Dodelson, Scott
2017-01-01
Gravitational lensing is a consequence of general relativity, where the gravitational force due to a massive object bends the paths of light originating from distant objects lying behind it. Using very little general relativity and no higher level mathematics, this text presents the basics of gravitational lensing, focusing on the equations needed to understand the phenomena. It then applies them to a diverse set of topics, including multiply imaged objects, time delays, extrasolar planets, microlensing, cluster masses, galaxy shape measurements, cosmic shear, and lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This approach allows undergraduate students and others to get quickly up to speed on the basics and the important issues. The text will be especially relevant as large surveys such as LSST and Euclid begin to dominate the astronomical landscape. Designed for a one semester course, it is accessible to anyone with two years of undergraduate physics background.
Turner, E.L.
1989-01-01
The author discusses how gravitational lens studies is becoming a major focus of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. This review is organized into five parts: an overview of the observational situation, a look at the state of theoretical work on lenses, a detailed look at three recently discovered types of lensing phenomena (luminous arcs, radio rings, quasar-galaxy associations), a review of progress on two old problems in lens studies (deriving unique lens mass distribution models, measurements of differential time delays), and an attempt to look into the future of lens studies
Gravitational lensing of quasars
Eigenbrod, Alexander
2013-01-01
The universe, in all its richness, diversity and complexity, is populated by a myriad of intriguing celestial objects. Among the most exotic of them are gravitationally lensed quasars. A quasar is an extremely bright nucleus of a galaxy, and when such an object is gravitationally lensed, multiple images of the quasar are produced – this phenomenon of cosmic mirage can provide invaluable insights on burning questions, such as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. After presenting the basics of modern cosmology, the book describes active galactic nuclei, the theory of gravitational lensing, and presents a particular numerical technique to improve the resolution of astronomical data. The book then enters the heart of the subject with the description of important applications of gravitational lensing of quasars, such as the measurement of the famous Hubble constant, the determination of the dark matter distribution in galaxies, and the observation of the mysterious inner parts of quasars with much higher r...
Observations of gravitational lenses
Fort, B.
1990-01-01
During the last tow years a burst of results has come from radio and optical surveys of ''galaxy lenses'' (where the main deflector is a galaxy). These are reviewed. On the other hand, in September 1985 we pointed out a very strange blue ring-like structure on a Charge-Coupled Device image of the cluster of galaxies Abell 370. This turned out to be Einstein arcs discovery. Following this discovery, new observational results have shown that many rich clusters of galaxies can produce numerous arclets: tangentially distorted images of an extremely faint galaxy population probably located at redshift larger than 1. This new class of gravitational lenses proves to be an important observational topic and this will be discussed in the second part of the paper. (author)
Itoh, Yousuke; Futamase, Toshifumi; Hattori, Makoto
2009-01-01
Gravitational waves propagate along null geodesics like light rays in the geometrical optics approximation, and they may have a chance to suffer from gravitational lensing by intervening objects, as is the case for electromagnetic waves. Long wavelengths of gravitational waves and compactness of possible sources may enable us to extract information in the interference among the lensed images. We point out that the interference term contains information of relative transverse velocity of the source-lens-observer system, which may be obtained by possible future space-borne gravitational wave detectors such as BBO/DECIGO.
The Scales of Gravitational Lensing
Francesco De Paolis
2016-03-01
Full Text Available After exactly a century since the formulation of the general theory of relativity, the phenomenon of gravitational lensing is still an extremely powerful method for investigating in astrophysics and cosmology. Indeed, it is adopted to study the distribution of the stellar component in the Milky Way, to study dark matter and dark energy on very large scales and even to discover exoplanets. Moreover, thanks to technological developments, it will allow the measure of the physical parameters (mass, angular momentum and electric charge of supermassive black holes in the center of ours and nearby galaxies.
EDITORIAL: Focus on Gravitational Lensing
Jain, Bhuvnesh
2007-11-01
Gravitational lensing emerged as an observational field following the 1979 discovery of a doubly imaged quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy. In the 1980s and '90s dozens of other multiply imaged systems were observed, as well as time delay measurements, weak and strong lensing by galaxies and galaxy clusters, and the discovery of microlensing in our galaxy. The rapid pace of advances has continued into the new century. Lensing is currently one of best techniques for finding and mapping dark matter over a wide range of scales, and also addresses broader cosmological questions such as understanding the nature of dark energy. This focus issue of New Journal of Physics presents a snapshot of current research in some of the exciting areas of lensing. It provides an occasion to look back at the advances of the last decade and ahead to the potential of the coming years. Just about a decade ago, microlensing was discovered through the magnification of stars in our galaxy by invisible objects with masses between that of Jupiter and a tenth the mass of the Sun. Thus a new component of the mass of our galaxy, dubbed MACHOs, was established (though a diffuse, cold dark matter-like component is still needed to make up most of the galaxy mass). More recently, microlensing led to another exciting discovery—of extra-solar planets with masses ranging from about five times that of Earth to that of Neptune. We can expect many more planets to be discovered through ongoing surveys. Microlensing is the best technique for finding Earth mass planets, though it is not as productive overall as other methods and does not allow for follow up observations. Beyond planet hunting, microlensing has enabled us to observe previously inaccessible systems, ranging from the surfaces of other stars to the accretion disks around the black holes powering distant quasars. Galaxies and galaxy clusters at cosmological distances can produce dramatic lensing effects: multiple images of background galaxies
Gravitational lenses and cosmological evolution
Peacock, J.A.
1982-01-01
The effect of gravitational lensing on the apparent cosmological evolution of extragalactic radio sources is investigated. Models for a lens population consisting of galaxies and clusters of galaxies are constructed and used to calculate the distribution of amplification factors caused by lensing. Although many objects at high redshifts are predicted to have flux densities altered by 10 to 20 per cent relative to a homogeneous universe, flux conservation implies that de-amplification is as common as amplification. The effects on cosmological evolution as inferred from source counts and redshift data are thus relatively small; the slope of the counts is not large enough for intrinsically rare lensing events of high amplitude to corrupt observed samples. Lensing effects may be of greater importance for optically selected quasars, where lenses of mass as low as approximately 10 -4 solar mass can cause large amplifications. (author)
Scientific visualization of gravitational lenses
Magallon, M.
1999-01-01
Concepts related to gravitational lenses are discussed and applied to develop an interactive visualization tool that allow us to investigate them. Optimization strategies were performed to elaborate the tool. Some results obtained from the application of the tool are shown [es
Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S., E-mail: gkogan@iki.rssi.ru; Tsupko, O. Yu., E-mail: tsupko@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-07-15
The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.
Cosmological applications of strong gravitational lensing
Paraficz, Danuta
value of the energy density of the two above components, together with measuring the Hubble constant that determines the age of the Universe, is a major goal of modern astrophysics. An interesting method for estimating these parameters is strong gravitational lensing of quasars (QSOs). As shown...
New case of gravitational lensing
Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Magain, P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.
1987-10-22
The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10/sup 11/ M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to ..delta..t approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO.
Weak gravitational lensing as a method to constrain unstable dark matter
Wang Meiyu; Zentner, Andrew R.
2010-01-01
The nature of the dark matter remains a mystery. The possibility of an unstable dark matter particle decaying to invisible daughter particles has been explored many times in the past few decades. Meanwhile, weak gravitational lensing shear has gained a lot of attention as a probe of dark energy, though it was previously considered a dark matter probe. Weak lensing is a useful tool for constraining the stability of the dark matter. In the coming decade a number of large galaxy imaging surveys will be undertaken and will measure the statistics of cosmological weak lensing with unprecedented precision. Weak lensing statistics are sensitive to unstable dark matter in at least two ways. Dark matter decays alter the matter power spectrum and change the angular diameter distance-redshift relation. We show how measurements of weak lensing shear correlations may provide the most restrictive, model-independent constraints on the lifetime of unstable dark matter. Our results rely on assumptions regarding nonlinear evolution of density fluctuations in scenarios of unstable dark matter and one of our aims is to stimulate interest in theoretical work on nonlinear structure growth in unstable dark matter models.
Astrophysical Applications of Gravitational Lensing
Mediavilla, Evencio; Muñoz, Jose A.; Garzón, Francisco; Mahoney, Terence J.
2016-10-01
Contributors; Participants; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Lensing basics Sherry H. Suyu; 2. Exoplanet microlensing Andrew Gould; 3. Case studies of microlensing Veronica Motta and Emilio Falco; 4. Microlensing of quasars and AGN Joachim Wambsganss; 5. DM in clusters and large-scale structure Peter Schneider; 6. The future of strong lensing Chris Fassnacht; 7. Methods for strong lens modelling Charles Keeton; 8. Tutorial on inverse ray shooting Jorge Jimenez-Vicente.
Statistics of gravitational lenses. III. Astrophysical consequences of quasar lensing
Ostriker, J.P.; Vietri, M.
1986-01-01
The method of Schmidt and Green (1983) for calculating the luminosity function of quasars is combined with gravitational-lensing theory to compute expected properties of lensed systems. Multiple quasar images produced by galaxies are of order 0.001 of the observed quasars, with the numbers over the whole sky calculated to be (0.86, 120, 1600) to limiting B magnitudes of (16, 19, 22). The amount of false evolution is small except for an interesting subset of apparently bright, large-redshift objects for which minilensing by starlike objects may be important. Some of the BL Lac objects may be in this category, with the galaxy identified as the parent object really a foreground object within which stars have lensed a background optically violent variable quasar. 24 references
Corrections for gravitational lensing of supernovae: better than average?
Gunnarsson, Christofer; Dahlen, Tomas; Goobar, Ariel; Jonsson, Jakob; Mortsell, Edvard
2005-01-01
We investigate the possibility of correcting for the magnification due to gravitational lensing of standard candle sources, such as Type Ia supernovae. Our method uses the observed properties of the foreground galaxies along the lines-of-sight to each source and the accuracy of the lensing correction depends on the quality and depth of these observations as well as the uncertainties in translating the observed luminosities to the matter distribution in the lensing galaxies. The current work i...
Instrumental systematics and weak gravitational lensing
Mandelbaum, R.
2015-01-01
We present a pedagogical review of the weak gravitational lensing measurement process and its connection to major scientific questions such as dark matter and dark energy. Then we describe common ways of parametrizing systematic errors and understanding how they affect weak lensing measurements. Finally, we discuss several instrumental systematics and how they fit into this context, and conclude with some future perspective on how progress can be made in understanding the impact of instrumental systematics on weak lensing measurements
Investigations of Galaxy Clusters Using Gravitational Lensing
Wiesner, Matthew P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)
2014-08-01
In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.
Can strong gravitational lensing constrain dark energy?
Lee, Seokcheon; Ng, K.-W.
2007-01-01
We discuss the ratio of the angular diameter distances from the source to the lens, D ds , and to the observer at present, D s , for various dark energy models. It is well known that the difference of D s s between the models is apparent and this quantity is used for the analysis of Type Ia supernovae. However we investigate the difference between the ratio of the angular diameter distances for a cosmological constant, (D ds /D s ) Λ , and that for other dark energy models, (D ds /D s ) other , in this paper. It has been known that there is lens model degeneracy in using strong gravitational lensing. Thus, we investigate the model independent observable quantity, Einstein radius (θ E ), which is proportional to both D ds /D s and velocity dispersion squared, σ v 2 . D ds /D s values depend on the parameters of each dark energy model individually. However, (D ds /D s ) Λ -(D ds /D s ) other for the various dark energy models, is well within the error of σ v for most of the parameter spaces of the dark energy models. Thus, a single strong gravitational lensing by use of the Einstein radius may not be a proper method to investigate the property of dark energy. However, better understanding to the mass profile of clusters in the future or other methods related to arc statistics rather than the distances may be used for constraints on dark energy
Gravitational lensing of the SNLS supernovae
Kronborg, T.
2011-01-01
Type Ia supernovae have become an essential tool of modern observational cosmology. By studying the distance-redshift relation of a large number of supernovae, the nature of dark energy can be unveiled. Distances to Type Ia SNe are however affected by gravitational lensing which can induce systematic effects in the measurement of cosmology. The majority of the supernovae is slightly de-magnified whereas a small fraction is significantly magnified due to the mass distribution along the line of sight. This causes naturally an additional dispersion in the observed magnitudes. There are two different ways to estimate the magnification of a supernova. A first method consists in comparing the supernova luminosity, which is measured to about 15% precision, to the mean SN luminosity at the same redshift. Another estimate can be obtained from predicting the magnification induced by the foreground matter density modeled from the measurements of the luminosity of the galaxies with an initial prior on the mass-luminosity relation of the galaxies. A correlation between these 2 estimates will make it possible to tune the initially used mass-luminosity relation resulting in an independent measurement of the dark matter clustering based on the luminosity of SNe Ia. Evidently, this measurement depends crucially on the detection of this correlation also referred to as the lensing signal. This thesis is dedicated to the measurement of the lensing signal in the SNLS 3-year sample. (author)
Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems
Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong; Biesiada, Marek; Godlowski, Wlodzimierz
2012-01-01
Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D ds /D s from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (ΛCDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future
Constraints on cosmological models from strong gravitational lensing systems
Cao, Shuo; Pan, Yu; Zhu, Zong-Hong [Department of Astronomy, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Biesiada, Marek [Department of Astrophysics and Cosmology, Institute of Physics, University of Silesia, Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Godlowski, Wlodzimierz, E-mail: baodingcaoshuo@163.com, E-mail: panyu@cqupt.edu.cn, E-mail: biesiada@us.edu.pl, E-mail: godlowski@uni.opole.pl, E-mail: zhuzh@bnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics, Opole University, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole (Poland)
2012-03-01
Strong lensing has developed into an important astrophysical tool for probing both cosmology and galaxies (their structure, formation, and evolution). Using the gravitational lensing theory and cluster mass distribution model, we try to collect a relatively complete observational data concerning the Hubble constant independent ratio between two angular diameter distances D{sub ds}/D{sub s} from various large systematic gravitational lens surveys and lensing by galaxy clusters combined with X-ray observations, and check the possibility to use it in the future as complementary to other cosmological probes. On one hand, strongly gravitationally lensed quasar-galaxy systems create such a new opportunity by combining stellar kinematics (central velocity dispersion measurements) with lensing geometry (Einstein radius determination from position of images). We apply such a method to a combined gravitational lens data set including 70 data points from Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) and Lens Structure and Dynamics survey (LSD). On the other hand, a new sample of 10 lensing galaxy clusters with redshifts ranging from 0.1 to 0.6 carefully selected from strong gravitational lensing systems with both X-ray satellite observations and optical giant luminous arcs, is also used to constrain three dark energy models (ΛCDM, constant w and CPL) under a flat universe assumption. For the full sample (n = 80) and the restricted sample (n = 46) including 36 two-image lenses and 10 strong lensing arcs, we obtain relatively good fitting values of basic cosmological parameters, which generally agree with the results already known in the literature. This results encourages further development of this method and its use on larger samples obtained in the future.
Gravitational Lensing from a Spacetime Perspective
Perlick Volker
2004-09-01
Full Text Available The theory of gravitational lensing is reviewed from a spacetime perspective, without quasi-Newtonian approximations. More precisely, the review covers all aspects of gravitational lensing where light propagation is described in terms of lightlike geodesics of a metric of Lorentzian signature. It includes the basic equations and the relevant techniques for calculating the position, the shape, and the brightness of images in an arbitrary general-relativistic spacetime. It also includes general theorems on the classification of caustics, on criteria for multiple imaging, and on the possible number of images. The general results are illustrated with examples of spacetimes where the lensing features can be explicitly calculated, including the Schwarzschild spacetime, the Kerr spacetime, the spacetime of a straight string, plane gravitational waves, and others.
Gravitational lensing by spinning and radially moving lenses
Sereno, M.
2002-01-01
The effect of currents of mass on bending of light rays is considered in the weak field regime. Following Fermat's principle and the standard theory of gravitational lensing, we derive the gravito-magnetic correction to time delay function and deflection angle caused by a geometrically-thin lens. The cases of both rotating and shifting deflectors are discussed
Comments on the Gravitational lensing Magnification
Takashi, HAMANA; Astronomical Institute, Tohoku University
1998-01-01
We rederive a relation between gravitational lensing magnification relative to the standard Friedmann distance and one relative to the Dyer-Roeder distance by investigating the null geodesic deviation equation. We show that the relation comes from a natural consequence of the definition of the lensing magnification matrices and is not based on the averaging of the magnifications, which has conventionally been used to derive it. We therefore conclude that the relation is true for each individu...
Comments on the gravitational lensing magnification
Hamana, Takashi
1998-01-01
We rederive a relation between gravitational lensing magnification relative to the standard Friedmann distance and one relative to the Dyer-Roeder distance by investigating the null geodesic deviation equation. We show that the relation comes from a natural consequence of the definition of the lensing magnification matrices and is not based on the averaging of the magnifications, which has conventionally been used to derive it. We therefore conclude that the relation is true for each individu...
BAYESIAN INFERENCE OF CMB GRAVITATIONAL LENSING
Anderes, Ethan [Department of Statistics, University of California, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Wandelt, Benjamin D.; Lavaux, Guilhem [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ Paris 06 and CNRS, UMR7095, Institut d’Astrophysique de Paris, F-75014, Paris (France)
2015-08-01
The Planck satellite, along with several ground-based telescopes, has mapped the cosmic microwave background (CMB) at sufficient resolution and signal-to-noise so as to allow a detection of the subtle distortions due to the gravitational influence of the intervening matter distribution. A natural modeling approach is to write a Bayesian hierarchical model for the lensed CMB in terms of the unlensed CMB and the lensing potential. So far there has been no feasible algorithm for inferring the posterior distribution of the lensing potential from the lensed CMB map. We propose a solution that allows efficient Markov Chain Monte Carlo sampling from the joint posterior of the lensing potential and the unlensed CMB map using the Hamiltonian Monte Carlo technique. The main conceptual step in the solution is a re-parameterization of CMB lensing in terms of the lensed CMB and the “inverse lensing” potential. We demonstrate a fast implementation on simulated data, including noise and a sky cut, that uses a further acceleration based on a very mild approximation of the inverse lensing potential. We find that the resulting Markov Chain has short correlation lengths and excellent convergence properties, making it promising for applications to high-resolution CMB data sets in the future.
Predicting gravitational lensing by stellar remnants
Harding, Alexander J.; Stefano, R. Di; Lépine, S.; Urama, J.; Pham, D.; Baker, C.
2018-03-01
Gravitational lensing provides a means to measure mass that does not rely on detecting and analysing light from the lens itself. Compact objects are ideal gravitational lenses, because they have relatively large masses and are dim. In this paper, we describe the prospects for predicting lensing events generated by the local population of compact objects, consisting of 250 neutron stars, five black holes, and ≈35 000 white dwarfs. By focusing on a population of nearby compact objects with measured proper motions and known distances from us, we can measure their masses by studying the characteristics of any lensing event they generate. Here, we concentrate on shifts in the position of a background source due to lensing by a foreground compact object. With Hubble Space Telescope, JWST, and Gaia, measurable centroid shifts caused by lensing are relatively frequent occurrences. We find that 30-50 detectable events per decade are expected for white dwarfs. Because relatively few neutron stars and black holes have measured distances and proper motions, it is more difficult to compute realistic rates for them. However, we show that at least one isolated neutron star has likely produced detectable events during the past several decades. This work is particularly relevant to the upcoming data releases by the Gaia mission and also to data that will be collected by JWST. Monitoring predicted microlensing events will not only help to determine the masses of compact objects, but will also potentially discover dim companions to these stellar remnants, including orbiting exoplanets.
A gravitationally lensed quasar discovered in OGLE
Kostrzewa-Rutkowska, Zuzanna; Kozłowski, Szymon; Lemon, Cameron; Anguita, T.; Greiner, J.; Auger, M. W.; Wyrzykowski, Ł.; Apostolovski, Y.; Bolmer, J.; Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Soszyński, I.; Poleski, R.; Pietrukowicz, P.; Skowron, J.; Mróz, P.; Ulaczyk, K.; Pawlak, M.
2018-05-01
We report the discovery of a new gravitationally lensed quasar (double) from the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (OGLE) identified inside the ˜670deg2 area encompassing the Magellanic Clouds. The source was selected as one of ˜60 `red W1 - W2' mid-infrared objects from WISE and having a significant amount of variability in OGLE for both two (or more) nearby sources. This is the first detection of a gravitational lens, where the discovery is made `the other way around', meaning we first measured the time delay between the two lensed quasar images of -132 Technology Telescope spectra. The spectral energy distribution (SED) fitting with the fixed source redshift provided the estimate of the lensing galaxy redshift of z ≈ 0.9 ± 0.2 (90 per cent CL), while its type is more likely to be elliptical (the SED-inferred and lens-model stellar mass is more likely present in ellipticals) than spiral (preferred redshift by the lens model).
Gravitational lensing and extra dimensions
He, X-G.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC; Joshi, G.C.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1999-08-01
We study gravitational tensing and the bending of light in low energy scale (M s ) gravity theories with extra space-time dimensions 'n'. We find that due to the presence of spin-2 Kaluza-Klein states from compactification, a correction to the deflection angle with a strong quadratic dependence on the photon energy is introduced. No deviation from the Einstein General Relativity prediction for the deflection angle for photons grazing the Sun in the visible band with 15% accuracy (90% c.l.) implies that the scale M s has to be larger than 1.4(2/(n-2)) 1/4 TeV and approximately 4 TeV for n=2. This lower bound is comparable with that from collider physics constraints. Gravitational tensing experiments with higher energy photons can provide stronger constraints. (authors)
Precision cosmology with weak gravitational lensing
Hearin, Andrew P.
In recent years, cosmological science has developed a highly predictive model for the universe on large scales that is in quantitative agreement with a wide range of astronomical observations. While the number and diversity of successes of this model provide great confidence that our general picture of cosmology is correct, numerous puzzles remain. In this dissertation, I analyze the potential of planned and near future galaxy surveys to provide new understanding of several unanswered questions in cosmology, and address some of the leading challenges to this observational program. In particular, I study an emerging technique called cosmic shear, the weak gravitational lensing produced by large scale structure. I focus on developing strategies to optimally use the cosmic shear signal observed in galaxy imaging surveys to uncover the physics of dark energy and the early universe. In chapter 1 I give an overview of a few unsolved mysteries in cosmology and I motivate weak lensing as a cosmological probe. I discuss the use of weak lensing as a test of general relativity in chapter 2 and assess the threat to such tests presented by our uncertainty in the physics of galaxy formation. Interpreting the cosmic shear signal requires knowledge of the redshift distribution of the lensed galaxies. This redshift distribution will be significantly uncertain since it must be determined photometrically. In chapter 3 I investigate the influence of photometric redshift errors on our ability to constrain dark energy models with weak lensing. The ability to study dark energy with cosmic shear is also limited by the imprecision in our understanding of the physics of gravitational collapse. In chapter 4 I present the stringent calibration requirements on this source of uncertainty. I study the potential of weak lensing to resolve a debate over a long-standing anomaly in CMB measurements in chapter 5. Finally, in chapter 6 I summarize my findings and conclude with a brief discussion of my
A new case of gravitational lensing
Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.
1987-01-01
The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10 11 M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to Δt approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO. (author)
Poisson equation for weak gravitational lensing
Kling, Thomas P.; Campbell, Bryan
2008-01-01
Using the Newman and Penrose [E. T. Newman and R. Penrose, J. Math. Phys. (N.Y.) 3, 566 (1962).] spin-coefficient formalism, we examine the full Bianchi identities of general relativity in the context of gravitational lensing, where the matter and space-time curvature are projected into a lens plane perpendicular to the line of sight. From one component of the Bianchi identity, we provide a rigorous, new derivation of a Poisson equation for the projected matter density where the source term involves second derivatives of the observed weak gravitational lensing shear. We also show that the other components of the Bianchi identity reveal no new results. Numerical integration of the Poisson equation in test cases shows an accurate mass map can be constructed from the combination of a ground-based, wide-field image and a Hubble Space Telescope image of the same system
Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole
Badia, Javier [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pabellon I, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2017-11-15
In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)
Gravitational lensing by a Horndeski black hole
Badia, Javier; Eiroa, Ernesto F.
2017-01-01
In this article we study gravitational lensing by non-rotating and asymptotically flat black holes in Horndeski theory. By adopting the strong deflection limit, we calculate the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to black holes in General Relativity. We analyze the astrophysical consequences in the case of the nearest supermassive black holes. (orig.)
Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity
Sereno, Mauro
2003-01-01
Gravitational lensing in metric theories of gravity is discussed. I introduce a generalized approximate metric element, inclusive of both post-post-Newtonian contributions and a gravitomagnetic field. Following Fermat's principle and standard hypotheses, I derive the time delay function and deflection angle caused by an isolated mass distribution. Several astrophysical systems are considered. In most of the cases, the gravitomagnetic correction offers the best perspectives for an observational detection. Actual measurements distinguish only marginally different metric theories from each other
Strong gravitational lensing by Sgr A*
Bin-Nun, Amitai Y
2011-01-01
In recent years, there has been increasing recognition of the potential to use the galactic center as a probe of general relativity in the strong field. There is almost certainly a black hole at Sgr A* in the galactic center, and this would allow us to have the opportunity to probe dynamics near the exterior of the black hole. In the last decade, there has been theoretical research into extreme gravitational lensing in the galactic center. Unlike in most applications of gravitational lensing, where the bending angle is of the order of, at most, an arc minute, very large bending angles are possible for light that closely approaches a black hole. Photons may even loop multiple times around a black hole before reaching the observer. There have been many proposals to use light's close approach to the black hole as a probe of the black hole metric. Of particular interest are the properties of images formed from the light of S stars orbiting in the galactic center. This paper will review some of the attempts made to study extreme lensing as well as extend the analysis of S star lensing. In particular, we are interested in the effect of a Reissner-Nordstrom like 1/r 2 term in the metric and how this would affect the properties of relativistic images.
Direct probe of dark energy through gravitational lensing effect
He, Hong-Jian [T. D. Lee Institute, and School of Physics and Astronomy, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240 (China); Zhang, Zhen, E-mail: hjhe@tsinghua.edu.cn, E-mail: zh.zhang@pku.edu.cn [Center for High Energy Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)
2017-08-01
We show that gravitational lensing can provide a direct method to probe the nature of dark energy at astrophysical scales. For lensing system as an isolated astrophysical object, we derive the dark energy contribution to gravitational potential as a repulsive power-law term, containing a generic equation of state parameter w . We find that it generates w -dependent and position-dependent modification to the conventional light orbital equation of w =−1. With post-Newtonian approximation, we compute its direct effect for an isolated lensing system at astrophysical scales and find that the dark energy force can deflect the path of incident light rays. We demonstrate that the dark-energy-induced deflection angle Δα{sub DE}∝ M {sup (1+1/3} {sup w} {sup )} (with 1+1/3 w > 0), which increases with the lensing mass M and consistently approaches zero in the limit M → 0. This effect is distinctive because dark energy tends to diffuse the rays and generates concave lensing effect . This is in contrast to the conventional convex lensing effect caused by both visible and dark matter. Measuring such concave lensing effect can directly probe the existence and nature of dark energy. We estimate this effect and show that the current gravitational lensing experiments are sensitive to the direct probe of dark energy at astrophysical scales. For the special case w =−1, our independent study favors the previous works that the cosmological constant can affect light bending, but our prediction qualitatively and quantitatively differ from the literature, including our consistent realization of Δα{sub DE} → 0 (under 0 M → ) at the leading order.
Gravitational lensing of gravitational waves: a statistical perspective
Li, Shun-Sheng; Mao, Shude; Zhao, Yuetong; Lu, Youjun
2018-05-01
In this paper, we study the strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves (GWs) from a statistical perspective, with particular focus on the high frequency GWs from stellar binary black hole coalescences. These are most promising targets for ground-based detectors such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (aLIGO) and the proposed Einstein Telescope (ET) and can be safely treated under the geometrical optics limit for GW propagation. We perform a thorough calculation of the lensing rate, by taking account of effects caused by the ellipticity of lensing galaxies, lens environments, and magnification bias. We find that in certain GW source rate scenarios, we should be able to observe strongly lensed GW events once per year (˜1 yr-1) in the aLIGO survey at its design sensitivity; for the proposed ET survey, the rate could be as high as ˜80 yr-1. These results depend on the estimate of GW source abundance, and hence can be correspondingly modified with an improvement in our understanding of the merger rate of stellar binary black holes. We also compute the fraction of four-image lens systems in each survey, predicting it to be ˜30 per cent for the aLIGO survey and ˜6 per cent for the ET survey. Finally, we evaluate the possibility of missing some images due to the finite survey duration, by presenting the probability distribution of lensing time delays. We predict that this selection bias will be insignificant in future GW surveys, as most of the lens systems ({˜ } 90{per cent}) will have time delays less than ˜1 month, which will be far shorter than survey durations.
Dynamics of Fermat potentials in nonperturbative gravitational lensing
Frittelli, Simonetta; Newman, Ezra T.
2002-01-01
We present a framework, based on the null-surface formulation of general relativity, for discussing the dynamics of Fermat potentials for gravitational lensing in a generic situation without approximations of any kind. Additionally, we derive two lens equations: one for the case of thick compact lenses and the other one for lensing by gravitational waves. These equations in principle generalize the astrophysical scheme for lensing by removing the thin-lens approximation while retaining the weak fields
Speed of Gravitational Waves from Strongly Lensed Gravitational Waves and Electromagnetic Signals.
Fan, Xi-Long; Liao, Kai; Biesiada, Marek; Piórkowska-Kurpas, Aleksandra; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2017-03-03
We propose a new model-independent measurement strategy for the propagation speed of gravitational waves (GWs) based on strongly lensed GWs and their electromagnetic (EM) counterparts. This can be done in two ways: by comparing arrival times of GWs and their EM counterparts and by comparing the time delays between images seen in GWs and their EM counterparts. The lensed GW-EM event is perhaps the best way to identify an EM counterpart. Conceptually, this method does not rely on any specific theory of massive gravitons or modified gravity. Its differential setting (i.e., measuring the difference between time delays in GW and EM domains) makes it robust against lens modeling details (photons and GWs travel in the same lensing potential) and against internal time delays between GW and EM emission acts. It requires, however, that the theory of gravity is metric and predicts gravitational lensing similar to general relativity. We expect that such a test will become possible in the era of third-generation gravitational-wave detectors, when about 10 lensed GW events would be observed each year. The power of this method is mainly limited by the timing accuracy of the EM counterpart, which for kilonovae is around 10^{4} s. This uncertainty can be suppressed by a factor of ∼10^{10}, if strongly lensed transients of much shorter duration associated with the GW event can be identified. Candidates for such short transients include short γ-ray bursts and fast radio bursts.
Gravitationally Lensed Quasars in Gaia: II. Discovery of 24 Lensed Quasars
Lemon, Cameron A.; Auger, Matthew W.; McMahon, Richard G.; Ostrovski, Fernanda
2018-04-01
We report the discovery, spectroscopic confirmation and preliminary characterisation of 24 gravitationally lensed quasars identified using Gaia observations. Candidates were selected in the Pan-STARRS footprint with quasar-like WISE colours or as photometric quasars from SDSS, requiring either multiple detections in Gaia or a single Gaia detection near a morphological galaxy. The Pan-STARRS grizY images were modelled for the most promising candidates and 60 candidate systems were followed up with the William Herschel Telescope. 13 of the lenses were discovered as Gaia multiples and 10 as single Gaia detections near galaxies. We also discover 1 lens identified through a quasar emission line in an SDSS galaxy spectrum. The lenses have median image separation 2.13″ and the source redshifts range from 1.06 to 3.36. 4 systems are quadruply-imaged and 20 are doubly-imaged. Deep CFHT data reveal an Einstein ring in one double system. We also report 12 quasar pairs, 10 of which have components at the same redshift and require further follow-up to rule out the lensing hypothesis. We compare the properties of these lenses and other known lenses recovered by our search method to a complete sample of simulated lenses to show the lenses we are missing are mainly those with small separations and higher source redshifts. The initial Gaia data release only catalogues all images of ˜ 30% of known bright lensed quasars, however the improved completeness of Gaia data release 2 will help find all bright lensed quasars on the sky.
Fermat potentials for nonperturbative gravitational lensing
Frittelli, Simonetta; Kling, Thomas P.; Newman, Ezra T.
2002-01-01
The images of many distant galaxies are displaced, distorted and often multiplied by the presence of foreground massive galaxies near the line of sight; the foreground galaxies act as gravitational lenses. Commonly, the lens equation, which relates the placement and distortion of the images to the real source position in the thin-lens scenario, is obtained by extremizing the time of arrival among all the null paths from the source to the observer (Fermat's principle). We show that the construction of envelopes of certain families of null surfaces constitutes an alternative variational principle or version of Fermat's principle that leads naturally to a lens equation in a generic spacetime with any given metric. We illustrate the construction by deriving the lens equation for static asymptotically flat thin lens spacetimes. As an application of the approach, we find the bending angle for moving thin lenses in terms of the bending angle for the same deflector at rest. Finally we apply this construction to cosmological spacetimes (FRW) by using the fact they are all conformally related to Minkowski space
QUANTIFYING THE BIASES OF SPECTROSCOPICALLY SELECTED GRAVITATIONAL LENSES
Arneson, Ryan A.; Brownstein, Joel R.; Bolton, Adam S.
2012-01-01
Spectroscopic selection has been the most productive technique for the selection of galaxy-scale strong gravitational lens systems with known redshifts. Statistically significant samples of strong lenses provide a powerful method for measuring the mass-density parameters of the lensing population, but results can only be generalized to the parent population if the lensing selection biases are sufficiently understood. We perform controlled Monte Carlo simulations of spectroscopic lens surveys in order to quantify the bias of lenses relative to parent galaxies in velocity dispersion, mass axis ratio, and mass-density profile. For parameters typical of the SLACS and BELLS surveys, we find (1) no significant mass axis ratio detection bias of lenses relative to parent galaxies; (2) a very small detection bias toward shallow mass-density profiles, which is likely negligible compared to other sources of uncertainty in this parameter; (3) a detection bias toward smaller Einstein radius for systems drawn from parent populations with group- and cluster-scale lensing masses; and (4) a lens-modeling bias toward larger velocity dispersions for systems drawn from parent samples with sub-arcsecond mean Einstein radii. This last finding indicates that the incorporation of velocity-dispersion upper limits of non-lenses is an important ingredient for unbiased analyses of spectroscopically selected lens samples. In general, we find that the completeness of spectroscopic lens surveys in the plane of Einstein radius and mass-density profile power-law index is quite uniform, up to a sharp drop in the region of large Einstein radius and steep mass-density profile, and hence that such surveys are ideally suited to the study of massive field galaxies.
THE THIRD GRAVITATIONAL LENSING ACCURACY TESTING (GREAT3) CHALLENGE HANDBOOK
Mandelbaum, Rachel; Kannawadi, Arun; Simet, Melanie; Rowe, Barnaby; Kacprzak, Tomasz; Bosch, James; Miyatake, Hironao; Chang, Chihway; Gill, Mandeep; Courbin, Frederic; Jarvis, Mike; Armstrong, Bob; Lackner, Claire; Leauthaud, Alexie; Nakajima, Reiko; Rhodes, Jason; Zuntz, Joe; Bridle, Sarah; Coupon, Jean; Dietrich, Jörg P.
2014-01-01
The GRavitational lEnsing Accuracy Testing 3 (GREAT3) challenge is the third in a series of image analysis challenges, with a goal of testing and facilitating the development of methods for analyzing astronomical images that will be used to measure weak gravitational lensing. This measurement requires extremely precise estimation of very small galaxy shape distortions, in the presence of far larger intrinsic galaxy shapes and distortions due to the blurring kernel caused by the atmosphere, telescope optics, and instrumental effects. The GREAT3 challenge is posed to the astronomy, machine learning, and statistics communities, and includes tests of three specific effects that are of immediate relevance to upcoming weak lensing surveys, two of which have never been tested in a community challenge before. These effects include many novel aspects including realistically complex galaxy models based on high-resolution imaging from space; a spatially varying, physically motivated blurring kernel; and a combination of multiple different exposures. To facilitate entry by people new to the field, and for use as a diagnostic tool, the simulation software for the challenge is publicly available, though the exact parameters used for the challenge are blinded. Sample scripts to analyze the challenge data using existing methods will also be provided. See http://great3challenge.info and http://great3.projects.phys.ucl.ac.uk/leaderboard/ for more information
What is Gravitational Lensing? (LBNL Summer Lecture Series)
Leauthaud, Alexie [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics (BCCP); Nakajima, Reiko [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics (BCCP)
2009-07-28
Summer Lecture Series 2009: Gravitational lensing is explained by Einstein's general theory of relativity: galaxies and clusters of galaxies, which are very massive objects, act on spacetime by causing it to become curved. Alexie Leauthaud and Reiko Nakajima, astrophysicists with the Berkeley Center for Cosmological Physics, will discuss how scientists use gravitational lensing to investigate the nature of dark energy and dark matter in the universe.
Collett, Thomas E; Bacon, David
2017-03-03
Probing the relative speeds of gravitational waves and light acts as an important test of general relativity and alternative theories of gravity. Measuring the arrival time of gravitational waves (GWs) and electromagnetic (EM) counterparts can be used to measure the relative speeds, but only if the intrinsic time lag between emission of the photons and gravitational waves is well understood. Here we suggest a method that does not make such an assumption, using future strongly lensed GW events and EM counterparts; Biesiada et al. [J. Cosmol. Astropart. Phys.10 (2014) 080JCAPBP1475-751610.1088/1475-7516/2014/10/080] forecast that 50-100 strongly lensed GW events will be observed each year with the Einstein Telescope. A single strongly lensed GW event would produce robust constraints on c_{GW}/c_{γ} at the 10^{-7} level, if a high-energy EM counterpart is observed within the field of view of an observing γ-ray burst monitor.
A most useful manifestation of relativity: gravitational lenses
Falco, Emilio E
2005-01-01
Gravitational lenses are scarce but extraordinary phenomena that yield a very high rate of return on observational investment. Given their scarcity, it is very impressive that since their discovery in the extragalactic realm in 1979, they have had such an enormous impact on our knowledge of the universe. Gravitational lensing is a manifestation of general relativity that has contributed to a great variety of astrophysical and cosmological studies. In the weak-field limit, lensing studies are based on well-established physics and thus offer a direct approach to study many of the currently pressing problems of astrophysics. Examples of these are the significance of dark matter and the age and size of the universe. I present a brief history of gravitational lensing and describe recent developments in fields such as searches for dark matter and studies of galaxy evolution and cosmology. The approach is non-specialized and emphasizes observational results, to reach the widest possible audience
Data mining for gravitationally lensed quasars
Agnello, Adriano; Kelly, Brandon C.; Treu, Tommaso; Marshall, Philip J.
2015-04-01
Gravitationally lensed quasars are brighter than their unlensed counterparts and produce images with distinctive morphological signatures. Past searches and target-selection algorithms, in particular the Sloan Quasar Lens Search (SQLS), have relied on basic morphological criteria, which were applied to samples of bright, spectroscopically confirmed quasars. The SQLS techniques are not sufficient for searching into new surveys (e.g. DES, PS1, LSST), because spectroscopic information is not readily available and the large data volume requires higher purity in target/candidate selection. We carry out a systematic exploration of machine-learning techniques and demonstrate that a two-step strategy can be highly effective. In the first step, we use catalogue-level information (griz+WISE magnitudes, second moments) to pre-select targets, using artificial neural networks. The accepted targets are then inspected with pixel-by-pixel pattern recognition algorithms (gradient-boosted trees), to form a final set of candidates. The results from this procedure can be used to further refine the simpler SQLS algorithms, with a twofold (or threefold) gain in purity and the same (or 80 per cent) completeness at target-selection stage, or a purity of 70 per cent and a completeness of 60 per cent after the candidate-selection step. Simpler photometric searches in griz+WISE based on colour cuts would provide samples with 7 per cent purity or less. Our technique is extremely fast, as a list of candidates can be obtained from a Stage III experiment (e.g. DES catalogue/data base) in a few CPU hours. The techniques are easily extendable to Stage IV experiments like LSST with the addition of time domain information.
Planck 2015 results. XV. Gravitational lensing
Ade, P.A.R.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoît, A.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bernard, J.-P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Calabrese, E.; Cardoso, J.-F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Combet, C.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Désert, F.-X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Doré, O.; Douspis, M.; Ducout, A.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Elsner, F.; Enßlin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Fergusson, J.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Fraisse, A.A.; Franceschi, E.; Frejsel, A.; Galeotta, S.; Galli, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giraud-Héraud, Y.; Gjerløw, E.; González-Nuevo, J.; Górski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.L.; Henrot-Versillé, S.; Hernández-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Hurier, G.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihänen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lähteenmäki, A.; Lamarre, J.-M.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Lesgourgues, J.; Levrier, F.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vørnle, M.; López-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macías-Pérez, J.F.; Maggio, G.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Martin, P.G.; Martínez-González, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McGehee, P.; Meinhold, P.R.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschênes, M.-A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Murphy, J.A.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Nørgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Pettorino, V.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Popa, L.; Pratt, G.W.; Prézeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.-L.; Rachen, J.P.; Reach, W.T.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Renzi, A.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Rossetti, M.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubiño-Martín, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savelainen, M.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.-S.; Sygnet, J.-F.; Tauber, J.A.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; Wehus, I.K.; White, M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.
2016-01-01
We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40 sigma), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator we detect lensing at a significance of 5 sigma. We cross-check the accuracy of our measurement using the wide frequency coverage and complementarity of the temperature and polarization measurements. Public products based on this measurement include an estimate of the lensing potential over approximately 70% of the sky, an estimate of the lensing potential power spectrum in bandpowers for the multipole range 40
HOW TO FIND GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E.
2017-01-01
Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts ( z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H _0, w , and Ω_m via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts’ photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z -band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. We also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R -band search—despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.
HOW TO FIND GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED TYPE Ia SUPERNOVAE
Goldstein, Daniel A.; Nugent, Peter E. [Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720-3411 (United States)
2017-01-01
Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) that are multiply imaged by gravitational lensing can extend the SN Ia Hubble diagram to very high redshifts ( z ≳ 2), probe potential SN Ia evolution, and deliver high-precision constraints on H {sub 0}, w , and Ω{sub m} via time delays. However, only one, iPTF16geu, has been found to date, and many more are needed to achieve these goals. To increase the multiply imaged SN Ia discovery rate, we present a simple algorithm for identifying gravitationally lensed SN Ia candidates in cadenced, wide-field optical imaging surveys. The technique is to look for supernovae that appear to be hosted by elliptical galaxies, but that have absolute magnitudes implied by the apparent hosts’ photometric redshifts that are far brighter than the absolute magnitudes of normal SNe Ia (the brightest type of supernovae found in elliptical galaxies). Importantly, this purely photometric method does not require the ability to resolve the lensed images for discovery. Active galactic nuclei, the primary sources of contamination that affect the method, can be controlled using catalog cross-matches and color cuts. Highly magnified core-collapse SNe will also be discovered as a byproduct of the method. Using a Monte Carlo simulation, we forecast that the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope can discover up to 500 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 10 year z -band search, more than an order of magnitude improvement over previous estimates. We also predict that the Zwicky Transient Facility should find up to 10 multiply imaged SNe Ia using this technique in a 3 year R -band search—despite the fact that this survey will not resolve a single system.
Planck 2015 results: XV. Gravitational lensing
Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.; Arnaud, M.
2016-01-01
We present the most significant measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing potential to date (at a level of 40σ), using temperature and polarization data from the Planck 2015 full-mission release. Using a polarization-only estimator, we detect lensing at a significance of 5σ. We...
Lensing of 21-cm fluctuations by primordial gravitational waves.
Book, Laura; Kamionkowski, Marc; Schmidt, Fabian
2012-05-25
Weak-gravitational-lensing distortions to the intensity pattern of 21-cm radiation from the dark ages can be decomposed geometrically into curl and curl-free components. Lensing by primordial gravitational waves induces a curl component, while the contribution from lensing by density fluctuations is strongly suppressed. Angular fluctuations in the 21-cm background extend to very small angular scales, and measurements at different frequencies probe different shells in redshift space. There is thus a huge trove of information with which to reconstruct the curl component of the lensing field, allowing tensor-to-scalar ratios conceivably as small as r~10(-9)-far smaller than those currently accessible-to be probed.
Gravitational lensing by eigenvalue distributions of random matrix models
Martínez Alonso, Luis; Medina, Elena
2018-05-01
We propose to use eigenvalue densities of unitary random matrix ensembles as mass distributions in gravitational lensing. The corresponding lens equations reduce to algebraic equations in the complex plane which can be treated analytically. We prove that these models can be applied to describe lensing by systems of edge-on galaxies. We illustrate our analysis with the Gaussian and the quartic unitary matrix ensembles.
Using Strong Gravitational Lensing to Identify Fossil Group Progenitors
Johnson, Lucas E.; Irwin, Jimmy A.; White, Raymond E., III; Wong, Ka-Wah; Maksym, W. Peter; Dupke, Renato A.; Miller, Eric D.; Carrasco, Eleazar R.
2018-04-01
Fossil galaxy systems are classically thought to be the end result of galaxy group/cluster evolution, as galaxies experiencing dynamical friction sink to the center of the group potential and merge into a single, giant elliptical that dominates the rest of the members in both mass and luminosity. Most fossil systems discovered lie within z fossil criteria within the look forward time. Since strong gravitational lensing preferentially selects groups merging along the line of sight, or systems with a high mass concentration like fossil systems, we searched the CASSOWARY survey of strong-lensing events with the goal of determining whether lensing systems have any predisposition to being fossil systems or progenitors. We find that ∼13% of lensing groups are identified as traditional fossils while only ∼3% of nonlensing control groups are. We also find that ∼23% of lensing systems are traditional fossil progenitors compared to ∼17% for the control sample. Our findings show that strong-lensing systems are more likely to be fossil/pre-fossil systems than comparable nonlensing systems. Cumulative galaxy luminosity functions of the lensing and nonlensing groups also indicate a possible, fundamental difference between strong-lensing and nonlensing systems’ galaxy populations, with lensing systems housing a greater number of bright galaxies even in the outskirts of groups.
Evidence for secondary gravitationally lensed images in radio quasistellar objects
Rousey, C.E.
1977-01-01
Evidence is sought for the observability of the gravitational lens effect by studying the internal radio structures of quasistellar objects. Since the majority of the radio emitting quasars were observed to be multiply structured at radio wavelengths, and since the gravitational deflection of light is essentially frequency independent, these sources are very suitable objects for the investigation of gravitational imaging. From the theoretical framework of gravitational imaging, particularly in the treatment of the gravitational lenses as ''point-mass'' deflectors, several selection criteria were imposed on a sample of 208 radio emitting quasars in order to filter out only those sources which may be exhibiting radio imaging. The employment of further selection criteria, obtained from the consideration of the observed optical fields around the quasars, resulted in a small filtered sample of 10 quasars which are good candidates for exhibiting the gravitational lens effect. In particular, two quasars, 3C 268.4 and 3C 286, are observed to have good evidence for the presence of suitable gravitational lenses. Image models were computed for the image candidates which predict the masses and distances of the gravitational deflectors as well as estimations of the ''time delays'' of the images. It is also suggested that measurements of these image time delays may enable one to place stringent limits on the value of the Hubble constant
Red nuggets grow inside-out: evidence from gravitational lensing
Oldham, Lindsay; Auger, Matthew W.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Treu, Tommaso; Brewer, Brendon J.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Lagattuta, David; Marshall, Philip; McKean, John; Vegetti, Simona
We present a new sample of strong gravitational lens systems where both the foreground lenses and background sources are early-type galaxies. Using imaging from Hubble Space Telescope (HST)/Advanced Camera for Studies (ACS) and Keck/NIRC2, we model the surface brightness distributions and show that
On an illusion of superluminal velocities produced by gravitational lenses
Ingel, L.Kh.
