, extended to the (etasup(a))-space; they describe a gravitational and electromagnetic field

  4. Collinear light scattering using electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.; Sokolov, A.V.; Walker, D.R.; Yavuz, D.D.; Yin, G.Y.

    2001-01-01

    The paper describes two types of nonlinear optical processes which are based on electromagnetically induced transparency. These are: (1) Collinear generation of FM-like Raman sidebands and (2) a type of pondermotive light scattering which is inherent to the interaction of slow light with cold atoms. Connections to other areas of EIT-based nonlinear optics are also described

  5. Electromagnetically induced transparency with broadband laser pulses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, D. D.

    2007-01-01

    We suggest a scheme to slow and stop broadband laser pulses inside an atomic medium using electromagnetically induced transparency. Extending the suggestion of Harris et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 70, 552 (1993)], the key idea is to use matched Fourier components for the probe and coupling laser beams

  6. Observations of the First Electromagnetic Counterpart to a Gravitational-wave Source by the TOROS Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, M. C.; Macri, L. M.; Garcia Lambas, D.; Mendes de Oliveira, C.; Nilo Castellón, J. L.; Ribeiro, T.; Sánchez, B.; Schoenell, W.; Abramo, L. R.; Akras, S.; Alcaniz, J. S.; Artola, R.; Beroiz, M.; Bonoli, S.; Cabral, J.; Camuccio, R.; Castillo, M.; Chavushyan, V.; Coelho, P.; Colazo, C.; Costa-Duarte, M. V.; Cuevas Larenas, H.; DePoy, D. L.; Domínguez Romero, M.; Dultzin, D.; Fernández, D.; García, J.; Girardini, C.; Gonçalves, D. R.; Gonçalves, T. S.; Gurovich, S.; Jiménez-Teja, Y.; Kanaan, A.; Lares, M.; Lopes de Oliveira, R.; López-Cruz, O.; Marshall, J. L.; Melia, R.; Molino, A.; Padilla, N.; Peñuela, T.; Placco, V. M.; Quiñones, C.; Ramírez Rivera, A.; Renzi, V.; Riguccini, L.; Ríos-López, E.; Rodriguez, H.; Sampedro, L.; Schneiter, M.; Sodré, L.; Starck, M.; Torres-Flores, S.; Tornatore, M.; Zadrożny, A.

    2017-10-01

    We present the results of prompt optical follow-up of the electromagnetic counterpart of the gravitational-wave event GW170817 by the Transient Optical Robotic Observatory of the South Collaboration. We detected highly significant dimming in the light curves of the counterpart ({{Δ }}g=0.17+/- 0.03 mag, {{Δ }}r=0.14+/- 0.02 mag, {{Δ }}I=0.10+/- 0.03 mag) over the course of only 80 minutes of observations obtained ˜35 hr after the trigger with the T80-South telescope. A second epoch of observations, obtained ˜59 hr after the event with the EABA 1.5 m telescope, confirms the fast fading nature of the transient. The observed colors of the counterpart suggest that this event was a “blue kilonova” relatively free of lanthanides.

  7. Measuring the Viewing Angle of GW170817 with Electromagnetic and Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finstad, Daniel; De, Soumi; Brown, Duncan A.; Berger, Edo; Biwer, Christopher M.

    2018-06-01

    The joint detection of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) radiation from the binary neutron star merger GW170817 ushered in a new era of multi-messenger astronomy. Joint GW–EM observations can be used to measure the parameters of the binary with better precision than either observation alone. Here, we use joint GW–EM observations to measure the viewing angle of GW170817, the angle between the binary’s angular momentum and the line of sight. We combine a direct measurement of the distance to the host galaxy of GW170817 (NGC 4993) of 40.7 ± 2.36 Mpc with the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO)/Virgo GW data and find that the viewing angle is {32}-13+10 +/- 1.7 degrees (90% confidence, statistical, and systematic errors). We place a conservative lower limit on the viewing angle of ≥13°, which is robust to the choice of prior. This measurement provides a constraint on models of the prompt γ-ray and radio/X-ray afterglow emission associated with the merger; for example, it is consistent with the off-axis viewing angle inferred for a structured jet model. We provide for the first time the full posterior samples from Bayesian parameter estimation of LIGO/Virgo data to enable further analysis by the community.

  8. Gravitationally induced neutrino oscillation phases in static spacetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, T.; Habib, S.; Mottola, E.

    1999-01-01

    We critically examine the recent claim of a 'new effect' of gravitationally induced quantum mechanical phases in neutrino oscillations. Because this claim has generated some discussion in the literature we present here a straightforward calculation of the phase and clarify some of the conceptual issues involved, particularly in relation to the equivalence principle. When expressed in terms of the asymptotic energy of the neutrinos E and Schwarzschild radial coordinates r, the lowest order at which such a gravitational effect appears is (GMΔm 4 /ℎE 3 )ln(r B /r A ). copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  9. Gravitational Zero Point Energy induces Physical Observables

    OpenAIRE

    Garattini, Remo

    2010-01-01

    We consider the contribution of Zero Point Energy on the induced Cosmological Constant and on the induced Electric/Magnetic charge in absence of matter fields. The method is applicable to every spherically symmetric background. Extensions to a generic $f(R) $ theory are also allowed. Only the graviton appears to be fundamental to the determination of Zero Point Energy.

  10. Gravitation

    CERN Document Server

    Misner, Charles W; Wheeler, John Archibald

    2017-01-01

    First published in 1973, Gravitation is a landmark graduate-level textbook that presents Einstein’s general theory of relativity and offers a rigorous, full-year course on the physics of gravitation. Upon publication, Science called it “a pedagogic masterpiece,” and it has since become a classic, considered essential reading for every serious student and researcher in the field of relativity. This authoritative text has shaped the research of generations of physicists and astronomers, and the book continues to influence the way experts think about the subject. With an emphasis on geometric interpretation, this masterful and comprehensive book introduces the theory of relativity; describes physical applications, from stars to black holes and gravitational waves; and portrays the field’s frontiers. The book also offers a unique, alternating, two-track pathway through the subject. Material focusing on basic physical ideas is designated as Track 1 and formulates an appropriate one-semester graduate-level...

  11. Correlation analysis of extremely low-frequency variations of the natural electromagnetic Earth field and the problem of detecting periodical gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A.B.; Murzakhanov, Z.G.; Grunskaya, L.V.

    1994-01-01

    A proposal on the experimental detection of extremely low-frequency variations of the electromagnetic Earth field at the gravitational-wave frequency and method for correlation processing results of the experiments are described. 14 refs

  12. Origin of intense magnetic fields near black holes due to non-minimal gravitational-electromagnetic coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, Rafael S. de; Opher, Reuven

    2011-01-01

    The origin of magnetic fields in astrophysical objects is a challenging problem in astrophysics. Throughout the years, many scientists have suggested that non-minimal gravitational-electromagnetic coupling (NMGEC) could be the origin of the ubiquitous astrophysical magnetic fields. We investigate the possible origin of intense magnetic fields by NMGEC near rotating black holes, connected with quasars and gamma-ray bursts. Whereas these intense magnetic fields are difficult to explain astrophysically, we find that they are easily explained by NMGEC.

  13. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bharti, Vineet [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India); Wasan, Ajay [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Technology, Roorkee 247667 (India); Natarajan, Vasant [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore 560012 (India)

    2016-07-15

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  14. Wavelength mismatch effect in electromagnetically induced absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bharti, Vineet; Wasan, Ajay; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of the phenomenon of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in a 4-level system consisting of vee and ladder subsystems. The four levels are coupled using one weak probe field, and two strong control fields. We consider an experimental realization using energy levels of Rb. This necessitates dealing with different conditions of wavelength mismatch—near-perfect match where all three wavelengths are approximately equal; partial mismatch where the wavelength of one control field is less than the other fields; and complete mismatch where all three wavelengths are unequal. We present probe absorption profiles with Doppler averaging at room temperature to account for experiments in a room temperature Rb vapor cell. Our analysis shows that EIA resonances can be studied using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers. - Highlights: • Wavelength mismatch effect is investigated in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA). • An experimental realization of 4-level vee + ladder system using energy levels of rubidium atom is presented. • EIA resonances are studied under different conditions of wavelength mismatch. • Possibility of observation of EIA using Rydberg states excited with diode lasers.

  15. Gravitational nonminimally coupled electromagnetic fields: a possible solution to some idiosincrasies of Einstein-Maxwell theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accioly, A.J.

    1988-01-01

    A theory of nonminimal coupling of electromagnetism and gravitation in the framework of Riomannian geometry is constructed. As a consequence the main difficulties concerning the Einstein-Maxwell theory are cleared away. The theory works as a kind of correction to the Einstein-Maxwell one for regions with strong curvature and for times much greater than the Planck time. A Reissner-Nordstroem-type solution is exhibited and comments are made on a parameter which somewhat resembles the ''Schwarzschild radius''. A mechanism of charge creation via nonminimal coupling is also discussed. We calculate the propagation of photons in a Robertson-Walker background and find that the effect of the nonminimal coupling in this case may be to deviate the photon from the null geodesics, increasing its velocity beyond the flat-space value. Taking into account this results, the observed isotropy of the background radiation can be explained in a simple way, regardless of any assumption about the state of the Universe prior to the Planck time. (author) [pt

  16. PRIMORDIAL GRAVITATIONAL WAVES AND RESCATTERED ELECTROMAGNETIC RADIATION IN THE COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Hoon [Basic Science Research Institute, Ewha Womans University, Seoul 03760 (Korea, Republic of); Trippe, Sascha, E-mail: ki13130@gmail.com, E-mail: trippe@astro.snu.ac.kr [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-20

    Understanding the interaction of primordial gravitational waves (GWs) with the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) plasma is important for observational cosmology. In this article, we provide an analysis of an apparently as-yet-overlooked effect. We consider a single free electric charge and suppose that it can be agitated by primordial GWs propagating through the CMB plasma, resulting in periodic, regular motion along particular directions. Light reflected by the charge will be partially polarized, and this will imprint a characteristic pattern on the CMB. We study this effect by considering a simple model in which anisotropic incident electromagnetic (EM) radiation is rescattered by a charge sitting in spacetime perturbed by GWs, and becomes polarized. As the charge is driven to move along particular directions, we calculate its dipole moment to determine the leading-order rescattered EM radiation. The Stokes parameters of the rescattered radiation exhibit a net linear polarization. We investigate how this polarization effect can be schematically represented out of the Stokes parameters. We work out the representations of gradient modes (E-modes) and curl modes (B-modes) to produce polarization maps. Although the polarization effect results from GWs, we find that its representations, the E- and B-modes, do not practically reflect the GW properties such as strain amplitude, frequency, and polarization states.

  17. The GEM Theory of the Unification of Gravitation and Electro-Magnetism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandenburg, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    The GEM (Gravity Electro-Magnetism), theory is presented as an alloy of Sakharov and Kaluza-Klein approaches to field unification. GEM uses the concept of gravity fields as Poynting fields to postulate that the non-metric portion of the EM stress tensor becomes the metric tensor in strong fields leading to "self-censorship". Covariant formulation of the GEM theory is accomplished through definition of the spacetime metric tensor as a portion of the EM stress tensor normalized by its own trace: gab = 4(FcaFcb )/(FabFab), it is found that this results in a massless ground state vacuum and a Newtonian gravitation potential f=1/2 E2/B2 =GM/r , where E, B and F are part of the vacuum Zero Point Fluctuation (ZPF) and M and r are the mass and distance from the center of a gravitating body and G is the Newton gravitation constant. It is found that a Lorentz flat-space metric is recovered in the limit of a vacuum full spectrum ZPF. The vacuum ZPF energy and vacuum quantities G, h, c, gives birth to particles quantities mp, me, e,-e in a process triggered by the appearance of the Kaluza-Klein fifth dimension, where also the EM and gravity forces split from each other in a process correlated to the splitting apart of protons and electrons. The separate appearance of the proton and electron occurs as the splitting of a light-like spacetime interval of zero-length into a finite space-like portion containing three subdimensions identified with the quarks and a time-like portion identified with the electron. The separation of mass with charge for the electron and proton pair comes about from a U(1) symmetry with a rotation in imaginary angle. A logarithmic variation of charge with mass for the proton-electron pair results and leads to the formula ln(ro/rp) = s, where s = (mp/me)1/2 , where mp and me are the electron and proton masses respectively and where ro =e2/moc2 , and where mo = (mpme)1/2 and where rp is the Planck length . This leads to the formula G=e2/mo2aexp(-2s)=6

  18. Optical pumping-assisted electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Wei; Chen Qunfeng; Zhang Yongsheng; Guo, G.-C.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we report an observation of the two-photon absorption in a four-level system in hot 87 Rb vapor based on the proposal of Harris and Yamamoto [Phys. Rev. Lett. 81, 3611 (1998)]. We show that this effect is reduced in hot atoms due to the non-Doppler-free nature of this scheme. Then we report a phenomenon that could be used in the same application of Harris and Yamamoto. The main result is a great enhancement of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect in hot 87 Rb vapor caused by optical pumping. We find that when the single photon detuning is near zero the EIT signal is dramatically enhanced by an optical pumping field. More interestingly when the single photon detuning is larger the signal can be changed from a sharp Raman peak to a sharp EIT dip. The full width at half maximum of the peak and dip are narrow and subnatural

  19. Electromagnetically induced grating with Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asghar, Sobia; Ziauddin, Qamar, Shahid; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-09-01

    We present a scheme to realize electromagnetically induced grating in an ensemble of strongly interacting Rydberg atoms, which act as superatoms due to the dipole blockade mechanism. The ensemble of three-level cold Rydberg-dressed (87Rb) atoms follows a cascade configuration where a strong standing-wave control field and a weak probe pulse are employed. The diffraction intensity is influenced by the strength of the probe intensity, the control field strength, and the van der Waals (vdW) interaction. It is noticed that relatively large first-order diffraction can be obtained for low-input intensity with a small vdW shift and a strong control field. The scheme can be considered as an amicable solution to realize the atomic grating at the microscopic level, which can provide background- and dark-current-free diffraction.

  20. Study of interaction of electromagnetic waves with thin rotating cylindrical shell of conductor in vicinity of weakly gravitating string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muminov, A.T.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: As it shown in the work [1,2], interaction of electromagnetic wave with rotating cylindrical shell of conductor leads to an interesting phenomenon of energy transmission from rotating body to the wave. We study influence of the gravitational field of the string on the process of interaction of electromagnetic waves with infinitesimally thin conducting cylindrical shell. Since in the outer space and inside the shell electromagnetic field satisfies source free Maxwell equations we start with constructing the most general solutions of this equation. Then we match the fields on the cylinder with account of boundary conditions on it. Matching the fields gives expressions for reflection factors of cylindrical waves for two cases of polarization. The reflection factors for distinct wave polarizations show the ratio of outgoing energy flux to in going one. Curved cylindrical symmetric space-time with weakly gravitating string-like source is described by static metric: δs 2 = f(r)δt 2 - h(r)(δz 2 + δr 2 ) - l(r)δψ 2 ; f(r) = r ε ; h(r) = r -ε ; l(r) = r 2 /f(r). Which corresponds to low line density of mass ε on the string. The metric is particular case of Lewis metric [3,4] with zero angular momentum of the string and its weak gravity. The boundary value problem for electromagnetic waves interaction with thin conducting rotating cylindrical shell in static cylindrical metric with weakly gravitating string has been solved analytically. It is found that character of dependence of the factors on Ω at ω R<<1 and ΩR<<1 approximation remains the same as in flat space-time ε =0. Analysis of expressions for the reflection factors in frames of considered approximation has been done

  1. Gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fennelly, A.J.

    1978-01-01

    Investigations of several problems of gravitation are discussed. The question of the existence of black holes is considered. While black holes like those in Einstein's theory may not exist in other gravity theories, trapped surfaces implying such black holes certainly do. The theories include those of Brans-Dicke, Lightman-Lee, Rosen, and Yang. A similar two-tensor theory of Yilmaz is investigated and found inconsistent and nonviable. The Newman-Penrose formalism for Riemannian geometries is adapted to general gravity theories and used to implement a search for twisting solutions of the gravity theories for empty and nonempty spaces. The method can be used to find the gravitational fields for all viable gravity theories. The rotating solutions are of particular importance for strong field interpretation of the Stanford/Marshall gyroscope experiment. Inhomogeneous cosmologies are examined in Einstein's theory as generalizations of homogeneous ones by raising the dimension of the invariance groups by one more parameter. The nine Bianchi classifications are extended to Rosen's theory of gravity for homogeneous cosmological models

  2. Implementation and Testing of the First Prompt Search for Gravitational Wave Transients with Electromagnetic Counterparts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; hide

    2012-01-01

    Aims. A transient astrophysical event observed in both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) channels would yield rich scientific rewards. A first program initiating EM follow-ups to possible transient GW events has been developed and exercised by the LIGO and Virgo community in association with several partners. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the methods used to promptly identify and localize GW event candidates and to request images of targeted sky locations. Methods. During two observing periods (Dec. 17, 2009 to Jan. 8, 2010 and Sep. 2 to Oct. 20, 2010), a low-latency analysis pipeline was used to identify GW event candidates and to reconstruct maps of possible sky locations. A catalog of nearby galaxies and MilkyWay globular clusters was used to select the most promising sky positions to be imaged, and this directional information was delivered to EM observatories with time lags of about thirty minutes. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the low-latency GW pipeline's ability to reconstruct source positions correctly. Results. For signals near the detection threshold, our low-latency algorithms often localized simulated GW burst signals to tens of square degrees, while neutron star/neutron star inspirals and neutron star/black hole inspirals were localized to a few hundred square degrees. Localization precision improves for moderately stronger signals. The correct sky location of signals well above threshold and originating from nearby galaxies may be observed with 50% or better probability with a few pointings of wide-field telescopes.

  3. First Electromagnetic Pulse Associated with a Gravitational-wave Event: Profile, Duration, and Delay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Da-Bin; Liu, Tong; Lin, Jie; Wang, Xiang-Gao; Gu, Wei-Min; Liang, En-Wei

    2018-04-01

    We study the first electromagnetic (EM) pulse after the gravitational-wave (GW) chirp signal, focusing on its profile and duration. It is found that the light curve, especially the steep decay (SD) phase, can be very different by adopting different viewing angles θ view of the jet shell. For an on-axis jet with a power-law radiation spectrum, the observed flux in the SD is proportional to {t}obs}-2-β with β being the spectral index and t obs being the observer time. Here, t obs = 0 is set at the time we observe the jet being ejected from the central engine. The SD may become steep by increasing θ view. We also study the bolometric luminosity L from a jet shell with a non-power-law radiation spectrum. For an on-axis jet, L ∝ t obs ‑3 is found in the SD. However, the SD is steeper than L\\propto {t}obs}-3 for radiation from an off-axis jet. The higher value of the θ view is, the steeper SD would be. Then, we suggest that the SD phase can be used to discriminate an off-axis jet from an on-axis jet. The reason for the above behaviors is discussed. In addition, we find that the duration of first EM pulse is close to its peak time, especially for θ view ∼ 20°. This result is consistent with that found in GW 170817/GRB 170817A. Thus, the jet corresponding to the prompt emission of GRB 170817A should be ejected immediately after the merger. Our results also reveal that the duration of the first EM pulse can provide information on the time to search for GWs.

  4. Constraining parameters of white-dwarf binaries using gravitational-wave and electromagnetic observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, Sweta; Nelemans, Gijs

    2014-01-01

    The space-based gravitational wave (GW) detector, evolved Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (eLISA) is expected to observe millions of compact Galactic binaries that populate our Milky Way. GW measurements obtained from the eLISA detector are in many cases complimentary to possible electromagnetic (EM) data. In our previous papers, we have shown that the EM data can significantly enhance our knowledge of the astrophysically relevant GW parameters of Galactic binaries, such as the amplitude and inclination. This is possible due to the presence of some strong correlations between GW parameters that are measurable by both EM and GW observations, for example, the inclination and sky position. In this paper, we quantify the constraints in the physical parameters of the white-dwarf binaries, i.e., the individual masses, chirp mass, and the distance to the source that can be obtained by combining the full set of EM measurements such as the inclination, radial velocities, distances, and/or individual masses with the GW measurements. We find the following 2σ fractional uncertainties in the parameters of interest. The EM observations of distance constrain the chirp mass to ∼15%-25%, whereas EM data of a single-lined spectroscopic binary constrain the secondary mass and the distance with factors of two to ∼40%. The single-line spectroscopic data complemented with distance constrains the secondary mass to ∼25%-30%. Finally, EM data on double-lined spectroscopic binary constrain the distance to ∼30%. All of these constraints depend on the inclination and the signal strength of the binary systems. We also find that the EM information on distance and/or the radial velocity are the most useful in improving the estimate of the secondary mass, inclination, and/or distance.

  5. Implementation and Testing of the First Prompt for Electromagnetic Counterparts to Gravitational Wave Transients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadie, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T. D.; Abernathy, M.; Accadia, T.; Acernese, F.; Adams, C.; Adhikari, R.; Affeldt, C.; hide

    2011-01-01

    A transient astrophysical event observed in both gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) channels would yield rich scientific rewards. A first program initiating EM follow-ups to possible transient GW events has been developed and exercised by the LIGO and Virgo community in association with several partners. In this paper, we describe and evaluate the methods used to promptly identify and localize GW event candidates and to request images of targeted sky locations. Methods. During two observing periods (Dec 17 2009 to Jan 8 2010 and Sep 2 to Oct 20 2010), a low-latency analysis pipeline was used to identify GW-event candidates and to reconstruct-maps of possible sky locations. A catalog of nearby galaxies and Milky Way globular clusters was used to select the most promising sky positions to be imaged, and this directional information was delivered to EM observatories with time lags of about thirty minutes. A Monte Carlo simulation has been used to evaluate the low-latency GW pipeline s ability to reconstruct source positions correctly. Results. For signals near the detection threshold, our low-latency algorithms often localized simulated GW burst signals to tens of square degrees, while neutron star/neutron star inspirals and neutron star/black hole inspirals were localized to a few hundred square degrees. Localization precision improves for moderately stronger signals. The correct sky location of signals well above threshold and originating from nearby galaxies may be observed with 50% or better probability with a few pointings of wide-field telescopes.

  6. Neutron star equilibrium configurations within a fully relativistic theory with strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belvedere, Riccardo; Pugliese, Daniela; Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo; Xue, She-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    We formulate the equations of equilibrium of neutron stars taking into account strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational interactions within the framework of general relativity. The nuclear interactions are described by the exchange of the σ, ω, and ρ virtual mesons. The equilibrium conditions are given by our recently developed theoretical framework based on the Einstein–Maxwell–Thomas–Fermi equations along with the constancy of the general relativistic Fermi energies of particles, the “Klein potentials”, throughout the configuration. The equations are solved numerically in the case of zero temperatures and for selected parameterizations of the nuclear models. The solutions lead to a new structure of the star: a positively charged core at supranuclear densities surrounded by an electronic distribution of thickness ∼ℏ/(m e c)∼10 2 ℏ/(m π c) of opposite charge, as well as a neutral crust at lower densities. Inside the core there is a Coulomb potential well of depth ∼m π c 2 /e. The constancy of the Klein potentials in the transition from the core to the crust, imposes the presence of an overcritical electric field ∼(m π /m e ) 2 E c , the critical field being E c =m e 2 c 3 /(eℏ). The electron chemical potential and the density decrease, in the boundary interface, until values μ e crust e core and ρ crust core . For each central density, an entire family of core–crust interface boundaries and, correspondingly, an entire family of crusts with different mass and thickness, exist. The configuration with ρ crust =ρ drip ∼4.3×10 11 gcm −3 separates neutron stars with and without inner crust. We present here the novel neutron star mass–radius for the especial case ρ crust =ρ drip and compare and contrast it with the one obtained from the traditional Tolman–Oppenheimer–Volkoff treatment.

  7. Strings: A possible alternative explanation for the Unification of Gravitation Field and Electromagnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Susana

    Throughout the last century, since the last decades of the XIX century, until present day, there had been many attempts to achieve the unification of the Forces of Nature. First unification was done by James Clerk Maxwell, with his Electromagnetic Theory. Then Max Plank developed his Quantum Theory. In 1905, Albert Einstein gave birth to the Special Relativity Theory, and in 1916 he came out with his General Relativity Theory. He noticed that there was an evident parallelism between the Gravitational Force, and the Electromagnetic Force. So, he tried to unify these forces of Nature. But Quantum Theory interposed on his way. On the 1940’s it had been developed the Quantum Electrodynamics (QED), and with it, the unified field theory had an arise interest. On the 60’s and 70’s there was developed the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD). Along with these theories came the discovery of the strong interaction force and weak interaction force. And though there had been many attempts to unify all these forces of the nature, it could only be achieved the Unification of strong interaction, weak interaction and Electromagnetic Force. On the late 80”s and throughout the last two decades, theories such as “super-string theory”, “or the “M-theory”, among others, groups of Scientists, had been doing grand efforts and finally they came out with the unification of the forces of nature, being the only limitation the use of more than 11 dimensions. Using an ingenious mathematical tool known as the super symmetries, based on the Kaluza - Klein work, they achieve this goal. The strings of these theories are in the rank of 10-33 m. Which make them undetectable. There are many other string theories. The GEUFT theory is based on the existence of concentrated energy lines, which vibrates, expands and contracts, submitting and absorbing energy, matter and antimatter, and which yields a determined geometry, that gives as a result the formation of stars, galaxies, nebulae, clusters

  8. The Hall-induced stability of gravitating fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmakar, P. K.; Goutam, H. P.

    2018-05-01

    We analyze the stability behavior of low-density partially ionized self-gravitating magnetized unbounded dusty plasma fluid in the presence of the Hall diffusion effects (HDEs) in the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equilibrium framework. The effects of inhomogeneous self-gravity are methodically included in the basic model tapestry. Application of the Fourier plane-wave perturbative treatment decouples the structuration representative parameters into a linear generalized dispersion relation (sextic) in a judicious mean-fluid approximation. The dispersion analysis shows that the normal mode, termed as the gravito-magneto-acoustic (GMA) mode, is drastically modified due to the HDEs. This mode is highly dispersive, and driven unstable by the Hall current resulting from the symmetry-breaking of electrons and ions relative to the magnetic field. The mode feature, which is derived from a modified induction with the positive Hall, is against the ideal MHD. It is further demonstrated that the HDEs play stabilizing roles by supporting the cloud against gravitational collapse. Provided that the HDEs are concurrently switched off, the collapse occurs on the global spatial scale due to enhanced inward accretion of the gravitating dust constituents. It is seen explicitly that the enhanced dust-charge leads to stabilizing effects. Besides, the Hall-induced fluctuations, as propagatory wave modes, exhibit both normal and anomalous dispersions. The reliability checkup of the entailed results as diverse corollaries and special cases are illustratively discussed in the panoptic light of the earlier paradigmatic predictions available in the literature.

  9. All-optical modulation based on electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fountoulakis, Antonios; Terzis, Andreas F.; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2010-01-01

    We numerically investigate the implementation of all-optical absorption modulation of electromagnetic pulses by a medium that exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency. The quantum system is modelled as a three-level Λ-type system that interacts with two electromagnetic pulses, a probe pulse and a coupling pulse. The dynamics of the system is described by the coupled Maxwell-density matrix equations, and we explore the dependence of the optical modulation efficiency on the parameters of the system.

  10. Unification of Electromagnetism and Gravitation in the Framework of General Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Shahverdiyev, Shervgi

    2005-01-01

    A new geometry, called General geometry, is constructed. It is proven that its the most simplest special case is geometry underlying Electromagnetism. Another special case is Riemannian geometry. Action for electromagnetic field and Maxwell equations are derived from curvature function of geometry underlying Electromagnetism. It is shown that equation of motion for a particle interacting with electromagnetic field coincides exactly with equation for geodesics of geometry underlying Electromag...

  11. IDENTIFYING ELUSIVE ELECTROMAGNETIC COUNTERPARTS TO GRAVITATIONAL WAVE MERGERS: AN END-TO-END SIMULATION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nissanke, Samaya; Georgieva, Alexandra; Kasliwal, Mansi

    2013-01-01

    Combined gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) observations of compact binary mergers should enable detailed studies of astrophysical processes in the strong-field gravity regime. This decade, ground-based GW interferometers promise to routinely detect compact binary mergers. Unfortunately, networks of GW interferometers have poor angular resolution on the sky and their EM signatures are predicted to be faint. Therefore, a challenging goal will be to unambiguously pinpoint the EM counterparts of GW mergers. We perform the first comprehensive end-to-end simulation that focuses on: (1) GW sky localization, distance measures, and volume errors with two compact binary populations and four different GW networks; (2) subsequent EM detectability by a slew of multiwavelength telescopes; and (3) final identification of the merger counterpart amidst a sea of possible astrophysical false positives. First, we find that double neutron star binary mergers can be detected out to a maximum distance of 400 Mpc (or 750 Mpc) by three (or five) detector GW networks, respectively. Neutron-star-black-hole binary mergers can be detected a factor of 1.5 further out; their median to maximum sky localizations are 50-170 deg 2 (or 6-65 deg 2 ) for a three (or five) detector GW network. Second, by optimizing depth, cadence, and sky area, we quantify relative fractions of optical counterparts that are detectable by a suite of different aperture-size telescopes across the globe. Third, we present five case studies to illustrate the diversity of scenarios in secure identification of the EM counterpart. We discuss the case of a typical binary, neither beamed nor nearby, and the challenges associated with identifying an EM counterpart at both low and high Galactic latitudes. For the first time, we demonstrate how construction of low-latency GW volumes in conjunction with local universe galaxy catalogs can help solve the problem of false positives. We conclude with strategies that would

  12. Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency with Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakar Ali, Abu; Ziauddin

    2018-02-01

    Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is revisited via the input probe field intensity. A strongly interacting Rydberg atomic medium ensemble is considered in a cavity, where atoms behave as superatoms (SAs) under the dipole blockade mechanism. Each atom in the strongly interacting Rydberg atomic medium (87 Rb) follows a three-level cascade atomic configuration. A strong control and weak probe field are employed in the cavity with the ensemble of Rydberg atoms. The features of the reflected and transmitted probe light are studied under the influence of the input probe field intensity. A transparency peak (cavity EIT) is revealed at a resonance condition for small values of input probe field intensity. The manipulation of the cavity EIT is reported by tuning the strength of the input probe field intensity. Further, the phase and group delay of the transmitted and reflected probe light are studied. It is found that group delay and phase in the reflected light are negative, while for the transmitted light they are positive. The magnitude control of group delay in the transmitted and reflected light is investigated via the input probe field intensity.

  13. Transient birefringence effects in electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parshkov, O M

    2015-01-01

    We report the results of numerical modelling of transient birefringence that arises as a result of electromagnetically induced transparency on degenerate quantum transitions between the states with J = 0, 1 and 2 in the presence of the Doppler broadening of spectral lines. It is shown that in the case of a linearly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence leads to a decay of the input circularly polarised probe pulse into separate linearly polarised pulses inside a medium. In the case of a circularly polarised control field, the effect of transient birefringence manifests itself in a decay of the input linearly polarised probe pulse into separate circularly polarised pulses. It is shown that the distance that a probe pulse has to pass in a medium before decaying into subpulses is considerably greater in the first case than in the second. The influence of the input probe pulse power and duration on the process of spatial separation into individual pulses inside a medium is studied. A qualitative analysis of the obtained results is presented. (nonlinear optical phenomena)

  14. HYPERCRITICAL ACCRETION, INDUCED GRAVITATIONAL COLLAPSE, AND BINARY-DRIVEN HYPERNOVAE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Chris L. [CCS-2, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Rueda, Jorge A.; Ruffini, Remo [ICRANet, Piazza della Repubblica 10, I-65122 Pescara (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The induced gravitational collapse (IGC) paradigm has been successfully applied to the explanation of the concomitance of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with supernovae (SNe) Ic. The progenitor is a tight binary system composed of a carbon-oxygen (CO) core and a neutron star (NS) companion. The explosion of the SN leads to hypercritical accretion onto the NS companion, which reaches the critical mass, hence inducing its gravitational collapse to a black hole (BH) with consequent emission of the GRB. The first estimates of this process were based on a simplified model of the binary parameters and the Bondi-Hoyle-Lyttleton accretion rate. We present here the first full numerical simulations of the IGC phenomenon. We simulate the core-collapse and SN explosion of CO stars to obtain the density and ejection velocity of the SN ejecta. We follow the hydrodynamic evolution of the accreting material falling into the Bondi-Hoyle surface of the NS all the way up to its incorporation in the NS surface. The simulations go up to BH formation when the NS reaches the critical mass. For appropriate binary parameters, the IGC occurs in short timescales ∼10{sup 2}-10{sup 3} s owing to the combined effective action of the photon trapping and the neutrino cooling near the NS surface. We also show that the IGC scenario leads to a natural explanation for why GRBs are associated only with SNe Ic with totally absent or very little helium.

  15. Single photon SWAP gate using electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yavuz, D.D.

    2005-01-01

    We describe a scheme that performs a SWAP gate between two photons at different wavelengths with near 100% fidelity. The essential idea is the preparation of a near-maximal atomic coherence using electromagnetically induced transparency

  16. Electromagnetic radiation damping of charges in external gravitational fields (weak field, slow motion approximation). [Harmonic coordinates, weak field slow-motion approximation, Green function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudolph, E [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (F.R. Germany)

    1975-01-01

    As a model for gravitational radiation damping of a planet the electromagnetic radiation damping of an extended charged body moving in an external gravitational field is calculated in harmonic coordinates using a weak field, slowing-motion approximation. Special attention is paid to the case where this gravitational field is a weak Schwarzschild field. Using Green's function methods for this purpose it is shown that in a slow-motion approximation there is a strange connection between the tail part and the sharp part: radiation reaction terms of the tail part can cancel corresponding terms of the sharp part. Due to this cancelling mechanism the lowest order electromagnetic radiation damping force in an external gravitational field in harmonic coordinates remains the flat space Abraham Lorentz force. It is demonstrated in this simplified model that a naive slow-motion approximation may easily lead to divergent higher order terms. It is shown that this difficulty does not arise up to the considered order.

  17. Measuring and slowing decoherence in Electromagnetically induced transparency medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuker, M.; Firstenberg, O.; Sagi, Y.; Ben-Kish, A.; Fisher, A.; Ron, A.; Davidson, N.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text:Electromagnetically induced transparency is a unique light-matter interaction that exhibits extremely narrow-band spectroscopic features along with low absorption. Recent interest in this phenomenon is driven by its possible applications in quantum information (slow light, storage of light), atomic clocks and precise magnetometers. The Electromagnetically induced transparency phenomenon takes place when an atomic ensemble is driven to a coherent superposition of its ground state sub-levels by two phase-coherent radiation fields. A key parameter of the Electromagnetically induced transparency medium, that limits its applicability, is the coherence lifetime of this superposition (decoherence rate). We have developed a simple technique to measure decay rates within the ground state of an atomic ensemble, and specifically the decoherence rate of the Electromagnetically induced transparency coherent superposition. Detailed measurements were performed in a Rubidium vapor cell at 60 - 80 with 30 Torr of Neon buffer gas. We have found that the Electromagnetically induced transparency decoherence is dominated by spin-exchange collisions between Rubidium atoms. We discuss the sensitivity of various quantum states of the atomic ensemble to spin exchange decoherence, and find a set of quantum states that minimize this effect. Finally, we demonstrate a unique quantum state which is both insensitive to spin exchange decoherence and constitutes an Electromagnetically induced transparency state of the medium

  18. Ultra-low-frequency dust-electromagnetic modes in self-gravitating

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gravitating, warm, magnetized, two fluid dusty plasma system have been investigated. Two special cases, namely, dust-Alfvén mode propagating parallel to the external magnetic field and dust-magnetosonic mode propagating perpendicular to ...

  19. Thermodynamics of gravitationally induced particle creation scenario in DGP braneworld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Rafique, Salman [COMSATS Institute of Information Technology, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2018-01-15

    In this paper, we discuss the thermodynamical analysis for gravitationally induced particle creation scenario in the framework of DGP braneworld model. For this purpose, we consider apparent horizon as the boundary of the universe. We take three types of entropy such as Bakenstein entropy, logarithmic corrected entropy and power law corrected entropy with ordinary creation rate Γ. We analyze the first law and generalized second law of thermodynamics analytically for these entropies which hold under some constraints. The behavior of total entropy in each case is also discussed which implies the validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics. Also, we check the thermodynamical equilibrium condition for two phases of creation rate, that is constant and variable Γ and found its vitality in all cases of entropy. (orig.)

  20. Thermodynamics of gravitationally induced particle creation scenario in DGP braneworld

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jawad, Abdul; Rani, Shamaila; Rafique, Salman

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the thermodynamical analysis for gravitationally induced particle creation scenario in the framework of DGP braneworld model. For this purpose, we consider apparent horizon as the boundary of the universe. We take three types of entropy such as Bakenstein entropy, logarithmic corrected entropy and power law corrected entropy with ordinary creation rate Γ. We analyze the first law and generalized second law of thermodynamics analytically for these entropies which hold under some constraints. The behavior of total entropy in each case is also discussed which implies the validity of generalized second law of thermodynamics. Also, we check the thermodynamical equilibrium condition for two phases of creation rate, that is constant and variable Γ and found its vitality in all cases of entropy. (orig.)

  1. An electromagnetic basis for inertia and gravitation: What are the implications for 21st century physics and technology?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haisch, Bernhard; Rueda, Alfonso

    1998-01-01

    The basis of most modern technology is the manipulation of electromagnetic phenomena. Haisch, Rueda and Puthoff (1994a) published a controversial but substantive formulation of a concept proposing an explanation of inertia of matter as an electromagnetic phenomenon originating in the zero-point field (ZPF) of the quantum vacuum. This suggests that Newton's equation of motion can be derived from Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics, in that inertial mass is postulated to be not an intrinsic property of matter but rather a kind of electromagnetic drag force (which temporarily is a place holder for a more general quantum vacuum reaction effect) that proves to be acceleration dependent by virtue of the spectral characteristics of the ZPF. Moreover the principle of equivalence implies that in this view gravitation would also be electromagnetic in origin along the lines proposed by Sakharov (1968). A NASA-funded research effort has been underway at the Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center in Palo Alto and at California State University in Long Beach to develop and test these ideas. An effort to generalize the 1994 ZPF-inertia concept into a proper relativistic formulation has been successful. With regard to the goals of the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Program we can, on the basis of the ZPF-inertia concept, definitively rule out one speculatively hypothesized propulsion mechanism: matter possessing negative inertial mass, a concept originated by Bondi (1957). The existence of this is shown to be logically impossible. On the other hand, the linked ZPF-inertia and ZPF-gravity concepts open the conceptual possibility of manipulation of inertia and gravitation, since both are postulated to be electromagnetic phenomena. Whether this will translate into actual technological potential, especially with respect to spacecraft propulsion and future interstellar travel capability, is an open question. The (possibly comparable) time scale for translation of Einstein

  2. Birefringence induced by pp-wave modes in an electromagnetically active dynamic aether

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alpin, Timur Yu.; Balakin, Alexander B.

    2017-01-01

    In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory we study the birefringence effect, which can occur in the pp-wave symmetric dynamic aether. The dynamic aether is considered to be a latently birefringent quasi-medium, which displays this hidden property if and only if the aether motion is non-uniform, i.e., when the aether flow is characterized by the non-vanishing expansion, shear, vorticity or acceleration. In accordance with the dynamo-optical scheme of description of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the dynamic aether, we shall model the susceptibility tensors by the terms linear in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector. When the pp-wave modes appear in the dynamic aether, we deal with a gravitationally induced degeneracy removal with respect to hidden susceptibility parameters. As a consequence, the phase velocities of electromagnetic waves possessing orthogonal polarizations do not coincide, thus displaying the birefringence effect. Two electromagnetic field configurations are studied in detail: longitudinal and transversal with respect to the aether pp-wave front. For both cases the solutions are found, which reveal anomalies in the electromagnetic response on the action of the pp-wave aether mode. (orig.)

  3. Birefringence induced by pp-wave modes in an electromagnetically active dynamic aether

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alpin, Timur Yu.; Balakin, Alexander B. [Kazan Federal University, Department of General Relativity and Gravitation, Institute of Physics, Kazan (Russian Federation)

    2017-10-15

    In the framework of the Einstein-Maxwell-aether theory we study the birefringence effect, which can occur in the pp-wave symmetric dynamic aether. The dynamic aether is considered to be a latently birefringent quasi-medium, which displays this hidden property if and only if the aether motion is non-uniform, i.e., when the aether flow is characterized by the non-vanishing expansion, shear, vorticity or acceleration. In accordance with the dynamo-optical scheme of description of the interaction between electromagnetic waves and the dynamic aether, we shall model the susceptibility tensors by the terms linear in the covariant derivative of the aether velocity four-vector. When the pp-wave modes appear in the dynamic aether, we deal with a gravitationally induced degeneracy removal with respect to hidden susceptibility parameters. As a consequence, the phase velocities of electromagnetic waves possessing orthogonal polarizations do not coincide, thus displaying the birefringence effect. Two electromagnetic field configurations are studied in detail: longitudinal and transversal with respect to the aether pp-wave front. For both cases the solutions are found, which reveal anomalies in the electromagnetic response on the action of the pp-wave aether mode. (orig.)

  4. A possible unification of the electromagnetic and weak interaction with the gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tauber, G.E.

    1982-01-01

    It is suggested that the generators of SL(6,c) containing the Lorentz group SL(2,c) and SU 3 as sub-groups, may be unified with the gravitational field. For that purpose they are combined into a single ''tetrad'' whose completeness relation then yields the gravitational potentials. The appropriate field equations are written down in analogy with previous formulations given by Einstein and others. Upon projecting on the space tetrad the contributions of these internal variables may be isolated and the relevant equations found. (Auth.)

  5. Crack velocity measurement by induced electromagnetic radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frid, V.; Rabinovitch, A.; Bahat, D.

    2006-01-01

    Our model of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emanated from fracture implies that EMR amplitude is proportional to crack velocity. Soda lime glass samples were tested under uniaxial tension. Comparison of crack velocity observed by Wallner line analysis and the peak amplitude of EMR signals registered during the test, showed very good correlation, validating this proportionality

  6. Crack velocity measurement by induced electromagnetic radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)]. E-mail: vfrid@bgu.ac.il; Rabinovitch, A. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Physics Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel); Bahat, D. [Deichmann Rock Mechanics Laboratory of the Negev, Geological and Environmental Sciences Department, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel)

    2006-07-31

    Our model of electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emanated from fracture implies that EMR amplitude is proportional to crack velocity. Soda lime glass samples were tested under uniaxial tension. Comparison of crack velocity observed by Wallner line analysis and the peak amplitude of EMR signals registered during the test, showed very good correlation, validating this proportionality.

  7. Electromagnetic field induced biological effects in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaszuba-Zwoińska, Jolanta; Gremba, Jerzy; Gałdzińska-Calik, Barbara; Wójcik-Piotrowicz, Karolina; Thor, Piotr J

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to artificial radio frequency electromagnetic fields (EMFs) has increased significantly in recent decades. Therefore, there is a growing scientific and social interest in its influence on health, even upon exposure significantly below the applicable standards. The intensity of electromagnetic radiation in human environment is increasing and currently reaches astronomical levels that had never before experienced on our planet. The most influential process of EMF impact on living organisms, is its direct tissue penetration. The current established standards of exposure to EMFs in Poland and in the rest of the world are based on the thermal effect. It is well known that weak EMF could cause all sorts of dramatic non-thermal effects in body cells, tissues and organs. The observed symptoms are hardly to assign to other environmental factors occurring simultaneously in the human environment. Although, there are still ongoing discussions on non-thermal effects of EMF influence, on May 31, 2011--International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC)--Agenda of World Health Organization (WHO) has classified radio electromagnetic fields, to a category 2B as potentially carcinogenic. Electromagnetic fields can be dangerous not only because of the risk of cancer, but also other health problems, including electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS). Electromagnetic hypersensitivity (EHS) is a phenomenon characterized by the appearance of symptoms after exposure of people to electromagnetic fields, generated by EHS is characterized as a syndrome with a broad spectrum of non-specific multiple organ symptoms including both acute and chronic inflammatory processes located mainly in the skin and nervous systems, as well as in respiratory, cardiovascular systems, and musculoskeletal system. WHO does not consider the EHS as a disease-- defined on the basis of medical diagnosis and symptoms associated with any known syndrome. The symptoms may be associated with a single source of EMF

  8. Determining hyperfine transitions with electromagnetically induced transparency and optical pumping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Yi-Chi; Tsai Chin-Chun; Huang Chen-Han; Chui Hsiang-Chen; Chang Yung-Yung

    2011-01-01

    A system is designed to observe the phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency and optical pumping in cesium D 1 and D 2 lines at room temperature. When a pump laser is frequency-locked on the top of a hyperfine transition and the frequency of the probe laser scans over another hyperfine transition, a spectrum of V-type electromagnetically induced transparency or an optical pumping can be observed depending on whether the two lasers share a common ground state. Therefore, these results can be used to identify the unknown hyperfine transitions of the D 1 line transitions. For educational purposes, this system is helpful for understanding the electromagnetically induced transparency and the optical pumping

  9. Entropy and Entanglement of the Electromagnetically Induced Transparency System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xiao-Juan; FANG Mao-Fa; ZHOU Qing-Ping

    2004-01-01

    @@ We study the entropy and the entanglement of an electromagnetically induced transparency system. The quantum entanglement between the atom and the two quantized laser fields is discussed by using quantum reduced entropy and that between the two quantized laser fields by using quantum relative entropy. We also examine whether influences of EIT on entropy and quantum entanglement of the system considered occur or not. Our results show that the minimum value of the atomic reduced entropy may be regarded as an entropy criterion on the electromagnetically induced transparency occurring.

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency in an open multilevel system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Tian; Lu Meiju; Weinstein, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency in a multilevel system is investigated in 173 Yb. The level structure investigated is ''open'' in that the light that gives rise to the transparency also resonantly couples the atoms to excited states which do not exhibit electromagnetically induced transparency. The resulting reduction of transparency is investigated experimentally and theoretically. It is found that, while the transparency is poor in certain regimes, it can be made to perform arbitrarily well in the limit of a large intensity imbalance between the optical fields.