1981-01-01
It is noted that gravitational lenses, by focusing the radiation of an object, increase the angle which it subtends. This in turn produces the illusion of an increase in velocities at right angles to the line of sight. Preliminary estimates are made which indicate a rather high probability of strong distortion of the observed velocities
Strong lensing of gravitational waves as seen by LISA.
Sereno, M; Sesana, A; Bleuler, A; Jetzer, Ph; Volonteri, M; Begelman, M C
2010-12-17
We discuss strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves from the merging of massive black hole binaries in the context of the LISA mission. Detection of multiple events would provide invaluable information on competing theories of gravity, evolution and formation of structures and, possibly, constraints on H0 and other cosmological parameters. Most of the optical depth for lensing is provided by intervening massive galactic halos, for which wave optics effects are negligible. Probabilities to observe multiple events are sizable for a broad range of formation histories. For the most optimistic models, up to ≲ 4 multiple events with a signal to noise ratio ≳ 8 are expected in a 5-year mission. Chances are significant even for conservative models with either light (≲ 60%) or heavy (≲ 40%) seeds. Because of lensing amplification, some intrinsically too faint signals are brought over threshold (≲ 2 per year).
The Hubble constant estimation using 18 gravitational lensing time delays
Jaelani, Anton T.; Premadi, Premana W.
2014-03-01
Gravitational lens time delay method has been used to estimate the rate of cosmological expansion, called the Hubble constant, H0, independently of the standard candle method. This gravitational lensing method requires a good knowledge of the lens mass distribution, reconstructed using the lens image properties. The observed positions of the images, and the redshifts of the lens and the images serve as strong constraints to the lens equations, which are then solved as a set of simultaneous linear equations. Here we made use of a non-parametric technique to reconstruct the lens mass distribution, which is manifested in a linear equations solver named PixeLens. Input for the calculation is chosen based on prior known parameters obtained from analyzed result of the lens case observations, including time-delay, position angles of the images and the lens, and their redshifts. In this project, 18 fairly well studied lens cases are further grouped according to a number of common properties to examine how each property affects the character of the data, and therefore affects the calculation of H0. The considered lens case properties are lens morphology, number of image, completeness of time delays, and symmetry of lens mass distribution. Analysis of simulation shows that paucity of constraints on mass distribution of a lens yields wide range value of H0, which reflects the uniqueness of each lens system. Nonetheless, gravitational lens method still yields H0 within an acceptable range of value when compared to those determined by many other methods. Grouping the cases in the above manner allowed us to assess the robustness of PixeLens and thereby use it selectively. In addition, we use glafic, a parametric mass reconstruction solver, to refine the mass distribution of one lens case, as a comparison.
Exploring cosmic origins with CORE: Gravitational lensing of the CMB
Challinor, A.; Allison, R.; Carron, J.; Errard, J.; Feeney, S.; Kitching, T.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Zubeldía, Í.; Achucarro, A.; Ade, P.; Ashdown, M.; Ballardini, M.; Banday, A. J.; Banerji, R.; Bartlett, J.; Bartolo, N.; Basak, S.; Baumann, D.; Bersanelli, M.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonato, M.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.; Boulanger, F.; Brinckmann, T.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Buzzelli, A.; Cai, Z.-Y.; Calvo, M.; Carvalho, C.-S.; Castellano, G.; Chluba, J.; Clesse, S.; Colantoni, I.; Coppolecchia, A.; Crook, M.; d'Alessandro, G.; de Bernardis, P.; de Gasperis, G.; De Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Di Valentino, E.; Diego, J.-M.; Fernandez-Cobos, R.; Ferraro, S.; Finelli, F.; Forastieri, F.; Galli, S.; Genova-Santos, R.; Gerbino, M.; González-Nuevo, J.; Grandis, S.; Greenslade, J.; Hagstotz, S.; Hanany, S.; Handley, W.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Hervías-Caimapo, C.; Hills, M.; Hivon, E.; Kiiveri, K.; Kisner, T.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lamagna, L.; Lasenby, A.; Lattanzi, M.; Liguori, M.; Lindholm, V.; López-Caniego, M.; Luzzi, G.; Maffei, B.; Martinez-González, E.; Martins, C. J. A. P.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; McCarthy, D.; Melchiorri, A.; Melin, J.-B.; Molinari, D.; Monfardini, A.; Natoli, P.; Negrello, M.; Notari, A.; Paiella, A.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Piat, M.; Pisano, G.; Polastri, L.; Polenta, G.; Pollo, A.; Poulin, V.; Quartin, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Roman, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.-A.; Salvati, L.; Tartari, A.; Tomasi, M.; Tramonte, D.; Trappe, N.; Trombetti, T.; Tucker, C.; Valiviita, J.; Van de Weijgaert, R.; van Tent, B.; Vennin, V.; Vielva, P.; Vittorio, N.; Young, K.; Zannoni, M.
2018-04-01
Lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) is now a well-developed probe of the clustering of the large-scale mass distribution over a broad range of redshifts. By exploiting the non-Gaussian imprints of lensing in the polarization of the CMB, the CORE mission will allow production of a clean map of the lensing deflections over nearly the full-sky. The number of high-S/N modes in this map will exceed current CMB lensing maps by a factor of 40, and the measurement will be sample-variance limited on all scales where linear theory is valid. Here, we summarise this mission product and discuss the science that will follow from its power spectrum and the cross-correlation with other clustering data. For example, the summed mass of neutrinos will be determined to an accuracy of 17 meV combining CORE lensing and CMB two-point information with contemporaneous measurements of the baryon acoustic oscillation feature in the clustering of galaxies, three times smaller than the minimum total mass allowed by neutrino oscillation measurements. Lensing has applications across many other science goals of CORE, including the search for B-mode polarization from primordial gravitational waves. Here, lens-induced B-modes will dominate over instrument noise, limiting constraints on the power spectrum amplitude of primordial gravitational waves. With lensing reconstructed by CORE, one can "delens" the observed polarization internally, reducing the lensing B-mode power by 60 %. This can be improved to 70 % by combining lensing and measurements of the cosmic infrared background from CORE, leading to an improvement of a factor of 2.5 in the error on the amplitude of primordial gravitational waves compared to no delensing (in the null hypothesis of no primordial B-modes). Lensing measurements from CORE will allow calibration of the halo masses of the tens of thousands of galaxy clusters that it will find, with constraints dominated by the clean polarization-based estimators. The 19
Precision cosmology from future lensed gravitational wave and electromagnetic signals.
Liao, Kai; Fan, Xi-Long; Ding, Xuheng; Biesiada, Marek; Zhu, Zong-Hong
2017-10-27
The standard siren approach of gravitational wave cosmology appeals to the direct luminosity distance estimation through the waveform signals from inspiralling double compact binaries, especially those with electromagnetic counterparts providing redshifts. It is limited by the calibration uncertainties in strain amplitude and relies on the fine details of the waveform. The Einstein telescope is expected to produce 10 4 -10 5 gravitational wave detections per year, 50-100 of which will be lensed. Here, we report a waveform-independent strategy to achieve precise cosmography by combining the accurately measured time delays from strongly lensed gravitational wave signals with the images and redshifts observed in the electromagnetic domain. We demonstrate that just 10 such systems can provide a Hubble constant uncertainty of 0.68% for a flat lambda cold dark matter universe in the era of third-generation ground-based detectors.
Gravitational lenses and the cosmological evolution of quasars
Avni, Y.
1981-01-01
A heuristic model for the effect of gravitational lenses on the apparent cosmological evolution of quasars is considered. The model satisfies the requirement of average flux conservation and has no net mean amplification. This requirement is shown to be numerically important in studying the effect. On the basis of the values of the evolution indicators calculated from the model, it is concluded that it is premature to assert that lensing plays an important role in affecting the apparent evolution. A qualitative, model independent observational test for the effect is suggested. The test estimates the distances where lensing is dominant. An application of this test to a complete sample of quasars indicates that lensing cannot completely account for the apparent evolution, except in an extreme situation
Gravitational lensing of the CMB: A Feynman diagram approach
Elizabeth E. Jenkins
2014-09-01
Full Text Available We develop a Feynman diagram approach to calculating correlations of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB in the presence of distortions. As one application, we focus on CMB distortions due to gravitational lensing by Large Scale Structure (LSS. We study the Hu–Okamoto quadratic estimator for extracting lensing from the CMB and derive the noise of the estimator up to O(ϕ4 in the lensing potential ϕ. By identifying the diagrams responsible for the previously noted large O(ϕ4 term, we conclude that the lensing expansion does not break down. The convergence can be significantly improved by a reorganization of the ϕ expansion. Our approach makes it simple to obtain expressions for quadratic estimators based on any CMB channel, including many previously unexplored cases. We briefly discuss other applications to cosmology of this diagrammatic approach, such as distortions of the CMB due to patchy reionization, or due to Faraday rotation from primordial axion fields.
Probabilities for gravitational lensing by point masses in a locally inhomogeneous universe
Isaacson, J.A.; Canizares, C.R.
1989-01-01
Probability functions for gravitational lensing by point masses that incorporate Poisson statistics and flux conservation are formulated in the Dyer-Roeder construction. Optical depths to lensing for distant sources are calculated using both the method of Press and Gunn (1973) which counts lenses in an otherwise empty cone, and the method of Ehlers and Schneider (1986) which projects lensing cross sections onto the source sphere. These are then used as parameters of the probability density for lensing in the case of a critical (q0 = 1/2) Friedmann universe. A comparison of the probability functions indicates that the effects of angle-averaging can be well approximated by adjusting the average magnification along a random line of sight so as to conserve flux. 17 references
Nulling tomography with weak gravitational lensing
Huterer, Dragan; White, Martin
2005-01-01
We explore several strategies of eliminating (or nulling) the small-scale information in weak lensing convergence power spectrum measurements in order to protect against undesirable effects, for example, the effects of baryonic cooling and pressure forces on the distribution of large-scale structures. We selectively throw out the small-scale information in the convergence power spectrum that is most sensitive to the unwanted bias, while trying to retain most of the sensitivity to cosmological parameters. The strategies are effective in the difficult but realistic situations when we are able to guess the form of the contaminating effect only approximately. However, we also find that the simplest scheme of simply not using information from the largest multipoles works about as well as the proposed techniques in most, although not all, realistic cases. We advocate further exploration of nulling techniques and believe that they will find important applications in the weak lensing data mining
Gravitational lensing by a regular black hole
Eiroa, Ernesto F; Sendra, Carlos M
2011-01-01
In this paper, we study a regular Bardeen black hole as a gravitational lens. We find the strong deflection limit for the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. As an example, we apply the results to the particular case of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.
Gravitational lensing by a regular black hole
Eiroa, Ernesto F; Sendra, Carlos M, E-mail: eiroa@iafe.uba.ar, E-mail: cmsendra@iafe.uba.ar [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, CC 67, Suc. 28, 1428, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2011-04-21
In this paper, we study a regular Bardeen black hole as a gravitational lens. We find the strong deflection limit for the deflection angle, from which we obtain the positions and magnifications of the relativistic images. As an example, we apply the results to the particular case of the supermassive black hole at the center of our galaxy.
Dark-Matter in Galaxies from Gravitational Lensing and Stellar Dynamics Studies
Koopmans, L. V. E.; Corbett, IF
2010-01-01
Strong gravitational lensing and stellar dynamics provide two complementary methods in the study of the mass distribution of dark matter in galaxies out to redshift of unity. They are particularly powerful in the determination of the total mass and the density profile of mass early-type galaxies on
High-intensification regions of gravitational lenses
Benson, J.R.; Cooke, J.H.
1979-01-01
We examine the intensification, I, near the singular points in the object plane of an extended spherical gravitational lens. Geometrical optics predicts an infinite I for a point object located on a singularity. The function I, however, turns out to be integrable over the object plane. We make a detailed physical optics calculation for I. No singularities appear, and there are some interesting, marginally detectable diffraction phenomena. The two types of bright regions, the ''halo'' and the ''spike,'' behave very differently. Simple order-of-magnitude expressions give estimates for the brightness and duration of a high-intensification event
Weak gravitational lensing towards high-precision cosmology
Berge, Joel
2007-01-01
This thesis aims at studying weak gravitational lensing as a tool for high-precision cosmology. We first present the development and validation of a precise and accurate tool for measuring gravitational shear, based on the shapelets formalism. We then use shapelets on real images for the first time, we analyze CFHTLS images, and combine them with XMM-LSS data. We measure the normalisation of the density fluctuations power spectrum σ 8 , and the one of the mass-temperature relation for galaxy clusters. The analysis of the Hubble space telescope COSMOS field confirms our σ 8 measurement and introduces tomography. Finally, aiming at optimizing future surveys, we compare the individual and combined merits of cluster counts and power spectrum tomography. Our results demonstrate that next generation surveys will allow weak lensing to yield its full potential in the high-precision cosmology era. (author) [fr
Photometry of High-Redshift Gravitationally Lensed Type Ia Supernovae
Haynie, Annastasia
2018-01-01
Out of more than 1100 well-identified Type Ia Supernovae, only roughly 10 of them are at z> 1.5. High redshift supernovae are hard to detect but this is made easier by taking advantage of the effects of gravitational lensing, which magnifies objects in the background field of massive galaxy clusters. Supernova Nebra (z= ~1.8), among others, was discovered during observations taken as part of the RELICS survey, which focused on fields of view that experience strong gravitational lensing effects. SN Nebra, which sits behind galaxy cluster Abell 1763, is magnified and therefore appears closer and easier to see than with HST alone. Studying high-redshift supernovae like SN Nebra is an important step towards creating cosmological models that accurately describe the behavior of dark energy in the early Universe. Recent efforts have been focused on improving photometry and the building and fitting of preliminary light curves.
Gravitational lensing in the supernova legacy survey (SNLS)
Kronborg, T.; Hardin, D.; Guy, J.; Astier, P.; Balland, C.; Basa, S.; Carlberg, R. G.; Conley, A.; Fouchez, D.; Hook, I. M.; Howell, D. A.; Jönsson, J.; Pain, R.; Pedersen, K.; Perrett, K.; Pritchet, C. J.; Regnault, N.; Rich, J.; Sullivan, M.; Palanque-Delabrouille, N.; Ruhlmann-Kleider, V.
2010-05-01
Aims: The observed brightness of type Ia supernovae is affected by gravitational lensing caused by the mass distribution along the line of sight, which introduces an additional dispersion into the Hubble diagram. We look for evidence of lensing in the SuperNova Legacy Survey 3-year data set. Methods: We investigate the correlation between the residuals from the Hubble diagram and the gravitational magnification based on a modeling of the mass distribution of foreground galaxies. A deep photometric catalog, photometric redshifts, and well established mass luminosity relations are used. Results: We find evidence of a lensing signal with a 2.3σ significance. The current result is limited by the number of SNe, their redshift distribution, and the other sources of scatter in the Hubble diagram. Separating the galaxy population into a red and a blue sample has a positive impact on the significance of the signal detection. On the other hand, increasing the depth of the galaxy catalog, the precision of photometric redshifts or reducing the scatter in the mass luminosity relations have little effect. We show that for the full SuperNova Legacy Survey sample (~400 spectroscopically confirmed type Ia SNe and ~200 photometrically identified type Ia SNe), there is an 80% probability of detecting the lensing signal with a 3σ significance. Based on observations obtained with MegaPrime/MegaCam, a joint project of CFHT and CEA/DAPNIA, at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) which is operated by the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada, the Institut National des Sciences de l'Univers of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS) of France, and the University of Hawaii. This work is based in part on data products produced at the Canadian Astronomy Data Centre as part of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, a collaborative project of NRC and CNRS. Based on observations obtained at the European Southern Observatory using the Very Large Telescope on
Strong gravitational lensing by a charged Kiselev black hole
Azreg-Ainou, Mustapha [Baskent University, Engineering Faculty, Ankara (Turkey); Bahamonde, Sebastian [University College London, Department of Mathematics, London (United Kingdom); Jamil, Mubasher [National University of Sciences and Technology (NUST), Department of Mathematics, School of Natural Sciences (SNS), Islamabad (Pakistan)
2017-06-15
We study the gravitational lensing scenario where the lens is a spherically symmetric charged black hole (BH) surrounded by quintessence matter. The null geodesic equations in the curved background of the black hole are derived. The resulting trajectory equation is solved analytically via perturbation and series methods for a special choice of parameters, and the distance of the closest approach to black hole is calculated. We also derive the lens equation giving the bending angle of light in the curved background. In the strong field approximation, the solution of the lens equation is also obtained for all values of the quintessence parameter w{sub q}. For all w{sub q}, we show that there are no stable closed null orbits and that corrections to the deflection angle for the Reissner-Nordstroem black hole when the observer and the source are at large, but finite, distances from the lens do not depend on the charge up to the inverse of the distances squared. A part of the present work, analyzed, however, with a different approach, is the extension of Younas et al. (Phys Rev D 92:084042, 2015) where the uncharged case has been treated. (orig.)
Strong deflection gravitational lensing by a modified Hayward black hole
Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi [Nanjing University, School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing (China); Nanjing University, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Modern Astronomy and Astrophysics, Nanjing (China)
2017-05-15
A modified Hayward black hole is a nonsingular black hole. It is proposed that it would form when the pressure generated by quantum gravity can stop matter's collapse as the matter reaches the Planck density. Strong deflection gravitational lensing occurring nearby its event horizon might provide some clues of these quantum effects in its central core. We investigate observables of the strong deflection lensing, including angular separations, brightness differences and time delays between its relativistic images, and we estimate their values for the supermassive black hole in the Galactic center. We find that it is possible to distinguish the modified Hayward black hole from a Schwarzschild one, but it demands a very high resolution, beyond current stage. (orig.)
Takahashi, Ryuichi [Faculty of Science and Technology, Hirosaki University, 3 Bunkyo-cho, Hirosaki, Aomori 036-8561 (Japan)
2017-01-20
In this study we demonstrate that general relativity predicts arrival time differences between gravitational wave (GW) and electromagnetic (EM) signals caused by the wave effects in gravitational lensing. The GW signals can arrive earlier than the EM signals in some cases if the GW/EM signals have passed through a lens, even if both signals were emitted simultaneously by a source. GW wavelengths are much larger than EM wavelengths; therefore, the propagation of the GWs does not follow the laws of geometrical optics, including the Shapiro time delay, if the lens mass is less than approximately 10{sup 5} M {sub ⊙}( f /Hz){sup −1}, where f is the GW frequency. The arrival time difference can reach ∼0.1 s ( f /Hz){sup −1} if the signals have passed by a lens of mass ∼8000 M {sub ⊙}( f /Hz){sup −1} with the impact parameter smaller than the Einstein radius; therefore, it is more prominent for lower GW frequencies. For example, when a distant supermassive black hole binary (SMBHB) in a galactic center is lensed by an intervening galaxy, the time lag becomes of the order of 10 days. Future pulsar timing arrays including the Square Kilometre Array and X-ray detectors may detect several time lags by measuring the orbital phase differences between the GW/EM signals in the SMBHBs. Gravitational lensing imprints a characteristic modulation on a chirp waveform; therefore, we can deduce whether a measured arrival time lag arises from intrinsic source properties or gravitational lensing. Determination of arrival time differences would be extremely useful in multimessenger observations and tests of general relativity.
Gravitational lensing as a mechanism for effective cloaking
Tippett, Benjamin K.
2011-01-01
In light of the surge in popularity of electromagnetic cloaking devices, we consider whether it is possible to use general relativity to cloak a volume of spacetime through gravitational lensing. We explore the cloaking properties of a spacetime through a ray-tracing procedure, wherein we plot the spatial trajectories of a congruence of initially parallel null geodesics as they cross the geometry. In this context, a cloaking device would cause all of the null geodesics in an initially parallel congruence incident upon the cloaking geometry to circumnavigate an internal region, and as the geodesics emerge from the geometry, they regain their original configuration. Thus, if gravitational lensing were used as a mechanism for cloaking, the internal region would be causally isolated from the external spacetime. For this reason, we propose an effective cloaking geometry wherein (only) most of ingoing null geodesics will splay away from a central region, and then regain their initial configuration as they exit the geometry. Thus, a compact object sitting within the effective cloaking geometry will impede a smaller cross section of the null congruence, and therefore appear optically smaller from all sides. We build our effective cloaking geometry by connecting a Minkowski spacetime exterior to a spherically symmetric, curved spacetime along a timelike hypersurface of constant radius using the Israel junction conditions. The junction conditions require a shell of matter of infinitesimal width confined to the junction surface. The matter required to build such a spacetime must violate the null energy condition.
Strong field gravitational lensing by a charged Galileon black hole
Zhao, Shan-Shan; Xie, Yi, E-mail: clefairy035@163.com, E-mail: yixie@nju.edu.cn [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)
2016-07-01
Strong field gravitational lensings are dramatically disparate from those in the weak field by representing relativistic images due to light winds one to infinity loops around a lens before escaping. We study such a lensing caused by a charged Galileon black hole, which is expected to have possibility to evade no-hair theorem. We calculate the angular separations and time delays between different relativistic images of the charged Galileon black hole. All these observables can potentially be used to discriminate a charged Galileon black hole from others. We estimate the magnitudes of these observables for the closest supermassive black hole Sgr A*. The strong field lensing observables of the charged Galileon black hole can be close to those of a tidal Reissner-Nordström black hole or those of a Reissner-Nordström black hole. It will be helpful to distinguish these black holes if we can separate the outermost relativistic images and determine their angular separation, brightness difference and time delay, although it requires techniques beyond the current limit.
The central image of a gravitationally lensed quasar.
Winn, Joshua N; Rusin, David; Kochanek, Christopher S
2004-02-12
A galaxy can act as a gravitational lens, producing multiple images of a background object. Theory predicts that there should be an odd number of images produced by the lens, but hitherto almost all lensed objects have two or four images. The missing 'central' images, which should be faint and appear near the centre of the lensing galaxy, have long been sought as probes of galactic cores too distant to resolve with ordinary observations. There are five candidates for central images, but in one case the third image is not necessarily the central one, and in the others the putative central images might be foreground sources. Here we report a secure identification of a central image, based on radio observations of one of the candidates. Lens models using the central image reveal that the massive black hole at the centre of the lensing galaxy has a mass of 20,000M(o) pc(-2), which is in agreement with expections based on observations of galaxies that are much closer to the Earth.
Coe, Daniel Aaron
The goal of thesis is to help scientists resolve one of the great mysteries of our time: the nature of Dark Matter. Dark Matter is currently believed to make up over 80% of the material in our universe, yet we have so far inferred but a few of its basic properties. Here we study the Dark Matter surrounding a galaxy cluster, Abell 1689, via the most direct method currently available--gravitational lensing. Abell 1689 is a "strong" gravitational lens, meaning it produces multiple images of more distant galaxies. The observed positions of these images can be measured very precisely and act as a blueprint allowing us to reconstruct the Dark Matter distribution of the lens. Until now, such mass models of Abell 1689 have reproduced the observed multiple images well but with significant positional offsets. Using a new method we develop here, we obtain a new mass model which perfectly reproduces the observed positions of 168 knots identified within 135 multiple images of 42 galaxies. An important ingredient to our mass model is the accurate measurement of distances to the lensed galaxies via their photometric redshifts. Here we develop tools which improve the accuracy of these measurements based on our study of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, the only image yet taken to comparable depth as the magnified regions of Abell 1689. We present results both for objects in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and for galaxies gravitationally lensed by Abell 1689. As part of this thesis, we also provide reviews of Dark Matter and Gravitational Lensing, including a chapter devoted to the mass profiles of Dark Matter halos realized in simulations. The original work presented here was performed primarily by myself under the guidance of Narciso Benítez and Holland Ford as a member of the Advanced Camera for Surveys GTO Science Team at Johns Hopkins University and the Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucfa. My advisors served on my thesis committee along with Rick White, Gabor Domokos, and Steve
Wei Shaowen; Liu Yuxiao; Guo Heng
2011-01-01
In this paper, we obtain a relation between the high-energy absorption cross section and the strong gravitational lensing for a static and spherically symmetric black hole. It provides us a possible way to measure the high-energy absorption cross section for a black hole from strong gravitational lensing through astronomical observation. More importantly, it allows us to compute the total energy emission rate for high-energy particles emitted from the black hole acting as a gravitational lens. It could tell us the range of the frequency, among which the black hole emits the most of its energy and the gravitational waves are most likely to be observed. We also apply it to the Janis-Newman-Winicour solution. The results suggest that we can test the cosmic censorship hypothesis through the observation of gravitational lensing by the weakly naked singularities acting as gravitational lenses.
Detection of gravitational lensing in the cosmic microwave background
Smith, Kendrick M.; Zahn, Oliver; Dore, Olivier
2007-01-01
Gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB), a long-standing prediction of the standard cosmological model, is ultimately expected to be an important source of cosmological information, but first detection has not been achieved to date. We report a 3.4σ detection, by applying quadratic estimator techniques to all sky maps from the Wilkinson microwave anisotropy probe (WMAP) satellite, and correlating the result with radio galaxy counts from the NRAO VLA sky survey (NVSS). We present our methodology including a detailed discussion of potential contaminants. Our error estimates include systematic uncertainties from density gradients in NVSS, beam effects in WMAP, galactic microwave foregrounds, resolved and unresolved CMB point sources, and the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect
Gravitational lensing beyond the weak-field approximation
Perlick, Volker
2014-01-01
Gravitational lensing is considered in the full spacetime formalism of general relativity, assuming that the light rays are lightlike geodesics in a Lorentzian manifold. The review consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to spherically symmetric and static spacetimes. In particular, an exact lens map for this situation is discussed. The second part is on axisymmetric and stationary spacetimes. It concentrates on the investigation of the photon region, i.e., the region filled by spherical lightlike geodesics, in the Kerr spacetime. The photon region is of crucial relevance for the formation of a shadow. Finally, the third part briefly addresses two topics that apply to spacetimes without symmetry, namely Fermat's principle and the exact lens map of Frittelli and Newman.
Gravitational lensing beyond the weak-field approximation
Perlick, Volker, E-mail: perlick@zarm.uni-bremen.de [ZARM, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany)
2014-01-14
Gravitational lensing is considered in the full spacetime formalism of general relativity, assuming that the light rays are lightlike geodesics in a Lorentzian manifold. The review consists of three parts. The first part is devoted to spherically symmetric and static spacetimes. In particular, an exact lens map for this situation is discussed. The second part is on axisymmetric and stationary spacetimes. It concentrates on the investigation of the photon region, i.e., the region filled by spherical lightlike geodesics, in the Kerr spacetime. The photon region is of crucial relevance for the formation of a shadow. Finally, the third part briefly addresses two topics that apply to spacetimes without symmetry, namely Fermat’s principle and the exact lens map of Frittelli and Newman.
Gravitational lensing of transient neutrino sources by black holes
Eiroa, Ernesto F. [Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Ciudad Universitaria Pab. I, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina); Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio, C.C. 67, Suc. 28, 1428 Buenos Aires (Argentina)], E-mail: eiroa@iafe.uba.ar; Romero, Gustavo E. [Instituto Argentino de Radioastronomia (IAR-CONICET), C.C.5, 1894 Villa Elisa, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Facultad de Ciencias Astronomicas y Geofisicas, Universidad Nacional de La Plata, Paseo del Bosque, 1900 La Plata (Argentina)], E-mail: romero@iar-conicet.gov.ar
2008-06-05
In this work we study gravitational lensing of neutrinos by Schwarzschild black holes. In particular, we analyze the case of a neutrino transient source associated with a gamma-ray burst lensed by a supermassive black hole located at the center of an interposed galaxy. We show that the primary and secondary images have an angular separation beyond the resolution of forthcoming km-scale detectors, but the signals from each image have time delays between them that in most cases are longer than the typical duration of the intrinsic events. In this way, the signal from different images can be detected as separate events coming from the very same location in the sky. This would render an event that otherwise might have had a low signal-to-noise ratio a clear detection, since the probability of a repetition of a signal from the same direction is negligible. The relativistic images are so faint and proximate that are beyond the sensitivity and resolution of the next-generation instruments.
Deflection of light and particles by moving gravitational lenses
Wucknitz, Olaf; Sperhake, Ulrich
2004-01-01
Various authors have investigated the problem of light deflection by radially moving gravitational lenses, but the results presented so far do not appear to agree on the expected deflection angles. Some publications claim a scaling of deflection angles with 1-v to first order in the radial lens velocity v, while others obtained a scaling with 1-2v. In this paper we generalize the calculations for arbitrary lens velocities and show that the first result is the correct one. We discuss the seeming inconsistency of relativistic light deflection with the classical picture of moving test particles by generalizing the lens effect to test particles of arbitrary velocity, including light as a limiting case. We show that the effect of radial motion of the lens is very different for slowly moving test particles and light and that a critical test particle velocity exists for which the motion of the lens has no effect on the deflection angle to first order. An interesting and not immediately intuitive result is obtained in the limit of a highly relativistic motion of the lens towards the observer, where the deflection angle of light reduces to zero. This phenomenon is elucidated in terms of moving refractive media. Furthermore, we discuss the dragging of inertial frames in the field of a moving lens and the corresponding Lense-Thirring precession, in order to shed more light on the geometrical effects in the surroundings of a moving mass. In a second part we discuss the effect of transversal motion on the observed redshift of lensed sources. We demonstrate how a simple kinematic calculation explains the effects for arbitrary velocities of the lens and test particles. Additionally we include the transversal motion of the source and observer to show that all three velocities can be combined into an effective relative transversal velocity similar to the approach used in microlensing studies
Effect of undetected gravitational lenses on statistical measures of quasar evolution
Turner, E.L.
1980-01-01
Brightness amplifications by undetected gravitational lenses could be responsible in part for the apparent evolution of quasars, particularly for those which appear to be of high luminosity. It is shown that values of Vover-bar/over-barVover-bar/sub M/> or =0.6 and number-magnitude slopes > or =0.9 need not necessarily imply source density evolution if lensing events are common. Quasar samples which are defined by flux limits and minimum luminosities will preferentially include gravitational lens systems. Even if lensing events are quite rare, a large fraction of the lensed quasars will appear more luminous than the most luminous unlensed quasar
Gravitational lensing: a unique probe of dark matter and dark energy
Ellis, Richard S.
2010-01-01
I review the development of gravitational lensing as a powerful tool of the observational cosmologist. After the historic eclipse expedition organized by Arthur Eddington and Frank Dyson, the subject lay observationally dormant for 60 years. However, subsequent progress has been astonishingly rapid, especially in the past decade, so that gravitational lensing now holds the key to unravelling the two most profound mysteries of our Universe—the nature and distribution of dark matter, and the origin of the puzzling cosmic acceleration first identified in the late 1990s. In this non-specialist review, I focus on the unusual history and achievements of gravitational lensing and its future observational prospects. PMID:20123743
Power spectrum of dark matter substructure in strong gravitational lenses
Diaz Rivero, Ana; Cyr-Racine, Francis-Yan; Dvorkin, Cora
2018-01-01
Studying the smallest self-bound dark matter structure in our Universe can yield important clues about the fundamental particle nature of dark matter. Galaxy-scale strong gravitational lensing provides a unique way to detect and characterize dark matter substructures at cosmological distances from the Milky Way. Within the cold dark matter (CDM) paradigm, the number of low-mass subhalos within lens galaxies is expected to be large, implying that their contribution to the lensing convergence field is approximately Gaussian and could thus be described by their power spectrum. We develop here a general formalism to compute from first principles the substructure convergence power spectrum for different populations of dark matter subhalos. As an example, we apply our framework to two distinct subhalo populations: a truncated Navarro-Frenk-White subhalo population motivated by standard CDM, and a truncated cored subhalo population motivated by self-interacting dark matter (SIDM). We study in detail how the subhalo abundance, mass function, internal density profile, and concentration affect the amplitude and shape of the substructure power spectrum. We determine that the power spectrum is mostly sensitive to a specific combination of the subhalo abundance and moments of the mass function, as well as to the average tidal truncation scale of the largest subhalos included in the analysis. Interestingly, we show that the asymptotic slope of the substructure power spectrum at large wave number reflects the internal density profile of the subhalos. In particular, the SIDM power spectrum exhibits a characteristic steepening at large wave number absent in the CDM power spectrum, opening the possibility of using this observable, if at all measurable, to discern between these two scenarios.
Kirk, D.; Omori, Y.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Cawthon, R.; Chang, C.; Larsen, P.; Amara, A.; Bacon, D.; Crawford, T. M.; Dodelson, S.; Fosalba, P.; Giannantonio, T.; Holder, G.; Jain, B.; Kacprzak, T.; Lahav, O.; MacCrann, N.; Nicola, A.; Refregier, A.; Sheldon, E.; Story, K. T.; Troxel, M. A.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikram, V.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Becker, M. R.; Benson, B. A.; Bernstein, G. M.; Bernstein, R. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bonnett, C.; Bridle, S. L.; Brooks, D.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Burke, D. L.; Capozzi, D.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Rosell, A. Carnero; Kind, M. Carrasco; Carretero, J.; Crocce, M.; Cunha, C. E.; D' Andrea, C. B.; da Costa, L. N.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Dietrich, J. P.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Jarvis, M.; Kent, S.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lima, M.; March, M.; Martini, P.; Melchior, P.; Miller, C. J.; Miquel, R.; Nichol, R. C.; Ogando, R.; Plazas, A. A.; Reichardt, C. L.; Roodman, A.; Rozo, E.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sako, M.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Simard, G.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Wechsler, R. H.; Weller, J.
2016-03-10
We measure the cross-correlation between weak lensing of galaxy images and of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). The effects of gravitational lensing on different sources will be correlated if the lensing is caused by the same mass fluctuations. We use galaxy shape measurements from 139 deg$^{2}$ of the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Science Verification data and overlapping CMB lensing from the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. The DES source galaxies have a median redshift of $z_{\\rm med} {\\sim} 0.7$, while the CMB lensing kernel is broad and peaks at $z{\\sim}2$. The resulting cross-correlation is maximally sensitive to mass fluctuations at $z{\\sim}0.44$. Assuming the Planck 2015 best-fit cosmology, the amplitude of the DES$\\times$SPT cross-power is found to be $A = 0.88 \\pm 0.30$ and that from DES$\\times$Planck to be $A = 0.86 \\pm 0.39$, where $A=1$ corresponds to the theoretical prediction. These are consistent with the expected signal and correspond to significances of $2.9 \\sigma$ and $2.2 \\sigma$ respectively. We demonstrate that our results are robust to a number of important systematic effects including the shear measurement method, estimator choice, photometric redshift uncertainty and CMB lensing systematics. Significant intrinsic alignment of galaxy shapes would increase the cross-correlation signal inferred from the data; we calculate a value of $A = 1.08 \\pm 0.36$ for DES$\\times$SPT when we correct the observations with a simple IA model. With three measurements of this cross-correlation now existing in the literature, there is not yet reliable evidence for any deviation from the expected LCDM level of cross-correlation, given the size of the statistical uncertainties and the significant impact of systematic errors, particularly IAs. We provide forecasts for the expected signal-to-noise of the combination of the five-year DES survey and SPT-3G.
Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2013-01-01
On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this eect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217 GHz frequency bands with an overall significa...... information, our measurement corresponds to a 4% constraint on the amplitude of the lensing potential power spectrum, or a 2% constraint on the root-mean-squared amplitude of matter fluctuations at z ∼ 2....
The Origin of Gravitational Lensing: A Postscript to Einstein's 1936 Science Paper
Renn; Sauer; Stachel
1997-01-10
Gravitational lensing, now taken as an important astrophysical consequence of the general theory of relativity, was found even before this theory was formulated but was discarded as a speculative idea without any chance of empirical confirmation. Reconstruction of some of Einstein's research notes dating back to 1912 reveals that he explored the possibility of gravitational lensing 3 years before completing his general theory of relativity. On the basis of preliminary insights into this theory, Einstein had already derived the basic features of the lensing effect. When he finally published the very same results 24 years later, it was only in response to prodding by an amateur scientist.
Planck 2013 results. XVII. Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bonavera, L.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; Davis, R.J.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Dechelette, T.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Dickinson, C.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dunkley, J.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Ho, S.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lavabre, A.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leahy, J.P.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Lewis, A.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Mangilli, A.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Moss, A.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Partridge, B.; Pasian, F.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Pullen, A.R.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rubino-Martin, J.A.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Umana, G.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, M.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
On the arcminute angular scales probed by Planck, the CMB anisotropies are gently perturbed by gravitational lensing. Here we present a detailed study of this effect, detecting lensing independently in the 100, 143, and 217GHz frequency bands with an overall significance of greater than 25sigma. We use the temperature-gradient correlations induced by lensing to reconstruct a (noisy) map of the CMB lensing potential, which provides an integrated measure of the mass distribution back to the CMB last-scattering surface. Our lensing potential map is significantly correlated with other tracers of mass, a fact which we demonstrate using several representative tracers of large-scale structure. We estimate the power spectrum of the lensing potential, finding generally good agreement with expectations from the best-fitting LCDM model for the Planck temperature power spectrum, showing that this measurement at z=1100 correctly predicts the properties of the lower-redshift, later-time structures which source the lensing ...
Helbig, P; Marlow, D; Quast, R; Wilkinson, PN; Browne, IWA; Koopmans, LVE
We present constraints on the cosmological constant lambda(0) from gravitational lensing statistics of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS). Although this is the largest gravitational lens survey which has been analysed, cosmological constraints are only comparable to those from optical
A gravitationally lensed quasar with quadruple images separated by 14.62 arcseconds.
Inada, Naohisa; Oguri, Masamune; Pindor, Bartosz; Hennawi, Joseph F; Chiu, Kuenley; Zheng, Wei; Ichikawa, Shin-Ichi; Gregg, Michael D; Becker, Robert H; Suto, Yasushi; Strauss, Michael A; Turner, Edwin L; Keeton, Charles R; Annis, James; Castander, Francisco J; Eisenstein, Daniel J; Frieman, Joshua A; Fukugita, Masataka; Gunn, James E; Johnston, David E; Kent, Stephen M; Nichol, Robert C; Richards, Gordon T; Rix, Hans-Walter; Sheldon, Erin Scott; Bahcall, Neta A; Brinkmann, J; Ivezić, Zeljko; Lamb, Don Q; McKay, Timothy A; Schneider, Donald P; York, Donald G
2003-12-18
Gravitational lensing is a powerful tool for the study of the distribution of dark matter in the Universe. The cold-dark-matter model of the formation of large-scale structures (that is, clusters of galaxies and even larger assemblies) predicts the existence of quasars gravitationally lensed by concentrations of dark matter so massive that the quasar images would be split by over 7 arcsec. Numerous searches for large-separation lensed quasars have, however, been unsuccessful. All of the roughly 70 lensed quasars known, including the first lensed quasar discovered, have smaller separations that can be explained in terms of galaxy-scale concentrations of baryonic matter. Although gravitationally lensed galaxies with large separations are known, quasars are more useful cosmological probes because of the simplicity of the resulting lens systems. Here we report the discovery of a lensed quasar, SDSS J1004 + 4112, which has a maximum separation between the components of 14.62 arcsec. Such a large separation means that the lensing object must be dominated by dark matter. Our results are fully consistent with theoretical expectations based on the cold-dark-matter model.
THE EFFECT OF ENVIRONMENT ON SHEAR IN STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSES
Wong, Kenneth C.; Zabludoff, Ann I.; Keeton, Charles R.; Williams, Kurtis A.; Momcheva, Ivelina G.
2011-01-01
Using new photometric and spectroscopic data in the fields of nine strong gravitational lenses that lie in galaxy groups, we analyze the effects of both the local group environment and line-of-sight (LOS) galaxies on the lens potential. We use Monte Carlo simulations to derive the shear directly from measurements of the complex lens environment, providing the first detailed independent check of the shear obtained from lens modeling. We account for possible tidal stripping of the group galaxies by varying the fraction of total mass apportioned between the group dark matter halo and individual group galaxies. The environment produces an average shear of γ = 0.08 (ranging from 0.02 to 0.17), significant enough to affect quantities derived from lens observables. However, the direction and magnitude of the shears do not match those obtained from lens modeling in three of the six four-image systems in our sample (B1422, RXJ1131, and WFI2033). The source of this disagreement is not clear, implying that the assumptions inherent in both the environment and lens model approaches must be reconsidered. If only the local group environment of the lens is included, the average shear is γ = 0.05 (ranging from 0.01 to 0.14), indicating that LOS contributions to the lens potential are not negligible. We isolate the effects of various theoretical and observational uncertainties on our results. Of those uncertainties, the scatter in the Faber-Jackson relation and error in the group centroid position dominate. Future surveys of lens environments should prioritize spectroscopic sampling of both the local lens environment and objects along the LOS, particularly those bright (I< 21.5) galaxies projected within 5' of the lens.
Detections of Planets in Binaries Through the Channel of Chang–Refsdal Gravitational Lensing Events
Han, Cheongho [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 361-763 (Korea, Republic of); Shin, In-Gu; Jung, Youn Kil [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2017-02-01
Chang–Refsdal (C–R) lensing, which refers to the gravitational lensing of a point mass perturbed by a constant external shear, provides a good approximation in describing lensing behaviors of either a very wide or a very close binary lens. C–R lensing events, which are identified by short-term anomalies near the peak of high-magnification lensing light curves, are routinely detected from lensing surveys, but not much attention is paid to them. In this paper, we point out that C–R lensing events provide an important channel to detect planets in binaries, both in close and wide binary systems. Detecting planets through the C–R lensing event channel is possible because the planet-induced perturbation occurs in the same region of the C–R lensing-induced anomaly and thus the existence of the planet can be identified by the additional deviation in the central perturbation. By presenting the analysis of the actually observed C–R lensing event OGLE-2015-BLG-1319, we demonstrate that dense and high-precision coverage of a C–R lensing-induced perturbation can provide a strong constraint on the existence of a planet in a wide range of planet parameters. The sample of an increased number of microlensing planets in binary systems will provide important observational constraints in giving shape to the details of planet formation, which have been restricted to the case of single stars to date.
Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ardid, M.; Bou-Cabo, M. [Institut d' Investigació per a la Gestió Integrada de les Zones Costaneres (IGIC), Universitat Politècnica de València, C/ Paranimf 1, Gandia, 46730 Spain (Spain); Albert, A. [GRPHE - Institut universitaire de technologie de Colmar, 34 rue du Grillenbreit BP 50568, Colmar, 68008 France (France); André, M. [Technical University of Catalonia, Laboratory of Applied Bioacoustics, Rambla Exposició, Vilanova i la Geltrú, Barcelona, 08800 Spain (Spain); Anton, G. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, Erlangen, 91058 Germany (Germany); Aubert, J.-J.; Bertin, V.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS/IN2P3, CPPM UMR 7346, Marseille, 13288 France (France); Baret, B. [APC, AstroParticule et Cosmologie, Université Paris Diderot, CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/Irfu, Observatoire de Paris, Sorbonne Paris Cité, 10, rue Alice Domon et Léonie Duquet, Paris Cedex 13, F-75205 France (France); Barrios-Martí, J. [IFIC - Instituto de Física Corpuscular, Edificios Investigación de Paterna, CSIC - Universitat de València, Apdo de Correos 22085, Valencia, 46071 Spain (Spain); Basa, S. [LAM - Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille, Pôle de l' Étoile Site de Château-Gombert, rue Frédéric Joliot-Curie 38, Marseille Cedex 13, 13388 France (France); Biagi, S. [INFN - Sezione di Bologna, Viale Berti-Pichat 6/2, Bologna, 40127 Italy (Italy); Bogazzi, C.; Bormuth, R.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R. [Nikhef, Science Park 105, Amsterdam, 1098XG The Netherlands (Netherlands); Capone, A. [INFN -Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro 2, Roma, 00185 Italy (Italy); Caramete, L., E-mail: antares.spokesperson@in2p3.fr [Institute for Space Sciences, Bucharest, Măgurele, R-77125 Romania (Romania); and others
2014-11-01
This paper proposes to exploit gravitational lensing effects to improve the sensitivity of neutrino telescopes to the intrinsic neutrino emission of distant blazar populations. This strategy is illustrated with a search for cosmic neutrinos in the direction of four distant and gravitationally lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars. The magnification factor is estimated for each system assuming a singular isothermal profile for the lens. Based on data collected from 2007 to 2012 by the ANTARES neutrino telescope, the strongest constraint is obtained from the lensed quasar B0218+357, providing a limit on the total neutrino luminosity of this source of 1.08× 10{sup 46} erg s{sup -1}. This limit is about one order of magnitude lower than those previously obtained in the ANTARES standard point source searches with non-lensed Flat-Spectrum Radio Quasars.
Constraining cosmic curvature by using age of galaxies and gravitational lenses
Rana, Akshay; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jain, Deepak, E-mail: arana@physics.du.ac.in, E-mail: djain@ddu.du.ac.in, E-mail: shobhit.mahajan@gmail.com, E-mail: amimukh@gmail.com [Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Sector-3, Dwarka, Delhi 110078 (India)
2017-03-01
We use two model-independent methods to constrain the curvature of the universe. In the first method, we study the evolution of the curvature parameter (Ω {sub k} {sup 0}) with redshift by using the observations of the Hubble parameter and transverse comoving distances obtained from the age of galaxies. Secondly, we also use an indirect method based on the mean image separation statistics of gravitationally lensed quasars. The basis of this methodology is that the average image separation of lensed images will show a positive, negative or zero correlation with the source redshift in a closed, open or flat universe respectively. In order to smoothen the datasets used in both the methods, we use a non-parametric method namely, Gaussian Process (GP). Finally from first method we obtain Ω {sub k} {sup 0} = 0.025±0.57 for a presumed flat universe while the cosmic curvature remains constant throughout the redshift region 0 < z < 1.37 which indicates that the universe may be homogeneous. Moreover, the combined result from both the methods suggests that the universe is marginally closed. However, a flat universe can be incorporated at 3σ level.
Constraining cosmic curvature by using age of galaxies and gravitational lenses
Rana, Akshay; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha; Jain, Deepak
2017-01-01
We use two model-independent methods to constrain the curvature of the universe. In the first method, we study the evolution of the curvature parameter (Ω k 0 ) with redshift by using the observations of the Hubble parameter and transverse comoving distances obtained from the age of galaxies. Secondly, we also use an indirect method based on the mean image separation statistics of gravitationally lensed quasars. The basis of this methodology is that the average image separation of lensed images will show a positive, negative or zero correlation with the source redshift in a closed, open or flat universe respectively. In order to smoothen the datasets used in both the methods, we use a non-parametric method namely, Gaussian Process (GP). Finally from first method we obtain Ω k 0 = 0.025±0.57 for a presumed flat universe while the cosmic curvature remains constant throughout the redshift region 0 < z < 1.37 which indicates that the universe may be homogeneous. Moreover, the combined result from both the methods suggests that the universe is marginally closed. However, a flat universe can be incorporated at 3σ level.
Discovery of four gravitational lensing systems by clusters in the SDSS DR6
Wen Zhonglue; Han Jinlin; Xu Xiangyang; Jiang Yunying; Guo Zhiqing; Wang Pengfei; Liu Fengshan
2009-01-01
We report the discovery of 4 strong gravitational lensing systems by visual inspections of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey images of galaxy clusters in Data Release 6 (SDSS DR6). Two of the four systems show Einstein rings while the others show tangential giant arcs. These arcs or rings have large angular separations (> 8) from the bright central galaxies and show bluer color compared with the red cluster galaxies. In addition, we found 5 probable and 4 possible lenses by galaxy clusters. (letters)
Probing the dark side of the Universe with weak gravitational lensing effects
Fu Li-Ping; Fan Zu-Hui
2014-01-01
Arising from gravitational deflections of light rays by large-scale structures in the Universe, weak-lensing effects have been recognized as one of the most important probes in cosmological studies. In this paper, we review the main progress in weak-lensing analyses, and discuss the challenges in future investigations aiming to understand the dark side of the Universe with unprecedented precisions. (invited reviews)
Small-scale fluctuations in the microwave background radiation and multiple gravitational lensing
Kashlinsky, A.
1988-01-01
It is shown that multiple gravitational lensing of the microwave background radiation (MBR) by static compact objects significantly attenuates small-scale fluctuations in the MBR. Gravitational lensing, by altering trajectories of MBR photons reaching an observer, leads to (phase) mixing of photons from regions with different initial fluctuations. As a result of this diffusion process the original fluctuations are damped on scales up to several arcmin. An equation that describes this process and its general solution are given. It is concluded that the present upper limits on the amplitude of the MBR fluctuations on small scales cannot constrain theories of galaxy formation. 25 references
Emergence of Fresnel diffraction zones in gravitational lensing by a cosmic string
Fernández-Núñez, Isabel [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Institut de Ciències del Cosmos (ICCUB), Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain); Bulashenko, Oleg, E-mail: oleg.bulashenko@ub.edu [Departament de Física Quàntica i Astrofísica, Facultat de Física, Universitat de Barcelona, Martí i Franquès 1, E-08028 Barcelona (Spain)
2017-06-09
The possibility to detect cosmic strings – topological defects of early Universe, by means of wave effects in gravitational lensing is discussed. To find the optimal observation conditions, we define the hyperbolic-shaped Fresnel observation zones associated with the diffraction maxima and analyse the frequency patterns of wave amplification corresponding to different alignments. In particular, we show that diffraction of gravitational waves by the string may lead to significant amplification at cosmological distances. The wave properties we found are quite different from what one would expect, for instance, from light scattered off a thin wire or slit, since a cosmic string, as a topological defect, gives no shadow at all. - Highlights: • Interference and diffraction of gravitational waves by a cosmic string are studied. • Uniform asymptotic theory of diffraction is applied for a finite distance source. • Hyperbolic-shaped Fresnel observation zones associated with maxima of diffraction. • Frequency patterns modulated by diffraction for different string alignments are given. • The method is applicable to condensed-matter defects and other types of waves.
Influence of the cosmological constant on gravitational lensing in small systems
Sereno, Mauro
2008-01-01
The cosmological constant Λ affects gravitational lensing phenomena. The contribution of Λ to the observable angular positions of multiple images and to their amplification and time delay is here computed through a study of the weak deflection limit of the equations of motion in the Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric. Because of Λ the unresolved images are slightly demagnified, the radius of the Einstein ring decreases, and the time delay increases. The effect is however negligible for near lenses. In the case of a null cosmological constant, we provide some updated results on lensing by a Schwarzschild black hole
Mediavilla, E.; Lopez, P.; Mediavilla, T.; Ariza, O.; Muñoz, J. A.; Gonzalez-Morcillo, C.; Jimenez-Vicente, J.
2011-01-01
We derive an exact solution (in the form of a series expansion) to compute gravitational lensing magnification maps. It is based on the backward gravitational lens mapping of a partition of the image plane in polygonal cells (inverse polygon mapping, IPM), not including critical points (except perhaps at the cell boundaries). The zeroth-order term of the series expansion leads to the method described by Mediavilla et al. The first-order term is used to study the error induced by the truncation of the series at zeroth order, explaining the high accuracy of the IPM even at this low order of approximation. Interpreting the Inverse Ray Shooting (IRS) method in terms of IPM, we explain the previously reported N –3/4 dependence of the IRS error with the number of collected rays per pixel. Cells intersected by critical curves (critical cells) transform to non-simply connected regions with topological pathologies like auto-overlapping or non-preservation of the boundary under the transformation. To define a non-critical partition, we use a linear approximation of the critical curve to divide each critical cell into two non-critical subcells. The optimal choice of the cell size depends basically on the curvature of the critical curves. For typical applications in which the pixel of the magnification map is a small fraction of the Einstein radius, a one-to-one relationship between the cell and pixel sizes in the absence of lensing guarantees both the consistence of the method and a very high accuracy. This prescription is simple but very conservative. We show that substantially larger cells can be used to obtain magnification maps with huge savings in computation time.
Helbig, P.; Marlow, D. R.; Quast, R.; Wilkinson, P. N.; Browne, I. W. A.; Koopmans, L. V. E.
1999-01-01
Published in: Astron. Astrophys. Suppl. Ser. 136 (1999) no. 2, pp.297-305 citations recorded in [Science Citation Index] Abstract: We present constraints on the cosmological constant $lambda_{0}$ from gravitational lensing statistics of the Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS). Although this
Le Guillou, L.
2003-09-01
The nature of dark matter is an open question. The search for gravitational microlensing effects is an interesting tool because this effect is strongly dependent on the mass of objects whether they are luminous or not, however this detection method is only sensitive to compact forms of dark matter (MACHOS - massive astronomical halo compact objects), and as a consequence no-baryonic matter like neutrinos or WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles) can not be detected this way. In the first chapter the author reviews the plausible candidates to black matter. The use of the microlensing effect as a probe of the galactic halo is presented in the second chapter. The third chapter is dedicated to the series of experiments worldwide that focus on the detection of MACHOS. In the fourth chapter the author shows how the DIA (difference image analysis) method may be promising in the study of gravitational microlensing effects. The main part of this work has been the use of the DIA method to process five-year data set collected by the Eros experiment in the small Magellanic cloud (SMC). The data processing line and the results are presented in the fifth and sixth chapters. The results are consistent with previous results given by Eros and they confirm the disparity of the durations of micro-lenses detected in the large and small Magellanic clouds. (A.C.)
A direct gravitational lensing test for 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in halos of galaxies
Wambsganss, Joachim; Paczynski, Bohdan
1992-01-01
We propose a method that will be able to detect or exclude the existence of 10 exp 6 solar masses black holes in the halos of galaxies. VLBA radio maps of two milliarcsecond jets of a gravitationally lensed quasar will show the signature of these black holes - if they exist. If there are no compact objects in this mass range along the line of sight, the two jets should be linear mappings of each other. If they are not, there must be compact objects of about 10 exp 6 solar masses in the halo of the galaxy that deform the images by gravitational deflection. We present numerical simulations for the two jets A and B of the double quasar 0957 + 561, but the method is valid for any gravitationally lensed quasar with structure on milliarcsecond scales. As a by-product from high-quality VLBA maps of jets A and B, one will be able to tell which features in the maps are intrinsic in the original jet and which are only an optical illusion, i.e., gravitational distortions by black holes along the line of sight.
A Robust Mass Estimator for Dark Matter Subhalo Perturbations in Strong Gravitational Lenses
Minor, Quinn E. [Department of Science, Borough of Manhattan Community College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10007 (United States); Kaplinghat, Manoj [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine CA 92697 (United States); Li, Nan [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States)
2017-08-20
A few dark matter substructures have recently been detected in strong gravitational lenses through their perturbations of highly magnified images. We derive a characteristic scale for lensing perturbations and show that they are significantly larger than the perturber’s Einstein radius. We show that the perturber’s projected mass enclosed within this radius, scaled by the log-slope of the host galaxy’s density profile, can be robustly inferred even if the inferred density profile and tidal radius of the perturber are biased. We demonstrate the validity of our analytic derivation using several gravitational lens simulations where the tidal radii and the inner log-slopes of the density profile of the perturbing subhalo are allowed to vary. By modeling these simulated data, we find that our mass estimator, which we call the effective subhalo lensing mass, is accurate to within about 10% or smaller in each case, whereas the inferred total subhalo mass can potentially be biased by nearly an order of magnitude. We therefore recommend that the effective subhalo lensing mass be reported in future lensing reconstructions, as this will allow for a more accurate comparison with the results of dark matter simulations.
Rotation of the cosmic microwave background polarization from weak gravitational lensing.
Dai, Liang
2014-01-31
When a cosmic microwave background (CMB) photon travels from the surface of last scatter through spacetime metric perturbations, the polarization vector may rotate about its direction of propagation. This gravitational rotation is distinct from, and occurs in addition to, the lensing deflection of the photon trajectory. This rotation can be sourced by linear vector or tensor metric perturbations and is fully coherent with the curl deflection field. Therefore, lensing corrections to the CMB polarization power spectra as well as the temperature-polarization cross correlations due to nonscalar perturbations are modified. The rotation does not affect lensing by linear scalar perturbations, but needs to be included when calculations go to higher orders. We present complete results for weak lensing of the full-sky CMB power spectra by general linear metric perturbations, taking into account both deflection of the photon trajectory and rotation of the polarization. For the case of lensing by gravitational waves, we show that the B modes induced by the rotation largely cancel those induced by the curl component of deflection.
Cuesta-Lazaro, Carolina; Quera-Bofarull, Arnau; Reischke, Robert; Schäfer, Björn Malte
2018-06-01
When the gravitational lensing of the large-scale structure is calculated from a cosmological model a few assumptions enter: (i) one assumes that the photons follow unperturbed background geodesics, which is usually referred to as the Born approximation, (ii) the lenses move slowly, (iii) the source-redshift distribution is evaluated relative to the background quantities, and (iv) the lensing effect is linear in the gravitational potential. Even though these approximations are small individually they could sum up, especially since they include local effects such as the Sachs-Wolfe and peculiar motion, but also non-local ones like the Born approximation and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect. In this work, we will address all points mentioned and perturbatively calculate the effect on a tomographic cosmic shear power spectrum of each effect individually as well as all cross-correlations. Our findings show that each effect is at least 4-5 orders of magnitude below the leading order lensing signal. Finally, we sum up all effects to estimate the overall impact on parameter estimation by a future cosmological weak-lensing survey such as Euclid in a wcold dark matter cosmology with parametrization Ωm, σ8, ns, h, w0, and wa, using five tomographic bins. We consistently find a parameter bias of 10-5, which is therefore completely negligible for all practical purposes, confirming that other effects such as intrinsic alignments, magnification bias and uncertainties in the redshift distribution will be the dominant systematic source in future surveys.
Planck 2013 results. XVIII. Gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation
Ade, P.A.R.; Armitage-Caplan, C.; Arnaud, M.; Ashdown, M.; Atrio-Barandela, F.; Aumont, J.; Baccigalupi, C.; Banday, A.J.; Barreiro, R.B.; Bartlett, J.G.; Basak, S.; Battaner, E.; Benabed, K.; Benoit, A.; Benoit-Levy, A.; Bernard, J.P.; Bersanelli, M.; Bethermin, M.; Bielewicz, P.; Bobin, J.; Bock, J.J.; Bonaldi, A.; Bond, J.R.; Borrill, J.; Bouchet, F.R.; Boulanger, F.; Bridges, M.; Bucher, M.; Burigana, C.; Butler, R.C.; Cardoso, J.F.; Catalano, A.; Challinor, A.; Chamballu, A.; Chiang, L.Y.; Chiang, H.C.; Christensen, P.R.; Church, S.; Clements, D.L.; Colombi, S.; Colombo, L.P.L.; Couchot, F.; Coulais, A.; Crill, B.P.; Curto, A.; Cuttaia, F.; Danese, L.; Davies, R.D.; de Bernardis, P.; de Rosa, A.; de Zotti, G.; Delabrouille, J.; Delouis, J.M.; Desert, F.X.; Diego, J.M.; Dole, H.; Donzelli, S.; Dore, O.; Douspis, M.; Dupac, X.; Efstathiou, G.; Ensslin, T.A.; Eriksen, H.K.; Finelli, F.; Forni, O.; Frailis, M.; Franceschi, E.; Galeotta, S.; Ganga, K.; Giard, M.; Giardino, G.; Giraud-Heraud, Y.; Gonzalez-Nuevo, J.; Gorski, K.M.; Gratton, S.; Gregorio, A.; Gruppuso, A.; Gudmundsson, J.E.; Hansen, F.K.; Hanson, D.; Harrison, D.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hernandez-Monteagudo, C.; Herranz, D.; Hildebrandt, S.R.; Hivon, E.; Hobson, M.; Holmes, W.A.; Hornstrup, A.; Hovest, W.; Huffenberger, K.M.; Jaffe, T.R.; Jaffe, A.H.; Jones, W.C.; Juvela, M.; Keihanen, E.; Keskitalo, R.; Kisner, T.S.; Kneissl, R.; Knoche, J.; Knox, L.; Kunz, M.; Kurki-Suonio, H.; Lacasa, F.; Lagache, G.; Lahteenmaki, A.; Lamarre, J.M.; Lasenby, A.; Laureijs, R.J.; Lawrence, C.R.; Leonardi, R.; Leon-Tavares, J.; Lesgourgues, J.; Liguori, M.; Lilje, P.B.; Linden-Vornle, M.; Lopez-Caniego, M.; Lubin, P.M.; Macias-Perez, J.F.; Maffei, B.; Maino, D.; Mandolesi, N.; Maris, M.; Marshall, D.J.; Martin, P.G.; Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Masi, S.; Matarrese, S.; Matthai, F.; Mazzotta, P.; Melchiorri, A.; Mendes, L.; Mennella, A.; Migliaccio, M.; Mitra, S.; Miville-Deschenes, M.A.; Moneti, A.; Montier, L.; Morgante, G.; Mortlock, D.; Munshi, D.; Naselsky, P.; Nati, F.; Natoli, P.; Netterfield, C.B.; Norgaard-Nielsen, H.U.; Noviello, F.; Novikov, D.; Novikov, I.; Osborne, S.; Oxborrow, C.A.; Paci, F.; Pagano, L.; Pajot, F.; Paoletti, D.; Patanchon, G.; Perdereau, O.; Perotto, L.; Perrotta, F.; Piacentini, F.; Piat, M.; Pierpaoli, E.; Pietrobon, D.; Plaszczynski, S.; Pointecouteau, E.; Polenta, G.; Ponthieu, N.; Popa, L.; Poutanen, T.; Pratt, G.W.; Prezeau, G.; Prunet, S.; Puget, J.L.; Rachen, J.P.; Rebolo, R.; Reinecke, M.; Remazeilles, M.; Renault, C.; Ricciardi, S.; Riller, T.; Ristorcelli, I.; Rocha, G.; Rosset, C.; Roudier, G.; Rowan-Robinson, M.; Rusholme, B.; Sandri, M.; Santos, D.; Savini, G.; Scott, D.; Seiffert, M.D.; Serra, P.; Shellard, E.P.S.; Spencer, L.D.; Starck, J.L.; Stolyarov, V.; Stompor, R.; Sudiwala, R.; Sunyaev, R.; Sureau, F.; Sutton, D.; Suur-Uski, A.S.; Sygnet, J.F.; Tauber, J.A.; Tavagnacco, D.; Terenzi, L.; Toffolatti, L.; Tomasi, M.; Tristram, M.; Tucci, M.; Tuovinen, J.; Valenziano, L.; Valiviita, J.; Van Tent, B.; Vielva, P.; Villa, F.; Vittorio, N.; Wade, L.A.; Wandelt, B.D.; White, S.D.M.; Yvon, D.; Zacchei, A.; Zonca, A.
2014-01-01
The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of these two unique probes allows us to measure directly the connection between dark and luminous matter in the high redshift (1 1. We measure directly the SFR density with around 2 sigma significance for three redshift bins between z=1 and 7, thus opening a new window into the study of the formation of stars at early times.
Strong gravitational lensing in f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} gravity
Campigotto, M.C.; Diaferio, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Torino (Italy); Hernandez, X. [Instituto de Astronomia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Ciudad de Mexico 04510 (Mexico); Fatibene, L., E-mail: martacostanza.campigotto@to.infn.it, E-mail: antonaldo.diaferio@unito.it, E-mail: xavier@astro.unam.mx, E-mail: lorenzo.fatibene@unito.it [Dipartimento di Matematica, Università di Torino, Via C. Alberto 10, 10123, Torino (Italy)
2017-06-01
We discuss the phenomenology of gravitational lensing in the purely metric f (χ) gravity, an f ( R ) gravity where the action of the gravitational field depends on the source mass. We focus on the strong lensing regime in galaxy-galaxy lens systems and in clusters of galaxies. By adopting point-like lenses and using an approximate metric solution accurate to second order of the velocity field v / c , we show how, in the f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} gravity, the same light deflection can be produced by lenses with masses smaller than in General Relativity (GR); this mass difference increases with increasing impact parameter and decreasing lens mass. However, for sufficiently massive point-like lenses and small impact parameters, f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} and GR yield indistinguishable light deflection angles: this regime occurs both in observed galaxy-galaxy lens systems and in the central regions of galaxy clusters. In the former systems, the GR and f (χ) masses are compatible with the mass of standard stellar populations and little or no dark matter, whereas, on the scales of the core of galaxy clusters, the presence of substantial dark matter is required by our point-like lenses both in GR and in our approximate f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} solution. We thus conclude that our approximate metric solution of f (χ) = χ{sup 3/2} is unable to describe the observed phenomenology of the strong lensing regime without the aid of dark matter.
Cusp-core problem and strong gravitational lensing
Li Nan; Chen Daming
2009-01-01
Cosmological numerical simulations of galaxy formation have led to the cuspy density profile of a pure cold dark matter halo toward the center, which is in sharp contradiction with the observations of the rotation curves of cold dark matter-dominated dwarf and low surface brightness disk galaxies, with the latter tending to favor mass profiles with a flat central core. Many efforts have been devoted to resolving this cusp-core problem in recent years, among them, baryon-cold dark matter interactions are considered to be the main physical mechanisms erasing the cold dark matter (CDM) cusp into a flat core in the centers of all CDM halos. Clearly, baryon-cold dark matter interactions are not customized only for CDM-dominated disk galaxies, but for all types, including giant ellipticals. We first fit the most recent high resolution observations of rotation curves with the Burkert profile, then use the constrained core size-halo mass relation to calculate the lensing frequency, and compare the predicted results with strong lensing observations. Unfortunately, it turns out that the core size constrained from rotation curves of disk galaxies cannot be extrapolated to giant ellipticals. We conclude that, in the standard cosmological paradigm, baryon-cold dark matter interactions are not universal mechanisms for galaxy formation, and therefore, they cannot be true solutions to the cusp-core problem.
Giannini, E.; Schmidt, R. W.; Wambsganss, J.
2017-01-01
Aims. We present V and R photometry of the gravitationally lensed quasars WFI 2033-4723 and HE 0047-1756. The data were taken by the MiNDSTEp collaboration with the 1.54 m Danish telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory from 2008 to 2012.Methods. Differential photometry has been carried out using...
Detecting Gravitational Lensing of the Cosmic Microwave Background by Galaxy Clusters
Baxter, Eric Jones [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)
2014-08-01
Clusters of galaxies gravitationally lens the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) leading to a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurement of the cluster lensing effect offers the exciting possibility of constraining the masses of galaxy clusters using CMB data alone. Improved constraints on cluster masses are in turn essential to the use of clusters as cosmological probes: uncertainties in cluster masses are currently the dominant systematic affecting cluster abundance constraints on cosmology. To date, however, the CMB cluster lensing signal remains undetected because of its small magnitude and angular size. In this thesis, we develop a maximum likelihood approach to extracting the signal from CMB temperature data. We validate the technique by applying it to mock data designed to replicate as closely as possible real data from the South Pole Telescope’s (SPT) Sunyaev-Zel’dovich (SZ) survey: the effects of the SPT beam, transfer function, instrumental noise and cluster selection are incorporated. We consider the effects of foreground emission on the analysis and show that uncertainty in amount of foreground lensing results in a small systematic error on the lensing constraints. Additionally, we show that if unaccounted for, the SZ effect leads to unacceptably large biases on the lensing constraints and develop an approach for removing SZ contamination. The results of the mock analysis presented here suggest that a 4σ first detection of the cluster lensing effect can be achieved with current SPT-SZ data.
What if LIGO's gravitational wave detections are strongly lensed by massive galaxy clusters?
Smith, Graham P.; Jauzac, Mathilde; Veitch, John; Farr, Will M.; Massey, Richard; Richard, Johan
2018-04-01
Motivated by the preponderance of so-called `heavy black holes' in the binary black hole (BBH) gravitational wave (GW) detections to date, and the role that gravitational lensing continues to play in discovering new galaxy populations, we explore the possibility that the GWs are strongly lensed by massive galaxy clusters. For example, if one of the GW sources were actually located at z = 1, then the rest-frame mass of the associated BHs would be reduced by a factor of ˜2. Based on the known populations of BBH GW sources and strong-lensing clusters, we estimate a conservative lower limit on the number of BBH mergers detected per detector year at LIGO/Virgo's current sensitivity that are multiply-imaged, of Rdetect ≃ 10-5 yr-1. This is equivalent to rejecting the hypothesis that one of the BBH GWs detected to date was multiply-imaged at ≲4σ. It is therefore unlikely, but not impossible, that one of the GWs is multiply-imaged. We identify three spectroscopically confirmed strong-lensing clusters with well-constrained mass models within the 90 per cent credible sky localizations of the BBH GWs from LIGO's first observing run. In the event that one of these clusters multiply-imaged one of the BBH GWs, we predict that 20-60 per cent of the putative next appearances of the GWs would be detectable by LIGO, and that they would arrive at Earth within 3yr of first detection.
Cao, Wei-Guang; Xie, Yi
2018-03-01
Beyond the Einstein-Maxwell model, electromagnetic field might couple with gravitational field through the Weyl tensor. In order to provide one of the missing puzzles of the whole physical picture, we investigate weak deflection lensing for photons coupled to the Weyl tensor in a Schwarzschild black hole under a unified framework that is valid for its two possible polarizations. We obtain its coordinate-independent expressions for all observables of the geometric optics lensing up to the second order in the terms of ɛ which is the ratio of the angular gravitational radius to angular Einstein radius of the lens. These observables include bending angle, image position, magnification, centroid and time delay. The contributions of such a coupling on some astrophysical scenarios are also studied. We find that, in the cases of weak deflection lensing on a star orbiting the Galactic Center Sgr A*, Galactic microlensing on a star in the bulge and astrometric microlensing by a nearby object, these effects are beyond the current limits of technology. However, measuring the variation of the total flux of two weak deflection lensing images caused by the Sgr A* might be a promising way for testing such a coupling in the future.
Strong gravitational lensing by a Konoplya-Zhidenko rotating non-Kerr compact object
Wang, Shangyun; Chen, Songbai; Jing, Jiliang, E-mail: shangyun_wang@163.com, E-mail: csb3752@hunnu.edu.cn, E-mail: jljing@hunnu.edu.cn [Institute of Physics and Department of Physics, Hunan Normal University, Changsha, Hunan 410081 (China)
2016-11-01
Konoplya and Zhidenko have proposed recently a rotating non-Kerr black hole metric beyond General Relativity and make an estimate for the possible deviations from the Kerr solution with the data of GW 150914. We here study the strong gravitational lensing in such a rotating non-Kerr spacetime with an extra deformation parameter. We find that the condition of existence of horizons is not inconsistent with that of the marginally circular photon orbit. Moreover, the deflection angle of the light ray near the weakly naked singularity covered by the marginally circular orbit diverges logarithmically in the strong-field limit. In the case of the completely naked singularity, the deflection angle near the singularity tends to a certain finite value, whose sign depends on the rotation parameter and the deformation parameter. These properties of strong gravitational lensing are different from those in the Johannsen-Psaltis rotating non-Kerr spacetime and in the Janis-Newman-Winicour spacetime. Modeling the supermassive central object of the Milk Way Galaxy as a Konoplya-Zhidenko rotating non-Kerr compact object, we estimated the numerical values of observables for the strong gravitational lensing including the time delay between two relativistic images.
IMPROVED CONSTRAINTS ON THE GRAVITATIONAL LENS Q0957+561. I. WEAK LENSING
Nakajima, R.; Bernstein, G. M.; Fadely, R.; Keeton, C. R.; Schrabback, T.
2009-01-01
Attempts to constrain the Hubble constant using the strong gravitational lens system Q0957+561 are limited by systematic uncertainties in the mass model, since the time delay is known very precisely. One important systematic effect is the mass-sheet degeneracy, which arises because strong lens modeling cannot constrain the presence or absence of a uniform mass sheet κ, which rescales H 0 by the factor (1 - κ). In this paper, we present new constraints on the mass sheet derived from a weak-lensing analysis of the Hubble Space Telescope imaging of a 6 arcmin square region surrounding the lensed quasar. The average mass sheet within a circular aperture (the strong lens model region) is constrained by integrating the tangential weak gravitational shear over the surrounding area. We find the average convergence within a 30'' radius around the lens galaxy to be κ(<30'') = 0.166 ± 0.056 (1σ confidence level), normalized to the quasar redshift. This includes contributions from both the lens galaxy and the surrounding cluster. We also constrain a few other low-order terms in the lens potential by applying a multipole aperture mass formalism to the gravitational shear in an annulus around the strong-lensing region. Implications for strong lens models and the Hubble constant are discussed in an accompanying paper.
Baxter, E. J.; Keisler, R.; Dodelson, S.; Aird, K. A.; Allen, S. W.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Bayliss, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H-M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; de Haan, T.; Dobbs, M. A.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N. L.; Hennig, C.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Jones, C.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Liu, J.; Lueker, M.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Millea, M.; Mocanu, L. M.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; van Engelen, A.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zahn, O.; Zenteno, A.
2015-06-20
Clusters of galaxies are expected to gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby generate a distinct signal in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurements of this effect can be used to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters with CMB data alone. Here we present a measurement of lensing of the CMB by galaxy clusters using data from the South Pole Telescope (SPT). We develop a maximum likelihood approach to extract the CMB cluster lensing signal and validate the method on mock data. We quantify the effects on our analysis of several potential sources of systematic error and find that they generally act to reduce the best-fit cluster mass. It is estimated that this bias to lower cluster mass is roughly 0.85σ in units of the statistical error bar, although this estimate should be viewed as an upper limit. We apply our maximum likelihood technique to 513 clusters selected via their Sunyaev–Zeldovich (SZ) signatures in SPT data, and rule out the null hypothesis of no lensing at 3.1σ. The lensing-derived mass estimate for the full cluster sample is consistent with that inferred from the SZ flux: ${M}_{200,\\mathrm{lens}}={0.83}_{-0.37}^{+0.38}\\;{M}_{200,\\mathrm{SZ}}$ (68% C.L., statistical error only).
ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION
Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad [Research Computing Center, Department of Scientific Computing, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie, E-mail: bchen3@fsu.edu [Homer L. Dodge Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Oklahoma, Norman, OK 73019 (United States)
2015-05-15
Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python.
ALGORITHMS AND PROGRAMS FOR STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING IN KERR SPACE-TIME INCLUDING POLARIZATION
Chen, Bin; Maddumage, Prasad; Kantowski, Ronald; Dai, Xinyu; Baron, Eddie
2015-01-01
Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and quasars are important astrophysical objects to understand. Recently, microlensing observations have constrained the size of the quasar X-ray emission region to be of the order of 10 gravitational radii of the central supermassive black hole. For distances within a few gravitational radii, light paths are strongly bent by the strong gravity field of the central black hole. If the central black hole has nonzero angular momentum (spin), then a photon’s polarization plane will be rotated by the gravitational Faraday effect. The observed X-ray flux and polarization will then be influenced significantly by the strong gravity field near the source. Consequently, linear gravitational lensing theory is inadequate for such extreme circumstances. We present simple algorithms computing the strong lensing effects of Kerr black holes, including the effects on polarization. Our algorithms are realized in a program “KERTAP” in two versions: MATLAB and Python. The key ingredients of KERTAP are a graphic user interface, a backward ray-tracing algorithm, a polarization propagator dealing with gravitational Faraday rotation, and algorithms computing observables such as flux magnification and polarization angles. Our algorithms can be easily realized in other programming languages such as FORTRAN, C, and C++. The MATLAB version of KERTAP is parallelized using the MATLAB Parallel Computing Toolbox and the Distributed Computing Server. The Python code was sped up using Cython and supports full implementation of MPI using the “mpi4py” package. As an example, we investigate the inclination angle dependence of the observed polarization and the strong lensing magnification of AGN X-ray emission. We conclude that it is possible to perform complex numerical-relativity related computations using interpreted languages such as MATLAB and Python
On the Contribution of Large-Scale Structure to Strong Gravitational Lensing
Faure, C.; Kneib, J.-P.; Hilbert, S.; Massey, R.; Covone, G.; Finoguenov, A.; Leauthaud, A.; Taylor, J. E.; Pires, S.; Scoville, N.; Koekemoer, Anton M.
2009-04-01
We study the correlation between the locations of galaxy-galaxy strong-lensing candidates and tracers of large-scale structure from both weak lensing (WL) or X-ray emission. The Cosmological Evolution Survey (COSMOS) is a unique data set, combining deep, high resolution and contiguous imaging in which strong lenses have been discovered, plus unparalleled multiwavelength coverage. To help interpret the COSMOS data, we have also produced mock COSMOS strong- and WL observations, based on ray-tracing through the Millennium Simulation. In agreement with the simulations, we find that strongly lensed images with the largest angular separations are found in the densest regions of the COSMOS field. This is explained by a prevalence among the lens population in dense environments of elliptical galaxies with high total-to-stellar mass ratios, which can deflect light through larger angles. However, we also find that the overall fraction of elliptical galaxies with strong gravitational lensing is independent of the local mass density; this observation is not true of the simulations, which predict an increasing fraction of strong lenses in dense environments. The discrepancy may be a real effect, but could also be explained by various limitations of our analysis. For example, our visual search of strong lens systems could be incomplete and suffer from selection bias; the luminosity function of elliptical galaxies may differ between our real and simulated data; or the simplifying assumptions and approximations used in our lensing simulations may be inadequate. Work is therefore ongoing. Automated searches for strong lens systems will be particularly important in better constraining the selection function.
AUTOMATED DETECTION OF GALAXY-SCALE GRAVITATIONAL LENSES IN HIGH-RESOLUTION IMAGING DATA
Marshall, Philip J.; Bradac, Marusa; Hogg, David W.; Moustakas, Leonidas A.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Schrabback, Tim; Blandford, Roger D.
2009-01-01
We expect direct lens modeling to be the key to successful and meaningful automated strong galaxy-scale gravitational lens detection. We have implemented a lens-modeling 'robot' that treats every bright red galaxy (BRG) in a large imaging survey as a potential gravitational lens system. Having optimized a simple model for 'typical' galaxy-scale gravitational lenses, we generate four assessments of model quality that are then used in an automated classification. The robot infers from these four data the lens classification parameter H that a human would have assigned; the inference is performed using a probability distribution generated from a human-classified training set of candidates, including realistic simulated lenses and known false positives drawn from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Extended Groth Strip (EGS) survey. We compute the expected purity, completeness, and rejection rate, and find that these statistics can be optimized for a particular application by changing the prior probability distribution for H; this is equivalent to defining the robot's 'character'. Adopting a realistic prior based on expectations for the abundance of lenses, we find that a lens sample may be generated that is ∼100% pure, but only ∼20% complete. This shortfall is due primarily to the oversimplicity of the model of both the lens light and mass. With a more optimistic robot, ∼90% completeness can be achieved while rejecting ∼90% of the candidate objects. The remaining candidates must be classified by human inspectors. Displaying the images used and produced by the robot on a custom 'one-click' web interface, we are able to inspect and classify lens candidates at a rate of a few seconds per system, suggesting that a future 1000 deg. 2 imaging survey containing 10 7 BRGs, and some 10 4 lenses, could be successfully, and reproducibly, searched in a modest amount of time. We have verified our projected survey statistics, albeit at low significance, using the HST EGS data
Ade, P A R; Akiba, Y; Anthony, A E; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Borys, C; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Flanigan, D; Gilbert, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Le Jeune, M; Lee, A T; Leitch, E M; Linder, E; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Meng, X; Miller, N J; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Poletti, D; Quealy, E; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Rotermund, K; Schanning, I; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B D; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Takakura, S; Tikhomirov, A; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O
2014-04-04
We reconstruct the gravitational lensing convergence signal from cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization data taken by the Polarbear experiment and cross-correlate it with cosmic infrared background maps from the Herschel satellite. From the cross spectra, we obtain evidence for gravitational lensing of the CMB polarization at a statistical significance of 4.0σ and indication of the presence of a lensing B-mode signal at a significance of 2.3σ. We demonstrate that our results are not biased by instrumental and astrophysical systematic errors by performing null tests, checks with simulated and real data, and analytical calculations. This measurement of polarization lensing, made via the robust cross-correlation channel, not only reinforces POLARBEAR auto-correlation measurements, but also represents one of the early steps towards establishing CMB polarization lensing as a powerful new probe of cosmology and astrophysics.
Discovery of the First Quadruple Gravitationally Lensed Quasar Candidate with Pan-STARRS
Berghea, C. T.; Nelson, George J.; Dudik, R. P. [U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO), 3450 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20392 (United States); Rusu, C. E. [Department of Physics, University of California, Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, CA 95616 (United States); Keeton, C. R., E-mail: ciprian.t.berghea@navy.mil [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey, 136 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08854 (United States)
2017-08-01
We report the serendipitous discovery of the first gravitationally lensed quasar candidate from Pan-STARRS. The grizy images reveal four point-like images with magnitudes between 14.9 and 18.1 mag. The colors of the point sources are similar, and they are more consistent with quasars than with stars or galaxies. The lensing galaxy is detected in the izy bands, with an inferred photometric redshift of ∼0.6, lower than that of the point sources. We successfully model the system with a singular isothermal ellipsoid with shear, using the relative positions of the five objects as constraints. While the brightness ranking of the point sources is consistent with that of the model, we find discrepancies between the model-predicted and observed fluxes, likely due to microlensing by stars and millilensing due to the dark matter substructure. In order to fully confirm the gravitational lens nature of this system and add it to the small but growing number of the powerful probes of cosmology and astrophysics represented by quadruply lensed quasars, we require further spectroscopy and high-resolution imaging.
STRONG GRAVITATIONAL LENSING BY THE SUPER-MASSIVE cD GALAXY IN ABELL 3827
Carrasco, E. R.; Gomez, P. L.; Lee, H.; Diaz, R.; Bergmann, M.; Turner, J. E. H.; Miller, B. W.; West, M. J.; Verdugo, T.
2010-01-01
We have discovered strong gravitational lensing features in the core of the nearby cluster Abell 3827 by analyzing Gemini South GMOS images. The most prominent strong lensing feature is a highly magnified, ring-shaped configuration of four images around the central cD galaxy. GMOS spectroscopic analysis puts this source at z ∼ 0.2. Located ∼20'' away from the central galaxy is a secondary tangential arc feature which has been identified as a background galaxy with z ∼ 0.4. We have modeled the gravitational potential of the cluster core, taking into account the mass from the cluster, the brightest cluster galaxy (BCG), and other galaxies. We derive a total mass of (2.7 ± 0.4) x 10 13 M sun within 37 h -1 kpc. This mass is an order of magnitude larger than that derived from X-ray observations. The total mass derived from lensing data suggests that the BCG in this cluster is perhaps the most massive galaxy in the nearby universe.
Effects of gravitational lensing and companion motion on the binary pulsar timing
Rafikov, Roman R.; Lai Dong
2006-01-01
The measurement of the Shapiro time delay in binary pulsar systems with highly-inclined orbit can be affected both by the motion of the pulsar's companion because of the finite time it takes a photon to cross the binary, and by the gravitational light bending if the orbit is sufficiently edge-on relative to the line of sight. Here we calculate the effect of retardation due to the companion's motion on various time delays in pulsar binaries, including the Shaipro delay, the geometric lensing delay, and the lens-induced delays associated with the pulsar rotation. Our results can be applied to systems so highly inclined that near conjunction gravitational lensing of the pulsar radiation by the companion becomes important (the recently discovered double pulsar system J0737-3039 may exemplify such a system). To the leading order, the effect of retardation is to shift all the delay curves backward in time around the orbit conjunction, without affecting the shape and amplitude of the curves. The time shift is of order the photon orbit crossing time, and ranges from a second to a few minutes for the observed binary pulsar systems. In the double pulsar system J0737-3039, the motion of the companion may also affect the interpretation of the recent correlated interstellar scintillation measurements. Finally, we show that lensing sets an upper limit on the magnitude of the frame-dragging time delay caused by the companion's spin, and makes this delay unobservable in stellar-mass binary pulsar systems
SHARP - V. Modelling gravitationally-lensed radio arcs imaged with global VLBI observations
Spingola, C.; McKean, J. P.; Auger, M. W.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; Lagattuta, D. J.; Vegetti, S.
2018-05-01
We present milliarcsecond (mas) angular resolution observations of the gravitationally lensed radio source MG J0751+2716 (at z = 3.2) obtained with global Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) at 1.65 GHz. The background object is highly resolved in the tangential and radial directions, showing evidence of both compact and extended structure across several gravitational arcs that are 200 to 600 mas in size. By identifying compact sub-components in the multiple images, we constrain the mass distribution of the foreground z = 0.35 gravitational lens using analytic models for the main deflector [power-law elliptical mass model; ρ(r)∝r-γ, where γ = 2 corresponds to isothermal] and for the members of the galaxy group. Moreover, our mass models with and without the group find an inner mass-density slope steeper than isothermal for the main lensing galaxy, with γ1 = 2.08 ± 0.02 and γ2 = 2.16 ± 0.02 at the 4.2σ level and 6.8σ level, respectively, at the Einstein radius (b1 = 0.4025 ± 0.0008 and b2 = 0.307 ± 0.002 arcsec, respectively). We find randomly distributed image position residuals of about 3 mas, which are much larger that the measurement errors (40 μas on average). This suggests that at the mas level, the assumption of a smooth mass distribution fails, requiring additional structure in the model. However, given the environment of the lensing galaxy, it is not clear whether this extra mass is in the form of sub-haloes within the lens or along the line of sight, or from a more complex halo for the galaxy group.
Broad Band Observations of Gravitationally Lensed Blazar during a Gamma-Ray Outburst
Julian Sitarek
2016-09-01
Full Text Available QSO B0218+357 is a gravitationally lensed blazar located at a cosmological redshift of 0.944. In July 2014 a GeV flare was observed by Fermi-LAT, triggering follow-up observations with the MAGIC telescopes at energies above 100 GeV. The MAGIC observations at the expected time of arrival of the trailing component resulted in the first detection of QSO B0218+357 in Very-High-Energy (VHE, >100 GeV gamma rays. We report here the observed multiwavelength emission during the 2014 flare.
Gravitational lensing of wormholes in the galactic halo region
Kuhfittig, Peter K.F. [Milwaukee School of Engineering, Department of Mathematics, Milwaukee, WI (United States)
2014-03-15
A recent study by Rahaman et al. has shown that the galactic halo possesses the necessary properties for supporting traversable wormholes, based on two observational results, the Navarro-Frenk-White density profile and the observed flat rotation curves of galaxies. Using a method for calculating the deflection angle pioneered by V. Bozza, it is shown that the deflection angle diverges at the throat of the wormhole. The resulting photon sphere has a radius of about 0.40 ly. Given the dark-matter background, detection may be possible from past data using ordinary light. (orig.)
Distinguishing f(R) theories from general relativity by gravitational lensing effect
Liu, Hongguang [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Beijing (China); Aix Marseille Universite et Universite de Toulon, Centre de Physique Theorique (UMR 7332), Marseille (France); Wang, Xin; Li, Haida; Ma, Yongge [Beijing Normal University, Department of Physics, Beijing (China)
2017-11-15
The post-Newtonian formulation of a general class of f(R) theories is set up in a third-order approximation. It turns out that the information of a specific form of f(R) gravity is encoded in the Yukawa potential, which is contained in the perturbative expansion of the metric components. Although the Yukawa potential is canceled in the second-order expression of the effective refraction index of light, detailed analysis shows that the difference of the lensing effect between the f(R) gravity and general relativity does appear at the third order when √(f''(0)/f{sup '}(0)) is larger than the distance d{sub 0} to the gravitational source. However, the difference between these two kinds of theories will disappear in the axially symmetric spacetime region. Therefore only in very rare case the f(R) theories are distinguishable from general relativity by gravitational lensing effect in a third-order post-Newtonian approximation. (orig.)
Gravitational lensing limits on the cosmological constant in a flat universe
Turner, E.L.
1990-01-01
Inflationary cosmological theories predict, and some more general aesthetic criteria suggest, that the large-scale spatial curvature of the universe k should be accurately zero (i.e., flat), a condition which is satisfied when the universe's present mean density and the value of the cosmological constant Lambda have certain pairs of values. Available data on the frequency of multiple image-lensing of high-redshift quasars by galaxies suggest that the cosmological constant cannot make a dominant contribution to producing a flat universe. In particular, if the mean density of the universe is as small as the baryon density inferred from standard cosmic nucleosynthesis calculations or as determined from typical dynamical studies of galaxies and galaxy clusters, then a value of Lambda large enough to produce a k = 0 universe would result in a substantially higher frequency of multiple-image lensing of quasars than has been observed so far. Shortcomings of the available lens data and uncertainties concerning galaxy properties allow some possibility of escaping this conclusion, but systematic searches for a gravitational lenses and continuing investigations of galaxy mass distributions should soon provide decisive information. It is also noted that nonzero-curvature cosmological models can account for the observed frequency of galaxy-quasar lens systems and for a variety of other constraints. 61 refs
Dark matter distributions in early-type galaxies from strong gravitational lensing
Eichner, Thomas Martin
2013-01-01
Dark matter constitutes a large fraction of the mass of early-type galaxies. However, the exact amount and spatial distribution of the dark matter, especially in the galaxies' center is still unclear. Furthermore, galaxies in dense environments such as the centers of galaxy clusters shrink in size, since parts of their outer dark matter halo is stripped away. The aim of this thesis is to measure the dark matter content in the centers and outskirts of elliptical galaxies by analyzing the strong gravitational lensing effect they produce. Gravitational lensing is well-suited for investigating dark matter, since it is sensitive to all forms of matter, regardless of its dynamical or evolutionary state. We present gravitational lensing studies of the exceptional strong lensing systems SDSS J1538+5817 and SDSS J1430+4105, identified by the Sloan Lens ACS survey. The lenses are elliptical galaxies at z l =0.143 and z l =0.285, respectively. For SDSS J1538+5817 we show that both multiple imaged sources are located at the same redshift z s =0.531. Its multiple images span a range from 1 to 4 kpc in the plane of the lens. For SDSS J1430+4105, the source at redshift z s =0.575 is imaged into a broad Einstein ring, covering radii from 4 kpc to 10 kpc in the plane of the lens. In both cases, the lensed images can be accurately and consistently reproduced with different modeling approaches. We get projected total masses of 8.11 +0.27 -0.59 x 10 10 M s un within the Einstein radius of 2.5 kpc for SDSS J1538+5817 and 5.37±0.06 x 10 11 M s un within 6.5 kpc for SDSS J1430+4105. The luminous and dark matter were traced separately, resulting in dark matter fractions within the Einstein radius of 0.1 +0.2 -0.1 and 0.40 +0.14 -0.10 for SDSS J1538+5817 and SDSS J1430+4105, respectively. We assume a de Vaucouleurs profile to trace the light distribution of both galaxies. From the stellar mass associated with this light, we can explicitly derive a stellar mass-to-light ratio of (M de
Constraints on early-type galaxy structure from spectroscopically selected gravitational lenses
Bolton, Adam Stallard
2005-11-01
This thesis describes all aspects of a unique spectroscopic survey for strong galaxy-galaxy gravitational lenses: motivation, candidate selection, ground- based spectroscopic follow-up, Hubble Space Telescope imaging, data analysis, and results on the radial density profile of the lens galaxies. The lens candidates are selected from within the spectroscopic database of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) based on the appearance of two significantly different redshifts along the same line of sight, and lenses are confirmed within the candidate sample by follow-up imaging and spectroscopy. The sample of [approximate]20 early-type lenses presented in this thesis represents the largest single strong-lens galaxy sample discovered and published to date. These lenses probe the mass of the lens galaxies on scales roughly equal to one-half effective radius. We find a dynamical normalization between isothermal lens-model velocity dispersions and aperture-corrected SDSS stellar velocity dispersions of f = s lens /s stars = 0.95 +/- 0.03. By combining lens-model Einstein radii and de Vaucouleurs effective radii with stellar velocity dispersions through the Jeans equation, we find that the logarithmic slope [Special characters omitted.] of the density profile in our lens galaxies (r 0 ( [Special characters omitted.] ) is on average slightly steeper than isothermal ([Special characters omitted.] = 2) with a modest intrinsic scatter. Parameterizing the intrinsic distribution in [Special characters omitted.] as Gaussian, we find a maximum-likelihood mean of [Special characters omitted. ] and standard deviation of s[Special characters omitted.] = [Special characters omitted.] (68% confidence, for isotropic velocity-dispersion models). Our results rule out a single universal logarithmic density slope at >99.995% confidence. The success of this spectroscopic lens survey suggests that similar projects should be considered as an explicit science goal of future redshift surveys. (Copies
Choi, J.-Y.; Shin, I.-G.; Park, S.-Y.; Han, C.; Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B.; Sumi, T.; Udalski, A.; Beaulieu, J.-P.; Street, R.; Dominik, M.; Allen, W.; Almeida, L. A.; Bos, M.; Christie, G. W.; Depoy, D. L.; Dong, S.; Drummond, J.; Gal-Yam, A.
2012-01-01
We present the analysis of the light curves of nine high-magnification single-lens gravitational microlensing events with lenses passing over source stars, including OGLE-2004-BLG-254, MOA-2007-BLG-176, MOA-2007-BLG-233/OGLE-2007-BLG-302, MOA-2009-BLG-174, MOA-2010-BLG-436, MOA-2011-BLG-093, MOA-2011-BLG-274, OGLE-2011-BLG-0990/MOA-2011-BLG-300, and OGLE-2011-BLG-1101/MOA-2011-BLG-325. For all of the events, we measure the linear limb-darkening coefficients of the surface brightness profile of source stars by measuring the deviation of the light curves near the peak affected by the finite-source effect. For seven events, we measure the Einstein radii and the lens-source relative proper motions. Among them, five events are found to have Einstein radii of less than 0.2 mas, making the lenses very low mass star or brown dwarf candidates. For MOA-2011-BLG-274, especially, the small Einstein radius of θ E ∼ 0.08 mas combined with the short timescale of t E ∼ 2.7 days suggests the possibility that the lens is a free-floating planet. For MOA-2009-BLG-174, we measure the lens parallax and thus uniquely determine the physical parameters of the lens. We also find that the measured lens mass of ∼0.84 M ☉ is consistent with that of a star blended with the source, suggesting that the blend is likely to be the lens. Although we did not find planetary signals for any of the events, we provide exclusion diagrams showing the confidence levels excluding the existence of a planet as a function of the separation and mass ratio.
Choi, J.-Y.; Shin, I.-G.; Park, S.-Y.; Han, C. [Department of Physics, Institute for Astrophysics, Chungbuk National University, Cheongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Gould, A.; Gaudi, B. S.; Henderson, C. B. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 W. 18th Ave., Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Sumi, T. [Department of Earth and Space Science, Osaka University, Osaka 560-0043 (Japan); Udalski, A. [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478 Warszawa (Poland); Beaulieu, J.-P. [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS-Universite Pierre and Marie Curie, 98 bis boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Street, R. [Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network, 6740B Cortona Dr, Suite 102, Goleta, CA 93117 (United States); Dominik, M. [School of Physics and Astronomy, SUPA, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, St. Andrews, KY16 9SS (United Kingdom); Allen, W. [Vintage Lane Observatory, Blenheim (New Zealand); Almeida, L. A. [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais/MCTI, Sao Jose dos Campos, Sao Paulo (Brazil); Bos, M. [Molehill Astronomical Observatory, North Shore (New Zealand); Christie, G. W. [Auckland Observatory, P.O. Box 24-180, Auckland (New Zealand); Depoy, D. L. [Department of Physics, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Dong, S. [Institute for Advanced Study, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Drummond, J. [Possum Observatory, Patutahi (New Zealand); Gal-Yam, A. [Benoziyo Center for Astrophysics, Weizmann Institute (Israel); Collaboration: muFUN Collaboration; MOA Collaboration; OGLE Collaboration; PLANET Collaboration; RoboNet Collaboration; MiNDSTEp Consortium; and others
2012-05-20
We present the analysis of the light curves of nine high-magnification single-lens gravitational microlensing events with lenses passing over source stars, including OGLE-2004-BLG-254, MOA-2007-BLG-176, MOA-2007-BLG-233/OGLE-2007-BLG-302, MOA-2009-BLG-174, MOA-2010-BLG-436, MOA-2011-BLG-093, MOA-2011-BLG-274, OGLE-2011-BLG-0990/MOA-2011-BLG-300, and OGLE-2011-BLG-1101/MOA-2011-BLG-325. For all of the events, we measure the linear limb-darkening coefficients of the surface brightness profile of source stars by measuring the deviation of the light curves near the peak affected by the finite-source effect. For seven events, we measure the Einstein radii and the lens-source relative proper motions. Among them, five events are found to have Einstein radii of less than 0.2 mas, making the lenses very low mass star or brown dwarf candidates. For MOA-2011-BLG-274, especially, the small Einstein radius of {theta}{sub E} {approx} 0.08 mas combined with the short timescale of t{sub E} {approx} 2.7 days suggests the possibility that the lens is a free-floating planet. For MOA-2009-BLG-174, we measure the lens parallax and thus uniquely determine the physical parameters of the lens. We also find that the measured lens mass of {approx}0.84 M{sub Sun} is consistent with that of a star blended with the source, suggesting that the blend is likely to be the lens. Although we did not find planetary signals for any of the events, we provide exclusion diagrams showing the confidence levels excluding the existence of a planet as a function of the separation and mass ratio.