  11. HIGH-ENERGY ELECTROMAGNETIC OFFLINE FOLLOW-UP OF LIGO-VIRGO GRAVITATIONAL-WAVE BINARY COALESCENCE CANDIDATE EVENTS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackburn, L.; Camp, J. [NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD (United States); Briggs, M. S.; Connaughton, V.; Jenke, P. [University of Alabama in Huntsville, Huntsville, AL (United States); Christensen, N. [Carleton College, Northfield, MN (United States); Remillard, R. A. [Massachussetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States); Veitch, J. [University of Birmingham, Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2015-03-15

    We present two different search methods for electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave (GW) events from ground-based detectors using archival NASA high-energy data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and RXTE All-sky Monitor (ASM) instruments. To demonstrate the methods, we use a limited number of representative GW background noise events produced by a search for binary neutron star coalescence over the last two months of the LIGO-Virgo S6/VSR3 joint science run. Time and sky location provided by the GW data trigger a targeted search in the high-energy photon data. We use two custom pipelines: one to search for prompt gamma-ray counterparts in GBM, and the other to search for a variety of X-ray afterglow model signals in ASM. We measure the efficiency of the joint pipelines to weak gamma-ray burst counterparts, and a family of model X-ray afterglows. By requiring a detectable signal in either electromagnetic instrument coincident with a GW event, we are able to reject a large majority of GW candidates. This reduces the signal-to-noise ratio of the loudest surviving GW background event by around 15–20%.

  12. High-Energy Electromagnetic Offline Follow-Up of Ligo-Virgo Gravitational-Wave Binary Coalescence Candidate Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackburn, L.; Briggs, M. S.; Camp, J.; Christensen, N.; Connaughton, V.; Jenke, P.; Remillard, R. A.; Veitch, J.

    2015-01-01

    We present two different search methods for electromagnetic counterparts to gravitational-wave (GW) events from ground-based detectors using archival NASA high-energy data from the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and RXTE All-sky Monitor (ASM) instruments. To demonstrate the methods, we use a limited number of representative GW background noise events produced by a search for binary neutron star coalescence over the last two months of the LIGO-Virgo S6/VSR3 joint science run. Time and sky location provided by the GW data trigger a targeted search in the high-energy photon data. We use two custom pipelines: one to search for prompt gamma-ray counterparts in GBM, and the other to search for a variety of X-ray afterglow model signals in ASM. We measure the efficiency of the joint pipelines to weak gamma-ray burst counterparts, and a family of model X-ray afterglows. By requiring a detectable signal in either electromagnetic instrument coincident with a GW event, we are able to reject a large majority of GW candidates. This reduces the signal-to-noise ratio of the loudest surviving GW background event by around 15-20 percent.

  13. Gravitational Casimir–Polder effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Hu

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The interaction due to quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations between a gravitationally polarizable object modelled as a two-level system and a gravitational boundary is investigated. This quantum gravitational interaction is found to be position-dependent, which induces a force in close analogy to the Casimir–Polder force in the electromagnetic case. For a Dirichlet boundary, the quantum gravitational potential for the polarizable object in its ground-state is shown to behave like z−5 in the near zone, and z−6 in the far zone, where z is the distance to the boundary. For a concrete example, where a Bose–Einstein condensate is taken as a gravitationally polarizable object, the relative correction to the radius of the BEC caused by fluctuating quantum gravitational waves in vacuum is found to be of order 10−21. Although the correction is far too small to observe in comparison with its electromagnetic counterpart, it is nevertheless of the order of the gravitational strain caused by a recently detected black hole merger on the arms of the LIGO.

  14. Thermodynamic implications of the gravitationally induced particle creation scenario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Subhajit [Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, Department of Physical Sciences, Mohanpur, West Bengal (India); Mondal, Anindita [S N Bose National Centre for Basic Sciences, Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2017-03-15

    A rigorous thermodynamic analysis has been done as regards the apparent horizon of a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe for the gravitationally induced particle creation scenario with constant specific entropy and an arbitrary particle creation rate Γ. Assuming a perfect fluid equation of state p = (γ - 1)ρ with (2)/(3) ≤ γ ≤ 2, the first law, the generalized second law (GSL), and thermodynamic equilibrium have been studied, and an expression for the total entropy (i.e., horizon entropy plus fluid entropy) has been obtained which does not contain Γ explicitly. Moreover, a lower bound for the fluid temperature T{sub f} has also been found which is given by T{sub f} ≥ 8 (((3γ)/(2)-1)/((2)/(γ)-1)) H{sup 2}. It has been shown that the GSL is satisfied for (Γ)/(3H) ≤ 1. Further, when Γ is constant, thermodynamic equilibrium is always possible for (1)/(2) < (Γ)/(3H) < 1, while for (Γ)/(3H) ≤ min {(1)/(2), (2γ-2)/(3γ-2)} and (Γ)/(3H) ≥ 1, equilibrium can never be attained. Thermodynamic arguments also lead us to believe that during the radiation phase, Γ ≤ H. When Γ is not a constant, thermodynamic equilibrium holds if H ≥ (27)/(4) γ{sup 2}H{sup 3} (1-(Γ)/(3H)){sup 2}, however, such a condition is by no means necessary for the attainment of equilibrium. (orig.)

  15. Thermodynamic implications of the gravitationally induced particle creation scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saha, Subhajit; Mondal, Anindita

    2017-01-01

    A rigorous thermodynamic analysis has been done as regards the apparent horizon of a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker universe for the gravitationally induced particle creation scenario with constant specific entropy and an arbitrary particle creation rate Γ. Assuming a perfect fluid equation of state p = (γ - 1)ρ with (2)/(3) ≤ γ ≤ 2, the first law, the generalized second law (GSL), and thermodynamic equilibrium have been studied, and an expression for the total entropy (i.e., horizon entropy plus fluid entropy) has been obtained which does not contain Γ explicitly. Moreover, a lower bound for the fluid temperature T f has also been found which is given by T f ≥ 8 (((3γ)/(2)-1)/((2)/(γ)-1)) H 2 . It has been shown that the GSL is satisfied for (Γ)/(3H) ≤ 1. Further, when Γ is constant, thermodynamic equilibrium is always possible for (1)/(2) < (Γ)/(3H) < 1, while for (Γ)/(3H) ≤ min {(1)/(2), (2γ-2)/(3γ-2)} and (Γ)/(3H) ≥ 1, equilibrium can never be attained. Thermodynamic arguments also lead us to believe that during the radiation phase, Γ ≤ H. When Γ is not a constant, thermodynamic equilibrium holds if H ≥ (27)/(4) γ 2 H 3 (1-(Γ)/(3H)) 2 , however, such a condition is by no means necessary for the attainment of equilibrium. (orig.)

  16. High-Frequency Gravitational Wave Induced Nuclear Fusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fontana, Giorgio; Baker, Robert M. L. Jr.

    2007-01-01

    Nuclear fusion is a process in which nuclei, having a total initial mass, combine to produce a single nucleus, having a final mass less than the total initial mass. Below a given atomic number the process is exothermic; that is, since the final mass is less than the combined initial mass and the mass deficit is converted into energy by the nuclear fusion. On Earth nuclear fusion does not happen spontaneously because electrostatic barriers prevent the phenomenon. To induce controlled, industrial scale, nuclear fusion, only a few methods have been discovered that look promising, but net positive energy production is not yet possible because of low overall efficiency of the systems. In this paper we propose that an intense burst of High Frequency Gravitational Waves (HFGWs) could be focused or beamed to a target mass composed of appropriate fuel or target material to efficiently rearrange the atomic or nuclear structure of the target material with consequent nuclear fusion. Provided that efficient generation of HFGW can be technically achieved, the proposed fusion reactor could become a viable solution for the energy needs of mankind and alternatively a process for beaming energy to produce a source of fusion energy remotely - even inside solid materials

  17. The transition time induced narrow linewidth of the electromagnetically induced transparency in caesium vapour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Luming; Peng Xiang; Liu Cheng; Guo Hong; Chen Xuzong

    2004-01-01

    We observed a narrow linewidth (∼60 kHz) in a Doppler-broadened system showing electromagnetically induced transparency in caesium atomic vapour. The transition time induced reduction of the linewidth is illustrated both theoretically and experimentally

  18. Scalar field vacuum expectation value induced by gravitational wave background

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Preston; McDougall, Patrick; Ragsdale, Michael; Singleton, Douglas

    2018-06-01

    We show that a massless scalar field in a gravitational wave background can develop a non-zero vacuum expectation value. We draw comparisons to the generation of a non-zero vacuum expectation value for a scalar field in the Higgs mechanism and with the dynamical Casimir vacuum. We propose that this vacuum expectation value, generated by a gravitational wave, can be connected with particle production from gravitational waves and may have consequences for the early Universe where scalar fields are thought to play an important role.

  19. Parametric mechanisms for detecting gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovoit, V.I.; Chernozatonskii, L.A.

    1981-01-01

    An intense electromagnetic wave and a gravitational wave can interact to effectively generate electromagnetic waves at sum and difference frequencies. The self-effect of a monochromatic electromagnetic wave through a gravitational field leads to third-harmonic generation

  20. Backwards time travel induced by combined magnetic and gravitational fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novello, M.; Svaiter, N.F.; Guimaraes, M.E.X.

    1990-01-01

    We analyse the behaviour of an elementary microscopic particle submitted to combined Magnetic and Gravitational Fields on Goedel's Universe. The exam is made in a local Gaussian system of coordinates. (author)

  1. Electromagnetically induced transparency in metamaterials at near-infrared frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Xiao, Sanshui; Jeppesen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    We employ a planar metamaterial structure composed of a splitring-resonator (SRR) and paired nano-rods to experimentally realize a spectral response at near-infrared frequencies resembling that of electromagnetically induced transparency. A narrow transparency window associated with low loss...

  2. Dark and bright vortex solitons in electromagnetically induced transparent media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Xuan; Xie Xiaotao; Yang Xiaoxue

    2006-01-01

    We show that dark and bright vortex solitons can exist in three-state electromagnetically induced transparent media under some appropriate conditions. We also analyse the stability of the dark and bright vortex solitons. This work may provide other research opportunities in nonlinear optical experiments and may result in a substantial impact on technology

  3. Quantum control of light using electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andre, A; Eisaman, M D; Walsworth, R L; Zibrov, A S; Lukin, M D

    2005-01-01

    We present an overview of recent theoretical and experimental work on the control of the propagation and quantum properties of light using electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic ensembles. Specifically, we discuss techniques for the generation and storage of few-photon quantum-mechanical states of light as well as novel approaches to manipulate weak pulses of light via enhanced nonlinear optical processes

  4. Electromagnetically-induced transparency in Doppler-broadened ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-08

    Feb 8, 2014 ... triple EIT windows depending on the amplitude and detuning of the coupling fields. Keywords. Electromagnetically-induced transparency; atomic ... photon transparency [6] and the effect of spontaneously generated coherence on EIT [7] using homogenously broadened models. Pramana – J. Phys., Vol.

  5. Gravitationally Induced Entanglement between Two Massive Particles is Sufficient Evidence of Quantum Effects in Gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marletto, C; Vedral, V

    2017-12-15

    All existing quantum-gravity proposals are extremely hard to test in practice. Quantum effects in the gravitational field are exceptionally small, unlike those in the electromagnetic field. The fundamental reason is that the gravitational coupling constant is about 43 orders of magnitude smaller than the fine structure constant, which governs light-matter interactions. For example, detecting gravitons-the hypothetical quanta of the gravitational field predicted by certain quantum-gravity proposals-is deemed to be practically impossible. Here we adopt a radically different, quantum-information-theoretic approach to testing quantum gravity. We propose witnessing quantumlike features in the gravitational field, by probing it with two masses each in a superposition of two locations. First, we prove that any system (e.g., a field) mediating entanglement between two quantum systems must be quantum. This argument is general and does not rely on any specific dynamics. Then, we propose an experiment to detect the entanglement generated between two masses via gravitational interaction. By our argument, the degree of entanglement between the masses is a witness of the field quantization. This experiment does not require any quantum control over gravity. It is also closer to realization than detecting gravitons or detecting quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations.

  6. Electromagnetically induced transparency in high-temperature magnetoactive plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryachko, A.Yu.; Litvak, A.G.; Tokman, M.D.

    2002-01-01

    The classical analog of the presently popular in the quantum electronics effect of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. The EIT effect is considered for the electron-cyclotron waves in the plasma with the finite temperature. The expression for the effective index of the electromagnetic wave refraction is identified and the dispersion law and this wave absorption under the EIT conditions are studied. It is shown, that accounting for the thermal motion, which radically changes the behavior of the signal wave dispersion curves in the EIT area, as compared with the cold plasma case [ru

  7. Electromagnetic radiation induced by mining rock failure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frid, V. [Geological and Environmental Sciences, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva (Israel 84105); Vozoff, K. [V& amp; A Geoscience, POB 996 Spit Junction (NSW Australia 2088)

    2005-10-17

    Anticipating roof fall in mine workings has been a problem for centuries. The focus in the search for early warning indicators has been on observing seismic (acoustic) events prior to the fall. These precursors have been studied in great detail at many places, but none has been fully successful. So far, no valid, effective early warning system based on low-frequency seismic precursors has been established. In this paper, we investigated a promising new technique, which is not yet completely understood or been widely tested in mines. The new method is the sensing of the embryonic stages of roof fall by detection of high frequency electromagnetic radiation (EMR) emitted from rock microcracks. Two examples of combined observations of EMR and low frequency acoustic emission prior to roof fall at Moonee Colliery are presented. Anomalously high EMR was detected more than 1 h before roof fall, giving a significant time advantage over the first indicators of low frequency acoustic emission. Analysis of Benioff strain release diagrams of EMR emanating from developing medium scale failure in the mine enabled us to fill the 'gap' between previously known microscale (rock fracture in lab) and macroscale (earthquake) EMR observations, and to conclude that indeed a common fundamental relationship must lie behind this multi-scale phenomenon. (author)

  8. Observation of electromagnetically induced Talbot effect in an atomic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhaoyang; Liu, Xing; Zhang, Dan; Sheng, Jiteng; Zhang, Yiqi; Zhang, Yanpeng; Xiao, Min

    2018-01-01

    The electromagnetically induced Talbot effect (EITE) resulting from the repeated self-reconstruction of a spatially intensity-modulated probe field is experimentally demonstrated in a three-level atomic configuration. The probe beam is launched into an optically induced lattice (established by the interference of two coupling fields) inside a rubidium vapor cell and is diffracted by the electromagnetically induced grating that was formed. The diffraction pattern repeats itself at the planes of integer multiple Talbot lengths. In addition, a fractional EITE is also investigated. The experimental observations agree well with the theoretical predictions. This investigation may potentially pave the way for studying the nonlinear and quantum dynamical features that have been predicted for established periodic optical systems.

  9. Using ISS Telescopes for Electromagnetic Follow-up of Gravitational Wave Detections of NS-NS and NS-BH Mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, J.; Barthelmy, S.; Blackburn, L.; Carpenter, K. G.; Gehrels, N.; Kanner, J.; Marshall, F. E.; Racusin, J. L.; Sakamoto, T.

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station offers a unique platform for rapid and inexpensive deployment of space telescopes. A scientific opportunity of great potential later this decade is the use of telescopes for the electromagnetic follow-up of ground-based gravitational wave detections of neutron star and black hole mergers. We describe this possibility for OpTIIX, an ISS technology demonstration of a 1.5 m diffraction limited optical telescope assembled in space, and ISS-Lobster, a wide-field imaging X-ray telescope now under study as a potential NASA mission. Both telescopes will be mounted on pointing platforms, allowing rapid positioning to the source of a gravitational wave event. Electromagnetic follow-up rates of several per year appear likely, offering a wealth of complementary science on the mergers of black holes and neutron stars.

  10. Gravitational and electromagnetic potentials of the stationary Einstein-Maxwell field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.C.

    1979-01-01

    Associated with the stationary Einstein-Maxwell field equations is an infinite hierarchy of potentials. The basic characteristics of these potentials are examined in general and then in greater detail for the particular case of the Reissner-Nordstrom metric. Thier essential utility in the process of solution generation is elucidated, and the necessary equations for solution generation are developed. Appropriate generating functions, which contain the complete infinite hierarchy of potentials, are developed and analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the inherent gauge freedom of these generating functions. Two methods of solution generation, which yield asymptotically flat solutions in vacuum, are generalized to include electromagnetism. One method, using potentials consistent with the Harrison transformation and the Reissner-Nordstrom metric, is discussed in detail, and its resultant difficulties are explored

  11. 1+1+2 gravitational perturbations on LRS class II spacetimes: decoupling gravito-electromagnetic tensor harmonic amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burston, R B

    2008-01-01

    This is the first in a series of papers which considers gauge-invariant and covariant gravitational perturbations on arbitrary vacuum locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) class II spacetimes. Ultimately, we derive four decoupled equations governing four specific combinations of the gravito-electromagnetic (GEM) 2-tensor harmonic amplitudes. We use the gauge-invariant and covariant 1+1+2 formalism which Clarkson and Barrett (2003 Class. Quantum Grav. 20 3855) developed for analysis of vacuum Schwarzschild perturbations. In particular we focus on the first-order 1+1+2 GEM system and use linear algebra techniques suitable for exploiting its structure. Consequently, we express the GEM system new 1+1+2 complex form by choosing new complex GEM tensors, which is conducive to decoupling. We then show how to derive a gauge-invariant and covariant decoupled equation governing a newly defined complex GEM 2-tensor. Finally, the GEM 2-tensor is expanded in terms of arbitrary tensor harmonics and linear algebra is used once again to decouple the system further into four real decoupled equations

  12. Tunable electromagnetically induced absorption based on graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Maoyong; Wang, Tongling; Zhang, Huiyun; Zhang, Yuping

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, an electronically induced absorption (EIA) structure based on graphene at the infrared frequency is proposed. A pair of nanorods is coupled to a ring resonator, resulting in electronically induced transparency (EIT), and then, Babinet's principle is applied to transform the EIT structure into an EIA structure. Based on the bright and dark modes of the coupling schemes, the adjustment of the coupling strength between the dark and bright modes can be achieved by changing the asymmetry degree. In addition, the transparency window and the absorption peak can be tuned by changing the Fermi energy of graphene. This graphene-based EIA structure can develop the path in narrow-band filtering and, absorptive switching in the future.

  13. Thermometry of ultracold atoms by electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Thorsten; Wittrock, Benjamin; Blatt, Frank; Halfmann, Thomas; Yatsenko, Leonid P.

    2012-06-01

    We report on systematic numerical and experimental investigations of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to determine temperatures in an ultracold atomic gas. The technique relies on the strong dependence of EIT on atomic motion (i.e., Doppler shifts), when the relevant atomic transitions are driven with counterpropagating probe and control laser beams. Electromagnetically induced transparency permits thermometry with satisfactory precision over a large temperature range, which can be addressed by the appropriate choice of Rabi frequency in the control beam. In contrast to time-of-flight techniques, thermometry by EIT is fast and nondestructive, i.e., essentially it does not affect the ultracold medium. In an experimental demonstration we apply both EIT and time-of-flight measurements to determine temperatures along different symmetry axes of an anisotropic ultracold gas. As an interesting feature we find that the temperatures in the anisotropic atom cloud vary in different directions.

  14. The cocoon emission - an electromagnetic counterpart to gravitational waves from neutron star mergers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottlieb, Ore; Nakar, Ehud; Piran, Tsvi

    2018-01-01

    Short gamma-ray bursts are believed to arise from compact binary mergers (either neutron star-neutron star or black hole-neutron star). If so, their jets must penetrate outflows that are ejected during the merger. As a jet crosses the ejecta, it dissipates its energy, producing a hot cocoon that surrounds it. We present here 3D numerical simulations of jet propagation in mergers' outflows, and we calculate the resulting emission. This emission consists of two components: the cooling emission, the leakage of the thermal energy of the hot cocoon, and the cocoon macronova that arises from the radioactive decay of the cocoon's material. This emission gives a brief (∼1 h) blue, wide angle signal. While the parameters of the outflow and jet are uncertain, for the configurations we have considered, the signal is bright (∼-14 to -15 absolute magnitude) and outshines all other predicted ultraviolet-optical signals. The signal is brighter when the jet breakout time is longer, and its peak brightness does not depend strongly on the highly uncertain opacity. A rapid search for such a signal is a promising strategy to detect an electromagnetic merger counterpart. A detected candidate could be then followed by deep infrared searches for the longer but weaker macronova arising from the rest of the ejecta.

  15. Gravitation radiation observations

    OpenAIRE

    Glass, E. N.

    2017-01-01

    The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.

  16. On the gravitational radiation formula

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, G.; Dehnen, H.

    1980-01-01

    For electromagnetically as well as gravitationally bound quantum mechanical many-body systems the coefficients of absorption and induced emission of gravitational radiation are calculated in the first-order approximation. The results are extended subsequently to systems with arbitrary non-Coulomb-like two-particle interaction potentials;it is shown explicitly that in all cases the perturbation of the binding potentials of the bound systems by the incident gravitational wave field itself must be taken into account. With the help of the thermodynamic equilibrium of gravitational radiation and quantised matter, the coefficients for spontaneous emission of gravitational radiation are derived and the gravitational radiation formula for emission of gravitational quadrupole radiation by bound quantum mechanical many-body systems is given. According to the correspondence principle the present result is completely identical with the well known classical radiation formula, by which recent criticism against this formula is refuted. Finally the quantum mechanical absorption cross section for gravitational quadrupole radiation is deduced and compared with the corresponding classical expressions. As a special example the vibrating two-mass quadrupole is treated explicitly. (author)

  17. Polarization-independent electromagnetically induced transparency-like metasurface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xiuli; Wang, Xiaoou

    2018-01-01

    A classical electromagnetically induced transparency-like (EIT-like) metasurface is numerically simulated. This metasurface is composed of two identical and orthogonal double-end semitoroidals (DESTs) metal resonators. Under the excitation of the normal incidence waves, each of the two DESTs structure exhibits electromagnetic dipole responses at different frequencies, which leads to the polarization-independent EIT-like effect. The features of the EIT-like effect are qualitatively analyzed based on the surface current and magnetic field distribution. In addition, the large index is extracted to verify the slow-light property within the transmission window. The EIT-like metasurface structure with the above-mentioned characteristics may have potential applications in some areas, such as sensing, slow light, and filtering devices.

  18. Reflection-type electromagnetically induced transparency analogue in terahertz metamaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding Chun-Feng; Zhang Ya-Ting; Yao Jian-Quan; Xu De-Gang; Zhang Gui-Zhong; Sun Chong-Ling

    2014-01-01

    A reflection-type electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) metamaterial is proposed, which is composed of a dielectric spacer sandwiched with metallic patterns and metallic plane. Experimental results of THz time domain spectrum (THz-TDS) exhibit a typical reflection of EIT at 0.865 THz, which are in excellent agreement with the full-wave simulations. A multi-reflection theory is adopted to analyze the physical mechanism of the reflection-type EIT, showing that the reflection-type EIT is a superposition of multiple reflection of the transmission EIT. Such a reflection-type EIT provides many applications based on the EIT effect, such as slow light devices and nonlinear elements. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  19. Addendum. Relation for the Light Absorption in the Presence of Gravitation Field

    OpenAIRE

    R.Vlokh; M.Kostyrko

    2005-01-01

    We argue for the validity of relation for electromagnetic wave electric field derived by us earlier. It includes an imaginary part responsible for the absorption induced by gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass.

  20. GRAVITATIONAL RADIATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin SALTIK

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.

  1. Electromagnetically induced interference in a superconducting flux qubit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Du lingjie; Yu Yang; Lan Dong

    2013-01-01

    Interaction between quantum two-level systems (qubits) and electromagnetic fields can provide additional coupling channels to qubit states. In particular, the interwell relaxation or Rabi oscillations, resulting, respectively, from the multi- or single-mode interaction, can produce effective crossovers, leading to electromagnetically induced interference in microwave driven qubits. The environment is modeled by a multimode thermal bath, generating the interwell relaxation. Relaxation induced interference, independent of the tunnel coupling, provides deeper understanding to the interaction between the qubits and their environment. It also supplies a useful tool to characterize the relaxation strength as well as the characteristic frequency of the bath. In addition, we demonstrate the relaxation can generate population inversion in a strongly driving two-level system. On the other hand, different from Rabi oscillations, Rabi-oscillation-induced interference involves more complicated and modulated photon exchange thus offers an alternative means to manipulate the qubit, with more controllable parameters including the strength and position of the tunnel coupling. It also provides a testing ground for exploring nonlinear quantum phenomena and quantum state manipulation in qubits either with or without crossover structure.

  2. Exploiting Novel Radiation-Induced Electromagnetic Material Changes for Remote Detection and Monitoring: Final Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Exploiting Novel Radiation -Induced Electromagnetic Material Changes for Remote Detection and Monitoring: Final Progress Report Distribution...assess the effects of ionizing radiation on at least three classes of electromagnetic materials. The proposed approach for radiation detection was...that was desired to be monitored remotely. Microwave or low millimeter wave electromagnetic radiation would be used to interrogate the device

  3. Spectroscopy of strontium Rydberg states using electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mauger, S; Millen, J; Jones, M P A

    2007-01-01

    We report on the all-optical detection of Rydberg states in an effusive atomic beam of strontium atoms using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Using narrow-linewidth CW lasers we obtain an EIT linewidth of 5 MHz. To illustrate the high spectroscopic resolution offered by this method, we have measured isotope shifts of the 5s18d 1 D 2 and 5s19s 1 S 0 Rydberg states. This technique could be applied to high-resolution, non-destructive measurements of ultra-cold Rydberg gases and plasmas. (fast track communication)

  4. Mesoscopic Rydberg Gate Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, M.; Lesanovsky, I.; Zoller, P.; Weimer, H.; Buechler, H. P.

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate theoretically a parallelized C-NOT gate which allows us to entangle a mesoscopic ensemble of atoms with a single control atom in a single step, with high fidelity and on a microsecond time scale. Our scheme relies on the strong and long-ranged interaction between Rydberg atoms triggering electromagnetically induced transparency. By this we can robustly implement a conditional transfer of all ensemble atoms between two logical states, depending on the state of the control atom. We outline a many-body interferometer which allows a comparison of two many-body quantum states by performing a measurement of the control atom.

  5. Highly-dispersive electromagnetic induced transparency in planar symmetric metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiqun; Shi, Jinhui; Liu, Ran; Guan, Chunying

    2012-07-30

    We propose, design and experimentally demonstrate highly-dispersive electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar symmetric metamaterials actively switched and controlled by angles of incidence. Full-wave simulation and measurement results show EIT phenomena, trapped-mode excitations and the associated local field enhancement of two symmetric metamaterials consisting of symmetrically split rings (SSR) and a fishscale (FS) metamaterial pattern, respectively, strongly depend on angles of incidence. The FS metamaterial shows much broader spectral splitting than the SSR metamaterial due to the surface current distribution variation.

  6. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Symmetric Planar Metamaterial at THz Wavelengths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelwaheb Ourir

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available We report the experimental observation and the evidence of the analogue of electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT in a symmetric planar metamaterial. This effect has been obtained in the THz range thanks to a destructive Fano-interference between the two first modes of an array of multi-gap split ring resonators deposited on a silicon substrate. This structure is a planar thin film material with four-fold symmetry. Thanks to this property, a polarization-independent transmission has been achieved. The proposed metamaterial is well adapted to variety of slow-light applications in the infrared and optical range.

  7. Induced polarization and electromagnetic field surveys of sedimentary uranium deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, D.L.; Smith, B.D.

    1985-01-01

    Induced polarization (IP) and electromagnetic (EM) geophysical surveys were made over three areas of sedimentary uranium deposits in the western United States. The EM techniques were sometimes useful for investigating general structural settings, but not for finding uranium deposits per se. IP techniques were useful to help pinpoint zones of disseminated pyrite associated with the uranium deposits. In one case no clear differences were seen between the IP signatures of oxidized and reduced ground. Spectral (multi-frequency) IP showed no particular advantages over conventional IP for exploration applications. A sediment mineralization factor is introduced comparable to the ''metal factor'' used to detect porphyry copper mineralization. (author)

  8. Electromagnetically induced transparency with quantized fields in optocavity mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Sumei; Agarwal, G. S.

    2011-01-01

    We report electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) using quantized fields in optomechanical systems. The weak probe field is a narrowband squeezed field. We present a homodyne detection of EIT in the output quantum field. We find that the EIT dip exists even though the photon number in the squeezed vacuum is at the single-photon level. The EIT with quantized fields can be seen even at temperatures on the order of 100 mK, thus paving the way for using optomechanical systems as memory elements.

  9. Multimode electromagnetically induced transparency on a single atomic line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell, Geoff; Ordog, Anna; Lvovsky, A I

    2009-01-01

    We experimentally investigate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) created on an inhomogeneously broadened 5S 1/2 -5P 1/2 transition in rubidium vapor using a control field of a complex temporal shape. A comb-shaped transparency spectrum enhances the delay-bandwidth product and the light storage capacity for a matched probe pulse by a factor of about 50 compared to a single EIT line (Yavuz 2007 Phys. Rev. A 75 031801). If the temporal mode of the control field is slowly changed while the probe is propagating through the EIT medium, the probe will adiabatically follow, providing a means to perform frequency conversion and optical routing.

  10. Electromagnetic radiation due to spacetime oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chitre, D.M.; Price, R.H.; Sandberg, V.D.

    1975-01-01

    Wave equations are derived in the Newman-Penrose formalism for mixed electromagnetic and gravitational perturbations on both a flat spacetime background and a slightly charged (Q 2 very-much-less-than GM 2 ) Reissner-Nordstroem background. The physical meaning of these equations is discussed and analytical results are derived for nonrelativistic sources and for ultrarelativistic particle motions. The relationship between even-parity (TM) electromagnetic radiation multipoles in the long-wavelength approximation and static multipoles is shown to be the same as for classical radiation, suggesting a simple picture for electromagnetic radiation induced by gravitational perturbations

  11. Erratum: Erratum to: Thermodynamic implications of the gravitationally induced particle creation scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhajit; Mondal, Anindita

    2018-04-01

    We would like to rectify an error regarding the validity of the first law of thermodynamics (FLT) on the apparent horizon of a spatially flat Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe for the gravitationally induced particle creation scenario with constant specific entropy and an arbitrary particle creation rate (see Sect. 3.1 of original article)

  12. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Absorption of A Monochromatic Light Controlled by a Radio Frequency Field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cai Xun-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption of a monochromatic light controlled by a radio frequency field in the cold multi-Zeeman-sublevel atoms are theoretically investigated. These Zeeman sublevels are coupled by a radio frequency (RF) field. Both electromagnetically induced transparency and electromagnetically induced absorption can be obtained by tuning the frequency of RF field for both the linear polarization and elliptical polarization monochromatic lights. When the transfer of coherence via spontaneous emission from the excited state to the ground state is considered, electromagnetically induced absorption can be changed into electromagnetically induced transparency with the change of intensity of radio field. The transparency windows controlled by the RF field can have potential applications in the magnetic-field measurement and quantum information processing. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  13. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Four Wave Mixing Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kucukkara, I.

    2008-01-01

    We have theoretically studied Four Wave Mixing (FWM) process in VUV (Vacuum Ultraviolet) region enhanced by Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Krypton gas medium at room temperature. One of the mixing fields, in the ultraviolet region at 212.5 nm was in two-photon resonance with the 4p 6 1 S 0 -4p 5 5p[0,1/2] transition of Krypton and the second field (coupling field) at 759 nm was resonant with the 4p 5 5p[0,1/2]-4p 5 5s[1,1/2] transition in scheme. This coupling field produced an electromagnetically induced transparency and thus the efficiency of the generation of the field at 123.6 nm on the 4p 5 5s[1,1/2] to 4p 6 1 S 0 transition is enhanced. We modified the computer program previously written by changing some variables like pressure, interaction region length, UV energy, IR energy. As demonstrated by the intensity generated VUV light versus Krypton pressure graphic, the most efficient intensity value, which was approximately 4.2x10 1 6 arbitrary units, was obtained while IR energy was 3x10 - 4 J and the pressure was 2x10 - 3 bar

  14. Anomalous electromagnetically induced transparency in photonic-band-gap materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Mahi R.

    2004-01-01

    The phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency has been studied when a four-level atom is located in a photonic band gap material. Quantum interference is introduced by driving the two upper levels of the atom with a strong pump laser field. The top level and one of the ground levels are coupled by a weak probe laser field and absorption takes place between these two states. The susceptibility due to the absorption for this transition has been calculated by using the master equation method in linear response theory. Numerical simulations are performed for the real and imaginary parts of the susceptibility for a photonic band gap material whose gap-midgap ratio is 21%. It is found that when resonance frequencies lie within the band, the medium becomes transparent under the action of the strong pump laser field. More interesting results are found when one of the resonance frequencies lies at the band edge and within the band gap. When the resonance frequency lies at the band edge, the medium becomes nontransparent even under a strong pump laser field. On the other hand, when the resonance frequency lies within the band gap, the medium becomes transparent even under a weak pump laser field. In summary, we found that the medium can be transformed from the transparent state to the nontransparent state just by changing the location of the resonance frequency. We call these two effects anomalous electromagnetically induced transparency

  15. Electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency in rubidium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Gao, J.Y.; Xu, J.H.; Bassani, F.; La Rocca, G.C.; Salerno Univ.

    2001-01-01

    We present an experimental demonstration of electromagnetically induced two-photon transparency (EITT) in room temperature rubidium vapor. The 8S 1/2 to 5P 1/2 fluorescence is used to monitor the 5S 1/2 (F = 3) to 8S 1/2 (F = 3) two-photon absorption near resonance with the intermediate state 5P 3/2 . A controlling pump laser beam is employed to coherently couple the 5P 3/2 and 5D 5/2 states, thus producing two dressed intermediate states which give rise to destructive interference in the two-photon transition. An induced two-photon transparency of about 80% has been obtained at resonance; our experimental findings are in good agreement with the general theory of Agarwal et al. (1996), when the appropriate spectroscopic parameters are used. (orig.)

  16. Dilation of nanonatennas induced by an electromagnetic source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Barchiesi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The illumination of plasmonic mesostructures produces high confinement of light in their vicinity. This confinement of light can be enhanced in the gap between the two metallic nanorods of a nanonantenna, in particular for the design of biosensors. The nanometric gap can be reduced if the elevation of temperature of the nanonantenna is sufficient, and therefore the fine tuning of the sensor requires the description of the photo-thermal induced dilation. The multiphysics problem associated to such photo-thermal and mechanical effects is modeled through a Finite Element Method (FEM. The problem consists in computing the electromagnetic field, the temperature and the induced dilation surface. This contribution consists in discussing the numerical efficiencies of a sequential, and a coupled approaches, especially in terms of adaptive meshing of the space of computation. The relationship between the field enhancement and the reduction of the gap is studied. Finally the validity of the 2D multiphysic model is discussed.

  17. Generation of electromagnetic pulses from plasma channels induced by femtosecond light strings

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Chung-Chieh; Wright, E. M.; Moloney, J. V.

    2000-01-01

    We present a model that elucidates the physics underlying the generation of an electromagnetic pulse from a femtosecond laser induced plasma channel. The radiation pressure force from the laser pulse spatially separates the ionized electrons from the heavier ions and the induced dipole moment subsequently oscillates at the plasma frequency and radiates an electromagnetic pulse.

  18. Multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency in a solid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, G.; Rentzsch, N.; Halfmann, T.

    2012-11-01

    We report on frequency- and angle-multiplexed image storage by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal. Frequency multiplexing by EIT relies on simultaneous storage of light pulses in atomic coherences, driven in different frequency ensembles of the inhomogeneously broadened solid medium. Angular multiplexing by EIT relies on phase matching of the driving laser beams, which permits simultaneous storage of light pulses propagating under different angles into the crystal. We apply the multiplexing techniques to increase the storage capacity of the EIT-driven optical memory, in particular to implement multiplexed storage of larger two-dimensional amounts of data (images). We demonstrate selective storage and readout of images by frequency-multiplexed EIT and angular-multiplexed EIT, as well as the potential to combine both multiplexing approaches towards further enhanced storage capacities.

  19. Light scattering under conditions of nonstationary electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larionov, N V; Sokolov, I M

    2007-01-01

    The propagation of probe radiation pulses in ultracold atomic ensembles is studied theoretically under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. The pulse 'stopping' process is considered which takes place upon nonadiabatic switching off and subsequent switching on the control field. We analysed the formation of an inverted recovered probe radiation pulse, i.e. the pulse propagating in the direction opposite to the propagation direction before the pulse stopping. Based on this analysis, a scheme is proposed for lidar probing atomic or molecular clouds in which the probe pulse penetrates into a cloud over the specified depth, while information on the cloud state is obtained from the parameters of the inverted pulse. Calculations are performed for an ensemble of 87 Rb atoms. (fifth seminar in memory of d.n. klyshko)

  20. Highly Efficient Coherent Optical Memory Based on Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Ya-Fen; Tsai, Pin-Ju; Chen, Hung-Shiue; Lin, Sheng-Xiang; Hung, Chih-Chiao; Lee, Chih-Hsi; Chen, Yi-Hsin; Chen, Yong-Fan; Yu, Ite A.; Chen, Ying-Cheng

    2018-05-01

    Quantum memory is an important component in the long-distance quantum communication based on the quantum repeater protocol. To outperform the direct transmission of photons with quantum repeaters, it is crucial to develop quantum memories with high fidelity, high efficiency and a long storage time. Here, we achieve a storage efficiency of 92.0 (1.5)% for a coherent optical memory based on the electromagnetically induced transparency scheme in optically dense cold atomic media. We also obtain a useful time-bandwidth product of 1200, considering only storage where the retrieval efficiency remains above 50%. Both are the best record to date in all kinds of schemes for the realization of optical memory. Our work significantly advances the pursuit of a high-performance optical memory and should have important applications in quantum information science.

  1. FDTD modelling of induced polarization phenomena in transient electromagnetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commer, Michael; Petrov, Peter V.; Newman, Gregory A.

    2017-04-01

    The finite-difference time-domain scheme is augmented in order to treat the modelling of transient electromagnetic signals containing induced polarization effects from 3-D distributions of polarizable media. Compared to the non-dispersive problem, the discrete dispersive Maxwell system contains costly convolution operators. Key components to our solution for highly digitized model meshes are Debye decomposition and composite memory variables. We revert to the popular Cole-Cole model of dispersion to describe the frequency-dependent behaviour of electrical conductivity. Its inversely Laplace-transformed Debye decomposition results in a series of time convolutions between electric field and exponential decay functions, with the latter reflecting each Debye constituents' individual relaxation time. These function types in the discrete-time convolution allow for their substitution by memory variables, annihilating the otherwise prohibitive computing demands. Numerical examples demonstrate the efficiency and practicality of our algorithm.

  2. Subwavelength Localization of Atomic Excitation Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Miles

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We report an experiment in which an atomic excitation is localized to a spatial width that is a factor of 8 smaller than the wavelength of the incident light. The experiment utilizes the sensitivity of the dark state of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT to the intensity of the coupling laser beam. A standing-wave coupling laser with a sinusoidally varying intensity yields tightly confined Raman excitations during the EIT process. The excitations, located near the nodes of the intensity profile, have a width of 100 nm. The experiment is performed using ultracold ^{87}Rb atoms trapped in an optical dipole trap, and atomic localization is achieved with EIT pulses that are approximately 100 ns long. To probe subwavelength atom localization, we have developed a technique that can measure the width of the atomic excitations with nanometer spatial resolution.

  3. Amplitude and phase control of trichromatic electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Xiangming; Zou Jinhua; Li Xing; Du Dan; Cheng Guangling

    2005-01-01

    We study the dependence of absorption and dispersion spectra on amplitudes and phases of the driving fields in multiple electromagnetically induced transparency. For this purpose we consider trichromatic excitation in a three-level Λ atomic system, in which a trichromatic control laser and a monochromatic probe laser are applied to two different transitions, respectively. We numerically calculate the absorption and dispersion spectra. Two characteristic features are found. Firstly, the central transparency can be made to appear or to disappear by utilizing the amplitudes and phases of the driving components. Secondly, so long as we fix the sum of two relative phases of two sideband excitation components to the central component, the absorption and dispersion spectra keep their own lineshapes unchanged no matter how we vary the respective relative phases

  4. The effect of electromagnetically induced transparency in a potassium nanocell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sargsyan, A.; Amiryan, A.; Leroy, C.; Vartanyan, T. A.; Sarkisyan, D.

    2017-07-01

    The effect of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) has been experimentally implemented for the first time for the (4 S 1/2-4 P 1/2-4 S 1/2) Λ-system of potassium atom levels in a nanocell with a 770-nm-thick column of atomic vapor. It is shown that, at such a small thickness of the vapor column, the EIT resonance can be observed only when the coupling-laser frequency is in exact resonance with the frequency of the corresponding atomic transition. The EIT resonance disappears even if the coupling-laser frequency differs slightly (by 50 MHz) from that of the corresponding atomic transition, which is due to the high thermal velocity of K atoms. The EIT resonance and related velocity selective optical pumping resonances caused by optical pumping (formed by the coupling) can be simultaneously recorded because of the small ( 462 MHz) hyperfine splitting of the lower 4 S 1/2 level.

  5. Electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating assisted by incoherent pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yu-Yuan; Liu, Zhuan-Zhuan; Wan, Ren-Gang, E-mail: wrg@snnu.edu.cn

    2017-04-25

    We propose a scheme for realizing electromagnetically induced two-dimensional grating in a double-Λ system driven simultaneously by a coherent field and an incoherent pump field. In such an atomic configuration, the absorption is suppressed owing to the incoherent pumping process and the probe can be even amplified, while the refractivity is mainly attributed to the dynamically induced coherence. With the help of a standing-wave pattern coherent field, we obtain periodically modulated refractive index without or with gain, and therefore phase grating or gain-phase grating which diffracts a probe light into high-order direction efficiently can be formed in the medium via appropriate manipulation of the system parameters. The diffraction efficiency attainable by the present gratings can be controlled by tuning the coherent field intensity or the interaction length. Hence, the two-dimensional grating can be utilized as all-optical splitter or router in optical networking and communication. - Highlights: • Two-dimensional grating is coherently induced in four-level atoms. • Phase and gain-phase gratings are obtained assisted by incoherent pump. • The diffraction power is improved due to the enhanced refraction modulation. • The gratings can be utilized as multi-channel all-optical splitter and router.

  6. Electromagnetism

    CERN Document Server

    Grant, Ian S

    1990-01-01

    The Manchester Physics Series General Editors: D. J. Sandiford; F. Mandl; A. C. Phillips Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Manchester Properties of Matter B. H. Flowers and E. Mendoza Optics Second Edition F. G. Smith and J. H. Thomson Statistical Physics Second Edition F. Mandl Electromagnetism Second Edition I. S. Grant and W. R. Phillips Statistics R. J. Barlow Solid State Physics Second Edition J. R. Hook and H. E. Hall Quantum Mechanics F. Mandl Particle Physics Second Edition B. R. Martin and G. Shaw the Physics of Stars Second Edition A. C. Phillips Computing for Scient

  7. High Frequency Electromagnetic Field Induces Lipocalin 2 Expression in

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaneh Mohammadi Roushandeh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective(sNeutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL/Lcn2, comprise a group of small extracellular proteins with a common β-sheet-dominated 3-dimensional structure. In the past, it was assumed that the predominant role of lipocalin was acting as transport proteins. Recently it has been found that oxidative stress induces Lcn2 expression. It has been also proved that electromagnetic field (EMF produces reactive oxygen species (ROS in different tissues. Expression of Lcn2 following exposure to electromagnetic field has been investigated in this study. Materials and MethodsBalb/c mice (8 weeks old were exposed to 3 mT, 50 HZ EMF for 2 months, 4 hr/day. Afterwards, the mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation and livers were removed. The liver specimens were stained with Haematoxylin- Eosin (H&E and analyzed under an optical microscope. Total RNA was extracted from liver and reverse transcription was performed by SuperScript III reverse transcriptase with 1 µg of total RNA. Assessment of Lcn2 expression was performed by semiquantitative and real time- PCR.ResultsThe light microscopic studies revealed that the number of lymphocyte cells was increased compared to control and dilation of sinosoids was observed in the liver. Lcn2 was up-regulated in the mice exposed to EMF both in mRNA and protein levels.ConclusionTo the extent of our knowledge, this is the first report dealing with up-regulation of Lcn2 in liver after exposure to EMF. The up-regulation might be a compensatory response that involves cell defense pathways and protective effects against ROS. However, further and complementary studies are required in this regards.

  8. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivić, Z; Lazarides, N; Tsironis, G P

    2016-07-12

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980's, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound "quantum breather" that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing.

  9. Gravitation and Electricity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavroulakis N.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The equations of gravitation together with the equations of electromagnetism in terms of the General Theory of Relativity allow to conceive an interdependence between the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field. However the technical difficulties of the relevant problems have precluded from expressing clearly this interdependence. Even the simple problem related to the field generated by a charged spherical mass is not correctly solved. In the present paper we reexamine from the outset this problem and propose a new solution.

  10. A comparison between SALT/SAAO observations and kilonova models for AT 2017gfo: the first electromagnetic counterpart of a gravitational wave transient - GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckley, David A. H.; Andreoni, Igor; Barway, Sudhanshu; Cooke, Jeff; Crawford, Steven M.; Gorbovskoy, Evgeny; Gromadzki, Mariusz; Lipunov, Vladimir; Mao, Jirong; Potter, Stephen B.; Pretorius, Magaretha L.; Pritchard, Tyler A.; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni; Shara, Michael M.; Väisänen, Petri; Williams, Ted B.

    2018-02-01

    We report on SALT low-resolution optical spectroscopy and optical/IR photometry undertaken with other SAAO telescopes (MASTER-SAAO and IRSF) of the kilonova AT 2017gfo (a.k.a. SSS17a) in the galaxy NGC4993 during the first 10 d of discovery. This event has been identified as the first ever electromagnetic counterpart of a gravitational wave event, namely GW170817, which was detected by the LIGO and Virgo gravitational wave observatories. The event is likely due to a merger of two neutron stars, resulting in a kilonova explosion. SALT was the third observatory to obtain spectroscopy of AT 2017gfo and the first spectrum, 1.2 d after the merger, is quite blue and shows some broad features, but no identifiable spectral lines and becomes redder by the second night. We compare the spectral and photometric evolution with recent kilonova simulations and conclude that they are in qualitative agreement for post-merger wind models with proton:nucleon ratios of Ye = 0.25-0.30. The blue colour of the first spectrum is consistent with the lower opacity of the lanthanide-free r-process elements in the ejecta. Differences between the models and observations are likely due to the choice of system parameters combined with the absence of atomic data for more elements in the ejecta models.