Loewenstein, M.
1994-01-01
A simple method for deriving well-behaved temperature solutions to the equation of hydrostatic equilibrium for intracluster media with X-ray imaging observations is presented and applied to a series of generalized models as well as to observations of the Perseus cluster and Abell 2256. In these applications the allowed range in the ratio of nonbaryons to baryons as a function of radius is derived, taking into account the uncertainties and crude spatial resolution of the X-ray spectra and considering a range of physically reasonable mass models with various scale heights. Particular attention is paid to the central regions of the cluster, and it is found that the dark matter can be sufficiently concentrated to be consistent with the high central mass surface densities for moderate-redshift clusters from their gravitational lensing properties.
PASCHEN-α EMISSION IN THE GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED GALAXY SMM J163554.2+661225
Papovich, Casey; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Rudnick, Gregory; Rigby, Jane R.; Willmer, Christopher N. A.; Egami, Eiichi; Rieke, Marcia; Smith, J.-D. T.
2009-01-01
We report the detection of the Paα emission line in the z = 2.515 galaxy SMM J163554.2+661225 using Spitzer spectroscopy. SMM J163554.2+661225 is a submillimeter-selected infrared-luminous galaxy maintaining a high star formation rate (SFR), with no evidence of an active galactic nucleus from optical or infrared spectroscopy, nor X-ray emission. This galaxy is lensed gravitationally by the cluster Abell 2218, making it accessible to Spitzer spectroscopy. We measure a line luminosity, L(Paα) = (2.05 ± 0.33) x 10 42 erg s -1 , corrected for gravitational lensing. Comparing the Hα and Paα luminosities, we derive a nebular extinction, A(V) = 3.6 ± 0.4 mag. The dust-corrected luminosity, L(Paα) = (2.57 ± 0.43) x 10 42 erg s -1 , corresponds to an ionization rate, Q 0 = (1.6 ± 0.3) x 10 55 γ s -1 . The instantaneous SFR is ψ = 171 ± 28 M sun yr -1 , assuming a Salpeter-like initial mass function from 0.1 to 100 M sun yr -1 . The total IR luminosity derived using 70, 450, and 850 μm data is L IR = (5-10) x 10 11 L sun , corrected for gravitational lensing. This corresponds to ψ = 90-180 M sun yr -1 , where the upper range is consistent with that derived from the Paα luminosity. While the L(8 μm)/L(Paα) ratio is consistent with the extrapolated relation observed in local galaxies and star-forming regions, the rest-frame 24 μm luminosity is significantly lower with respect to local galaxies of comparable Paα luminosity. Thus, SMM J163554.2+661225 arguably lacks a warmer dust component (T D ∼ 70 K), which is associated with deeply embedded star formation, and which contrasts with local galaxies with comparable SFRs. Rather, the starburst in SMM J163554.2+661225 is consistent with star-forming local galaxies with intrinsic luminosities, L IR ∼ 10 10 L sun , but 'scaled up' by a factor of ∼10-100.
The galaxy-subhalo connection in low-redshift galaxy clusters from weak gravitational lensing
Sifón, Cristóbal; Herbonnet, Ricardo; Hoekstra, Henk; van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Viola, Massimo
2018-07-01
We measure the gravitational lensing signal around satellite galaxies in a sample of galaxy clusters at z measurements of faint, background sources in the vicinity of bright satellite galaxies. We find a small but significant bias, as light from the lenses makes the shapes of background galaxies appear radially aligned with the lens. We account for this bias by applying a correction that depends on both lens size and magnitude. We also correct for contamination of the source sample by cluster members. We use a physically motivated definition of subhalo mass, namely the mass bound to the subhalo, mbg, similar to definitions used by common subhalo finders in numerical simulations. Binning the satellites by stellar mass we provide a direct measurement of the subhalo-to-stellar-mass relation, log mbg/M⊙ = (11.54 ± 0.05) + (0.95 ± 0.10)log [m⋆/(2 × 1010 M⊙)]. This best-fitting relation implies that, at a stellar mass m⋆ ˜ 3 × 1010 M⊙, subhalo masses are roughly 50 per cent of those of central galaxies, and this fraction decreases at higher stellar masses. We find some evidence for a sharp change in the total-to-stellar mass ratio around the clusters' scale radius, which could be interpreted as galaxies within the scale radius having suffered more strongly from tidal stripping, but remain cautious regarding this interpretation.
MULTIPOLE GRAVITATIONAL LENSING AND HIGH-ORDER PERTURBATIONS ON THE QUADRUPOLE LENS
Chu, Z.; Lin, W. P. [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 80 Nandan Road, Shanghai 200030 (China); Li, G. L. [Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Kang, X., E-mail: chuzhe@shao.ac.cn, E-mail: linwp@shao.ac.cn [Partner Group of MPI for Astronomy, Purple Mountain Observatory, 2 West Beijing Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2013-03-10
An arbitrary surface mass density of the gravitational lens can be decomposed into multipole components. We simulate the ray tracing for the multipolar mass distribution of the generalized Singular Isothermal Sphere model based on deflection angles, which are analytically calculated. The magnification patterns in the source plane are then derived from an inverse shooting technique. As has been found, the caustics of odd mode lenses are composed of two overlapping layers for some lens models. When a point source traverses this kind of overlapping caustics, the image numbers change by {+-}4, rather than {+-}2. There are two kinds of caustic images. One is the critical curve and the other is the transition locus. It is found that the image number of the fold is exactly the average value of image numbers on two sides of the fold, while the image number of the cusp is equal to the smaller one. We also focus on the magnification patterns of the quadrupole (m = 2) lenses under the perturbations of m = 3, 4, and 5 mode components and found that one, two, and three butterfly or swallowtail singularities can be produced, respectively. With the increasing intensity of the high-order perturbations, the singularities grow up to bring sixfold image regions. If these perturbations are large enough to let two or three of the butterflies or swallowtails make contact, then eightfold or tenfold image regions can be produced as well. The possible astronomical applications are discussed.
OGLE-IV: Fourth Phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment
Udalski, A.; Szymański, M. K.; Szymański, G.
2015-03-01
We present both the technical overview and main science drivers of the fourth phase of the Optical Gravitational Lensing Experiment (hereafter OGLE-IV). OGLE-IV is currently one of the largest sky variability surveys worldwide, targeting the densest stellar regions of the sky. The survey covers over 3000 square degrees in the sky and monitors regularly over a billion sources. The main targets include the inner Galactic Bulge and the Magellanic System. Their photometry spans the range of 12System and the Galactic disk. OGLE-IV provides the astronomical community with a number of real time services. The Early Warning System (EWS) contains information on two thousand gravitational microlensing events being discovered in real time annually, the OGLE Transient Detection System (OTDS) delivers over 200 supernovae a year. We also provide the real time photometry of unpredictable variables such as optical counterparts to the X-ray sources and R Coronae Borealis stars. Hundreds of thousands new variable stars have already been discovered and classified by the OGLE survey. The number of new detections will be at least doubled during the current OGLE-IV phase. The survey was designed and optimized primarily to conduct the second generation microlensing survey for exoplanets. It has already contributed significantly to the increase of the discovery rate of microlensing exoplanets and free-floating planets.
The signal of weak gravitational lensing from galaxy groups and clusters
Markert, Sean
2017-02-01
The weak gravitational lensing of galaxy clusters is a valuable tool. The deflection of light around a lens is solely dependent on the underlying distribution of foreground mass, and independent of tracers of mass such as the mass to light ratio and kinematics. As a direct probe of mass, weak lensing serves as an independent calibration of mass-observable relationships. These massive clusters are objects of great interest to astronomers, as their abundance is dependent on the conditions of the early universe, and accurate counts of clusters serve as a test of cosmological model. Upcoming surveys, such as LSST and DES, promise to push the limit of observable weak lensing, detecting clusters and sources at higher redshift than has ever been detected before. This makes accurate counts of clusters of a given mass and redshift, and proper calibration of mass-observable relationships, vital to cosmological studies. We used M> 1013.5 h-1M ⊙ halos from the MultiDark Planck simulation at z 0.5 to study the behavior of the reduced shear in clusters. We generated 2D maps of convergence and shear the halos using the GLAMER lensing library. Using these maps, we simulated observations of randomly placed background sources, and generate azimuthal averages of the shear. This reduced shear profile, and the true reduced shear profile of the halo, is fit using analytical solutions for shear of the NFW, Einasto, and truncated NFW density profile. The masses of these density profiles are then compared to the total halo masses from the halo catalogs. We find that fits to the reduced shear for halos extending past ≈ 2 h-1Mpc are fits to the noise of large scale structure along the line of sight. This noise is largely in the 45° rotated component to the reduced tangential shear, and is a breakdown in the approximation of gtan ≈ gnot required for density profile fitting of clusters. If fits are constrained to a projected radii of < 2 h-1Mpc, we see massively improved fits
Barnacka, Anna
2013-01-01
This thesis presents the study of four aspects of high energy astronomy. The first part of my thesis is dedicated to an aspect of instrument development for imaging atmospheric Cherenkov telescopes, namely the Level 2 trigger system of the High Energy Stereoscopic System (H.E.S.S.). My work on the project focused on the algorithm development and the Monte Carlo simulations of the trigger system and overall instrument. The hardware implementation of the system is described and its expected performances are then evaluated. The H.E.S.S. array has been used to observe the blazar PKS 1510-089. The second part of my thesis deals with the data analysis and modeling of broad-band emission of this particular blazar. In part II of my thesis, I am presenting the analysis of the H.E.S.S. data: the light curve and spectrum of PKS 1510-089, together with the FERMI data and a collection of multi-wavelength data obtained with various instruments. I am presenting the model of PKS 1510-089 observations carried out during a flare recorded by H.E.S.S.. The model is based on a single zone internal shock scenario. The third part of my thesis deals with blazars observed by the FERMI-LAT, but from the point of view of other phenomena: a strong gravitational lensing. This part of my thesis shows the first evidence for gravitational lensing phenomena in high energy gamma-rays. This evidence comes from the observation of a gravitational lens system induced echo in the light curve of the distant blazar PKS 1830-211. Traditional methods for the estimation of time delays in gravitational lensing systems rely on the cross-correlation of the light curves from individual images. In my thesis, I used 300 MeV-30 GeV photons detected by the Fermi-LAT instrument. The FERMI-LAT instrument cannot separate the images of known lenses. The observed light curve is thus the superposition of individual image light curves. The FERMI-LAT instrument has the advantage of providing long, evenly spaced, time series
Errard, Josquin [Sorbonne Universités, Institut Lagrange de Paris (ILP), 98 bis Boulevard Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Feeney, Stephen M.; Jaffe, Andrew H. [Department of Physics, Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, Prince Consort Road, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Peiris, Hiranya V., E-mail: josquin.errard@lpnhe.in2p3.fr, E-mail: s.feeney@imperial.ac.uk, E-mail: h.peiris@ucl.ac.uk, E-mail: a.jaffe@imperial.ac.uk [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)
2016-03-01
Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)∼1.3×10{sup −4}, σ(n{sub t})∼0
Gravitational lensing and ghost images in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes
Schee, Jan; Stuchlík, Zdeněk
2015-01-01
We study deflection of light rays and gravitational lensing in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. Flatness of these spacetimes in the central region implies existence of interesting optical effects related to photons crossing the gravitational field of the no-horizon spacetimes with low impact parameters. These effects occur due to existence of a critical impact parameter giving maximal deflection of light rays in the Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. We give the critical impact parameter in dependence on the specific charge of the spacetimes, and discuss 'ghost' direct and indirect images of Keplerian discs, generated by photons with low impact parameters. The ghost direct images can occur only for large inclination angles of distant observers, while ghost indirect images can occur also for small inclination angles. We determine the range of the frequency shift of photons generating the ghost images and determine distribution of the frequency shift across these images. We compare them to those of the standard direct images of the Keplerian discs. The difference of the ranges of the frequency shift on the ghost and direct images could serve as a quantitative measure of the Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. The regions of the Keplerian discs giving the ghost images are determined in dependence on the specific charge of the no-horizon spacetimes. For comparison we construct direct and indirect (ordinary and ghost) images of Keplerian discs around Reissner-Nördström naked singularities demonstrating a clear qualitative difference to the ghost direct images in the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes. The optical effects related to the low impact parameter photons thus give clear signature of the regular Bardeen no-horizon spacetimes, as no similar phenomena could occur in the black hole or naked singularity spacetimes. Similar direct ghost images have to occur in any regular no-horizon spacetimes having nearly flat central region
Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Stark, Dan P.; McLeod, Derek
2014-01-01
Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we sho...
The galaxy-subhalo connection in low-redshift galaxy clusters from weak gravitational lensing
Sifón, Cristóbal; Herbonnet, Ricardo; Hoekstra, Henk; van der Burg, Remco F. J.; Viola, Massimo
2018-05-01
We measure the gravitational lensing signal around satellite galaxies in a sample of galaxy clusters at z physically-motivated definition of subhalo mass, namely the mass bound to the subhalo, mbg, similar to definitions used by common subhalo finders in numerical simulations. Binning the satellites by stellar mass we provide a direct measurement of the subhalo-to-stellar-mass relation, log mbg/M⊙ = (11.54 ± 0.05) + (0.95 ± 0.10)log [m⋆/(2 × 1010M⊙)]. This best-fitting relation implies that, at a stellar mass m⋆ ˜ 3 × 1010 M⊙, subhalo masses are roughly 50 per cent of those of central galaxies, and this fraction decreases at higher stellar masses. We find some evidence for a sharp change in the total-to-stellar mass ratio around the clusters' scale radius, which could be interpreted as galaxies within the scale radius having suffered more strongly from tidal stripping, but remain cautious regarding this interpretation.
Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Nolta, Michael R.; Addison, Graeme E.; Battisetti, Elia S.; Bond, J. Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Crichton, Devin; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon;
2014-01-01
We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ?CDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6s detection significance.
The Atacama Cosmology Telescope: temperature and gravitational lensing power spectrum measurements from three seasons of data
Das, Sudeep; Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna; Nolta, Michael R.; Bond, J Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D.; Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark; Battistelli, Elia S.; Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan; Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon; Dünner, Rolando; Fowler, Joseph W.; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée; Hilton, Matt
2014-01-01
We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ΛCDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6σ detection significance
Das, Sudeep [Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Ave., Lemont, IL 60439 (United States); Louis, Thibaut; Calabrese, Erminia; Dunkley, Joanna [Sub-department of Astrophysics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford, OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Nolta, Michael R.; Bond, J Richard; Hajian, Amir; Hincks, Adam D. [Canadian Institute for Theoretical Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H8 Canada (Canada); Addison, Graeme E.; Halpern, Mark [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, V6T 1Z4 Canada (Canada); Battistelli, Elia S. [Department of Physics, University of Rome ' ' La Sapienza' ' , Piazzale Aldo Moro 5, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Crichton, Devin; Gralla, Megan [Dept. of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3400 N. Charles St., Baltimore, MD 21218-2686 (United States); Devlin, Mark J.; Dicker, Simon [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Pennsylvania, 209 South 33rd Street, Philadelphia, PA, 19104 (United States); Dünner, Rolando [Departamento de Astronomía y Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificía Universidad Católica, Casilla 306, Santiago 22 (Chile); Fowler, Joseph W. [NIST Quantum Devices Group, 325 Broadway Mailcode 817.03, Boulder, CO, 80305 (United States); Hasselfield, Matthew; Hlozek, Renée [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Peyton Hall, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Hilton, Matt, E-mail: sudeepphys@gmail.com [Centre for Astronomy and Particle Theory, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nottingham, NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); and others
2014-04-01
We present the temperature power spectra of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) derived from the three seasons of data from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) at 148 GHz and 218 GHz, as well as the cross-frequency spectrum between the two channels. We detect and correct for contamination due to the Galactic cirrus in our equatorial maps. We present the results of a number of tests for possible systematic error and conclude that any effects are not significant compared to the statistical errors we quote. Where they overlap, we cross-correlate the ACT and the South Pole Telescope (SPT) maps and show they are consistent. The measurements of higher-order peaks in the CMB power spectrum provide an additional test of the ΛCDM cosmological model, and help constrain extensions beyond the standard model. The small angular scale power spectrum also provides constraining power on the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effects and extragalactic foregrounds. We also present a measurement of the CMB gravitational lensing convergence power spectrum at 4.6σ detection significance.
Gravitational lensing by spinning black holes in astrophysics, and in the movie Interstellar
James, Oliver; Tunzelmann, Eugénie von; Franklin, Paul; Thorne, Kip S
2015-01-01
Interstellar is the first Hollywood movie to attempt depicting a black hole as it would actually be seen by somebody nearby. For this, our team at Double Negative Visual Effects, in collaboration with physicist Kip Thorne, developed a code called Double Negative Gravitational Renderer (DNGR) to solve the equations for ray-bundle (light-beam) propagation through the curved spacetime of a spinning (Kerr) black hole, and to render IMAX-quality, rapidly changing images. Our ray-bundle techniques were crucial for achieving IMAX-quality smoothness without flickering; and they differ from physicists’ image-generation techniques (which generally rely on individual light rays rather than ray bundles), and also differ from techniques previously used in the film industry’s CGI community. This paper has four purposes: (i) to describe DNGR for physicists and CGI practitioners, who may find interesting and useful some of our unconventional techniques. (ii) To present the equations we use, when the camera is in arbitrary motion at an arbitrary location near a Kerr black hole, for mapping light sources to camera images via elliptical ray bundles. (iii) To describe new insights, from DNGR, into gravitational lensing when the camera is near the spinning black hole, rather than far away as in almost all prior studies; we focus on the shapes, sizes and influence of caustics and critical curves, the creation and annihilation of stellar images, the pattern of multiple images, and the influence of almost-trapped light rays, and we find similar results to the more familiar case of a camera far from the hole. (iv) To describe how the images of the black hole Gargantua and its accretion disk, in the movie Interstellar, were generated with DNGR—including, especially, the influences of (a) colour changes due to doppler and gravitational frequency shifts, (b) intensity changes due to the frequency shifts, (c) simulated camera lens flare, and (d) decisions that the film makers made about
Gravitational lensing by spinning black holes in astrophysics, and in the movie Interstellar
James, Oliver; von Tunzelmann, Eugénie; Franklin, Paul; Thorne, Kip S.
2015-03-01
Interstellar is the first Hollywood movie to attempt depicting a black hole as it would actually be seen by somebody nearby. For this, our team at Double Negative Visual Effects, in collaboration with physicist Kip Thorne, developed a code called Double Negative Gravitational Renderer (DNGR) to solve the equations for ray-bundle (light-beam) propagation through the curved spacetime of a spinning (Kerr) black hole, and to render IMAX-quality, rapidly changing images. Our ray-bundle techniques were crucial for achieving IMAX-quality smoothness without flickering; and they differ from physicists’ image-generation techniques (which generally rely on individual light rays rather than ray bundles), and also differ from techniques previously used in the film industry’s CGI community. This paper has four purposes: (i) to describe DNGR for physicists and CGI practitioners, who may find interesting and useful some of our unconventional techniques. (ii) To present the equations we use, when the camera is in arbitrary motion at an arbitrary location near a Kerr black hole, for mapping light sources to camera images via elliptical ray bundles. (iii) To describe new insights, from DNGR, into gravitational lensing when the camera is near the spinning black hole, rather than far away as in almost all prior studies; we focus on the shapes, sizes and influence of caustics and critical curves, the creation and annihilation of stellar images, the pattern of multiple images, and the influence of almost-trapped light rays, and we find similar results to the more familiar case of a camera far from the hole. (iv) To describe how the images of the black hole Gargantua and its accretion disk, in the movie Interstellar, were generated with DNGR—including, especially, the influences of (a) colour changes due to doppler and gravitational frequency shifts, (b) intensity changes due to the frequency shifts, (c) simulated camera lens flare, and (d) decisions that the film makers made about
Galaxy-galaxy weak gravitational lensing in f(R) gravity
Li, Baojiu; Shirasaki, Masato
2018-03-01
We present an analysis of galaxy-galaxy weak gravitational lensing (GGL) in chameleon f(R) gravity - a leading candidate of non-standard gravity models. For the analysis, we have created mock galaxy catalogues based on dark matter haloes from two sets of numerical simulations, using a halo occupation distribution (HOD) prescription which allows a redshift dependence of galaxy number density. To make a fairer comparison between the f(R) and Λ cold dark matter (ΛCDM) models, their HOD parameters are tuned so that the galaxy two-point correlation functions in real space (and therefore the projected two-point correlation functions) match. While the f(R) model predicts an enhancement of the convergence power spectrum by up to ˜ 30 per cent compared to the standard ΛCDM model with the same parameters, the maximum enhancement of GGL is only half as large and less than 5 per cent on separations above ˜1-2 h-1 Mpc, because the latter is a cross-correlation of shear (or matter, which is more strongly affected by modified gravity) and galaxy (which is weakly affected given the good match between galaxy autocorrelations in the two models) fields. We also study the possibility of reconstructing the matter power spectrum by combination of GGL and galaxy clustering in f(R) gravity. We find that the galaxy-matter cross-correlation coefficient remains at unity down to ˜2-3 h-1 Mpc at relevant redshifts even in f(R) gravity, indicating joint analysis of GGL and galaxy clustering can be a powerful probe of matter density fluctuations in chameleon gravity. The scale dependence of the model differences in their predictions of GGL can potentially allows us to break the degeneracy between f(R) gravity and other cosmological parameters such as Ωm and σ8.
Constraints on Dark Energy Models from Galaxy Clusters and Gravitational Lensing Data
Alexander Bonilla
2018-01-01
Full Text Available The Sunyaev–Zel’dovich (SZ effect is a global distortion of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB spectrum as a result of its interaction with a hot electron plasma in the intracluster medium of large structures gravitationally viralized such as galaxy clusters (GC. Furthermore, this hot gas of electrons emits X-rays due to its fall in the gravitational potential well of the GC. The analysis of SZ and X-ray data provides a method for calculating distances to GC at high redshifts. On the other hand, many galaxies and GC produce a Strong Gravitational Lens (SGL effect, which has become a useful astrophysical tool for cosmology. We use these cosmological tests in addition to more traditional ones to constrain some alternative dark energy (DE models, including the study of the history of cosmological expansion through the cosmographic parameters. Using Akaike and Bayesian Information Criterion, we find that the w C D M and Λ C D M models are the most favoured by the observational data. In addition, we found at low redshift a peculiar behavior of slowdown of the universe, which occurs in dynamical DE models when we use data from GC.
SPAGHETTILENS: A software stack for modeling gravitational lenses by citizen scientists
Küng, R.
2018-04-01
The 2020s are expected to see tens of thousands of lens discoveries. Mass reconstruction or modeling of these lenses will be needed, but current modeling methods are time intensive for specialists and expert human resources do not scale. SpaghettiLens approaches this challenge with the help of experienced citizen scientist volunteers who have already been involved in finding lenses. A top level description is as follows. Citizen scientists look at data and provide a graphical input based on Fermat's principle which we call a Spaghetti Diagram. This input works as a model configuration. It is followed by the generation of the model, which is a compute intensive task done server side though a task distribution system. Model results are returned in graphical form to the citizen scientist, who examines and then either forwards them for forum discussion or rejects the model and retries. As well as configuring models, citizen scientists can also modify existing model configurations, which results in a version tree of models and makes the modeling process collaborative. SpaghettiLens is designed to be scalable and could be adopted to problems with similar characteristics. It is licensed under the MIT license, released at http://labs.spacewarps.org and the source code is available at https://github.com/RafiKueng/SpaghettiLens.
Story, K. T.; Hanson, D.; Ade, P. A. R.; Aird, K. A.; Austermann, J. E.; J. A. Beall,; Bender, A. N.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiang, H. C.; Cho, H-M.; Citron, R.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; Haan, T. de; Dobbs, M. A.; Everett, W.; Gallicchio, J.; Gao, J.; George, E. M.; Gilbert, A.; Halverson, N. W.; Harrington, N.; Henning, J. W.; Hilton, G. C.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hoover, S.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Hubmayr, J.; Irwin, K. D.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; Li, D.; Liang, C.; Luong-Van, D.; McMahon, J. J.; Mehl, J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L.; Montroy, T. E.; Natoli, T.; Nibarger, J. P.; Novosad, V.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Reichardt, C. L.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Smecher, G.; Stark, A. A.; Tucker, C.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Wang, G.; Whitehorn, N.; Yefremenko, V.; Zahn, O.
2015-08-28
We present a measurement of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) gravitational lensing potential using data from the first two seasons of observations with SPTpol, the polarization-sensitive receiver currently installed on the South Pole Telescope. The observations used in this work cover 100 deg(2) of sky with arcminute resolution at 150 GHz. Using a quadratic estimator, we make maps of the CMB lensing potential from combinations of CMB temperature and polarization maps. We combine these lensing potential maps to form a minimum-variance (MV) map. The lensing potential is measured with a signal-to-noise ratio of greater than one for angular multipoles between $100\\lt L\\lt 250$. This is the highest signal-to-noise mass map made from the CMB to date and will be powerful in cross-correlation with other tracers of large-scale structure. We calculate the power spectrum of the lensing potential for each estimator, and we report the value of the MV power spectrum between $100\\lt L\\lt 2000$ as our primary result. We constrain the ratio of the spectrum to a fiducial ΛCDM model to be A(MV) = 0.92 ± 0.14 (Stat.) ± 0.08 (Sys.). Restricting ourselves to polarized data only, we find A(POL) = 0.92 ± 0.24 (Stat.) ± 0.11 (Sys.). This measurement rejects the hypothesis of no lensing at $5.9\\sigma $ using polarization data alone, and at $14\\sigma $ using both temperature and polarization data.
A spectroscopic look at the gravitationally lensed Type Ia supernova 2016geu at z = 0.409
Cano, Z.; Selsing, J.; Hjorth, J.
2018-01-01
The spectacular success of Type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia) in SN-cosmology is based on the assumption that their photometric and spectroscopic properties are invariant with redshift. However, this fundamental assumption needs to be tested with observations of high-z SNe Ia. To date, the majority of SNe...... Ia observed at moderate to large redshifts (0.4 le z le 1.0) are faint, and the resultant analyses are based on observations with modest signal-to-noise ratios that impart a degree of ambiguity in their determined properties. In rare cases, however, the Universe offers a helping hand: To date a few...... SNe Ia have been observed that have had their luminosities magnified by intervening galaxies and galaxy clusters acting as gravitational lenses. In this paper, we present long-slit spectroscopy of the lensed SN Ia 2016geu, which occurred at a redshift of z = 0.409, and was magnified by a factor of ap...
Strong gravitational lensing and the stellar IMF of early-type galaxies
Leier, Dominik; Ferreras, Ignacio; Saha, Prasenjit; Charlot, Stéphane; Bruzual, Gustavo; La Barbera, Francesco
2016-07-01
Systematic variations of the initial mass function (IMF) in early-type galaxies, and their connection with possible drivers such as velocity dispersion or metallicity, have been much debated in recent years. Strong lensing over galaxy scales combined with photometric and spectroscopic data provides a powerful method to constrain the stellar mass-to-light ratio and hence the functional form of the IMF. We combine photometric and spectroscopic constraints from the latest set of population synthesis models of Charlot & Bruzual, including a varying IMF, with a non-parametric analysis of the lens masses of 18 ETGs from the SLACS survey, with velocity dispersions in the range 200-300 km s-1. We find that very bottom-heavy IMFs are excluded. However, the upper limit to the bimodal IMF slope (μ ≲ 2.2, accounting for a dark matter fraction of 20-30 per cent, where μ = 1.3 corresponds to a Kroupa-like IMF) is compatible at the 1σ level with constraints imposed by gravity-sensitive line strengths. A two-segment power-law parametrization of the IMF (Salpeter-like for high masses) is more constrained (Γ ≲ 1.5, where Γ is the power index at low masses) but requires a dark matter contribution of ≳25 per cent to reconcile the results with a Salpeter IMF. For a standard Milky Way-like IMF to be applicable, a significant dark matter contribution is required within 1Re. Our results reveal a large range of allowed IMF slopes, which, when interpreted as intrinsic scatter in the IMF properties of ETGs, could explain the recent results of Smith et al., who find Milky Way-like IMF normalizations in a few massive lensing ETGs.
Hunt, L. R.; Pisano, D. J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, West Virginia University, P.O. Box 6315, Morgantown, WV 26506 (United States); Edel, S., E-mail: lhunt3@mix.wvu.edu, E-mail: djpisano@mail.wvu.edu, E-mail: stasedel@gmail.com [Infinite Optics, 1712 Newport Cir # F, Santa Ana, CA 92705 (United States)
2016-08-01
Neutral hydrogen (Hi) provides a very important fuel for star formation, but is difficult to detect at high redshift due to weak emission, limited sensitivity of modern instruments, and terrestrial radio frequency interference (RFI) at low frequencies. We report the first attempt to use gravitational lensing to detect Hi line emission from three gravitationally lensed galaxies behind the cluster Abell 773, two at redshifts of 0.398 and one at z = 0.487, using the Green Bank Telescope. We find that a 3 σ upper limit for a galaxy with a rotation velocity of 200 km s{sup −1} is M{sub Hi} = 6.58 × 10{sup 9} and 1.5 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ⊙} at z = 0.398 and z = 0.487. The estimated Hi masses of the sources at z = 0.398 and z = 0.487 are factors of 3.7 and ∼30 times lower than our detection limits at the respective redshifts. To facilitate these observations we have used sigma-clipping to remove both narrow- and wideband RFI but retain the signal from the source. We are able to reduce the noise of the spectrum by ∼25% using our routine instead of discarding observations with too much RFI. The routine is most effective when ∼10% of the integrations or fewer contain RFI. These techniques can be used to study Hi in highly magnified distant galaxies that are otherwise too faint to detect.
Oguri, Masamune; Inada, Naohisa; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Richards, Gordon T.; Johnston, David E.; Frieman, Joshua A.; Pindor, Bartosz; Strauss, Michael A.; Brunner, Robert; Becker, Robert H.; Castander, Francisco J.; Gregg, Michael D.; Hall, Patrick B.; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schneider, Donald P.; Bahcall, Neta A.; Brinkmann, Jonathan; York, Donald G.
2004-11-01
We report the discovery of two doubly-imaged quasars, SDSS J100128.61+502756.9 and SDSS J120629.65+433217.6, at redshifts of 1.838 and 1.789 and with image separations of 2.86'' and 2.90'', respectively. The objects were selected as lens candidates from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). Based on the identical nature of the spectra of the two quasars in each pair and the identification of the lens galaxies, we conclude that the objects are gravitational lenses. The lenses are complicated; in both systems there are several galaxies in the fields very close to the quasars, in addition to the lens galaxies themselves. The lens modeling implies that these nearby galaxies contribute significantly to the lens potentials. On larger scales, we have detected an enhancement in the galaxy density near SDSS J100128.61+502756.9. The number of lenses with image separation of {approx} 3'' in the SDSS already exceeds the prediction of simple theoretical models based on the standard Lambda-dominated cosmology and observed velocity function of galaxies.
Prod'homme, T.; Verhoeve, P.; Oosterbroek, T.; Boudin, N.; Short, A.; Kohley, R.
2014-07-01
Euclid is the ESA mission to map the geometry of the dark universe. It uses weak gravitational lensing, which requires the accurate measurement of galaxy shapes over a large area in the sky. Radiation damage in the 36 Charge-Coupled Devices (CCDs) composing the Euclid visible imager focal plane has already been identified as a major contributor to the weak-lensing error budget; radiation-induced charge transfer inefficiency (CTI) distorts the galaxy images and introduces a bias in the galaxy shape measurement. We designed a laboratory experiment to project Euclid-like sky images onto an irradiated Euclid CCD. In this way - and for the first time - we are able to directly assess the effect of CTI on the Euclid weak-lensing measurement free of modelling uncertainties. We present here the experiment concept, setup, and first results. The results of such an experiment provide test data critical to refine models, design and test the Euclid data processing CTI mitigation scheme, and further optimize the Euclid CCD operation.
Image formation in weak gravitational lensing by tidal charged black holes
Horvath, Zsolt; Gergely, Laszlo Arpad; Hobill, David
2010-01-01
We derive a generic weak lensing equation and apply it for the study of images produced by tidal charged brane black holes. We discuss the similarities and point out the differences with respect to the Schwarzschild black hole weak lensing, to both first- and second-order accuracy, when either the mass or the tidal charge dominates. In the case of mass-dominated weak lensing, we analyze the position of the images, the magnification factors and the flux ratio, as compared to the Schwarzschild lensing. The most striking modification appears in the flux ratio. When the tidal charge represents the dominating lensing effect, the number and orientation of the images with respect to the optical axis resembles the lensing properties of a Schwarzschild geometry, where the sign associated with the mass is opposite to that for the tidal charge. Finally it is found that the ratio of the brightness of the images as a function of image separation in the case of tidal charged black holes obeys a power-law relation significantly different from that of Schwarzschild black holes. This might provide a means for determining the underlying spacetime structure.
Le Guillou, L
2003-09-01
The nature of dark matter is an open question. The search for gravitational microlensing effects is an interesting tool because this effect is strongly dependent on the mass of objects whether they are luminous or not, however this detection method is only sensitive to compact forms of dark matter (MACHOS - massive astronomical halo compact objects), and as a consequence no-baryonic matter like neutrinos or WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles) can not be detected this way. In the first chapter the author reviews the plausible candidates to black matter. The use of the microlensing effect as a probe of the galactic halo is presented in the second chapter. The third chapter is dedicated to the series of experiments worldwide that focus on the detection of MACHOS. In the fourth chapter the author shows how the DIA (difference image analysis) method may be promising in the study of gravitational microlensing effects. The main part of this work has been the use of the DIA method to process five-year data set collected by the Eros experiment in the small Magellanic cloud (SMC). The data processing line and the results are presented in the fifth and sixth chapters. The results are consistent with previous results given by Eros and they confirm the disparity of the durations of micro-lenses detected in the large and small Magellanic clouds. (A.C.)
Dark matter, dark energy, gravitational lensing and the formation of structure in the universe
Bernardeau, Francis
2003-01-01
The large-scale structure of the universe and its statistical properties can reveal many aspects of the physics of the early universe as well as of its matter content during the cosmic history. Numerous observations, based to a large extent on large-scale structure data, have given us a concordant picture of the energy and matter content in the universe. In view of these results the existence of dark matter has been firmly established although it still evades attempts at direct detection. An even more challenging puzzle is, however, yet to be explained. Indeed the model suggested by the observations is only viable with the presence of a 'dark energy', an ethereal energy associated with the cosmological vacuum, that would represent about two-thirds of the total energy density of the universe. Although strongly indicated by observations, the existence of this component is nonetheless very uncomfortable from a high-energy physics point of view. Its interpretation is a matter of far reaching debates. Indeed, the phenomenological manifestation of this component can be viewed as a geometrical property of large-scale gravity, or as the energy associated with the quantum field vacuum, or else as the manifestation of a new sort of cosmic fluid that would fill space and remain unclustered. Low redshift detailed examinations of the geometrical or clustering properties of the universe should in all cases help clarify the true nature of the dark energy. We present methods that can be used in the future for exploring the low redshift physical properties of the universe. Particular emphasis will be placed on the use of large-scale structure surveys and more specifically on weak lensing surveys that promise to be extremely powerful in exploring the large-scale mass distribution in the universe
Planck 2013 results. XVIII. The gravitational lensing-infrared background correlation
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Armitage-Caplan, C.
2013-01-01
The multi-frequency capability of the Planck satellite provides information both on the integrated history of star formation (via the cosmic infrared background, or CIB) and on the distribution of dark matter (via the lensing effect on the cosmic microwave background, or CMB). The conjunction of ...
Robertson, Brant E.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; Stark, Dan P.; McLeod, Derek
2014-12-01
Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ~35% at redshift z ~ 7 to >~ 65% at z ~ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.
Marrone, Daniel P.; Culverhouse, Thomas; Carlstrom, John E.; Greer, Christopher; Hennessy, Ryan; Leitch, Erik M.; Loh, Michael; Pryke, Clem; Smith, Graham P.; Hamilton-Morris, Victoria; Richard, Johan; Joy, Marshall; Bonamente, Massimiliano; Hasler, Nicole; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Hawkins, David; Lamb, James W.; Muchovej, Stephen; Miller, Amber; Mroczkowski, Tony
2009-01-01
We present the first measurement of the relationship between the Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) signal and the mass of galaxy clusters that uses gravitational lensing to measure cluster mass, based on 14 X-ray luminous clusters at z ≅ 0.2 from the Local Cluster Substructure Survey. We measure the integrated Compton y-parameter, Y, and total projected mass of the clusters (M GL ) within a projected clustercentric radius of 350 kpc, corresponding to mean overdensities of 4000-8000 relative to the critical density. We find self-similar scaling between M GL and Y, with a scatter in mass at fixed Y of 32%. This scatter exceeds that predicted from numerical cluster simulations, however, it is smaller than comparable measurements of the scatter in mass at fixed T X . We also find no evidence of segregation in Y between disturbed and undisturbed clusters, as had been seen with T X on the same physical scales. We compare our scaling relation to the Bonamente et al. relation based on mass measurements that assume hydrostatic equilibrium, finding no evidence for a hydrostatic mass bias in cluster cores (M GL = 0.98 ± 0.13 M HSE ), consistent with both predictions from numerical simulations and lensing/X-ray-based measurements of mass-observable scaling relations at larger radii. Overall our results suggest that the SZE may be less sensitive than X-ray observations to the details of cluster physics in cluster cores.
3D-HST GRISM SPECTROSCOPY OF A GRAVITATIONALLY LENSED, LOW-METALLICITY STARBURST GALAXY AT z = 1.847
Brammer, Gabriel B.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Labbé, Ivo; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Patel, Shannon; Da Cunha, Elisabete; Rix, Hans-Walter; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Van der Wel, Arjen; Erb, Dawn K.; Lundgren, Britt; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.; Marchesini, Danilo; Quadri, Ryan
2012-01-01
We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and spectroscopy of the gravitational lens SL2SJ02176-0513, a cusp arc at z = 1.847. The UV continuum of the lensed galaxy is very blue, which is seemingly at odds with its redder optical colors. The 3D-HST WFC3/G141 near-infrared spectrum of the lens reveals the source of this discrepancy to be extremely strong [O III] λ5007 and Hβ emission lines with rest-frame equivalent widths of 2000 ± 100 and 520 ± 40 Å, respectively. The source has a stellar mass ∼10 8 M ☉ , sSFR ∼ 100 Gyr –1 , and detection of [O III] λ4363 yields a metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 ± 0.2. We identify local blue compact dwarf analogs to SL2SJ02176-0513, which are among the most metal-poor galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The local analogs resemble the lensed galaxy in many ways, including UV/optical spectral energy distribution, spatial morphology, and emission line equivalent widths and ratios. Common to SL2SJ02176-0513 and its local counterparts is an upturn at mid-IR wavelengths likely arising from hot dust heated by starbursts. The emission lines of SL2SJ02176-0513 are spatially resolved owing to the combination of the lens and the high spatial resolution of HST. The lensed galaxy is composed of two clumps with combined size r e ∼300 pc, and we resolve significant differences in UV color and emission line equivalent width between them. Though it has characteristics occasionally attributed to active galactic nuclei, we conclude that SL2SJ02176-0513 is a low-metallicity star-bursting dwarf galaxy. Such galaxies will be found in significant numbers in the full 3D-HST grism survey.
Rahvar, Sohrab
2018-05-01
In this work, we study the interaction of the electromagnetic wave (EW) from a distant quasar with the gravitational wave (GW) sourced by the binary stars. While in the regime of geometric optics, the light bending due to this interaction is negligible, we show that the phase shifting on the wavefront of an EW can produce the diffraction pattern on the observer plane. The diffraction of the light (with the wavelength of λe) by the gravitational wave playing the role of gravitational grating (with the wavelength of λg) has the diffraction angle of Δβ ˜ λe/λg. The relative motion of the observer, the source of gravitational wave and the quasar results in a relative motion of the observer through the interference pattern on the observer plane. The consequence of this fringe crossing is the modulation in the light curve of a quasar with the period of few hours in the microwave wavelength. The optical depth for the observation of this phenomenon for a Quasar with the multiple images strongly lensed by a galaxy where the light trajectory of some of the images crosses the lensing galaxy is τ ≃ 0.2. By shifting the time-delay of the light curves of the multiple images in a strong lensed quasar and removing the intrinsic variations of a quasar, our desired signals, as a new method for detection of GWs can be detected.
Null Geodesics and Strong Field Gravitational Lensing in a String Cloud Background
Iftikhar, Sehrish; Sharif, M.
2015-01-01
This paper is devoted to studying two interesting issues of a black hole with string cloud background. Firstly, we investigate null geodesics and find unstable orbital motion of particles. Secondly, we calculate deflection angle in strong field limit. We then find positions, magnifications, and observables of relativistic images for supermassive black hole at the galactic center. We conclude that string parameter highly affects the lensing process and results turn out to be quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole
Studying dark matter using weak gravitational lensing : from galaxies to the cosmic web
Brouwer, M.M.
2017-01-01
Of all the mass in our Universe, 80% is thought to consist of a hypothetical and invisible substance called dark matter (DM). So far, all observations of DM are based on its gravitational interaction, either through the dynamics of normal (baryonic) matter or through the deflection of light.
Exploring gravitational lensing model variations in the Frontier Fields galaxy clusters
Harris James, Nicholas John; Raney, Catie; Brennan, Sean; Keeton, Charles
2018-01-01
Multiple groups have been working on modeling the mass distributions of the six lensing galaxy clusters in the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Fields data set. The magnification maps produced from these mass models will be important for the future study of the lensed background galaxies, but there exists significant variation in the different groups’ models and magnification maps. We explore the use of two-dimensional histograms as a tool for visualizing these magnification map variations. Using a number of simple, one- or two-halo singular isothermal sphere models, we explore the features that are produced in 2D histogram model comparisons when parameters such as halo mass, ellipticity, and location are allowed to vary. Our analysis demonstrates the potential of 2D histograms as a means of observing the full range of differences between the Frontier Fields groups’ models.This work has been supported by funding from National Science Foundation grants PHY-1560077 and AST-1211385, and from the Space Telescope Science Institute.
Leethochawalit, Nicha; Ellis, Richard S.; Zitrin, Adi [Cahill Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Jones, Tucker A. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Stark, Daniel P. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States)
2016-11-10
The fraction of ionizing photons escaping from high-redshift star-forming galaxies is a key obstacle in evaluating whether galaxies were the primary agents of cosmic reionization. We previously proposed using the covering fraction of low-ionization gas, measured via deep absorption-line spectroscopy, as a proxy. We now present a significant update, sampling seven gravitationally lensed sources at 4 < z < 5. We show that the absorbing gas in our sources is spatially inhomogeneous, with a median covering fraction of 66%. Correcting for reddening according to a dust-in-cloud model, this implies an estimated absolute escape fraction of ≃19% ± 6%. With possible biases and uncertainties, collectively we find that the average escape fraction could be reduced to no less than 11%, excluding the effect of spatial variations. For one of our lensed sources, we have sufficient signal-to-noise ratio to demonstrate the presence of such spatial variations and scatter in its dependence on the Ly α equivalent width, consistent with recent simulations. If this source is typical, our lower limit to the escape fraction could be reduced by a further factor ≃2. Across our sample, we find a modest anticorrelation between the inferred escape fraction and the local star formation rate, consistent with a time delay between a burst and leaking Lyman continuum photons. Our analysis demonstrates considerable variations in the escape fraction, consistent with being governed by the small-scale behavior of star-forming regions, whose activities fluctuate over short timescales. This supports the suggestion that the escape fraction may increase toward the reionization era when star formation becomes more energetic and burst-like.
Wiesner, Matthew P. [Department of Physics, Northern Illinois University, DeKalb, IL 60115 (United States); Lin, Huan; Allam, Sahar S.; Annis, James; Buckley-Geer, Elizabeth J.; Diehl, H. Thomas; Kubik, Donna; Kubo, Jeffrey M.; Tucker, Douglas [Center for Particle Astrophysics, Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States)
2012-12-10
We describe 10 strong lensing galaxy clusters of redshift 0.26 {<=} z {<=} 0.56 that were found in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We present measurements of richness (N{sub 200}), mass (M{sub 200}), and velocity dispersion for the clusters. We find that in order to use the mass-richness relation from Johnston et al., which was established at mean redshift of 0.25, it is necessary to scale measured richness values up by 1.47. Using this scaling, we find richness values for these clusters to be in the range of 22 {<=} N{sub 200} {<=} 317 and mass values to be in the range of 1 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun} {<=} M{sub 200} {<=} 30 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 14} h {sup -1} M{sub Sun }. We also present measurements of Einstein radius, mass, and velocity dispersion for the lensing systems. The Einstein radii ({theta}{sub E}) are all relatively small, with 5.''4 {<=} {theta}{sub E} {<=} 13''. Finally, we consider if there is evidence that our clusters are more concentrated than {Lambda}CDM would predict. We find that six of our clusters do not show evidence of overconcentration, while four of our clusters do. We note a correlation between overconcentration and mass, as the four clusters showing evidence of overconcentration are all lower-mass clusters. For the four lowest mass clusters the average value of the concentration parameter c{sub 200} is 11.6, while for the six higher-mass clusters the average value of c{sub 200} is 4.4. {Lambda}CDM would place c{sub 200} between 3.4 and 5.7.
3D-HST Grism Spectroscopy of a Gravitationally Lensed, Low-metallicity Starburst Galaxy at z = 1.847
Brammer, Gabriel B.; Sánchez-Janssen, Rubén; Labbé, Ivo; da Cunha, Elisabete; Erb, Dawn K.; Franx, Marijn; Fumagalli, Mattia; Lundgren, Britt; Marchesini, Danilo; Momcheva, Ivelina; Nelson, Erica; Patel, Shannon; Quadri, Ryan; Rix, Hans-Walter; Skelton, Rosalind E.; Schmidt, Kasper B.; van der Wel, Arjen; van Dokkum, Pieter G.; Wake, David A.; Whitaker, Katherine E.
2012-10-01
We present Hubble Space Telescope (HST) imaging and spectroscopy of the gravitational lens SL2SJ02176-0513, a cusp arc at z = 1.847. The UV continuum of the lensed galaxy is very blue, which is seemingly at odds with its redder optical colors. The 3D-HST WFC3/G141 near-infrared spectrum of the lens reveals the source of this discrepancy to be extremely strong [O III] λ5007 and Hβ emission lines with rest-frame equivalent widths of 2000 ± 100 and 520 ± 40 Å, respectively. The source has a stellar mass ~108 M ⊙, sSFR ~ 100 Gyr-1, and detection of [O III] λ4363 yields a metallicity of 12 + log (O/H) = 7.5 ± 0.2. We identify local blue compact dwarf analogs to SL2SJ02176-0513, which are among the most metal-poor galaxies in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The local analogs resemble the lensed galaxy in many ways, including UV/optical spectral energy distribution, spatial morphology, and emission line equivalent widths and ratios. Common to SL2SJ02176-0513 and its local counterparts is an upturn at mid-IR wavelengths likely arising from hot dust heated by starbursts. The emission lines of SL2SJ02176-0513 are spatially resolved owing to the combination of the lens and the high spatial resolution of HST. The lensed galaxy is composed of two clumps with combined size re ~300 pc, and we resolve significant differences in UV color and emission line equivalent width between them. Though it has characteristics occasionally attributed to active galactic nuclei, we conclude that SL2SJ02176-0513 is a low-metallicity star-bursting dwarf galaxy. Such galaxies will be found in significant numbers in the full 3D-HST grism survey. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, program 12328, obtained at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555.
Fennelly, A.J.
1978-01-01
Investigations of several problems of gravitation are discussed. The question of the existence of black holes is considered. While black holes like those in Einstein's theory may not exist in other gravity theories, trapped surfaces implying such black holes certainly do. The theories include those of Brans-Dicke, Lightman-Lee, Rosen, and Yang. A similar two-tensor theory of Yilmaz is investigated and found inconsistent and nonviable. The Newman-Penrose formalism for Riemannian geometries is adapted to general gravity theories and used to implement a search for twisting solutions of the gravity theories for empty and nonempty spaces. The method can be used to find the gravitational fields for all viable gravity theories. The rotating solutions are of particular importance for strong field interpretation of the Stanford/Marshall gyroscope experiment. Inhomogeneous cosmologies are examined in Einstein's theory as generalizations of homogeneous ones by raising the dimension of the invariance groups by one more parameter. The nine Bianchi classifications are extended to Rosen's theory of gravity for homogeneous cosmological models
Perotto, Laurence [Universite Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, UFR de Physique, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)
2006-01-15
This thesis is motivated by the upcoming high-resolution, high-sensitivity microwave background experiments, which should be sensitive to the CMB polarization and lensing. The first chapter provides a review of the CMB polarization with emphasis on future related experiments. The PLANCK experiment is described in a second chapter, where I develop a fast simulation code of PLANCK time-ordered data optimized to ease elaboration and test of data analysis methods. The two last chapters deal with gravitational lensing of the cosmic background radiation. First, I evaluate the capability of the upcoming experiments mentioned above to measure the power spectrum of Large Scale Structure by means of the extraction of weak lensing. Then I derive their sensitivity to the total neutrino mass, using the suppression of power due to free-streaming of massive neutrinos. Finally, I develop a method to estimate the foreground effects in the gravitational lensing extraction process. This method uses the best linear estimator available in the literature and is validated by numerical simulations that include non-Gaussian CMB lensed maps and extra-galactic radio sources maps. I find that sources emission reduces the sensitivity of future experiments to the weak lensing and leads to an overestimate of the convergence power spectrum. (author)
Perotto, Laurence [Universite Paris 7 - Denis Diderot, UFR de Physique, 75205 Paris Cedex 13 (France)
2006-01-15
This thesis is motivated by the upcoming high-resolution, high-sensitivity microwave background experiments, which should be sensitive to the CMB polarization and lensing. The first chapter provides a review of the CMB polarization with emphasis on future related experiments. The PLANCK experiment is described in a second chapter, where I develop a fast simulation code of PLANCK time-ordered data optimized to ease elaboration and test of data analysis methods. The two last chapters deal with gravitational lensing of the cosmic background radiation. First, I evaluate the capability of the upcoming experiments mentioned above to measure the power spectrum of Large Scale Structure by means of the extraction of weak lensing. Then I derive their sensitivity to the total neutrino mass, using the suppression of power due to free-streaming of massive neutrinos. Finally, I develop a method to estimate the foreground effects in the gravitational lensing extraction process. This method uses the best linear estimator available in the literature and is validated by numerical simulations that include non-Gaussian CMB lensed maps and extra-galactic radio sources maps. I find that sources emission reduces the sensitivity of future experiments to the weak lensing and leads to an overestimate of the convergence power spectrum. (author)
Vietri, M.; Ostriker, J.P.
1983-01-01
We ask how the apparent distribution of fluxes (N-F relation) of point sources seen behind an intervening galaxy will change due to gravitational lensing of the galaxy as a whole or due to mini-lenses within it. The analysis is exact in the limit that the optical depth to lensing is small. We find that there should be a significant increase in the apparent density of quasars seen near galaxies but that a sample of more than 10/sup 4,5/ galaxies will have to be studied before a statistically significant result is found. The resulting amplification of the N-F relation depends sensitively on the slope and curvature of the initial N-F relation. Because of this and requirements of flux conservation, there is expected to be a decrement of very faint quasars (m>26.5) seen near galaxies. This, coupled with the scarcity of bright quasars, implies that searches should optimally be made in the vicinity of m = 23. The apparent amplification found by Canizares with a smaller sample (Nroughly-equal10/sup 3,3/) of galaxies using relatively bright quasars (m<16) is, if real and not a statistical anomaly, due to physical effects other than gravitational lensing
Nbody Simulations and Weak Gravitational Lensing using new HPC-Grid resources: the PI2S2 project
Becciani, U.; Antonuccio-Delogu, V.; Costa, A.; Comparato, M.
2008-08-01
We present the main project of the new grid infrastructure and the researches, that have been already started in Sicily and will be completed by next year. The PI2S2 project of the COMETA consortium is funded by the Italian Ministry of University and Research and will be completed in 2009. Funds are from the European Union Structural Funds for Objective 1 regions. The project, together with a similar project called Trinacria GRID Virtual Laboratory (Trigrid VL), aims to create in Sicily a computational grid for e-science and e-commerce applications with the main goal of increasing the technological innovation of local enterprises and their competition on the global market. PI2S2 project aims to build and develop an e-Infrastructure in Sicily, based on the grid paradigm, mainly for research activity using the grid environment and High Performance Computer systems. As an example we present the first results of a new grid version of FLY a tree Nbody code developed by INAF Astrophysical Observatory of Catania, already published in the CPC program Library, that will be used in the Weak Gravitational Lensing field.
Chan, Chi-kwan; Psaltis, Dimitrios; Özel, Feryal; Marrone, Daniel [Steward Observatory and Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Medeiros, Lia [Department of Physics, Broida Hall, University of California, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Sadowski, Aleksander [MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Narayan, Ramesh, E-mail: chanc@email.arizona.edu [Institute for Theory and Computation, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)
2015-10-20
We explore the variability properties of long, high-cadence general relativistic magnetohydrodynamic (GRMHD) simulations across the electromagnetic spectrum using an efficient, GPU-based radiative transfer algorithm. We focus on both standard and normal evolution (SANE) and magnetically arrested disk (MAD) simulations with parameters that successfully reproduce the time-averaged spectral properties of Sgr A* and the size of its image at 1.3 mm. We find that the SANE models produce short-timescale variability with amplitudes and power spectra that closely resemble those inferred observationally. In contrast, MAD models generate only slow variability at lower flux levels. Neither set of models shows any X-ray flares, which most likely indicates that additional physics, such as particle acceleration mechanisms, need to be incorporated into the GRMHD simulations to account for them. The SANE models show strong, short-lived millimeter/infrared (IR) flares, with short (≲1 hr) time lags between the millimeter and IR wavelengths, that arise from the combination of short-lived magnetic flux tubes and strong-field gravitational lensing near the horizon. Such events provide a natural explanation for the observed IR flares with no X-ray counterparts.
Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, R.; Seljak, U.; Gunn, J.; Lombriser, L.
2009-01-01
We perform a test of gravity on large scales (5-50 Mpc/h) using 70,000 luminous red galaxies (LRGs) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) DR7 with redshifts 0.16
Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Dan P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ellis, Richard S. [Department of Astronomy, California Institute of Technology, MS 249-17, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; McLeod, Derek, E-mail: brant@email.arizona.edu [Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)
2014-12-01
Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ∼35% at redshift z ∼ 7 to ≳ 65% at z ∼ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program.
Robertson, Brant E.; Stark, Dan P.; Ellis, Richard S.; Dunlop, James S.; McLure, Ross J.; McLeod, Derek
2014-01-01
Strong gravitational lensing provides a powerful means for studying faint galaxies in the distant universe. By magnifying the apparent brightness of background sources, massive clusters enable the detection of galaxies fainter than the usual sensitivity limit for blank fields. However, this gain in effective sensitivity comes at the cost of a reduced survey volume and, in this Letter, we demonstrate that there is an associated increase in the cosmic variance uncertainty. As an example, we show that the cosmic variance uncertainty of the high-redshift population viewed through the Hubble Space Telescope Frontier Field cluster Abell 2744 increases from ∼35% at redshift z ∼ 7 to ≳ 65% at z ∼ 10. Previous studies of high-redshift galaxies identified in the Frontier Fields have underestimated the cosmic variance uncertainty that will affect the ultimate constraints on both the faint-end slope of the high-redshift luminosity function and the cosmic star formation rate density, key goals of the Frontier Field program
Le Du, Yann
2000-01-01
After a presentation of the physical framework and notions of observational cosmology, the author of this research thesis presents the phenomenon of gravitational micro-lensing on which AGAPE (Andromeda Galaxy Amplified Pixel Experiment) is based to detect the possible presence of baryonic black matter under the form of MACHOs (Massive compact halo objects, one of the possible candidates for black matter) within the halo of our galaxy and in that of a far galaxy, M31. He gives a precise description of observations performed by AGAPE at the Pic du Midi between 1994 and 1996. In order to observe M31, a new method has been developed (the pixel method) which is based on the light curve of each pixel of the M31 image. The author then reports the processing of light curves which notably aimed at reducing the discrepancy of points on these curves and at allowing a selection of interesting curves to be performed. He reports the characterisation of the searched signal from these curves, and then discusses the obtained results
Discovery of a New Fundamental Plane Dictating Galaxy Cluster Evolution from Gravitational Lensing
Fujita, Yutaka; Umetsu, Keiichi; Rasia, Elena; Meneghetti, Massimo; Donahue, Megan; Medezinski, Elinor; Okabe, Nobuhiro; Postman, Marc
2018-04-01
In cold dark-matter (CDM) cosmology, objects in the universe have grown under the effect of gravity of dark matter. The intracluster gas in a galaxy cluster was heated when the dark-matter halo formed through gravitational collapse. The potential energy of the gas was converted to thermal energy through this process. However, this process and the thermodynamic history of the gas have not been clearly characterized in connection with the formation and evolution of the internal structure of dark-matter halos. Here, we show that observational CLASH data of high-mass galaxy clusters lie on a plane in the three-dimensional logarithmic space of their characteristic radius r s , mass M s , and X-ray temperature T X with a very small orthogonal scatter. The tight correlation indicates that the gas temperature was determined at a specific cluster formation time, which is encoded in r s and M s . The plane is tilted with respect to T X ∝ M s /r s , which is the plane expected in the case of simplified virial equilibrium. We show that this tilt can be explained by a similarity solution, which indicates that clusters are not isolated but continuously growing through matter accretion from their outer environments. Numerical simulations reproduce the observed plane and its angle. This result holds independently of the gas physics implemented in the code, revealing the fundamental origin of this plane.
Electromagnetic methods for mapping freshwater lenses on Micronesian atoll islands
Anthony, S.S.
1992-01-01
The overall shape of freshwater lenses can be determined by applying electromagnetic methods and inverse layered-earth modeling to the mapping of atoll island freshwater lenses. Conductivity profiles were run across the width of the inhabited islands at Mwoakilloa, Pingelap, and Sapwuahfik atolls of the Pohnpei State, Federated States of Micronesia using a dual-loop, frequency-domain, electromagnetic profiling system. Six values of apparent conductivity were recorded at each sounding station and were used to interpret layer conductivities and/or thicknesses. A three-layer model that includes the unsaturated, freshwater, and saltwater zones was used to simulate apparent-conductivity data measured in the field. Interpreted results were compared with chloride-concentration data from monitoring wells and indicate that the interface between freshwater and saltwater layers, defined from electromagnetic data, is located in the upper part of the transition zone, where the chloride-concentration profile shows a rapid increase with depth. The electromagnetic method can be used to interpret the thickness of the freshwater between monitoring wells, but can not be used to interpret the thickness of freshwater from monitoring wells to the margin of an island. ?? 1992.
Wagner, J.; Tessore, N.
2018-05-01
We determine the transformation matrix that maps multiple images with identifiable resolved features onto one another and that is based on a Taylor-expanded lensing potential in the vicinity of a point on the critical curve within our model-independent lens characterisation approach. From the transformation matrix, the same information about the properties of the critical curve at fold and cusp points can be derived as we previously found when using the quadrupole moment of the individual images as observables. In addition, we read off the relative parities between the images, so that the parity of all images is determined when one is known. We compare all retrievable ratios of potential derivatives to the actual values and to those obtained by using the quadrupole moment as observable for two- and three-image configurations generated by a galaxy-cluster scale singular isothermal ellipse. We conclude that using the quadrupole moments as observables, the properties of the critical curve are retrieved to a higher accuracy at the cusp points and to a lower accuracy at the fold points; the ratios of second-order potential derivatives are retrieved to comparable accuracy. We also show that the approach using ratios of convergences and reduced shear components is equivalent to ours in the vicinity of the critical curve, but yields more accurate results and is more robust because it does not require a special coordinate system as the approach using potential derivatives does. The transformation matrix is determined by mapping manually assigned reference points in the multiple images onto one another. If the assignment of the reference points is subject to measurement uncertainties under the influence of noise, we find that the confidence intervals of the lens parameters can be as large as the values themselves when the uncertainties are larger than one pixel. In addition, observed multiple images with resolved features are more extended than unresolved ones, so that
CAN THE MASSES OF ISOLATED PLANETARY-MASS GRAVITATIONAL LENSES BE MEASURED BY TERRESTRIAL PARALLAX?
Freeman, M.; Botzler, C. S.; Bray, J. C.; Cherrie, J. M.; Rattenbury, N. J. [Department of Physics, University of Auckland, Private Bag 92019, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand); Philpott, L. C. [Department of Earth, Ocean and Atmospheric Sciences, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia V6T 1Z4 (Canada); Abe, F.; Muraki, Y. [Solar-Terrestrial Environment Laboratory, Nagoya University, Nagoya 464-8601 (Japan); Albrow, M. D. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Canterbury, P.O. Box 4800, Christchurch 8020 (New Zealand); Bennett, D. P. [Department of Physics, 225 Nieuwland Science Hall, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Bond, I. A. [Institute for Information and Mathematical Sciences, Massey University, Private Bag 102-904, Auckland 1330 (New Zealand); Christie, G. W.; Natusch, T. [Auckland Observatory, PO Box 180, Royal Oak, Auckland 1345 (New Zealand); Dionnet, Z. [Université d' Orsay, bat 470, F-91400 Orsay (France); Gould, A. [Department of Astronomy, Ohio State University, 140 West 18th Avenue, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States); Han, C. [Department of Physics, Chungbuk National University, 410 Seongbong-Rho, Hungduk-Gu, Chongju 371-763 (Korea, Republic of); Heyrovský, D. [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Charles University in Prague, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, V Holesovickach 2, 18000 Prague (Czech Republic); McCormick, J. M. [Farm Cove Observatory, 2/24 Rapallo Place, Pakuranga, Auckland 2012 (New Zealand); Moorhouse, D. M. [Kumeu Observatory, Kumeu (New Zealand); Skowron, J., E-mail: mfre070@aucklanduni.ac.nz [Warsaw University Observatory, Al. Ujazdowskie 4, 00-478, Warszawa (Poland); and others
2015-02-01
Recently Sumi et al. reported evidence for a large population of planetary-mass objects (PMOs) that are either unbound or orbit host stars in orbits ≥10 AU. Their result was deduced from the statistical distribution of durations of gravitational microlensing events observed by the MOA collaboration during 2006 and 2007. Here we study the feasibility of measuring the mass of an individual PMO through microlensing by examining a particular event, MOA-2011-BLG-274. This event was unusual as the duration was short, the magnification high, the source-size effect large, and the angular Einstein radius small. Also, it was intensively monitored from widely separated locations under clear skies at low air masses. Choi et al. concluded that the lens of the event may have been a PMO but they did not attempt a measurement of its mass. We report here a re-analysis of the event using re-reduced data. We confirm the results of Choi et al. and attempt a measurement of the mass and distance of the lens using the terrestrial parallax effect. Evidence for terrestrial parallax is found at a 3σ level of confidence. The best fit to the data yields the mass and distance of the lens as 0.80 ± 0.30 M {sub J} and 0.80 ± 0.25 kpc respectively. We exclude a host star to the lens out to a separation ∼40 AU. Drawing on our analysis of MOA-2011-BLG-274 we propose observational strategies for future microlensing surveys to yield sharper results on PMOs including those down to super-Earth mass.
Dahle, H.; Groeneboom, N.; Gladders, M. D.; Abramson, L. E.; Sharon, K.; Bayliss, M. B.; Wuyts, E.; Koester, B. P.; Brinckmann, T. E.; Kristensen, M. T.; Lindholmer, M. O.; Nielsen, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Fynbo, J. P. U.
2013-01-01
We report the discovery of a unique gravitational lens system, SDSS J2222+2745, producing five spectroscopically confirmed images of a z s = 2.82 quasar lensed by a foreground galaxy cluster at z l = 0.49. We also present photometric and spectroscopic evidence for a sixth lensed image of the same quasar. The maximum separation between the quasar images is 15.''1. Both the large image separations and the high image multiplicity are in themselves rare among known lensed quasars, and observing the combination of these two factors is an exceptionally unlikely occurrence in present data sets. This is only the third known case of a quasar lensed by a cluster, and the only one with six images. The lens system was discovered in the course of the Sloan Giant Arcs Survey, in which we identify candidate lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and target these for follow-up and verification with the 2.56 m Nordic Optical Telescope. Multi-band photometry obtained over multiple epochs from 2011 September to 2012 September reveals significant variability at the ∼10%-30% level in some of the quasar images, indicating that measurements of the relative time delay between quasar images will be feasible. In this lens system, we also identify a bright (g = 21.5) giant arc corresponding to a strongly lensed background galaxy at z s = 2.30. We fit parametric models of the lens system, constrained by the redshift and positions of the quasar images and the redshift and position of the giant arc. The predicted time delays between different pairs of quasar images range from ∼100 days to ∼6 yr
Simard, G.; et al.
2017-12-20
We report constraints on cosmological parameters from the angular power spectrum of a cosmic microwave background (CMB) gravitational lensing potential map created using temperature data from 2500 deg$^2$ of South Pole Telescope (SPT) data supplemented with data from Planck in the same sky region, with the statistical power in the combined map primarily from the SPT data. We fit the corresponding lensing angular power spectrum to a model including cold dark matter and a cosmological constant ($\\Lambda$CDM), and to models with single-parameter extensions to $\\Lambda$CDM. We find constraints that are comparable to and consistent with constraints found using the full-sky Planck CMB lensing data. Specifically, we find $\\sigma_8 \\Omega_{\\rm m}^{0.25}=0.598 \\pm 0.024$ from the lensing data alone with relatively weak priors placed on the other $\\Lambda$CDM parameters. In combination with primary CMB data from Planck, we explore single-parameter extensions to the $\\Lambda$CDM model. We find $\\Omega_k = -0.012^{+0.021}_{-0.023}$ or $M_{\
Eichner, Thomas; Seitz, Stella; Bauer, Anne
2012-12-01
We study the Sloan Lens ACS (SLACS) survey strong-lensing system SDSS J1430+4105 at zl = 0.285. The lensed source (zs = 0.575) of this system has a complex morphology with several subcomponents. Its subcomponents span a radial range from 4 to 10 kpc in the plane of the lens. Therefore, we can constrain the slope of the total projected mass profile around the Einstein radius from lensing alone. We measure a density profile that is slightly but not significantly shallower than isothermal at the Einstein radius. We decompose the mass of the lensing galaxy into a de Vaucouleurs component to trace the stars and an additional dark component. The spread of multiple-image components over a large radial range also allows us to determine the amplitude of the de Vaucouleurs and dark matter components separately. We get a mass-to-light ratio of M de Vauc LB ≈ (5.5±1.5) M⊙L⊙,B and a dark matter fraction within the Einstein radius of ≈20 to 40 per cent. Modelling the star formation history assuming composite stellar populations at solar metallicity to the galaxy's photometry yields a mass-to-light ratio of M, salp LB ≈ 4.0-1.3+0.6 M⊙L⊙,B and M, chab LB ≈ 2.3-0.8+0.3 M⊙L⊙,B for Salpeter and Chabrier initial mass functions, respectively. Hence, the mass-to-light ratio derived from lensing is more Salpeter like, in agreement with results for massive Coma galaxies and other nearby massive early-type galaxies. We examine the consequences of the galaxy group in which the lensing galaxy is embedded, showing that it has little influence on the mass-to-light ratio obtained for the de Vaucouleurs component of the lensing galaxy. Finally, we decompose the projected, azimuthally averaged 2D density distribution of the de Vaucouleurs and dark matter components of the lensing signal into spherically averaged 3D density profiles. We can show that the 3D dark and luminous matter density within the Einstein radius (REin ≈ 0.6 Reff) of this SLACS galaxy is similar to the
Misner, Charles W; Wheeler, John Archibald
2017-01-01
First published in 1973, Gravitation is a landmark graduate-level textbook that presents Einstein’s general theory of relativity and offers a rigorous, full-year course on the physics of gravitation. Upon publication, Science called it “a pedagogic masterpiece,” and it has since become a classic, considered essential reading for every serious student and researcher in the field of relativity. This authoritative text has shaped the research of generations of physicists and astronomers, and the book continues to influence the way experts think about the subject. With an emphasis on geometric interpretation, this masterful and comprehensive book introduces the theory of relativity; describes physical applications, from stars to black holes and gravitational waves; and portrays the field’s frontiers. The book also offers a unique, alternating, two-track pathway through the subject. Material focusing on basic physical ideas is designated as Track 1 and formulates an appropriate one-semester graduate-level...
A new method for testing Newton's gravitational law
Schurr, J.; Klein, N.; Meyer, H.; Piel, H.; Walesch, H.
1991-01-01
A new experimental method is reported for determining the gravitational force of a laboratory test mass on a Fabry-Perot microwave resonator. The resonator consists of two Fabry-Perot mirrors suspended as pendulums. Changes of 2·10 -11 m in the pendulum separation can be resolved as a shift of the resonance frequency of the resonator. This limit corresponds to an acceleration of 7·10 -11 m s -2 of one mirror with respect to the other. In a first experiment, the gravitational acceleration generated by a 125 kg test mass was measured as a function of distance in the range of 10 to 15 cm and tested Newton's gravitational law with an accuracy of 1%. No deviation is found. Furthermore, the gravitational constant G is determined with similar precision. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs
Joudaki, Shahab; Blake, Chris; Johnson, Andrew; Amon, Alexandra; Asgari, Marika; Choi, Ami; Erben, Thomas; Glazebrook, Karl; Harnois-Déraps, Joachim; Heymans, Catherine; Hildebrandt, Hendrik; Hoekstra, Henk; Klaes, Dominik; Kuijken, Konrad; Lidman, Chris; Mead, Alexander; Miller, Lance; Parkinson, David; Poole, Gregory B.; Schneider, Peter; Viola, Massimo; Wolf, Christian
2018-03-01
We perform a combined analysis of cosmic shear tomography, galaxy-galaxy lensing tomography, and redshift-space multipole power spectra (monopole and quadrupole) using 450 deg2 of imaging data by the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS-450) overlapping with two spectroscopic surveys: the 2-degree Field Lensing Survey (2dFLenS) and the Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey (BOSS). We restrict the galaxy-galaxy lensing and multipole power spectrum measurements to the overlapping regions with KiDS, and self-consistently compute the full covariance between the different observables using a large suite of N-body simulations. We methodically analyse different combinations of the observables, finding that the galaxy-galaxy lensing measurements are particularly useful in improving the constraint on the intrinsic alignment amplitude, while the multipole power spectra are useful in tightening the constraints along the lensing degeneracy direction. The fully combined constraint on S_8 ≡ σ _8 √{Ω _m/0.3}=0.742± 0.035, which is an improvement by 20 per cent compared to KiDS alone, corresponds to a 2.6σ discordance with Planck, and is not significantly affected by fitting to a more conservative set of scales. Given the tightening of the parameter space, we are unable to resolve the discordance with an extended cosmology that is simultaneously favoured in a model selection sense, including the sum of neutrino masses, curvature, evolving dark energy and modified gravity. The complementarity of our observables allows for constraints on modified gravity degrees of freedom that are not simultaneously bounded with either probe alone, and up to a factor of three improvement in the S8 constraint in the extended cosmology compared to KiDS alone.
Thölken, Sophia; Schrabback, Tim; Reiprich, Thomas H.; Lovisari, Lorenzo; Allen, Steven W.; Hoekstra, Henk; Applegate, Douglas; Buddendiek, Axel; Hicks, Amalia
2018-03-01
Context. Observations of relaxed, massive, and distant clusters can provide important tests of standard cosmological models, for example by using the gas mass fraction. To perform this test, the dynamical state of the cluster and its gas properties have to be investigated. X-ray analyses provide one of the best opportunities to access this information and to determine important properties such as temperature profiles, gas mass, and the total X-ray hydrostatic mass. For the last of these, weak gravitational lensing analyses are complementary independent probes that are essential in order to test whether X-ray masses could be biased. Aims: We study the very luminous, high redshift (z = 0.902) galaxy cluster Cl J120958.9+495352 using XMM-Newton data. We measure global cluster properties and study the temperature profile and the cooling time to investigate the dynamical status with respect to the presence of a cool core. We use Hubble Space Telescope (HST) weak lensing data to estimate its total mass and determine the gas mass fraction. Methods: We perform a spectral analysis using an XMM-Newton observation of 15 ks cleaned exposure time. As the treatment of the background is crucial, we use two different approaches to account for the background emission to verify our results. We account for point spread function effects and deproject our results to estimate the gas mass fraction of the cluster. We measure weak lensing galaxy shapes from mosaic HST imaging and select background galaxies photometrically in combination with imaging data from the William Herschel Telescope. Results: The X-ray luminosity of Cl J120958.9+495352 in the 0.1-2.4 keV band estimated from our XMM-Newton data is LX = (13.4+1.2-1.0) × 1044 erg/s and thus it is one of the most X-ray luminous clusters known at similarly high redshift. We find clear indications for the presence of a cool core from the temperature profile and the central cooling time, which is very rare at such high redshifts. Based
Ishak, Mustapha
2008-01-01
The contributions of the cosmological constant to the deflection angle and the time delays are derived from the integration of the gravitational potential as well as from Fermat's principle. The findings are in agreement with recent results using exact solutions to Einstein's equations and reproduce precisely the new Λ term in the bending angle and the lens equation. The consequences on time-delay expressions are explored. While it is known that Λ contributes to the gravitational time delay, it is shown here that a new Λ term appears in the geometrical time delay as well. Although these newly derived terms are perhaps small for current observations, they do not cancel out as previously claimed. Moreover, as shown before, at galaxy cluster scale, the Λ contribution can be larger than the second-order term in the Einstein deflection angle for several cluster lens systems.
Isik, Nimet
2016-04-01
Multi-element electrostatic aperture lens systems are widely used to control electron or charged particle beams in many scientific instruments. By means of applied voltages, these lens systems can be operated for different purposes. In this context, numerous methods have been performed to calculate focal properties of these lenses. In this study, an artificial neural network (ANN) classification method is utilized to determine the focused/unfocused charged particle beam in the image point as a function of lens voltages for multi-element electrostatic aperture lenses. A data set for training and testing of ANN is taken from the SIMION 8.1 simulation program, which is a well known and proven accuracy program in charged particle optics. Mean squared error results of this study indicate that the ANN classification method provides notable performance characteristics for electrostatic aperture zoom lenses.
Iorio, Lorenzo
2003-01-01
In this Letter we propose a new observable for measuring the general relativistic Lense-Thirring effect with artificial satellites in the gravitational field of the Earth. It consists of the difference of the perigee rates of two satellites placed in identical orbits with supplementary inclinations. As in the well known LAGEOS-LARES project in which, instead, the sum of the residuals of the nodal rates would be used, the proposed observable would be able to cancel out the aliasing effect of the classical even zonal perigee precessions induced by the oblateness of the Earth. The possibility of using the already existing LAGEOS II and a twin of its, to be launched, in a supplementary orbit is briefly examined. While with the originally proposed LAGEOS-LARES mission only the sum of the nodal rates could be used because the perigee of LAGEOS is not a good observable, the implementation of the proposed mission would allow to adopt both the sum of the nodes and the difference of the perigees
Full-sky formulae for weak lensing power spectra from total angular momentum method
Yamauchi, Daisuke; Taruya, Atsushi; Namikawa, Toshiya
2013-01-01
We systematically derive full-sky formulae for the weak lensing power spectra generated by scalar, vector and tensor perturbations from the total angular momentum (TAM) method. Based on both the geodesic and geodesic deviation equations, we first give the gauge-invariant expressions for the deflection angle and Jacobi map as observables of the CMB lensing and cosmic shear experiments. We then apply the TAM method, originally developed in the theoretical studies of CMB, to a systematic derivation of the angular power spectra. The TAM representation, which characterizes the total angular dependence of the spatial modes projected along a line-of-sight, can carry all the information of the lensing modes generated by scalar, vector, and tensor metric perturbations. This greatly simplifies the calculation, and we present a complete set of the full-sky formulae for angular power spectra in both the E-/B-mode cosmic shear and gradient-/curl-mode lensing potential of deflection angle. Based on the formulae, we give illustrative examples of non-vanishing B-mode cosmic shear and curl-mode of deflection angle in the presence of the vector and tensor perturbations, and explicitly compute the power spectra
Gamma-Ray Flaring Activity from the Gravitationally Lensed Blazar PKS 1830-211 Observed by Fermi LAT
Abdo, A. A.; et al.
2015-01-23
The Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope routinely detects the MeV-peaked flat-spectrum radio quasar PKS 1830–211 (z = 2.507). Its apparent isotropic γ-ray luminosity (E > 100 MeV), averaged over ~3 years of observations and peaking on 2010 October 14/15 at 2.9 × 10(50) erg s(–)(1), makes it among the brightest high-redshift Fermi blazars. No published model with a single lens can account for all of the observed characteristics of this complex system. Based on radio observations, one expects time-delayed variability to follow about 25 days after a primary flare, with flux about a factor of 1.5 less. Two large γ-ray flares of PKS 1830–211 have been detected by the LAT in the considered period, and no substantial evidence for such a delayed activity was found. This allows us to place a lower limit of about 6 on the γ-ray flux ratio between the two lensed images. Swift XRT observations from a dedicated Target of Opportunity program indicate a hard spectrum with no significant correlation of X-ray flux with the γ-ray variability. The spectral energy distribution can be modeled with inverse Compton scattering of thermal photons from the dusty torus. The implications of the LAT data in terms of variability, the lack of evident delayed flare events, and different radio and γ-ray flux ratios are discussed. Microlensing effects, absorption, size and location of the emitting regions, the complex mass distribution of the system, an energy-dependent inner structure of the source, and flux suppression by the lens galaxy for one image path may be considered as hypotheses for understanding our results.
Expert System for Determination of Type Lenses Glasses Using Forward Chaining Method
Atikah Ari Pramesti
2016-11-01
Full Text Available One of the branches of computer science that is widely used by humans to help her work is the establishment of an expert system. In this study we will design an expert system for determining the type of spectacle lenses using a forward chaining method. In forward chaining method, starting with the initial information (early symptoms and moved forward to fit more information to find the information in accordance with the rules of the knowledge base and production, and will be concluded in the form of the type of disorder diagnosis of eye disorders and provide solutions in the form of lenses of eyeglasses. Result from this study is that the match calculation of algorithm of forward chaining method between system and manual calculations produce the same output.
MAGNIFICENT MAGNIFICATION: EXPLOITING THE OTHER HALF OF THE LENSING SIGNAL
Huff, Eric M. [Center for Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics, Department of Physics, The Ohio State University, OH 43210 (United States); Graves, Genevieve J. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)
2014-01-10
We describe a new method for measuring galaxy magnification due to weak gravitational lensing. Our method makes use of a tight scaling relation between galaxy properties that are modified by gravitational lensing, such as apparent size, and other properties that are not, such as surface brightness. In particular, we use a version of the well-known fundamental plane relation for early-type galaxies. This modified ''photometric fundamental plane'' uses only photometric galaxy properties, eliminating the need for spectroscopic data. We present the first detection of magnification using this method by applying it to photometric catalogs from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This analysis shows that the derived magnification signal is within a factor of three of that available from conventional methods using gravitational shear. We suppress the dominant sources of systematic error and discuss modest improvements that may further enhance the lensing signal-to-noise available with this method. Moreover, some of the dominant sources of systematic error are substantially different from those of shear-based techniques. With this new technique, magnification becomes a useful measurement tool for the coming era of large ground-based surveys intending to measure gravitational lensing.
GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION METHODS FOR GRAVITATIONAL LENS SYSTEMS WITH REGULARIZED SOURCES
Rogers, Adam; Fiege, Jason D.
2012-01-01
Several approaches exist to model gravitational lens systems. In this study, we apply global optimization methods to find the optimal set of lens parameters using a genetic algorithm. We treat the full optimization procedure as a two-step process: an analytical description of the source plane intensity distribution is used to find an initial approximation to the optimal lens parameters; the second stage of the optimization uses a pixelated source plane with the semilinear method to determine an optimal source. Regularization is handled by means of an iterative method and the generalized cross validation (GCV) and unbiased predictive risk estimator (UPRE) functions that are commonly used in standard image deconvolution problems. This approach simultaneously estimates the optimal regularization parameter and the number of degrees of freedom in the source. Using the GCV and UPRE functions, we are able to justify an estimation of the number of source degrees of freedom found in previous work. We test our approach by applying our code to a subset of the lens systems included in the SLACS survey.
Biernaux, J.; Magain, P.; Hauret, C.
2017-08-01
Context. Strong gravitational lensing gives access to the total mass distribution of galaxies. It can unveil a great deal of information about the lenses' dark matter content when combined with the study of the lenses' light profile. However, gravitational lensing galaxies, by definition, appear surrounded by lensed signal, both point-like and diffuse, that is irrelevant to the lens flux. Therefore, the observer is most often restricted to studying the innermost portions of the galaxy, where classical fitting methods show some instabilities. Aims: We aim at subtracting that lensed signal and at characterising some lenses' light profile by computing their shape parameters (half-light radius, ellipticity, and position angle). Our objective is to evaluate the total integrated flux in an aperture the size of the Einstein ring in order to obtain a robust estimate of the quantity of ordinary (luminous) matter in each system. Methods: We are expanding the work we started in a previous paper that consisted in subtracting point-like lensed images and in independently measuring each shape parameter. We improve it by designing a subtraction of the diffuse lensed signal, based only on one simple hypothesis of symmetry. We apply it to the cases where it proves to be necessary. This extra step improves our study of the shape parameters and we refine it even more by upgrading our half-light radius measurement method. We also calculate the impact of our specific image processing on the error bars. Results: The diffuse lensed signal subtraction makes it possible to study a larger portion of relevant galactic flux, as the radius of the fitting region increases by on average 17%. We retrieve new half-light radii values that are on average 11% smaller than in our previous work, although the uncertainties overlap in most cases. This shows that not taking the diffuse lensed signal into account may lead to a significant overestimate of the half-light radius. We are also able to measure
Nguyen, Minh-Hang; Nguyen, Hai-Binh; Nguyen, Tuan-Hung; Vu, Xuan-Manh; Lai, Jain-Ren; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Chen, Te-Chang; Lee, Ming-Chang
2016-05-01
This paper presents two facile methods to fabricate off-plane lenses made of SU-8, an epoxy-based negative photoresist from MicroChem, on glass for optical interconnection. The methods allow the fabrication of lenses with flexible spot size and focal length depending on SU-8 well size and SU-8 drop volume and viscosity. In the first method, SU-8 drops were applied directly into patterned SU-8 wells with Teflon-coated micropipettes, and were baked to become (a)-spherical lenses. The lens shape and size were mainly determined by SU-8 viscosity, ratio of drop volume to well volume, and baking temperature and time. In the second method, a glass substrate with SU-8 patterned wells was emerged in diluted SU-8, then drawn up and baked to form lenses. The lens shapes and sizes were mainly determined by SU-8 viscosity and well volume. By the two methods, SU-8 lenses were successfully fabricated with spot sizes varying in range from micrometers to hundred micrometers, and focal lengths varying in range of several millimeters, depending on the lens rim diameters and aspheric sag height. Besides, on-plane SU-8 lenses were fabricated by photolithography to work in conjunction with the off-plane SU-8 lenses. The cascaded lenses produced light spots reduced to several micrometers, and they can be applied as a coupler for light coupling from fiber/Light-emitting diode (LED) to microstructures and nanostructures. The results open up the path for fabricating novel optical microsystems for optical communication and optical sensing applications.
A new method of measuring gravitational acceleration in an undergraduate laboratory program
Wang, Qiaochu; Wang, Chang; Xiao, Yunhuan; Schulte, Jurgen; Shi, Qingfan
2018-01-01
This paper presents a high accuracy method to measure gravitational acceleration in an undergraduate laboratory program. The experiment is based on water in a cylindrical vessel rotating about its vertical axis at a constant speed. The water surface forms a paraboloid whose focal length is related to rotational period and gravitational acceleration. This experimental setup avoids classical source errors in determining the local value of gravitational acceleration, so prevalent in the common simple pendulum and inclined plane experiments. The presented method combines multiple physics concepts such as kinematics, classical mechanics and geometric optics, offering the opportunity for lateral as well as project-based learning.
Discovery of two new gravitation lens systems
Guertler, J.
1988-01-01
The discovery of new quasar and radio galaxy double images produced by the gravitation lens effect is reported. The light deflecting galaxies acting as gravitational lenses could be made visible by means of image processing procedures
Description of a method of control for glass lenses used as a protection medium against radiation
Alonso, J.V.S.; Torio, P.P.
1977-01-01
The control of ocular protection medium which is normally used by workers, finds itself confronted by unsurmountable difficulties. Transmission determination needs fine glass lenses, extrapolating the values obtained to the real value of the medium used. The degree of protection required of the glass used by workers has been determined using successive approximations. The work method is quick and simple, and the apparatus used is within the reach of any medium sized laboratory. A theoretical justification has been made of the fundamental principles of the method; for example, the protective power of various filter lenses used by workers in this country has been determined. The method has been centred on the possibility of its practical application. The results obtained are interpreted taking into consideration a possible emissing source, and their discussion is based on prevailing standards which exist in most European countries. The control carried out has allowed to state that in most cases the protection medium used is not adequate, owing to a poor selection or an inadequate maintenance
Szczotka, L B; Capretta, D M; Lass, J H
1994-10-01
Computerized videokeratoscope software programs now have the ability to assist in the design of rigid gas permeable (RGP) contact lenses and simulate fluorescein patterns. We evaluated the performance of Computed Anatomy's Topographic Modeling System (TMS-1) and its Contact Lens Fitting Program (version 1.41) in fitting RGP lenses in 31 subjects. Computerized topographic analysis, balanced manifest refraction, slit lamp examination, and keratometry were performed. Initial lens parameters were ordered according to manufacturer's programmed recommendations for base curve, power, lens diameter, optic zone diameter, and edge lift. Final lens parameters were based on clinical performance. Lenses were recorded for base curve changes of 0.1 mm or more, power alterations of +/- 0.50 D or more, or for any alteration in diameter/optic zone. Twenty-seven patients were analyzed for all five recommended parameters. Thirteen of 27 patients (48%) required no parameter changes. Nine of 27 patients (33%) required one parameter change, four of 27 patients (15%) required two parameter changes, and one patient (4%) needed three parameters altered. The most prevalent change was a power alteration, required in nine of 27 patients (33%); however, comparisons of all initial to final parameters showed no statistically significant differences. Comparison of initial base curves to that which would have been chosen via standard keratometry also showed no significant difference. This study found the TMS-1 default lens recommendations to be clinically unacceptable. This system, however, could be an alternative method of initial lens selection if used to titrate a fit or if software enhancements are incorporated to account for lens movement and flexure.
Loureiro, A. D.; Gomes, L. M.; Ventura, L.
2018-02-01
The international standard ISO 12312-1 proposes transmittance tests that quantify how dark sunglasses lenses are and whether or not they are suitable for driving. To perform these tests a spectrometer is required. In this study, we present and analyze theoretically an accurate alternative method for performing these measurements using simple components. Using three LEDs and a four-channel sensor we generated weighting functions similar to the standard ones for luminous and traffic lights transmittances. From 89 sunglasses lens spectroscopy data, we calculated luminous transmittance and signal detection quotients using our obtained weighting functions and the standard ones. Mean-difference Tukey plots were used to compare the results. All tested sunglasses lenses were classified in the right category and correctly as suitable or not for driving. The greatest absolute errors for luminous transmittance and red, yellow, green and blue signal detection quotients were 0.15%, 0.17, 0.06, 0.04 and 0.18, respectively. This method will be used in a device capable to perform transmittance tests (visible, traffic lights and ultraviolet (UV)) according to the standard. It is important to measure rightly luminous transmittance and relative visual attenuation quotients to report correctly whether or not sunglasses are suitable for driving. Moreover, standard UV requirements depend on luminous transmittance.
A new method to measure galaxy bias by combining the density and weak lensing fields
Pujol, Arnau; Chang, Chihway; Gaztañaga, Enrique; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre; Bacon, David J.; Carretero, Jorge; Castander, Francisco J.; Crocce, Martin; Fosalba, Pablo; Manera, Marc; Vikram, Vinu
2016-07-29
We present a new method to measure redshift-dependent galaxy bias by combining information from the galaxy density field and the weak lensing field. This method is based on the work of Amara et al., who use the galaxy density field to construct a bias-weighted convergence field κg. The main difference between Amara et al.'s work and our new implementation is that here we present another way to measure galaxy bias, using tomography instead of bias parametrizations. The correlation between κg and the true lensing field κ allows us to measure galaxy bias using different zero-lag correlations, such as <κgκ>/<κκ> or <κgκg>/<κgκ>. Our method measures the linear bias factor on linear scales, under the assumption of no stochasticity between galaxies and matter. We use the Marenostrum Institut de Ciències de l'Espai (MICE) simulation to measure the linear galaxy bias for a flux-limited sample (i < 22.5) in tomographic redshift bins using this method. This article is the first that studies the accuracy and systematic uncertainties associated with the implementation of the method and the regime in which it is consistent with the linear galaxy bias defined by projected two-point correlation functions (2PCF). We find that our method is consistent with a linear bias at the per cent level for scales larger than 30 arcmin, while non-linearities appear at smaller scales. This measurement is a good complement to other measurements of bias, since it does not depend strongly on σ8 as do the 2PCF measurements. We will apply this method to the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification data in a follow-up article.
Optical performance of multifocal soft contact lenses via a single-pass method.
Bakaraju, Ravi C; Ehrmann, Klaus; Falk, Darrin; Ho, Arthur; Papas, Eric
2012-08-01
A physical model eye capable of carrying soft contact lenses (CLs) was used as a platform to evaluate optical performance of several commercial multifocals (MFCLs) with high- and low-add powers and a single-vision control. Optical performance was evaluated at three pupil sizes, six target vergences, and five CL-correcting positions using a spatially filtered monochromatic (632.8 nm) light source. The various target vergences were achieved by using negative trial lenses. A photosensor in the retinal plane recorded the image point-spread that enabled the computation of visual Strehl ratios. The centration of CLs was monitored by an additional integrated en face camera. Hydration of the correcting lens was maintained using a humidity chamber and repeated instillations of rewetting saline drops. All the MFCLs reduced performance for distance but considerably improved performance along the range of distance to near target vergences, relative to the single-vision CL. Performance was dependent on add power, design, pupil, and centration of the correcting CLs. Proclear (D) design produced good performance for intermediate vision, whereas Proclear (N) design performed well at near vision (p 4 mm in diameter. Acuvue Oasys bifocal produced performance comparable with single-vision CL for most vergences. Direct measurement of single-pass images at the retinal plane of a physical model eye used in conjunction with various MFCLs is demonstrated. This method may have utility in evaluating the relative effectiveness of commercial and prototype designs.
Gravitational bending of light rays in plasma
Tsupko, O. Yu.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S.
2010-01-01
We investigate the gravitational lensing effect in presence of plasma. We observe that in a homogeneous plasma the gravitational deflection angle differs from that in vacuum, and it depends on the frequency of the photon. We discuss observational consequences of this dependence for the point-mass lensing and estimate possibility of the observation of this effect by the planned project Radioastron.
Discontinuous Galerkin method for computing gravitational waveforms from extreme mass ratio binaries
Field, Scott E; Hesthaven, Jan S; Lau, Stephen R
2009-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from extreme mass ratio binaries (EMRBs) should be detectable by the joint NASA-ESA LISA project, spurring interest in analytical and numerical methods for investigating EMRBs. We describe a discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method for solving the distributionally forced 1+1 wave equations which arise when modeling EMRBs via the perturbation theory of Schwarzschild black holes. Despite the presence of jump discontinuities in the relevant polar and axial gravitational 'master functions', our dG method achieves global spectral accuracy, provided that we know the instantaneous position, velocity and acceleration of the small particle. Here these variables are known, since we assume that the particle follows a timelike geodesic of the Schwarzschild geometry. We document the results of several numerical experiments testing our method, and in our concluding section discuss the possible inclusion of gravitational self-force effects.
A cross-correlation method to search for gravitational wave bursts with AURIGA and Virgo
Bignotto, M.; Bonaldi, M.; Camarda, M.; Cerdonio, M.; Conti, L.; Drago, M.; Falferi, P.; Liguori, N.; Longo, S.; Mezzena, R.; Mion, A.; Ortolan, A.; Prodi, G. A.; Re, V.; Salemi, F.; Taffarello, L.; Vedovato, G.; Vinante, A.; Vitale, S.; Zendri, J. -P.; Acernese, F.; Alshourbagy, Mohamed; Amico, Paolo; Antonucci, Federica; Aoudia, S.; Astone, P.; Avino, Saverio; Baggio, L.; Ballardin, G.; Barone, F.; Barsotti, L.; Barsuglia, M.; Bauer, Th. S.; Bigotta, Stefano; Birindelli, Simona; Boccara, Albert-Claude; Bondu, F.; Bosi, Leone; Braccini, Stefano; Bradaschia, C.; Brillet, A.; Brisson, V.; Buskulic, D.; Cagnoli, G.; Calloni, E.; Campagna, Enrico; Carbognani, F.; Cavalier, F.; Cavalieri, R.; Cella, G.; Cesarini, E.; Chassande-Mottin, E.; Clapson, A-C; Cleva, F.; Coccia, E.; Corda, C.; Corsi, A.; Cottone, F.; Coulon, J. -P.; Cuoco, E.; D'Antonio, S.; Dari, A.; Dattilo, V.; Davier, M.; Rosa, R.; Del Prete, M.; Di Fiore, L.; Di Lieto, A.; Emilio, M. Di Paolo; Di Virgilio, A.; Evans, M.; Fafone, V.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Fiori, I.; Flaminio, R.; Fournier, J. -D.; Frasca, S.; Frasconi, F.; Gammaitoni, L.; Garufi, F.; Genin, E.; Gennai, A.; Giazotto, A.; Giordano, L.; Granata, V.; Greverie, C.; Grosjean, D.; Guidi, G.; Hamdani, S.U.; Hebri, S.; Heitmann, H.; Hello, P.; Huet, D.; Kreckelbergh, S.; La Penna, P.; Laval, M.; Leroy, N.; Letendre, N.; Lopez, B.; Lorenzini, M.; Loriette, V.; Losurdo, G.; Mackowski, J. -M.; Majorana, E.; Man, C. N.; Mantovani, M.; Marchesoni, F.; Marion, F.; Marque, J.; Martelli, F.; Masserot, A.; Menzinger, F.; Milano, L.; Minenkov, Y.; Moins, C.; Moreau, J.; Morgado, N.; Mosca, S.; Mours, B.; Neri, I.; Nocera, F.; Pagliaroli, G.; Palomba, C.; Paoletti, F.; Pardi, S.; Pasqualetti, A.; Passaquieti, R.; Passuello, D.; Piergiovanni, F.; Pinard, L.; Poggiani, R.; Punturo, M.; Puppo, P.; Rapagnani, P.; Regimbau, T.; Remillieux, A.; Ricci, F.; Ricciardi, I.; Rocchi, A.; Rolland, L.; Romano, R.; Ruggi, P.; Russo, G.; Solimeno, S.; Spallicci, A.; Swinkels, B. L.; Tarallo, M.; Terenzi, R.; Toncelli, A.; Tonelli, M.; Tournefier, E.; Travasso, F.; Vajente, G.; van den Brand, J. F. J.; van der Putten, S.; Verkindt, D.; Vetrano, F.; Vicere, A.; Vinet, J. -Y.; Vocca, H.; Yvert, M.