  11. Electromagnetically induced transparency resonances inverted in magnetic field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargsyan, A.; Sarkisyan, D., E-mail: davsark@yahoo.com, E-mail: david@ipr.sci.am [National Academy of Sciences of Armenia, Institute for Physical Research (Armenia); Pashayan-Leroy, Y.; Leroy, C. [Université de Bourgogne-Dijon, Laboratoire Interdisciplinaire Carnot de Bourgogne, UMR CNRS (France); Cartaleva, S. [Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Institute of Electronics (Bulgaria); Wilson-Gordon, A. D. [Bar-Ilan University Ramat Gan, Department of Chemistry (Israel); Auzinsh, M. [University of Latvia, Department of Physics (Latvia)

    2015-12-15

    The phenomenon of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is investigated in a Λ-system of the {sup 87}Rb D{sub 1} line in an external transverse magnetic field. Two spectroscopic cells having strongly different values of the relaxation rates γ{sub rel} are used: an Rb cell with antirelaxation coating (L ∼ 1 cm) and an Rb nanometric- thin cell (nanocell) with a thickness of the atomic vapor column L = 795 nm. For the EIT in the nanocell, we have the usual EIT resonances characterized by a reduction in the absorption (dark resonance (DR)), whereas for the EIT in the Rb cell with an antirelaxation coating, the resonances demonstrate an increase in the absorption (bright resonances (BR)). We suppose that such an unusual behavior of the EIT resonances (i.e., the reversal of the sign from DR to BR) is caused by the influence of an alignment process. The influence of alignment strongly depends on the configuration of the coupling and probe frequencies as well as on the configuration of the magnetic field.

  12. Tunable atom-light beam splitter using electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xinyu; Wen, Rong; Chen, J. F.

    2018-06-01

    With electromagnetically induced transmission (EIT), an optical field can be converted into collective atomic excitation and stored in the atomic medium through switching off the strong-coupling field adiabatically. By varying the power of the coupling pulse, we can control the ratio between the transmitted optical field and the stored atomic mode. We use a cloud of cold 85Rb atoms prepared in magneto-optical trap as the experimental platform. Based on a model of EIT dark-state polariton, we consider the real case where the atomic medium has a finite length. The theoretical calculation gives numerical results that agree well with the experimental data. The results show that the ratio can be changed approximately from 0 to 100%, when the maximum power of the coupling pulse (the pulse length is 100 ns) varies from 0 to 20 mW, in the cold atomic ensemble with an optical depth of 40. This process can be used to achieve an atom-light hybrid beam splitter with tunable splitting ratio and thus find potential application in interferometric measurement and quantum information processing.

  13. Effects of thermal motion on electromagnetically induced absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tilchin, E.; Wilson-Gordon, A. D.; Firstenberg, O.

    2011-01-01

    We describe the effect of thermal motion and buffer-gas collisions on a four-level closed N system interacting with strong pump(s) and a weak probe. This is the simplest system that experiences electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) due to transfer of coherence via spontaneous emission from the excited state to the ground state. We investigate the influence of Doppler broadening, velocity-changing collisions (VCC), and phase-changing collisions (PCC) with a buffer gas on the EIA spectrum of optically active atoms. In addition to exact expressions, we present an approximate solution for the probe absorption spectrum, which provides physical insight into the behavior of the EIA peak due to VCC, PCC, and the wave-vector difference between the pump and probe beams. VCC are shown to produce a wide pedestal at the base of the EIA peak, which is scarcely affected by the pump-probe angular deviation, whereas the sharp central EIA peak becomes weaker and broader due to the residual Doppler-Dicke effect. Using diffusionlike equations for the atomic coherences and populations, we construct a spatial-frequency filter for a spatially structured probe beam and show that Ramsey narrowing of the EIA peak is obtained for beams of finite width.

  14. Influence of laser beam profile on electromagnetically induced absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cuk, S. M.; Radonjic, M.; Krmpot, A. J.; Nikolic, S. N.; Grujic, Z. D.; Jelenkovic, B. M.

    2010-01-01

    We compared, experimentally and theoretically, Hanle electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) obtained using Gaussian and Π-shaped laser beams 3 mm in diameter. The study was done by measuring the transmission of a laser locked to the F g =2→F e =3 transition at the D 2 line of 87 Rb in a vacuum cell. EIA linewidths obtained for the two laser profiles were significantly different in the range of laser intensities 1-4 mW/cm 2 . EIA with the Π-shaped laser beam has a broad intensity maximum and linewidths larger than those obtained with the Gaussian beam profile. We also studied Hanle EIA by measuring the transmission of selected segments of the entire laser beam by placing a small movable aperture in front of the detector. Waveforms so obtained in Hanle EIA resonances were strongly influenced both by the radial distance of the transmitted segment from the beam center and by the radial profile of the laser beam. We show that outer regions of Gaussian beam, and central regions of the Π-shaped beam generate the narrowest lines. The different behaviors of EIA owing to different beam profiles revealed by both theory and experiment indicate the importance of the radial profile of the laser beam for proper modeling of coherent effects in alkali metal vapors.

  15. Role of dressed-state interference in electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, Sumanta; Bharti, Vineet; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Role of dressed-state interference is investigated on lambda, ladder and vee type EIT systems. • The effect of interference decreases with increasing Rabi frequency of the control laser. • Dressed-state interference plays an important role in lambda system and a negligible role in ladder and vee systems. - Abstract: Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in three-level systems uses a strong control laser on one transition to modify the absorption of a weak probe laser on a second transition. The control laser creates dressed states whose decay pathways show interference. We study the role of dressed-state interference in causing EIT in the three types of three-level systems—lambda (Λ), ladder (Ξ), and vee (V). In order to get realistic values for the linewidths of the energy levels involved, we consider appropriate hyperfine levels of "8"7Rb. For such realistic systems, we find that dressed-state interference causes probe absorption—given by the imaginary part of the susceptibility—to go to zero in a Λ system, but plays a negligible role in Ξ and V systems.

  16. Role of dressed-state interference in electromagnetically induced transparency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Sumanta; Bharti, Vineet; Natarajan, Vasant

    2016-12-16

    Highlights: • Role of dressed-state interference is investigated on lambda, ladder and vee type EIT systems. • The effect of interference decreases with increasing Rabi frequency of the control laser. • Dressed-state interference plays an important role in lambda system and a negligible role in ladder and vee systems. - Abstract: Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in three-level systems uses a strong control laser on one transition to modify the absorption of a weak probe laser on a second transition. The control laser creates dressed states whose decay pathways show interference. We study the role of dressed-state interference in causing EIT in the three types of three-level systems—lambda (Λ), ladder (Ξ), and vee (V). In order to get realistic values for the linewidths of the energy levels involved, we consider appropriate hyperfine levels of {sup 87}Rb. For such realistic systems, we find that dressed-state interference causes probe absorption—given by the imaginary part of the susceptibility—to go to zero in a Λ system, but plays a negligible role in Ξ and V systems.

  17. Electric susceptibility of a magnetized plasma under electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamori, E

    2011-01-01

    This study derives the electric susceptibility tensor of a cold magnetized plasma under electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) regime (Litvak and Tokman 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 88 095003, Shvets and Wurtele 2002 Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 115003) in which an intense right-hand circularly polarized pump wave is injected parallel to the background magnetic field. A dispersion relation of the wave in the electron cyclotron frequency range for an arbitrary propagation angle is obtained from this susceptibility tensor. In the case of purely parallel propagation of the probe wave, the dispersion relation obtained by Litvak, Shvets and others is recaptured. A new finding is that a stop band emerges between left-hand cutoff and upper hybrid frequencies, in which originally an extraordinary-mode (X) branch exists, in the case of perpendicular propagation to the background magnetic field under the EIT. The bandwidth of the stop band expands as the pump wave is intensified. For the situation of launching the probe wave from the high-field side in a tokamak, the accessibility of the probe wave to the region where the EIT effect appears is investigated. The EIT region which is a resonance layer created by the EIT is accessible to the probe wave, indicating the possibility of the application of EIT to control the spatial position of wave power deposition.

  18. Laboratory generation of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinto, I.M.; Rotoli, G.

    1988-01-01

    The authors have performed calculations on the basic type of gravitational wave electromagnetic laboratory generators. Their results show that laboratory generations of gravitational wave is at limit of state-of-the-art of present-day giant electromagnetic field generation

  19. On the Classical Coupling between Gravity and Electromagnetism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Becker

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Coupling between electromagnetism and gravity, manifested as the distorted Coulomb field of a charge distribution in a gravitational field, has never been observed. A physical system consisting of an electron in a charged shell provides a coupling that is orders of magnitude stronger than for any previously-considered system. A shell voltage of one megavolt is required to establish a gravitationally-induced electromagnetic force equal in magnitude to the force of gravity on an electron. The experimental feasibility of detecting these forces on an electron is discussed. The effect establishes a relation between Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence and the coupling between electromagnetism and gravity.

  20. Motionally-induced electromagnetic fields generated by idealized ocean currents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyler, R. H.; Mysak, L. A.

    Using the induction equation, we investigate the generation of electromagnetic fields by the motional electromagnetic induction due to ocean currents. In this paper, solutions are presented for a linear induction equation for the magnetic flux density vector which contains prescribed time-independent ocean current and conductivity fields. Once the magnetic flux density is known, the electric field and electric current density are easily obtained by differentiation. Solutions are given for several examples of idealized flow which include: 1) Vertically and horizontally sheared plane-parallel flow with depth-dependent conductivity; 2) A simple Stommel circulation gyre; and 3) Symmetric gyres. The results indicate that typical ocean current features induce magnetic fields with magnitudes reaching 100's of nT within the water and about 1-10 outside of the water. For the case of a field of gyres, the ocean-induced magnetic fields decay away from the ocean on spatial scales set by the horizontal scale of the ocean feature. At the altitudes of magnetic field satellite surveys, ocean-induced magnetic fields may retain values of a few nT, which are strong enough to be detected. Thus it is concluded that satellite observations of the earth's main magnetic field and, in particular, the observed temporal variations, could be affected by the ocean circulation. Summary and discussion In Section 3, we found exact solutions to the induction equation for idealized flows. The results gave magnitudes of about tens to hundreds of nT for the magnetic fields bH, about 10-5 V/m for the electric fields E, and about 10-5 A/m2 for the electric current density J induced by the ocean currents. These figures are in general agreement with the calculations of Lilley et al. (1993). In Section 4.2 we obtained solutions for the magnetic field above the ocean surface for the case of a Stommel gyre and a field of symmetric gyres. It was found in the last case that ocean gyres with a total transport

  1. Multi-peak electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission from bull's-eye-shaped metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoun; Soref, Richard; Buchwald, Walter R

    2010-08-16

    We investigate the electromagnetic response of the concentric multi-ring, or the bull's eye, structure as an extension of the dual-ring metamaterial which exhibits electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission characteristics. Our results show that adding inner rings produces additional EIT-like peaks, and widens the metamaterial's spectral range of operation. Analyses of the dispersion characteristics and induced current distribution further confirmed the peak's EIT-like nature. Impacts of structural and dielectric parameters are also investigated.

  2. Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel

    2015-07-14

    Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials.

  3. Gravitationally induced particle production and its impact on the WIMP abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Baranov

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A large set of independent astronomical observations have provided a strong evidence for nonbaryonic dark matter in the Universe. One of the most investigated candidates is an unknown long-lived Weakly Interacting Massive Particle (WIMP which was in thermal equilibrium with the primeval plasma. Here we investigate the WIMP abundance based on the relativistic kinetic treatment for gravitationally induced particle production recently proposed in the literature (Lima and Baranov, 2014 [16]. The new evolution equation is deduced and solved both numerically and through a semi-analytical approach. The predictions of the WIMP observables are discussed and compared with the ones obtained in the standard approach.

  4. Gravitationally induced adiabatic particle production: from big bang to de Sitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Haro, Jaume; Pan, Supriya

    2016-08-01

    In the background of a flat homogeneous and isotropic space-time, we consider a scenario of the Universe driven by the gravitationally induced ‘adiabatic’ particle production with constant creation rate. We have shown that this Universe attains a big bang singularity in the past and at late-time it asymptotically becomes de Sitter. To clarify this model Universe, we performed a dynamical analysis and found that the Universe attains a thermodynamic equilibrium in this late de Sitter phase. Finally, for the first time, we have discussed the possible effects of ‘adiabatic’ particle creations in the context of loop quantum cosmology.

  5. Gravitationally induced adiabatic particle production: from big bang to de Sitter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haro, Jaume de; Pan, Supriya

    2016-01-01

    In the background of a flat homogeneous and isotropic space–time, we consider a scenario of the Universe driven by the gravitationally induced ‘adiabatic’ particle production with constant creation rate. We have shown that this Universe attains a big bang singularity in the past and at late-time it asymptotically becomes de Sitter. To clarify this model Universe, we performed a dynamical analysis and found that the Universe attains a thermodynamic equilibrium in this late de Sitter phase. Finally, for the first time, we have discussed the possible effects of ‘adiabatic’ particle creations in the context of loop quantum cosmology. (paper)

  6. Improved Constraints on H 0 from a Combined Analysis of Gravitational-wave and Electromagnetic Emission from GW170817

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidorzi, C.; Margutti, R.; Brout, D.; Scolnic, D.; Fong, W.; Alexander, K. D.; Cowperthwaite, P. S.; Annis, J.; Berger, E.; Blanchard, P. K.; Chornock, R.; Coppejans, D. L.; Eftekhari, T.; Frieman, J. A.; Huterer, D.; Nicholl, M.; Soares-Santos, M.; Terreran, G.; Villar, V. A.; Williams, P. K. G.

    2017-12-01

    The luminosity distance measurement of GW170817 derived from gravitational-wave analysis in Abbott et al. (2017a, hereafter A17:H0) is highly correlated with the measured inclination of the NS–NS system. To improve the precision of the distance measurement, we attempt to constrain the inclination by modeling the broadband X-ray-to-radio emission from GW170817, which is dominated by the interaction of the jet with the environment. We update our previous analysis and we consider the radio and X-ray data obtained at t 100 days of the X-ray and radio emission will lead to tighter constraints.

  7. Gravitational Grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahvar, Sohrab

    2018-05-01

    In this work, we study the interaction of the electromagnetic wave (EW) from a distant quasar with the gravitational wave (GW) sourced by the binary stars. While in the regime of geometric optics, the light bending due to this interaction is negligible, we show that the phase shifting on the wavefront of an EW can produce the diffraction pattern on the observer plane. The diffraction of the light (with the wavelength of λe) by the gravitational wave playing the role of gravitational grating (with the wavelength of λg) has the diffraction angle of Δβ ˜ λe/λg. The relative motion of the observer, the source of gravitational wave and the quasar results in a relative motion of the observer through the interference pattern on the observer plane. The consequence of this fringe crossing is the modulation in the light curve of a quasar with the period of few hours in the microwave wavelength. The optical depth for the observation of this phenomenon for a Quasar with the multiple images strongly lensed by a galaxy where the light trajectory of some of the images crosses the lensing galaxy is τ ≃ 0.2. By shifting the time-delay of the light curves of the multiple images in a strong lensed quasar and removing the intrinsic variations of a quasar, our desired signals, as a new method for detection of GWs can be detected.

  8. Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2008-01-01

    Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  9. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris L. Fryer

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.

  10. Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fryer, Chris L; New, Kimberly C B

    2011-01-01

    Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2011-1.

  11. Observation of Gravitationally Induced Vertical Striation of Polarized Ultracold Neutrons by Spin-Echo Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afach, S; Ayres, N J; Ban, G; Bison, G; Bodek, K; Chowdhuri, Z; Daum, M; Fertl, M; Franke, B; Griffith, W C; Grujić, Z D; Harris, P G; Heil, W; Hélaine, V; Kasprzak, M; Kermaidic, Y; Kirch, K; Knowles, P; Koch, H-C; Komposch, S; Kozela, A; Krempel, J; Lauss, B; Lefort, T; Lemière, Y; Mtchedlishvili, A; Musgrave, M; Naviliat-Cuncic, O; Pendlebury, J M; Piegsa, F M; Pignol, G; Plonka-Spehr, C; Prashanth, P N; Quéméner, G; Rawlik, M; Rebreyend, D; Ries, D; Roccia, S; Rozpedzik, D; Schmidt-Wellenburg, P; Severijns, N; Thorne, J A; Weis, A; Wursten, E; Wyszynski, G; Zejma, J; Zenner, J; Zsigmond, G

    2015-10-16

    We describe a spin-echo method for ultracold neutrons (UCNs) confined in a precession chamber and exposed to a |B0|=1  μT magnetic field. We have demonstrated that the analysis of UCN spin-echo resonance signals in combination with knowledge of the ambient magnetic field provides an excellent method by which to reconstruct the energy spectrum of a confined ensemble of neutrons. The method takes advantage of the relative dephasing of spins arising from a gravitationally induced striation of stored UCNs of different energies, and also permits an improved determination of the vertical magnetic-field gradient with an exceptional accuracy of 1.1  pT/cm. This novel combination of a well-known nuclear resonance method and gravitationally induced vertical striation is unique in the realm of nuclear and particle physics and should prove to be invaluable for the assessment of systematic effects in precision experiments such as searches for an electric dipole moment of the neutron or the measurement of the neutron lifetime.

  12. Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: new perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2017-01-01

    Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and gravity have a special relevance since it opens new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provides information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information as regards the GW which generates them. The most relevant results are the presence of longitudinal modes and dynamical polarization patterns of electromagnetic radiation induced by GWs. These effects might be amplified using appropriate resonators, effectively improving the signal to noise ratio around a specific frequency. We also briefly address the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GWs and the implications for astrophysics.

  13. Gravitational waves and electrodynamics: new perspectives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabral, Francisco; Lobo, Francisco S.N. [Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade de Lisboa, Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2017-04-15

    Given the recent direct measurement of gravitational waves (GWs) by the LIGO-VIRGO collaboration, the coupling between electromagnetic fields and gravity have a special relevance since it opens new perspectives for future GW detectors and also potentially provides information on the physics of highly energetic GW sources. We explore such couplings using the field equations of electrodynamics on (pseudo) Riemann manifolds and apply it to the background of a GW, seen as a linear perturbation of Minkowski geometry. Electric and magnetic oscillations are induced that propagate as electromagnetic waves and contain information as regards the GW which generates them. The most relevant results are the presence of longitudinal modes and dynamical polarization patterns of electromagnetic radiation induced by GWs. These effects might be amplified using appropriate resonators, effectively improving the signal to noise ratio around a specific frequency. We also briefly address the generation of charge density fluctuations induced by GWs and the implications for astrophysics. (orig.)

  14. Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission in side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yinghui; Yan, Lianshan; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Wen, Kunhua; Guo, Zhen; Luo, Xiangang

    2012-10-22

    We investigate a plasmonic waveguide system based on side-coupled complementary split-ring resonators (CSRR), which exhibits electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission. LC resonance model is utilized to explain the electromagnetic responses of CSRR, which is verified by simulation results of finite difference time domain method. The electromagnetic responses of CSRR can be flexible handled by changing the asymmetry degree of the structure and the width of the metallic baffles. Cascaded CSRRs also have been studied to obtain EIT-like transmission at visible and near-infrared region, simultaneously.

  15. Perforate on CHO cell membranes induced by electromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... Key words: Electromagnetic pulse (EMP), atomic force microscope, CHO cell, cell membrane. INTRODUCTION .... of perforation ranges from 390 to 660 nm and the depth is. 392.95 nm. ... cell membrane perforations increased when both the field intensity and ..... Melatonin and a spin-trap compound block.

  16. Perforate on CHO cell membranes induced by electromagnetic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) has been used to visualize the morphological change on the surface of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell membranes before and after electromagnetic pulses (EMP) irradiation. The results show that there were different sizes and shapes of membrane perforate (width ranging from 0.39 - 0.66 ...

  17. Autler-Townes doublet and electromagnetically induced transparency resonance probed by an ultrashort pulse train

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, A A; De Araujo, Luis E E

    2010-01-01

    We study theoretically the interaction between an ultrashort pulse train and a three-level atom driven by a cw laser. We show that the pulse train can be employed to observe spectra of Autler-Townes doublet and electromagnetically induced transparency resonance that are time and frequency resolved. The observation of subnatural linewidth features associated with the electromagnetically induced transparency resonance is described. The temporal evolution of electromagnetically induced transparency of the pulse train is shown to exhibit new and different features compared to that of the related phenomenon of coherent population trapping. By matching the tooth separation of the frequency comb associated with the pulse train to that of the Autler-Townes doublet, quantum beats between the doublet components can be induced. We show that coherent accumulation of excitation plays a major role in the two studied phenomena.

  18. Surface solitons of four-wave mixing in an electromagnetically induced lattice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanpeng; Yuan, Chenzhi; Zhang, Yiqi; Zheng, Huaibin; Chen, Haixia; Li, Changbiao; Wang, Zhiguo; Xiao, Min

    2013-01-01

    By creating lattice states with two-dimensional spatial periodic atomic coherence, we report an experimental demonstration of generating two-dimensional surface solitons of a four-wave mixing signal in an electromagnetically induced lattice composed of two electromagnetically induced gratings with different orientations in an atomic medium, each of which can support a one-dimensional surface soliton. The surface solitons can be well controlled by different experimental parameters, such as probe frequency, pump power, and beam incident angles, and can be affected by coherent induced defect states. (letter)

  19. Electromagnetic interference-induced instability in CPP-GMR read heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khunkitti, P.; Siritaratiwat, A.; Kaewrawang, A.; Mewes, T.; Mewes, C.K.A.; Kruesubthaworn, A.

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) has been a significant issue for the current perpendicular-to-the-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) read heads because it can cause magnetic failure. Furthermore, the magnetic noise induced by the spin transfer torque (STT) effect has played an important role in the CPP read heads because it can affect the stability of the heads. Accordingly, this work proposed an investigation of the magnetic instabilities induced by EMI through the STT effect in a CPP-GMR read head via micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization fluctuation caused by EMI was examined, and then, magnetic noise was evaluated by using power spectral density analysis. It was found that the magnetization orientation can be fluctuated by EMI in close proximity to the head. The results also showed a multimode spectral density. The main contributions of the spectral density were found to originate at the edges of the stripe height sides due to the characteristics of the demagnetization field inside the free layer. Hence, the magnetic instabilities produced by EMI become a significant factor that essentially impacts the reliability of the CPP-GMR read heads. - Highlights: • The instability induced by electromagnetic interference in read head is examined. • The magnetization orientation can be fluctuated by electromagnetic interference. • The electromagnetic interference can induce additional noise spectra to the system. • The noise is mainly located at stripe height of the read head. • The noise induced by electromagnetic interference is a crucial factor for the head.

  20. Electromagnetic interference-induced instability in CPP-GMR read heads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khunkitti, P.; Siritaratiwat, A.; Kaewrawang, A. [KKU-Seagate Cooperation Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Mewes, T.; Mewes, C.K.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Kruesubthaworn, A., E-mail: anankr@kku.ac.th [KKU-Seagate Cooperation Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) has been a significant issue for the current perpendicular-to-the-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) read heads because it can cause magnetic failure. Furthermore, the magnetic noise induced by the spin transfer torque (STT) effect has played an important role in the CPP read heads because it can affect the stability of the heads. Accordingly, this work proposed an investigation of the magnetic instabilities induced by EMI through the STT effect in a CPP-GMR read head via micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization fluctuation caused by EMI was examined, and then, magnetic noise was evaluated by using power spectral density analysis. It was found that the magnetization orientation can be fluctuated by EMI in close proximity to the head. The results also showed a multimode spectral density. The main contributions of the spectral density were found to originate at the edges of the stripe height sides due to the characteristics of the demagnetization field inside the free layer. Hence, the magnetic instabilities produced by EMI become a significant factor that essentially impacts the reliability of the CPP-GMR read heads. - Highlights: • The instability induced by electromagnetic interference in read head is examined. • The magnetization orientation can be fluctuated by electromagnetic interference. • The electromagnetic interference can induce additional noise spectra to the system. • The noise is mainly located at stripe height of the read head. • The noise induced by electromagnetic interference is a crucial factor for the head.

  1. 1+1+2 gravitational perturbations on LRS class II spacetimes: II. Decoupling gravito-electromagnetic 2-vector and scalar harmonic amplitudes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burston, R B

    2008-01-01

    This is the second paper in a series that considers first-order, gauge-invariant and covariant, gravitational perturbations to locally rotationally symmetric (LRS) class II vacuum spacetimes. Focusing on the 1+1+2 gravito-electromagnetic (GEM) formalism, the first paper used linear algebra techniques to derive four decoupled equations that govern four specific combinations of the GEM 2-tensor harmonic amplitudes. This paper completes the decoupling of the 1+1+2 GEM system by showing how to derive seven new decoupled quantities. Four of these arise when considering the GEM 2-vector harmonic amplitudes and it is found that decoupling is achieved by combining these with the (2/3-sheet) shear 2-tensor harmonic amplitudes. The remaining three arise from the 1+1+2 GEM scalars. Two of which concern the 2-gradient of the gravito-electric scalar that must also be combined with shear 2-tensor amplitudes, whereas the other involves the gravito-magnetic scalar only

  2. Tunable electromagnetically induced transparency in coupled three-dimensional split-ring-resonator metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Song; Cong, Longqing; Lin, Hai; Xiao, Boxun; Yang, Helin; Singh, Ranjan

    2016-01-01

    Metamaterials have recently enabled coupling induced transparency due to interference effects in coupled subwavelength resonators. In this work, we present a three dimensional (3-D) metamaterial design with six-fold rotational symmetry that shows electromagnetically induced transparency with a strong polarization dependence to the incident electromagnetic wave due to the ultra-sharp resonance line width as a result of interaction between the constituent meta-atoms. However, when the six-fold rotationally symmetric unit cell design was re-arranged into a fourfold rotational symmetry, we observed the excitation of a polarization insensitive dual-band transparency. Thus, the 3-D split-ring resonators allow new schemes to observe single and multi-band classical analogues of electromagnetically induced transparencies that has huge potential applications in slowing down light, sensing modalities, and filtering functionalities either in the passive mode or the active mode where such effects could be tuned by integrating materials with dynamic properties. PMID:26857034

  3. Instability of electromagnetic waves in a self-gravitating rotating magnetized dusty plasma with opposite polarity grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, Nitin; Moslem, W. M.; Shukla, P. K.

    2007-01-01

    By using the two fluid and Maxwell equations, the properties of electromagnetic waves in a rotating positive-negative dusty magnetoplasmas are investigated. It is found that the cross-coupling between the equilibrium dust flows and the perturbed magnetic field produces a Lorentz force that separates positive and negative dust grains. A new dispersion relation is derived and analyzed numerically. The effects of the dust grain radius, the equilibrium streaming speed, Jeans frequency, and the rotational frequency on the behavior of the real and imaginary parts of the wave frequency are examined. It is found that for small dust grain radius, the growth rate (the real frequency) increases (decreases) with the increase of the streaming dust speed and Jeans frequency. However, the dust rotational frequency does not have an important role in this case. For large dust grain radius, only the imaginary part of the wave frequency is presented. It is found that the rotational frequency (Jeans frequency and dust streaming speed) decreases (increase) the growth rate

  4. The gravitational analog of Faraday's induction law

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zile, Daniel; Overduin, James

    2015-04-01

    Michael Faraday, the discoverer of electromagnetic induction, was convinced that there must also be a gravitational analog of this law, and he carried out drop-tower experiments in 1849 to look for the electric current induced in a coil by changes in gravitational flux through the coil. This work, now little remembered, was in some ways the first investigation of what we would now call a unified-field theory. We revisit Faraday's experiments in the light of current knowledge and ask what might be learned if they were to be performed today. We then review the gravitational analog for Faraday's law that arises within the vector (or gravito-electromagnetic) approximation to Einstein's theory of general relativity in the weak-field, low-velocity limit. This law relates spinning masses and induced ``mass currents'' rather than spinning charges and electric currents, but is otherwise remarkably similar to its electromagnetic counterpart. The predicted effects are completely unobservable in everyday settings like those envisioned by Faraday, but are thought to be relevant in astrophysical contexts like the accretion disks around collapsed stars, thus bearing out Faraday's remarkable intuition. Undergraduate student.

  5. Storage and retrieval of electromagnetic waves with orbital angular momentum via plasmon-induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Xu, Datang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2017-01-23

    We propose a scheme to realize the storage and retrieval of high-dimensional electromagnetic waves with orbital angular momentum (OAM) via plasmon-induced transparency (PIT) in a metamaterial, which consists of an array of meta-atoms constructed by a metallic structure loaded with two varactors. We show that due to PIT effect the system allows the existence of shape-preserving dark-mode plasmonic polaritons, which are mixture of electromagnetic-wave modes and dark oscillatory modes of the meta-atoms and may carry various OAMs. We demonstrate that the slowdown, storage and retrieval of multi-mode electromagnetic waves with OAMs can be achieved through the active manipulation of a control field. Our work raises the possibility for realizing PIT-based spatial multi-mode memory of electromagnetic waves and is promising for practical application of information processing with large capacity by using room-temperature metamaterials.

  6. Electromagnetic Education in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajpai, Shrish; Asif, Siddiqui Sajida; Akhtar, Syed Adnan

    2016-01-01

    Out of the four fundamental interactions in nature, electromagnetics is one of them along with gravitation, strong interaction and weak interaction. The field of electromagnetics has made much of the modern age possible. Electromagnets are common in day-to-day appliances and are becoming more conventional as the need for technology increases.…

  7. Electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption due to optical and ground-state coherences in 6Li

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchs, J; Duffy, G J; Rowlands, W J; Lezama, A; Hannaford, P; Akulshin, A M

    2007-01-01

    We present an experimental study of sub-natural width resonances in fluorescence from a collimated beam of 6 Li atoms excited on the D 1 and D 2 lines by a bichromatic laser field. We show that in addition to ground-state Zeeman coherence, coherent population oscillations between ground and excited states contribute to the sub-natural resonances. High-contrast resonances of electromagnetically induced transparency and electromagnetically induced absorption due to both effects, i.e., ground-state Zeeman coherence and coherent population oscillations, are observed

  8. A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-11-21

    AFRL-RD-PS- AFRL-RD-PS- TN-2016-0003 TN-2016-0003 A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by External Pulsed Electromagnetic...TYPE Technical Note 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 22-11-2015 – 21-11-2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Model for Microcontroller Functionality Upset Induced by... microcontroller (µC) subjected to external irradiation by a narrowband electromagnetic (EM) pulse. In our model, the state of a µC is completely specified by

  9. Polarization-induced interference within electromagnetically induced transparency for atoms of double-V linkage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuan; Liu, Chang; Chen, Ping-Xing; Liu, Liang

    2018-02-01

    People have been paying attention to the role of atoms' complex internal level structures in the research of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for a long time, where the various degenerate Zeeman levels usually generate complex linkage patterns for the atomic transitions. It turns out, with special choices of the atomic states and the atomic transitions' linkage structure, clear signatures of quantum interference induced by the probe and coupling light's polarizations can emerge from a typical EIT phenomena. We propose to study a four-state system with double-V linkage pattern for the transitions and analyze the polarization-induced interference under the EIT condition. We show that such interference arises naturally under mild conditions on the optical field and atom manipulation techniques. Moreover, we construct a variation form of double-M linkage pattern where the polarization-induced interference enables polarization-dependent cross modulation between incident weak lights that can be effective even at the few-photon level. The theme is to gain more insight into the essential question: how can we build a nontrivial optical medium where incident lights experience polarization-dependent nonlinear optical interactions, valid for a wide range of incidence intensities down to the few-photon level?

  10. Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Waves in the Helium Branch Induced by Multiple Electromagnetic Ion Cyclotron Triggered Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoji, M.; Omura, Y.; Grison, B.; Pickett, J. S.; Dandouras, I. S.; Engebretson, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    Electromagnetic ion cyclotron (EMIC) triggered emissions with rising tones between the H+ and He+ cyclotron frequencies were found in the inner magnetosphere by the recent Cluster observations. Another type of EMIC wave with a constant frequency is occasionally observed below the He+ cyclotron frequency after the multiple EMIC triggered emissions. We performed a self-consistent hybrid simulation with a one-dimensional cylindrical magnetic flux model approximating the dipole magnetic field of the Earth's inner magnetosphere. In the presence of energetic protons with a sufficient density and temperature anisotropy, multiple EMIC triggered emissions are reproduced due to the nonlinear wave growth mechanism of rising-tone chorus emissions, and a constant frequency wave in the He+ EMIC branch is subsequently generated. Through interaction with the multiple EMIC rising-tone emissions, the velocity distribution function of the energetic protons is strongly modified. Because of the pitch angle scattering of the protons, the gradient of the distribution in velocity phase space is enhanced along the diffusion curve of the He+ branch wave, resulting in the linear growth of the EMIC wave in the He+ branch.

  11. Effect of the Earth's gravitational field on the detection of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    We consider the laboratory detection of high-frequency gravitational waves in theories of gravitation based on a pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We analyze the effects due to the Earth's gravitational field on the propagation velocities of gravitational and electromagnetic waves in these theories. Experiments to test the predictions of this class of theories are discussed

  12. Electromagnetically induced acoustic emission—novel NDT technique for damage evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkel, P.; Godinez, V.; Miller, R.; Finlayson, R.

    2001-04-01

    A recently developed electromagnetically induced acoustic emission technique (EM AE) which can be used for damage assessment of thin walled conducting structures is described. This technique allows a structure to be loaded locally by applying an electromagnetic field in order to produce an AE response, which may be captured by conventional or fiber optic (FO) AE sensors. The advantage of this technique is that the localized dynamic stresses induced by a short current pulse in the presence of an external magnetic field aid in the detection of cracks. Also, it is shown that electromagnetic stimulation can be applied to enhance conventional ultrasonics by modulation of the scattered signal from the defect (EM UT). Experimental data is presented for the case of a fatigue crack near rivet holes in thin walled aluminum structures.

  13. Emergent spin electromagnetism induced by magnetization textures in the presence of spin-orbit interaction (invited)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatara, Gen, E-mail: gen.tatara@riken.jp [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Nakabayashi, Noriyuki [RIKEN Center for Emergent Matter Science (CEMS), 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako, Saitama 351-0198 Japan (Japan); Graduate School of Science and Engineering, Tokyo Metropolitan University, Hachioji, Tokyo 192-0397 Japan (Japan)

    2014-05-07

    Emergent electromagnetic field which couples to electron's spin in ferromagnetic metals is theoretically studied. Rashba spin-orbit interaction induces spin electromagnetic field which is in the linear order in gradient of magnetization texture. The Rashba-induced effective electric and magnetic fields satisfy in the absence of spin relaxation the Maxwell's equations as in the charge-based electromagnetism. When spin relaxation is taken into account besides spin dynamics, a monopole current emerges generating spin motive force via the Faraday's induction law. The monopole is expected to play an important role in spin-charge conversion and in the integration of spintronics into electronics.

  14. Projective relativity, cosmology and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arcidiacono, G.

    1986-01-01

    This book describes the latest applications of projective geometry to cosmology and gravitation. The contents of the book are; the Poincare group and Special Relativity, the thermodynamics and electromagnetism, general relativity, gravitation and cosmology, group theory and models of universe, the special projective relativity, the Fantappie group and Big-Bang cosmology, a new cosmological projective mechanics, the plasma physics and cosmology, the projective magnetohydrodynamics field, projective relativity and waves propagation, the generalizations of the gravitational field, the general projective relativity, the projective gravitational field, the De Sitter Universe and quantum physics, the conformal relativity and Newton gravitation

  15. Electromagnetically induced transparency in systems with degenerate autoionizing levels in Λ-configuration

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dinh, T.B.; Leoński, W.; Long, V.C.; Peřina ml., Jan

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 43, č. 3 (2013), s. 471-484 ISSN 0078-5466 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) * lambda configuration * autoionizing states * double Fano profile Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 0.643, year: 2013

  16. Atom-membrane cooling and entanglement using cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genes, Claudiu; Ritsch, Helmut; Drewsen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    We investigate a hybrid optomechanical system composed of a micromechanical oscillator as a movable membrane and an atomic three-level ensemble within an optical cavity. We show that a suitably tailored cavity field response via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the atomic medium...

  17. The Characteristics of Electromagnetic Fields Induced by Different Type Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di, Q.; Fu, C.; Wang, R.; Xu, C.; An, Z.

    2011-12-01

    Controlled source audio-frequence magnetotelluric (CSAMT) method has played an important role in the shallow exploration (less than 1.5km) in the field of resources, environment and engineering geology. In order to prospect the deeper target, one has to increase the strength of the source and offset. However, the exploration is nearly impossible for the heavy larger power transmitting source used in the deeper prospecting and mountain area. So an EM method using a fixed large power source, such as long bipole current source, two perpendicular "L" shape long bipole current source and large radius circle current source, is beginning to take shape. In order to increase the strength of the source, the length of the transmitting bipole in one direction or in perpendicular directions has to be much larger, such as L=100km, or the radius of the circle current source is much larger. The electric field strength are IL2and IL2/4π separately for long bipole source and circle current source with the same wire length. Just considering the effectiveness of source, the strength of the circle current source is larger than that of long bipole source if is large enough. However, the strength of the electromagnetic signal doesn't totally depend on the transmitting source, the effect of ionosphere on the electromagnetic (EM) field should be considered when observation is carried at a very far (about several thousands kilometers) location away from the source for the long bipole source or the large radius circle current source. We firstly calculate the electromagnetic fields with the traditional controlled source (CSEM) configuration using the integral equation (IE) code developed by our research group for a three layers earth-ionosphere model which consists of ionosphere, atmosphere and earth media. The modeling results agree well with the half space analytical results because the effect of ionosphere for this small scale source can be ignorable, which means the integral equation

  18. Electromagnetic Gowdy universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charach, C.

    1979-01-01

    Following Gowdy and Berger we construct an inhomogeneous closed electromagnetic universe with three-torus topology. This model is obtained as a result of the homogeneity breaking in the electromagnetic Bianchi type-I universe and contains interacting gravitational and electromagnetic waves. This cosmological solution provides an exactly solvable model for the study of the nonlinear fully relativistic regime of coupled electromagnetic and gravitational fields in the early universe. The asymptotic behavior is considered (i) in the vicinity of the initial singularity and (ii) in the high-frequency limit. It is shown that the effects of coupling between electromagnetic and gravitational waves cause an evolution which is significantly different from that of the vacuum model. The influence of the primordial homogeneous electromagnetic field on the dynamics of the model is also discussed

  19. Gravitational decoherence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bassi, Angelo; Großardt, André; Ulbricht, Hendrik

    2017-01-01

    We discuss effects of loss of coherence in low energy quantum systems caused by or related to gravitation, referred to as gravitational decoherence. These effects, resulting from random metric fluctuations, for instance, promise to be accessible by relatively inexpensive table-top experiments, way before the scales where true quantum gravity effects become important. Therefore, they can provide a first experimental view on gravity in the quantum regime. We will survey models of decoherence induced both by classical and quantum gravitational fluctuations; it will be manifest that a clear understanding of gravitational decoherence is still lacking. Next we will review models where quantum theory is modified, under the assumption that gravity causes the collapse of the wave functions, when systems are large enough. These models challenge the quantum-gravity interplay, and can be tested experimentally. In the last part we have a look at the state of the art of experimental research. We will review efforts aiming at more and more accurate measurements of gravity ( G and g ) and ideas for measuring conventional and unconventional gravity effects on nonrelativistic quantum systems. (topical review)

  20. Neutrino Oscillations within the Induced Gravitational Collapse Paradigm of Long Gamma-Ray Bursts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becerra, L.; Guzzo, M. M.; Rossi-Torres, F.; Rueda, J. A.; Ruffini, R.; Uribe, J. D.

    2018-01-01

    The induced gravitational collapse paradigm of long gamma-ray bursts associated with supernovae (SNe) predicts a copious neutrino–antineutrino (ν \\bar{ν }) emission owing to the hypercritical accretion process of SN ejecta onto a neutron star (NS) binary companion. The neutrino emission can reach luminosities of up to 1057 MeV s‑1, mean neutrino energies of 20 MeV, and neutrino densities of 1031 cm‑3. Along their path from the vicinity of the NS surface outward, such neutrinos experience flavor transformations dictated by the neutrino-to-electron-density ratio. We determine the neutrino and electron on the accretion zone and use them to compute the neutrino flavor evolution. For normal and inverted neutrino mass hierarchies and within the two-flavor formalism ({ν }e{ν }x), we estimate the final electronic and nonelectronic neutrino content after two oscillation processes: (1) neutrino collective effects due to neutrino self-interactions where the neutrino density dominates, and (2) the Mikheyev–Smirnov–Wolfenstein effect, where the electron density dominates. We find that the final neutrino content is composed by ∼55% (∼62%) of electronic neutrinos, i.e., {ν }e+{\\bar{ν }}e, for the normal (inverted) neutrino mass hierarchy. The results of this work are the first step toward the characterization of a novel source of astrophysical MeV neutrinos in addition to core-collapse SNe and, as such, deserve further attention.

  1. Primordial gravitational waves induced by magnetic fields in an ekpyrotic scenario

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asuka Ito

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Both inflationary and ekpyrotic scenarios can account for the origin of the large scale structure of the universe. It is often said that detecting primordial gravitational waves is the key to distinguish both scenarios. We show that this is not true if the gauge kinetic function is present in the ekpyrotic scenario. In fact, primordial gravitational waves sourced by the gauge field can be produced in an ekpyrotic universe. We also study scalar fluctuations sourced by the gauge field and show that it is negligible compared to primordial gravitational waves. This comes from the fact that the fast roll condition holds in ekpyrotic models.

  2. Higher-order geodesic deviation for charged particles and resonance induced by gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heydari-Fard, M.; Hasani, S. N.

    We generalize the higher-order geodesic deviation for the structure-less test particles to the higher-order geodesic deviation equations of the charged particles [R. Kerner, J. W. van Holten and R. Colistete Jr., Class. Quantum Grav. 18 (2001) 4725]. By solving these equations for charged particles moving in a constant magnetic field in the spacetime of a gravitational wave, we show for both cases when the gravitational wave is parallel and perpendicular to the constant magnetic field, a magnetic resonance appears at wg = Ω. This feature might be useful to detect the gravitational wave with high frequencies.

  3. Pulsed-induced electromagnetically induced transparency in the acetylene-filled hollow-core fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Nayeli Casillas; Stepanov, Serguei; Miramontes, Manuel Ocegueda; Hernández, Eliseo Hernández

    2017-06-01

    Experimental results on pulsed excitation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the acetylene-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (HC-PCF) at pressures 0.1-0.4 Torr are reported. The EIT was observed both in Λ and V interaction configurations with the continuous probe wave tuned to R9 (1520.08 nm) acetylene absorption line and with the control pulses tuned to P11 (1531.58 nm) and P9 (1530.37 nm) lines, respectively. The utilized control pulses were of up to 40 ns duration with EIT was up to 40 and 15% for the co- and counter-propagation of the probe and control waves, respectively, and importance of the waves polarization matching was demonstrated. For a qualitative explanation of reduction in the counter-propagation EIT efficiency a simple model of the accelerated mismatch of the two-frequency EIT resonance with deviation of the molecule thermal velocity from the resonance value was utilized. It was shown experimentally that the EIT efficiencies in both configurations do not depend on the longitudinal velocity of the molecules. The characteristic relaxation time of the of the EIT response was found to be about 9 ns, i.e., is close to the relaxation times T 1,2 of the acetylene molecules under the utilized experimental conditions.

  4. Combined effects of external electric and magnetic fields on electromagnetically induced transparency of a two-dimensional quantum dot

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaei, Gh.; Shojaeian Kish, S.; Avazpour, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this article effects of external electric and magnetic fields on the electromagnetically induced transparency of a hydrogenic impurity confined in a two-dimensional quantum dot are investigated. To do this the probe absorption, group velocity and refractive index of the medium in the presence of external electric and magnetic fields are discussed. It is found that, electromagnetically induced transparency occurs in the system and its frequency, transparency window and group velocity of the probe field strongly depend on the external fields. In comparison with atomic system, one may control the electromagnetically induced transparency and the group velocity of light in nano structures with the dot size and confinement potential.

  5. Dynamic Test Method Based on Strong Electromagnetic Pulse for Electromagnetic Shielding Materials with Field-Induced Insulator-Conductor Phase Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yun; Zhao, Min; Wang, Qingguo

    2018-01-01

    In order to measure the pulse shielding performance of materials with the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition when materials are used for electromagnetic shielding, a dynamic test method was proposed based on a coaxial fixture. Experiment system was built by square pulse source, coaxial cable, coaxial fixture, attenuator, and oscilloscope and insulating components. S11 parameter of the test system was obtained, which suggested that the working frequency ranges from 300 KHz to 7.36 GHz. Insulating performance is good enough to avoid discharge between conductors when material samples is exposed in the strong electromagnetic pulse field up to 831 kV/m. This method is suitable for materials with annular shape, certain thickness and the characteristic of field-induced insulator-conductor phase transition to get their shielding performances of strong electromagnetic pulse.

  6. Low-loss metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Ding, Guo-wen; Yang, Hua; Yu, Zhi-yang; Zhang, Hai-feng [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing, 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetic, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing, 210044 (China)

    2015-02-23

    In this paper, a low-loss and high transmission analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency based on electric toroidal dipolar response is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. It is obtained by the excitation of the low-loss electric toroidal dipolar response, which confines the magnetic field inside a dielectric substrate with toroidal geometry. The metamaterial electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) structure is composed of the cut wire and asymmetric split-ring resonators. The transmission level is as high as 0.88, and the radiation loss is greatly suppressed, which can be proved by the surface currents distributions, the magnetic field distributions, and the imaginary parts of the effective permeability and permittivity. It offers an effective way to produce low-loss and high transmission metamaterial EIT.