2008-01-01
We present a method to search for transient gravitational waves using a network of detectors with different spectral and directional sensitivities: the interferometer Virgo and the bar detector AURIGA. The data analysis method is based on the measurements of the correlated energy in the network by
Separating intrinsic alignment and galaxy-galaxy lensing
Blazek, Jonathan; Seljak, Uroš; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Nakajima, Reiko
2012-01-01
The coherent physical alignment of galaxies is an important systematic for gravitational lensing studies as well as a probe of the physical mechanisms involved in galaxy formation and evolution. We develop a formalism for treating this intrinsic alignment (IA) in the context of galaxy-galaxy lensing and present an improved method for measuring IA contamination, which can arise when sources physically associated with the lens are placed behind the lens due to photometric redshift scatter. We apply the technique to recent Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) measurements of Luminous Red Galaxy lenses and typical ( ∼ L * ) source galaxies with photometric redshifts selected from the SDSS imaging data. Compared to previous measurements, this method has the advantage of being fully self-consistent in its treatment of the IA and lensing signals, solving for the two simultaneously. We find an IA signal consistent with zero, placing tight constraints on both the magnitude of the IA effect and its potential contamination to the lensing signal. While these constraints depend on source selection and redshift quality, the method can be applied to any measurement that uses photometric redshifts. We obtain a model-independent upper-limit of roughly 10% IA contamination for projected separations of r p ≈ 0.1–10 h −1 Mpc. With more stringent photo-z cuts and reasonable assumptions about the physics of intrinsic alignments, this upper limit is reduced to 1–2%. These limits are well below the statistical error of the current lensing measurements. Our results suggest that IA will not present intractable challenges to the next generation of galaxy-galaxy lensing experiments, and the methods presented here should continue to aid in our understanding of alignment processes and in the removal of IA from the lensing signal
Koopmans, LVE; Fassnacht, CD
1999-01-01
We present mass models of the four-image gravitational lens system B1608 + 656, based on information obtained through VLBA imaging, VLA monitoring, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFPC2 and NICMOS imaging. We have determined a mass model for the lens galaxies that reproduces (1) all image positions
Weak lensing of the Lyman α forest
Croft, Rupert A. C.; Romeo, Alessandro; Metcalf, R. Benton
2018-06-01
The angular positions of quasars are deflected by the gravitational lensing effect of foreground matter. The Lyman α (Lyα) forest seen in the spectra of these quasars is therefore also lensed. We propose that the signature of weak gravitational lensing of the Lyα forest could be measured using similar techniques that have been applied to the lensed cosmic microwave background (CMB), and which have also been proposed for application to spectral data from 21-cm radio telescopes. As with 21-cm data, the forest has the advantage of spectral information, potentially yielding many lensed `slices' at different redshifts. We perform an illustrative idealized test, generating a high-resolution angular grid of quasars (of order arcminute separation), and lensing the Lyα forest spectra at redshifts z = 2-3 using a foreground density field. We find that standard quadratic estimators can be used to reconstruct images of the foreground mass distribution at z ˜ 1. There currently exists a wealth of Lyα forest data from quasar and galaxy spectral surveys, with smaller sightline separations expected in the future. Lyα forest lensing is sensitive to the foreground mass distribution at redshifts intermediate between CMB lensing and galaxy shear, and avoids the difficulties of shape measurement associated with the latter. With further refinement and application of mass reconstruction techniques, weak gravitational lensing of the high-redshift Lyα forest may become a useful new cosmological probe.
Gribov, I. A.; Trigger, S. A.
2018-01-01
The optical-gravitational methods for distinction between photons and antiphotons (galaxies, emitting photons and antigalaxies, emitting antiphotons) in the proposed hypothesis of totally gravitationally neutral (TGN)-Universe are considered. These methods are based on the extension of the earlier proposed the gravitationally neutral Universe concept, including now gravitational neutrality of vacuum. This concept contains (i) enlarged unbroken baryon-like, charge, parity and time and full ±M gr gravitational symmetries between all massive elementary particles-antiparticles, including (ia) ordinary matter (OM)-ordinary antimatter (OAM), (ib) dark matter (DM)-dark antimatter (DAM) and (ii) the resulting gravitational repulsion between equally presented (OM+DM)-galactic and (OAM+DAM)-antigalactic clusters, what spatially isolates and preserves their mutual annihilations in the large-scale TGN-Universe. It is assumed the gravitational balance not only between positive and negative gravitational masses of elementary particles and antiparticles, but also between all massless fields of the quantum field theory (QFT), including the opposite gravitational properties of photons and antiphotons, etc, realizing the totally gravitationally neutral vacuum in the QFT. These photons and antiphotons could be distinguishable optically-gravitationally, if one can observe a massive, deviating OM-star or a deviating (OM+DM)-galaxy from our galactic group, moving fast enough on the heavenly sphere, crossing the line directed to spatially separated far-remote galactic clusters (with the visible OM-markers, emitting photons) or antigalactic cluster (with the visible OAM-markers, emitting antiphotons). The deviations and gravitational microlensing with temporarily increased or decreased brightness of their OM and OAM rays will be opposite, indicating the galaxies and antigalaxies in the Universe.
Cosmology with weak lensing surveys
Munshi, Dipak; Valageas, Patrick; Waerbeke, Ludovic van; Heavens, Alan
2008-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also
Cosmology with weak lensing surveys
Munshi, Dipak [Institute of Astronomy, Madingley Road, Cambridge, CB3 OHA (United Kingdom); Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, Madingley Road, Cambridge CB3 OHE (United Kingdom)], E-mail: munshi@ast.cam.ac.uk; Valageas, Patrick [Service de Physique Theorique, CEA Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Waerbeke, Ludovic van [University of British Columbia, Department of Physics and Astronomy, 6224 Agricultural Road, Vancouver, BC V6T 1Z1 (Canada); Heavens, Alan [SUPA - Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Blackford Hill, Edinburgh EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom)
2008-06-15
Weak gravitational lensing is responsible for the shearing and magnification of the images of high-redshift sources due to the presence of intervening matter. The distortions are due to fluctuations in the gravitational potential, and are directly related to the distribution of matter and to the geometry and dynamics of the Universe. As a consequence, weak gravitational lensing offers unique possibilities for probing the Dark Matter and Dark Energy in the Universe. In this review, we summarise the theoretical and observational state of the subject, focussing on the statistical aspects of weak lensing, and consider the prospects for weak lensing surveys in the future. Weak gravitational lensing surveys are complementary to both galaxy surveys and cosmic microwave background (CMB) observations as they probe the unbiased non-linear matter power spectrum at modest redshifts. Most of the cosmological parameters are accurately estimated from CMB and large-scale galaxy surveys, so the focus of attention is shifting to understanding the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy. On the theoretical side, recent advances in the use of 3D information of the sources from photometric redshifts promise greater statistical power, and these are further enhanced by the use of statistics beyond two-point quantities such as the power spectrum. The use of 3D information also alleviates difficulties arising from physical effects such as the intrinsic alignment of galaxies, which can mimic weak lensing to some extent. On the observational side, in the next few years weak lensing surveys such as CFHTLS, VST-KIDS and Pan-STARRS, and the planned Dark Energy Survey, will provide the first weak lensing surveys covering very large sky areas and depth. In the long run even more ambitious programmes such as DUNE, the Supernova Anisotropy Probe (SNAP) and Large-aperture Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) are planned. Weak lensing of diffuse components such as the CMB and 21 cm emission can also
Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Richard, Johan; Clement, Benjamin; Jauzac, Mathilde; Schaerer, Daniel; Limousin, Marceau; Jullo, Eric; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Egami, Eiichi; Ebeling, Harald
2015-01-01
Exploiting the power of gravitational lensing, the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program aims at observing six massive galaxy clusters to explore the distant universe far beyond the limits of blank field surveys. Using the complete Hubble Space Telescope observations of the first HFF cluster A2744, we report the detection of 50 galaxy candidates at z ∼ 7 and eight candidates at z ∼ 8 in a total survey area of 0.96 arcmin 2 in the source plane. Three of these galaxies are multiply imaged by the lensing cluster. Using an updated model of the mass distribution in the cluster we were able to calculate the magnification factor and the effective survey volume for each galaxy in order to compute the ultraviolet galaxy luminosity function (LF) at both redshifts 7 and 8. Our new measurements reliably extend the z ∼ 7 UV LF down to an absolute magnitude of M UV ∼ –15.5. We find a characteristic magnitude of M UV ⋆ =−20.90 −0.73 +0.90 mag and a faint-end slope α=−2.01 −0.28 +0.20 , close to previous determinations in blank fields. We show here for the first time that this slope remains steep down to very faint luminosities of 0.01 L * . Although prone to large uncertainties, our results at z ∼ 8 also seem to confirm a steep faint-end slope below 0.1 L * . The HFF program is therefore providing an extremely efficient way to study the faintest galaxy populations at z > 7 that would otherwise be inaccessible with current instrumentation. The full sample of six galaxy clusters will provide even better constraints on the buildup of galaxies at early epochs and their contribution to cosmic reionization
Atek, Hakim; Kneib, Jean-Paul [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique, Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne, Observatoire de Sauverny, CH-1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Richard, Johan; Clement, Benjamin [CRAL, Observatoire de Lyon, Université Lyon 1, 9 Avenue Ch. André, F-69561 Saint Genis Laval Cedex (France); Jauzac, Mathilde [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Durham University, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Schaerer, Daniel [Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, 1290 Versoix (Switzerland); Limousin, Marceau; Jullo, Eric [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Natarajan, Priyamvada [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, 260 Whitney Avenue, New Haven, CT 06511 (United States); Egami, Eiichi [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Ebeling, Harald [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States)
2015-02-10
Exploiting the power of gravitational lensing, the Hubble Frontier Fields (HFF) program aims at observing six massive galaxy clusters to explore the distant universe far beyond the limits of blank field surveys. Using the complete Hubble Space Telescope observations of the first HFF cluster A2744, we report the detection of 50 galaxy candidates at z ∼ 7 and eight candidates at z ∼ 8 in a total survey area of 0.96 arcmin{sup 2} in the source plane. Three of these galaxies are multiply imaged by the lensing cluster. Using an updated model of the mass distribution in the cluster we were able to calculate the magnification factor and the effective survey volume for each galaxy in order to compute the ultraviolet galaxy luminosity function (LF) at both redshifts 7 and 8. Our new measurements reliably extend the z ∼ 7 UV LF down to an absolute magnitude of M {sub UV} ∼ –15.5. We find a characteristic magnitude of M{sub UV}{sup ⋆}=−20.90{sub −0.73}{sup +0.90} mag and a faint-end slope α=−2.01{sub −0.28}{sup +0.20}, close to previous determinations in blank fields. We show here for the first time that this slope remains steep down to very faint luminosities of 0.01 L {sup *}. Although prone to large uncertainties, our results at z ∼ 8 also seem to confirm a steep faint-end slope below 0.1 L {sup *}. The HFF program is therefore providing an extremely efficient way to study the faintest galaxy populations at z > 7 that would otherwise be inaccessible with current instrumentation. The full sample of six galaxy clusters will provide even better constraints on the buildup of galaxies at early epochs and their contribution to cosmic reionization.
Duncan, Comer; Jones, Jim
1993-01-01
A key ingredient in the simulation of self-gravitating astrophysical fluid dynamical systems is the gravitational potential and its gradient. This paper focuses on the development of a mixed method multigrid solver of the Poisson equation formulated so that both the potential and the Cartesian components of its gradient are self-consistently and accurately generated. The method achieves this goal by formulating the problem as a system of four equations for the gravitational potential and the three Cartesian components of the gradient and solves them using a distributed relaxation technique combined with conventional full multigrid V-cycles. The method is described, some tests are presented, and the accuracy of the method is assessed. We also describe how the method has been incorporated into our three-dimensional hydrodynamics code and give an example of an application to the collision of two stars. We end with some remarks about the future developments of the method and some of the applications in which it will be used in astrophysics.
Zhao Yi; Small, Michael; Coward, David; Howell, Eric; Zhao Chunnong; Ju Li; Blair, David
2006-01-01
We describe the application of complexity estimation and the surrogate data method to identify deterministic dynamics in simulated gravitational wave (GW) data contaminated with white and coloured noises. The surrogate method uses algorithmic complexity as a discriminating statistic to decide if noisy data contain a statistically significant level of deterministic dynamics (the GW signal). The results illustrate that the complexity method is sensitive to a small amplitude simulated GW background (SNR down to 0.08 for white noise and 0.05 for coloured noise) and is also more robust than commonly used linear methods (autocorrelation or Fourier analysis)
Daumenov, T.D.; Alizarovskaya, I.M.; Khizirova, M.A.
2001-01-01
The method of the weakly oval electrical field getting generated by the axially-symmetrical field is shown. Such system may be designed with help of the cylindric form coaxial electrodes with the built-in quadrupole duplet. The singularity of the indicated weakly oval lense consists of that it provides the conducting both mechanical and electronic adjustment. Such lense can be useful for elimination of the near-axis astigmatism in the electron-optical system
Weak lensing in generalized gravity theories
Acquaviva, Viviana; Baccigalupi, Carlo; Perrotta, Francesca
2004-01-01
We extend the theory of weak gravitational lensing to cosmologies with generalized gravity, described in the Lagrangian by a generic function depending on the Ricci scalar and a nonminimal coupled scalar field. We work out the generalized Poisson equations relating the dynamics of the fluctuating components to the two gauge-invariant scalar gravitational potentials, fixing the contributions from the modified background expansion and fluctuations. We show how the lensing equation gets modified by the cosmic expansion as well as by the presence of anisotropic stress, which is non-null at the linear level both in scalar-tensor gravity and in theories where the gravitational Lagrangian term features a nonminimal dependence on the Ricci scalar. Starting from the geodesic deviation, we derive the generalized expressions for the shear tensor and projected lensing potential, encoding the spacetime variation of the effective gravitational constant and isolating the contribution of the anisotropic stress, which introduces a correction due to the spatial correlation between the gravitational potentials. Finally, we work out the expressions of the lensing convergence power spectrum as well as the correlation between the lensing potential and the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect affecting cosmic microwave background total intensity and polarization anisotropies. To illustrate phenomenologically the effects, we work out approximate expressions for the quantities above in extended quintessence scenarios where the scalar field coupled to gravity plays the role of the dark energy
A neural network gravitational arc finder based on the Mediatrix filamentation method
Bom, C. R.; Makler, M.; Albuquerque, M. P.; Brandt, C. H.
2017-01-01
Context. Automated arc detection methods are needed to scan the ongoing and next-generation wide-field imaging surveys, which are expected to contain thousands of strong lensing systems. Arc finders are also required for a quantitative comparison between predictions and observations of arc abundance. Several algorithms have been proposed to this end, but machine learning methods have remained as a relatively unexplored step in the arc finding process. Aims: In this work we introduce a new arc finder based on pattern recognition, which uses a set of morphological measurements that are derived from the Mediatrix filamentation method as entries to an artificial neural network (ANN). We show a full example of the application of the arc finder, first training and validating the ANN on simulated arcs and then applying the code on four Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images of strong lensing systems. Methods: The simulated arcs use simple prescriptions for the lens and the source, while mimicking HST observational conditions. We also consider a sample of objects from HST images with no arcs in the training of the ANN classification. We use the training and validation process to determine a suitable set of ANN configurations, including the combination of inputs from the Mediatrix method, so as to maximize the completeness while keeping the false positives low. Results: In the simulations the method was able to achieve a completeness of about 90% with respect to the arcs that are input into the ANN after a preselection. However, this completeness drops to 70% on the HST images. The false detections are on the order of 3% of the objects detected in these images. Conclusions: The combination of Mediatrix measurements with an ANN is a promising tool for the pattern-recognition phase of arc finding. More realistic simulations and a larger set of real systems are needed for a better training and assessment of the efficiency of the method.
Comparison of methods for the detection of gravitational waves from unknown neutron stars
Walsh, S.; Pitkin, M.; Oliver, M.; D'Antonio, S.; Dergachev, V.; Królak, A.; Astone, P.; Bejger, M.; Di Giovanni, M.; Dorosh, O.; Frasca, S.; Leaci, P.; Mastrogiovanni, S.; Miller, A.; Palomba, C.; Papa, M. A.; Piccinni, O. J.; Riles, K.; Sauter, O.; Sintes, A. M.
2016-12-01
Rapidly rotating neutron stars are promising sources of continuous gravitational wave radiation for the LIGO and Virgo interferometers. The majority of neutron stars in our galaxy have not been identified with electromagnetic observations. All-sky searches for isolated neutron stars offer the potential to detect gravitational waves from these unidentified sources. The parameter space of these blind all-sky searches, which also cover a large range of frequencies and frequency derivatives, presents a significant computational challenge. Different methods have been designed to perform these searches within acceptable computational limits. Here we describe the first benchmark in a project to compare the search methods currently available for the detection of unknown isolated neutron stars. The five methods compared here are individually referred to as the PowerFlux, sky Hough, frequency Hough, Einstein@Home, and time domain F -statistic methods. We employ a mock data challenge to compare the ability of each search method to recover signals simulated assuming a standard signal model. We find similar performance among the four quick-look search methods, while the more computationally intensive search method, Einstein@Home, achieves up to a factor of two higher sensitivity. We find that the absence of a second derivative frequency in the search parameter space does not degrade search sensitivity for signals with physically plausible second derivative frequencies. We also report on the parameter estimation accuracy of each search method, and the stability of the sensitivity in frequency and frequency derivative and in the presence of detector noise.
Lange, J.; O'Shaughnessy, R.; Boyle, M.; Calderón Bustillo, J.; Campanelli, M.; Chu, T.; Clark, J. A.; Demos, N.; Fong, H.; Healy, J.; Hemberger, D. A.; Hinder, I.; Jani, K.; Khamesra, B.; Kidder, L. E.; Kumar, P.; Laguna, P.; Lousto, C. O.; Lovelace, G.; Ossokine, S.; Pfeiffer, H.; Scheel, M. A.; Shoemaker, D. M.; Szilagyi, B.; Teukolsky, S.; Zlochower, Y.
2017-11-01
We present and assess a Bayesian method to interpret gravitational wave signals from binary black holes. Our method directly compares gravitational wave data to numerical relativity (NR) simulations. In this study, we present a detailed investigation of the systematic and statistical parameter estimation errors of this method. This procedure bypasses approximations used in semianalytical models for compact binary coalescence. In this work, we use the full posterior parameter distribution for only generic nonprecessing binaries, drawing inferences away from the set of NR simulations used, via interpolation of a single scalar quantity (the marginalized log likelihood, ln L ) evaluated by comparing data to nonprecessing binary black hole simulations. We also compare the data to generic simulations, and discuss the effectiveness of this procedure for generic sources. We specifically assess the impact of higher order modes, repeating our interpretation with both l ≤2 as well as l ≤3 harmonic modes. Using the l ≤3 higher modes, we gain more information from the signal and can better constrain the parameters of the gravitational wave signal. We assess and quantify several sources of systematic error that our procedure could introduce, including simulation resolution and duration; most are negligible. We show through examples that our method can recover the parameters for equal mass, zero spin, GW150914-like, and unequal mass, precessing spin sources. Our study of this new parameter estimation method demonstrates that we can quantify and understand the systematic and statistical error. This method allows us to use higher order modes from numerical relativity simulations to better constrain the black hole binary parameters.
Beyond concordance cosmology with magnification of gravitational-wave standard sirens.
Camera, Stefano; Nishizawa, Atsushi
2013-04-12
We show how future gravitational-wave detectors would be able to discriminate between the concordance Λ cold dark matter cosmological model and up-to-date competing alternatives, e.g., dynamical dark energy (DE) models or modified gravity (MG) theories. Our method consists of using the weak-lensing magnification effect that affects a standard-siren signal because of its traveling through the Universe's large scale structure. As a demonstration, we present constraints on DE and MG from proposed gravitational-wave detectors, namely Einstein Telescope and DECI-Hertz Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory and Big-Bang Observer.
Modern Gravitational Lens Cosmology for Introductory Physics and Astronomy Students
Huwe, Paul; Field, Scott
2015-01-01
Recent and exciting discoveries in astronomy and cosmology have inspired many high school students to learn about these fields. A particularly fascinating consequence of general relativity at the forefront of modern cosmology research is gravitational lensing, the bending of light rays that pass near massive objects. Gravitational lensing enables…
George, Monica C; Lazer, Zane P; George, David S
2016-05-01
We present a technique that uses a near-point string to demonstrate the anticipated near point of multifocal and accommodating intraocular lenses (IOLs). Beads are placed on the string at distances corresponding to the near points for diffractive and accommodating IOLs. The string is held up to the patient's eye to demonstrate where each of the IOLs is likely to provide the best near vision. None of the authors has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2016 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Goobar, A.; Paech, K.; Stanishev, V.; Amanullah, R.; Dahlén, T.; Jönsson, J.; Kneib, J. P.; Lidman, C.; Limousin, M.; Mörtsell, E.; Nobili, S.; Richard, J.; Riehm, T.; von Strauss, M.
2009-01-01
Aims. Powerful gravitational telescopes in the form of massive galaxy clusters can be used to enhance the light collecting power over a limited field of view by about an order of magnitude in flux. This effect is exploited here to increase the depth of a survey for lensed supernovae at near-IR wavelengths. Methods. We present a pilot supernova search programme conducted with the ISAAC camera at VLT. Lensed galaxies behind the massive clusters A1689, A1835, and AC114 were observed for a tot...
A novel optimization method, Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA), for PWR core optimization
Mahmoudi, S.M.; Aghaie, M.; Bahonar, M.; Poursalehi, N.
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) is introduced. • The advantage of GSA is verified in Shekel’s Foxholes. • Reload optimizing in WWER-1000 and WWER-440 cases are performed. • Maximizing K eff , minimizing PPFs and flattening power density is considered. - Abstract: In-core fuel management optimization (ICFMO) is one of the most challenging concepts of nuclear engineering. In recent decades several meta-heuristic algorithms or computational intelligence methods have been expanded to optimize reactor core loading pattern. This paper presents a new method of using Gravitational Search Algorithm (GSA) for in-core fuel management optimization. The GSA is constructed based on the law of gravity and the notion of mass interactions. It uses the theory of Newtonian physics and searcher agents are the collection of masses. In this work, at the first step, GSA method is compared with other meta-heuristic algorithms on Shekel’s Foxholes problem. In the second step for finding the best core, the GSA algorithm has been performed for three PWR test cases including WWER-1000 and WWER-440 reactors. In these cases, Multi objective optimizations with the following goals are considered, increment of multiplication factor (K eff ), decrement of power peaking factor (PPF) and power density flattening. It is notable that for neutronic calculation, PARCS (Purdue Advanced Reactor Core Simulator) code is used. The results demonstrate that GSA algorithm have promising performance and could be proposed for other optimization problems of nuclear engineering field.
Mobley, R.M.; Gamml, G.; Maschke, A.W.
1979-01-01
Stable operation of Gabor lenses has been reported by at least three experimental groups. At Brookhaven, several lens designs have been tried since February, 1978 with very good results. The lens concept is simple, operation is less complicated than anticipated, and the focussing strengths attainable make them very attractive alternatives to magnetic focussing for heavy ion beams at low energies. Results obtained with five different configurations are presented. The lenses work well, concern is now with fine details of their beam-optical performance
Kang, Yongfeng; Zhao, Jingyi; Tang, Tiantong
2013-01-01
The high order time-of-flight (TOF) aberrations in a practical electrostatic electron lens are calculated using the differential algebraic (DA) method. The electrostatic fields of the electrostatic lens, which are calculated by the FEM methods, are in the form of discrete arrays. Thus, the proposed DA method is applicable for engineering designs, and programs are written to compute up to fifth order TOF aberrations of practical electrostatic electron lenses. An example is given, and TOF aberrations up to the fifth order are calculated. It is proven that the numerical results for the electrostatic fields in the form of discrete arrays have a good accuracy compared with the theoretical solutions. The accuracy is limited only by the accuracy of the numerical computation of the fields and the numerical computation algorithms for interpolation and integration. Finally, a practical electrostatic electron lens is analysed and discussed as an example.
Tanner, Timo; Antikainen, Osmo; Ehlers, Henrik; Yliruusi, Jouko
2017-06-30
With modern tableting machines large amounts of tablets are produced with high output. Consequently, methods to examine powder compression in a high-velocity setting are in demand. In the present study, a novel gravitation-based method was developed to examine powder compression. A steel bar is dropped on a punch to compress microcrystalline cellulose and starch samples inside the die. The distance of the bar is being read by a high-accuracy laser displacement sensor which provides a reliable distance-time plot for the bar movement. In-die height and density of the compact can be seen directly from this data, which can be examined further to obtain information on velocity, acceleration and energy distribution during compression. The energy consumed in compact formation could also be seen. Despite the high vertical compression speed, the method was proven to be cost-efficient, accurate and reproducible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Kittmer, C.A.
1983-03-01
Acoustic lenses focus ultrasound to produce pencil-like beams with reduced near fields. When fitted to conventional (flat-faced) transducers, such lenses greatly improve the ability to detect and size defects. This paper describes a program developed to design acoustic lenses for use in immersion or contact inspection, using normal or angle beam mode with flat or curved targets. Lens surfaces are circular in geometry to facilitate machining. For normal beam inspection of flat plate, spherical or cylindrical lenses are used. For angle beam or curved surface inspections, a compound lens is required to correct for the extra induced aberration. Such a lens is aspherical with one radius of curvature in the plane of incidence, and a different radius of curvature in the plane perpendicular to the incident plane. The resultant beam profile (i.e., location of the acoustic focus, beam diameter, 6 dB working range) depends on the degree of focusing and the transducer used. The operating frequency and bandwidth can be affected by the instrumentation used. Theoretical and measured beam profiles are in good agreement. Various applications, from zone focusing used for defect sizing in thick plate, to line focusing for pipe weld inspection, are discussed
A gravitational wave burst search method based on the S transform
Clapson, Andre-Claude; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelberg, Stephane; Varvella, Monica
2005-01-01
The detection of burst-type events in the output of ground gravitational wave observatories is particularly challenging due to the expected variety of astrophysical waveforms and the issue of discriminating them from instrumental noise. Robust methods, that achieve reasonable detection performances over a wide range of signals, would be most useful. We present a burst-detection pipeline based on a time-frequency transform, the S transform. This transform offers good time-frequency localization of energy without requiring prior knowledge of the event structure. We set a simple (and robust) event extraction chain. Results are provided for a variety of signals injected in simulated Gaussian statistics data (from the LIGO-Virgo joint working group). Indications are that detection is robust with respect to event type and that efficiency compares reasonably with reference methods. The time-frequency representation is shown to be affected by spectral features such as resonant lines. This emphasizes the role of pre-processing
A gravitational wave burst search method based on the S transform
Clapson, Andre-Claude; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelberg, Stephane; Varvella, Monica [Groupe Virgo, LAL, Universite Paris-Sud, Batiment 208, BP 34, F-91898 Orsay Cedex (France)
2005-09-21
The detection of burst-type events in the output of ground gravitational wave observatories is particularly challenging due to the expected variety of astrophysical waveforms and the issue of discriminating them from instrumental noise. Robust methods, that achieve reasonable detection performances over a wide range of signals, would be most useful. We present a burst-detection pipeline based on a time-frequency transform, the S transform. This transform offers good time-frequency localization of energy without requiring prior knowledge of the event structure. We set a simple (and robust) event extraction chain. Results are provided for a variety of signals injected in simulated Gaussian statistics data (from the LIGO-Virgo joint working group). Indications are that detection is robust with respect to event type and that efficiency compares reasonably with reference methods. The time-frequency representation is shown to be affected by spectral features such as resonant lines. This emphasizes the role of pre-processing.
Entropy for gravitational Chern-Simons terms by squashed cone method
Guo, Wu-Zhong; Miao, Rong-Xin
2016-01-01
In this paper we investigate the entropy of gravitational Chern-Simons terms for the horizon with non-vanishing extrinsic curvatures, or the holographic entanglement entropy for arbitrary entangling surface. In 3D there is no anomaly of entropy. But the original squashed cone method can not be used directly to get the correct result. For higher dimensions the anomaly of entropy would appear, still, we can not use the squashed cone method directly. That is becasuse the Chern-Simons action is not gauge invariant. To get a reasonable result we suggest two methods. One is by adding a boundary term to recover the gauge invariance. This boundary term can be derived from the variation of the Chern-Simons action. The other one is by using the Chern-Simons relation dΩ_4_n_−_1=tr(R"2"n). We notice that the entropy of tr(R"2"n) is a total derivative locally, i.e. S=ds_C_S. We propose to identify s_C_S with the entropy of gravitational Chern-Simons terms Ω_4_n_−_1. In the first method we could get the correct result for Wald entropy in arbitrary dimension. In the second approach, in addition to Wald entropy, we can also obtain the anomaly of entropy with non-zero extrinsic curvatures. Our results imply that the entropy of a topological invariant, such as the Pontryagin term tr(R"2"n) and the Euler density, is a topological invariant on the entangling surface.
Investigation of some galactic and extragalactic gravitational phenomena
Jovanović P.
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Here we present a short overview of the most important results of our investigations of the following galactic and extragalactic gravitational phenomena: supermassive black holes in centers of galaxies and quasars, supermassive black hole binaries, gravitational lenses and dark matter. For the purpose of these investigations, we developed a model of a relativistic accretion disk around a supermassive black hole, based on the ray-tracing method in the Kerr metric, a model of a bright spot in an accretion disk and three different models of gravitational microlenses. All these models enabled us to study physics, spacetime geometry and effects of strong gravity in the vicinity of supermassive black holes, variability of some active galaxies and quasars, different effects in the lensed quasars with multiple images, as well as the dark matter fraction in the Universe. We also found an observational evidence for the first spectroscopically resolved sub-parsec orbit of a supermassive black hole binary system in the core of active galaxy NGC 4151. Besides, we studied applications of one potential alternative to dark matter in the form of a modified theory of gravity on Galactic scales, to explain the recently observed orbital precession of some S-stars, which are orbiting around a massive black hole at the Galactic center. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 176003: Gravitation and the Large Scale Structure of the Universe
Studying dark matter haloes with weak lensing
Velander, Malin Barbro Margareta
2012-01-01
Our Universe is comprised not only of normal matter but also of unknown components: dark matter and dark energy. This Thesis recounts studies of dark matter haloes, using a technique known as weak gravitational lensing, in order to learn more about the nature of these dark components. The haloes
Chen, Bin; Kantowski, R.; Dai, X.
2014-01-01
We have developed an accurate gravitational lens theory for an inhomogeneity embedded in an otherwise homogeneous universe, which to the lowest order is applicable to any mass distribution. We derive the Fermat potential for a spherically symmetric lens embedded in a FLRW cosmology and use it to investigate the late-time integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect (ISW) caused by individual large scale inhomogeneities, in particular, cosmic voids. We present a simple analytical expression for the CMB temperature fluctuation across such a lens as the derivative of the lens Fermat potential. Our formalism is applicable to both linear and nonlinear density evolution scenarios, to arbitrarily large density contrasts, and to all open and closed background cosmologies. Our results are particularly useful for modeling ISW effects extracted through stacking large numbers of cosmic voids and clusters (that is, the aperture photometry method). For structures co-expanding with the background cosmology, i.e., for time-independent density contrasts, we find that the gravitational lensing time delay alone can produce fluctuations of the order of seen in recent observations by WMAP and Planck. We revisit the possibility of explaining the non-Gaussian cold spot on the south hemisphere via the Rees-Sciama effect of a large cosmic void using constraints obtained from the most recent void catalogs and our new void-lensing formalism, and compare it with other explanations such as a collapsing cosmic texture. We also study the remapping of primordial CMB anisotropies, the weak-lensing shear, and magnification caused by void lensing.
Miller, L.; Heymans, C.; Kitching, T. D.; van Waerbeke, L.; Erben, T.; Hildebrandt, H.; Hoekstra, H.; Mellier, Y.; Rowe, B. T. P.; Coupon, J.; Dietrich, J. P.; Fu, L.; Harnois-Déraps, J.; Hudson, M. J.; Kilbinger, M.; Kuijken, K.; Schrabback, T.; Semboloni, E.; Vafaei, S.; Velander, M.
2013-03-01
A likelihood-based method for measuring weak gravitational lensing shear in deep galaxy surveys is described and applied to the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS). CFHTLenS comprises 154 deg2 of multi-colour optical data from the CFHT Legacy Survey, with lensing measurements being made in the i' band to a depth i'AB noise ratio νSN ≳ 10. The method is based on the lensfit algorithm described in earlier papers, but here we describe a full analysis pipeline that takes into account the properties of real surveys. The method creates pixel-based models of the varying point spread function (PSF) in individual image exposures. It fits PSF-convolved two-component (disc plus bulge) models to measure the ellipticity of each galaxy, with Bayesian marginalization over model nuisance parameters of galaxy position, size, brightness and bulge fraction. The method allows optimal joint measurement of multiple, dithered image exposures, taking into account imaging distortion and the alignment of the multiple measurements. We discuss the effects of noise bias on the likelihood distribution of galaxy ellipticity. Two sets of image simulations that mirror the observed properties of CFHTLenS have been created to establish the method's accuracy and to derive an empirical correction for the effects of noise bias.
Astrophysical observations: lensing and eclipsing Einstein's theories.
Bennett, Charles L
2005-02-11
Albert Einstein postulated the equivalence of energy and mass, developed the theory of special relativity, explained the photoelectric effect, and described Brownian motion in five papers, all published in 1905, 100 years ago. With these papers, Einstein provided the framework for understanding modern astrophysical phenomena. Conversely, astrophysical observations provide one of the most effective means for testing Einstein's theories. Here, I review astrophysical advances precipitated by Einstein's insights, including gravitational redshifts, gravitational lensing, gravitational waves, the Lense-Thirring effect, and modern cosmology. A complete understanding of cosmology, from the earliest moments to the ultimate fate of the universe, will require developments in physics beyond Einstein, to a unified theory of gravity and quantum physics.
Powell, Jade; Heng, Ik Siong; Torres-Forné, Alejandro; Font, José A; Lynch, Ryan; Trifirò, Daniele; Cuoco, Elena; Cavaglià, Marco
2017-01-01
The data taken by the advanced LIGO and Virgo gravitational-wave detectors contains short duration noise transients that limit the significance of astrophysical detections and reduce the duty cycle of the instruments. As the advanced detectors are reaching sensitivity levels that allow for multiple detections of astrophysical gravitational-wave sources it is crucial to achieve a fast and accurate characterization of non-astrophysical transient noise shortly after it occurs in the detectors. Previously we presented three methods for the classification of transient noise sources. They are Principal Component Analysis for Transients (PCAT), Principal Component LALInference Burst (PC-LIB) and Wavelet Detection Filter with Machine Learning (WDF-ML). In this study we carry out the first performance tests of these algorithms on gravitational-wave data from the Advanced LIGO detectors. We use the data taken between the 3rd of June 2015 and the 14th of June 2015 during the 7th engineering run (ER7), and outline the improvements made to increase the performance and lower the latency of the algorithms on real data. This work provides an important test for understanding the performance of these methods on real, non stationary data in preparation for the second advanced gravitational-wave detector observation run, planned for later this year. We show that all methods can classify transients in non stationary data with a high level of accuracy and show the benefits of using multiple classifiers. (paper)
CERN. Geneva
2006-01-01
Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.
Probing supervoids with weak lensing
Higuchi, Yuichi; Inoue, Kaiki Taro
2018-05-01
The cosmic microwave background (CMB) has non-Gaussian features in the temperature fluctuations. An anomalous cold spot surrounded with a hot ring, called the Cold Spot, is one of such features. If a large underdense region (supervoid) resides towards the Cold Spot, we would be able to detect a systematic shape distortion in the images of background source galaxies via weak lensing effect. In order to estimate the detectability of such signals, we used the data of N-body simulations to simulate full-sky ray-tracing of source galaxies. We searched for a most prominent underdense region using the simulated convergence maps smoothed at a scale of 20° and obtained tangential shears around it. The lensing signal expected in a concordant Λ cold dark matter model can be detected at a signal-to-noise ratio S/N ˜ 3. If a supervoid with a radius of ˜200 h-1 Mpc and a density contrast δ0 ˜ -0.3 at the centre resides at a redshift z ˜ 0.2, on-going and near-future weak gravitational lensing surveys would detect a lensing signal with S/N ≳ 4 without resorting to stacking. From the tangential shear profile, we can obtain a constraint on the projected mass distribution of the supervoid.
Leaci, Paola
2015-01-01
Semicoherent all-sky searches over year-long observation times for continuous gravitational wave signals produce various thousands of potential periodic source candidates. Efficient methods able to discard false candidate events are crucial in order to put all the efforts into a computationally intensive follow-up analysis for the remaining most promising candidates (Shaltev et al 2014 Phys. Rev. D 89 124030). In this paper we present a set of techniques able to fulfill such requirements, identifying and eliminating false candidate events, reducing thus the bulk of candidate sets that need to be further investigated. Some of these techniques were also used to streamline the candidate sets returned by the Einstein@Home hierarchical searches presented in (Aasi J et al (The LIGO Scientific Collaboration and the Virgo Collaboration) 2013 Phys. Rev. D 87 042001). These powerful methods and the benefits originating from their application to both simulated and on detector data from the fifth LIGO science run are illustrated and discussed. (paper)
New determination of the gravitational constant G with time-of-swing method
Tu Liangcheng; Li Qing; Wang Qinglan; Shao Chenggang; Yang Shanqing; Liu Linxia; Liu Qi; Luo Jun
2010-01-01
A new determination of the Newtonian gravitational constant G is presented by using a torsion pendulum with the time-of-swing method. Compared with our previous measurement with the same method, several improvements greatly reduced the uncertainties as follows: (i) two stainless steel spheres with more homogeneous density are used as the source masses instead of the cylinders used in the previous experiment, and the offset of the mass center from the geometric center is measured and found to be much smaller than that of the cylinders; (ii) a rectangular glass block is used as the main body of the pendulum, which has fewer vibration modes and hence improves the stability of the period and reduces the uncertainty of the moment of inertia; (iii) both the pendulum and source masses are placed in the same vacuum chamber to reduce the error of measuring the relative positions; (iv) changing the configurations between the ''near'' and ''far'' positions is remotely operated by using a stepper motor to lower the environmental disturbances; and (v) the anelastic effect of the torsion fiber is first measured directly by using two disk pendulums with the help of a high-Q quartz fiber. We have performed two independent G measurements, and the two G values differ by only 9 ppm. The combined value of G is (6.673 49±0.000 18)x10 -11 m 3 kg -1 s -2 with a relative uncertainty of 26 ppm.
Search method for long-duration gravitational-wave transients from neutron stars
Prix, R.; Giampanis, S.; Messenger, C.
2011-01-01
We introduce a search method for a new class of gravitational-wave signals, namely, long-duration O(hours-weeks) transients from spinning neutron stars. We discuss the astrophysical motivation from glitch relaxation models and we derive a rough estimate for the maximal expected signal strength based on the superfluid excess rotational energy. The transient signal model considered here extends the traditional class of infinite-duration continuous-wave signals by a finite start-time and duration. We derive a multidetector Bayes factor for these signals in Gaussian noise using F-statistic amplitude priors, which simplifies the detection statistic and allows for an efficient implementation. We consider both a fully coherent statistic, which is computationally limited to directed searches for known pulsars, and a cheaper semicoherent variant, suitable for wide parameter-space searches for transients from unknown neutron stars. We have tested our method by Monte-Carlo simulation, and we find that it outperforms orthodox maximum-likelihood approaches both in sensitivity and in parameter-estimation quality.
A comparison of methods for gravitational wave burst searches from LIGO and Virgo
Beauville, F; Buskulic, D; Grosjean, D; Bizouard, M-A; Cavalier, F; Clapson, A-C; Hello, P; Blackburn, L; Katsavounidis, E; Bosi, L; Brocco, L; Brown, D A; Chatterji, S; Christensen, N; Knight, M; Fairhurst, S; Guidi, G; Heng, S; Hewitson, M; Klimenko, S
2008-01-01
The search procedure for burst gravitational waves has been studied using 24 h of simulated data in a network of three interferometers (Hanford 4 km, Livingston 4 km and Virgo 3 km are the example interferometers). Several methods to detect burst events developed in the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) and Virgo Collaboration have been studied and compared. We have performed coincidence analysis of the triggers obtained in the different interferometers with and without simulated signals added to the data. The benefits of having multiple interferometers of similar sensitivity are demonstrated by comparing the detection performance of the joint coincidence analysis with LSC and Virgo only burst searches. Adding Virgo to the LIGO detector network can increase by 50% the detection efficiency for this search. Another advantage of a joint LIGO-Virgo network is the ability to reconstruct the source sky position. The reconstruction accuracy depends on the timing measurement accuracy of the events in each interferometer, and is displayed in this paper with a fixed source position example
A comparison of methods for gravitational wave burst searches from LIGO and Virgo
Beauville, F; Buskulic, D; Grosjean, D [Laboratoire d' Annecy-le-Vieux de Physique des Particules, Chemin de Bellevue, BP 110, 74941 Annecy-le-Vieux Cedex (France); Bizouard, M-A; Cavalier, F; Clapson, A-C; Hello, P [Laboratoire de l' Accelerateur Lineaire, IN2P3/CNRS-Universite de Paris XI, BP 34, 91898 Orsay Cedex (France); Blackburn, L; Katsavounidis, E [LIGO-Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Bosi, L [INFN Sezione di Perugia and/or Universita di Perugia, Via A Pascoli, I-06123 Perugia (Italy); Brocco, L [INFN Sezione di Roma and/or Universita ' La Sapienza' , P le A Moro 2, I-00185 Roma (Italy); Brown, D A; Chatterji, S [LIGO-California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Christensen, N; Knight, M [Carleton College, Northfield, MN 55057 (United States); Fairhurst, S [University of Wisconsin-Milwaukee, Milwaukee, WI 53201 (United States); Guidi, G [INFN Sezione Firenze/Urbino Via G Sansone 1, I-50019 Sesto Fiorentino (Italy); and/or Universita di Firenze, Largo E Fermi 2, I-50125 Firenze and/or Universita di Urbino, Via S Chiara 27, I-61029 Urbino (Italy); Heng, S; Hewitson, M [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Klimenko, S [University of Florida-Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States)] (and others)
2008-02-21
The search procedure for burst gravitational waves has been studied using 24 h of simulated data in a network of three interferometers (Hanford 4 km, Livingston 4 km and Virgo 3 km are the example interferometers). Several methods to detect burst events developed in the LIGO Scientific Collaboration (LSC) and Virgo Collaboration have been studied and compared. We have performed coincidence analysis of the triggers obtained in the different interferometers with and without simulated signals added to the data. The benefits of having multiple interferometers of similar sensitivity are demonstrated by comparing the detection performance of the joint coincidence analysis with LSC and Virgo only burst searches. Adding Virgo to the LIGO detector network can increase by 50% the detection efficiency for this search. Another advantage of a joint LIGO-Virgo network is the ability to reconstruct the source sky position. The reconstruction accuracy depends on the timing measurement accuracy of the events in each interferometer, and is displayed in this paper with a fixed source position example.
Prather, Edward E.; Wallace, Colin Scott; Chambers, Timothy G.; Brissenden, Gina; Traub, Wesley A.; Greene, W. M.; Biferno, Anya A.; Rodriguez, Joshua
2015-01-01
Members of the Center for Astronomy Education (CAE) at the University of Arizona's Steward Observatory in collaboration with JPL scientists, visualization experts, and education and public outreach professionals with the Exoplanet Exploration Program (ExEP) have recently completed classroom field-testing of a new suite of educational materials to help learners better understand how extrasolar planets are detected using the transit and gravitational microlensing techniques. This collaboration has created a set of evidence-based Think-Pair-Share questions, Lecture-Tutorials, animations, presentation slides, and instrucotrs guide that can be used together or separately to actively engage learners in reasoning about the data and scientific representations associated with these exciting new extrasolar planet detection methods. In this talk we present several of the conceptually challenging collaborative learning tasks that students encounter with this new suite of educational materials and some of the assessment questions we are using to assess the efficacy of their use in general education, college-level astronomy courses.
Schechter, Paul L.; Pooley, David; Blackburne, Jeffrey A.; Wambsganss, Joachim
2014-01-01
We measure the stellar mass surface densities of early-type galaxies by observing the micro-lensing of macro-lensed quasars caused by individual stars, including stellar remnants, brown dwarfs, and red dwarfs too faint to produce photometric or spectroscopic signatures. Instead of observing multiple micro-lensing events in a single system, we combine single-epoch X-ray snapshots of 10 quadruple systems, and compare the measured relative magnifications for the images with those computed from macro-models. We use these to normalize a stellar mass fundamental plane constructed using a Salpeter initial mass function with a low-mass cutoff of 0.1 M ☉ and treat the zeropoint of the surface mass density as a free parameter. Our method measures the graininess of the gravitational potential produced by individual stars, in contrast to methods that decompose a smooth total gravitational potential into two smooth components, one stellar and one dark. We find the median likelihood value for the normalization factor F by which the Salpeter stellar masses must be multiplied is 1.23, with a one sigma confidence range, dominated by small number statistics, of 0.77
Arnaud, Nicolas; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Porter, Edward K.
2003-01-01
Network data analysis methods are the only way to properly separate real gravitational wave (GW) transient events from detector noise. They can be divided into two generic classes: the coincidence method and the coherent analysis. The former uses lists of selected events provided by each interferometer belonging to the network and tries to correlate them in time to identify a physical signal. Instead of this binary treatment of detector outputs (signal present or absent), the latter method involves first the merging of the interferometer data and looks for a common pattern, consistent with an assumed GW waveform and a given source location in the sky. The thresholds are only applied later, to validate or not the hypothesis made. As coherent algorithms use more complete information than coincidence methods, they are expected to provide better detection performances, but at a higher computational cost. An efficient filter must yield a good compromise between a low false alarm rate (hence triggering on data at a manageable rate) and a high detection efficiency. Therefore, the comparison of the two approaches is achieved using so-called receiving operating characteristics (ROC), giving the relationship between the false alarm rate and the detection efficiency for a given method. This paper investigates this question via Monte Carlo simulations, using the network model developed in a previous article. Its main conclusions are the following. First, a three-interferometer network such as Virgo-LIGO is found to be too small to reach good detection efficiencies at low false alarm rates: larger configurations are suitable to reach a confidence level high enough to validate as true GW a detected event. In addition, an efficient network must contain interferometers with comparable sensitivities: studying the three-interferometer LIGO network shows that the 2-km interferometer with half sensitivity leads to a strong reduction of performances as compared to a network of three
Mesh-free free-form lensing - I. Methodology and application to mass reconstruction
Merten, Julian
2016-09-01
Many applications and algorithms in the field of gravitational lensing make use of meshes with a finite number of nodes to analyse and manipulate data. Specific examples in lensing are astronomical CCD images in general, the reconstruction of density distributions from lensing data, lens-source plane mapping or the characterization and interpolation of a point spread function. We present a numerical framework to interpolate and differentiate in the mesh-free domain, defined by nodes with coordinates that follow no regular pattern. The framework is based on radial basis functions (RBFs) to smoothly represent data around the nodes. We demonstrate the performance of Gaussian RBF-based, mesh-free interpolation and differentiation, which reaches the sub-percent level in both cases. We use our newly developed framework to translate ideas of free-form mass reconstruction from lensing on to the mesh-free domain. By reconstructing a simulated mock lens we find that strong-lensing only reconstructions achieve <10 per cent accuracy in the areas where these constraints are available but provide poorer results when departing from these regions. Weak-lensing only reconstructions give <10 per cent accuracy outside the strong-lensing regime, but cannot resolve the inner core structure of the lens. Once both regimes are combined, accurate reconstructions can be achieved over the full field of view. The reconstruction of a simulated lens, using constraints that mimics real observations, yields accurate results in terms of surface-mass density, Navarro-Frenk-White profile (NFW) parameters, Einstein radius and magnification map recovery, encouraging the application of this method to real data.
Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-10-18
This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.
Method of improving the performance of lenses for use in thermal infrared
McDowell, M. W.; Klee, H. W.
1980-10-01
A method is described whereby the field performance of an all-germanium triplet, as used for imaging radiation in the 8 to 13 micron waveband, can be improved. The principle of the method, which could also be used to improve the performance of achromatic triplets or aspherized doublets, involves the use of a field flattener lens which replaces the germanium window of the detector. The curvature of this lens can be optimized to minimize field curvature, which together with chromatic aberration is one of the most serious residuals of thermal imaging systems with relative apertures of around f/0.7. It is also shown that for such relative apertures, and for typical fields of less than 15 degrees, at 100 mm focal length, the location of the aperture stop is not a significant design parameter. This arises as a result of the intrinsic optical properties of germanium.
Elliptical tiling method to generate a 2-dimensional set of templates for gravitational wave search
Arnaud, Nicolas; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Kreckelbergh, Stephane; Porter, Edward K.
2003-01-01
Searching for a signal depending on unknown parameters in a noisy background with matched filtering techniques always requires an analysis of the data with several templates in parallel in order to ensure a proper match between the filter and the real waveform. The key feature of such an implementation is the design of the filter bank which must be small to limit the computational cost while keeping the detection efficiency as high as possible. This paper presents a geometrical method that allows one to cover the corresponding physical parameter space by a set of ellipses, each of them being associated with a given template. After the description of the main characteristics of the algorithm, the method is applied in the field of gravitational wave (GW) data analysis, for the search of damped sine signals. Such waveforms are expected to be produced during the deexcitation phase of black holes - the so-called 'ringdown' signals - and are also encountered in some numerically computed supernova signals. First, the number of templates N computed by the method is similar to its analytical estimation, despite the overlaps between neighbor templates and the border effects. Moreover, N is small enough to test for the first time the performances of the set of templates for different choices of the minimal match MM, the parameter used to define the maximal allowed loss of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) due to the mismatch between real signals and templates. The main result of this analysis is that the fraction of SNR recovered is on average much higher than MM, which dramatically decreases the mean percentage of false dismissals. Indeed, it goes well below its estimated value of 1-MM 3 used as input of the algorithm. Thus, as this feature should be common to any tiling algorithm, it seems possible to reduce the constraint on the value of MM - and indeed the number of templates and the computing power - without losing as many events as expected on average. This should be of great
USING COSMIC MICROWAVE BACKGROUND LENSING TO CONSTRAIN THE MULTIPLICATIVE BIAS OF COSMIC SHEAR
Vallinotto, Alberto
2012-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing is one of the key probes of cosmology. Cosmic shear surveys aimed at measuring the distribution of matter in the universe are currently being carried out (Pan-STARRS) or planned for the coming decade (DES, LSST, EUCLID, WFIRST). Crucial to the success of these surveys is the control of systematics. In this work, a new method to constrain one such family of systematics, known as multiplicative bias, is proposed. This method exploits the cross-correlation between weak-lensing measurements from galaxy surveys and the ones obtained from high-resolution cosmic microwave background experiments. This cross-correlation is shown to have the power to break the degeneracy between the normalization of the matter power spectrum and the multiplicative bias of cosmic shear and to be able to constrain the latter to a few percent.
Multiply imaged Transient Events in Cluster Lenses
Narasimha, Delampady
2018-04-01
ARIES had a successful gravitational microlens project during 1998-2002. A similar monitor for Transient Events in galaxies at high redshift lensed by rich galaxy-clusters provides a challenging possibility with important cosmological implications. Rich galaxy-clusters at intermediate redshifts are powerful gravitational lenses which produce multiple images, in the shape of giant arcs of 5-20" extent, of distant background galaxies in their field. Weak lens shear of the background galaxy distribution can reliably trace the lens mass profile. Multiple images of supernovae or GRBs in the background galaxies can be recorded in a systematic monitor of the system. An unlensed high redshift supernova might not be observable, but when lensed by a galaxy-cluster, it will stand out because the point event brightens relative to the host. The color profile of a high redshift lensed point event will be much more reliable than an unlensed one due to much less host contamination. An estimate of the time delay enables observation of the full light curve of the subsequent images of the event. ARIES can have outside collaboration for multiband simultaneous lightcurves of other images. The measured time delay and position of images of the transient event provide better cosmological constraints including distance scale of the Universe. The Devasthal telescope can detect one or more events by monitoring half a dozen cluster fields over three years time.
CERN. Geneva
2005-01-01
We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.
Strong deflection lensing by a Lee–Wick black hole
Shan-Shan Zhao
2017-11-01
Full Text Available We study strong deflection gravitational lensing by a Lee–Wick black hole, which is a non-singular black hole generated by a high derivative modification of Einstein–Hilbert action. The strong deflection lensing is expected to produce a set of relativistic images very closed to the event horizon of the black hole. We estimate its observables for the supermassive black hole in our Galactic center. It is found that the Lee–Wick black hole can be distinguished from the Schwarzschild black hole via such lensing effects when the UV scale is not very large, but the requiring resolution is much higher than current capability.
Probabilistic Cosmological Mass Mapping from Weak Lensing Shear
Schneider, M. D.; Dawson, W. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Ng, K. Y. [University of California, Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Marshall, P. J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94035 (United States); Meyers, J. E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bard, D. J., E-mail: schneider42@llnl.gov, E-mail: dstn@cmu.edu, E-mail: boutigny@in2p3.fr, E-mail: djbard@slac.stanford.edu, E-mail: jmeyers314@stanford.edu [National Energy Research Scientific Computing Center, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, 1 Cyclotron Road, Berkeley, CA 94720-8150 (United States)
2017-04-10
We infer gravitational lensing shear and convergence fields from galaxy ellipticity catalogs under a spatial process prior for the lensing potential. We demonstrate the performance of our algorithm with simulated Gaussian-distributed cosmological lensing shear maps and a reconstruction of the mass distribution of the merging galaxy cluster Abell 781 using galaxy ellipticities measured with the Deep Lens Survey. Given interim posterior samples of lensing shear or convergence fields on the sky, we describe an algorithm to infer cosmological parameters via lens field marginalization. In the most general formulation of our algorithm we make no assumptions about weak shear or Gaussian-distributed shape noise or shears. Because we require solutions and matrix determinants of a linear system of dimension that scales with the number of galaxies, we expect our algorithm to require parallel high-performance computing resources for application to ongoing wide field lensing surveys.
CMB lensing constraints on dark energy and modified gravity scenarios
Calabrese, Erminia; Cooray, Asantha; Martinelli, Matteo; Melchiorri, Alessandro; Pagano, Luca; Slosar, Anze; Smoot, George F.
2009-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing leaves a characteristic imprint on the cosmic microwave background temperature and polarization angular power spectra. Here, we investigate the possible constraints on the integrated lensing potential from future cosmic microwave background angular spectra measurements expected from Planck and EPIC. We find that Planck and EPIC will constrain the amplitude of the integrated projected potential responsible for lensing at 6% and 1% level, respectively, with very little sensitivity to the shape of the lensing potential. We discuss the implications of such a measurement in constraining dark energy and modified gravity scalar-tensor theories. We then discuss the impact of a wrong assumption on the weak lensing potential amplitude on cosmological parameter inference.
Contact Lenses for Color Blindness.
Badawy, Abdel-Rahman; Hassan, Muhammad Umair; Elsherif, Mohamed; Ahmed, Zubair; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider
2018-06-01
Color vision deficiency (color blindness) is an inherited genetic ocular disorder. While no cure for this disorder currently exists, several methods can be used to increase the color perception of those affected. One such method is the use of color filtering glasses which are based on Bragg filters. While these glasses are effective, they are high cost, bulky, and incompatible with other vision correction eyeglasses. In this work, a rhodamine derivative is incorporated in commercial contact lenses to filter out the specific wavelength bands (≈545-575 nm) to correct color vision blindness. The biocompatibility assessment of the dyed contact lenses in human corneal fibroblasts and human corneal epithelial cells shows no toxicity and cell viability remains at 99% after 72 h. This study demonstrates the potential of the dyed contact lenses in wavelength filtering and color vision deficiency management. © 2018 The Authors. Published by WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A.
2014-01-01
The use of a high precision pulsar timing array is a promising approach to detecting gravitational waves in the very low frequency regime (10 –6 -10 –9 Hz) that is complementary to ground-based efforts (e.g., LIGO, Virgo) at high frequencies (∼10-10 3 Hz) and space-based ones (e.g., LISA) at low frequencies (10 –4 -10 –1 Hz). One of the target sources for pulsar timing arrays is individual supermassive black hole binaries which are expected to form in galactic mergers. In this paper, a likelihood-based method for detection and parameter estimation is presented for a monochromatic continuous gravitational wave signal emitted by such a source. The so-called pulsar terms in the signal that arise due to the breakdown of the long-wavelength approximation are explicitly taken into account in this method. In addition, the method accounts for equality and inequality constraints involved in the semi-analytical maximization of the likelihood over a subset of the parameters. The remaining parameters are maximized over numerically using Particle Swarm Optimization. Thus, the method presented here solves the monochromatic continuous wave detection and parameter estimation problem without invoking some of the approximations that have been used in earlier studies.
Wang, Yan; Mohanty, Soumya D.; Jenet, Fredrick A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Texas at Brownsville, 1 West University Boulevard, Brownsville, TX 78520 (United States)
2014-11-01
The use of a high precision pulsar timing array is a promising approach to detecting gravitational waves in the very low frequency regime (10{sup –6}-10{sup –9} Hz) that is complementary to ground-based efforts (e.g., LIGO, Virgo) at high frequencies (∼10-10{sup 3} Hz) and space-based ones (e.g., LISA) at low frequencies (10{sup –4}-10{sup –1} Hz). One of the target sources for pulsar timing arrays is individual supermassive black hole binaries which are expected to form in galactic mergers. In this paper, a likelihood-based method for detection and parameter estimation is presented for a monochromatic continuous gravitational wave signal emitted by such a source. The so-called pulsar terms in the signal that arise due to the breakdown of the long-wavelength approximation are explicitly taken into account in this method. In addition, the method accounts for equality and inequality constraints involved in the semi-analytical maximization of the likelihood over a subset of the parameters. The remaining parameters are maximized over numerically using Particle Swarm Optimization. Thus, the method presented here solves the monochromatic continuous wave detection and parameter estimation problem without invoking some of the approximations that have been used in earlier studies.
Berge, T.; Olsen, O.
1985-06-17
The invention concerns a submersible offshore platform of the gravitational type designed for great depths. The platform is made of concrete or the like comprising a sea-bed foundation, and a number of at least 3 cantilevered pillars connected to the prop section carrying the load-bearing structure and the platform deck. In addition, the platform consists of a cellular floating section, and the central part of it is lengthened upwards. The central column supports the prop section. There is a considerable space between the floating section and the bed foundation. The various steps of the construction methods are presented. 11 drawings.
General relativity and gravitation, 1989
Ashby, N.; Bartlett, D.F.; Wyss, W.
1990-01-01
This volume records the lectures and symposia of the 12th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation. Plenary lecturers reviewed the major advances since the previous conference in 1986. The reviews cover classical and quantum theory of gravity, colliding gravitational waves, gravitational lensing, relativistic effects on pulsars, tests of the inverse square law, numerical relativity, cosmic microwave background radiation, experimental tests of gravity theory, gravitational wave detectors, and cosmology. The plenary lectures are complemented by summaries of symposia, provided by the chairmen. Almost 700 contributed papers were presented at these and they cover an even wider range of topics than the plenary talks. The book provides a comprehensive guide to research activity in both experimental and theoretical gravitation and its applications in astrophysics and cosmology. It will be essential reading for research workers in these fields, as well as theoretical and experimental physicists, astronomers, and mathematicians who wish to be acquainted with modern developments in gravitational theory and general relativity. All the papers and summaries of the workshop sessions are indexed separately. (16 united talks, 20 workshop sessions). (author)
Planck intermediate results XLI. A map of lensing-induced B-modes
Ade, P. A. R.; Aghanim, N.; Ashdown, M.
2016-01-01
The secondary cosmic microwave background (CMB) B-modes stem from the post-decoupling distortion of the polarization E-modes due to the gravitational lensing effect of large-scale structures. These lensing-induced B-modes constitute both a valuable probe of the dark matter distribution and an imp...
Strong lensing of a regular black hole with an electrodynamics source
Manna, Tuhina; Rahaman, Farook; Molla, Sabiruddin; Bhadra, Jhumpa; Shah, Hasrat Hussain
2018-05-01
In this paper we have investigated the gravitational lensing phenomenon in the strong field regime for a regular, charged, static black holes with non-linear electrodynamics source. We have obtained the angle of deflection and compared it to a Schwarzschild black hole and Reissner Nordström black hole with similar properties. We have also done a graphical study of the relativistic image positions and magnifications. We hope that this method may be useful in the detection of non-luminous bodies like this current black hole.
The Master Lens Database and The Orphan Lenses Project
Moustakas, Leonidas
2012-10-01
Strong gravitational lenses are uniquely suited for the study of dark matter structure and substructure within massive halos of many scales, act as gravitational telescopes for distant faint objects, and can give powerful and competitive cosmological constraints. While hundreds of strong lenses are known to date, spanning five orders of magnitude in mass scale, thousands will be identified this decade. To fully exploit the power of these objects presently, and in the near future, we are creating the Master Lens Database. This is a clearinghouse of all known strong lens systems, with a sophisticated and modern database of uniformly measured and derived observational and lens-model derived quantities, using archival Hubble data across several instruments. This Database enables new science that can be done with a comprehensive sample of strong lenses. The operational goal of this proposal is to develop the process and the code to semi-automatically stage Hubble data of each system, create appropriate masks of the lensing objects and lensing features, and derive gravitational lens models, to provide a uniform and fairly comprehensive information set that is ingested into the Database. The scientific goal for this team is to use the properties of the ensemble of lenses to make a new study of the internal structure of lensing galaxies, and to identify new objects that show evidence of strong substructure lensing, for follow-up study. All data, scripts, masks, model setup files, and derived parameters, will be public, and free. The Database will be accessible online and through a sophisticated smartphone application, which will also be free.
Magnified Weak Lensing Cross Correlation Tomography
Ulmer, Melville P., Clowe, Douglas I.
2010-11-30
nights on 4-m class telescopes, which gives concrete evidence of strong community support for this project. The WLT technique is based on the dependence of the gravitational shear signal on the angular diameter distances between the observer, the lens, and the lensed galaxy to measure cosmological parameters. By taking the ratio of measured shears of galaxies with different redshifts around the same lens, one obtains a measurement of the ratios of the angular diameter distances involved. Making these observations over a large range of lenses and background galaxy redshifts will measure the history of the expansion rate of the universe. Because this is a purely geometric measurement, it is insensitive to any form of evolution of objects or the necessity to understand the physics in the early universe. Thus, WLT was identified by the Dark Energy Task Force as perhaps the best method to measure the evolution of DE. To date, however, the conjecture of the DETF has not been experimentally verified, but will be by the proposed project. The primary reason for the lack of tomography measurements is that one must have an exceptional data-set to attempt the measurement. One needs both extremely good seeing (or space observations) in order to minimize the point spread function smearing corrections on weak lensing shear measurements and deep, multi-color data, from B to z, to measure reliable photometric redshifts of the background galaxies being lensed (which are typically too faint to obtain spectroscopic redshifts). Because the entire process from multi-drizzling the HST images, and then creating shear maps, to gathering the necessary ground based observations, to generating photo-zs and then carrying out the tomography is a complicated task, until the creation of our team, nobody has taken the time to connect all the levels of expertise necessary to carry out this project based on HST archival data. Our data are being used in 2 Ph.D. theses. Kellen Murphy, at Ohio University, is
1982-01-01
No single volume has been entirely devoted to the properties of magnetic lenses, so far as I am aware, although of course all the numerous textbooks on electron optics devote space to them. The absence of such a volume, bringing together in formation about the theory and practical design of these lenses, is surprising, for their introduction some fifty years ago has created an entirely new family of commercial instruments, ranging from the now traditional transmission electron microscope, through the reflection and transmission scanning microscopes, to co lumns for micromachining and microlithography, not to mention the host of experi mental devices not available commercially. It therefore seemed useful to prepare an account of the various aspects of mag netic lens studies. These divide naturally into the five chapters of this book: the theoretical background, in which the optical behaviour is described and formu lae given for the various aberration coefficients; numerical methods for calculat ing...
Gauge-invariant formalism of cosmological weak lensing
Yoo, Jaiyul; Grimm, Nastassia; Mitsou, Ermis; Amara, Adam; Refregier, Alexandre
2018-04-01
We present the gauge-invariant formalism of cosmological weak lensing, accounting for all the relativistic effects due to the scalar, vector, and tensor perturbations at the linear order. While the light propagation is fully described by the geodesic equation, the relation of the photon wavevector to the physical quantities requires the specification of the frames, where they are defined. By constructing the local tetrad bases at the observer and the source positions, we clarify the relation of the weak lensing observables such as the convergence, the shear, and the rotation to the physical size and shape defined in the source rest-frame and the observed angle and redshift measured in the observer rest-frame. Compared to the standard lensing formalism, additional relativistic effects contribute to all the lensing observables. We explicitly verify the gauge-invariance of the lensing observables and compare our results to previous work. In particular, we demonstrate that even in the presence of the vector and tensor perturbations, the physical rotation of the lensing observables vanishes at the linear order, while the tetrad basis rotates along the light propagation compared to a FRW coordinate. Though the latter is often used as a probe of primordial gravitational waves, the rotation of the tetrad basis is indeed not a physical observable. We further clarify its relation to the E-B decomposition in weak lensing. Our formalism provides a transparent and comprehensive perspective of cosmological weak lensing.
DETECTION OF LENSING SUBSTRUCTURE USING ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE DUSTY GALAXY SDP.81
Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Blandford, Roger D.; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Wechsler, Risa H. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Department of Physics, Stanford University, 452 Lomita Mall, Stanford, CA 94305-4085 (United States); Dalal, Neal; Wen, Di; Kemball, Athol; Vieira, Joaquin D. [Astronomy Department, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 W. Green Street, Urbana IL 61801 (United States); Marrone, Daniel P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Carlstrom, John E. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Fassnacht, Christopher D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Holder, Gilbert P. [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 Rue University, Montreal, Quebec H3A 2T8 (Canada); Marshall, Philip J. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology and Department of Particle Physics and Astrophysics, SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94305 (United States); Murray, Norman [CITA, University of Toronto, 60 St. George St., Toronto ON M5S 3H8 (Canada)
2016-05-20
We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a M = 10{sup 8.96±0.12} M {sub ⊙} subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of 6.9 σ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter (DM) subhalos down to M ∼ 2 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ⊙}, pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies between the observed population of luminous galaxies and predicted DM subhalos. We find hints of additional substructure, warranting further study using the full SDP.81 data set (including, for example, the spectroscopic imaging of the lensed carbon monoxide emission). We compare the results of this search to the predictions of ΛCDM halos, and find that given current uncertainties in the host halo properties of SDP.81, our measurements of substructure are consistent with theoretical expectations. Observations of larger samples of gravitational lenses with ALMA should be able to improve the constraints on the abundance of galactic substructure.
DETECTION OF LENSING SUBSTRUCTURE USING ALMA OBSERVATIONS OF THE DUSTY GALAXY SDP.81
Hezaveh, Yashar D.; Mao, Yao-Yuan; Morningstar, Warren; Blandford, Roger D.; Levasseur, Laurence Perreault; Wechsler, Risa H.; Dalal, Neal; Wen, Di; Kemball, Athol; Vieira, Joaquin D.; Marrone, Daniel P.; Carlstrom, John E.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Holder, Gilbert P.; Marshall, Philip J.; Murray, Norman
2016-01-01
We study the abundance of substructure in the matter density near galaxies using ALMA Science Verification observations of the strong lensing system SDP.81. We present a method to measure the abundance of subhalos around galaxies using interferometric observations of gravitational lenses. Using simulated ALMA observations we explore the effects of various systematics, including antenna phase errors and source priors, and show how such errors may be measured or marginalized. We apply our formalism to ALMA observations of SDP.81. We find evidence for the presence of a M = 10 8.96±0.12 M ⊙ subhalo near one of the images, with a significance of 6.9 σ in a joint fit to data from bands 6 and 7; the effect of the subhalo is also detected in both bands individually. We also derive constraints on the abundance of dark matter (DM) subhalos down to M ∼ 2 × 10 7 M ⊙ , pushing down to the mass regime of the smallest detected satellites in the Local Group, where there are significant discrepancies between the observed population of luminous galaxies and predicted DM subhalos. We find hints of additional substructure, warranting further study using the full SDP.81 data set (including, for example, the spectroscopic imaging of the lensed carbon monoxide emission). We compare the results of this search to the predictions of ΛCDM halos, and find that given current uncertainties in the host halo properties of SDP.81, our measurements of substructure are consistent with theoretical expectations. Observations of larger samples of gravitational lenses with ALMA should be able to improve the constraints on the abundance of galactic substructure.
Astone, P; Colla, A; Frasca, S; Palomba, C; D'Antonio, S
2012-01-01
We describe the extension to multiple datasets of a coherent method for the search of continuous gravitational wave signals, based on the computation of 5-vectors. In particular, we show how to coherently combine different datasets belonging to the same detector or to different detectors. In the latter case the coherent combination is the way to have the maximum increase in signal-to-noise ratio. If the datasets belong to the same detector the advantage comes mainly from the properties of a quantity called coherence which is helpful (in both cases, in fact) in rejecting false candidates. The method has been tested searching for simulated signals injected in Gaussian noise and the results of the simulations are discussed.
LENSING NOISE IN MILLIMETER-WAVE GALAXY CLUSTER SURVEYS
Hezaveh, Yashar; Vanderlinde, Keith; Holder, Gilbert; De Haan, Tijmen
2013-01-01
We study the effects of gravitational lensing by galaxy clusters of the background of dusty star-forming galaxies (DSFGs) and the cosmic microwave background (CMB), and examine the implications for Sunyaev-Zel'dovich-based (SZ) galaxy cluster surveys. At the locations of galaxy clusters, gravitational lensing modifies the probability distribution of the background flux of the DSFGs as well as the CMB. We find that, in the case of a single-frequency 150 GHz survey, lensing of DSFGs leads both to a slight increase (∼10%) in detected cluster number counts (due to a ∼50% increase in the variance of the DSFG background, and hence an increased Eddington bias) and a rare (occurring in ∼2% of clusters) 'filling-in' of SZ cluster signals by bright strongly lensed background sources. Lensing of the CMB leads to a ∼55% reduction in CMB power at the location of massive galaxy clusters in a spatially matched single-frequency filter, leading to a net decrease in detected cluster number counts. We find that the increase in DSFG power and decrease in CMB power due to lensing at cluster locations largely cancel, such that the net effect on cluster number counts for current SZ surveys is subdominant to Poisson errors
Bondi, H.
1979-01-01
In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)
Probing the cosmic distance duality relation using time delay lenses
Rana, Akshay; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Jain, Deepak [Deen Dayal Upadhyaya College, University of Delhi, Sector-3, Dwarka, New Delhi 110078 (India); Holanda, R.F.L., E-mail: montirana1992@gmail.com, E-mail: djain@ddu.du.ac.in, E-mail: shobhit.mahajan@gmail.com, E-mail: amimukh@gmail.com, E-mail: holanda@uepb.edu.br [Departamento de Física, Universidade Federal de Sergipe, 49100-000, Aracaju—SE (Brazil)
2017-07-01
The construction of the cosmic distance-duality relation (CDDR) has been widely studied. However, its consistency with various new observables remains a topic of interest. We present a new way to constrain the CDDR η( z ) using different dynamic and geometric properties of strong gravitational lenses (SGL) along with SNe Ia observations. We use a sample of 102 SGL with the measurement of corresponding velocity dispersion σ{sub 0} and Einstein radius θ {sub E} . In addition, we also use a dataset of 12 two image lensing systems containing the measure of time delay Δ t between source images. Jointly these two datasets give us the angular diameter distance D {sub A} {sub ol} of the lens. Further, for luminosity distance, we use the 740 observations from JLA compilation of SNe Ia. To study the combined behavior of these datasets we use a model independent method, Gaussian Process (GP). We also check the efficiency of GP by applying it on simulated datasets, which are generated in a phenomenological way by using realistic cosmological error bars. Finally, we conclude that the combined bounds from the SGL and SNe Ia observation do not favor any deviation of CDDR and are in concordance with the standard value (η=1) within 2σ confidence region, which further strengthens the theoretical acceptance of CDDR.
Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse
Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse
Chris L. Fryer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse.
Fryer, Chris L; New, Kimberly C B
2011-01-01
Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2011-1.
Evidence of lensing of the cosmic microwave background by dark matter halos.
Madhavacheril, Mathew; Sehgal, Neelima; Allison, Rupert; Battaglia, Nick; Bond, J Richard; Calabrese, Erminia; Caligiuri, Jerod; Coughlin, Kevin; Crichton, Devin; Datta, Rahul; Devlin, Mark J; Dunkley, Joanna; Dünner, Rolando; Fogarty, Kevin; Grace, Emily; Hajian, Amir; Hasselfield, Matthew; Hill, J Colin; Hilton, Matt; Hincks, Adam D; Hlozek, Renée; Hughes, John P; Kosowsky, Arthur; Louis, Thibaut; Lungu, Marius; McMahon, Jeff; Moodley, Kavilan; Munson, Charles; Naess, Sigurd; Nati, Federico; Newburgh, Laura; Niemack, Michael D; Page, Lyman A; Partridge, Bruce; Schmitt, Benjamin; Sherwin, Blake D; Sievers, Jon; Spergel, David N; Staggs, Suzanne T; Thornton, Robert; Van Engelen, Alexander; Ward, Jonathan T; Wollack, Edward J
2015-04-17
We present evidence of the gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background by 10(13) solar mass dark matter halos. Lensing convergence maps from the Atacama Cosmology Telescope Polarimeter (ACTPol) are stacked at the positions of around 12 000 optically selected CMASS galaxies from the SDSS-III/BOSS survey. The mean lensing signal is consistent with simulated dark matter halo profiles and is favored over a null signal at 3.2σ significance. This result demonstrates the potential of microwave background lensing to probe the dark matter distribution in galaxy group and galaxy cluster halos.
Gravitational Waves - New Perspectives
Biesiada, M.
1999-01-01
Laser interferometric experiments planned for 2002 will open up a new window onto the Universe. The first part of the paper gives a brief intuitive introduction to gravity waves, detection techniques and enumeration of main astrophysical sources and frequency bands to which they contribute. Then two more specific issues are discussed concerning cosmological perspectives of gravity waves detection. First one is the problem of gravitational lensing of the signal from inspiralling NS-NS binaries. The magnitude of the so called magnification bias is estimated and found non-negligible for some quite realistic lens models, but strongly model-dependent. The second problem is connected with estimates of galactic and extragalactic parts of the stochastic background. The main conclusion from these two examples is that in so far as the cosmological payoff of gravitational wave detection would be high, we should substantially deepen our understanding of basic astrophysical properties of galaxies and their clusters (in terms of mass distribution) in order to draw clear cosmological conclusions. (author)
Tackling The Dragon: Investigating Lensed Galaxy Structure
Fortenberry, Alexander; Livermore, Rachael
2018-01-01
Galaxies have been seen to have a rapid decrease in star formation beginning at a redshift of around 1-2 up to the present day. To understand the processes underpinning this change, we need to observe the inner structure of galaxies and understand where and how the stellar mass builds up. However, at high redshifts our observable resolution is limited, which hinders the accuracy of the data. The lack of resolution at high redshift can be counteracted with the use of gravitational lensing. The magnification provided by the gravitational lens between us and the galaxies in question enables us to see extreme detail within the galaxies. To begin fine-tuning this process, we used Hubble data of Abell 370, a galaxy cluster, which lenses a galaxy know as “The Dragon” at z=0.725. With the increased detail proved by the gravitational lens we provide a detailed analysis of the galaxy’s spatially resolved star formation rate, stellar age, and masses.
Weak lensing probes of modified gravity
Schmidt, Fabian
2008-01-01
We study the effect of modifications to general relativity on large-scale weak lensing observables. In particular, we consider three modified gravity scenarios: f(R) gravity, the Dvali-Gabadadze-Porrati model, and tensor-vector-scalar theory. Weak lensing is sensitive to the growth of structure and the relation between matter and gravitational potentials, both of which will in general be affected by modified gravity. Restricting ourselves to linear scales, we compare the predictions for galaxy-shear and shear-shear correlations of each modified gravity cosmology to those of an effective dark energy cosmology with the same expansion history. In this way, the effects of modified gravity on the growth of perturbations are separated from the expansion history. We also propose a test which isolates the matter-potential relation from the growth factor and matter power spectrum. For all three modified gravity models, the predictions for galaxy and shear correlations will be discernible from those of dark energy with very high significance in future weak lensing surveys. Furthermore, each model predicts a measurably distinct scale dependence and redshift evolution of galaxy and shear correlations, which can be traced back to the physical foundations of each model. We show that the signal-to-noise for detecting signatures of modified gravity is much higher for weak lensing observables as compared to the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, measured via the galaxy-cosmic microwave background cross-correlation.
Drijvers, Paul; Godino, Juan D.; Font, Vicenc; Trouche, Luc
2013-01-01
A deep understanding of students' learning processes is one of the core challenges of research in mathematics education. To achieve this, different theoretical lenses are available. The question is how these different lenses compare and contrast, and how they can be coordinated and combined to provide a more comprehensive view on the topic of…
Probing Positron Gravitation at HERA
Gharibyan, Vahagn
2015-07-01
An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Here I develop a method based on high energy Compton scattering to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a positron's 1.3(0.2)% weaker coupling to the gravitational field relative to an electron.
Probing Positron Gravitation at HERA
Gharibyan, Vahagn
2015-07-15
An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Here I develop a method based on high energy Compton scattering to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a positron's 1.3(0.2)% weaker coupling to the gravitational field relative to an electron.
DISSECTING THE GRAVITATIONAL LENS B1608+656. I. LENS POTENTIAL RECONSTRUCTION
Suyu, S. H.; Marshall, P. J.; Blandford, R. D.; Fassnacht, C. D.; Koopmans, L. V. E.; McKean, J. P.; Treu, T.
2009-01-01
Strong gravitational lensing is a powerful technique for probing galaxy mass distributions and for measuring cosmological parameters. Lens systems with extended source-intensity distributions are particularly useful for this purpose since they provide additional constraints on the lens potential (
Melchior, Anne-Laure
1995-01-01
This work is involved in baryonic dark matter search in galactic halos. An important collect of observational data has been initiated to test the hypothesis that this dark mass is made of compact objects such as brown dwarfs or small mass stars. The gravitational microlensing effect allows to probe this distribution of this mass type along the line of sight of nearby galaxies such as the Large Magellanic Cloud. A new way to detect these microlensing events has been proposed by P. Baillon et al.: the pixel method. The aim is to detect the amplification of stars which are unresolved or too faint to be seen by classical analysis. First, we present this method and the simulations which allow to establish its feasibility. Then, we describe the pixel analysis of the 91-92 EROS data on the Large Magellanic Cloud. The selection of luminosity variations with a shape compatible with microlensing events allows us to study the sensitivity of this analysis. We see how these results allow us to validate the pixel method applied on a large volume of data. This also shows the possibility to find luminosity variations which escape classical analysis research. Strengthened by these results, we finally describe the analysis of the AGAPE 94 data on the Andromeda galaxy which uses the same pixel method. Being ten times farther away than the Large Magellanic Cloud, the Andromeda galaxy has very few resolved stars, making the pixel method the only way of looking for microlensing events. (author) [fr
Schäfer, G.; Schutz, B.
1996-01-01
Gravity is truly universal. It is the force that pulls us to the Earth, that keeps the planets and moons in their orbits, and that causes the tides on the Earth to ebb and flow. It even keeps the Sun shining. Yet on a laboratory scale gravity is extremely weak. The Coulomb force between two protons is 1039 times stronger than the gravitational force between them. Moreover, Newton's gravitational constant is the least accurately known of the fundamental constants: it has been measured to 1 par...
Bassi, Angelo; Großardt, André; Ulbricht, Hendrik
2017-01-01
We discuss effects of loss of coherence in low energy quantum systems caused by or related to gravitation, referred to as gravitational decoherence. These effects, resulting from random metric fluctuations, for instance, promise to be accessible by relatively inexpensive table-top experiments, way before the scales where true quantum gravity effects become important. Therefore, they can provide a first experimental view on gravity in the quantum regime. We will survey models of decoherence induced both by classical and quantum gravitational fluctuations; it will be manifest that a clear understanding of gravitational decoherence is still lacking. Next we will review models where quantum theory is modified, under the assumption that gravity causes the collapse of the wave functions, when systems are large enough. These models challenge the quantum-gravity interplay, and can be tested experimentally. In the last part we have a look at the state of the art of experimental research. We will review efforts aiming at more and more accurate measurements of gravity ( G and g ) and ideas for measuring conventional and unconventional gravity effects on nonrelativistic quantum systems. (topical review)
Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses
Boye, Pit
2010-02-05
This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the
Nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses
Boye, Pit
2010-01-01
This thesis is concerned with the optimization and development of the production of nanofocusing refractive X-ray lenses. These optics made of either silicon or diamond are well-suited for high resolution X-ray microscopy. The goal of this work is the design of a reproducible manufacturing process which allows the production of silicon lenses with high precision, high quality and high piece number. Furthermore a process for the production of diamond lenses is to be developed and established. In this work, the theoretical basics of X-rays and their interaction with matter are described. Especially, aspects of synchrotron radiation are emphasized. Important in X-ray microscopy are the different optics. The details, advantages and disadvantages, in particular those of refractive lenses are given. To achieve small X-ray beams well beyond the 100 nm range a small focal length is required. This is achieved in refractive lenses by moving to a compact lens design where several single lenses are stacked behind each other. The, so-called nanofocusing refractive lenses (NFLs) have a parabolic cylindrical shape with lateral structure sizes in the micrometer range. NFLs are produced by using micro-machining techniques. These micro-fabrication processes and technologies are introduced. The results of the optimization and the final fabrication process for silicon lenses are presented. Subsequently, two experiments that are exemplary for the use of NFLs, are introduced. The rst one employs a high-resolution scanning fluorescence mapping of a geological sample, and the second one is a coherent x-ray diffraction imaging (CXDI) experiment. CXDI is able to reconstruct the illuminated object from recorded coherent diffraction patterns. In a scanning mode, referred to as ptychography, this method is even able to reconstruct the illumination and the object simultaneously. Especially the reconstructed illumination and the possibility of computed propagation of the wave field along the
Bounds on graviton mass using weak lensing and SZ effect in galaxy clusters
Rana, Akshay; Jain, Deepak; Mahajan, Shobhit; Mukherjee, Amitabha
2018-06-01
In General Relativity (GR), the graviton is massless. However, a common feature in several theoretical alternatives of GR is a non-zero mass for the graviton. These theories can be described as massive gravity theories. Despite many theoretical complexities in these theories, on phenomenological grounds the implications of massive gravity have been widely used to put bounds on graviton mass. One of the generic implications of giving a mass to the graviton is that the gravitational potential will follow a Yukawa-like fall off. We use this feature of massive gravity theories to probe the mass of graviton by using the largest gravitationally bound objects, namely galaxy clusters. In this work, we use the mass estimates of galaxy clusters measured at various cosmologically defined radial distances measured via weak lensing (WL) and Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) effect. We also use the model independent values of Hubble parameter H (z) smoothed by a non-parametric method, Gaussian process. Within 1σ confidence region, we obtain the mass of graviton mg 6.82 Mpc from weak lensing and mg 5.012 Mpc from SZ effect. This analysis improves the upper bound on graviton mass obtained earlier from galaxy clusters.
Numerical investigations of gravitational collapse
Csizmadia, Peter; Racz, Istvan, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.h [RMKI, Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, H-1121 (Hungary)
2010-03-01
Some properties of a new framework for simulating generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric gravitating systems are discussed. The framework can be used to investigate spacetimes that undergo complete gravitational collapse. The analytic setup is chosen to ensure that our numerical method is capable to follow the time evolution everywhere, including the black hole region.
Nishihara, Hitoshi; Ayaki, Masahiko; Watanabe, Tomiko; Ohnishi, Takeo; Kageyama, Toshiyuki; Yaguchi, Shigeo
2004-03-01
To compare the long-term clinical and experimental results of soft acrylic intraocular lenses(IOLs) manufactured by the lathe-cut(LC) method and by the cast-molding(CM) method. This was a retrospective study of 20 patients(22 eyes) who were examined in a 5- and 7-year follow-up study. Sixteen eyes were implanted with polyacrylic IOLs manufactured by the LC method and 6 eyes were implanted with polyacrylic IOLs manufactured by the CM method. Postoperative measurements included best corrected visual acuity, contrast sensitivity, biomicroscopic examination, and Scheimpflug slit-lamp images to evaluate surface light scattering. Scanning electron microscopy and three-dimensional surface analysis were conducted. At 7 years, the mean visual acuity was 1.08 +/- 0.24 (mean +/- standard deviation) in the LC group and 1.22 +/- 0.27 in the CM group. Surface light-seatter was 12.0 +/- 4.0 computer compatible tapes(CCT) in the LC group and 37.4 +/- 5.4 CCT in the CM group. Mean surface roughness was 0.70 +/- 0.07 nm in the LC group and 6.16 +/- 0.97 nm in the CM group. Acrylic IOLs manufactured by the LC method are more stable in long-termuse.
High-redshift supernova rates measured with the gravitational telescope A 1689
Petrushevska, T.; Amanullah, R.; Goobar, A.; Fabbro, S.; Johansson, J.; Kjellsson, T.; Lidman, C.; Paech, K.; Richard, J.; Dahle, Håkon; Ferretti, R.; Kneib, J.-P.; Limousin, M.; Nordin, J.; Stanishev, V.
2016-01-01
Aims. We present a ground-based, near-infrared search for lensed supernovae behind the massive cluster Abell 1689 at z = 0.18, which is one of the most powerful gravitational telescopes that nature provides. Methods. Our survey was based on multi-epoch J-band observations with the HAWK-I instrument on VLT, with supporting optical data from the Nordic Optical Telescope. Results. Our search resulted in the discovery of five photometrically classified, core-collapse supernovae with high re...
Clapson, Andre-Claude; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Leroy, Nicolas; Varvella, Monica
2008-01-01
The detection of burst-type events in the output of ground gravitational wave detectors is particularly challenging. The potential variety of astrophysical waveforms, as proposed by simulations and analytic studies in general relativity and the discrimination of actual signals from instrumental noise both are critical issues. Robust methods that achieve reasonable detection performances over a wide range of signals are required. We present here a hybrid burst-detection pipeline related to time-frequency transforms while based on matched filtering to provide robustness against noise characteristics. Studies on simulated noise show that the algorithm has a detection efficiency similar to other methods over very different waveforms and particularly good timing even for low amplitude signals: no bias for most tested waveforms and an average accuracy of 1.1 ms (down to 0.1 ms in the best case). Time-frequency-type parameters, useful for event classification, are also derived for noise spectral densities unfavourable to standard time-frequency algorithms
Clapson, Andre-Claude; Barsuglia, Matteo; Bizouard, Marie-Anne; Brisson, Violette; Cavalier, Fabien; Davier, Michel; Hello, Patrice; Leroy, Nicolas; Varvella, Monica [LAL, Universite Paris-Sud 11, BP 34, 91898 Orsay (France)
2008-02-07
The detection of burst-type events in the output of ground gravitational wave detectors is particularly challenging. The potential variety of astrophysical waveforms, as proposed by simulations and analytic studies in general relativity and the discrimination of actual signals from instrumental noise both are critical issues. Robust methods that achieve reasonable detection performances over a wide range of signals are required. We present here a hybrid burst-detection pipeline related to time-frequency transforms while based on matched filtering to provide robustness against noise characteristics. Studies on simulated noise show that the algorithm has a detection efficiency similar to other methods over very different waveforms and particularly good timing even for low amplitude signals: no bias for most tested waveforms and an average accuracy of 1.1 ms (down to 0.1 ms in the best case). Time-frequency-type parameters, useful for event classification, are also derived for noise spectral densities unfavourable to standard time-frequency algorithms.
Probing dark energy with lensing magnification in photometric surveys.
Schneider, Michael D
2014-02-14
I present an estimator for the angular cross correlation of two tracers of the cosmological large-scale structure that utilizes redshift information to isolate separate physical contributions. The estimator is derived by solving the Limber equation for a reweighting of the foreground tracer that nulls either clustering or lensing contributions to the cross correlation function. Applied to future photometric surveys, the estimator can enhance the measurement of gravitational lensing magnification effects to provide a competitive independent constraint on the dark energy equation of state.
Measuring Gravitational Flexion in ACS Clusters
Goldberg, David
2005-07-01
We propose measurement of the gravitational "Flexion" signal in ACS cluster images. The flexion, or "arciness" of a lensed background galaxy arises from variations in the lensing field. As a result, it is extremely sensitive to small scale perturbations in the field, and thus, to substructure in clusters. Moreover, because flexion represents gravitationally induced asymmetries in the lensed image, it is completely separable from traditional measurements of shear, which focus on the induced ellipticity of the image, and thus, the two signals may be extracted simultaneously. Since typical galaxies are roughly symmetric upon 180 degree rotation, even a small induced flexion can potentially produce a noticeable effect {Goldberg & Bacon, 2005}. We propose the measurement of substructure within approximately 4 clusters with high-quality ACS data, and will further apply a test of a new tomographic technique whereby comparisons of lensed arcs at different redshifts may be used to estimate the background cosmology, and thus place constraints on the equation of state of dark energy.
Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P
2001-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.
Three-dimensional quadrupole lenses made with permanent magnets
Ivanov, A.S.
1984-01-01
The performance of accelerator systems with quadrupole magnets can be improved by using permanent magnets in quadrupole lenses. This requires better methods for treating the three-dimensional nature of the magnetic fields and the nonlinear characteristics of the magnets. A numerical method is described for simulating three-dimensional magnetic fields and used to analyze quadrupole lenses and doublets with permanent magnets. The results, which are confirmed experimentally, indicate that both the quadrupole magnetic gradient and the effective field length are changed in permanent-magnet quadrupole lenses when the pole lengths and the gap between the lenses are varied while the other characteristics of the magnets remain unchanged
Plasma surface modification of rigid contact lenses decreases bacterial adhesion.
Wang, Yingming; Qian, Xuefeng; Zhang, Xiaofeng; Xia, Wei; Zhong, Lei; Sun, Zhengtai; Xia, Jing
2013-11-01
Contact lens safety is an important topic in clinical studies. Corneal infections usually occur because of the use of bacteria-carrying contact lenses. The current study investigated the impact of plasma surface modification on bacterial adherence to rigid contact lenses made of fluorosilicone acrylate materials. Boston XO and XO2 contact lenses were modified using plasma technology (XO-P and XO2-P groups). Untreated lenses were used as controls. Plasma-treated and control lenses were incubated in solutions containing Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa. MTT colorimetry, colony-forming unit counting method, and scanning electron microscopy were used to measure bacterial adhesion. MTT colorimetry measurements showed that the optical density (OD) values of XO-P and XO2-P were significantly lower than those of XO and XO2, respectively, after incubation with S. aureus (P lenses and to the XO2-P versus XO2 lenses incubated with S. aureus (P lenses incubated with P. aeruginosa (P lenses. Plasma surface modification can significantly decrease bacterial adhesion to fluorosilicone acrylate contact lenses. This study provides important evidence of a unique benefit of plasma technology in contact lens surface modification.
Hakim, Rémi
1994-01-01
Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.
Gravitational states of antihydrogen near material surface
Voronin, Alexei Yu., E-mail: dr.a.voronin@gmail.com [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Froelich, Piotr [Uppsala University, Department of Quantum Chemistry (Sweden); Nesvizhevsky, Valery V. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) (France)
2012-12-15
We present a theoretical study of the motion of antihydrogen atoms in the Earth's gravitational field near a material surface. We predict the existence of long-living quasistationary states of antihydrogen in a superposition of the gravitational and Casimir-van der Waals potentials of the surface. We suggest an interferometric method of measuring the energy difference between such gravitational states, hence the gravitational mass of antihydrogen.
Yonemaru, Naoyuki; Kumamoto, Hiroki; Takahashi, Keitaro; Kuroyanagi, Sachiko
2018-04-01
A new detection method for ultra-low frequency gravitational waves (GWs) with a frequency much lower than the observational range of pulsar timing arrays (PTAs) was suggested in Yonemaru et al. (2016). In the PTA analysis, ultra-low frequency GWs (≲ 10-10 Hz) which evolve just linearly during the observation time span are absorbed by the pulsar spin-down rates since both have the same effect on the pulse arrival time. Therefore, such GWs cannot be detected by the conventional method of PTAs. However, the bias on the observed spin-down rates depends on relative direction of a pulsar and GW source and shows a quadrupole pattern in the sky. Thus, if we divide the pulsars according to the position in the sky and see the difference in the statistics of the spin-down rates, ultra-low frequency GWs from a single source can be detected. In this paper, we evaluate the potential of this method by Monte-Carlo simulations and estimate the sensitivity, considering only the "Earth term" while the "pulsar term" acts like random noise for GW frequencies 10-13 - 10-10 Hz. We find that with 3,000 milli-second pulsars, which are expected to be discovered by a future survey with the Square Kilometre Array, GWs with the derivative of amplitude of about 3 × 10^{-19} {s}^{-1} can in principle be detected. Implications for possible supermassive binary black holes in Sgr* and M87 are also given.
Primordial black holes survive SN lensing constraints
García-Bellido, Juan; Clesse, Sébastien; Fleury, Pierre
2018-06-01
It has been claimed in [arxiv:1712.02240] that massive primordial black holes (PBH) cannot constitute all of the dark matter (DM), because their gravitational-lensing imprint on the Hubble diagram of type Ia supernovae (SN) would be incompatible with present observations. In this note, we critically review those constraints and find several caveats on the analysis. First of all, the constraints on the fraction α of PBH in matter seem to be driven by a very restrictive choice of priors on the cosmological parameters. In particular, the degeneracy between Ωm and α was ignored and thus, by fixing Ωm, transferred the constraining power of SN magnitudes to α. Furthermore, by considering more realistic physical sizes for the type-Ia supernovae, we find an effect on the SN lensing magnification distribution that leads to significantly looser constraints. Moreover, considering a wide mass spectrum of PBH, such as a lognormal distribution, further softens the constraints from SN lensing. Finally, we find that the fraction of PBH that could constitute DM today is bounded by fPBH < 1 . 09(1 . 38) , for JLA (Union 2.1) catalogs, and thus it is perfectly compatible with an all-PBH dark matter scenario in the LIGO band.
Hilbert's 'Foundations of Physics': Gravitation and electromagnetism within the axiomatic method
Brading, K. A.; Ryckman, T. A.