  7. Analog of electromagnetically induced transparency at terahertz frequency based on a bilayer-double-H-metamaterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue'e.; Li, Zhi; Hu, Fangrong

    2018-01-01

    We designed a bilayer-double-H-metamaterials (BDHM) composed of two layers of metal and two layers of dielectric to analog a spectral response of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) at terahertz frequency. By changing the incident angle, the BDHM exhibits an EIT-like spectral response. The tunable spectral performances and modulation mechanism of the transparent peak are theoretically investigated using full-wave electromagnetic simulation software. The physical mechanism of the EIT-like effect is based on the constructive and destructive interference between the induced electrical dipoles. Our work provides a new way to realize the EIT-like effect only by changing the incident angles of the metamaterials. The potential applications include tunable filters, sensors, attenuators, switches, and so on.

  8. Electromagnetically induced photonic bandgap in hot Cs atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, D. W.; Zhang, L.; Su, X. M.; Zhuo, Z. C.; Kim, J. B

    2010-01-01

    Three-level Λ-type thermal Cs atoms are used to demonstrate the phenomenon of a photonic bandgap induced by quantum coherence with a standing wave (SW). We observed the transmitted signals of probe field driven by several kinds of SW, which are formed by a strong forward-traveling field and a backward-traveling field when a mirror reflects the forward-traveling beam. Considering Doppler inhomogeneous broadenings with a SW drive, we employ Fourier transformation to solve density-matrix equations for simulation results. The simulation results are found to be consistent with the experimental results.

  9. Generating entangled state of Bose-Einstein condensate using electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Song-Song

    2018-01-01

    We put forward a scheme on how to generate entangled state of Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). It is shown that we can rapidly generate the entangled state in the dynamical process and the entangled state maintained a long time interval. It is also shown that the better entangled state can be generated by decreasing coupling strengths of two classical laser fields, increasing two-photon detuning and total number of atoms.

  10. Experimental realization of an on-chip all-optical analogue to electromagnetically induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qianfan; Sandhu, Sunil; Povinelli, Michelle L; Shakya, Jagat; Fan, Shanhui; Lipson, Michal

    2006-03-31

    We provide the first experimental observation of structure tuning of the electromagnetically induced transparency-like spectrum in integrated on-chip optical resonator systems. The system consists of coupled silicon ring resonators with 10 microm diameter on silicon, where the coherent interference between the two coupled resonators is tuned. We measured a transparency-resonance mode with a quality factor of 11,800.

  11. Nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals by electromagnetically induced acoustic cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaldre, Imants; Bojarevičs, Andris; Grants, Ilmārs; Beinerts, Toms; Kalvāns, Matīss; Milgrāvis, Mikus; Gerbeth, Gunter

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study is to investigate experimentally the effect of magnetically induced cavitation applied for the purpose of nanoparticle dispersion in liquid metals. The oscillating magnetic force due to the azimuthal induction currents and the axial magnetic field excites power ultrasound in the sample. If the fields are sufficiently high then it is possible to achieve the acoustic cavitation threshold in liquid metals. Cavitation bubble collapses are known to create microscale jets with a potential to break nanoparticle agglomerates and disperse them. The samples are solidified under the contactless ultrasonic treatment and later analyzed by electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). It is observed that SiC nanoparticles are dispersed in an aluminum magnesium alloy, whereas in tin the same particles remain agglomerated in micron-sized clusters despite a more intense cavitation.

  12. Extracting gravitational waves induced by plasma turbulence in the early Universe through an averaging process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrison, David; Ramirez, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    This work is a follow-up to the paper, ‘Numerical relativity as a tool for studying the early Universe’. In this article, we determine if cosmological gravitational waves can be accurately extracted from a dynamical spacetime using an averaging process as opposed to conventional methods of gravitational wave extraction using a complex Weyl scalar. We calculate the normalized energy density, strain and degree of polarization of gravitational waves produced by a simulated turbulent plasma similar to what was believed to have existed shortly after the electroweak scale. This calculation is completed using two numerical codes, one which utilizes full general relativity calculations based on modified BSSN equations while the other utilizes a linearized approximation of general relativity. Our results show that the spectrum of gravitational waves calculated from the nonlinear code using an averaging process is nearly indistinguishable from those calculated from the linear code. This result validates the use of the averaging process for gravitational wave extraction of cosmological systems. (paper)

  13. A Generalization of Electromagnetic Fluctuation-Induced Casimir Energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Intermolecular forces responsible for adhesion and cohesion can be classified according to their origins; interactions between charges, ions, random dipole—random dipole (Keesom, random dipole—induced dipole (Debye are due to electrostatic effects; covalent bonding, London dispersion forces between fluctuating dipoles, and Lewis acid-base interactions are due to quantum mechanical effects; pressure and osmotic forces are of entropic origin. Of all these interactions, the London dispersion interaction is universal and exists between all types of atoms as well as macroscopic objects. The dispersion force between macroscopic objects is called Casimir/van der Waals force. It results from alteration of the quantum and thermal fluctuations of the electrodynamic field due to the presence of interfaces and plays a significant role in the interaction between macroscopic objects at micrometer and nanometer length scales. This paper discusses how fluctuational electrodynamics can be used to determine the Casimir energy/pressure between planar multilayer objects. Though it is confirmation of the famous work of Dzyaloshinskii, Lifshitz, and Pitaevskii (DLP, we have solved the problem without having to use methods from quantum field theory that DLP resorted to. Because of this new approach, we have been able to clarify the contributions of propagating and evanescent waves to Casimir energy/pressure in dissipative media.

  14. Narrowing of electromagnetically induced transparency resonance in a Doppler-broadened medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Javan, Ali; Kocharovskaya, Olga; Lee Hwang; Scully, Marlan O.

    2002-01-01

    We derive an analytic expression for the linewidth of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance in a Doppler-broadened system. It is shown here that for relatively low intensity of the driving field the EIT linewidth is proportional to the square root of intensity and is independent of the Doppler width, similar to the laser-induced line narrowing effect described by Feld and Javan. In the limit of high intensity we recover the usual power-broadening case where the EIT linewidth is proportional to the intensity and inversely proportional to the Doppler width

  15. Detecting free-mass common-mode motion induced by incident gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar, Michael Edmund; Suzuki, Toshikazu; Kuroda, Kazuaki

    1999-05-01

    In this paper we show that information on both the differential and common mode free-mass response to a gravitational wave can provide important information on discriminating the direction of the gravitational wave source and between different theories of gravitation. The conventional Michelson interferometer scheme only measures the differential free-mass response. By changing the orientation of the beam splitter, it is possible to configure the detector so it is sensitive to the common-mode of the free-mass motion. The proposed interferometer is an adaptation of the Fox-Smith interferometer. A major limitation to the new scheme is its enhanced sensitivity to laser frequency fluctuations over the conventional, and we propose a method of cancelling these fluctuations. The configuration could be used in parallel to the conventional differential detection scheme with a significant sensitivity and bandwidth.

  16. The electromagnetically induced negative refractive index in the Er3+:YAlO3 crystal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chunxu; Zhang Jisen; Liu Junye; Jin Guang

    2009-01-01

    We carried out the negative refractive index in the solid medium Er 3+ :YAlO 3 crystal with a Λ-type four-level scheme proposed for atomic vapour by Thommen and Mandel, and Kaestel (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2006 96 053601 and 2007 98 069301) based on quantum interference and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The results show that the frequency band with the negative index is much wider (∼1 MHz) than reported previously. Usually, Im[n] is always positive, corresponding to absorption, and the figure of merit (FOM, the ratio of real to imaginary, namely |Re[n]/Im[n]|) is only on the order of unity. We achieve FOM |Re[n]/Im[n]| = 4.6. The corresponding negative Im[n] is related to the stimulated emission of 4 I 13/2 → 4 I 15/2 of the rare earth ion Er 3+ under external electromagnetic fields. It is concluded that the rare earth ion doped material with abundant energy levels and various electric and magnetic transitions is an outstanding and practical candidate for the electromagnetically induced negative refractive index material.

  17. Propagation of electromagnetic waves in the plasma near electron cyclotron resonance: Undulator-induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shvets, G.; Tushentsov, M.; Tokman, M.D.; Kryachko, A.

    2005-01-01

    Propagation of electromagnetic waves in magnetized plasma near the electron cyclotron frequency can be strongly modified by adding a weak magnetic undulator. For example, both right- and left-hand circularly polarized waves can propagate along the magnetic field without experiencing resonant absorption. This effect of entirely eliminating electron cyclotron heating is referred to as the undulator-induced transparency (UIT) of the plasma, and is the classical equivalent of the well-known quantum mechanical effect of electromagnetically induced transparency. The basics of UIT are reviewed, and various ways in which UIT can be utilized to achieve exotic propagation properties of electromagnetic waves in plasmas are discussed. For example, UIT can dramatically slow down the waves' group velocity, resulting in the extreme compression of the wave energy in the plasma. Compressed waves are polarized along the propagation direction, and can be used for synchronous electron or ion acceleration. Strong coupling between the two wave helicities are explored to impart the waves with high group velocities ∂ω/∂k for vanishing wave numbers k. Cross-helicity coupling for realistic density and magnetic field profiles are examined using a linearized fluid code, particle-in-cell simulations, and ray-tracing WKB calculations

  18. Tailoring polarization of electromagnetically induced transparency based on non-centrosymmetric metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hai-ming; Xue, Feng

    2017-09-01

    In this manuscript, tailoring polarization of analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT-like) based on non-centrosymmetric metasurfaces has been numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The EIT-like metamaterial is composed of a rectangle ring and two cut wires. The rectangle ring and the cut wire are chosen as the bright mode and the quasi-dark mode, respectively. Under the incident electromagnetic wave excitation, a polarization insensitive EIT-like transmission window can be observed at specific polarization angles. Within the transmission window, the phase steeply changes, which leads to the large group index. Tailoring polarization of EIT-like metamaterial with large group index at specific polarization angles may have potential application in slow light devices.

  19. Electromagnetic shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.S.

    1987-01-01

    An electromagnetic shield is described comprising: closed, electrically-conductive rings, each having an open center; and binder means for arranging the rings in a predetermined, fixed relationship relative to each other, the so-arranged rings and binder means defining an outer surface; wherein electromagnetic energy received by the shield from a source adjacent its outer surface induces an electrical current to flow in a predetermined direction adjacent and parallel to the outer surface, through the rings; and wherein each ring is configured to cause source-induced alternating current flowing through the portion of the ring closest to the outer surface to electromagnetically induce an oppositely-directed current in the portion of the ring furthest from the surface, such oppositely-directed current bucking any source-induced current in the latter ring portion and thus reducing the magnitude of current flowing through it, whereby the electromagnetic shielding effected by the shield is enhanced

  20. Macroscopic effects in electromagnetically-induced transparency in a Doppler-broadened system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Li-Ya; Qu Yi-Zhi; Niu Jin-Yan; Wang Ru-Quan; Wu Ling-An; Fu Pan-Ming; Zuo Zhan-Chun

    2015-01-01

    We study the electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) in a Doppler-broadened cascaded three-level system. We decompose the susceptibility responsible for the EIT resonance into a linear and a nonlinear part, and the EIT resonance reflects mainly the characteristics of the nonlinear susceptibility. It is found that the macroscopic polarization interference effect plays a crucial role in determining the EIT resonance spectrum. To obtain a Doppler-free spectrum there must be polarization interference between atoms of different velocities. A dressed-state model, which analyzes the velocities at which the atoms are in resonance with the dressed states through Doppler frequency shifting, is employed to explain the results. (paper)

  1. Theoretical study on the ultra-narrow bandwidth tunable atomic filter with electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Shu-qing; Feng, Zhong-ying; Liu, Xiao-fei; Gao, Jin-yue

    2016-12-01

    To obtain the weak signal light detection from the high background noise, we present a theoretical study on the ultra-narrow bandwidth tunable atomic filter with electromagnetically induced transparency. In a three-level Λ -type atomic system in the rubidium D1 line, the bandwidth of the EIT atomic filter is narrowed to ~6.5 \\text{MHz} . And the single peak transmission of the filter can be up to 86% . Moreover, the transmission wavelength can be tuned by changing the coupling light frequency. This theoretical scheme can also be applied to other alkali atomic systems.

  2. Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grishkov, V. E.; Uryupin, S. A., E-mail: uryupin@sci.lebedev.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation)

    2017-03-15

    Excitation of plasma waves by nonlinear currents induced by a high-frequency electromagnetic pulse is analyzed within the kinetic approach. It is shown that the most efficient source of plasma waves is the nonlinear current arising due to the gradient of the energy density of the high-frequency field. Generation of plasma waves by the drag current is usually less efficient but not negligibly small at relatively high frequencies of electron–ion collisions. The influence of electron collisions on the excitation of plasma waves by pulses of different duration is described quantitatively.

  3. Fluorescence and Four-Wave Mixing in Electromagnetically Induced Transparency Windows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Zhi-Guo; Li Cheng; Zhang Zhao-Yang; Che Jun-Ling; Qin Meng-Zhe; He Jia-Nan; Zhang Yan-Peng

    2013-01-01

    We simultaneously compare the probe transmission, Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) and fluorescence signals with dressing effects in a four-level atomic system. The variation rules of three types of signals are exhibited by changing the frequency detuning and power of incident laser beams. The interplay between two ladder subsystems is investigated in the Y-type atomic system. In particular, the fluorescence signal with ultra-narrow linewidth is obtained due to being sheared twice by the electromagnetically induced transparency window. Such fluorescence with very high coherence and monochromaticity can be used for the quantum correlation and narrow linewidth laser

  4. Influence of disorder on electromagnetically induced transparency in chiral waveguide quantum electrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirza, Imran M.; Schotland, John C.

    2018-05-01

    We study single photon transport in a one-dimensional disordered lattice of three-level atoms coupled to an optical waveguide. In particular, we study atoms of \\Lambda-type that are capable of exhibiting electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and separately consider disorder in the atomic positions and transition frequencies. We mainly address the question of how preferential emission into waveguide modes (chirality) can influence the formation of spatially localized states. Our work has relevance to experimental studies of cold atoms coupled to nanoscale waveguides and has possible applications to quantum communications.

  5. A method for detection of muon induced electromagnetic showers with the ANTARES detector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aguilar, J.A. [IFIC-Instituto de Fisica Corpuscular, Edificios Investigacion de Paterna, CSIC-Universitat de Valencia, Apdo. de Correos 22085, 46071 Valencia (Spain); Al Samarai, I. [CPPM-Centre de Physique des Particules de Marseille, CNRS/IN2P3 et Universite de la Mediterranee, 163 Avenue de Luminy, Case 902, 13288 Marseille Cedex 9 (France); Albert, A. [GRPHE-Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit BP 50568-68008 Colmar (France); Andre, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposicio, 08800 Vilanova i la Geltru, Barcelona (Spain); Anghinolfi, M. [INFN-Sezione di Genova, Via Dodecaneso 33, 16146 Genova (Italy); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany); Anvar, S. [Direction des Sciences de la Matiere-Institut de recherche sur les lois fondamentales de l' Univers-Service d' Electronique des Detecteurs et d' Informatique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Ardid, M. [Institut d' Investigacio per a la Gestio Integrada de Zones Costaneres (IGIC)-Universitat Politecnica de Valencia. C/ Paranimf 1, 46730 Gandia (Spain); Assis Jesus, A.C.; Astraatmadja, T. [Nikhef, Science Park, Amsterdam (Netherlands); and others

    2012-05-21

    The primary aim of ANTARES is neutrino astronomy with upward going muons created in charged current muon neutrino interactions in the detector and its surroundings. Downward going muons are background for neutrino searches. These muons are the decay products of cosmic-ray collisions in the Earth's atmosphere far above the detector. This paper presents a method to identify and count electromagnetic showers induced along atmospheric muon tracks with the ANTARES detector. The method is applied to both cosmic muon data and simulations and its applicability to the reconstruction of muon event energies is demonstrated.

  6. Electromagnetically induced transparency in planar metamaterials based on guided mode resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaru; Chen, Hang; Li, Xiangjun; Hong, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    We present and numerically demonstrate a novel, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar metamaterials (MMs) based on guided mode resonance (GMR). The unit cell of the MM consists of two metallic ring resonators. The GMR with high quality factor (Q) is achieved by changing the distance between the two rings of the MM. Narrow EIT-like spectral response is realized by coupling between a high Q GMR and a low Q dipolar resonance of the MM. Our work could provide another efficient way towards the realization of EIT with large group index using very simple structures.

  7. Electromagnetically induced transparency line shapes for large probe fields and optically thick media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the line shape and linewidths for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in optically thick, Doppler broadened media (buffer gasses are also considered). In generalizing the definition of the EIT linewidth to optically thick media, we find two different linewidth definitions apply depending on whether the experiment is pulsed or continuous wave (cw). Using the cw definition for the EIT line shape we derive analytic expressions describing the linewidth as a function of optical depth. We also review the EIT line shapes in optically thin media and provide physical arguments for how the line shapes change as a function of various parameters

  8. Nonlinear optical properties of an electromagnetically induced transparency medium interacting with two quantized fields

    CERN Document Server

    Kuang-Leman; Wu Yong Shi

    2003-01-01

    We study linear and nonlinear optical properties of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium interacting with two quantized laser fields in the adiabatic EIT case. We show that the EIT medium exhibits normal dispersion. Kerr and higher-order nonlinear refractive index coefficients are also calculated in a completely analytical form. It is indicated that the EIT medium exhibits giant resonantly enhanced nonlinearities. We discuss the response of the EIT medium to nonclassical light fields and find that the polarization vanishes when the probe laser is initially in a nonclassical state of no single-photon coherence.

  9. Transients of the electromagnetically-induced-transparency-enhanced refractive Kerr nonlinearity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    We report observations of the dynamics of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Λ system when the ground states are Stark shifted. Interactions of this type exhibit large optical nonlinearities called Kerr nonlinearities, and have numerous applications. The EIT Kerr nonlinearity is relatively slow, which is a limiting factor that may make many potential applications impossible. Using rubidium atoms, we observe the dynamics of the EIT Kerr nonlinearity using a Mach-Zehnder interferometer to measure phase modulation of the EIT fields resulting from a pulsed signal beam Stark shifting the ground state energy levels. The rise times and transients agree well with theory

  10. Effect of Earth gravitational field on the detection of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.

    1987-01-01

    Results of laboratory detection of high-frequency gravitational waves from the view point of gravitation theories formulated on the basis of pseudoeuclidean space-time are calculated. Peculiarities due to different effects of the Earth gravitational field on the rates of gravitational and electromagnetic wave propagation in these theories are analysed. Experiments on check of predictions of the given class of theories are suggested

  11. Gravitational Waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-10-18

    This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.

  12. Electromagnetically induced transparency with large delay-bandwidth product induced by magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Hai-ming; Liu, Shao-bin, E-mail: lsb@nuaa.edu.cn; Liu, Si-yuan; Zhang, Hai-feng; Bian, Bo-rui; Kong, Xiang-kun [Key Laboratory of Radar Imaging and Microwave Photonics, Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Nanjing 210016 (China); Wang, Shen-yun [Research Center of Applied Electromagnetics, Nanjing University of Information Science and Technology, Nanjing 210044 (China)

    2015-03-16

    In this paper, we numerically and experimentally demonstrate electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like spectral response with magnetic resonance near field coupling to electric resonance. Six split-ring resonators and a cut wire are chosen as the bright and dark resonator, respectively. An EIT-like transmission peak located between two dips can be observed with incident magnetic field excitation. A large delay bandwidth product (0.39) is obtained, which has potential application in quantum optics and communications. The experimental results are in good agreement with simulated results.

  13. Some aspects of gravitational waves in an isotropic background universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pandey, S.N.

    1981-06-01

    Gravitational waves are an inescapable consequence of the relativistic theory of gravitation. They are meaningfully comparable with electromagnetic waves. However, they are not conformally invariant. So, to investigate this property for gravitational waves, modified field equations are obtained of which the underlying Lagrangian is based on gravitation only. It gives, if helicity is preserved, amplitude modification, and the wave is represented by Bessel function of zero order. Some aspects of this theory are discussed with reference to gravitational waves only. (author)

  14. A narrow window of Rabi frequency for competition between electromagnetically induced transparency and Raman absorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ray-Yuan; Fang, Wei-Chia; Lee, Ming-Tsung; He, Zong-Syun; Ke, Bai-Cian; Lee, Yi-Chi; Tsai, Chin-Chun

    2010-01-01

    This investigation clarifies the transition phenomenon between the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and Raman absorption in a ladder-type system of Doppler-broadened cesium vapor. A competition window of this transition was found to be as narrow as 2 MHz defined by the probe Rabi frequency. For a weak probe, the spectrum of EIT associated with quantum interference suggests that the effect of the Doppler velocity on the spectrum is negligible. When the Rabi frequency of the probe becomes comparable with the effective decay rate, an electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) dip emerges at the center of the power broadened EIT peak. While the Rabi frequency of the probe exceeds the effective decay rate, decoherence that is generated by the intensified probe field occurs and Raman absorption dominates the interaction process, yielding a pure absorption spectrum; the Doppler velocity plays an important role in the interaction. A theory that is based on density matrix simulation, with or without the Doppler effect, can qualitatively fit the experimental data. In this work, the coherence of atom-photon interactions is created or destroyed using the probe Rabi frequency as a decoherence source.

  15. Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics with Nested Polariton States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Junling; Ku, H. S.; Wu, Xian; Gu, Xiu; Lake, Russell E.; Bal, Mustafa; Liu, Yu-xi; Pappas, David P.

    2018-02-01

    Quantum networks will enable extraordinary capabilities for communicating and processing quantum information. These networks require a reliable means of storage, retrieval, and manipulation of quantum states at the network nodes. A node receives one or more coherent inputs and sends a conditional output to the next cascaded node in the network through a quantum channel. Here, we demonstrate this basic functionality by using the quantum interference mechanism of electromagnetically induced transparency in a transmon qubit coupled to a superconducting resonator. First, we apply a microwave bias, i.e., drive, to the qubit-cavity system to prepare a Λ -type three-level system of polariton states. Second, we input two interchangeable microwave signals, i.e., a probe tone and a control tone, and observe that transmission of the probe tone is conditional upon the presence of the control tone that switches the state of the device with up to 99.73% transmission extinction. Importantly, our electromagnetically induced transparency scheme uses all dipole allowed transitions. We infer high dark state preparation fidelities of >99.39 % and negative group velocities of up to -0.52 ±0.09 km /s based on our data.

  16. Intensity dependence narrowing of electromagnetically induced absorption in a Doppler-broadened medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrijevic, J.; Arsenovic, D.; Jelenkovic, B. M.

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical model for studying the interaction between linearly polarized laser light and near-degenerated Zeeman sublevels for a multiple V-type atomic system of 2 S 1/2 F g =2→ 2 P 3/2 F e =3 transition in 87 Rb. We have calculated the laser absorption in a Hanle configuration, as well as the amplitudes and the widths of electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) in the range of laser intensities from 0.01 to 40 mW/cm 2 . Our results, showing nonvanishing EIA amplitude, a nonmonotonic increase of the EIA width for the increase of laser intensity, and pronounced shape differences of the Hanle EIA curves at different laser intensities, are in good agreement with recent experimental results. We have found that the EIA behaves differently than the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) as a function of the laser intensity. Both the amplitude and width of the EIA have narrow maximums at 1 to 2 mW/cm 2 . We have shown the strong influence of Doppler broadening of atomic transition on Hanle resonances and have suggested the explanation of it

  17. Controlling the delocalization-localization transition of light via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Jing; Huang Guoxiang

    2011-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a transition from delocalization to localization of light waves via electromagnetically induced transparency. The system we suggested is a resonant cold atomic ensemble having N configuration, with a control field consisting of two pairs of laser beams with different cross angles, which produce an electromagnetically induced quasiperiodic waveguide (EIQPW) for the propagation of a signal field. By appropriately tuning the incommensurate rate or relative modulation strength between the two pairs of control-field components, the signal field can exhibit the delocalization-localization transition as it transports inside the atomic ensemble. The delocalization-localization transition point is determined and the propagation property of the signal field is studied in detail. Our work provides a way of realizing wave localization via atomic coherence, which is quite different from the conventional, off-resonant mechanism-based Aubry-Andre model, and the great controllability of the EIQPW also allows an easy manipulation of the delocalization-localization transition.

  18. Observation of electromagnetically induced transparency and absorption in Yttrium Iron Garnet loaded split ring resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tay, Z. J.; Soh, W. T.; Ong, C. K.

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we propose a new method of controlling microwave transmission from Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) to Electromagnetically Induced Transparency (EIT). EIA describes the state where the system strongly absorbs microwaves, whereas EIT describes the state in which the system is transparent to microwaves. Control is achieved via coupling of the 3 GHz photon mode of a metamaterial Split Ring Resonator (SRR) to the spin wave magnon modes of a Yttrium Iron Garnet (YIG) bulk. The system is described by a 2-body interaction matrix with an additional fitting parameter τ which takes into account the fact that the microstrip feed line could excite the SRR as well as the YIG. The parameter τ reveals the effect of geometry and shielding on the coupling behaviour and gives rise to unique physics. In low τ (τ ⩽ 2) configurations, only EIT is reported. However, in high τ (τ ≈ 10) configurations, EIA is reported. Furthermore, we report that the system can be easily changed from a low τ to high τ configuration by shielding the SRR from the microstrip with a thin metal piece. Varying the τ parameter through shielding is thus proposed as a new method of controlling the microwave transmission at the coupling region.

  19. Tetrazole amphiphile inducing growth of conducting polymers hierarchical nanostructures and their electromagnetic absorption properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Aming; Sun, Mengxiao; Zhang, Kun; Xia, Yilu; Wu, Fan

    2018-05-01

    Conducting polymers (CPs) at nano scales endow materials with special optical, electrical, and magnetic properties. The crucial factor to construct and regulate the micro-structures of CPs is the inducing reagent, particular in its chemical structure, such active sites, self-assembling properties. In this paper, we design and synthesize an amphiphile bearing tetrazole moiety on its skeleton, and use this amphiphile as an inducing reagent to prepare and regulate the micro-structures of a series of CPs including polypyrrole, polyaniline, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) and poly(p-phenylenediamine). Because of the unique electric properties of CPs and size effect, we next explored the electromagnetic absorption performances of these CPs nanostructures. A synergetic combination of electric loss and magnetic loss is used to explain the absorption mechanism of these CPs nano-structures.

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency with wide band in all-dielectric microstructure based on Mie resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lei; Dong, Liang

    2014-01-01

    We numerically demonstrate that a broadband electromagnetically induced transparency–like (EIT-like) effect can be achieved in an all-dielectric microstructure consisting of a dielectric bar and six dielectric bricks. With proper excitations, the dielectric bar and bricks serve as bright and dark elements via the Mie electric and magnetic resonances, respectively. In particular, the mutual couplings between the Mie electric and magnetic resonances induce a broad transparency window. The nature of resonances of the broadband EIT-like effect in an all-dielectric microstructure is investigated by numerical simulation and a coupled oscillator model. Results reveal that significant enhancement of coupling interactions between dielectric resonators leads to a broadband EIT-like effect. Such a dielectric EIT-like structure is promising for future applications in nonlinear optics, slow light devices, and filters. (paper)

  1. Imprint of accretion disk-induced migration on gravitational waves from extreme mass ratio inspirals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunes, Nicolás; Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham; Haiman, Zoltán

    2011-10-21

    We study the effects of a thin gaseous accretion disk on the inspiral of a stellar-mass black hole into a supermassive black hole. We construct a phenomenological angular momentum transport equation that reproduces known disk effects. Disk torques modify the gravitational wave phase evolution to detectable levels with LISA for reasonable disk parameters. The Fourier transform of disk-modified waveforms acquires a correction with a different frequency trend than post-Newtonian vacuum terms. Such inspirals could be used to detect accretion disks with LISA and to probe their physical parameters. © 2011 American Physical Society

  2. Autler-Townes effect in a strongly driven electromagnetically induced transparency resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lijun; Zhang Lianshui; Li Xiaoli; Han Li; Fu Guangsheng; Manson, Neil B.; Suter, Dieter; Wei Changjiang

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the nonlinear behavior of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) resonance subject to a coherent driving field. The EIT is associated with a Λ three-level system where two hyperfine levels within an electronic ground state are coupled to a common excited state level by a coupling field and a probe field. In addition there is an radio-frequency (rf) field driving a hyperfine transition within the ground state. The paper contrasts two different situations. In one case the rf-driven transition shares a common level with the probed transition and in the second case it shares a common level with the coupled transition. In both cases the EIT resonance is split into a doublet and the characteristics of the EIT doublet are determined by the strength and frequency of the rf-driving field. The doublet splitting originates from the rf-field induced dynamic Stark effect and has close analogy with the Autler-Townes effect observed in three-level pump-probe spectroscopy study. The situation changes when the rf field is strong and the two cases are very different. One is analogous to two Λ three-level systems with EIT resonance associated with each. The other corresponds to a doubly driven three-level system with rf-field-induced electromagnetically induced absorption resonance. The two situations are modeled using numerical solutions of the relevant equation of motion of density matrix. In addition a physical account of their behaviors is given in terms of a dressed state picture

  3. Long-term evolution and gravitational wave radiation of neutron stars with differential rotation induced by r-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yunwei; Cao Xiaofeng; Zheng Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    In a second-order r-mode theory, Sa and Tome found that the r-mode oscillation in neutron stars (NSs) could induce stellar differential rotation, which naturally leads to a saturated state of the oscillation. Based on a consideration of the coupling of the r-modes and the stellar spin and thermal evolution, we carefully investigate the influences of the differential rotation on the long-term evolution of isolated NSs and NSs in low-mass X-ray binaries, where the viscous damping of the r-modes and its resultant effects are taken into account. The numerical results show that, for both kinds of NSs, the differential rotation can significantly prolong the duration of the r-modes. As a result, the stars can keep nearly a constant temperature and constant angular velocity for over a thousand years. Moreover, the persistent radiation of a quasi-monochromatic gravitational wave would also be predicted due to the long-term steady r-mode oscillation and stellar rotation. This increases the detectability of gravitational waves from both young isolated and old accreting NSs. (research papers)

  4. A mathematical model of extremely low frequency ocean induced electromagnetic noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dautta, Manik; Faruque, Rumana Binte; Islam, Rakibul

    2016-01-01

    Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) system uses the principle that ferromagnetic objects disturb the magnetic lines of force of the earth. These lines of force are able to pass through both water and air in similar manners. A MAD system, usually mounted on an aerial vehicle, is thus often employed to confirm the detection and accomplish localization of large ferromagnetic objects submerged in a sea-water environment. However, the total magnetic signal encountered by a MAD system includes contributions from a myriad of low to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) sources. The goal of the MAD system is to detect small anomaly signals in the midst of these low-frequency interfering signals. Both the Range of Detection (R_d) and the Probability of Detection (P_d) are limited by the ratio of anomaly signal strength to the interfering magnetic noise. In this paper, we report a generic mathematical model to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio or SNR. Since time-variant electro-magnetic signals are affected by conduction losses due to sea-water conductivity and the presence of air-water interface, we employ the general formulation of dipole induced electromagnetic field propagation in stratified media [1]. As a first step we employ a volumetric distribution of isolated elementary magnetic dipoles, each having its own dipole strength and orientation, to estimate the magnetic noise observed by a MAD system. Numerical results are presented for a few realizations out of an ensemble of possible realizations of elementary dipole source distributions.

  5. [Apoptosis of human lung carcinoma cell line GLC-82 induced by high power electromagnetic pulse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiao-zhe; Zhao, Mei-lan; Wang, De-wen; Dong, Bo

    2002-09-01

    Electromagnetic pulse (EMP) could be used for sterilization of food and the efficiency is higher than 2450 MHz continuous microwave done. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of electromagnetic pulse (EMP) on apoptosis of human lung carcinoma cell line GLC-82, so that to explore and develop therapeutic means for cancer. The injury changes in GLC-82 cells after irradiated with EMP (electric field intensity was 60 kV/m, 5 pulses/2 min) were analyzed by cytometry, MTT chronometry, and flow cytometry. The immunohistochemical SP staining was used to determine the expressions of bcl-2 protein and p53 protein. The stained positive cells were analyzed by CMIAS-II image analysis system at a magnification 400. All data were analyzed by SPSS8.0 software. EMP could obviously inhibited proliferation and activity of lung carcinoma cell line GLC-82. The absorbance value (A570) of MTT decreased immediately, at 0 h, 1 h, and 6 h after the GLC-82 cells irradiated by EMP as compared with control group. The highest apoptosis rate was found to reach 13.38% by flow cytometry at 6 h after EMP irradiation. Down-regulation of bcl-2 expression and up-regulation of p53 expression were induced by EMP. EMP promotes apoptosis of GLC-82 cells. At same time, EMP can down-regulate bcl-2 expression and up-regulate p53 expression in GLC-82 cells. The bcl-2 and the p53 protein may involve the apoptotic process.

  6. Gravitational perturbation of the BTZ black hole induced by test particles and weak cosmic censorship in AdS spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rocha, Jorge V.; Cardoso, Vitor

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the gravitational perturbations induced by particles falling into a three dimensional, asymptotically AdS black hole geometry. More specifically, we solve the linearized perturbation equations obtained from the geodesic motion of a ringlike distribution of test particles in the BTZ background. This setup ensures that the U(1) symmetry of the background is preserved. The nonasymptotic flatness of the background raises difficulties in attributing the significance of energy and angular momentum to the conserved quantities of the test particles. This issue is well known but, to the best of our knowledge, has never been addressed in the literature. We confirm that the naive expressions for energy and angular momentum are the correct definitions. Finally, we put an asymptotically AdS version of the weak cosmic censorship to a test: by attempting to overspin the BTZ black hole with test particles it is found that the black hole cannot be spun-up past its extremal limit.

  7. Gravitation Waves

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2005-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.

  8. Observation of Fano resonance and classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency in toroidal metamaterials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Song; Yang, Helin [College of Physical Science and Technology, Central China Normal University, Wuhan (China); Cong, Lonqing; Singh, Ranjan [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Centre for Disruptive Photonic Technologies, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore); Gao, Fei [Division of Physics and Applied Physics, School of Physical and Mathematical Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore (Singapore)

    2016-05-15

    Toroidal multipoles have recently been explored in various scientific communities, ranging from atomic and molecular physics, electrodynamics, and solid-state physics to biology. Here we experimentally and numerically demonstrate a three-dimensional toroidal metamaterial where two different toroidal dipoles along orthogonal directions have been observed. The chosen toroidal metamaterial also simultaneously supports Fano resonance and the classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) phenomena in the transmission spectra that originate from the electric-toroidal dipole and electric-magnetic dipole destructive interference. The intriguing properties of the toroidal resonances may open up avenues for applications in toroidal moments generator, sensing and slow-light devices. (copyright 2016 by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  9. Nanomechanical inverse electromagnetically induced transparency and confinement of light in normal modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, G S; Huang, Sumei

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the existence of the phenomenon of the inverse electromagnetically induced transparency (IEIT) in an opto mechanical system consisting of a nanomechanical mirror placed in an optical cavity. We show that two weak counter-propagating identical classical probe fields can be completely absorbed by the system in the presence of a strong coupling field so that the output probe fields are zero. The light is completely confined inside the cavity and the energy of the incoming probe fields is shared between the cavity field and creation of a coherent phonon and resides primarily in one of the polariton modes. The energy can be extracted by a perturbation of the external fields or by suddenly changing the Q of the cavity. (paper)

  10. Analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xianping; Wei, Zhongchao; Liu, Yuebo; Zhong, Nianfa; Tan, Xiaopei; Shi, Songsong; Liu, Hongzhan; Liang, Ruisheng

    2016-01-01

    We have demonstrated the analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator. A reasonable analysis of the transmission feature based on the temporal coupled-mode theory is given and shows good agreement with the Finit-Difference Time-Domain simulation. The transparency window can be easily tuned by changing the geometrical parameters and the insulator filled in the resonator. The transmission of the resonator system is close to 80% and the full width at half maximum is less than 46 nm. The sensitivity of the structure is about 812 nm/RIU. These characteristics make the new system with potential to apply for optical storage, ultrafast plasmonic switch and slow-light devices.

  11. Broadband tunable electromagnetically induced transparency analogue metamaterials based on graphene in terahertz band

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Leng, Yanbing; Wang, Li; Dong, Lianhe; Liu, Shunrui; Wang, Jun; Sun, Yanjun

    2018-06-01

    Most of the actively controlled electromagnetically induced transparency analogue (EIT-like) metamaterials were implemented with narrowband modulations. In this paper, a broadband tunable EIT-like metamaterial based on graphene in the terahertz band is presented. It consists of a cut wire as the bright resonator and two couples of H-shaped resonators in mirror symmetry as the dark resonators. A broadband tunable property of transmission amplitude is realized by changing the Fermi level of graphene. Furthermore, the geometries of the metamaterial structure are optimized to achieve the ideal curve through the simulation. Such EIT-like metamaterials proposed here are promising candidates for designing active wide-band slow-light devices, wide-band terahertz active filters, and wide-band terahertz modulators.

  12. Tunable high-channel-count bandpass plasmonic filters based on an analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Hua; Liu Xueming; Wang Guoxi; Mao Dong

    2012-01-01

    We have proposed a novel type of bandpass plasmonic filter consisting of metal–insulator–metal bus waveguides coupled with a series of side-coupled cavities and stub waveguides. The theoretical modeling demonstrates that our waveguide-resonator system performs a plasmonic analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in atomic systems, as is confirmed by numerical experiments. The plasmonic EIT-like response enables the realization of nanoscale bandpass filters with multiple channels. Additionally, the operating wavelengths and bandwidths of our filters can be efficiently tuned by adjusting the geometric parameters such as the lengths of stub waveguides and the coupling distances between the cavities and stub waveguides. The ultracompact configurations contribute to the achievement of wavelength division multiplexing systems for optical computing and communications in highly integrated optical circuits. (paper)

  13. Electromagnetic torque on the toroidal plasma and the error-field induced torque

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pustovitov, V. D.

    2007-01-01

    The electromagnetic torque on the toroidal plasma is calculated assuming a linear plasma response to the applied perturbation, which may be the error field or the field created by the correction coils, or both. The result is compared with recently published expressions for the error field induced torque (Zheng et al 2006 Nucl. Fusion 46 L9, Zheng and Kotschenreuther 2006 Phys. Rev. Lett. 97 165001), and the conclusions of these papers are revised. We resolve the problem of the torque resonance raised there. It is shown that the strong increase in the torque due to the static error field must occur at the resistive wall mode stability limit and not at the no-wall stability limit

  14. Analysis of optical properties of strained semiconductor quantum dots for electromagnetically induced transparency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barettin, D.; Houmark-Nielsen, Jakob; Lassen, B.

    2010-01-01

    different k*p band structure models. In addition to the separation of the heavy and light holes due to the biaxial strain component, we observe a general reduction in the transition strengths due to energy crossings in the valence bands caused by strain and band mixing effects. We furthermore find a non......Using multiband k*p theory we study the size and geometry dependence on the slow light properties of conical semiconductor quantum dots. We find the V-type scheme for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to be most favorable, and identify an optimal height and size for efficient EIT...... operation. In case of the ladder scheme, the existence of additional dipole allowed intraband transitions along with an almost equidistant energy level spacing adds additional decay pathways, which significantly impairs the EIT effect. We further study the influence of strain and band mixing comparing four...

  15. Large Fizeau's light-dragging effect in a moving electromagnetically induced transparent medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuan, Pei-Chen; Huang, Chang; Chan, Wei Sheng; Kosen, Sandoko; Lan, Shau-Yu

    2016-10-03

    As one of the most influential experiments on the development of modern macroscopic theory from Newtonian mechanics to Einstein's special theory of relativity, the phenomenon of light dragging in a moving medium has been discussed and observed extensively in different types of systems. To have a significant dragging effect, the long duration of light travelling in the medium is preferred. Here we demonstrate a light-dragging experiment in an electromagnetically induced transparent cold atomic ensemble and enhance the dragging effect by at least three orders of magnitude compared with the previous experiments. With a large enhancement of the dragging effect, we realize an atom-based velocimeter that has a sensitivity two orders of magnitude higher than the velocity width of the atomic medium used. Such a demonstration could pave the way for motional sensing using the collective state of atoms in a room temperature vapour cell or solid state material.

  16. Optical control of light propagation in photonic crystal based on electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan, Wang; Jin-Ze, Wu; Jun-Xiang, Zhang

    2016-06-01

    A kind of photonic crystal structure with modulation of the refractive index is investigated both experimentally and theoretically for exploiting electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The combination of EIT with periodically modulated refractive index medium gives rise to high efficiency reflection as well as forbidden transmission in a three-level atomic system coupled by standing wave. We show an accurate theoretical simulation via transfer-matrix theory, automatically accounting for multilayer reflections, thus fully demonstrate the existence of photonic crystal structure in atomic vapor. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11574188) and the Project for Excellent Research Team of the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61121064).

  17. Modeling induced polarization effects in helicopter time domain electromagnetic data: Synthetic case studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Viezzoli, Andrea; Kaminskiy, Vladislav; Fiandaca, Gianluca

    2017-01-01

    constrained multiparametric inversion was evaluated, including recovery of chargeability distributions from shallow and deep targets based on analysis of induced polarization (IP) effects, simulated in airborne TDEM data. Different scenarios were studied, including chargeable targets associated...... processing and the effect of constraints, and a priori information. We have used a 1D layered earth model approximation and lateral constraints. Synthetic simulations were performed for several models and the corresponding Cole-Cole parameters. The possibility to recover these models by means of laterally...... the airborne electromagnetic is most sensitive (e.g., approximately 1 ms), it is possible to recover deep chargeable targets (to depths more than 130 m) in association with high electrical conductivity and in resistive environments. Furthermore, it was found that the recovery of a deep conductor, masked...

  18. Electromagnetically induced transparency and reduced speeds for single photons in a fully quantized model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purdy, Thomas; Ligare, Martin

    2003-01-01

    We introduce a simple model for electromagnetically induced transparency in which all fields are treated quantum mechanically. We study a system of three separated atoms at fixed positions in a one-dimensional multimode optical cavity. The first atom serves as the source for a single spontaneously emitted photon; the photon scatters from a three-level 'Λ'-configuration atom which interacts with an additional single-mode field coupling two of the atomic levels; the third atom serves as a detector of the total transmitted field. We find an analytical solution for the quantum dynamics. From the quantum amplitude describing the excitation of the detector atom we extract information that provides exact single-photon analogues to wave delays predicted by semi-classical theories. We also find complementary information in the expectation value of the electric field intensity operator

  19. Generation and control of optical frequency combs using cavity electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahua; Qu, Ye; Yu, Rong; Wu, Ying

    2018-02-01

    We explore theoretically the generation and all-optical control of optical frequency combs (OFCs) in photon transmission based on a combination of single-atom-cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Here an external control field is used to form the cavity dark mode of the CQED system. When the strengths of the applied EIT control field are appropriately tuned, enhanced comb generation can be achieved. We discuss the properties of the dark mode and clearly show that the formation of the dark mode enables the efficient generation of OFCs. In our approach, the comb spacing is determined by the beating frequency between the driving pump and seed lasers. Our demonstrated theory may pave the way towards all-optical coherent control of OFCs using a CQED architecture.

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency in thermal Rydberg atoms: superatom model with finite Doppler broadening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Si-Yin; Bao, Qian-Qian; Tian, Xue-Dong; Liu, Yi-Mou; Wu, Jin-Hui

    2018-04-01

    We study the steady optical responses of a cold atomic ensemble driven into the three-level ladder configuration involving a Rydberg state at finite temperatures. By improving the superatom model with thermal movement included, we calculate relevant atomic coherence effects and find that the residual Doppler broadening at the mK-K temperatures will weaken the nonclassical properties of transmitted probe photons. Furthermore, propagation directions of the probe and coupling fields have a great influence on various properties related to electromagnetically induced transparency. That is, the residual Doppler effect is more destructive to relevant atomic coherence effects in the co-propagation case but can be partially eliminated in the counter-propagation case.

  1. Subluminal and superluminal terahertz radiation in metamaterials with electromagnetically induced transparency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhengyang; Hang, Chao; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-07-29

    We propose a scheme to design a new type of optical metamaterial that can mimic the functionality of four-state atomic systems of N-type energy-level configuration with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We show that in such metamaterial a transition from a single EIT to a double EIT of terahertz radiation may be easily achieved by actively tuning the intensity of the infrared pump field or passively tuning the geometrical parameters of resonator structures. In addition, the group velocity of the terahertz radiation can be varied from subluminal to superluminal by changing the pump field intensity. The scheme suggested here may be used to construct chip-scale slow and fast light devices and to realize rapidly responded switching of terahertz radiation at room temperature.

  2. Ionization induced by strong electromagnetic field in low dimensional systems bound by short range forces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eminov, P.A., E-mail: peminov@mail.ru [Moscow State University of Instrument Engineering and Computer Sciences, 20 Stromynka Street, Moscow 2107996 (Russian Federation); National Research University Higher School of Economics, 3/12 Bolshoy Trekhsvyatskiy pereulok, Moscow 109028 (Russian Federation)

    2013-10-01

    Ionization processes for a two dimensional quantum dot subjected to combined electrostatic and alternating electric fields of the same direction are studied using quantum mechanical methods. We derive analytical equations for the ionization probability in dependence on characteristic parameters of the system for both extreme cases of a constant electric field and of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave. The ionization probabilities for a superposition of dc and low frequency ac electric fields of the same direction are calculated. The impulse distribution of ionization probability for a system bound by short range forces is found for a superposition of constant and alternating fields. The total probability for this process per unit of time is derived within exponential accuracy. For the first time the influence of alternating electric field on electron tunneling probability induced by an electrostatic field is studied taking into account the pre-exponential term.

  3. Ag induced electromagnetic interference shielding of Ag-graphite/PVDF flexible nanocomposites thinfilms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, R.; Alagar, M.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Subramanian, V.; Dinakaran, K.

    2015-09-01

    We report Ag nanoparticle induced Electromagnetic Interference (EMI) shielding in a flexible composite films of Ag nanoparticles incorporated graphite/poly-vinylidene difluoride (PVDF). PVDF nanocomposite thin-films were synthesized by intercalating Ag in Graphite (GIC) followed by dispersing GIC in PVDF. The X-ray diffraction analysis and the high-resolution transmission electron microscope clearly dictate the microstructure of silver nanoparticles in graphite intercalated composite of PVDF matrix. The conductivity values of nanocomposites are increased upto 2.5 times when compared to neat PVDF having a value of 2.70 S/cm at 1 MHz. The presence of Ag broadly enhanced the dielectric constant and lowers the dielectric loss of PVDF matrix proportional to Ag content. The EMI shielding effectiveness of the composites is 29.1 dB at 12.4 GHz for the sample having 5 wt. % Ag and 10 wt. % graphite in PVDF.

  4. Fast-responding property of electromagnetically induced transparency in Rydberg atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qi; Bai, Zhengyang; Huang, Guoxiang

    2018-04-01

    We investigate the transient optical response property of an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a cold Rydberg atomic gas. We show that both the transient behavior and the steady-state EIT spectrum of the system depend strongly on Rydberg interaction. Especially, the response speed of the Rydberg-EIT can be five times faster (and even higher) than the conventional EIT without the Rydberg interaction. For comparison, two different theoretical approaches (i.e., two-atom model and many-atom model) are considered, revealing that Rydberg blockade effect plays a significant role for increasing the response speed of the Rydberg-EIT. The fast-responding Rydberg-EIT by using the strong, tunable Rydberg interaction uncovered here is not only helpful for enhancing the understanding of the many-body dynamics of Rydberg atoms but also useful for practical applications in quantum information processing by using Rydberg atoms.

  5. Cavity electromagnetically induced transparency and all-optical switching using ion Coulomb crystals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Magnus; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Drewsen, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The control of one light field by another, ultimately at the single photon level1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, is a challenging task that has numerous interesting applications within nonlinear optics4, 5 and quantum information science6, 7, 8. This type of control can only be achieved through highly...... nonlinear interactions, such as those based on electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT)2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 9, 10, 11, 12. Here, we demonstrate for the first time EIT as well as all-optical EIT-based light switching using ion Coulomb crystals situated in an optical cavity. Changes from essentially full...... milestones for future realizations of quantum information processing devices, such as high-efficiency quantum memories8, 13, 14, single-photon transistors15, 16 and single-photon gates4, 6, 9....

  6. Tunable optical analog to electromagnetically induced transparency in graphene-ring resonators system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yonghua; Xue, Chenyang; Zhang, Zengxing; Zheng, Hua; Zhang, Wendong; Yan, Shubin

    2016-12-12

    The analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency in optical ways has shown great potential in optical delay and quantum-information technology due to its flexible design and easy implementation. The chief drawback for these devices is the bad tunability. Here we demonstrate a tunable optical transparency system formed by graphene-silicon microrings which could control the transparent window by electro-optical means. The device consists of cascaded coupled ring resonators and a graphene/graphene capacitor which integrated on one of the rings. By tuning the Fermi level of the graphene sheets, we can modulate the round-trip ring loss so that the transparency window can be dynamically tuned. The results provide a new method for the manipulation and transmission of light in highly integrated optical circuits and quantum information storage devices.

  7. Controllable ultra-narrow fluorescence and six-wave mixing under double electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Z G; Zhang, Z Y; Che, J L; Zhang, Y Z; Li, C B; Zheng, H B; Zhang, Y P

    2013-01-01

    We report the first observation of six-wave mixing (SWM) and fluorescence signals in an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) window. Several remarkable advantages are described. First, multiple bright and dark states are simultaneously observed due to enhancement or suppression of the SWM signal. Second, ultra-narrow fluorescence, much narrower than the EIT window, is experimentally obtained. Third, the ultra-narrow fluorescence can also generate Autler–Townes splitting on scanning the coupling beam. Fourth, a double-peak EIT window is obtained using the nest-dressing scheme. Such studies concerning SWM and fluorescence have applications in optical switching, multi-channel communication and narrowband and long-range quantum communication. (letter)

  8. Analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xianping; Wei, Zhongchao, E-mail: wzc@scnu.edu.cn; Liu, Yuebo; Zhong, Nianfa; Tan, Xiaopei; Shi, Songsong; Liu, Hongzhan; Liang, Ruisheng

    2016-01-08

    We have demonstrated the analogy of electromagnetically induced transparency in plasmonic nanodisk with a square ring resonator. A reasonable analysis of the transmission feature based on the temporal coupled-mode theory is given and shows good agreement with the Finit-Difference Time-Domain simulation. The transparency window can be easily tuned by changing the geometrical parameters and the insulator filled in the resonator. The transmission of the resonator system is close to 80% and the full width at half maximum is less than 46 nm. The sensitivity of the structure is about 812 nm/RIU. These characteristics make the new system with potential to apply for optical storage, ultrafast plasmonic switch and slow-light devices.

  9. Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen entanglement via nonlinear processes enhanced by electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Guangling; Hu Xiangming; Zhong Wenxue

    2009-01-01

    We show that Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) light entanglement is obtainable via the resonant nonlinear interactions enhanced by electromagnetically induced transparency. A three-level system is used as a unified model, where two metastable states are coupled to each other via microwave, or Raman, or two-photon transition, and the upper metastable state is coupled to the excited state. A pair of inner sidebands is amplified as optical cavity modes via the transition from the excited state to the other metastable state. The analysis is presented by using the dressed-atom squeezed-transformed-mode approach. For a proper ratio of the amplitudes of the applied fields, the sum of the variances for two EPR-like operators approaches zero, which corresponds to EPR entanglement.

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency control in terahertz metasurfaces based on bright-bright mode coupling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahiaoui, R.; Burrow, J. A.; Mekonen, S. M.; Sarangan, A.; Mathews, J.; Agha, I.; Searles, T. A.

    2018-04-01

    We demonstrate a classical analog of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a highly flexible planar terahertz metamaterial (MM) comprised of three-gap split-ring resonators. The keys to achieve EIT in this system are the frequency detuning and hybridization processes between two bright modes coexisting in the same unit cell as opposed to bright-dark modes. We present experimental verification of two bright modes coupling for a terahertz EIT-MM in the context of numerical results and theoretical analysis based on a coupled Lorentz oscillator model. In addition, a hybrid variation of the EIT-MM is proposed and implemented numerically to dynamically tune the EIT window by incorporating photosensitive silicon pads in the split gap region of the resonators. As a result, this hybrid MM enables the active optical control of a transition from the on state (EIT mode) to the off state (dipole mode).

  11. Complete electromagnetically induced transparency in sodium atoms excited by a multimode dye laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alzetta, G.; Gozzini, S.; Lucchesini, A.; Cartaleva, S.; Karaulanov, T.; Marinelli, C.; Moi, L.

    2004-01-01

    Complete electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in sodium vapor is demonstrated experimentally by means of excitation with a broadband multimode dye laser tuned on the D 1 line. One hundred percent transparency is observed by excitation of the Na vapor with circularly polarized laser light. The linear polarization excitation produces, instead, complete destruction of the EIT resonance. For laser power density in the 0.1 to 1 W/cm 2 range, the linewidth of the EIT resonance remains in the interval of 90-400 kHz. This complete transparency of the medium in a narrow frequency interval is interesting for many applications where the enhancement of the refractive index is important and where the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio of the dark resonances allows a more sensitive measurement of weak magnetic fields

  12. Two narrow bandwidth photons interfering in an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Fuyuan; Shi Baosen; Lu Xiaosong; Guo Guangcan

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we have analysed in detail the quantum interference of the degenerate narrowband two-photon state by using a Mach–Zehnder interferometer, in which an electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) medium is placed in one of two interfering beams. Our results clearly show that it is possible to coherently keep the quantum state at a single photon level in the EIT process, especially when the transparent window of the EIT medium is much larger than the bandwidth of the single photon. This shows that the EIT medium is possibly a kind of memory or repeater for the narrowband photons in the areas of quantum communication and quantum computer. This kind of experiment is feasible within the current technology

  13. Slow light propagation in a thin optical fiber via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patnaik, Anil K.; Liang, J.Q.; Hakuta, K.

    2002-01-01

    We propose a configuration that utilizes electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to tailor a fiber mode propagating inside a thin optical fiber and coherently control its dispersion properties to drastically reduce the group velocity of the fiber mode. The key to this proposal is that the evanescent field of the thin fiber strongly couples with the surrounding active medium, so that the EIT condition is met by the medium. We show how the properties of the fiber mode are modified due to the EIT medium, both numerically and analytically. We demonstrate that the group velocity of the modified fiber mode can be drastically reduced (≅44 m/sec) using the coherently prepared orthohydrogen doped in a matrix of parahydrogen crystal as the EIT medium

  14. Transient dynamics in cavity electromagnetically induced transparency with ion Coulomb crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Magnus; Dantan, Aurélien; Drewsen, Michael

    2018-03-01

    We experimentally investigate the transient dynamics of an optical cavity field interacting with large ion Coulomb crystals in a situation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). EIT is achieved by injecting a probe field at the single photon level and a more intense control field with opposite circular polarization into the same mode of an optical cavity to couple Zeeman substates of a metastable level in ? ions. The EIT interaction dynamics are investigated both in the frequency-domain - by measuring the probe field steady state reflectivity spectrum - and in the time-domain - by measuring the progressive buildup of transparency. The experimental results are observed to be in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions taking into account the inhomogeneity of the control field in the interaction volume, and confirm the high degree of control on light-matter interaction that can be achieved with ion Coulomb crystals in optical cavities.

  15. Optically and thermally controlled terahertz metamaterial via transition between direct and indirect electromagnetically induced transparency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiawei Sui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This passage presents a design of tunable terahertz metamaterials via transition between indirect and direct electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT effects by changing semiconductor InSb’s properties to terahertz wave under optical and thermal stimuli. Mechanical model and its electrical circuit model are utilized in analytically calculating maximum transmission of transparency window. Simulated results show consistency with the analytical expressions. The results show that the metamaterials hold 98.4% modulation depth at 189 GHz between 300 K, σInSb =256000 S/m, and 80 K, σInSb =0.0162 S/m conditions , 1360 ps recovery time of the excited electrons in InSb under optical stimulus at 300 K mainly considering the direct EIT effect, and minimum bandwidth 1 GHz.

  16. The linewidth and contrast of electromagnetically induced transparency in a homogeneously broadened system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Lijun; Zhang Lianshui; Guo Qinglin; Fu Guangsheng

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we present a theoretical study of the linewidth and contrast of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The EIT is associated with a homogenously broadened three-level system interacting with a couple and a probe laser field in a Λ configuration. The optical Bloch equation is solved, from which analytic solutions for the EIT linewidth and contrast are derived. It is shown that the analytical results are in good agreement with the numerical calculation of the EIT spectrum and gives a satisfactory account of the power-broadening behavior for a broad range of the couple laser Rabi frequency where the EIT evolves from a narrow spectral hole into well-separated dynamic Stark doublet

  17. Localization of atomic excitation beyond the diffraction limit using electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, J. A.; Das, Diptaranjan; Simmons, Z. J.; Yavuz, D. D.

    2015-09-01

    We experimentally demonstrate the localization of excitation between hyperfine ground states of 87Rb atoms to as small as λ /13 -wide spatial regions. We use ultracold atoms trapped in a dipole trap and utilize electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) for the atomic excitation. The localization is achieved by combining a spatially varying coupling laser (standing wave) with the intensity dependence of EIT. The excitation is fast (150 ns laser pulses) and the dark-state fidelity can be made higher than 94% throughout the standing wave. Because the width of the localized regions is much smaller than the wavelength of the driving light, traditional optical imaging techniques cannot resolve the localized features. Therefore, to measure the excitation profile, we use an autocorrelation-like method where we perform two EIT sequences separated by a time delay, during which we move the standing wave.

  18. 3-D Forward modeling of Induced Polarization Effects of Transient Electromagnetic Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Y.; Ji, Y.; Guan, S.; Li, D.; Wang, A.

    2017-12-01

    In transient electromagnetic (TEM) detection, Induced polarization (IP) effects are so important that they cannot be ignored. The authors simulate the three-dimensional (3-D) induced polarization effects in time-domain directly by applying the finite-difference time-domain method (FDTD) based on Cole-Cole model. Due to the frequency dispersion characteristics of the electrical conductivity, the computations of convolution in the generalized Ohm's law of fractional order system makes the forward modeling particularly complicated. Firstly, we propose a method to approximate the fractional order function of Cole-Cole model using a lower order rational transfer function based on error minimum theory in the frequency domain. In this section, two auxiliary variables are introduced to transform nonlinear least square fitting problem of the fractional order system into a linear programming problem, thus avoiding having to solve a system of equations and nonlinear problems. Secondly, the time-domain expression of Cole-Cole model is obtained by using Inverse Laplace transform. Then, for the calculation of Ohm's law, we propose an e-index auxiliary equation of conductivity to transform the convolution to non-convolution integral; in this section, the trapezoid rule is applied to compute the integral. We then substitute the recursion equation into Maxwell's equations to derive the iterative equations of electromagnetic field using the FDTD method. Finally, we finish the stimulation of 3-D model and evaluate polarization parameters. The results are compared with those obtained from the digital filtering solution of the analytical equation in the homogeneous half space, as well as with the 3-D model results from the auxiliary ordinary differential equation method (ADE). Good agreements are obtained across the three methods. In terms of the 3-D model, the proposed method has higher efficiency and lower memory requirements as execution times and memory usage were reduced by 20

  19. An electromagnetic induced transparency-like scheme for wireless power transfer using dielectric resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elnaggar, Sameh Y.

    2017-02-01

    Similar to the hybridization of three atoms, three coupled resonators interact to form bonding, anti-bonding, and non-bonding modes. The non-bonding mode enables an electromagnetic induced transparency like transfer of energy. Here, the non-bonding mode, resulting from the strong electric coupling of two dielectric resonators and an enclosure, is exploited to show that it is feasible to transfer power over a distance comparable to the operating wavelength. In this scheme, the enclosure acts as a mediator. The strong coupling permits the excitation of the non-bonding mode with high purity. This approach is different from resonant inductive coupling, which works in the sub-wavelength regime. Optimal loads and the corresponding maximum efficiency are determined using two independent methods: Coupled Mode Theory and Circuit modelling. It is shown that, unlike resonant inductive coupling, the figure of merit depends on the enclosure quality and not on the load, which emphasizes the role of the enclosure as a mediator. Briefly after the input excitation is turned on, the energy in the receiver builds up via all coupled and spurious modes. As time elapses, all modes except the non-bonding cease to sustain. Due to the strong coupling between the dielectrics and the enclosure, such systems have unique properties such as high and uniform efficiency over large distances and minimal fringing fields. These properties suggest that electromagnetic induced transparency like schemes that rely on the use of dielectric resonators can be used to power autonomous systems inside an enclosure or find applications when exposure to the fields needs to be minimal. Finite Element computations are used to verify the theoretical predictions by determining the transfer efficiency, field profile, and coupling coefficients for two different systems. It is shown that the three resonators must be present for efficient power transfer; if one or more are removed, the transfer efficiency reduces

  20. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: Theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Bakker (Jan); M.M. Paulides (Maarten); E. Neufeld; A. Christ (A.); N. Kuster (Niels); G.C. van Rhoon (Gerard)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractTo avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR wb) are provided to keep the

  1. Phase control of squeezed state in double electromagnetically induced transparency system with a loop-transition structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Zhou, Yusheng; Wang, Yong; Ling, Qiang; Chen, Bing; Dou, Yan; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Weiqing; Guo, Zhiqiang; Zhang, Junxiang

    2018-03-01

    We theoretically study the squeezed probe light passing through a double electromagnetically induced transparency (DEIT) system, in which a microwave field and two coupling lights drive a loop transition. It is shown that the output squeezing can be maintained in both two transparency windows of DEIT, and it can also be manipulated by the relative phase of the three driving fields. The influence of the intensity of applied fields and the optical depth of atoms on the squeezing is also investigated. This study offers possibilities to manipulate the squeezing propagation in atomic media by the phase of electromagnetic fields.

  2. Gravitational Waves and Time Domain Astronomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centrella, Joan; Nissanke, Samaya; Williams, Roy

    2012-01-01

    The gravitational wave window onto the universe will open in roughly five years, when Advanced LIGO and Virgo achieve the first detections of high frequency gravitational waves, most likely coming from compact binary mergers. Electromagnetic follow-up of these triggers, using radio, optical, and high energy telescopes, promises exciting opportunities in multi-messenger time domain astronomy. In the decade, space-based observations of low frequency gravitational waves from massive black hole mergers, and their electromagnetic counterparts, will open up further vistas for discovery. This two-part workshop featured brief presentations and stimulating discussions on the challenges and opportunities presented by gravitational wave astronomy. Highlights from the workshop, with the emphasis on strategies for electromagnetic follow-up, are presented in this report.

  3. Nonlinear coupled Alfven and gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaellberg, Andreas; Brodin, Gert; Bradley, Michael

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we consider nonlinear interaction between gravitational and electromagnetic waves in a strongly magnetized plasma. More specifically, we investigate the propagation of gravitational waves with the direction of propagation perpendicular to a background magnetic field and the coupling to compressional Alfven waves. The gravitational waves are considered in the high-frequency limit and the plasma is modeled by a multifluid description. We make a self-consistent, weakly nonlinear analysis of the Einstein-Maxwell system and derive a wave equation for the coupled gravitational and electromagnetic wave modes. A WKB-approximation is then applied and as a result we obtain the nonlinear Schroedinger equation for the slowly varying wave amplitudes. The analysis is extended to 3D wave pulses, and we discuss the applications to radiation generated from pulsar binary mergers. It turns out that the electromagnetic radiation from a binary merger should experience a focusing effect, that in principle could be detected

  4. 3D modeling of lightning-induced electromagnetic pulses on Venus, Jupiter and Saturn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Invernón, Francisco J.; Luque, Alejandro; Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco J.

    2017-04-01

    Atmospheric electricity is a common phenomenon in some planets of The Solar System. We know that atmospheric discharges exist on Earth and gaseous planets; however, some characteristics of lightning on Saturn and Jupiter as well as their relevance on the effects of lightning in the atmospheres of these planets are still unknown. In the case of Venus, there exist some radio evidences of lightning, but the lack of optical observations suggests exploring indirect methods of detection, such as searching for lightning-induced transient optical emissions from the upper atmosphere. The Akatsuki probe, currently orbiting Venus, is equipped with a camera whose temporal resolution is high enough to detect optical emissions from lightning discharges and to measure nightglow enhancements. In this work, we extend previous models [1,2] to investigate the chemical impact and transient optical emissions produced by possible lightning-emitted electromagnetic pulses (EMP) in Venus, Saturn and Jupiter. Using a 3D FDTD ("Finite Differences Time Domain") model we solve the Maxwell equations coupled with the Langevin equation for electrons [3] and with a kinetic scheme, different for each planetary atmosphere. This method is useful to investigate the temporal and spatial impact of lightning-induced electromagnetic fields in the atmosphere of each planet for different lightning characteristics (e.g. energy released, orientation). This 3D FDTD model allows us to include the saturnian and jovian background magnetic field inclination and magnitude at different latitudes, and to determine the effects of different lightning channel inclinations. Results provide useful information to interpret lightning observations on giant gaseous planets and in the search for indirect optical signals from atmospheric discharge on Venus such as fast nightglow transient enhancements related to lightning as seen on Earth. Furthermore, we underline the observation of electrical discharges characteristics as a

  5. A mathematical model of extremely low frequency ocean induced electromagnetic noise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dautta, Manik, E-mail: manik.dautta@anyeshan.com; Faruque, Rumana Binte, E-mail: rumana.faruque@anyeshan.com; Islam, Rakibul, E-mail: rakibul.islam@anyeshan.com [Research & Development Engineer, Anyeshan Limited, Dhaka (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Magnetic Anomaly Detection (MAD) system uses the principle that ferromagnetic objects disturb the magnetic lines of force of the earth. These lines of force are able to pass through both water and air in similar manners. A MAD system, usually mounted on an aerial vehicle, is thus often employed to confirm the detection and accomplish localization of large ferromagnetic objects submerged in a sea-water environment. However, the total magnetic signal encountered by a MAD system includes contributions from a myriad of low to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) sources. The goal of the MAD system is to detect small anomaly signals in the midst of these low-frequency interfering signals. Both the Range of Detection (R{sub d}) and the Probability of Detection (P{sub d}) are limited by the ratio of anomaly signal strength to the interfering magnetic noise. In this paper, we report a generic mathematical model to estimate the signal-to-noise ratio or SNR. Since time-variant electro-magnetic signals are affected by conduction losses due to sea-water conductivity and the presence of air-water interface, we employ the general formulation of dipole induced electromagnetic field propagation in stratified media [1]. As a first step we employ a volumetric distribution of isolated elementary magnetic dipoles, each having its own dipole strength and orientation, to estimate the magnetic noise observed by a MAD system. Numerical results are presented for a few realizations out of an ensemble of possible realizations of elementary dipole source distributions.

  6. Electromagnetized gold nanoparticles mediate direct lineage reprogramming into induced dopamine neurons in vivo for Parkinson's disease therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Junsang; Lee, Euiyeon; Kim, Hee Young; Youn, Dong-Ho; Jung, Junghyun; Kim, Hongwon; Chang, Yujung; Lee, Wonwoong; Shin, Jaein; Baek, Soonbong; Jang, Wonhee; Jun, Won; Kim, Soochan; Hong, Jongki; Park, Hi-Joon; Lengner, Christopher J.; Moh, Sang Hyun; Kwon, Youngeun; Kim, Jongpil

    2017-10-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) are physical energy fields generated by electrically charged objects, and specific ranges of EMF can influence numerous biological processes, which include the control of cell fate and plasticity. In this study, we show that electromagnetized gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) in the presence of specific EMF conditions facilitate an efficient direct lineage reprogramming to induced dopamine neurons in vitro and in vivo. Remarkably, electromagnetic stimulation leads to a specific activation of the histone acetyltransferase Brd2, which results in histone H3K27 acetylation and a robust activation of neuron-specific genes. In vivo dopaminergic neuron reprogramming by EMF stimulation of AuNPs efficiently and non-invasively alleviated symptoms in mouse Parkinson's disease models. This study provides a proof of principle for EMF-based in vivo lineage conversion as a potentially viable and safe therapeutic strategy for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

  7. Effect of Contour Shape of Nervous System Electromagnetic Stimulation Coils on the Induced Electrical Field Distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daskalov Ivan K

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Electromagnetic stimulation of the nervous system has the advantage of reduced discomfort in activating nerves. For brain structures stimulation, it has become a clinically accepted modality. Coil designs usually consider factors such as optimization of induced power, focussing, field shape etc. In this study we are attempting to find the effect of the coil contour shape on the electrical field distribution for magnetic stimulation. Method and results We use the maximum of the induced electric field stimulation in the region of interest as the optimization criterion. This choice required the application of the calculus of variation, with the contour perimeter taken as a pre-set condition. Four types of coils are studied and compared: circular, square, triangular and an 'optimally' shaped contour. The latter yields higher values of the induced electrical field in depths up to about 30 mm, but for depths around 100 mm, the circular shape has a slight advantage. The validity of the model results was checked by experimental measurements in a tank with saline solution, where differences of about 12% were found. In view the accuracy limitations of the computational and measurement methods used, such differences are considered acceptable. Conclusion We applied an optimization approach, using the calculus of variation, which allows to obtain a coil contour shape corresponding to a selected criterion. In this case, the optimal contour showed higher intensities for a longer line along the depth-axis. The method allows modifying the induced field structure and focussing the field to a selected zone or line.

  8. Slow Light Using Electromagnetically Induced Transparency from Spin Coherence in [110] Strained Quantum Wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Shu-Wei; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J.; Wang, Hailin

    2005-03-01

    The electromagnetically induced transparency from spin coherence has been proposed in [001] quantum wells recently. [1] The spin coherence is a potential candidate to demonstrate semiconductor-based slow light at room temperature. However, the spin coherence time is not long enough to demonstrate a significant slowdown factor in [001] quantum wells. Further, the required transition of light-hole excitons lies in the absorption of heavy-hole continuum states. The extra dephasing and absorption from these continuum states are drawbacks for slow light. Here, we propose to use [110] strained quantum wells instead of [001] quantum wells. The long spin relaxation time in [110] quantum wells at room temperature, and thus more robust spin coherence, [2] as well as the strain-induced separation [3, 4] of the light-hole exciton transition from the heavy-hole continuum absorption can help to slow down light in quantum wells. [1] T. Li, H. Wang, N. H. Kwong, and R. Binder, Opt. Express 11, 3298 (2003). [2] Y. Ohno, R. Terauchi, T. Adachi, F. Matsukura, and H. Ohno, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 4196 (1999). [3] C. Y. P. Chao and S. L. Chuang, Phys. Rev. B 46, 4110 (1992). [4] C. Jagannath, E. S. Koteles, J. Lee, Y. J. Chen, B. S. Elman, and J. Y. Chi, Phys. Rev. B 34, 7027 (1986).

  9. Femoral perfusion after pulsed electromagnetic field stimulation in a steroid-induced osteonecrosis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikegami, Akira; Ueshima, Keiichiro; Saito, Masazumi; Ikoma, Kazuya; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Hayashi, Shigeki; Ishida, Masashi; Fujiwara, Hiroyoshi; Mazda, Osam; Kubo, Toshikazu

    2015-07-01

    This study was designed to evaluate femoral perfusion after pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) stimulation in a steroid-induced osteonecrosis rabbit model by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI). Steroid-induced osteonecrosis was produced by single intramuscular injection of methylprednisolone in 15 rabbits. Eight rabbits underwent PEMF stimulation (PEMF group) and seven did not (control group). DCE-MRI was performed before PEMF stimulation, immediately before steroid administration, and 1, 5, 10, and 14 days after steroid administration. Regions of interest were set in the bilateral proximal femora. Enhancement ratio (ER), initial slope (IS), and area under the curve (AUC) were analyzed. ER, IS, and AUC in the control group significantly decreased after steroid administration compared with before administration (P<0.05). In PEMF group, IS significantly decreased; however, ER and AUC showed no significant differences after steroid administration compared with before. ER and IS in PEMF group were higher than in control group until 10th day, and AUC was higher until 5th day after steroid administration (P<0.05). PEMF stimulation restrains the decrease in blood flow after steroid administration. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Electromagnetically induced transparency in an open V-type molecular system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazoudis, A.; Ahmed, E. H.; Qi, P.; Lyyra, A. M.; Kirova, T.; Huennekens, J.

    2011-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an inhomogeneously broadened V-type Na 2 molecular system. The experiment is performed with both co- and counterpropagating arrangements for the propagation directions of the coupling and probe laser beams. In our theoretical model we employ the density matrix formalism, as well as perturbative methods for obtaining the probe field absorption profile for both open and closed systems. Simulations of the experimental data show excellent agreement with the predictions derived from the basic theory. Our fluorescent intensity measurements show that, in the copropagating configuration, the EIT plus saturation window depth is about 95%, while under similar conditions in the counterpropagating geometry we observed 40%-45% reduction in the fluorescence signal around the line center. To separate the two simultaneously occurring mechanisms in a V-type system (i.e., EIT and saturation) that are induced by the coupling field, we have carried out theoretical calculations which show that, in the copropagating case, a significant fraction of the depth of the dip is due to the coherent effect of EIT. When the coupling and probe beams are in the counterpropagating configuration, the dip is mostly due to saturation effects alone.

  11. The new electromagnetic tetrads, infinite tetrad nesting and the non-trivial emergence of complex numbers in real theories of gravitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garat, Alcides

    How complex numbers get into play in a non-trivial way in real theories of gravitation is relevant since in a unified structure they should be able to relate in a natural way with quantum theories. For a long time this issue has been lingering on both relativistic formulations and quantum theories. We will analyze this fundamental subject under the light of new group isomorphism theorems linking local internal groups of transformations and local groups of spacetime transformations. The bridge between these two kinds of transformations is represented by new tetrads introduced previously. It is precisely through these local tetrad structures that we will provide a non-trivial answer to this old issue. These new tetrads have two fundamental building components, the skeletons and the gauge vectors. It is these constructive elements that provide the mathematical support that allows to prove group isomorphism theorems. In addition to this, we will prove a unique new property, the infinite tetrad nesting, alternating the nesting with non-Abelian tetrads in the construction of the tetrad gauge vectors. As an application we will demonstrate an alternative proof of a new group isomorphism theorem.

  12. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a plasmonic system comprising of three metal-dielectric-metal parallel slabs: Plasmon- Plasmon interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Moradbeigi

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT in a system consisting of associated arrays of parallel slabs (metal-dielectric-metal is studied. The transmission coefficient, the reflection coefficient and the absorption coefficient as function of the incident light frequency by using the transfer matrix method is calculated and numerically discussed. Influence of the thickness of slab and the type of plasmonic metal on the induced transparency has been investigated. It is shown with decreasing the thickness of intermediate slab of length  (dielectric slab, the induced transparency increases due to the strong plasmon–plasmon couplings.

  13. Gravitational capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1979-01-01

    In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)

  14. Evolution of an electron-positron plasma produced by induced gravitational collapse in binary-driven hypernovae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melon Fuksman J. D.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The binary-driven hypernova (BdHN model has been introduced in the past years, to explain a subfamily of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs with energies Eiso ≥ 1052 erg associated with type Ic supernovae. Such BdHNe have as progenitor a tight binary system composed of a carbon-oxigen (CO core and a neutron star undergoing an induced gravitational collapse to a black hole, triggered by the CO core explosion as a supernova (SN. This collapse produces an optically-thick e+e- plasma, which expands and impacts onto the SN ejecta. This process is here considered as a candidate for the production of X-ray flares, which are frequently observed following the prompt emission of GRBs. In this work we follow the evolution of the e+e- plasma as it interacts with the SN ejecta, by solving the equations of relativistic hydrodynamics numerically. Our results are compatible with the Lorentz factors estimated for the sources that produce the flares, of typically Γ ≲ 4.

  15. Histopathological changes induced by Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat changes induced by Electromagnetic Radiation on Rat Skin before and after Silymarin and Vitamin E treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, N.F.; Elkady, A.

    2013-01-01

    People in industrial and developing countries are exposed to large variety of environmental influencing agents including chemical, air, water and food pollution. Also physical harmful agents such as ultraviolet radiation, and electromagnetic radiation especially by cell phones. Our aim in this study was to investigate the effect of electromagnetic radiation on the skin of male albino rats and the role of silymarin and Vitamin E as skin protectors. The male rats were grouped into 8 groups :1-Control group, 2-Irradiated group, groups 3,4,5 are irradiated with silymarin administration, irradiated with Vitamin E administration, irradiated with silymarin and Vitamin E administration groups respectively. The remaining three groups (6, 7, 8) served as healthy control with antioxidants administration. Paraffin sections stained with Hematoxylin and Eosin stain was used for showing microscopic changes. Following irradiation, the results showed dystrophic changes in the skin represented by atrophy of epidermal layers with absence of stratum corneum and epidermal vesicles formation. Collagen fibres were disorganized and appeared more eosinophilic and homogenous. Loss of skin appendages, lysis of collagen and edematous tissues were also observed in the dermal layer. Following administration of silymarin and Vitamin E the results showed improvement of the skin texture, while edema was still observed. conclusion: Treatment by silymarin alone or Vitamin E alone did not restore the damaging effect of electromagnetic radiation on rat skin. But when both antioxidants were given following radiation-exposure there were marked improvements on morphological structure of rat skin. These results indicate the importance of both silymarin and Vitamin E as protectors from the harmful effect of electromagnetic radiation on skin.

  16. Electromagnetically induced transparency in the case of elliptic polarization of interacting fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parshkov, Oleg M.

    2018-04-01

    The theoretical investigation results of disintegration effect of elliptic polarized shot probe pulses of electromagnetically induced transparency in the counterintuitive superposed elliptic polarized control field and in weak probe field approximation are presented. It is shown that this disintegration occurs because the probe field in the medium is the sum of two normal modes, which correspond to elliptic polarized pulses with different speeds of propagation. The polarization ellipses of normal modes have equal eccentricities and mutually perpendicular major axes. Major axis of polarization ellipse of one normal mode is parallel to polarization ellipse major axis of control field, and electric vector of this mode rotates in the opposite direction, than electric vector of the control field. The electric vector other normal mode rotates in the same direction that the control field electric vector. The normal mode speed of the first type aforementioned is less than that of the second type. The polarization characteristics of the normal mode depend uniquely on the polarization characteristics of elliptic polarized control field and remain changeless in the propagation process. The theoretical investigation is performed for Λ-scheme of degenerated quantum transitions between 3P0, 3P10 and 3P2 energy levels of 208Pb isotope.

  17. Linear and nonlinear light propagations in a Doppler-broadened medium via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Liang; Huang Guoxiang

    2010-01-01

    We present a systematic theoretical study to deal with linear and nonlinear light propagations in a Doppler-broadened three-level Λ system via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT), with incoherent population exchange between two lower energy levels taken into account. Through a careful analysis of base state and linear excitation, we show that the EIT condition of the system is given by |Ω c | 2 γ 31 >>2γ 21 Δω D 2 , where Ω c is half the Rabi frequency of the control field, Δω D is the Doppler width, and γ jl is the decay rate of the coherence between states |j> and |l>. Under this condition, the effect of incoherent population exchange is insignificant, while dephasing dominates the decoherence of the system. This condition also ensures the validity of the weak nonlinear perturbation theory used in this work for solving the Maxwell-Bloch equations with inhomogeneous broadening. We then investigate the nonlinear propagation of the probe field and show that it is possible to form temporal optical solitons in the Doppler-broadened medium. Such solitons have ultraslow propagating velocity and can be generated in very low light power. The possibility of realizing (1+1)-dimensional and (2+1)-dimensional spatial optical solitons in the adiabatic regime of the system is also discussed.

  18. A novel reconfigurable electromagnetically induced transparency based on S-PINs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Feng; Liu, Shao-Bin; Zhang, Hai-Feng; Wen, Yong-Diao; Kong, Xiang-Kun; Li, Hai-Ming

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, a tunable electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) based on S-PINs is theoretically analyzed. Unit cell of the structure consists of a cutwire (CW), split ring resonator (SRR), and solid state plasma (SS plasma) patches which are composed of S-PIN array. The destructive interference between the CW and SRR results in a narrowband transparency window accompanied with strong phase dispersion. The proposed design can obtain a tunable EIT with different frequencies range from 12.8 GHz to 16.5 GHz in a simple method by switching these S-PINs on or off selectively. The related parameters of the S-PIN such as the size, carrier concentration, and volt-ampere characteristics have been studied theoretically. The interaction and coupling between two resonators are investigated in detail by the analysis of the current distribution and E-field strength as well. The research results provide an effective way to realize reconfigurable compact slow-light devices.

  19. Electromagnetically induced absorption due to transfer of coherence and to transfer of population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goren, C.; Rosenbluh, M.; Wilson-Gordon, A.D.; Friedmann, H.

    2003-01-01

    The absorption spectrum of a weak probe, interacting with a driven degenerate two-level atomic system, whose ground and excited hyperfine states are F g,e , can exhibit narrow peaks at line center. When the pump and probe polarizations are different, F e =F g +1 and F g >0, the electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA) peak has been shown to be due to the transfer of coherence (TOC) between the excited and ground states via spontaneous decay. We give a detailed explanation of why the TOC that leads to EIA (EIA-TOC) can only take place when ground-state population trapping does not occur, that is, when F e =F g +1. We also explain why EIA-TOC is observed in open systems. We show that EIA can also occur when the pump and probe polarizations are identical and F e =F g +1. This EIA is analogous to an effect that occurs in simple two-level systems when the collisional transfer of population (TOP) from the ground state to a reservoir is greater than that from the excited state. For a degenerate two-level system, the reservoir consists of the Zeeman sublevels of the ground hyperfine state, and of other nearby hyperfine states that do not interact with the pump. We will also discuss the four-wave mixing spectrum under the conditions where EIA-TOC and EIA-TOP occur

  20. Controlling the stability of nonlinear optical modes via electromagnetically induced transparency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kun; Liang, Yi-zeng; Lin, Ji; Li, Hui-jun

    2018-02-01

    We propose a scheme to generate and stabilize the high-dimensional spatial solitons via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we consider is a resonant atomic ensemble having Λ configuration. We illustrate that under EIT conditions the equation satisfied by the probe field envelope is reduced to a saturable nonlinear Schrödinger equation with the trapping potential, provided by a far-detuned laser field and a random magnetic field. We present high-dimensional soliton solutions exhibiting many interesting characteristics, including diversity (i.e., many different types of soliton solutions can be found, including bright, ring multipole bright, ring multipole defect mode, multiring bright, multiring defect mode, and vortices solitons), the phase transition between bright soliton and higher-order defect modes (i.e., the phase transition can be realized by controlling the nonlinear coefficient or the intensity of the trapping potential), and stability (i.e., various solitons can be stabilized by the Gaussian potential provided by the far detuned laser field, or the random potential provided by the magnetic field). We also find that some solitons are the extension of the linear eigenmode, whereas others entirely derive from the role of nonlinearity. Compared with previous studies, we not only show the diverse soliton solutions in the same system but also find the boundary of the phase transition for the type of solitons. In addition, we present the possibility of using the random potential to stabilize various solitons and vortices.

  1. Generation of entangled coherent states for distant Bose-Einstein condensates via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang, L.-M.; Chen Zengbing; Pan Jianwei

    2007-01-01

    We propose a method to generate entangled coherent states between two spatially separated atomic Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) via the technique of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). Two strong coupling laser beams and two entangled probe laser beams are used to cause two distant BECs to be in EIT states and to generate an atom-photon entangled state between probe lasers and distant BECs. The two BECs are initially in unentangled product coherent states while the probe lasers are initially in an entangled state. Entangled states of two distant BECs can be created through the performance of projective measurements upon the two outgoing probe lasers under certain conditions. Concretely, we propose two protocols to show how to generate entangled coherent states of the two distant BECs. One is a single-photon scheme in which an entangled single-photon state is used as the quantum channel to generate entangled distant BECs. The other is a multiphoton scheme where an entangled coherent state of the probe lasers is used as the quantum channel. Additionally, we also obtain some atom-photon entangled states of particular interest such as entangled states between a pair of optical Bell states (or quasi-Bell-states) and a pair of atomic entangled coherent states (or quasi-Bell-states)

  2. Transients of the electromagnetically-induced-transparency-enhanced refractive Kerr nonlinearity: Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pack, M. V.; Camacho, R. M.; Howell, J. C.

    2006-01-01

    We present a theory describing the transients and rise times of the refractive Kerr nonlinearity which is enhanced using electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We restrict our analysis to the case of a pulsed signal field with continuous-wave EIT fields, and all fields are well below saturation. These restrictions enable the reduction of an EIT Kerr, four-level, density-matrix equation to a two-level Bloch-vector equation which has a simple and physically intuitive algebraic solution. The physically intuitive picture of a two-level Bloch vector provides insights that are easily generalized to more complex and experimentally realistic models. We consider generalization to the cases of Doppler broadening, many-level EIT systems (we consider the D1 line of 87 Rb), and optically thick media. For the case of optically thick media we find that the rise time of the refractive EIT Kerr effect is proportional to the optical thickness. The rise time of the refractive EIT Kerr effect sets important limitations for potential few-photon applications

  3. Squeezing survival and transfer in single and double electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, J L; Hou, B P; Wang, S J

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the propagation and storage of a squeezed vacuum as the probe light in a collection of N four-level tripod configuration atoms under the condition of single or double electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The squeezing of the probe light is well preserved in both the single transparency channel and the double transparency one. On the other hand, the effects of the ground state dephasing rates on the propagation and storage of the squeezed vacuum are investigated. It is found that the maximum squeezing at the transparency points is suppressed by the dephasing rates in single or double EIT. Meanwhile, the mapping of the squeezing of the probe light onto the atomic ground coherences or onto the two atomic dark-state polaritons is also studied. In the absence of the Langevin atomic noise, the quasi-ideal squeezing transfer between the squeezed vacuum and the atomic ground coherences or the dark-state polaritons can be realized in such a system. When considering the Langevin atomic noise, the quantum characteristics of the atomic coherences at resonance are submerged by the Langevin noise, while in the scenario of the dark-state polariton, it is found that squeezing transfer onto one polariton is damaged, but the squeezing transfer onto the other polariton survives even in the presence of the Langevin noise.

  4. Analogue of electromagnetically-induced-transparency based on graphene nanotube waveguide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei, Buzheng; Jian, Shuisheng

    2017-01-01

    A graphene-based nanotube waveguide system is proposed and designed to realize the analogue of electromagnetically-induced-transparency. The two nanotubes act as side coupled cavity rings which can be treated as the bright and dark resonators. By mimicking the quantum nonlinear optical interference, the light at resonant frequency makes the opaque system transparent. Conveniently, the working transparency window can be dynamically controlled by shifting the Fermi energy level of graphene without refabricating the device. Furthermore, the shape of the transmission spectrum can be tuned either by adjusting the waveguide coupling distance or by the cavity ring coupling distance. If the ring radius gets bigger, higher order of modes are excited in the dark resonator consequently. Meaningfully, the light travels at resonant frequency can be efficiently slowed down and the highest group delay reaches 25 ps. In the end, some concerns about the practical realization of such device are discussed. The structure may find potential applications in nano technology or light storage field. (paper)

  5. Resonant two-photon absorption and electromagnetically induced transparency in open ladder-type atomic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Han Seb; Noh, Heung-Ryoul

    2013-03-25

    We have experimentally and theoretically studied resonant two-photon absorption (TPA) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in the open ladder-type atomic system of the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 0, 1, 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 1, 2, 3) transitions in (87)Rb atoms. As the coupling laser intensity was increased, the resonant TPA was transformed to EIT for the 5S(1/2) (F = 1)-5P(3/2) (F' = 2)-5D(5/2) (F″ = 3) transition. The transformation of resonant TPA into EIT was numerically calculated for various coupling laser intensities, considering all the degenerate magnetic sublevels of the 5S(1/2)-5P(3/2)-5D(5/2) transition. From the numerical results, the crossover from TPA to EIT could be understood by the decomposition of the spectrum into an EIT component owing to the pure two-photon coherence and a TPA component caused by the mixed term.

  6. High-quality electromagnetically-induced absorption resonances in a buffer-gas-filled vapour cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhnikov, D. V.; Ignatovich, S. M.; Vishnyakov, V. I.; Skvortsov, M. N.; Andreeva, Ch; Entin, V. M.; Ryabtsev, I. I.

    2018-02-01

    Magneto-optical subnatural-linewidth resonances of electromagnetically-induced absorption (EIA) in an alkali vapour cell have been experimentally studied. The observation configuration includes using two counter-propagating pumps and probe light waves with mutually orthogonal linear polarizations, exciting an open optical transition in the 87Rb D 1 line in the presence of argon buffer gas. The EIA signals registered in a probe-wave transmission reach an unprecedented contrast of about 135% with respect to the wide ‘Doppler’ absorption pedestal and 29% with respect to the level of background transmission signal. These contrast values correspond to a relatively small resonance full width at half maximum of about 7.2 mG (5.2 kHz). The width of the narrowest EIA resonance observed is about 2.1 mG (1.5 kHz). To our knowledge, such a large relative contrast at the kHz-width is the record result for EIA resonances. In general, the work has experimentally proved that the magneto-optical scheme used has very good prospects for various quantum technologies (quantum sensors of weak magnetic fields, optical switches and other photonic elements).

  7. Electromagnetically induced reflectance and Fano resonance in one dimensional superconducting photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athe, Pratik; Srivastava, Sanjay; Thapa, Khem B.

    2018-04-01

    In the present work, we demonstrate the generation of optical Fano resonance and electromagnetically induced reflectance (EIR) in one-dimensional superconducting photonic crystal (1D SPC) by numerical simulation using transfer matrix method as analysis tool. We investigated the optical response of 1D SPC structure consisting of alternate layer of two different superconductors and observed that the optical spectra of this structure exhibit two narrow reflectance peaks with zero reflectivity of sidebands. Further, we added a dielectric cap layer to this 1D SPC structure and found that addition of dielectric cap layer transforms the line shape of sidebands around the narrow reflectance peaks which leads to the formation of Fano resonance and EIR line shape in reflectance spectra. We also studied the effects of the number of periods, refractive index and thickness of dielectric cap layer on the lineshape of EIR and Fano resonances. It was observed that the amplitude of peak reflectance of EIR achieves 100% reflectance by increasing the number of periods.

  8. Electromagnetic near-field coupling induced polarization conversion and asymmetric transmission in plasmonic metasurfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yu-Xiang; Wang, Kai-Jun; He, Meng-Dong; Luo, Jian-Hua; Zhang, Xin-Min; Li, Jian-Bo; Tan, Shi-Hua; Liu, Jian-Qiang; Hu, Wei-Da; Chen, Xiaoshuang

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the effect of polarization conversion in a plasmonic metasurface structure, in which each unit cell consists of a metal bar and four metal split-ring resonators (SRRs). Such effect is attributed to the fact that the dark plasmon mode of SRRs (bar), which radiates cross-polarized component, is induced by the bright plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) due to the electromagnetic near-field coupling between bar and SRRs. We find that there are two ways to achieve a large cross-polarized component in our proposed metasurface structure. The first way is realized when the dark plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) is in resonance, while at this time the bright plasmon mode of SRRs (bar) is not at resonant state. The second way is realized when the bright plasmon mode of SRRs (bar) is resonantly excited, while the dark plasmon mode of bar (SRRs) is at nonresonant state. It is also found that the linearly polarized light can be rotated by 56.50 after propagation through the metasurface structure. Furthermore, our proposed metasurface structure exhibits an asymmetric transmission for circularly polarized light. Our findings take a further step in developing integrated metasurface-based photonics devices for polarization manipulation and modulation.

  9. Experimental and numerical study of electromagnetically induced transparency in magnetized plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawamori, Eiichirou; Hsieh, Tung-Yuan; Nishida, Yasushi; Cheng, C-Z

    2012-01-01

    We present a demonstration of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in magnetized plasmas by means of experiment and numerical simulation. EIT in magnetized plasmas is a phenomenon by which a plasma-absorbing electron cyclotron wave is rendered transparent by a pump wave, which is a classical analog to conventional quantum EIT although the plasma EIT is not a quantum-mechanics-based phenomenon. This paper describes an attempt to identify plasma oscillations excited by the mode coupling of a pump wave and a probe wave, which is a key mechanism for achieving magnetized plasma EIT, by an experiment and a particle-in-cell (PIC) simulation. A preliminary result of the longitudinal electric field measurement indicates an enhancement of the plasma oscillation in the vicinity of the beat frequency between the probe and pump waves. Also the PIC calculation, which simulated the real experiment, shows a plasma oscillation excited by the mode coupling between the probe and pump waves in the magnetized plasma EIT, showing agreement with theory and experiment. (paper)

  10. Electromagnetic navigation-guided neuroendoscopic removal of radiation-induced intraforniceal cavernoma as a late complication of medulloblastoma treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liby, Petr; Zamecnik, J; Kyncl, M; Zackova, J; Tichy, M

    2017-11-01

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant brain tumour in children. Radiation-induced cavernous haemangiomas (RICHs) are a known late complication of radiation exposure, especially in young children. We present a patient who underwent subtotal resection of posterior fossa medulloblastoma with subsequent chemotherapy and radiotherapy at the age of 10 years. A new lesion in the region of the left foramen of Monro appeared 16 years later. Based on the imaging results, metastasis or radiation-induced cavernoma was considered. The lesion had the same appearance on imaging as a rarely published intraventricular cavernoma of the foramen of Monro. Unlike the cavernoma of the foramen of Monro, this lesion was subependymal and intraforniceal. Using electromagnetic navigation and neuroendoscopy, the lesion was completely removed. Histopathological examination revealed a cavernous haemangioma. This is a unique case of intraforniceal paraforaminal cavernoma that was successfully removed endoscopically using electromagnetic neuronavigation and without neurological sequelae.

  11. Linear interaction of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciubotariu, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    Starting with the linearized Einstein equations written in the same form as Maxwell equations, a damping term is found in the wave equation. The analogy with the propagation of the electromagnetic wave in ohmic media is obvious if we introduce an 'ohmic relation' for gravitational interaction. The possibility of the amplification of gravitational waves by a suitable choice of the velocity field of a dust ('dust with negative viscosity'), for example by the use of the free-electron laser principle, is indicated. (Author)

  12. Gravitating lepton bag model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burinskii, A.

    2015-01-01

    The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system

  13. Dyons in presence of gravitation and symmetrized field equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, A.S.; Negi, O.P.S.

    1999-01-01

    Combined theory of gravitation and electromagnetism associated with particles carrying electric and magnetic charges has been established from an invariant action principle. Corresponding field equations, equation of motion and Einstein Maxwell's equations are obtained in unique and consistent way. It is shown that weak field approximation of slowly moving particle in gravitational field leads the symmetry between electromagnetic and linear gravitational fields. Postulation of the existence of gravimagnetic monopole leads structural symmetry between generalized electromagnetic and gravielectromagnetic fields. Corresponding quantization conditions and angular momentum are also analysed. (author)

  14. Electromagnetic force on a brane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Li-Xin

    2016-01-01

    A fundamental assumption in the theory of brane world is that all matter and radiation are confined on the four-dimensional brane and only gravitons can propagate in the five-dimensional bulk spacetime. The brane world theory did not provide an explanation for the existence of electromagnetic fields and the origin of the electromagnetic field equation. In this paper, we propose a model for explaining the existence of electromagnetic fields on a brane and deriving the electromagnetic field equation. Similar to the case in Kaluza–Klein theory, we find that electromagnetic fields and the electromagnetic field equation can be derived from the five-dimensional Einstein field equation. However, the derived electromagnetic field equation differs from the Maxwell equation by containing a term with the electromagnetic potential vector coupled to the spacetime curvature tensor. So it can be considered as generalization of the Maxwell equation in a curved spacetime. The gravitational field equation on the brane is also derived with the stress–energy tensor for electromagnetic fields explicitly included and the Weyl tensor term explicitly expressed with matter fields and their derivatives in the direction of the extra-dimension. The model proposed in the paper can be regarded as unification of electromagnetic and gravitational interactions in the framework of brane world theory. (paper)

  15. Gravitational polarizability of black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria

    2009-01-01

    The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.

  16. An introductory review on gravitational-deformation induced structures, fabrics and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaboyedoff, Michel; Penna, Ivanna; Pedrazzini, Andrea; Baroň, Ivo; Crosta, Giovanni B.

    2013-10-01

    Recent studies have pointed out a similarity between tectonics and slope tectonic-induced structures. Numerous studies have demonstrated that structures and fabrics previously interpreted as of purely geodynamical origin are instead the result of large slope deformation, and this led in the past to erroneous interpretations. Nevertheless, their limit seems not clearly defined, but it is somehow transitional. Some studies point out continuity between failures developing at surface with upper crust movements. In this contribution, the main studies which examine the link between rock structures and slope movements are reviewed. The aspects regarding model and scale of observation are discussed together with the role of pre-existing weaknesses in the rock mass. As slope failures can develop through progressive failure, structures and their changes in time and space can be recognized. Furthermore, recognition of the origin of these structures can help in avoiding misinterpretations of regional geology. This also suggests the importance of integrating different slope movement classifications based on distribution and pattern of deformation and the application of structural geology techniques. A structural geology approach in the landslide community is a tool that can greatly support the hazard quantification and related risks, because most of the physical parameters, which are used for landslide modeling, are derived from geotechnical tests or the emerging geophysical approaches.

  17. Gravitational lensing

    CERN Document Server

    Dodelson, Scott

    2017-01-01

    Gravitational lensing is a consequence of general relativity, where the gravitational force due to a massive object bends the paths of light originating from distant objects lying behind it. Using very little general relativity and no higher level mathematics, this text presents the basics of gravitational lensing, focusing on the equations needed to understand the phenomena. It then applies them to a diverse set of topics, including multiply imaged objects, time delays, extrasolar planets, microlensing, cluster masses, galaxy shape measurements, cosmic shear, and lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This approach allows undergraduate students and others to get quickly up to speed on the basics and the important issues. The text will be especially relevant as large surveys such as LSST and Euclid begin to dominate the astronomical landscape. Designed for a one semester course, it is accessible to anyone with two years of undergraduate physics background.

  18. Electromagnetic interference from radio frequency identification inducing potentially hazardous incidents in critical care medical equipment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Togt, R. van der; Lieshout, E.J. van; Hensbroek, R.; Beinat, E.; Binnekade, J.M.; Bakker, P.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    Context: Health care applications of autoidentification technologies, such as radio frequency identification (RFID), have been proposed to improve patient safety and also the tracking and tracing of medical equipment. However, electromagnetic interference (EMI) by RFID on medical devices has never

  19. Gravitational Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Schäfer, G.; Schutz, B.

    1996-01-01

    Gravity is truly universal. It is the force that pulls us to the Earth, that keeps the planets and moons in their orbits, and that causes the tides on the Earth to ebb and flow. It even keeps the Sun shining. Yet on a laboratory scale gravity is extremely weak. The Coulomb force between two protons is 1039 times stronger than the gravitational force between them. Moreover, Newton's gravitational constant is the least accurately known of the fundamental constants: it has been measured to 1 par...

  20. Gravitational waves from neutron stars and asteroseismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wynn C. G.

    2018-05-01

    Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars. We pay particular attention to neutron star fluid oscillations, examining their impact on electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations when these stars are in a wide binary or isolated system, then during binary inspiral right before merger, and finally at times soon after merger. This article is part of a discussion meeting issue `The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'.

  1. Nuclear beta decay induced by intense electromagnetic fields: Forbidden transition examples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1983-01-01

    A formalism developed earlier for the effect on nuclear beta decay of an intense plane-wave electromagnetic field is applied to three examples of forbidden beta transitions. The examples represent cases where the nuclear ''fragment'' contains one, two, and three nucleons; where the nuclear fragment is defined to be that smallest sub-unit of the nucleus containing the nucleon which undergoes beta decay plus any other nucleons directly angular-momentum coupled to it in initial or final states. The single-nucleon-fragment example is 113 Cd, which has a fourth-forbidden transition. The two-nucleon-fragment example is 90 Sr, which is first-forbidden. The three-nucleon-fragment example is 87 Rb, which is third-forbidden. An algebraic closed-form transition probability is found in each case. At low external-field intensity, the transition probability is proportional to z/sup L/, where z is the field intensity parameter and L is the degree of forbiddenness. At intermediate intensities, the transition probability behaves as z/sup L/-(1/2). At higher intensities, the transition probability contains the z/sup L/-(1/2) factor, a declining exponential factor, and an alternating polynomial in z. This high-intensity transition probability possesses a maximum value, which is found for each of the examples. A general rule, z = q 2 (2L-1), where q is the number of particles in the fragment, is found for giving an upper limit on the intensity at which the maximum transition probability occurs. Field-induced beta decay half-lives for all the examples are dramatically reduced from natural half-lives when evaluated at the optimum field intensity. Relative half-life reduction is greater the higher the degree of forbiddenness

  2. The radioprotective effects of Moringa oleifera against mobile phone electromagnetic radiation-induced infertility in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin-Meferij, Mashael Mohammed; El-kott, Attalla Farag

    2015-01-01

    The present study has investigated the effects of mobile phone electromagnetic radiation (EMR) on fertility in rats. The purpose of this study was to explore the capability of polyphenolic-rich Moringa oleifera leaf extract in protecting rat testis against EMR-induced impairments based on evaluation of sperm count, viability, motility, sperm cell morphology, anti-oxidants (SOD & CAT), oxidative stress marker, testis tissue histopathology and PCNA immunohistochemistry. The sample consisted of sixty male Wistar rats which were divided into four equal groups. The first group (the control) received only standard diet while the second group was supplemented daily and for eight weeks with 200 mg/kg aqueous extract of Moringa leaves. The third group was exposed to 900 MHz fields for one hour a day and for (7) days a week. As for the fourth group, it was exposed to mobile phone radiation and received the Moringa extract. The results showed that the EMR treated group exhibited a significantly decrease sperm parameters. Furthermore, concurrent exposure to EMR and treated with MOE significantly enhanced the sperm parameters. However, histological results in EMR group showed irregular seminiferous tubules, few spermatogonia, giant multinucleated cells, degenerated spermatozoa and the number of Leydig cells was significantly reduced. PCNA labeling indices were significant in EMR group versus the control group. Also, EMR affects spermatogenesis and causes to apoptosis due to the heat and other stress-related EMR in testis tissue. This study concludes that chronic exposure to EMR marked testicular injury which can be prevented by Moringa oleifera leaf extract. PMID:26550159

  3. Effect of intervention initiation timing of pulsed electromagnetic field on ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jun; Liao, Yuan; Zeng, Yahua; Xie, Haitao; Fu, Chengxiao; Li, Neng

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the effect of timing of initiation of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) therapy on bone mass, microarchitecture, and biomechanical properties, and to investigate receptor activator of NF-kB (RANK) expression in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two equal batches of three groups each (10 rats in each group). The first batch comprised of sham-operated (Sham-0 group), ovariectomized (OVX-0 group), and ovariectomized plus treated with PEMF starting from the day of OVX (Early PEMF group). The second batch comprised of sham-operated (Sham-12 group), ovariectomized (OVX-12 group), and ovariectomized plus treated with PEMF starting 12 weeks after OVX (Late PEMF group). Rats (whole body) in the early and late PEMF groups were exposed to PEMF (3.8 mT peak, 8 Hz pulse burst repetition rate). After 12 weeks of PEMF therapy, Early PEMF prevented OVX-induced deterioration in bone mineral density (BMD) and mechanical properties in lumbar vertebral body and femur, and deterioration in bone microarchitecture in lumbar vertebral body and proximal tibia. Late PEMF intervention only inhibited deterioration of BMD, bone microarchitecture, and mechanical properties in lumbar vertebral body. Both early and late PEMF therapy suppressed RANK protein expression in OVX rats without a concomitant effect on RANK mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that timing of initiation of PEMF therapy plays an important role in achieving optimal beneficial effects. The specific PEMF parameters may exert these favorable biological responses, at least partially, via inhibition of protein expression of RANK. Bioelectromagnetics. 38:456-465, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. BEMER Electromagnetic Field Therapy Reduces Cancer Cell Radioresistance by Enhanced ROS Formation and Induced DNA Damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Storch

    Full Text Available Each year more than 450,000 Germans are expected to be diagnosed with cancer subsequently receiving standard multimodal therapies including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. On top, molecular-targeted agents are increasingly administered. Owing to intrinsic and acquired resistance to these therapeutic approaches, both the better molecular understanding of tumor biology and the consideration of alternative and complementary therapeutic support are warranted and open up broader and novel possibilities for therapy personalization. Particularly the latter is underpinned by the increasing utilization of non-invasive complementary and alternative medicine by the population. One investigated approach is the application of low-dose electromagnetic fields (EMF to modulate cellular processes. A particular system is the BEMER therapy as a Physical Vascular Therapy for which a normalization of the microcirculation has been demonstrated by a low-frequency, pulsed EMF pattern. Open remains whether this EMF pattern impacts on cancer cell survival upon treatment with radiotherapy, chemotherapy and the molecular-targeted agent Cetuximab inhibiting the epidermal growth factor receptor. Using more physiological, three-dimensional, matrix-based cell culture models and cancer cell lines originating from lung, head and neck, colorectal and pancreas, we show significant changes in distinct intermediates of the glycolysis and tricarboxylic acid cycle pathways and enhanced cancer cell radiosensitization associated with increased DNA double strand break numbers and higher levels of reactive oxygen species upon BEMER treatment relative to controls. Intriguingly, exposure of cells to the BEMER EMF pattern failed to result in sensitization to chemotherapy and Cetuximab. Further studies are necessary to better understand the mechanisms underlying the cellular alterations induced by the BEMER EMF pattern and to clarify the application areas for human disease.

  5. Single and multi-band electromagnetic induced transparency-like metamaterials with coupled split ring resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Fulya; Akaoglu, Baris

    2017-08-01

    We present a metamaterial configuration exhibiting single and multi-band electromagnetic induced transparency (EIT)-like properties. The unit cell of the single band EIT-like metamaterial consists of a multi-split ring resonator surrounded by a split ring resonator. The multi-split ring resonator acts as a quasi-dark or dark resonator, depending on the polarization of the incident wave, and the split ring resonator serves as the bright resonator. Combination of these two resonators results in a single band EIT-like transmission inside the stop band. EIT-like transmission phenomenon is also clearly observed in the measured transmission spectrum at almost the same frequencies for vertical and horizontal polarized waves, and the numerical results are verified for normal incidence. Moreover, multi-band transmission windows are created within a wide band by combining the two slightly different single band EIT-like metamaterial unit cells that exhibit two different coupling strengths inside a supercell configuration. Group indices as high as 123 for single band and 488 for tri-band transmission, accompanying with high transmission rates (over 80%), are achieved, rendering the metamaterial very suitable for multi-band slow light applications. It is shown that the group delay of the propagating wave can be increased and dynamically controlled by changing the polarization angle. Multi-band EIT-like transmission is also verified experimentally, and a good agreement with simulations is obtained. The proposed novel methodology for obtaining multi-band EIT, which takes advantage of a supercell configuration by hosting slightly different configured unit cells, can be utilized for easily formation and manipulation of multi-band transmission windows inside a stop band.

  6. Electric field metrology for SI traceability: Systematic measurement uncertainties in electromagnetically induced transparency in atomic vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Christopher L.; Simons, Matt T.; Gordon, Joshua A.; Dienstfrey, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Raithel, Georg

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the relationship between the Rabi frequency (ΩRF, related to the applied electric field) and Autler-Townes (AT) splitting, when performing atom-based radio-frequency (RF) electric (E) field strength measurements using Rydberg states and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in an atomic vapor. The AT splitting satisfies, under certain conditions, a well-defined linear relationship with the applied RF field amplitude. The EIT/AT-based E-field measurement approach derived from these principles is currently being investigated by several groups around the world as a means to develop a new SI-traceable RF E-field measurement technique. We establish conditions under which the measured AT-splitting is an approximately linear function of the RF electric field. A quantitative description of systematic deviations from the linear relationship is key to exploiting EIT/AT-based atomic-vapor spectroscopy for SI-traceable field measurement. We show that the linear relationship is valid and can be used to determine the E-field strength, with minimal error, as long as the EIT linewidth is small compared to the AT-splitting. We also discuss interesting aspects of the thermal dependence (i.e., hot- versus cold-atom) of this EIT-AT technique. An analysis of the transition from cold- to hot-atom EIT in a Doppler-mismatched cascade system reveals a significant change of the dependence of the EIT linewidth on the optical Rabi frequencies and of the AT-splitting on ΩRF.

  7. The difference in noise property between the Autler—Townes splitting medium and the electromagnetically induced transparent medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhong-Hua; Li Yuan; Dou Ya-Fang; Zhang Jun-Xiang

    2012-01-01

    The quantum noise of squeezed probe light passing through an atomic system with different electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler—Townes splitting effects is investigated theoretically. It is found that the optimal squeezing preservation of the outgoing probe beam occurs in the strong-coupling-field regime rather than in the weak-coupling-field regime. In the weak-coupling-field regime, which was recently recognized as the electromagnetically induced transparency regime (Abi-Salloum T Y 2010 Phys. Rev. A 81 053836), the output amplitude noise is affected mainly by the atomic noise originating from the random decay process of atoms. While in the strong-coupling-field regime, defined as the Autler—Townes splitting regime, the output amplitude noise is affected mainly by the phase-to-amplitude conversion noise. This is useful in improving the quality of the experiment for efficient quantum memory, and hence has an application in quantum information processing. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Electromagnetic noise inhibits radiofrequency radiation-induced DNA damage and reactive oxygen species increase in human lens epithelial cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Wang, KaiJun; Ni, Shuang; Ye, PanPan; Yu, YiBo; Ye, Juan; Sun, LiXia

    2008-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to investigate whether superposing of electromagnetic noise could block or attenuate DNA damage and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) increase of cultured human lens epithelial cells (HLECs) induced by acute exposure to 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field (RF) of the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM). Methods An sXc-1800 RF exposure system was used to produce a GSM signal at 1.8 GHz (217 Hz amplitude-modulated) with the specific absorption rate (SAR) of 1, 2, 3, and 4 W/kg. After 2 h of intermittent exposure, the ROS level was assessed by the fluorescent probe, 2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA). DNA damage to HLECs was examined by alkaline comet assay and the phosphorylated form of histone variant H2AX (γH2AX) foci formation assay. Results After exposure to 1.8 GHz RF for 2 h, HLECs exhibited significant intracellular ROS increase in the 2, 3, and 4 W/kg groups. RF radiation at the SAR of 3 W/kg and 4 W/kg could induce significant DNA damage, examined by alkaline comet assay, which was used to detect mainly single strand breaks (SSBs), while no statistical difference in double strand breaks (DSBs), evaluated by γH2AX foci, was found between RF exposure (SAR: 3 and 4 W/kg) and sham exposure groups. When RF was superposed with 2 μT electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS increase and DNA damage. Conclusions DNA damage induced by 1.8 GHz radiofrequency field for 2 h, which was mainly SSBs, may be associated with the increased ROS production. Electromagnetic noise could block RF-induced ROS formation and DNA damage. PMID:18509546

  9. Geometrical Aspects of non-gravitational interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Roldan, Omar; Barros Jr, C. C.

    2016-01-01

    In this work we look for a geometric description of non-gravitational forces. The basic ideas are proposed studying the interaction between a punctual particle and an electromagnetic external field. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of proper space-time, that allow us to describe this interaction in a way analogous to the one that the general relativity theory does for gravitation. The field equations that define this geometry are similar to the Einstein's equations, where in general...

  10. Maximum Redshift of Gravitational Wave Merger Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koushiappas, Savvas M.; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-12-01

    Future generations of gravitational wave detectors will have the sensitivity to detect gravitational wave events at redshifts far beyond any detectable electromagnetic sources. We show that if the observed event rate is greater than one event per year at redshifts z ≥40 , then the probability distribution of primordial density fluctuations must be significantly non-Gaussian or the events originate from primordial black holes. The nature of the excess events can be determined from the redshift distribution of the merger rate.

  11. Generating gravity waves with matter and electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P A.

    2008-01-01

    If a homogeneous plane lightlike shell collides head on with a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave having a step-function profile then no backscattered gravitational waves are produced. We demonstrate, by explicit calculation, that if the matter is accompanied by a homogeneous plane electromagnetic shock wave with a step-function profile then backscattered gravitational waves appear after the collision

  12. Suppression of insolation heating induced by electromagnetic scatteringdue to fine spheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horie, J.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.; Manaka, Y.; Taniguchi, K.; Ashida, Y.

    2013-12-01

    The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake, i.e., the greatest earthquake in the Japanese history, and the successive disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant have caused a fatal electric power shortage problem in summer in 2011. It is of key importance to reduce electricity demand and to save the energy. About one third of the total electricity demand at the peak consumption in summer is for the air-conditioning in the household and office sectors in Japan. It is, therefore, necessary to think deliberately of the reduction of electric power demand for air-conditioning. In fact, the temperature of materials rises when they are exposed to the sunlight (insolation heating) in particular in summer and the air-conditioning would become necessary for restoring the comfort in insolated housings. The energy for the air-conditioning is spent to pump out the heat changed in the materials of the insolated housings and would be proportional to the temperature to lower down. It is, therefore, clear that the reduction of the energy for the air-conditioning would strongly depend on relaxation of temperature rise or the insulation of insolated materials. Insolation heating could be suppressed when the materials are coated with paint admixed with fine silica spheres (insulating paint). By coating buildings' walls and roofs with such paint, the temperature of interior rooms could be kept lower without air-conditioning. These insulation effects are well known and have been utilized in the past, but have hardly been analyzed theoretically yet. Theoretical analysis would greatly enhance the effects of the suppression of insolation heating. In preceding studies, Ohkawa et al.(2009; 2011) and Mikada et al.(2011) focused on the electromagnetic wave scattering induced by fine spheres and developed the analytical method using superposition of scattered waves from each sphere (the first Born approximation), and indicated that the size of the spheres is one of the

  13. Potential protection of green tea polyphenols against 1800 MHz electromagnetic radiation-induced injury on rat cortical neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei-Li; Wen, Jian-Qiang; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2011-10-01

    Radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (EMF) are harmful to public health, but the certain anti-irradiation mechanism is not clear yet. The present study was performed to investigate the possible protective effects of green tea polyphenols against electromagnetic radiation-induced injury in the cultured rat cortical neurons. In this study, green tea polyphenols were used in the cultured cortical neurons exposed to 1800 MHz EMFs by the mobile phone. We found that the mobile phone irradiation for 24 h induced marked neuronal cell death in the MTT (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide) and TUNEL (TdT mediated biotin-dUTP nicked-end labeling) assay, and protective effects of green tea polyphenols on the injured cortical neurons were demonstrated by testing the content of Bcl-2 Assaciated X protein (Bax) in the immunoprecipitation assay and Western blot assay. In our study results, the mobile phone irradiation-induced increases in the content of active Bax were inhibited significantly by green tea polyphenols, while the contents of total Bax had no marked changes after the treatment of green tea polyphenols. Our results suggested a neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols against the mobile phone irradiation-induced injury on the cultured rat cortical neurons.

  14. Space-time algebra for the generalization of gravitational field ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    the analogy in formulation between massive gravitational theory and electromagnetism has ... as the dual mass, gravitomagnetic charge (monopole) or magnetic mass [7]. ... cation in the definitions of the GEM fields in the following manner:.

  15. Adaptive switching gravitational search algorithm: an attempt to ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Nor Azlina Ab Aziz

    An adaptive gravitational search algorithm (GSA) that switches between synchronous and ... genetic algorithm (GA), bat-inspired algorithm (BA) and grey wolf optimizer (GWO). ...... heuristic with applications in applied electromagnetics. Prog.

  16. Gravitational perturbations of the hydrogen atom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, L.

    1983-01-01

    The strength of a gravitational field is characterized by the Riemann curvature tensor. It is of interest to know how the curvature of space-time at the position of an atom affects its spectrum. The author gives a brief summary of work on the effects of curvature on the hydrogen atom. The results refer to an arbitrary metric and can be evaluated for particular space-times of interest. The possibility of using the effect of gravitational waves on the electromagnetic spectrum of hydrogen as a means of detecting gravitational waves is also investigated. (Auth.)

  17. Interaction of the superconducting domains induced by external electric field with electromagnetic waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shapiro, B.Y.

    1992-01-01

    The behavior of a superconductor in time-independent electric field perpendicular to the surface and in the external electromagnetic wave is theoretically investigated. A new type of the resonance interaction between superconducting domains localized along the magnetic field (if the superconducting phase transition takes place in the external magnetic field perpendicular to the surface) and electromagnetic waves is predicted. The surface impedance of the superconductor with domains is calculated. It is shown that the real part of the impedance has a saturation if the skin length equals the domain size. (orig.)

  18. Gravitational curvature: an introduction to Einstein's theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frankel, T.

    1979-01-01

    The basic aspects of general relativity are presented from a geometric point of view. The content of the book is well indicated by chapter headings: aspects of special relativity, clocks and gravitational potential, a heuristic derivation of Einstein's equations, the geometry of Einstein's equations, the Schwarzschild solution, the classical motion of a continuum, the relativistic equations of motion, light rays and Fermat's principle, electromagnetism in three-space and Minkowski space, electromagnetism in general relativity, the interior solution, and cosmology. 28 figures

  19. Biochemical study of human periodontal ligament: preparation of cell attachment materials induced by pulsed electromagnetic fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, K T

    1990-09-01

    The periodontium, especially the periodontal ligament and alveolar bone, are tissues constantly subjected to physical stress such as occlusion and mastication. This study was designed to explore the effect of the pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on the cell attachment and the spread of human periodontal ligament fibroblasts (HPLF) and rat osteoblasts (ROB). PEMF are categorized as one type of mechanical stress. HPLF were obtained by the explantation method described by Saito et al. They were then subcultured in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (D-MEM) and supplemented with 2 mg/ml dialyzed fetal calf serum protein (FCSP), 50 micrograms/ml ascorbic acid and penicillin/streptomycin after trypsinization. ROB were isolated from a two-day-old rat calvaria by the sequential bacterial collagenase digestion method described by Dziak and Brand and were subcultured in D-MEM supplemented with FCSP, ascorbic acid and penicillin/streptomycin. After the confluent HPLF were cultured with serum-free MCDB 107 medium, the quiescent HPLF were exposed with or without PEMF for 24 hr. This was followed by the collection of the control conditioned medium (C-CM) and PEMF exposed conditioned medium (PEMF-CM). The cell attachment assay was performed so that the hydrophobic 24 multiwells were coated with the whole conditioned medium or fractionated conditioned medium by a PO-60K column. After coating, heat inactivated BSA blocked nonspecific sites for cell adhesion, and 3H-TdR labeled HPLF or ROB were cultured on the precoated wells. The activity of cell attachment and spreading was determined by the radioactivity of 3H-TdR using a scintillation counter. The characters of cell attachment factors derived from HPLF were hydrophobic, heat labile and proteolytic enzyme digestible. In addition, the fractionated PEMF-CM enhanced the spreading activity of ROB. PEMF induced the 10 KDa which can enhance the HPLF and ROB spreading. Therefore, the cell attachment and spreading factors secreted by

  20. Photonic chiral current and its anomaly in a gravitational field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgov, A.D.; Khriplovich, I.B.; Vajnshtejn, A.I.; Zakharov, V.I.

    1988-01-01

    The notion of chirality for electromagnetic field which is conserved in interactions with gravitons is formulated. The correponding chiral current is the one-particle-state analogue of the Pauli-Lubansky vector. The anomaly of this current in an external gravitational field is found. The results obtained are used for the calculation of the electromagnetic radiative correction to the fermionic chiral anomaly in a gravitational field

  1. Gravitational waves

    CERN Document Server

    Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P

    2001-01-01

    Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.

  2. Gravitational effects of global textures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noetzold, D.

    1990-03-01

    A solution for the dynamics of global textures is obtained. Their gravitational field during the collapse and the subsequent evolution is found to be given solely by a space-time dependent ''deficit solid angle.'' The frequency shift of photons traversing this gravitational field is calculated. The space-time dependent texture metric locally contracts the volume of three-space and thereby induces overdensities in homogeneous matter distributions. There are no gravitational forces unless matter has a nonzero angular momentum with respect to the texture origin which would be the case for moving textures

  3. Gravitation relativiste

    CERN Document Server

    Hakim, Rémi

    1994-01-01

    Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.

  4. Relationship between electromagnetically-induced transparency and Autler–Townes splitting in a Doppler-broadened system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pei Li-Ya; Qu Yi-Zhi; Niu Jin-Yan; Wang Ru-Quan; Zuo Zhan-Chun; Wu Ling-An; Fu Pan-Ming

    2015-01-01

    We study the relationship between electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT) and Autler–Townes (AT) splitting in a cascade three-level Doppler-broadened system. By comparing the absorption spectrum with the fluorescence excitation spectrum, it is found that for a Doppler-broadened system, EIT resonance cannot be explained as the result of quantum interference, unlike the case of a homogeneously broadened system. Instead, the macroscopic polarization interference plays an important role in determining the spectra of EIT and AT splitting, which can be explained within the same framework when being detected by the absorption spectra. (paper)

  5. Resonant and off-resonant transients in electromagnetically induced transparency: Turn-on and turn-off dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greentree, Andrew D.; Smith, T.B.; Echaniz, S.R. de; Durrant, A. V.; Marangos, J.P.; Segal, D.M.; Vaccaro, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents a wide-ranging theoretical and experimental study of nonadiabatic transient phenomena in a Λ electromagnetically induced transparency system when a strong coupling field is rapidly switched on or off. The theoretical treatment uses a Laplace transform approach to solve the time-dependent density matrix equation. The experiments are carried out in a 87 Rb magneto-optical trap. The results show transient probe gain in parameter regions not previously studied, and provide insight into the transition dynamics between bare and dressed states

  6. Comparison of electromagnetically induced transparency schemes in semiconductor quantum dot structures: Impact of many-body interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houmark-Nielsen, Jakob; Nielsen, Torben Roland; Mørk, Jesper

    2009-01-01

    an important impact on the slow light properties. In the case of the Lambda and V schemes, the minimum required coupling power to achieve slow light is significantly reduced by many-body interactions. V type schemes are found to be generally preferable due to a favorable redistribution of carriers in energy......We investigate the impact of many-body interactions on group-velocity slowdown achieved via electromagnetically induced transparency in quantum dots using three different coupling-probe schemes (ladder, V, and Lambda, respectively). We find that for all schemes many-body interactions have...

  7. Propagation of a probe pulse inside a Bose–Einstein condensate under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barberis-Blostein, Pablo; Aguilar-Loreto, Omar

    2015-01-01

    We obtain a partial differential equation for a pulse travelling inside a Bose–Einstein condensate under conditions of electromagnetically induced transparency. The equation is valid for a weak probe pulse. We solve the equation for the case of a three-level BEC in Λ configuration with one of its ground state spatial profiles initially constant. The solution characterizes, in detail, the effect that the evolution of the condensate wave function has on pulse propagation, including the process of stopping and releasing it. (invited comment)

  8. Enhanced Cross-Phase Modulation Based on a Double Electromagnetically Induced Transparency in a Four-Level Tripod Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Shujing; Yang Xudong; Cao Xuemin; Zhang Chunhong; Xie Changde; Wang Hai

    2008-01-01

    We report experimental observations on the simultaneous electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effects for probe and trigger fields (double EIT) as well as the enhanced cross-phase modulation (XPM) between the two fields in a four-level tripod EIT system of the D1 line of 87 Rb atoms. The XPM coefficients (larger than 2x10 -5 cm 2 /W) and the accompanying transmissions (higher than 60%) are measured at a slight detuning of the probe field from the exact EIT-resonance condition. The system and enhanced cross-Kerr nonlinearities presented here can be applied to quantum information processes

  9. Lightning induced inappropriate ICD shock: an unusual case of electromagnetic interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Daniel R; Gillberg, Jeffrey M; Torrey, Jeffrey W; Koneru, Jayanthi N

    2012-06-01

    An unusual case of electromagnetic interference is presented. As a result of a lightning shock to a Shower House, our patient received two shocks. An elucidation of the different mechanisms for the two shocks is presented. ©2010, The Authors. Journal compilation ©2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Electromagnetic characterization of superconducting radio-frequency cavities for gw detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantini, R.; Bernard, Ph; Chincarini, A.; Gemme, G.; Parodi, R.; Picasso, E.

    2004-03-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a prototype gravitational wave detector, based on two coupled superconducting microwave cavities, were tested. The radio-frequency (rf) detection system was carefully analysed. With the use of piezoelectric crystals small harmonic displacements of the cavity walls were induced and the parametric conversion of the electromagnetic field inside the cavities explored. Experimental results of bandwidth and sensitivity of the parametric converter versus stored energy and voltage applied to the piezoelectric crystal are reported. A rf control loop, developed to stabilize phase changes on signal paths, gave a 125 dBc rejection of the drive mode on a time scale of 1 h.

  11. Electromagnetic characterization of superconducting radio-frequency cavities for gw detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballantini, R; Bernard, Ph; Chincarini, A; Gemme, G; Parodi, R; Picasso, E

    2004-01-01

    The electromagnetic properties of a prototype gravitational wave detector, based on two coupled superconducting microwave cavities, were tested. The radio-frequency (rf) detection system was carefully analysed. With the use of piezoelectric crystals small harmonic displacements of the cavity walls were induced and the parametric conversion of the electromagnetic field inside the cavities explored. Experimental results of bandwidth and sensitivity of the parametric converter versus stored energy and voltage applied to the piezoelectric crystal are reported. A rf control loop, developed to stabilize phase changes on signal paths, gave a 125 dBc rejection of the drive mode on a time scale of 1 h

  12. Electric Dipole Antenna: A Source of Gravitational Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chifu E. N.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In this article, the gravitational scalar potential due to an oscillating electric dipole antenna placed in empty space is derived. The gravitational potential obtained propagates as a wave. The gravitational waves have phase velocity equal to the speed of light in vacuum (c at the equatorial plane of the electric dipole antenna, unlike electromagnetic waves from the dipole antenna that cancel out at the equatorial plane due to charge symmetry.

  13. Pulsating electromagnetic field stimulation of urothelial cells induces apoptosis and diminishes necrosis: new insight to magnetic therapy in urology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juszczak, K; Kaszuba-Zwoinska, J; Thor, P J

    2012-08-01

    The evidence of electromagnetic therapy (EMT) efficacy in stress and/or urge urinary incontinence, as well as in detrusor overactivity is generally lacking in the literature. The potential EMT action of neuromuscular tissue depolarization has been described. Because there is no data on the influence of pulsating electromagnetic fields (PEMF) on the urothelium, we evaluated the effect of PEMF stimulation on rat urothelial cultured cells (RUCC). In our study 15 Wistar rats were used for RUCC preparation. RUCC were exposed to PEMF (50 Hz, 45±5 mT) three times for 4 hours each with 24-hour intervals. The unexposed RUCC was in the same incubator, but in a distance of 35 cm from the PEMF generator. Annexin V-APC (AnV+) labelled was used to determine the percentage of apoptotic cells and propidium iodide (PI+), as standard flow cytometric viability probe to distinguish necrotic cells from viable ones. The results are presented in percentage values. The flow cytometric analysis was carried out on a FACS calibur flow cytometer using Cell-Quest software. In PEMF-unstimulated RUCC, the percentage of AnV+, PI+, and AnV+PI+ positive cells were 1.24±0.34%, 11.03±1.55%, and 12.43±1.96%, respectively. The percentages of AnV+, PI+, and AnV+PI+ positive cells obtained after PEMF stimulation were 1.45±0.16% (p=0.027), 7.03±1.76% (p<0.001), and 9.48±3.40% (p=0.003), respectively. The PEMF stimulation of RUCC induces apoptosis (increase of AnV+ cells) and inhibits necrosis (decrease of PI+ cells) of urothelial cells. This leads us to the conclusion that a low-frequency pulsating electromagnetic field stimulation induces apoptosis and diminishes necrosis of rat urothelial cells in culture.

  14. Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) and a ``Twist'' on Nonlinear Magneto-optical Rotation (NMOR) with Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-05-01

    Within the class of nonlinear optical effects that exhibit sub-natural linewidth features, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) stand out as having made dramatic impacts on various applications including atomic clocks, magnetometry, and single photon storage. A related effect, known as electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), has received less attention in the literature. Here, we report on the first observation of EIA in cold atoms using the Hanle configuration, where a single laser beam is used to both pump and probe the atoms while sweeping a magnetic field through zero along the beam direction. We find that, associated with the EIA peak, a ``twist'' appears in the corresponding NMOR signal. A similar twist has been previously noted by Budker et al., in the context of warm vapor optical magnetometry, and was ascribed to optical pumping through nearby hyperfine levels. By studying this feature through numerical simulations and cold atom experiments, thus rendering the hyperfine levels well resolved, we enhance the understanding of the optical pumping mechanism behind it, and elucidate its relation to EIA. Finally, we demonstrate a useful application of these studies through a simple and rapid method for nulling background magnetic fields within our atom chip apparatus.

  15. Numerical evaluation of electromagnetic force induced in high Tc superconductor with grain boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Hidetoshi; Toda, Saburo; Maeda, Koutaro

    1996-01-01

    After high T c superconducting material was discovered, its superconducting characteristic has been improved so that its critical current density becomes comparable with that of metal alloy superconductors. Together with this progress of the high T c material, it is considered to apply the materials to generating levitation force in combination with permanent magnets. In this case, it becomes very important to evaluate quantitatively the electromagnetic force for designing of the devices. Some researches have used numerical analysis to evaluate the force, where the grain boundary was ignored or treated as nonconducting. In the real materials, however, some part of the screening current can pass through the grain boundary. In this paper, therefore, two dimensional electromagnetic analysis was performed with a new method to treat the grain boundaries, and its effect on the levitation force was discussed

  16. Electromagnetically induced nuclear beta decay calculated by a Green's function method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiss, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    The transition probability for enhancement of forbidden nuclear beta decay by an applied plane-wave electromagnetic field is calculated in a nonrelativistic spinless approximation by a Green's function method. The calculation involves a stationary-phase approximation. The stationary phase points in the presence of an intense field are located in very different positions than they are in the field-free case. In order-of-magnitude terms, the results are completely consistent with an earlier, much more complete wave-function calculation which includes spin and relativistic effects. Both the present Green's function calculation and the earlier wave function calculation give electromagnetic contributions in first-forbidden nuclear beta decay matrix elements which are of order (R 0 /lambda-dash-bar/sub C/) 2 with respect to allowed decays, where R 0 is the nuclear radius and lambda-dash-bar/sub C/ is the electron Compton wavelength

  17. Electromagnetically-induced nuclear-charge pickup observed in ultra-relativistic Pb collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheidenberger, C.; Aumann, T.; Pshenichnov, I.A.; Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow

    2002-01-01

    A strong increase of inclusive nuclear-charge pickup cross sections, forming 83 Bi from 158 A GeV 82 Pb ions, is observed in comparison to similar measurements at 10.6 A GeV. From the dependence of these cross sections on target atomic number, this increase is attributed to the electromagnetic process of pion production by equivalent photons. The observed cross sections can be reproduced quantitatively using the recently developed RELDIS code. (orig.)

  18. Why does gravitational radiation produce vorticity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera, L; Barreto, W; Carot, J; Prisco, A Di

    2007-01-01

    We calculate the vorticity of worldlines of observers at rest in a Bondi-Sachs frame, produced by gravitational radiation, in a general Sachs metric. We claim that such an effect is related to the super-Poynting vector, in a similar way as the existence of the electromagnetic Poynting vector is related to the vorticity in stationary electrovacuum spacetimes

  19. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sound + images show Bailey was out in the India-Australia match on 12 Jan 2016. Image credit: Rediff / Fox news / Twitter. Page 10. Electromagnetic follow up: the Indian context. Page 11. Multi-Messenger Astronomy with Gravitational Waves | LIGO-G1601377-v2. Varun Bhalerao (IUCAA) | 1 July 2016. 11. 20 – 60 keV:.

  20. Gravitational anomalies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leutwyler, H; Mallik, S

    1986-12-01

    The effective action for fermions moving in external gravitational and gauge fields is analyzed in terms of the corresponding external field propagator. The central object in our approach is the covariant energy-momentum tensor which is extracted from the regular part of the propagator at short distances. It is shown that the Lorentz anomaly, the conformal anomaly and the gauge anomaly can be expressed in terms of the local polynomials which determine the singular part of the propagator. (There are no coordinate anomalies). Except for the conformal anomaly, for which we give explicit representations only in dless than or equal to4, we consider an arbitrary number of dimensions.

  1. Gravitational lenses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, E.L.

    1989-01-01

    The author discusses how gravitational lens studies is becoming a major focus of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. This review is organized into five parts: an overview of the observational situation, a look at the state of theoretical work on lenses, a detailed look at three recently discovered types of lensing phenomena (luminous arcs, radio rings, quasar-galaxy associations), a review of progress on two old problems in lens studies (deriving unique lens mass distribution models, measurements of differential time delays), and an attempt to look into the future of lens studies

  2. All-optical loadable and erasable memory cell design based on inversionless lasing and electromagnetically induced transparency effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholipour Verki, N; HajiBadali, A; Abbasian, K; Rostami, A

    2011-01-01

    A loadable and erasable all-optical memory cell is designed by using two coupled micro-ring resonators with electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and lasing without inversion (LWI). To read out stored data, an additional phase is introduced in the upper ring resonator due to EIT. To compensate the fibre loss, use is made of LWI. The EIT is induced by inserting Λ-type three level quantum dots in the right-hand half of the upper ring and LWI is implemented by inserted Y-type four level quantum dots in the left-hand half of both rings. This optical memory cell can operate at a low light power level corresponding to several photons.

  3. Perturbing an electromagnetically induced transparency in a Λ system using a low-frequency driving field. II. Four-level system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, E. A.; Manson, N. B.; Wei, C.

    2005-01-01

    The effect a perturbing field has on an electromagnetically induced transparency within a three-level Λ system is presented. The perturbing field is applied resonant between one of the lower levels of the Λ system and a fourth level. The electromagnetically induced transparency feature is split and this is measured experimentally for both single and bichromatic driving fields. In the single-driving-field case a density matrix treatment is shown to be in reasonable agreement with experiment and in both single and bichromatic cases the structure in the spectrum can be explained using a dressed-state analysis

  4. Engineering Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Se Yun

    2009-01-01

    This book deals with engineering electromagnetics. It contains seven chapters, which treats understanding of engineering electromagnetics such as magnet and electron spin, current and a magnetic field and an electromagnetic wave, Essential tool for engineering electromagnetics on rector and scalar, rectangular coordinate system and curl vector, electrostatic field with coulomb rule and method of electric images, Biot-Savart law, Ampere law and magnetic force, Maxwell equation and an electromagnetic wave and reflection and penetration of electromagnetic plane wave.

  5. Theory of a beam-induced electromagnetic mode in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel, K.; Sauer, K.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of a recently discovered plasma wave mode is presented. In a non-Maxwellian high-beta plasma a new electromagnetic mode was detected containing a group of energetic field-aligned electrons. The theory uses the standard method for derivation of the dispersion relation, allowing non-Maxwellian electron distributions and right-hand polarization. The theoretical dispersion relation is compared with the empirical data. This comparison confirmes the existence of a right-hand circularly polarized mode propagating parallel to the external magnetic field. (D.Gy.)

  6. Spectral and temporal characteristics of target current and electromagnetic pulse induced by nanosecond laser ablation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Krása, Josef; De Marco, Massimo; Cikhardt, Jakub; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Velyhan, Andriy; Klír, Daniel; Řezáč, Karel; Limpouch, J.; Krouský, Eduard; Dostál, Jan; Ullschmied, Jiří; Dudžák, Roman

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 6 (2017), 1-8, č. článku 065007. ISSN 0741-3335 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EF15_008/0000162; GA ČR GA16-07036S EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 654148 - LASERLAB-EUROPE Grant - others:ELI Beamlines(XE) CZ.02.1.01/0.0/0.0/15_008/0000162 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 ; RVO:61389021 Keywords : laser-produced plasma * target current * electromagnetic pulse Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 2.392, year: 2016

  7. Mixed Stimulus-Induced Mode Selection in Neural Activity Driven by High and Low Frequency Current under Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The electrical activities of neurons are dependent on the complex electrophysiological condition in neuronal system, the three-variable Hindmarsh-Rose (HR neuron model is improved to describe the dynamical behaviors of neuronal activities with electromagnetic induction being considered, and the mode transition of electrical activities in neuron is detected when external electromagnetic radiation is imposed on the neuron. In this paper, different types of electrical stimulus impended with a high-low frequency current are imposed on new HR neuron model, and mixed stimulus-induced mode selection in neural activity is discussed in detail. It is found that mode selection of electrical activities stimulated by high-low frequency current, which also changes the excitability of neuron, can be triggered owing to adding the Gaussian white noise. Meanwhile, the mode selection of the neuron electrical activity is much dependent on the amplitude B of the high frequency current under the same noise intensity, and the high frequency response is selected preferentially by applying appropriate parameters and noise intensity. Our results provide insights into the transmission of complex signals in nerve system, which is valuable in engineering prospective applications such as information encoding.

  8. A polarization independent electromagnetically induced transparency-like metamaterial with large group delay and delay-bandwidth product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagci, Fulya; Akaoglu, Baris

    2018-05-01

    In this study, a classical analogue of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) that is completely independent of the polarization direction of the incident waves is numerically and experimentally demonstrated. The unit cell of the employed planar symmetric metamaterial structure consists of one square ring resonator and four split ring resonators (SRRs). Two different designs are implemented in order to achieve a narrow-band and wide-band EIT-like response. In the unit cell design, a square ring resonator is shown to serve as a bright resonator, whereas the SRRs behave as a quasi-dark resonator, for the narrow-band (0.55 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5 GHz) and wide-band (1.35 GHz full-width at half-maximum bandwidth around 5.7 GHz) EIT-like metamaterials. The observed EIT-like transmission phenomenon is theoretically explained by a coupled-oscillator model. Within the transmission window, steep changes of the phase result in high group delays and the delay-bandwidth products reach 0.45 for the wide-band EIT-like metamaterial. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated that the bandwidth and group delay of the EIT-like band can be controlled by changing the incidence angle of electromagnetic waves. These features enable the proposed metamaterials to achieve potential applications in filtering, switching, data storing, and sensing.

  9. Induced Mitogenic Activity in AML-12 Mouse Hepatocytes Exposed to Low-dose Ultra-Wideband Electromagnetic Radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Tchounwou

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Ultra–wideband (UWB technology has increased with the use of various civilian and military applications. In the present study, we hypothesized that low-dose UWB electromagnetic radiation (UWBR could elicit a mitogenic effect in AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, in vitro. To test this hypothesis, we exposed AML-12 mouse hepatocytes, to UWBR in a specially constructed gigahertz transverse electromagnetic mode (GTEM cell. Cells were exposed to UWBR for 2 h at a temperature of 23°C, a pulse width of 10 ns, a repetition rate of 1 kHz, and field strength of 5-20 kV/m. UWB pulses were triggered by an external pulse generator for UWBR exposure but were not triggered for the sham exposure. We performed an MTT Assay to assess cell viability for UWBR-treated and sham-exposed hepatocytes. Data from viability studies indicated a time-related increase in hepatocytes at time intervals from 8-24 h post exposure. UWBR exerted a statistically significant (p < 0.05 dose-dependent response in cell viability in both serum-treated and serum free medium (SFM -treated hepatocytes. Western blot analysis of hepatocyte lysates demonstrated that cyclin A protein was induced in hepatocytes, suggesting that increased MTT activity after UWBR exposure was due to cell proliferation. This study indicates that UWBR has a mitogenic effect on AML-12 mouse hepatocytes and implicates a possible role for UWBR in hepatocarcinoma.

  10. Gravitational microlensing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zakharov, Aleksandr F [Russian Federation State Scientific Center ' A.I. Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Sazhin, Mikhail V [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    1998-10-31

    The foundations of standard microlensing theory are discussed as applied to stars in the Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds or other nearby galaxies and gravitational microlenses assumed to lie in-between these stars and the terrestrial observer. In contrast to the review article by Gurevich et al. [48], microlensing by compact objects is mainly considered. Criteria for the identification of microlensing events are discussed as also are microlensing events not satisfying these criteria, such as non-symmetrical light curves and chromatic and polarization effects. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Galactic bulge microlensing data of the MACHO group are discussed in detail and also the LMC data of EROS and the Galactic bulge data of OGLE are presented. A detailed comparison of theoretical predictions and observations is given. (reviews of topical problems)

  11. Gravitational microlensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakharov, Aleksandr F; Sazhin, Mikhail V

    1998-01-01

    The foundations of standard microlensing theory are discussed as applied to stars in the Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds or other nearby galaxies and gravitational microlenses assumed to lie in-between these stars and the terrestrial observer. In contrast to the review article by Gurevich et al. [48], microlensing by compact objects is mainly considered. Criteria for the identification of microlensing events are discussed as also are microlensing events not satisfying these criteria, such as non-symmetrical light curves and chromatic and polarization effects. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Galactic bulge microlensing data of the MACHO group are discussed in detail and also the LMC data of EROS and the Galactic bulge data of OGLE are presented. A detailed comparison of theoretical predictions and observations is given. (reviews of topical problems)

  12. Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.

  13. Gravitational Waves: A New Observational Window

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Jordan B.

    2010-01-01

    The era of gravitational wave astronomy is rapidly approaching, with a likely start date around the middle of this decade ' Gravitational waves, emitted by accelerated motions of very massive objects, provide detailed information about strong-field gravity and its sources, including black holes and neutron stars, that electromagnetic probes cannot access. In this talk I will discuss the anticipated sources and the status of the extremely sensitive detectors (both ground and space based) that will make gravitational wave detections possible. As ground based detectors are now taking data, I will show some initial science results related to measured upper limits on gravitational wave signals. Finally Z will describe new directions including advanced detectors and joint efforts with other fields of astronomy.

  14. Problems of generation and reception of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pisarev, A.F.

    1975-01-01

    The present day status of the problems of gravitation, wave radiation and reception is surveyed. The physical presentation and mathematical description of the processes of radiation, propagation and interaction of gravitation waves with matter and the electromagnetic field are given. The experiments on the search for gravitation waves of astophysical nature are analysed. The laboratory and cosmic sources of these waves and the methods of their reception are described. Special attention is drawn to the analysis of the proposals to perform a complete laboratory gravitation wave experiment

  15. Problems of generation and reception of gravitational waves. [Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pisarev, A F [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (USSR)

    1975-01-01

    The present day status of the problems of gravitation, wave radiation and reception is surveyed. The physical presentation and mathematical description of the processes of radiation, propagation and interaction of gravitation waves with matter and the electromagnetic field are given. The experiments on the search for gravitation waves of astophysical nature are analysed. The laboratory and cosmic sources of these waves and the methods of their reception are described. Special attention is drawn to the analysis of the proposals to perform a complete laboratory gravitation wave experiment.

  16. Graphene based silicon–air grating structure to realize electromagnetically-induced-transparency and slow light effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Buzheng; Liu, Huaiqing [Key Lab of All Optical Network & Advanced Telecommunication Network of EMC, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Institute of Lightwave Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Ren, Guobin, E-mail: gbren@bjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of All Optical Network & Advanced Telecommunication Network of EMC, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Institute of Lightwave Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Yang, Yuguang; Ye, Shen; Pei, Li; Jian, Shuisheng [Key Lab of All Optical Network & Advanced Telecommunication Network of EMC, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Institute of Lightwave Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China)

    2017-01-23

    Highlights: • The EIT and slow light effect are achieved by our novel graphene based structure. • Excellent tunability of wide wavelength range can be obtained only by a small change in Fermi energy level. • The group velocity of incident light is reduced to more than 1/600 of that in vacuum. • Position control is realized by designing a graded period grating. - Abstract: A broad band tunable graphene based silicon–air grating structure is proposed. Electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT) window can be successfully tuned by virtually setting the desired Fermi energy levels on graphene sheets. Carrier mobility plays an important role in modulating the resonant depth. Furthermore, by changing the grating periods, light can be trapped at corresponding resonant positions where slow down factor is relatively larger than in the previous works. This structure can be used as a highly tunable optoelectronic device such as optical filter, broad-band modulator, plasmonic switches and buffers.

  17. Optical properties and optimization of electromagnetically induced transparency in strained InAs/GaAs quantum dot structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barettin, D.; Houmark-Nielsen, Jakob; Lassen, B.

    2009-01-01

    comparing four different k center dot p band-structure models. In addition to the separation of the heavy and light holes due to the biaxial-strain component, we observe a general reduction in the transition strengths due to energy crossings in the valence bands caused by strain and band-mixing effects. We......Using multiband k center dot p theory we study the size and geometry dependence on the slow light properties of conical semiconductor quantum dots. We find the V-type scheme for electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) to be most favorable and identify an optimal height and size for efficient...... EIT operation. In case of the ladder scheme, the existence of additional dipole allowed intraband transitions along with an almost equidistant energy-level spacing adds additional decay pathways, which significantly impairs the EIT effect. We further study the influence of strain and band mixing...

  18. Electromagnetically induced transparency and ultraslow optical solitons in a coherent atomic gas filled in a slot waveguide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jin; Huang, Guoxiang

    2013-02-25

    We investigate the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear pulse propagation in a Λ-type three-level atomic gas filled in a slot waveguide, in which electric field is strongly confined inside the slot of the waveguide due to the discontinuity of dielectric constant. We find that EIT effect can be greatly enhanced due to the reduction of optical-field mode volume contributed by waveguide geometry. Comparing with the atomic gases in free space, the EIT transparency window in the slot waveguide system can be much wider and deeper, and the Kerr nonlinearity of probe laser field can be much stronger. We also prove that using slot waveguide ultraslow optical solitons can be produced efficiently with extremely low generation power.

  19. Analysis of the damage threshold of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor induced by the electromagnetic pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xi Xiao-Wen; Chai Chang-Chun; Liu Yang; Yang Yin-Tang; Fan Qing-Yang; Shi Chun-Lei

    2016-01-01

    An electromagnetic pulse (EMP)-induced damage model based on the internal damage mechanism of the GaAs pseudomorphic high electron mobility transistor (PHEMT) is established in this paper. With this model, the relationships among the damage power, damage energy, pulse width and signal amplitude are investigated. Simulation results show that the pulse width index from the damage power formula obtained here is higher than that from the empirical formula due to the hotspot transferring in the damage process of the device. It is observed that the damage energy is not a constant, which decreases with the signal amplitude increasing, and then changes little when the signal amplitude reaches up to a certain level. (paper)

  20. Electromagnetically induced transparency and nonlinear pulse propagation in a combined tripod and Λ atom-light coupling scheme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamedi, H R; Ruseckas, J; Juzeliūnas, G

    2017-01-01

    We consider propagation of a probe pulse in an atomic medium characterized by a combined tripod and Lambda (Λ) atom-light coupling scheme. The scheme involves three atomic ground states coupled to two excited states by five light fields. It is demonstrated that dark states can be formed for such an atom-light coupling. This is essential for formation of the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and slow light. In the limiting cases the scheme reduces to conventional Λ- or N -type atom-light couplings providing the EIT or absorption, respectively. Thus, the atomic system can experience a transition from the EIT to the absorption by changing the amplitudes or phases of control lasers. Subsequently the scheme is employed to analyze the nonlinear pulse propagation using the coupled Maxwell–Bloch equations. It is shown that a generation of stable slow light optical solitons is possible in such a five-level combined tripod and Λ atomic system. (paper)

  1. Sub-wavelength imaging and field mapping via electromagnetically induced transparency and Autler-Townes splitting in Rydberg atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holloway, Christopher L., E-mail: holloway@boulder.nist.gov; Gordon, Joshua A. [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), Electromagnetics Division, U.S. Department of Commerce, Boulder Laboratories, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States); Schwarzkopf, Andrew; Anderson, David A.; Miller, Stephanie A.; Thaicharoen, Nithiwadee; Raithel, Georg [Department of Physics, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Michigan 48109 (United States)

    2014-06-16

    We present a technique for measuring radio-frequency (RF) electric field strengths with sub-wavelength resolution. We use Rydberg states of rubidium atoms to probe the RF field. The RF field causes an energy splitting of the Rydberg states via the Autler-Townes effect, and we detect the splitting via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). We use this technique to measure the electric field distribution inside a glass cylinder with applied RF fields at 17.04 GHz and 104.77 GHz. We achieve a spatial resolution of ≈100 μm, limited by the widths of the laser beams utilized for the EIT spectroscopy. We numerically simulate the fields in the glass cylinder and find good agreement with the measured fields. Our results suggest that this technique could be applied to image fields on a small spatial scale over a large range of frequencies, up into the sub-terahertz regime.

  2. Slowing down the speed of light using an electromagnetically-induced-transparency mechanism in a modified reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ronggang; Liu, Tong; Wang, Yingying; Li, Yujie; Gai, Bingzheng

    2017-11-01

    We propose an effective method to achieve extremely slow light by using both the mechanism of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and the localization of a coupled cavity waveguide (CCW). Based on quantum mechanics theory and the dispersion relation of a CCW, we derive a group-velocity formula that reveals both the effects of the EIT and CCW. Results show that ultralow light velocity at the order of several meters per second or even static light, could be obtained feasibly. In comparison with the EIT mechanism in a background of vacuum, this proposed method is more effective and realistic to achieve extremely slow light. And it exhibits potential values in the field of light storage.

  3. Electromagnetically induced transparency in a Zeeman-sublevels Λ-system of cold 87Rb atoms in free space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Xiaojun; Zhang Haichao; Wang Yuzhu

    2016-01-01

    We report the experimental investigation of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a Zeeman-sublevels Λ-type system of cold 87 Rb atoms in free space. We use the Zeeman substates of the hyperfine energy states 5 2 S 1/2 , F = 2 and 5 2 P 3/2 , F′ = 2 of 87 Rb D 2 line to form a Λ-type EIT scheme. The EIT signal is obtained by scanning the probe light over 1 MHz in 4 ms with an 80 MHz arbitrary waveform generator. More than 97% transparency and 100 kHz EIT window are observed. This EIT scheme is suited for an application of pulsed coherent storage atom clock (Yan B, et al. 2009 Phys. Rev. A 79 063820). (paper)

  4. Electromagnetic Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book is dedicated to various aspects of electromagnetic wave theory and its applications in science and technology. The covered topics include the fundamental physics of electromagnetic waves, theory of electromagnetic wave propagation and scattering, methods of computational analysis......, material characterization, electromagnetic properties of plasma, analysis and applications of periodic structures and waveguide components, etc....

  5. Electromagnetic fields in biological systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lin, James C

    2012-01-01

    "Focusing on exposure, induced fields, and absorbed energy, this volume covers the interaction of electromagnetic fields and waves with biological systems, spanning static fields to terahertz waves...

  6. The effects of green tea extract on teratogenicity induced by low frequency electromagnetic field on bone marrow Balb/C mice embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharara Javad

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Electromagnetic fields produce free radicals which might be teratogen. Camellia sinensis is rich in natural antioxidants and antioxidants can neutralize free radicals effects. In present research the effect of C. sinensis extract in reduction of teratogenicity induced by electromagnetic field with 50 gauss intensity was studied on bone marrow of Balb/C mice fetuses. Methods: In this experimental study, 24 Balb/C pregnant mice were randomly divided into four groups: control, sham exposed (off position, experimental 1 (electromagnetic field with 50-gauss intensity and experimental 2 (treatment by C. sinensis extract + electromagnetic field with 50-gauss intensity. After treatment period, the bone marrow aspirates of Balb/C mice embryos were prepared and studied by Giemsa. The quantitative data were analyzed by Kruskal-Wallis and Kolmogorov- Smirnov using SPSS16 software at the level of p<0.05. Results: The mean number of promyelocytes, myelocytes, erythrocytes, necrotic and apoptotic cells in experimental group1 compared with sham exposed embryos showed significant increase but the mean number of eosinophils in experimental group 1 compared with sham exposed embryos showed significant decrease. The mean number of promyelocyte and erythrocyte in experimental group 2 compared with experimental group 1 showed significant decrease. The mean of necrotic and apoptotic cells, in experimental group 2 compared with experimental group 1 showed significant increase. Conclusion: Usage of C. sinensis can decrease the damage due to teratogenicity induced by low frequency electromagnetic field in some cells.

  7. Method to measure a relative transverse velocity of a source-lens-observer system using gravitational lensing of gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Yousuke; Futamase, Toshifumi; Hattori, Makoto

    2009-01-01

    Gravitational waves propagate along null geodesics like light rays in the geometrical optics approximation, and they may have a chance to suffer from gravitational lensing by intervening objects, as is the case for electromagnetic waves. Long wavelengths of gravitational waves and compactness of possible sources may enable us to extract information in the interference among the lensed images. We point out that the interference term contains information of relative transverse velocity of the source-lens-observer system, which may be obtained by possible future space-borne gravitational wave detectors such as BBO/DECIGO.

  8. Transient multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marka, S

    2011-01-01

    Comprehensive multimessenger astronomy with gravitational waves is a pioneering field bringing us interesting results and presenting us with exciting challenges for the future. During the era of the operation of advanced interferometric gravitational wave detectors, we will have the opportunity to investigate sources of gravitational waves that are also expected to be observable through other messengers, such as gamma rays, x-rays, optical, radio, and/or neutrino emission. Multimessenger searches for gravitational waves with the LIGO-GEO600-Virgo interferometer network have already produced insights on cosmic events and it is expected that the simultaneous observation of electromagnetic or neutrino emission could be a crucial aspect for the first direct detection of gravitational waves in the future. Trigger time, direction and expected frequency range enhances our ability to search for gravitational wave signatures with amplitudes closer to the noise floor of the detector. Furthermore, multimessenger observations will enable the extraction of otherwise unaccessible scientific insight. We summarize the status of transient multimessenger detection efforts as well as mention some of the open questions that might be resolved by advanced or third generation gravitational wave detector networks.

  9. Assessment of induced radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in various anatomical human body models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, Sven; Jennings, Wayne; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels

    2009-01-01

    The reference levels for testing compliance of human exposure with radio-frequency (RF) safety limits have been derived from very simplified models of the human. In order to validate these findings for anatomical models, we investigated the absorption characteristics for various anatomies ranging from 6 year old child to large adult male by numerical modeling. We address the exposure to plane-waves incident from all major six sides of the humans with two orthogonal polarizations each. Worst-case scattered field exposure scenarios have been constructed in order to test the implemented procedures of current in situ compliance measurement standards (spatial averaging versus peak search). Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised.

  10. Assessment of induced radio-frequency electromagnetic fields in various anatomical human body models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuehn, Sven; Jennings, Wayne; Christ, Andreas; Kuster, Niels [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS), Zuerich (Switzerland)], E-mail: kuehn@itis.ethz.ch

    2009-02-21

    The reference levels for testing compliance of human exposure with radio-frequency (RF) safety limits have been derived from very simplified models of the human. In order to validate these findings for anatomical models, we investigated the absorption characteristics for various anatomies ranging from 6 year old child to large adult male by numerical modeling. We address the exposure to plane-waves incident from all major six sides of the humans with two orthogonal polarizations each. Worst-case scattered field exposure scenarios have been constructed in order to test the implemented procedures of current in situ compliance measurement standards (spatial averaging versus peak search). Our findings suggest that the reference levels of current electromagnetic (EM) safety guidelines for demonstrating compliance as well as some of the current measurement standards are not consistent with the basic restrictions and need to be revised.

  11. Effects of electromagnetic fields induced from the visual display terminal on the micronucleus frequencies in tradescantia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Hae Shik; Kim, Jin Kyu; Lee, Jin Hong

    2002-01-01

    Humans are exposed daily to electromagnetic fields (EMFs) originating from a variety of devices and VDT (Visual Display Terminal) workstations. This research was designed to examine the biological effects of electromagnetic fields from VDT using the Tradescantia- micronuclesus (Trad-MCN) bioassay. Tradescantia BNL 4430 clone was used to evaluate the influence of EMFs radiated from the VDT workstation. Trad-MCN assay is a cytogenetic test based on the formation of micronuclei that result from chromosome breakage in the meiotic pollen mother cells. No study has established unequivocally a causal relationship between EMFs and animals or plants. Fresh cuttings bearing young flower buds were exposed for 24hours in front of the VDT workstation. The cuttings were placed at 30, 50, 70, and 90cm distances from the workstations. The micronucleus were scored under a light microscope (400 x magnification). Three hundreds of tetrads were scored from each of the slides in every the experimental group. The frequencies expressed in terms of MCN / 100 tetrads. Trad-MCN frequencies were 8.93 ± 0.32, 11.2 ± 0.50, 7.67 ± 0.61, and 6.22 ± 1.78/ 100 tetrads at 30, 50, 70, and 90cm, respectively. In conclusion, EMFs from VDT give rise to damage the chromosome this plant. In addition, The results of the study indicate that Trad-MCN assay can detect chromosome damage due to EMFs from the electrical device workstation. In conclusion, the Trad-MCN assay is sensitive, reproducible, easy to perform, well standardized, inexpensive and undemanding in equipment

  12. Gravitational Field Shielding by Scalar Field and Type II Superconductors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang B. J.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The gravitational field shielding by scalar field and type II superconductors are theoret- ically investigated. In accord with the well-developed five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein theory with a scalar field, which unifies the Einsteinian general relativity and Maxwellian electromagnetic theory, the scalar field cannot only polarize the space as shown previously, but also flatten the space as indicated recently. The polariza- tion of space decreases the electromagnetic field by increasing the equivalent vacuum permittivity constant, while the flattening of space decreases the gravitational field by decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. In other words, the scalar field can be also employed to shield the gravitational field. A strong scalar field significantly shield the gravitational field by largely decreasing the equivalent gravitational constant. According to the theory of gravitational field shielding by scalar field, the weight loss experimentally detected for a sample near a rotating ceramic disk at very low tempera- ture can be explained as the shielding of the Earth gravitational field by the Ginzburg- Landau scalar field, which is produced by the type II superconductors. The significant shielding of gravitational field by scalar field produced by superconductors may lead to a new spaceflight technology in future.

  13. Astronomy and astrophysics with gravitational waves in the advanced detector era

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstein, Alan J

    2012-01-01

    With the advanced gravitational wave detectors coming on line in the next 5 years, we expect to make the first detections of gravitational waves from astrophysical sources, and study the properties of the waves themselves as tests of general relativity. In addition, these gravitational waves will be powerful tools for the study of their astrophysical sources and source populations. They carry information that is quite complementary to what can be learned from electromagnetic or neutrino observations, probing the central gravitational engines that power the electromagnetic emissions at the outer layers of the source. Preparations are being made to enable near-simultaneous observations of both gravitational wave and electromagnetic observations of transient sources, using low-latency search pipelines and rapid sky localization. We will review the many opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy and astrophysics with gravitational waves enabled by the advanced detectors, and the preparations that are being made to quickly and fully exploit them. (paper)

  14. Testing gravitational parity violation with coincident gravitational waves and short gamma-ray bursts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunes, Nicolas; O'Shaughnessy, Richard; Owen, Benjamin J.; Alexander, Stephon

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational parity violation is a possibility motivated by particle physics, string theory, and loop quantum gravity. One effect of it is amplitude birefringence of gravitational waves, whereby left and right circularly polarized waves propagate at the same speed but with different amplitude evolution. Here we propose a test of this effect through coincident observations of gravitational waves and short gamma-ray bursts from binary mergers involving neutron stars. Such gravitational waves are highly left or right circularly polarized due to the geometry of the merger. Using localization information from the gamma-ray burst, ground-based gravitational wave detectors can measure the distance to the source with reasonable accuracy. An electromagnetic determination of the redshift from an afterglow or host galaxy yields an independent measure of this distance. Gravitational parity violation would manifest itself as a discrepancy between these two distance measurements. We exemplify such a test by considering one specific effective theory that leads to such gravitational parity violation, Chern-Simons gravity. We show that the advanced LIGO-Virgo network and all-sky gamma-ray telescopes can be sensitive to the propagating sector of Chern-Simons gravitational parity violation to a level roughly 2 orders of magnitude better than current stationary constraints from the LAGEOS satellites.

  15. Quantum metrology for gravitational wave astronomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnabel, Roman; Mavalvala, Nergis; McClelland, David E; Lam, Ping K

    2010-11-16

    Einstein's general theory of relativity predicts that accelerating mass distributions produce gravitational radiation, analogous to electromagnetic radiation from accelerating charges. These gravitational waves (GWs) have not been directly detected to date, but are expected to open a new window to the Universe once the detectors, kilometre-scale laser interferometers measuring the distance between quasi-free-falling mirrors, have achieved adequate sensitivity. Recent advances in quantum metrology may now contribute to provide the required sensitivity boost. The so-called squeezed light is able to quantum entangle the high-power laser fields in the interferometer arms, and could have a key role in the realization of GW astronomy.

  16. Remote Effects of Electromagnetic Millimeter Waves on Experimentally Induced Cold Pain: A Double-Blinded Crossover Investigation in Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partyla, Tomasz; Hacker, Henriette; Edinger, Hardy; Leutzow, Bianca; Lange, Joern; Usichenko, Taras

    2017-03-01

    The hypoalgesic effect of electromagnetic millimeter waves (MW) is well studied in animal model; however, the results of human research are controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of various frequency ranges of MW on hypoalgesia using the cold pressor test (CPT). Experimental pain was induced using standardized CPT protocols in 20 healthy male volunteers. The skin of the lower part of sternum was exposed to MW with a frequency of 42.25 GHz (active generator); MW within 50-75 GHz frequency range (noise generator); or an inactive MW device (placebo generator) in a random crossover double-blinded manner. Pain threshold, measured using the CPT, was the primary outcome. Other CPT parameters, heart rate, blood pressure, incidence of subjective sensations (paresthesia) during exposure, as well as quality of volunteers' blinding were also recorded. The end points of the condition with exposure to 42.25 GHz, were compared with baseline; exposure to noise 50-75 GHz; and placebo generators. Pain threshold increased during exposure to the 42.25 GHz generator when compared with baseline: median difference (MD), 1.97 seconds (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.35-3.73) and noise generator: MD, 1.27 seconds (95% CI, 0.05-2.33) but not compared with the placebo generator. Time to onset of cold and increasing pain sensations as well as diastolic blood pressure increased under the exposure to the 42.25 GHz generator when compared with baseline and noise generator. Other outcome measures were comparable among the study conditions. We were able to partially confirm the previously suggested hypoalgesic effects of low-intensity electromagnetic MW. However, the effect was indistinguishable from the placebo condition in our investigation.

  17. Oxidative changes and apoptosis induced by 1800-MHz electromagnetic radiation in NIH/3T3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Qingxia; Wang, Minglian; Wu, Shuicai; Ma, Xuemei; An, Guangzhou; Liu, Huan; Xie, Fei

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the potential adverse effects of mobile phone radiation, we studied reactive oxygen species (ROS), DNA damage and apoptosis in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (NIH/3T3) after intermittent exposure (5 min on/10 min off, for various durations from 0.5 to 8 h) to an 1800-MHz GSM-talk mode electromagnetic radiation (EMR) at an average specific absorption rate of 2 W/kg. A 2',7'-dichlorofluorescin diacetate fluorescence probe was used to detect intracellular ROS levels, immunofluorescence was used to detect γH2AX foci as a marker for DNA damage, and flow cytometry was used to measure apoptosis. Our results showed a significant increase in intracellular ROS levels after EMR exposure and it reached the highest level at an exposure time of 1 h (p < 0.05) followed by a slight decrease when the exposure continued for as long as 8 h. No significant effect on the number of γH2AX was detected after EMR exposure. The percentage of late-apoptotic cells in the EMR-exposed group was significantly higher than that in the sham-exposed groups (p < 0.05). These results indicate that an 1800-MHz EMR enhances ROS formation and promotes apoptosis in NIH/3T3 cells.

  18. Power harvesting by electromagnetic coupling from wind-induced limit cycle oscillations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boccalero, G.; Olivieri, S.; Mazzino, A.; Boragno, C.

    2017-09-01

    Recent developments of low-power microprocessors open to new applications such as wireless sensor networks (WSN) with the consequent problem of autonomous powering. For this purpose, a possible strategy is represented by energy harvesting from wind or other flows exploiting fluid-structure interactions. In this work, we present an updated picture of a flutter-based device characterized by fully passive dynamics and a simple constructive layout, where limit cycle oscillations are undergone by an elastically bounded wing. In this case, the conversion from mechanical to electrical energy is performed by means of an electromagnetic coupling between a pair of coils and magnets. A centimetric-size prototype is shown to harvest energy from low wind velocities (between 2 and 4 m s-1), reaching a power peak of 14 mW, representing a valuable amount for applications related to WSN. A mathematical description of the nonlinear dynamics is then provided by a quasi-steady phenomenological model, revealing satisfactory agreement with the experimental framework within a certain parametric range and representing a useful tool for future optimizations.

  19. Gravitation is a Gradient in the Velocity of Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froedge, Dt

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that a photon moving in a gravitational field has a trajectory that can be defined by Fermat's principle with a variable speed of light and no other gravitational influence. If it can be shown that a particle composed of speed of light sub-particles has the same acceleration in a variable index of refraction as a particle in a gravitational field, then there is no need to ascribe any other mechanism to gravitation than a gradient in c. This makes gravitation an electromagnetic phenomenon, and if QFT can illustrate a gradient in c can be produced by the internal motion of lightspeed sub-particles then the unification of QM and gravitation becomes more straightforward. http://www.arxdtf.org/css/GravAPS.pdf.

  20. Interaction of gravitational waves with magnetic and electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrabes, C.; Hogan, P. A.

    2010-01-01

    The existence of large-scale magnetic fields in the universe has led to the observation that if gravitational waves propagating in a cosmological environment encounter even a small magnetic field then electromagnetic radiation is produced. To study this phenomenon in more detail we take it out of the cosmological context and at the same time simplify the gravitational radiation to impulsive waves. Specifically, to illustrate our findings, we describe the following three physical situations: (1) a cylindrical impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a magnetic field, (2) an axially symmetric impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with an electric field and (3) a 'spherical' impulsive gravitational wave propagating into a universe with a small magnetic field. In cases (1) and (3) electromagnetic radiation is produced behind the gravitational wave. In case (2) no electromagnetic radiation appears after the wave unless a current is established behind the wave breaking the Maxwell vacuum. In all three cases the presence of the magnetic or electric fields results in a modification of the amplitude of the incoming gravitational wave which is explicitly calculated using the Einstein-Maxwell vacuum field equations.

  1. Semiclassical approach to atomic decoherence by gravitational waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, D. A.; Varcoe, B. T. H.

    2018-01-01

    A new heuristic model of interaction of an atomic system with a gravitational wave (GW) is proposed. In it, the GW alters the local electromagnetic field of the atomic nucleus, as perceived by the electron, changing the state of the system. The spectral decomposition of the wave function is calculated, from which the energy is obtained. The results suggest a shift in the difference of the atomic energy levels, which will induce a small detuning to a resonant transition. The detuning increases with the quantum numbers of the levels, making the effect more prominent for Rydberg states. We performed calculations on the Rabi oscillations of atomic transitions, estimating how they would vary as a result of the proposed effect.

  2. Induced Electromagnetic Field by Seismic Waves in Stratified Media in Earth's Magnetic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, K.

    2017-12-01

    Seismic waves accompany electromagnetic (EM) variations because Earth's crust involves a variety of EM properties such as finite electrical conductivity and ion contents. If we can catch the EM variations just after the earthquake rupture, we will know the occurrence of earthquake before the arrival of seismic waves at observation point. However, quantitative aspects of EM variations arising from seismic waves have not sufficiently understood. Together with observational works, theoretical works have been made to simulate EM variations arising from seismic waves. The generation mechanisms of EM variations include electrokinetic effect (Pride, 1994), motional induction (Gao et al., 2014), piezo-electric effect (Ogawa and Utada, 2000), piezo-magnetic effect (Yamazaki, 2016), etc. It is widely accepted that the electrokinetic effect is the dominant mechanism. Theoretical calculation of EM variations assuming the electrokinetic effect roughly explains the observed EM variations accompanying with earthquake ground motions (e.g. Gao et al. 2016). However, there are a significant disagreement between observed and predicted EM variations. In the present study, I focus on the motional induction mechanism that possibly explain some parts of EM variations accompanying with seismic waves. A theoretical work on EM variations arising from the motional induction has been presented by Gao et al. (2014), but their work assumed uniform full-space medium. In contrast, the present work assumes stratified media which correctly incorporate the effect of the ground surface. I apply a calculating method developed in seismology (e.g. Kennett, 2013) and in EM studies (Haartsen and Pride, 1997), and derive a set of expressions describing the spatial-temporal variations of the EM field after the onset of rupture. The derived formula is used to calculate EM variations for actual earthquakes to compare the theoretical prediction to observed EM variations.

  3. Modelling of microwave induced plasmas : the interplay between electromagnetism, plasma chemistry and transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jimenez-Diaz, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this thesis we report on a theoretical/numerical study that is concerned with Microwave Induced Plasmas (MIPs) in general, and the application of a MIP to the Plasma-activated Chemical Vapour Deposition (PCVD) process that is used at Draka Comteq for the production of optical fibres in

  4. Electromagnetic Gauge Study of Laser-Induced Shock Waves in Aluminium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyre, P.; Fabbro, R.

    1995-12-01

    The laser-shock behaviour of three industrial aluminum alloys has been analyzed with an Electromagnetic Gauge Method (EMV) for measuring the velocity of the back free surface of thin foils submitted to plane laser irradiation. Surface pressure, shock decay in depth and Hugoniot Elastic Limits (HEL) of the materials were investigated with increasing thicknesses of foils to be shocked. First, surface peak pressures values as a function of laser power density gave a good agreement with conventional piezoelectric quartz measurements. Therefore, comparison of experimental results with computer simulations, using a 1D hydrodynamic Lagrangian finite difference code, were also in good accordance. Lastly, HEL values were compared with static and dynamic compressive tests in order to estimate the effects of a very large range of strain rates (10^{-3} s^{-1} to 10^6 s^{-1}) on the mechanical properties of the alloys. Cet article fait la synthèse d'une étude récente sur la caractérisation du comportement sous choc-laser de trois alliages d'aluminium largement utilisés dans l'industrie à travers la méthode dite de la jauge électromagnétique. Cette méthode permet de mesurer les vitesses matérielles induites en face arrière de plaques d'épaisseurs variables par un impact laser. La mise en vitesse de plaques nous a permis, premièrement, de vérifier la validité des pressions d'impact superficielles obtenues en les comparant avec des résultats antérieurs obtenus par des mesures sur capteurs quartz. Sur des plaques d'épaisseurs croissantes, nous avons caractérisé l'atténuation des ondes de choc en profondeur dans les alliages étudiés et mesuré les limites d'élasticité sous choc (pressions d'Hugoniot) des alliages. Les résultats ont été comparés avec succès à des simulations numériques grâce à un code de calcul monodimensionnel Lagrangien. Enfin, les valeurs des pressions d'Hugoniot mesurées ont permis de tracer l'évolution des contraintes d

  5. Blast-induced electromagnetic fields in the brain from bone piezoelectricity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ka Yan Karen; Nyein, Michelle K; Moore, David F; Joannopoulos, J D; Socrate, Simona; Imholt, Timothy; Radovitzky, Raul; Johnson, Steven G

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, we show that bone piezoelectricity-a phenomenon in which bone polarizes electrically in response to an applied mechanical stress and produces a short-range electric field-may be a source of intense blast-induced electric fields in the brain, with magnitudes and timescales comparable to fields with known neurological effects. We compute the induced charge density in the skull from stress data on the skull from a finite-element full-head model simulation of a typical IED-scale blast wave incident on an unhelmeted human head as well as a human head protected by a kevlar helmet, and estimate the resulting electric fields in the brain in both cases to be on the order of 10 V/m in millisecond pulses. These fields are more than 10 times stronger than the IEEE safety guidelines for controlled environments (IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 28, 2002) and comparable in strength and timescale to fields from repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) that are designed to induce neurological effects (Wagner et al., 2006a). They can be easily measured by RF antennas, and may provide the means to design a diagnostic tool that records a quantitative measure of the head's exposure to blast insult. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Prevention of gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.

    1981-01-01

    We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)

  7. Underdevelopment’s gravitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marin Dinu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The energy necessary to escape the gravitational pull of underdevelopment and to enter an evolutional trajectory dependent on the gravitational pull of development is unintelligible in economic terms.

  8. Effect on cosmic microwave background polarization of coupling of quintessence to pseudoscalar formed from the electromagnetic field and its dual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Chin; Lee, Seokcheon; Ng, Kin-Wang

    2006-10-20

    We present the full set of power spectra of cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature and polarization anisotropies due to the coupling between quintessence and pseudoscalar of electromagnetism. This coupling induces a rotation of the polarization plane of the CMB, thus resulting in a nonvanishing B mode and parity-violating TB and EB modes. Using the BOOMERANG data from the flight of 2003, we derive the most stringent constraint on the coupling strength. We find that in some cases the rotation-induced B mode can confuse the hunting for the gravitational lensing-induced B mode.

  9. The present gravitational wave detection effort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riles, Keith

    2010-01-01

    Gravitational radiation offers a new non-electromagnetic window through which to observe the universe. The LIGO and Virgo Collaborations have completed a first joint data run with unprecedented sensitivities to gravitational waves. Results from searches in the data for a variety of astrophysical sources are presented. A second joint data run with improved detector sensitivities is underway, and soon major upgrades will be carried out to build Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo with expected improvements in event rates of more than 1000. In parallel there is a vigorous effort in the radio pulsar community to detect nHz gravitational waves via the timing residuals in an array of pulsars at different locations in the sky.

  10. Exposure to 1800 MHz radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation induces oxidative DNA base damage in a mouse spermatocyte-derived cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuan; Duan, Weixia; Xu, Shangcheng; Chen, Chunhai; He, Mindi; Zhang, Lei; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2013-03-27

    Whether exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic radiation (RF-EMR) emitted from mobile phones can induce DNA damage in male germ cells remains unclear. In this study, we conducted a 24h intermittent exposure (5 min on and 10 min off) of a mouse spermatocyte-derived GC-2 cell line to 1800 MHz Global System for Mobile Communication (GSM) signals in GSM-Talk mode at specific absorption rates (SAR) of 1 W/kg, 2 W/kg or 4 W/kg. Subsequently, through the use of formamidopyrimidine DNA glycosylase (FPG) in a modified comet assay, we determined that the extent of DNA migration was significantly increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. Flow cytometry analysis demonstrated that levels of the DNA adduct 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) were also increased at a SAR of 4 W/kg. These increases were concomitant with similar increases in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS); these phenomena were mitigated by co-treatment with the antioxidant α-tocopherol. However, no detectable DNA strand breakage was observed by the alkaline comet assay. Taking together, these findings may imply the novel possibility that RF-EMR with insufficient energy for the direct induction of DNA strand breaks may produce genotoxicity through oxidative DNA base damage in male germ cells. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Transition from Autler–Townes splitting to electromagnetically induced transparency based on the dynamics of decaying dressed states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Xiaogang; Miao, Xingxu; Bai, Jinhai; Wang, Meng; Gao, Yanlei; Wu, Ling-An; Fu, Panming; Wang, Ruquan; Zuo, Zhanchun; Pei, Liya

    2015-01-01

    The threshold for the transition between Autler–Townes splitting (ATS) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied through examining the dynamics of decaying dressed states, which are derived from the effective Hamiltonian. It is found that the threshold corresponds to the suppression of the Rabi oscillation of the populations by the relaxation as the coupling field becomes weak. Moreover, ATS and EIT belong to two different regimes, the former being in the non-perturbation regime, where there is coherent Rabi oscillation of the populations of the states coupled by the coupling field. By contrast, EIT is in the perturbation regime, and the transparency window in the EIT resonance can be explained as being due to the gain of the four-wave mixing process. Experiments are performed in cold rubidium atoms, where both the absorption and dispersion are measured, showing that EIT can be discriminated from ATS through Fourier transformation of the spectra. Compared to the statistical method proposed by Anisimov et al (2011 Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 163604), our method is more direct and is deterministic. (paper)

  12. Mixture of Electromagnetically Induced Transparency and Autler–Townes Splitting in a Five-Level Atomic System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Xiao-Yun; Wu Shan; Li Hai-Chao

    2017-01-01

    Discerning electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) from Autler–Townes splitting (ATS) is a significant issue in quantum optics and has attracted wide attention in various three-level configurations. Here we present a detailed study of EIT and ATS in a five-level atomic system considered to be composed of a four-level Y-type subsystem and a three-level Λ-type subsystem. In our theoretical calculations with standard density matrix formalism and steady-state approximation, we obtain the general analytical expression of the first-order matrix element responsible for the probe-field absorption. In light of the well-known three-level EIT and ATS criteria, we numerically show an intersection of EIT with ATS for the Y-type subsystem. Furthermore, we show that an EIT dip is sandwiched between two ATS dips (i.e., multi-dip mixture of EIT and ATS) in the absorption line for the five-level system, which can be explained by the dressed-state theory and Fano interference. (paper)

  13. Generation of atom-photon entangled states in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate via electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Leman; Zhou Lan

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method to generate continuous-variable-type entangled states between photons and atoms in atomic Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). The proposed method involves an atomic BEC with three internal states, a weak quantized probe laser, and a strong classical coupling laser, which form a three-level Λ-shaped BEC system. We consider a situation where the BEC is in electromagnetically induced transparency with the coupling laser being much stronger than the probe laser. In this case, the upper and intermediate levels are unpopulated, so that their adiabatic elimination enables an effective two-mode model involving only the atomic field at the lowest internal level and the quantized probe laser field. Atom-photon quantum entanglement is created through laser-atom and interatomic interactions, and two-photon detuning. We show how to generate atom-photon entangled coherent states and entangled states between photon (atom) coherent states and atom-(photon-) macroscopic quantum superposition (MQS) states, and between photon-MQS and atom-MQS states

  14. Spin-orbit coupling and applied magnetic field effects on electromagnetically induced transparency of a quantum ring at finite temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamani, A.; Setareh, F.; Azargoshasb, T.; Niknam, E.

    2018-03-01

    A wide variety of semiconductor nanostructures have been fabricated and studied experimentally and alongside theoretical investigations show the great role they have in new generation opto-electronic devices. However, mathematical modeling provide important information due to their definitive goal of predicting features and understanding of such structures' behavior under different circumstances. Hence, in the current work, the effects of applied magnetic field, temperature and dimensions of the structure on the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) of a GaAs quantum ring are studied while both Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI) are taken into account. The Schrödinger equation is solved in cylindrical coordinate with axial symmetry and in order to study the EIT, the imaginary (absorption) and real (refractive index) parts of susceptibility as well as the group velocity of the probe light pulse are investigated. The absorption and refractive index plots show that, for a specific frequency of probe field the absorption vanishes and refractive index becomes unity (known as EIT) while around such frequency the group index is positive (sub-luminal probe propagation) and for higher and lower frequencies it alters to negative (super-luminal probe propagation). The numerical results reveal that the EIT frequency, transparency window and sub(super)-luminal frequency intervals shift as we change applied magnetic field, temperature and also the structure dimensions.

  15. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section Hyperthermia, PO Box 5201, NL-3008 AE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N, E-mail: j.bakker@erasmusmc.nl [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS) (Switzerland)

    2011-08-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR{sub wb}) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T{sub body,incr}) under 1 deg. C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR{sub 10g}) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T{sub incr,max}) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T{sub incr,max} in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 deg. C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T{sub incr,max} as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T{sub incr,max} for specified durations of exposure.

  16. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C; Christ, A; Kuster, N

    2010-01-01

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR wb ) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR 10g ). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR wb ) and 58% (SAR 10g ) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR wb is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR 10g values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

  17. Assessment of induced SAR in children exposed to electromagnetic plane waves between 10 MHz and 5.6 GHz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Van Rhoon, G C [Erasmus MC-Daniel den Hoed Cancer Center, Department of Radiation Oncology, Section Hyperthermia, PO box 5201, NL-3008 AE, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Christ, A; Kuster, N, E-mail: j.bakker@erasmusmc.n [Foundation for Research on Information Technologies in Society (IT' IS) (Switzerland)

    2010-06-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels from the basic restrictions on the induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR{sub wb}) and the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR{sub 10g}). The objective of this study is to assess if the SAR in children remains below the basic restrictions upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite difference time domain (FDTD) modeling was used to calculate the SAR in six children and two adults when exposed to all 12 orthogonal plane wave configurations. A sensitivity study showed an expanded uncertainty of 53% (SAR{sub wb}) and 58% (SAR{sub 10g}) due to variations in simulation settings and tissue properties. In this study, we found that the basic restriction on the SAR{sub wb} is occasionally exceeded for children, up to a maximum of 45% in small children. The maximum SAR{sub 10g} values, usually found at body protrusions, remain under the limit for all scenarios studied. Our results are in good agreement with the literature, suggesting that the recommended ICNIRP reference levels may need fine tuning.

  18. Children and adults exposed to electromagnetic fields at the ICNIRP reference levels: theoretical assessment of the induced peak temperature increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, J F; Paulides, M M; Neufeld, E; Christ, A; Kuster, N; van Rhoon, G C

    2011-08-07

    To avoid potentially adverse health effects of electromagnetic fields (EMF), the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection (ICNIRP) has defined EMF reference levels. Restrictions on induced whole-body-averaged specific absorption rate (SAR(wb)) are provided to keep the whole-body temperature increase (T(body, incr)) under 1 °C during 30 min. Additional restrictions on the peak 10 g spatial-averaged SAR (SAR(10g)) are provided to prevent excessive localized tissue heating. The objective of this study is to assess the localized peak temperature increase (T(incr, max)) in children upon exposure at the reference levels. Finite-difference time-domain modeling was used to calculate T(incr, max) in six children and two adults exposed to orthogonal plane-wave configurations. We performed a sensitivity study and Monte Carlo analysis to assess the uncertainty of the results. Considering the uncertainties in the model parameters, we found that a peak temperature increase as high as 1 °C can occur for worst-case scenarios at the ICNIRP reference levels. Since the guidelines are deduced from temperature increase, we used T(incr, max) as being a better metric to prevent excessive localized tissue heating instead of localized peak SAR. However, we note that the exposure time should also be considered in future guidelines. Hence, we advise defining limits on T(incr, max) for specified durations of exposure.

  19. Spatial transport of atomic coherence in electromagnetically induced absorption with a paraffin-coated Rb vapor cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoon-Seok; Moon, Han Seb

    2014-06-30

    We report the spatial transport of spontaneously transferred atomic coherence (STAC) in electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), which resulted from moving atoms with the STAC of the 5S(1/2) (F = 2)-5P(3/2) (F' = 3) transition of (87)Rb in a paraffin-coated vapor cell. In our experiment, two channels were spatially separate; the writing channel (WC) generated STAC in the EIA configuration, and the reading channel (RC) retrieved the optical field from the spatially transported STAC. Transported between the spatially separated positions, the fast light pulse of EIA in the WC and the delayed light pulse in the RC were observed. When the laser direction of the RC was counter-propagated in the direction of the WC, we observed direction reversal of the transported light pulse in the EIA medium. Furthermore, the delay time, the magnitude, and the width of the spatially transported light pulse were investigated with respect to the distance between the two channels.

  20. Effects of a laser beam profile on Zeeman electromagnetically induced transparency in the Rb buffer gas cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikolić, S N; Radonjić, M; Krmpot, A J; Lučić, N M; Zlatković, B V; Jelenković, B M

    2013-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) due to Zeeman coherences in the Rb buffer gas cell is studied for different laser beam profiles, laser beam radii and intensities from 0.1 to 10 mW cm −2 . EIT line shapes can be approximated by the Lorentzian for wide Gaussian laser beam (6.5 mm in diameter) if laser intensity is weak and for a Π laser beam profile of the same diameter. Line shapes of EIT become non-Lorentzian for the Gaussian laser beam if it is narrow (1.3 mm in diameter) or if it has a higher intensity. EIT amplitudes and linewidths, for both laser beam profiles of the same diameter, have very similar behaviour regarding laser intensity and Rb cell temperature. EIT amplitudes are maximal at a certain laser beam intensity and this intensity is higher for narrower laser beams. The EIT linewidth estimated at zero laser intensity is about 50 nT or 0.7 kHz, which refers to 1.5 ms relaxation times of Zeeman coherences in 87 Rb atoms in our buffer gas cell. Blocking of the centre of the wide Gaussian laser beam in front of the photo detector yields Lorentzian profiles with a much better contrast to the linewidth ratio for EIT at higher intensities, above ∼2 mW cm −2 . (paper)

  1. Search for Gravitational Wave Counterparts with Fermi GBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, C. M.

    2017-01-01

    The progenitor of short gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) is believed to be the merger of two compact objects. This type of events will also produce gravitational waves. Since the gravitational waves discovery by LIGO, the search for a joint detection with an electromagnetic counterpart has been ongoing. Fermi GBM detects approximately 40 short GRBs per year, and we have been expanding our search looking for faint events in the GBM data that did not trigger onboard.

  2. Electromagnetic damping of neutron star oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, P.N.; Savedoff, M.P.; Van Horn, H.M.; Zweibel, E.G.; Hansen, C.J.

    1984-01-01

    Nonradial pulsations of a neutron star with a strong dipole magnetic field cause emission of electromagnetic radiation. Here we compute the power radiated to vacuum by neutron star g-mode pulsations and by torsional oscillations of the neutron star crust. For the low-order quadrupole fluid g-modes we have considered, we find electromagnetic damping to be considerably more effective than gravitational radiation. For example, a 0.5 M/sub sun/ neutron star with a core temperature approx.10 7 K has a g 1 -mode period of 371 ms; for this mode were find the electromagnetic damping time to be tau/sub FM/approx.0.3 s, assuming the surface magnetic field strength of the neutron star to be B 0 approx.10 12 gauss. This is considerably less than the corresponding gravitational radiation time tau/sub GR/approx.3 x 10 17 yr. For dipole g-mode oscillations, there is no gravitational radiation, but electromagnetic damping and ohmic dissipation are efficient damping mechanisms. For dipole torsional oscillations, we find that electromagnetic damping again dominates, with tau/sub EM/approx.5 yr. Among the cases we have studied, quadrupole torsional oscillations appear to be dominated by gravitational radiation damping, with tau/sub GR/approx.10 4 yr, as compared with tau/sub EM/approx.2 x 10 7 yr

  3. Gravitational waves from neutron stars and asteroseismology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wynn C G

    2018-05-28

    Neutron stars are born in the supernova explosion of massive stars. Neutron stars rotate as stably as atomic clocks and possess densities exceeding that of atomic nuclei and magnetic fields millions to billions of times stronger than those created in laboratories on the Earth. The physical properties of neutron stars are determined by many areas of fundamental physics, and detection of gravitational waves can provide invaluable insights into our understanding of these areas. Here, we describe some of the physics and astrophysics of neutron stars and how traditional electromagnetic wave observations provide clues to the sorts of gravitational waves we expect from these stars. We pay particular attention to neutron star fluid oscillations, examining their impact on electromagnetic and gravitational wave observations when these stars are in a wide binary or isolated system, then during binary inspiral right before merger, and finally at times soon after merger.This article is part of a discussion meeting issue 'The promises of gravitational-wave astronomy'. © 2018 The Author(s).

  4. Gravitation in Material Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2011-01-01

    When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…

  5. Detection of gravitational radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holten, J.W. van [ed.

    1994-12-31

    In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI).

  6. Detection of gravitational radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.W. van

    1994-01-01

    In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI)

  7. Relativity theory and gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bondi, H.

    1986-01-01

    The paper on relativity theory and gravitation is presented as a preface to the first of the articles submitted to the Journal on general relativity. Newtonian gravitation and and observation, relativity, and the sources of the gravitational field, are all discussed. (UK)

  8. Plasma parameters and electromagnetic forces induced by the magneto hydro dynamic interaction in a hypersonic argon flow experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristofolini, Andrea; Neretti, Gabriele; Borghi, Carlo A.

    2012-01-01

    This work proposes an experimental analysis on the magneto hydro dynamic (MHD) interaction induced by a magnetic test body immersed into a hypersonic argon flow. The characteristic plasma parameters are measured. They are related to the voltages arising in the Hall direction and to the variation of the fluid dynamic properties induced by the interaction. The tests have been performed in a hypersonic wind tunnel at Mach 6 and Mach 15. The plasma parameters are measured in the stagnation region in front of the nozzle of the wind tunnel and in the free stream region at the nozzle exit. The test body has a conical shape with the cone axis in the gas flow direction and the cone vertex against the flow. It is placed at the nozzle exit and is equipped with three permanent magnets. In the configuration adopted, the Faraday current flows in a closed loop completely immersed into the plasma of the shock layer. The electric field and the pressure variation due to MHD interaction have been measured on the test body walls. Microwave adsorption measurements have been used for the determination of the electron number density and the electron collision frequency. Continuum recombination radiation and line radiation emissions have been detected. The electron temperature has been determined by means of the spectroscopic data by using different methods. The electron number density has been also determined by means of the Stark broadening of H α and the H β lines. Optical imaging has been utilized to visualize the pattern of the electric current distribution in the shock layer around the test body. The experiments show a considerable effect of the electromagnetic forces produced by the MHD interaction acting on the plasma flow around the test body. A comparison of the experimental data with simulation results shows a good agreement.

  9. [Comparative study of effect of infrared, submillimeter, and millimeter electromagnetic radiation on wing somatic mutations in Drosophila melanogaster induced by gamma-irradiation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorov, V I; Pogodin, A S; Dubatolova, T D; Varlamov, A V; Leont'ev, K V; Khamoian, A G

    2001-01-01

    It was shown that the number of spontaneous and gamma-radiation-induced somatic mutations in wing cells of fruit flies (third instar larvae) exposed to laser irradiation of submillimeter range (lambda = 81.5 microns) was significantly lower than in control. Laser irradiation did not affect the number of recombinations. Exposure to laser radiation in the infrared range and electromagnetic waves of the millimeter range (lambda = 3.8 mm) enhanced the effect of gamma-irradiation.

  10. Identification of Λ-like systems in Er3+:Y2SiO5 and observation of electromagnetically induced transparency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baldit, E.; Bencheikh, K.; Monnier, P.; Briaudeau, S.; Levenson, J. A.; Crozatier, V.; Lorgere, I.; Bretenaker, F.; Le Goueet, J. L.; Guillot-Noeel, O.; Goldner, Ph.

    2010-01-01

    Electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is reported in a solid-state material doped with erbium ions. In this paper we introduce the spectroscopic investigations we have conducted in order to identify the adequate Λ-like three-level systems in Er 3+ :Y 2 SiO 5 crystal, relevant for the demonstration of EIT. These results pave the way for nonlinear and quantum optics applications based on EIT at the telecom wavelength around 1.5 μm.

  11. Environmental Effects for Gravitational-wave Astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barausse, Enrico; Cardoso, Vitor; Pani, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The upcoming detection of gravitational waves by terrestrial interferometers will usher in the era of gravitational-wave astronomy. This will be particularly true when space-based detectors will come of age and measure the mass and spin of massive black holes with exquisite precision and up to very high redshifts, thus allowing for better understanding of the symbiotic evolution of black holes with galaxies, and for high-precision tests of General Relativity in strong-field, highly dynamical regimes. Such ambitious goals require that astrophysical environmental pollution of gravitational-wave signals be constrained to negligible levels, so that neither detection nor estimation of the source parameters are significantly affected. Here, we consider the main sources for space-based detectors - the inspiral, merger and ringdown of massive black-hole binaries and extreme mass-ratio inspirals - and account for various effects on their gravitational waveforms, including electromagnetic fields, cosmological evolution, accretion disks, dark matter, “firewalls” and possible deviations from General Relativity. We discover that the black-hole quasinormal modes are sharply different in the presence of matter, but the ringdown signal observed by interferometers is typically unaffected. The effect of accretion disks and dark matter depends critically on their geometry and density profile, but is negligible for most sources, except for few special extreme mass-ratio inspirals. Electromagnetic fields and cosmological effects are always negligible. We finally explore the implications of our findings for proposed tests of General Relativity with gravitational waves, and conclude that environmental effects will not prevent the development of precision gravitational-wave astronomy. (paper)

  12. LIGO GW150914 and GW151226 gravitational wave detection and generalized gravitation theory (MOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.W. Moffat

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The nature of gravitational waves in a generalized gravitation theory is investigated. The linearized field equations and the metric tensor quadrupole moment power and the decrease in radius of an inspiralling binary system of two compact objects are derived. The generalized Kerr metric describing a spinning black hole is determined by its mass M and the spin parameter a=cS/GM2. The LIGO-Virgo collaboration data is fitted with smaller binary black hole masses in agreement with the current electromagnetic, observed X-ray binary upper bound for a black hole mass, M≲10M⊙.

  13. Relativistic gravitational instabilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schutz, B.F.

    1987-01-01

    The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures

  14. Induced Polarization with Electromagnetic Coupling: 3D Spectral Imaging Theory, EMSP Project No. 73836

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morgan, F. Dale; Sogade, John

    2004-12-14

    This project was designed as a broad foundational study of spectral induced polarization (SIP) for characterization of contaminated sites. It encompassed laboratory studies of the effects of chemistry on induced polarization, development of 3D forward modeling and inversion codes, and investigations of inductive and capacitive coupling problems. In the laboratory part of the project a physico-chemical model developed in this project was used to invert laboratory IP spectra for the grain size and the effective grain size distribution of the sedimentary rocks as well as the formation factor, porosity, specific surface area, and the apparent fractal dimension. Furthermore, it was established that the IP response changed with the solution chemistry, the concentration of a given solution chemistry, valence of the constituent ions, and ionic radius. In the field part of the project, a 3D complex forward and inverse model was developed. It was used to process data acquired at two frequencies (1/16 Hz and 1/ 4Hz) in a cross-borehole configuration at the A-14 outfall area of the Savannah River Site (SRS) during March 2003 and June 2004. The chosen SRS site was contaminated with Tetrachloroethylene (TCE) and Trichloroethylene (PCE) that were disposed in this area for several decades till the 1980s. The imaginary conductivity produced from the inverted 2003 data correlated very well with the log10 (PCE) concentration derived from point sampling at 1 ft spacing in five ground-truth boreholes drilled after the data acquisition. The equivalent result for the 2004 data revealed that there were significant contaminant movements during the period March 2003 and June 2004, probably related to ground-truth activities and nearby remediation activities. Therefore SIP was successfully used to develop conceptual models of volume distributions of PCE/TCE contamination. In addition, the project developed non-polarizing electrodes that can be deployed in boreholes for years. A total of 28

  15. Magnetic-distortion-induced Ellipticity and Gravitational Wave Radiation of Neutron Stars: Millisecond Magnetars in Short GRBs, Galactic Pulsars, and Magnetars

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, He; Cao, Zhoujian [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Zhang, Bing, E-mail: gaohe@bnu.edu.cn [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nevada Las Vegas, NV 89154 (United States)

    2017-08-01

    Neutron stars may sustain a non-axisymmetric deformation due to magnetic distortion and are potential sources of continuous gravitational waves (GWs) for ground-based interferometric detectors. With decades of searches using available GW detectors, no evidence of a GW signal from any pulsar has been observed. Progressively stringent upper limits of ellipticity have been placed on Galactic pulsars. In this work, we use the ellipticity inferred from the putative millisecond magnetars in short gamma-ray bursts (SGRBs) to estimate their detectability by current and future GW detectors. For ∼1 ms magnetars inferred from the SGRB data, the detection horizon is ∼30 Mpc and ∼600 Mpc for the advanced LIGO (aLIGO) and Einstein Telescope (ET), respectively. Using the ellipticity of SGRB millisecond magnetars as calibration, we estimate the ellipticity and GW strain of Galactic pulsars and magnetars assuming that the ellipticity is magnetic-distortion-induced. We find that the results are consistent with the null detection results of Galactic pulsars and magnetars with the aLIGO O1. We further predict that the GW signals from these pulsars/magnetars may not be detectable by the currently designed aLIGO detector. The ET detector may be able to detect some relatively low-frequency signals (<50 Hz) from some of these pulsars. Limited by its design sensitivity, the eLISA detector seems to not be suitable for detecting the signals from Galactic pulsars and magnetars.

  16. Comprehensive structural analysis of the HCPB demo blanket under thermal, mechanical, electromagnetic and radiation induced loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boccaccini, L.V.; Norajitra, P.; Ruatto, P.; Scaffidi-Argentina, F.

    1998-01-01

    For the helium-cooled pebble bed (HCPB) blanket, which is one of the two reference concepts studied within the European Demo Development Program, a comprehensive finite element (FEM) structural analysis has been performed. The analysis refers to the steady-state operating conditions of an outboard blanket segment. On the basis of a three-dimensional model of radial-toroidal sections of the segment box, thermal stresses caused by the temperature gradients in the blanket structure have been calculated. Furthermore, the mechanical loads due to coolant pressure in normal operating conditions as well as an accidental over-pressurization of the blanket box have been accounted for. The stresses caused by a central plasma major disruption from an initial current of 20 MA to zero in 20 ms have been also taken into account. Radiation-induced dimensional changes of breeder and multiplier material caused by both helium production and neutron damage, have also been evaluated and discussed. All the above loads have been combined as input for a FEM stress analysis and the resulting stress distribution has been evaluated according to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) norms. (orig.)

  17. Theory of gravitational interactions

    CERN Document Server

    Gasperini, Maurizio

    2017-01-01

    This is the second edition of a well-received book that is a modern, self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The new edition includes more details on gravitational waves of cosmological origin, the so-called brane world scenario, and gravitational time-delay effects. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field, while the second, more advanced part discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the “gauge” theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap within the traditional approach to general relativity which usually leaves students puzzled about the role of gravity. The required notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, allowing room for aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational inter...

  18. The notions of mass in gravitational and particle physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellani, Gianluca

    It is presently thought that the mass of all of the elementary particles is determined by the Higgs field. This scalar field couples directly into the trace of the energy momentum tensor of the elementary particles. The attraction between two or more masses arises from the exchange of gravitational quantum particles of spin 2, called gravitons. The gravitational field couples directly into the energy momentum tensor. Then there is a close connection between the Higgs field, that originates the mass, and the gravitational field that dictates how the masses interact. Our purpose in this thesis is to discuss this close connection in terms of fundamental definitions of inertial and gravitational masses. On a practical level we explore two properties of mass from the viewpoint of coupling into the Higgs field: (i) The coupling of the both the Higgs and gravity to the energy-pressure tensor allows for the decay of the Higgs particle into two gravitons. We use the self energy part of the Higgs propagator to calculate the electromagnetic, weak, fermionic and gravitational decay rate of the Higgs particle. We show that the former process appears to dominate the other decay modes. Since the gravitons are detectable with virtually zero probability, the number of Higgs particles with observable decay products will be much less than previously expected. (ii) Some new experimental results seem to indicate that the mass of the heavy elementary particles like the Z,W+,W- and especially the top quark, depends on the particle environment in which these particles are produced. The presence of a Higgs field due to neighboring particles could be responsible for induced mass shifts. Further measurements of mass shift effects might give an indirect proof of the Higgs particle. Such can be in principle done by re-analyzing some of the production data e +e- → ZZ (or W+W-) already collected at the LEP experiment. About the physical property of the top quark, it is too early to arrive at

  19. Testing the gravitational instability hypothesis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babul, Arif; Weinberg, David H.; Dekel, Avishai; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    1994-01-01

    We challenge a widely accepted assumption of observational cosmology: that successful reconstruction of observed galaxy density fields from measured galaxy velocity fields (or vice versa), using the methods of gravitational instability theory, implies that the observed large-scale structures and large-scale flows were produced by the action of gravity. This assumption is false, in that there exist nongravitational theories that pass the reconstruction tests and gravitational theories with certain forms of biased galaxy formation that fail them. Gravitational instability theory predicts specific correlations between large-scale velocity and mass density fields, but the same correlations arise in any model where (a) structures in the galaxy distribution grow from homogeneous initial conditions in a way that satisfies the continuity equation, and (b) the present-day velocity field is irrotational and proportional to the time-averaged velocity field. We demonstrate these assertions using analytical arguments and N-body simulations. If large-scale structure is formed by gravitational instability, then the ratio of the galaxy density contrast to the divergence of the velocity field yields an estimate of the density parameter Omega (or, more generally, an estimate of beta identically equal to Omega(exp 0.6)/b, where b is an assumed constant of proportionality between galaxy and mass density fluctuations. In nongravitational scenarios, the values of Omega or beta estimated in this way may fail to represent the true cosmological values. However, even if nongravitational forces initiate and shape the growth of structure, gravitationally induced accelerations can dominate the velocity field at late times, long after the action of any nongravitational impulses. The estimated beta approaches the true value in such cases, and in our numerical simulations the estimated beta values are reasonably accurate for both gravitational and nongravitational models. Reconstruction tests

  20. Broadband hybrid electromagnetic and piezoelectric energy harvesting from ambient vibrations and pneumatic vortices induced by running subway trains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The airfoil-based electromagnetic energy harvester containing parallel array motion between moving coil and : trajectory matching multi-pole magnets was investigated. The magnets were aligned in an alternatively : magnetized formation of 6 magnets to...

  1. GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine

    2017-11-01

    When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.

  2. Correlation of plastic deformation induced intermittent electromagnetic radiation characteristics with mechanical properties of Cu-Ni alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Ranjana; Lal, Shree P.; Misra, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents experimental results on intermittent electromagnetic radiation during plastic deformation of Cu-Ni alloys under tension and compression modes of deformation. On the basis of the nature of electromagnetic radiation signals, oscillatory or exponential, results show that the compression increases the viscous coefficient of Cu-Ni alloys during plastic deformation. Increasing the percentage of solute atoms in Cu-Ni alloys makes electromagnetic radiation strength higher under tension. The electromagnetic radiation emission occurs at smaller strains under compression showing early onset of plastic deformation. This is attributed to the role of high core region tensile residual stresses in the rolled Cu-Ni alloy specimens in accordance with the Bauschinger effect. The distance between the apexes of the dead metal cones during compression plays a significant role in electromagnetic radiation parameters. The dissociation of edge dislocations into partials and increase in internal stresses with increase in solute percentage in Cu-Ni alloys under compression considerably influences the electromagnetic radiation frequency.

  3. Brightening of an accretion disk due to viscous dissipation of gravitational waves during the coalescence of supermassive black holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocsis, Bence; Loeb, Abraham

    2008-07-25

    Mergers of supermassive black hole binaries release peak power of up to approximately 10(57) erg s(-1) in gravitational waves (GWs). As the GWs propagate through ambient gas, they induce shear and a small fraction of their power is dissipated through viscosity. The dissipated heat appears as electromagnetic (EM) radiation, providing a prompt EM counterpart to the GW signal. For thin accretion disks, the GW heating rate exceeds the accretion power at distances farther than approximately 10(3) Schwarzschild radii, independently of the accretion rate and viscosity coefficient.

  4. [Protective effect of Liuweidihuang Pills against cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in rat testes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui-rong; Cao, Xiao-hui; Ma, Xue-lian; Chen, Jin-jin; Chen, Jing-wei; Yang, Hui; Liu, Yun-xiao

    2015-08-01

    To observe the effect of Liuweidihuang Pills in relieving cellphone electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality, oxidative injury, and cell apoptosis in the rat testis. Thirty adult male SD rats were equally randomized into a normal, a radiated, and a Liuweidihuang group, the animals in the latter two groups exposed to electromagnetic radiation of 900 MHz cellphone frequency 4 hours a day for 18 days. Meanwhile, the rats in the Liuweidihuang group were treated with the suspension of Liuweidihuang Pills at 1 ml/100 g body weight and the other rats intragastrically with the equal volume of purified water. Then all the rats were killed for observation of testicular histomorphology by routine HE staining, measurement of testicular malondialdehyde (MDA) and glutathione (GSH) levels by colorimetry, and determination of the expressions of bax and bcl-2 proteins in the testis tissue by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the normal controls, the radiated rats showed obviously loose structure, reduced layers of spermatocytes, and cavitation in the seminiferous tubules. Significant increases were observed in the MDA level (P radiated rats. In comparison with the radiated rats, those of the Liuweidihuang group exhibited nearly normal testicular structure, significantly lower MDA level (P electromagnetic radiation-induced histomorphological abnormality of the testis tissue and reduce its oxidative damage and cell apoptosis.

  5. Gravitational waves from inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guzzetti, M.C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.

    2016-01-01

    The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index ηT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.

  6. Gravitationally induced zero modes of the Faddeev-Popov operator in the Coulomb gauge for Abelian gauge theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canfora, Fabrizio; Giacomini, Alex; Oliva, Julio

    2010-08-01

    It is shown that on curved backgrounds, the Coulomb gauge Faddeev-Popov operator can have zero modes even in the Abelian case. These zero modes cannot be eliminated by restricting the path integral over a certain region in the space of gauge potentials. The conditions for the existence of these zero modes are studied for static spherically symmetric spacetimes in arbitrary dimensions. For this class of metrics, the general analytic expression of the metric components in terms of the zero modes is constructed. Such expression allows one to find the asymptotic behavior of background metrics, which induce zero modes in the Coulomb gauge, an interesting example being the three-dimensional anti-de Sitter spacetime. Some of the implications for quantum field theory on curved spacetimes are discussed.

  7. Double-resonance optical-pumping effect and ladder-type electromagnetically induced transparency signal without Doppler background in cesium atomic vapour cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Bao-Dong; Gao Jing; Liang Qiang-Bing; Wang Jie; Zhang Tian-Cai; Wang Jun-Min

    2011-01-01

    In a Doppler-broadened ladder-type cesium atomic system (6S 1/2 -6P 3/2 -8S 1/2 ), this paper characterizes electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in two different experimental arrangements, and investigates the influence of the double-resonance optical-pumping (DROP) effect on EIT in both arrangements. When the probe laser is weak, DROP is explicitly suppressed. When the probe laser is moderate, population of the intermediate level (6P 3/2 F' = 5) is remarkable, therefore DROP is mixed with EIT. An interesting bimodal spectrum with the broad component due to DROP and the narrow part due to EIT has been clearly observed in cesium 6S 1/2 F = 4−6P 3/2 F' = 5−8S 1/2 F″ = 4 transitions. (electromagnetism, optics, acoustics, heat transfer, classical mechanics, and fluid dynamics)

  8. Applied Electromagnetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamashita, H; Marinova, I; Cingoski, V [eds.

    2002-07-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics.

  9. Applied Electromagnetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamashita, H.; Marinova, I.; Cingoski, V.

    2002-01-01

    These proceedings contain papers relating to the 3rd Japanese-Bulgarian-Macedonian Joint Seminar on Applied Electromagnetics. Included are the following groups: Numerical Methods I; Electrical and Mechanical System Analysis and Simulations; Inverse Problems and Optimizations; Software Methodology; Numerical Methods II; Applied Electromagnetics

  10. Anisotropic gravitational instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.

    1988-01-01

    Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common

  11. Electromagnetic interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosanac, Slobodan Danko

    2016-01-01

    This book is devoted to theoretical methods used in the extreme circumstances of very strong electromagnetic fields. The development of high power lasers, ultrafast processes, manipulation of electromagnetic fields and the use of very fast charged particles interacting with other charges requires an adequate theoretical description. Because of the very strong electromagnetic field, traditional theoretical approaches, which have primarily a perturbative character, have to be replaced by descriptions going beyond them. In the book an extension of the semi-classical radiation theory and classical dynamics for particles is performed to analyze single charged atoms and dipoles submitted to electromagnetic pulses. Special attention is given to the important problem of field reaction and controlling dynamics of charges by an electromagnetic field.

  12. Gravitation Waves seminar

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva HR-RFA

    2006-01-01

    We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort.

  13. Gravitational Wave Astronomy

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2006-01-01

    Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.

  14. Gravitation in material media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ridgely, Charles T

    2011-01-01

    When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium is herein derived on the basis of classical, Newtonian gravitational theory and by a general relativistic use of Archimedes' principle. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate students and those undergraduate students having prior experience with vector analysis and potential theory.

  15. Gravitation and relativity

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, William F

    1964-01-01

    Remarks on the observational basis of general relativity ; Riemannian geometry ; gravitation as geometry ; gravitational waves ; Mach's principle and experiments on mass anisotropy ; the many faces of Mach ; the significance for the solar system of time-varying gravitation ; relativity principles and the role of coordinates in physics ; the superdense star and the critical nucleon number ; gravitation and light ; possible effects on the solar system of φ waves if they exist ; the Lyttleton-Bondi universe and charge equality ; quantization of general relativity ; Mach's principle as boundary condition for Einstein's equations.

  16. Direction-Specific Impairments in Cervical Range of Motion in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: Influence of Head Posture and Gravitationally Induced Torque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolfsson, Thomas; Björklund, Martin; Svedmark, Åsa; Srinivasan, Divya; Djupsjöbacka, Mats

    2017-01-01

    Cervical range of motion (ROM) is commonly assessed in clinical practice and research. In a previous study we decomposed active cervical sagittal ROM into contributions from lower and upper levels of the cervical spine and found level- and direction-specific impairments in women with chronic non-specific neck pain. The present study aimed to validate these results and investigate if the specific impairments can be explained by the neutral posture (defining zero flexion/extension) or a movement strategy to avoid large gravitationally induced torques on the cervical spine. Kinematics of the head and thorax was assessed in sitting during maximal sagittal cervical flexion/extension (high torque condition) and maximal protraction (low torque condition) in 120 women with chronic non-specific neck pain and 40 controls. We derived the lower and upper cervical angles, and the head centre of mass (HCM), from a 3-segment kinematic model. Neutral head posture was assessed using a standardized procedure. Previous findings of level- and direction-specific impairments in neck pain were confirmed. Neutral head posture was equal between groups and did not explain the direction-specific impairments. The relative magnitude of group difference in HCM migration did not differ between high and low torques conditions, lending no support for our hypothesis that impairments in sagittal ROM are due to torque avoidance behaviour. The direction- and level-specific impairments in cervical sagittal ROM can be generalised to the population of women with non-specific neck pain. Further research is necessary to clarify if torque avoidance behaviour can explain the impairments.

  17. Direction-Specific Impairments in Cervical Range of Motion in Women with Chronic Neck Pain: Influence of Head Posture and Gravitationally Induced Torque.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Rudolfsson

    Full Text Available Cervical range of motion (ROM is commonly assessed in clinical practice and research. In a previous study we decomposed active cervical sagittal ROM into contributions from lower and upper levels of the cervical spine and found level- and direction-specific impairments in women with chronic non-specific neck pain. The present study aimed to validate these results and investigate if the specific impairments can be explained by the neutral posture (defining zero flexion/extension or a movement strategy to avoid large gravitationally induced torques on the cervical spine.Kinematics of the head and thorax was assessed in sitting during maximal sagittal cervical flexion/extension (high torque condition and maximal protraction (low torque condition in 120 women with chronic non-specific neck pain and 40 controls. We derived the lower and upper cervical angles, and the head centre of mass (HCM, from a 3-segment kinematic model. Neutral head posture was assessed using a standardized procedure.Previous findings of level- and direction-specific impairments in neck pain were confirmed. Neutral head posture was equal between groups and did not explain the direction-specific impairments. The relative magnitude of group difference in HCM migration did not differ between high and low torques conditions, lending no support for our hypothesis that impairments in sagittal ROM are due to torque avoidance behaviour.The direction- and level-specific impairments in cervical sagittal ROM can be generalised to the population of women with non-specific neck pain. Further research is necessary to clarify if torque avoidance behaviour can explain the impairments.

  18. Accretion-induced spin-wandering effects on the neutron star in Scorpius X-1: Implications for continuous gravitational wave searches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Arunava; Messenger, Chris; Riles, Keith

    2018-02-01

    The LIGO's discovery of binary black hole mergers has opened up a new era of transient gravitational wave astronomy. The potential detection of gravitational radiation from another class of astronomical objects, rapidly spinning nonaxisymmetric neutron stars, would constitute a new area of gravitational wave astronomy. Scorpius X-1 (Sco X-1) is one of the most promising sources of continuous gravitational radiation to be detected with present-generation ground-based gravitational wave detectors, such as Advanced LIGO and Advanced Virgo. As the sensitivity of these detectors improve in the coming years, so will power of the search algorithms being used to find gravitational wave signals. Those searches will still require integration over nearly year long observational spans to detect the incredibly weak signals from rotating neutron stars. For low mass X-ray binaries such as Sco X-1 this difficult task is compounded by neutron star "spin wandering" caused by stochastic accretion fluctuations. In this paper, we analyze X-ray data from the R X T E satellite to infer the fluctuating torque on the neutron star in Sco X-1. We then perform a large-scale simulation to quantify the statistical properties of spin-wandering effects on the gravitational wave signal frequency and phase evolution. We find that there are a broad range of expected maximum levels of frequency wandering corresponding to maximum drifts of between 0.3 - 50 μ Hz /sec over a year at 99% confidence. These results can be cast in terms of the maximum allowed length of a coherent signal model neglecting spin-wandering effects as ranging between 5-80 days. This study is designed to guide the development and evaluation of Sco X-1 search algorithms.

  19. Limits on new forces coexisting with electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kloor, H.; Fischbach, E.; Talmadge, C.; Greene, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    We consider the limits arising from different electromagnetic systems on the existence of a possible new electromagnetic analogue of the fifth force. Although such a force may have no intrinsic connection to electromagnetism (or gravity), its effects could be manifested through various anomalies in electromagnetic systems, for appropriate values of the coupling strength and range. Our work generalizes that of Bartlett and Loegl (who considered the case of a massive vector field coexisting with massless electrodynamics) to encompass a broad class of phenomenological interactions mediated by both scalar and vector exchanges. By combining data from both gravitational and electromagnetic systems, one can eventually set limits on a new force whose range λ extends from the subatomic scale (λ∼10 -15 m) to the astrophysical scale (λ∼10 12 m)

  20. Market applications of Resistivity, Induced Polarisation, Magnetic Resonance and Electromagnetic methods for Groundwater Investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering Surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard, J.

    2012-12-01

    The Manufacturers of geophysical instruments have been facing these past decades the fast evolution of the electronics and of the computer sciences. More automatisms have been introduced into the equipment and into the processing and interpretation software which may let believe that conducting geophysical surveys requires less understanding of the method and less experience than in the past. Hence some misunderstandings in the skills that are needed to make the geophysical results well integrated among the global information which the applied geologist needs to acquire to be successful in his applications. Globally, the demand in geophysical investigation goes towards more penetration depth, requiring more powerful transmitters, and towards a better resolution, requiring more data such as in 3D analysis. Budgets aspects strongly suggest a high efficiency in the field associated to high speed data processing. The innovation is required in all aspects of geophysics to fit with the market needs, including new technological (instruments, software) and methodological (methods, procedures, arrays) developments. The structures in charge of the geophysical work can be public organisations (institutes, ministries, geological surveys,…) or can come from the private sector (large companies, sub-contractors, consultants, …), each one of them getting their own constraints in the field work and in the processing and interpretation phases. In the applications concerning Groundwater investigations, Mining Exploration, Environmental and Engineering surveys, examples of data and their interpretation presently carried out all around the world will be presented for DC Resistivity (Vertical Electrical Sounding, 2D, 3D Resistivity Imaging, Resistivity Monitoring), Induced Polarisation (Time Domain 2D, 3D arrays for mining and environmental), Magnetic Resonance Sounding (direct detection and characterisation of groundwater) and Electromagnetic (multi-component and multi

  1. Gravitational effects in field gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Vlasov, A.A.

    1979-01-01

    The possibilities to describe various gravitation effects of field gravitation theory (FGT) are considered. Past-Newtonian approximation of the FGT has been constructed and on the basis of this approximation it has been shown that the field theory allows one to describe the whole set of experimental facts. The comparison of post-Newtonian parameters in FGT with those in the Einstein's theory makes it clear that these two; theories are undistinguishable from the viewpoint of any experiments, realized with post-Newtonian accuracy. Gravitational field of an island type source with spherically symmetrical distribution of matter and unstationary homogeneous model of Universe, which allows to describe the effect of cosmological red shift, are considered

  2. Animal magnetocardiography using superconducting quantum interference device gradiometers assisted with magnetic nanoparticle injection: A sensitive method for early detecting electromagnetic changes induced by hypercholesterolemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, C. C.; Hong, B. F.; Wu, B. H.; Yang, S. Y.; Horng, H. E.; Yang, H. C.; Tseng, W. Y. Isaac; Tseng, W. K.; Liu, Y. B.; Lin, L. C.; Lu, L. S.; Lee, Y. H.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the authors used a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetocardiography (MCG) system consisted of 64-channel low-transition-temperature SQUID gradiometers to detect the MCG signals of hepercholesterolemic rabbits. In addition, the MCG signals were recorded before and after the injection of magnetic nanoparticles into the rabbits' ear veins to investigate the effects of magnetic nanoparticles on the MCG signals. These MCG data were compared to those of normal rabbits to reveal the feasibility for early detection of the electromagnetic changes induced by hypercholesterolemia using MCG with the assistance of magnetic nanoparticle injection.

  3. Relativistic gravitation theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle a relativistic gravitation theory (RGT) is unambiguously constructed with the help of a notion of a gravitational field as a physical field in Faraday-Maxwell spirit, which posesses energy momentum and spins 2 and 0. The source of gravitation field is a total conserved energy-momentum tensor for matter and for gravitation field in Minkowski space. In the RGT conservation laws for the energy momentum and angular momentum of matter and gravitational field hold rigorously. The theory explains the whole set of gravitation experiments. Here, due to the geometrization principle the Riemannian space is of a field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field action on the matter. The RGT astonishing prediction is that the Universe is not closed but ''flat''. It means that in the Universe there should exist a ''missing'' mass in some form of matter

  4. Those Elusive Gravitational Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOSAIC, 1976

    1976-01-01

    The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)

  5. Gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.M., E-mail: ymcho7@konkuk.ac.kr [Administration Building 310-4, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kimm, Kyoungtae [Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-10

    We present a family of gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole solutions in Einstein–Weinberg–Salam theory. Our result confirms the existence of globally regular gravitating electroweak monopole which changes to the magnetically charged black hole as the Higgs vacuum value approaches to the Planck scale. Moreover, our solutions could provide a more accurate description of the monopole stars and magnetically charged black holes.

  6. Engineering electromagnetics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, David T; Hartnett, James P; Hughes, William F

    1973-01-01

    The applications involving electromagnetic fields are so pervasive that it is difficult to estimate their contribution to the industrial output: generation of electricity, power transmission lines, electric motors, actuators, relays, radio, TV and microwave transmission and reception, magnetic storage, and even the mundane little magnet used to hold a paper note on the refrigerator are all electromagnetic in nature. One would be hard pressed to find a device that works without relaying on any electromagnetic principle or effect. This text provides a good theoretical understanding of the electromagnetic field equations but also treats a large number of applications. In fact, no topic is presented unless it is directly applicable to engineering design or unless it is needed for the understanding of another topic. In electrostatics, for example, the text includes discussions of photocopying, ink-jet printing, electrostatic separation and deposition, sandpaper production, paint spraying, and powder coating. In ma...

  7. A gravitational entropy proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clifton, Timothy; Tavakol, Reza; Ellis, George F R

    2013-01-01

    We propose a thermodynamically motivated measure of gravitational entropy based on the Bel–Robinson tensor, which has a natural interpretation as the effective super-energy–momentum tensor of free gravitational fields. The specific form of this measure differs depending on whether the gravitational field is Coulomb-like or wave-like, and reduces to the Bekenstein–Hawking value when integrated over the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. For scalar perturbations of a Robertson–Walker geometry we find that the entropy goes like the Hubble weighted anisotropy of the gravitational field, and therefore increases as structure formation occurs. This is in keeping with our expectations for the behaviour of gravitational entropy in cosmology, and provides a thermodynamically motivated arrow of time for cosmological solutions of Einstein’s field equations. It is also in keeping with Penrose’s Weyl curvature hypothesis. (paper)

  8. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  9. Mass splitting induced by gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, M.D.

    1982-08-01

    The exact combination of internal and geometrical symmetries and the associated mass splitting problem is discussed. A 10-parameter geometrical symmetry is defined in a curved space-time in such a way that it is a combination of de Sitter groups. In the flat limit it reproduces the Poincare-group and its Lie algebra has a nilpotent action on the combined symmetry only in that limit. An explicit mass splitting expression is derived and an estimation of the order of magnitude for spin-zero mesons is made. (author)

  10. ELECTRODINÁMICA QUIRAL: ESLABÓN PARA LA UNIFICACIÓN DEL ELECTROMAGNETISMO Y LA GRAVITACIÓN CHIRAL ELECTRODYNAMIC: CONNECTION FOR THE UNIFICATION OF ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor Torres-Silva

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Una alternativa a la teoría cuántica de la gravedad, aún no descubierta, es la Teoría Total Simplificada (TTS aquí propuesta, que postula unificar la gravedad con el electromagnetismo (EM teniendo como corolario fundamental la ecuación cuántica de Dirac. Con ello, aquí se propone todo un programa de unificación en el cual el electromagnetismo quiral juega el rol central. La TTS se deriva de las ecuaciones originales de Einstein-Hilbert , donde el tensor de Einstein no se modifica. El tensor EM en cambio es quiral y la masa de las partículas es de naturaleza electromagnética. Para el caso del electrón se tiene como consecuencia que, por primera vez, se obtiene la ecuación de Dirac a partir de ondas EM con el campo eléctrico paralelo espacialmente al campo magnético. Como modelo del universo se propone una interfaz o membrana de separación donde ocurren solamente eventos cuánticos. Hay dos regiones enantioméricas de un universo cerrado, o un universo derecho y un universo izquierdo, relacionados por un elemento de simetría PCT (paridad, carga, tiempo a lo largo de la interfaz. Las ecuaciones de Einstein-Hilbert son estudiadas bajo el enfoque quiral y se discute la electrodinámica quiral y la gravedad en la era de Planck.An alternative to the theory of quantum gravity, not yet discovered, is the Theory Simplified Total (TTS proposal, which aims to unify gravity with the EM taking as a corollary the essential quantum Dirac equation. Thus, this article proposes a whole program of unification in which chiral electromagnetism plays the main role. TTS is derived from the original equations of Einstein-Hilbert , where the Einstein tensor is unchanged. The EM tensor instead is chiral and the mass of the particles has an electromagnetic nature. In the case of the electron the consequence of this is that, for the first time, Dirac's equation is obtained from EM waves with the electric field spatially parallel to the magnetic field. As a

  11. Gravitational Bohr’s model with Newton’s and Weber’s potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiandho, Yuant, E-mail: yuanttiandho@gmail.com; Triyanta, E-mail: triyanta@fi.itb.ac.id [Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Division Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)

    2015-09-30

    Similarity between Newtonian gravitational force and Coulomb’s force leads one to define gravitational electric and magnetic fields or gravito-electromagnetic fields. Also, one may define a gravitational Bohr’s theory in analogy with the electromagnetic Bohr’s theory for which the latter is quite successful in explaining some properties of hydrogen atom. Unlike to the Coulomb’s force, the Newton‘s force is believed to be an approximated theory of gravity as it is unable to explain the Mercury’s orbit. This paper discusses the gravitational Bohr’s theory by taking into account the Newton’s potential and Weber’s potential; the later is a modified Newton’s gravitational potential that conforms, to some degrees, to the anomaly of the Mercury’s orbit.

  12. Electromagnetic radiation optimum neutralizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, Igor

    2002-01-01

    This particular article relates to subtle electrical effects, and provides some evidence of a fundamental nature on how subtle low frequency electromagnetic fields might be utilized to protect human body against harmful effects of high frequencies electromagnetic radiation. I have focused my efforts on definite polar polymer compound named EMRON which is patented in the USA. This polar polymer compound can be excited by external high frequencies electromagnetic fields to generate subtle low frequency oscillations that are beneficial for cellular life structures. This concept is based on the possibility of existence of resonance phenomenon between polar polymers and biopolymers such as proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Low frequency patterns generated by defined polar polymer compound can interact with biostructures and transmit the signals that support and improve cellular functions in the body. The mechanism of this process was confirmed by number of studies. The animal (including human) brain is affected by electromagnetic waves to the extent that production of Alpha or Theta waves can be directly induced into brain by carrying an ELF (extremely low frequency, 5-12 Hz) signal on a microwave carrier frequency. EMRON does not reduce the power of electromagnetic fields. It 'shields' the cellular structures of the body against the harmful effects of EMR. The radiation is still entering the body but the neutralizing effect of EMRON renders the radiation harmless

  13. Relativistic theory of gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvilli, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is constructed in a unique way on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this, a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday-Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG, the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-momentum and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravitation. In virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTg leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The Universe is not closed but just ''flat''. This suggests that in the Universe a ''hidden mass'' should exist in some form of matter

  14. Method for analyzing electromagnetic-force-induced vibration and noise analysis; Denjiryoku reiki ni yoru dendoki no shindo hoshaon kaisekiho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiohata, K.; Nemoto, K.; Nagawa, Y.; Sakamoto, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Ito, M.; Koharagi, H. [Hitachi, Ltd, Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-11-01

    In this analysis method, electromagnetic force calculated by 2-dimensional analysis is transformed into external force for 3-dimensional structural-vibration analysis. And a modeling procedure for a vibrating structure is developed. Further, a space-modal-resonance criteria which relates electromagnetic force to structural-vibration or noise is introduced. In the structural-vibration analysis, the finite element method is used; and in the noise analysis, the boundary element method is used. Finally, vibration and noise of an induction motor are calculated using this criteria. Consequently, high-accuracy modeling is achieved and noise the calculated by the simulation almost coincides with that obtained by experiments. And it is clarified that the-space-modal resonance criteria is effective in numerical simulation. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  15. Induced scattering due to nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a magnetized plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugaya, Reiji

    1989-01-01

    General expressions of the matrix elements for nonlinear wave-particle scattering (nonlinear Landau and cyclotron damping) of electromagnetic and electrostatic waves in a homogeneous magnetized plasma are derived from the Vlasov-Maxwell equations. The kinetic wave equations obtained for electromagnetic waves are expressed by four-order tensors in the rotating and cartesian coordinates. No restrictions are imposed on the propagation angle to a uniform magnetic field, the Larmor radius, the frequencies, or the wave numbers. By electrostatic approximation of the dielectric tensor and the matrix elements the kinetic wave equations can be applied to the case in which two scattering waves are electrostatic or they are partially electrostatic. Further, the matrix elements in the limit of parallel or perpendicular propagation to the magnetic field are given. (author)

  16. Enrichment of magnetic particles using temperature and magnetic field gradients induced by benchtop fabricated micro-electromagnets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, A; Philpott, D N; Soleymani, L

    2017-11-21

    The active transport of analytes inside biosensing systems is important for reducing the response time and enhancing the limit-of-detection of these systems. Due to the ease of functionalization with bio-recognition agents and manipulation with magnetic fields, magnetic particles are widely used for active and directed transport of biological analytes. On-chip active electromagnets are ideally suited for manipulating magnetic particles in an automated and miniaturized fashion inside biosensing systems. Unfortunately, the magnetic force exerted by these devices decays rapidly as we move away from the device edges, and increasing the generated force to the levels necessary for particle manipulation requires a parallel increase in the applied current and the resultant Joule heating. In this paper, we designed a study to understand the combined role of thermal and magnetic forces on the movement of magnetic particles in order to extend the interaction distance of on-chip magnetic devices beyond the device edges. For this purpose, we used a rapid prototyping method to create an active/passive on-chip electromagnet with a micro/nano-structured active layer and a patterned ferromagnetic passive layer. We demonstrated that the measured terminal velocities of particles positioned near the electromagnet edge (∼5.5 μm) closely reflect the values obtained by multi-physics modelling. Interestingly, we observed a two orders of magnitude deviation between the experimental and modelling results for the terminal velocities of particles far from the electromagnet edge (∼55.5 μm). Heat modelling of the system using experimentally-measured thermal gradients indicates that this discrepancy is related to the enhanced fluid movement caused by thermal forces. This study enables the rational design of thermo-magnetic systems for thermally driving and magnetically capturing particles that are positioned at distances tens to hundreds of microns away from the edges of on-chip magnetic

  17. Wave-function analysis of dynamic cancellation of ac Stark shifts in optical lattice clocks by use of pulsed Raman and electromagnetically-induced-transparency techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Tai Hyun

    2007-01-01

    We study analytically the dynamic cancellation of ac Stark shift in the recently proposed pulsed electromagnetically-induced-transparency (EIT-)Raman optical lattice clock based on the wave-function formalism. An explicit expression for the time evolution operator corresponding to the effective two-level interaction Hamiltonian has been obtained in order to explain the atomic phase shift cancellation due to the ac Stark shift induced by the time-separated laser pulses. We present how to determine an optimum value of the common detuning of the driving fields at which the atomic phase shift cancels completely with the parameters for the practical realization of the EIT-Raman optical lattice clock with alkaline-earth-metal atoms

  18. Gravitation and vacuum field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tevikyan, R.V.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents equations that describe particles with spins s = 0, 1/2, 1 completely and which also describe 2s + 2 limiting fields as E → ∞. It is shown that the ordinary Hilbert-Einstein action for the gravitation field must be augmented by the action for the Bose vacuum field. This means that one must introduce in the gravitational equations a cosmological term proportional to the square of the strength of the Bose vacuum field. It is shown that the theory of gravitation describes three realities: matter, field, and vacuum field. A new form of matter--the vacuum field--is introduced into field theory

  19. Gravitational radiation reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanaka, Takahiro

    2006-01-01

    We give a short personally-biased review on the recent progress in our understanding of gravitational radiation reaction acting on a point particle orbiting a black hole. The main motivation of this study is to obtain sufficiently precise gravitational waveforms from inspiraling binary compact starts with a large mass ratio. For this purpose, various new concepts and techniques have been developed to compute the orbital evolution taking into account the gravitational self-force. Combining these ideas with a few supplementary new ideas, we try to outline a path to our goal here. (author)

  20. Presenting Newtonian gravitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Counihan, Martin

    2007-01-01

    The basic principles of the Newtonian theory of gravitation are presented in a way which students may find more logically coherent, mathematically accessible and physically interesting than other approaches. After giving relatively simple derivations of the circular hodograph and the elliptical orbit from the inverse-square law, the concept of gravitational energy is developed from vector calculus. It is argued that the energy density of a gravitational field may reasonably be regarded as -g 2 /8πG, and that the inverse-square law may be replaced by a Schwarzschild-like force law without the need to invoke non-Euclidean geometry