2008-01-01
In November and December 1915, Hilbert presented two communications to the Göttingen Academy of Sciences under the common title 'The Foundations of Physics'. Versions of each eventually appeared in the Nachrichten of the Academy. Hilbert's first communication has received significant reconsideration in recent years, following the discovery of printer's proofs of this paper, dated 6 December 1915. The focus has been primarily on the 'priority dispute' over the Einstein field equations. Our contention, in contrast, is that the discovery of the December proofs makes it possible to see the thematic linkage between the material that Hilbert cut from the published version of the first communication and the content of the second, as published in 1917. The latter has been largely either disregarded or misinterpreted, and our aim is to show that (a) Hilbert's two communications should be regarded as part of a wider research program within the overarching framework of 'the axiomatic method' (as Hilbert expressly stated was the case), and (b) the second communication is a fine and coherent piece of work within this framework, whose principal aim is to address an apparent tension between general invariance and causality (in the precise sense of Cauchy determination), pinpointed in Theorem I of the first communication. This is not the same problem as that found in Einstein's 'hole argument'-something that, we argue, never confused Hilbert.
Detection of brown dwarfs by the micro-lensing of unresolved stars
Baillon, Paul; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Kaplan, J; Baillon, Paul; Bouquet, Alain; Giraud-Héraud, Yannick; Kaplan, Jean
1993-01-01
The presence of brown dwarfs in the dark galactic halo could be detected through their gravitational lensing effect and experiments under way monitor about one million stars to observe a few lensing events per year. We show that if the photon flux from a galaxy is measured with a good precision, it is not necessary to resolve the stars and besides more events could be observed.
Leutwyler, H; Mallik, S
1986-12-01
The effective action for fermions moving in external gravitational and gauge fields is analyzed in terms of the corresponding external field propagator. The central object in our approach is the covariant energy-momentum tensor which is extracted from the regular part of the propagator at short distances. It is shown that the Lorentz anomaly, the conformal anomaly and the gauge anomaly can be expressed in terms of the local polynomials which determine the singular part of the propagator. (There are no coordinate anomalies). Except for the conformal anomaly, for which we give explicit representations only in dless than or equal to4, we consider an arbitrary number of dimensions.
Metin SALTIK
1996-03-01
Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.
GRAVITATIONAL LENS MODELING WITH GENETIC ALGORITHMS AND PARTICLE SWARM OPTIMIZERS
Rogers, Adam; Fiege, Jason D.
2011-01-01
Strong gravitational lensing of an extended object is described by a mapping from source to image coordinates that is nonlinear and cannot generally be inverted analytically. Determining the structure of the source intensity distribution also requires a description of the blurring effect due to a point-spread function. This initial study uses an iterative gravitational lens modeling scheme based on the semilinear method to determine the linear parameters (source intensity profile) of a strongly lensed system. Our 'matrix-free' approach avoids construction of the lens and blurring operators while retaining the least-squares formulation of the problem. The parameters of an analytical lens model are found through nonlinear optimization by an advanced genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimizer (PSO). These global optimization routines are designed to explore the parameter space thoroughly, mapping model degeneracies in detail. We develop a novel method that determines the L-curve for each solution automatically, which represents the trade-off between the image χ 2 and regularization effects, and allows an estimate of the optimally regularized solution for each lens parameter set. In the final step of the optimization procedure, the lens model with the lowest χ 2 is used while the global optimizer solves for the source intensity distribution directly. This allows us to accurately determine the number of degrees of freedom in the problem to facilitate comparison between lens models and enforce positivity on the source profile. In practice, we find that the GA conducts a more thorough search of the parameter space than the PSO.
Comparison of approximate gravitational lens equations and a proposal for an improved new one
Bozza, V.
2008-01-01
Keeping the exact general relativistic treatment of light bending as a reference, we compare the accuracy of commonly used approximate lens equations. We conclude that the best approximate lens equation is the Ohanian lens equation, for which we present a new expression in terms of distances between observer, lens, and source planes. We also examine a realistic gravitational lensing case, showing that the precision of the Ohanian lens equation might be required for a reliable treatment of gravitational lensing and a correct extraction of the full information about gravitational physics.
Blending in gravitational microlensing experiments : source confusion and related systematics
Smith, Martin C.; Wozniak, Przemyslaw; Mao, Shude; Sumi, Takahiro
2007-01-01
Gravitational microlensing surveys target very dense stellar fields in the local group. As a consequence, the microlensed source stars are often blended with nearby unresolved stars. The presence of 'blending' is a cause of major uncertainty when determining the lensing properties of events towards
Gravitational wave memory in ΛCDM cosmology
Bieri, Lydia; Garfinkle, David; Yunes, Nicolás
2017-01-01
We examine gravitational wave memory in the case where sources and detector are in a ΛCDM cosmology. We consider the case where the Universe can be highly inhomogeneous, but gravitational radiation is treated in the short wavelength approximation. We find results very similar to those of gravitational wave memory in an asymptotically flat spacetime; however, the overall magnitude of the memory effect is enhanced by a redshift-dependent factor. In addition, we find the memory can be affected by lensing. (paper)
Ade, P A R; Akiba, Y; Anthony, A E; Arnold, K; Atlas, M; Barron, D; Boettger, D; Borrill, J; Chapman, S; Chinone, Y; Dobbs, M; Elleflot, T; Errard, J; Fabbian, G; Feng, C; Flanigan, D; Gilbert, A; Grainger, W; Halverson, N W; Hasegawa, M; Hattori, K; Hazumi, M; Holzapfel, W L; Hori, Y; Howard, J; Hyland, P; Inoue, Y; Jaehnig, G C; Jaffe, A; Keating, B; Kermish, Z; Keskitalo, R; Kisner, T; Le Jeune, M; Lee, A T; Linder, E; Leitch, E M; Lungu, M; Matsuda, F; Matsumura, T; Meng, X; Miller, N J; Morii, H; Moyerman, S; Myers, M J; Navaroli, M; Nishino, H; Paar, H; Peloton, J; Quealy, E; Rebeiz, G; Reichardt, C L; Richards, P L; Ross, C; Schanning, I; Schenck, D E; Sherwin, B; Shimizu, A; Shimmin, C; Shimon, M; Siritanasak, P; Smecher, G; Spieler, H; Stebor, N; Steinbach, B; Stompor, R; Suzuki, A; Takakura, S; Tomaru, T; Wilson, B; Yadav, A; Zahn, O
2014-07-11
Gravitational lensing due to the large-scale distribution of matter in the cosmos distorts the primordial cosmic microwave background (CMB) and thereby induces new, small-scale B-mode polarization. This signal carries detailed information about the distribution of all the gravitating matter between the observer and CMB last scattering surface. We report the first direct evidence for polarization lensing based on purely CMB information, from using the four-point correlations of even- and odd-parity E- and B-mode polarization mapped over ∼30 square degrees of the sky measured by the POLARBEAR experiment. These data were analyzed using a blind analysis framework and checked for spurious systematic contamination using null tests and simulations. Evidence for the signal of polarization lensing and lensing B modes is found at 4.2σ (stat+sys) significance. The amplitude of matter fluctuations is measured with a precision of 27%, and is found to be consistent with the Lambda cold dark matter cosmological model. This measurement demonstrates a new technique, capable of mapping all gravitating matter in the Universe, sensitive to the sum of neutrino masses, and essential for cleaning the lensing B-mode signal in searches for primordial gravitational waves.
Kilvington, Simon; Lonnen, James
2009-04-01
To compare the antimicrobial efficacy of commercial contact lens solutions when used according to the manufacturers' recommended regimens with two types of silicone hydrogel lenses. Four multipurpose contact lens care solutions were examined, representing manufacturer recommended regimens of "rub & rinse", "no rub, rinse" or "no rub, no rinse". Test organisms were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Staphylococcus aureus, Fusarium solani, Candida albicans and Acanthamoeba castellanii (trophozoites and cysts). Organisms, in the presence of organic soil, were inoculated on to Acuvue Oasys or Air Optix lenses and subjected to the solution manufacturer's recommended regimen. The number of surviving organisms on the lenses and in the soak solution was enumerated in accordance with ISO 14729. ISO 14729 dictates that for a given organism the combined average number of surviving microbes from the lenses and disinfectant soaking solution must be bacteria, fungi and Acanthamoeba with both lens types. Solutions employing "no rub, rinse" were less satisfactory but significantly better than "no rub, no rinse". Significant differences were found in organism survival on the lenses with greater numbers remaining on the Air Optix compared to Oasys (plenses. Accordingly, it would seem prudent to recommend that contact lens care systems include a rub step as part of the hygiene regimen.
Analytic models of plausible gravitational lens potentials
Baltz, Edward A.; Marshall, Phil; Oguri, Masamune
2009-01-01
Gravitational lenses on galaxy scales are plausibly modelled as having ellipsoidal symmetry and a universal dark matter density profile, with a Sérsic profile to describe the distribution of baryonic matter. Predicting all lensing effects requires knowledge of the total lens potential: in this work we give analytic forms for that of the above hybrid model. Emphasising that complex lens potentials can be constructed from simpler components in linear combination, we provide a recipe for attaining elliptical symmetry in either projected mass or lens potential. We also provide analytic formulae for the lens potentials of Sérsic profiles for integer and half-integer index. We then present formulae describing the gravitational lensing effects due to smoothly-truncated universal density profiles in cold dark matter model. For our isolated haloes the density profile falls off as radius to the minus fifth or seventh power beyond the tidal radius, functional forms that allow all orders of lens potential derivatives to be calculated analytically, while ensuring a non-divergent total mass. We show how the observables predicted by this profile differ from that of the original infinite-mass NFW profile. Expressions for the gravitational flexion are highlighted. We show how decreasing the tidal radius allows stripped haloes to be modelled, providing a framework for a fuller investigation of dark matter substructure in galaxies and clusters. Finally we remark on the need for finite mass halo profiles when doing cosmological ray-tracing simulations, and the need for readily-calculable higher order derivatives of the lens potential when studying catastrophes in strong lenses
Contact lenses fitting after intracorneal ring segments implantation in keratoconus
Luciane Bugmann Moreira
2013-08-01
Full Text Available PURPOSE: Evaluate contact lenses fitting after intracorneal ring implantation for keratoconus, its visual acuity and comfort. METHODS: Retrospective study of patients undergoing contact lenses fitting, after intracorneal ring for keratoconus. The criterion for contact lens fitting was unsatisfactory visual acuity with spectacle correction as referred by the patients. All patients were intolerants to contact lenses prior to intracorneal implantation. Visual acuity analysis was done by conversion of Snellen to logMAR scales. The comfort was evaluated according subjective questioning of good, medium or poor comfort. RESULTS: Nineteen patients were included in the study. Two patients (10.5% did not achieved good comfort with contact lenses and underwent penetrating keratoplasties. All the others 17 patients showed good or medium comfort. Four rigid gas-permeable contact lenses were fitted, one piggyback approach, 3 toric soft contact lenses, 2 soft lenses specially design for keratoconus and 7 disposable soft lenses. The average visual acuity improved from 0.77 ± 0.37 to 0.19 ± 0.13 logMAR units after contact lenses fitting. CONCLUSION: Contact lens fitting after intracorneal ring is possible, provides good comfort, improves visual acuity, and therefore, may postpone the need for penetrating keratoplasty.
DESIGN OF THE MULTIORDER INTRAOCULAR LENSES
V. G. Kolobrodov
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Intraocular lenses (IOLs are used to replace the natural crystalline lens of the eye. Just few basic designs of IOLs are used clinically. Multiorder diffractive lenses (MODL which operate simultaneously in several diffractive orders were proposed to decrease the chromatic aberration. Properties analysis of MODL showed a possibility to use them to develop new designs of IOLs. The purpose of this paper was to develop a new method of designing of multiorder intraocular lenses with decreased chromatic aberration. The theoretical research of the lens properties was carried out. The diffraction efficiency dependence with the change of wavelength was studied. A computer simulation of MODL in a schematic model of the human eye was carried out. It is found the capability of the multiorder diffractive lenses to focus polychromatic light into a segment on the optical axis with high diffraction efficiency. At each point of the segment is present each component of the spectral range, which will build a color image in combination. The paper describes the new design method of intraocular lenses with reduced chromaticism and with endless adaptation. An optical system of an eye with an intraocular lens that provides sharp vision of objects located at a distance of 700 mm to infinity is modeled.
Practical Weak-lensing Shear Measurement with Metacalibration
Sheldon, Erin S. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Bldg. 510, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Huff, Eric M. [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Dr., Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States)
2017-05-20
Metacalibration is a recently introduced method to accurately measure weak gravitational lensing shear using only the available imaging data, without need for prior information about galaxy properties or calibration from simulations. The method involves distorting the image with a small known shear, and calculating the response of a shear estimator to that applied shear. The method was shown to be accurate in moderate-sized simulations with galaxy images that had relatively high signal-to-noise ratios, and without significant selection effects. In this work we introduce a formalism to correct for both shear response and selection biases. We also observe that for images with relatively low signal-to-noise ratios, the correlated noise that arises during the metacalibration process results in significant bias, for which we develop a simple empirical correction. To test this formalism, we created large image simulations based on both parametric models and real galaxy images, including tests with realistic point-spread functions. We varied the point-spread function ellipticity at the five-percent level. In each simulation we applied a small few-percent shear to the galaxy images. We introduced additional challenges that arise in real data, such as detection thresholds, stellar contamination, and missing data. We applied cuts on the measured galaxy properties to induce significant selection effects. Using our formalism, we recovered the input shear with an accuracy better than a part in a thousand in all cases.
Zakharov, Aleksandr F [Russian Federation State Scientific Center ' A.I. Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Sazhin, Mikhail V [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1998-10-31
The foundations of standard microlensing theory are discussed as applied to stars in the Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds or other nearby galaxies and gravitational microlenses assumed to lie in-between these stars and the terrestrial observer. In contrast to the review article by Gurevich et al. [48], microlensing by compact objects is mainly considered. Criteria for the identification of microlensing events are discussed as also are microlensing events not satisfying these criteria, such as non-symmetrical light curves and chromatic and polarization effects. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Galactic bulge microlensing data of the MACHO group are discussed in detail and also the LMC data of EROS and the Galactic bulge data of OGLE are presented. A detailed comparison of theoretical predictions and observations is given. (reviews of topical problems)
Zakharov, Aleksandr F; Sazhin, Mikhail V
1998-01-01
The foundations of standard microlensing theory are discussed as applied to stars in the Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds or other nearby galaxies and gravitational microlenses assumed to lie in-between these stars and the terrestrial observer. In contrast to the review article by Gurevich et al. [48], microlensing by compact objects is mainly considered. Criteria for the identification of microlensing events are discussed as also are microlensing events not satisfying these criteria, such as non-symmetrical light curves and chromatic and polarization effects. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Galactic bulge microlensing data of the MACHO group are discussed in detail and also the LMC data of EROS and the Galactic bulge data of OGLE are presented. A detailed comparison of theoretical predictions and observations is given. (reviews of topical problems)
Weak Lensing by Galaxy Clusters: from Pixels to Cosmology
Gruen, Daniel
2015-01-01
The story of the origin and evolution of our Universe is told, equivalently, by space-time itself and by the structures that grow inside of it. Clusters of galaxies are the frontier of bottom-up structure formation. They are the most massive objects to have collapsed at the present epoch. By that virtue, their abundance and structural parameters are highly sensitive to the composition and evolution of the Universe. The most common probe of cluster cosmology, abundance, uses samples of clusters selected by some observable. Applying a mass-observable relation (MOR), cosmological parameters can be constrained by comparing the sample to predicted cluster abundances as a function of observable and redshift. Arguably, however, cluster probes have not yet entered the era of per cent level precision cosmology. The primary reason for this is our imperfect understanding of the MORs. The overall normalization, the slope of mass vs. observable, the redshift evolution, and the degree and correlation of intrinsic scatters of observables at fixed mass have to be constrained for interpreting abundances correctly. Mass measurement of clusters by means of the differential deflection of light from background sources in their gravitational field, i.e. weak lensing, is a powerful approach for achieving this. This thesis presents new methods for and scientific results of weak lensing measurements of clusters of galaxies. The former include, on the data reduction side, (i) the correction of CCD images for non-linear effects due to the electric fields of accumulated charges and (ii) a method for masking artifact features in sets of overlapping images of the sky by comparison to the median image. Also, (iii) I develop a method for the selection of background galaxy samples based on their color and apparent magnitude that includes a new correction for contamination with cluster member galaxies. The main scientific results are the following. (i) For the Hubble Frontier Field cluster RXC J
Weak Lensing by Galaxy Clusters: from Pixels to Cosmology
Gruen, Daniel [Ludwig Maximilian Univ., Munich (Germany)
2015-03-11
The story of the origin and evolution of our Universe is told, equivalently, by space-time itself and by the structures that grow inside of it. Clusters of galaxies are the frontier of bottom-up structure formation. They are the most massive objects to have collapsed at the present epoch. By that virtue, their abundance and structural parameters are highly sensitive to the composition and evolution of the Universe. The most common probe of cluster cosmology, abundance, uses samples of clusters selected by some observable. Applying a mass-observable relation (MOR), cosmological parameters can be constrained by comparing the sample to predicted cluster abundances as a function of observable and redshift. Arguably, however, cluster probes have not yet entered the era of per cent level precision cosmology. The primary reason for this is our imperfect understanding of the MORs. The overall normalization, the slope of mass vs. observable, the redshift evolution, and the degree and correlation of intrinsic scatters of observables at fixed mass have to be constrained for interpreting abundances correctly. Mass measurement of clusters by means of the differential deflection of light from background sources in their gravitational field, i.e. weak lensing, is a powerful approach for achieving this. This thesis presents new methods for and scientific results of weak lensing measurements of clusters of galaxies. The former include, on the data reduction side, (i) the correction of CCD images for non-linear effects due to the electric fields of accumulated charges and (ii) a method for masking artifact features in sets of overlapping images of the sky by comparison to the median image. Also, (iii) I develop a method for the selection of background galaxy samples based on their color and apparent magnitude that includes a new correction for contamination with cluster member galaxies. The main scientific results are the following. (i) For the Hubble Frontier Field cluster RXC J
Dark matter structures and emission of very long gravitational waves
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G.S.
2005-01-01
Formation of large structure in the Universe as a result of gravitational instability in cold dark matter is investigated in a simple analytical model. Collapse of the rotating spheroid is approximated by a system of ordinary differential equations describing its dynamics. The gravitational potential is approximated by the one of the uniform Maclaurin spheroid. Development of gravitational instability and collapse in the dark matter medium do not lead to any shock formation or radiation, but is characterized by non-collisional relaxation, which is accompanied by the mass and angular momentum losses. Phenomenological account of these processes is done in this model. Formation of the equilibrium configuration dynamics of collapse is investigated. A very long gravitational wave emission during the collapse is estimated, and their possible connection with the observed gravitational lenses is discussed
Greenslade, Thomas B., Jr.
2007-01-01
One of the rewards of walking up the scores of steps winding around the inside of the shaft of a lighthouse is turning inward and examining the glass optical system. This arrangement of prisms, lenses, and reflectors is used to project the light from a relatively small source in a beam that can be seen far at sea.
Deep convolutional neural networks as strong gravitational lens detectors
Schaefer, C.; Geiger, M.; Kuntzer, T.; Kneib, J.-P.
2018-03-01
Context. Future large-scale surveys with high-resolution imaging will provide us with approximately 105 new strong galaxy-scale lenses. These strong-lensing systems will be contained in large data amounts, however, which are beyond the capacity of human experts to visually classify in an unbiased way. Aim. We present a new strong gravitational lens finder based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs). The method was applied to the strong-lensing challenge organized by the Bologna Lens Factory. It achieved first and third place, respectively, on the space-based data set and the ground-based data set. The goal was to find a fully automated lens finder for ground-based and space-based surveys that minimizes human inspection. Methods: We compared the results of our CNN architecture and three new variations ("invariant" "views" and "residual") on the simulated data of the challenge. Each method was trained separately five times on 17 000 simulated images, cross-validated using 3000 images, and then applied to a test set with 100 000 images. We used two different metrics for evaluation, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) score, and the recall with no false positive (Recall0FP). Results: For ground-based data, our best method achieved an AUC score of 0.977 and a Recall0FP of 0.50. For space-based data, our best method achieved an AUC score of 0.940 and a Recall0FP of 0.32. Adding dihedral invariance to the CNN architecture diminished the overall score on space-based data, but achieved a higher no-contamination recall. We found that using committees of five CNNs produced the best recall at zero contamination and consistently scored better AUC than a single CNN. Conclusions: We found that for every variation of our CNN lensfinder, we achieved AUC scores close to 1 within 6%. A deeper network did not outperform simpler CNN models either. This indicates that more complex networks are not needed to model the simulated lenses. To verify this, more
Astronomers Discover Six-Image Gravitational Lens
2001-08-01
An international team of astronomers has used the National Science Foundation's Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) radio telescope and NASA's Hubble Space Telescope (HST) to discover the first gravitational lens in which the single image of a very distant galaxy has been split into six different images. The unique configuration is produced by the gravitational effect of three galaxies along the line of sight between the more-distant galaxy and Earth. Optical and Radio Images of Gravitational Lens "This is the first gravitational lens with more than four images of the background object that is produced by a small group of galaxies rather than a large cluster of galaxies," said David Rusin, who just received his Ph.D. from the University of Pennsylvania. "Such systems are expected to be extremely rare, so this discovery is an important stepping stone. Because this is an intermediate case between gravitational lenses produced by single galaxies and lenses produced by large clusters of galaxies, it will give us insights we can't get from other types of lenses," Rusin added. The gravitational lens, called CLASS B1359+154, consists of a galaxy more than 11 billion light-years away in the constellation Bootes, with a trio of galaxies more than 7 billion light-years away along the same line of sight. The more-distant galaxy shows signs that it contains a massive black hole at its core and also has regions in which new stars are forming. The gravitational effect of the intervening galaxies has caused the light and radio waves from the single, more-distant galaxy to be "bent" to form six images as seen from Earth. Four of these images appear outside the triangle formed by the three intermediate galaxies and two appear inside that triangle. "This lens system is a very interesting case to study because it is more complicated than lenses produced by single galaxies, and yet simpler than lenses produced by clusters of numerous galaxies," said Chris Kochanek of the Harvard
Fermat's principle, caustics, and the classification of gravitational lens images
Blandford, R.; Narayan, R.
1986-01-01
A scalar description of gravitational lensing based on Fermat's principle is described. The lensing mass is assumed to be confined to a single plane between the source and the observer, and a time delay is associated with each position in the sky of a potential image. The extrema of this time surface then give the true positions of the images. A topological classification of image configurations is presented, and the results are generalized to cases of three and five-image lensing geometries. A computer-graphical approach to the study of lensing by model galaxies and clusters is described, and the design of a simple optical apparatus which could be used for fast modelling of image geometries is outlined. The connection between the Fermat approach and the classical theory of caustics and the more recent general theory of catastrophies is developed. The extension of the results to multiple scattering is considered. 42 references
Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy
2006-01-01
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www...
THE MICROLENSING PROPERTIES OF A SAMPLE OF 87 LENSED QUASARS
Mosquera, A. M.; Kochanek, C. S.
2011-01-01
Gravitational microlensing is a powerful tool for probing the physical properties of quasar accretion disks and properties of the lens galaxy such as its dark matter fraction and mean stellar mass. Unfortunately, the number of lensed quasars (∼90) exceeds our monitoring capabilities. Thus, estimating their microlensing properties is important for identifying good microlensing candidates as well as for the expectations of future surveys. In this work, we estimate the microlensing properties of a sample of 87 lensed quasars. While the median Einstein radius crossing timescale is 20.6 years, the median source crossing timescale is 7.3 months. Broadly speaking, this means that on ∼10 year timescales roughly half the lenses will be quiescent, with the source in a broad demagnified valley, and roughly half will be active with the source lying in the caustic ridges. We also found that the location of the lens system relative to the cosmic microwave background dipole has a modest effect on microlensing timescales, and in theory microlensing could be used to confirm the kinematic origin of the dipole. As a corollary of our study we analyzed the accretion rate parameters in a sub-sample of 32 lensed quasars. At fixed black hole mass, it is possible to sample a broad range of luminosities (i.e., Eddington factors) if it becomes feasible to monitor fainter lenses.
Simulating Gravity: Dark Matter and Gravitational Lensing in the Classroom
Ford, Jes; Stang, Jared; Anderson, Catherine
2015-01-01
Dark matter makes up most of the matter in the universe but very little of a standard introductory physics curriculum. Here we present our construction and use of a spandex sheet-style gravity simulator to qualitatively demonstrate two aspects of modern physics related to dark matter. First, we describe an activity in which students explore the…
Weighing the dark : cosmological applications of gravitational lensing
Köhlinger, F.
2016-01-01
According to Einstein's theory of general relativity the light of an object is deflected by a mass in its foreground. The deflections can be very weak or so strong that they are visible by eye yielding strangely distorted arcs or even multiple images of the same source. Measurements of strong or
The Mathematical Theory of Multifocal Lenses
Jacob RUBINSTEIN
2017-01-01
This paper presents the fundamental optical concepts of designing multifocal ophthalmic lenses and the mathematical methods associated with them.In particular,it is shown that the design methodology is heavily based on differential geometric ideas such as Willmore surfaces.A key role is played by Hamilton's eikonal functions.It is shown that these functions capture all the information on the local blur and distortion created by the lenses.Along the way,formulas for computing the eikonal functions are derived.Finally,the author lists a few intriguing mathematical problems and novel concepts in optics as future projects.
From Spheric to Aspheric Solid Polymer Lenses: A Review
Kuo-Yung Hung
2011-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach in the use of MEMS technology to fabricate micro-optofluidic polymer solid lenses in order to achieve the desired profile, focal length, numerical aperture, and spot size. The resulting polymer solid lenses can be applied in optical data storage systems, imaging systems, and automated optical inspection systems. In order to meet the various needs of different applications, polymer solid lenses may have a spherical or aspherical shape. The method of fabricating polymer solid lenses is different from methods used to fabricate tunable lenses with variable focal length or needing an external control system to change the lens geometry. The current trend in polymer solid lenses is toward the fabrication of microlenses with a high numerical aperture, small clear aperture (<2 mm, and high transmittance. In this paper we focus on the use of thermal energy and electrostatic force in shaping the lens profile, including both spherical and aspherical lenses. In addition, the paper discusses how to fabricate a lens with a high numerical aperture of 0.6 using MEMS and also compares the optical characteristics of polymer lens materials, including SU-8, Norland Optical Adhesive (NOA, and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC. Finally, new concepts and applications related to micro-optofluidic lenses and polymer materials are also discussed.
Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror
Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shu, De-ming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, Aiguo, E-mail: aiguo.li@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)
2017-05-01
The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.
Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror
Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai; Shu, De-ming; Li, Aiguo
2017-01-01
The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.
A radiometer for stochastic gravitational waves
Ballmer, Stefan W
2006-01-01
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration recently reported a new upper limit on an isotropic stochastic background of gravitational waves obtained based on the data from the third LIGO science run (S3). Here I present a new method for obtaining directional upper limits on stochastic gravitational waves that essentially implements a gravitational wave radiometer. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration intends to use this method for future LIGO science runs
Joining X-Ray to Lensing: An Accurate Combined Analysis of MACS J0416.1–2403
Bonamigo, M.; Grillo, C. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Maries Vej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Ettori, S. [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Piero Gobetti, 93/3, 40129 Bologna (Italy); Caminha, G. B.; Rosati, P. [Dipartimento di Fisica e Scienze della Terra, Università degli Studi di Ferrara, Via Saragat 1, I-44122 Ferrara (Italy); Mercurio, A. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Capodimonte, Via Moiariello 16, I-80131 Napoli (Italy); Annunziatella, M. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo, 11 I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Balestra, I. [University Observatory Munich, Scheinerstrasse 1, D-81679 Munich (Germany); Lombardi, M., E-mail: bonamigo@dark-cosmology.dk [Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Milano, via Celoria 16, I-20133 Milano (Italy)
2017-06-20
We present a novel approach for a combined analysis of X-ray and gravitational lensing data and apply this technique to the merging galaxy cluster MACS J0416.1–2403. The method exploits the information on the intracluster gas distribution that comes from a fit of the X-ray surface brightness and then includes the hot gas as a fixed mass component in the strong-lensing analysis. With our new technique, we can separate the collisional from the collision-less diffuse mass components, thus obtaining a more accurate reconstruction of the dark matter distribution in the core of a cluster. We introduce an analytical description of the X-ray emission coming from a set of dual pseudo-isothermal elliptical mass distributions, which can be directly used in most lensing softwares. By combining Chandra observations with Hubble Frontier Fields imaging and Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer spectroscopy in MACS J0416.1–2403, we measure a projected gas-to-total mass fraction of approximately 10% at 350 kpc from the cluster center. Compared to the results of a more traditional cluster mass model (diffuse halos plus member galaxies), we find a significant difference in the cumulative projected mass profile of the dark matter component and that the dark matter over total mass fraction is almost constant, out to more than 350 kpc. In the coming era of large surveys, these results show the need of multiprobe analyses for detailed dark matter studies in galaxy clusters.
Influence of protein deposition on bacterial adhesion to contact lenses.
Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Borazjani, Roya; Zhu, Hua; Zhao, Zhenjun; Jones, Lyndon; Willcox, Mark D P
2011-08-01
The aim of the study is to determine the adhesion of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria onto conventional hydrogel (CH) and silicone hydrogel (SH) contact lens materials with and without lysozyme, lactoferrin, and albumin coating. Four lens types (three SH-balafilcon A, lotrafilcon B, and senofilcon A; one CH-etafilcon A) were coated with lysozyme, lactoferrin, or albumin (uncoated lenses acted as controls) and then incubated in Staphylococcus aureus (Saur 31) or either of two strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (Paer 6294 and 6206) for 24 h at 37 °C. The total counts of the adhered bacteria were determined using the H-thymidine method and viable counts by counting the number of colony-forming units on agar media. All three strains adhered significantly lower to uncoated etafilcon A lenses compared with uncoated SH lenses (p 0.05). Lactoferrin coating on lenses increased binding (total and viable counts) of Saur 31 (p lenses showed significantly higher total counts (p lenses. Albumin coating of lenses increased binding (total and viable counts) of all three strains (p lenses does not possess antibacterial activity against certain bacterial strains, whereas lactoferrin possess an antibacterial effect against strains of P. aeruginosa.
Weak lensing cosmology beyond ΛCDM
Das, Sudeep; Linder, Eric V.; Nakajima, Reiko; Putter, Roland de
2012-01-01
Weak gravitational lensing is one of the key probes of the cosmological model, dark energy, and dark matter, providing insight into both the cosmic expansion history and large scale structure growth history. Taking into account a broad spectrum of physics affecting growth — dynamical dark energy, extended gravity, neutrino masses, and spatial curvature — we analyze the cosmological constraints. Similarly we consider the effects of a range of systematic uncertainties, in shear measurement, photometric redshifts, intrinsic alignments, and the nonlinear power spectrum, on cosmological parameter extraction. We also investigate, and provide fitting formulas for, the influence of survey parameters such as redshift depth, galaxy number densities, and sky area on the cosmological constraints in the beyond-ΛCDM parameter space. Finally, we examine the robustness of results for different fiducial cosmologies
Soft-contact-lenses-induced complications
Suvajac Gordana
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Background/Aim. Soft contact lenses occupy significant place in ophthalmology, both in the correction of refraction anomalies and in the treatment of many eye diseases. The number of patients that wear soft contact lenses for the purpose of correcting ametropia is constantly increasing. Due to the increasing number of wearers, the percentage of complications that can lead to serious eye damage and serious vision loss is also increasing. The aim of this study was to point out the most common complications related to soft contact lens use. Methods. In the period from 1995−2004 this prospective study included 510 patients wearing soft contact lenses for correcting ametropia. None of the patients wore contact lenses before and none suffered from any system or local diseases that could affected the development of eventual complications. The study took seven years with the patients who wore conventional lenses and three years with those who wore replacement contact lenses. All the necessary ophthalmologic examinations were done (visual acuity, refractokeratometry, the quantity of tear film, biomicroscopic examination of anterior eye segment. All the complications were filmed by video camera. Results. Of all the patients, 19 had blepharitis, 73 suffered from “dry eye”, 57 had conjunctival hyperemia, 12 had conjunctivitis, 34 had gigantopapillary conjunctivitis (GPC, 93 had punctiform epitheliopathy, 20 had corneal infiltration, one patient had keratitis, 91 had corneal vascularisation, and 95 patients had corneal deposits. Conclusion. Both the type and frequency of complications related to soft contact lens use in our group of patients, proved to be significant. Some of this complications (keratitis can significantly damage vision and lead to loss of vision and sometimes can require operative treatment.
Zhan-Kui Lü; Shi-Wei Wu; Zhi-Cheng Zeng
2009-01-01
Like the investigation of double white dwarf (DWD) systems, strange dwarf (SD) - white dwarf (WD) system evolution in Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA)'s absolute amplitude-frequency diagram is investigated. Since there is a strange quark core inside an SD, SDs' radii are significantly smaller than the value predicted by the standard WD model, which may strongly affect the gravitational wave (GW) signal in the mass-transferring phases of binary systems. We study how an SD-WD binary evolves across LISA's absolute amplitude-frequency diagram. In principle, we provide an executable way to detect SDs in the Galaxy's DWD systems by radically new windows offered by GW detectors.
Lenses matching of compound eye for target positioning
Guo, Fang; Zheng, Yan Pei; Wang, Keyi
2012-10-01
Compound eye, as a new imaging method with multi-lens for a large field of view, could complete target positioning and detection fastly, especially at close range. Therefore it could be applicated in the fields of military and medical treatment and aviation with vast market potential and development prospect. Yet the compound eye imaging method designed use three layer construction of multiple lens array arranged in a curved surface and refractive lens and imaging sensor of CMOS. In order to simplify process structure and increase the imaging area of every sub-eye, the imaging area of every eye is coved with the whole CMOS. Therefore, for several imaging point of one target, the corresponding lens of every imaging point is unkonown, and thus to identify. So an algorithm was put forward. Firstly, according to the Regular Geometry relationship of several adjacent lenses, data organization of seven lenses with a main lens was built. Subsequently, by the data organization, when one target was caught by several unknown lenses, we search every combined type of the received lenses. And for every combined type, two lenses were selected to combine and were used to calculate one three-dimensional (3D) coordinate of the target. If the 3D coordinates are same to the some combine type of the lenses numbers, in theory, the lenses and the imaging points are matched. So according to error of the 3D coordinates is calculated by the different seven lenses numbers combines, the unknown lenses could be distinguished. The experimental results show that the presented algorithm is feasible and can complete matching task for imaging points and corresponding lenses.
Implications of a wavelength dependent PSF for weak lensing measurements.
Eriksen, Martin; Hoekstra, Henk
2018-05-01
The convolution of galaxy images by the point-spread function (PSF) is the dominant source of bias for weak gravitational lensing studies, and an accurate estimate of the PSF is required to obtain unbiased shape measurements. The PSF estimate for a galaxy depends on its spectral energy distribution (SED), because the instrumental PSF is generally a function of the wavelength. In this paper we explore various approaches to determine the resulting `effective' PSF using broad-band data. Considering the Euclid mission as a reference, we find that standard SED template fitting methods result in biases that depend on source redshift, although this may be remedied if the algorithms can be optimised for this purpose. Using a machine-learning algorithm we show that, at least in principle, the required accuracy can be achieved with the current survey parameters. It is also possible to account for the correlations between photometric redshift and PSF estimates that arise from the use of the same photometry. We explore the impact of errors in photometric calibration, errors in the assumed wavelength dependence of the PSF model and limitations of the adopted template libraries. Our results indicate that the required accuracy for Euclid can be achieved using the data that are planned to determine photometric redshifts.
Draining Collars and Lenses in Liquid-Lined Vertical Tubes.
Jensen
2000-01-01
The speed at which an annular liquid collar drains under gravity g in a vertical tube of radius a, when the tube has an otherwise thin viscous liquid lining on its interior, is determined by a balance between the collar's weight and viscous shear stresses confined to narrow regions in the neighborhood of the collar's effective contact lines. Whether a collar grows or shrinks in volume as it drains depends on the modified Bond number B=rho g a(2)/(sigmaepsilon), where rho is the fluid density, sigma is its surface tension, and epsilona is the thickness of the thin film immediately ahead of the collar. Asymptotic methods are used here to determine the following nonlinear stability criteria for an individual collar, valid in the limit of small epsilon. For 0draining collars grow in volume and, in sufficiently long tubes, ultimately "snap off" to form stable lenses. For 0.5960drain, so that any lens ultimately ruptures, unless stabilizing intermolecular forces allow the formation of a lamella supported by a macroscopic Plateau border. If surfactant immobilizes the liquid's free surface, these critical values of B are reduced by a factor of 2 but the distance a collar must travel before it snaps off is unchanged. Gravitationally driven snap off is therefore most likely to occur in long tubes with radii substantially less than the capillary lengthscale sigma/rhog)(1/2). Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
The JVAS/CLASS search for 6-arcsec to 15-arcsec image separation lensing
Phillips, PM; Browne, IWA; Jackson, NJ; Wilkinson, PN; Mao, S; Rusin, D; Marlow, DR; Snellen, [No Value; Neeser, M
2001-01-01
The Jodrell Bank-VLA Astrometric Survey (JVAS) and the Cosmic Lens All Sky Survey (CLASS) have been systematically searched for multiple gravitational imaging of sources with image separations between 6 arcsec and 15 arcsec, associated with galaxy group and cluster lensing masses. The radio and
Exploring a Potential Bias in Dark Matter Investigations Using Strongly Lensed Quasars
Hsueh, Jen-Wei; Fassnacht, Christopher; Vegetti, Simona; Springola, Cristiana; Oldham, Lindsay; Despali, Giulia; Auger, Matthew; Xu, Dandan; Metcalf, Benton; McKean, John; Koopmans, Leon; Lagattuta, David
2018-01-01
Simulations based on ΛCDM cosmology predict thousands of substructures under galactic scale have not been detected in the local universe. One hypothesis proposes that most of these substructures are dark for various astrophysical reasons. Gravitational lensing provides a powerful alternative way to
3C 220.3: A Radio Galaxy Lensing a Submillimeter Galaxy
Haas, Martin; Leipski, Christian; Barthel, Peter; Wilkes, Belinda J.; Vegetti, Simona; Bussmann, R. Shane; Willner, S. P.; Westhues, Christian; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Chini, Rolf; Clements, David L.; Fassnacht, Christopher D.; Horesh, Assaf; Klaas, Ulrich; Koopmans, Léon V. E.; Kuraszkiewicz, Joanna; Lagattuta, David J.; Meisenheimer, Klaus; Stern, Daniel; Wylezalek, Dominika
2014-01-01
Herschel Space Observatory photometry and extensive multiwavelength follow-up have revealed that the powerful radio galaxy (PRG) 3C 220.3 at z = 0.685 acts as a gravitational lens for a background submillimeter galaxy (SMG) at z = 2.221. At an observed wavelength of 1 mm, the SMG is lensed into
Chitah: Strong-gravitational-lens hunter in imaging surveys
Chan, James H. H.; Suyu, Sherry H.; Chiueh, Tzihong; More, Anupreeta; Marshall, Philip J.; Coupon, Jean; Oguri, Masamune; Price, Paul
2015-07-07
Strong gravitationally lensed quasars provide powerful means to study galaxy evolution and cosmology. Current and upcoming imaging surveys will contain thousands of new lensed quasars, augmenting the existing sample by at least two orders of magnitude. To find such lens systems, we built a robot, Chitah, that hunts for lensed quasars by modeling the configuration of the multiple quasar images. Specifically, given an image of an object that might be a lensed quasar, Chitah first disentangles the light from the supposed lens galaxy and the light from the multiple quasar images based on color information. A simple rule is designed to categorize the given object as a potential four-image (quad) or two-image (double) lensed quasar system. The configuration of the identified quasar images is subsequently modeled to classify whether the object is a lensed quasar system. We test the performance of Chitah using simulated lens systems based on the Canada–France–Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey. For bright quads with large image separations (with Einstein radius ${r}_{\\mathrm{ein}}\\gt 1\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 1$) simulated using Gaussian point-spread functions, a high true-positive rate (TPR) of $\\sim 90\\%$ and a low false-positive rate of $\\sim 3\\%$ show that this is a promising approach to search for new lens systems. We obtain high TPR for lens systems with ${r}_{\\mathrm{ein}}\\gtrsim 0\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 5$, so the performance of Chitah is set by the seeing. We further feed a known gravitational lens system, COSMOS 5921+0638, to Chitah, and demonstrate that Chitah is able to classify this real gravitational lens system successfully. Our newly built Chitah is omnivorous and can hunt in any ground-based imaging surveys.
A new detection of an UFO in the X-ray spectrum of a lensed QSO
Dadina, M.
2017-10-01
The discovery of the "M_{SMBH}-σ relation" indicated that a connection between the central black-hole and the hosting galaxies acted during the cosmic time. With the discovery in X-rays of the ultra-fast outflows in nearby AGN, we have most probably probed one of the ingredients that are needed to build-up this mechanism. At high-z, however, such measurements were possible only in an handful of objects and this was possible mainly for the presence of gravitational lenses that magnified otherwise X-ray weak QSO. Following this, we proposed a program to use XMM-Newton and gravitational lenses as telescopes to point bright, lensed and distant QSO to characterize in detail their X-ray spectrum and to detect blushifted absorption lines at E˜7-10 keV (rest frame). Here we present the preliminary results obtained for the z=2.64 QSO MG J0414+0534.
Daw, E J; Hewitson, M R
2008-01-01
Many experiments, and in particular gravitational wave detectors, produce continuous streams of data whose frequency representations contain discrete, relatively narrowband coherent features at high amplitude. We discuss the application of digital Fourier transforms (DFTs) to characterization of these features, hereafter frequently referred to as lines. Application of DFTs to continuously produced time-domain data is achieved through an algorithm, hereafter referred to as EFC , for efficient time-domain determination of the Fourier coefficients of a data set. We first define EFC and discuss parameters relating to the algorithm that determine its properties and action on the data. In gravitational wave interferometers, these lines are commonly due to parasitic sources of coherent background interference coupling into the instrument. Using GEO 600 data, we next demonstrate that time-domain subtraction of lines can proceed without detrimental effects either on features at frequencies separated from that of the subtracted line, or on features at the frequency of the line but having different stationarity properties
Jouvel, S.; Kneib, J.-P.; Bernstein, G.; Ilbert, O.; Jelinsky, P.; Milliard, B.; Ealet, A.; Schimd, C.; Dahlen, T.; Arnouts, S.
2011-08-01
Context. With the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the universe, different observational probes have been proposed to investigate the presence of dark energy, including possible modifications to the gravitation laws by accurately measuring the expansion of the Universe and the growth of structures. We need to optimize the return from future dark energy surveys to obtain the best results from these probes. Aims: A high precision weak-lensing analysis requires not an only accurate measurement of galaxy shapes but also a precise and unbiased measurement of galaxy redshifts. The survey strategy has to be defined following both the photometric redshift and shape measurement accuracy. Methods: We define the key properties of the weak-lensing instrument and compute the effective PSF and the overall throughput and sensitivities. We then investigate the impact of the pixel scale on the sampling of the effective PSF, and place upper limits on the pixel scale. We then define the survey strategy computing the survey area including in particular both the Galactic absorption and Zodiacal light variation accross the sky. Using the Le Phare photometric redshift code and realistic galaxy mock catalog, we investigate the properties of different filter-sets and the importance of the u-band photometry quality to optimize the photometric redshift and the dark energy figure of merit (FoM). Results: Using the predicted photometric redshift quality, simple shape measurement requirements, and a proper sky model, we explore what could be an optimal weak-lensing dark energy mission based on FoM calculation. We find that we can derive the most accurate the photometric redshifts for the bulk of the faint galaxy population when filters have a resolution ℛ ~ 3.2. We show that an optimal mission would survey the sky through eight filters using two cameras (visible and near infrared). Assuming a five-year mission duration, a mirror size of 1.5 m and a 0.5 deg2 FOV with a visible pixel
Additive manufacturing of tunable lenses
Schlichting, Katja; Novak, Tobias; Heinrich, Andreas
2017-02-01
Individual additive manufacturing of optical systems based on 3D Printing offers varied possibilities in design and usage. In addition to the additive manufacturing procedure, the usage of tunable lenses allows further advantages for intelligent optical systems. Our goal is to bring the advantages of additive manufacturing together with the huge potential of tunable lenses. We produced tunable lenses as a bundle without any further processing steps, like polishing. The lenses were designed and directly printed with a 3D Printer as a package. The design contains the membrane as an optical part as well as the mechanical parts of the lens, like the attachments for the sleeves which contain the oil. The dynamic optical lenses were filled with an oil. The focal length of the lenses changes due to a change of the radius of curvature. This change is caused by changing the pressure in the inside of the lens. In addition to that, we designed lenses with special structures to obtain different areas with an individual optical power. We want to discuss the huge potential of this technology for several applications. Further, an appropriate controlling system is needed. Wéll show the possibilities to control and regulate the optical power of the lenses. The lenses could be used for illumination tasks, and in the future, for individual measurement tasks. The main advantage is the individuality and the possibility to create an individual design which completely fulfills the requirements for any specific application.
Tosch, U. (Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinik Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany)); Bleckmann, H. (Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinik Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany)); Kaczmarek, U. (Strahlenklinik und Poliklinik, Universitaetsklinik Rudolf Virchow, Berlin (Germany))
1994-09-01
Intraocular lenses were investigated by MRI to obtain information about the quality of this method. In experimental studies, seven lenses of between 0 and 30 diopters were visualized. By MRI it was possible to differentiate the various diameters of lenses. It was not possible to discriminate the material of the intraocular lenses. After these first studies the eyes of two corpses and eight patients were investigated. Because of the resolution of MRI it was possible to tell the diopter of implanted lenses. However, by use of MRI in the regular position, a tilting or decentration of the intraocular lens was demonstrated. (orig.)
Multipole lenses with implicit poles and with harmonic distribution of current density in a coil
Skachkov, V.S.
1984-01-01
General theory of the multipole lense with implicit poles is presented. The thickness of lense coil is finite. Current density distribution in the coil cross section is harmonic in the azimuth direction and arbitrary in the radial one. The calculation of yoke contribution in the lence field is given. Two particular lense variants differing from each other in the method of current density radial distribution are considered and necessary calculated relations for the lense with and without yoke ar presented. A comparative analysis of physical and technological peculiarities of these lenses is performed
Hydrodynamics, fields and constants in gravitational theory
Stanyukovich, K.P.; Mel'nikov, V.N.
1983-01-01
Results of original inveatigations into problems of standard gravitation theory and its generalizations are presented. The main attention is paid to the application of methods of continuous media techniques in the gravitation theory; to the specification of the gravitation role in phenomena of macro- and microworld, accurate solutions in the case, when the medium is the matter, assigned by hydrodynamic energy-momentum tensor; and to accurate solutions for the case when the medium is the field. GRT generalizations are analyzed, such as the new cosmologic hypothesis which is based on the gravitation vacuum theory. Investigations are performed into the quantization of cosmological models, effects of spontaneous symmetry violation and particle production in cosmology. Graeity theory with fundamental Higgs field is suggested in the framework of which in the atomic unit number one can explain possible variations of the effective gravitational bonds, and in the gravitation bond, variations of masses of all particles
Tear exchange and contact lenses: a review.
Muntz, Alex; Subbaraman, Lakshman N; Sorbara, Luigina; Jones, Lyndon
2015-01-01
Tear exchange beneath a contact lens facilitates ongoing fluid replenishment between the ocular surface and the lens. This exchange is considerably lower during the wear of soft lenses compared with rigid lenses. As a result, the accumulation of tear film debris and metabolic by-products between the cornea and a soft contact lens increases, potentially leading to complications. Lens design innovations have been proposed, but no substantial improvement in soft lens tear exchange has been reported. Researchers have determined post-lens tear exchange using several methods, notably fluorophotometry. However, due to technological limitations, little remains known about tear hydrodynamics around the lens and, to-date, true tear exchange with contact lenses has not been shown. Further knowledge regarding tear exchange could be vital in aiding better contact lens design, with the prospect of alleviating certain adverse ocular responses. This article reviews the literature to-date on the significance, implications and measurement of tear exchange with contact lenses. Copyright © 2014 Spanish General Council of Optometry. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
Gu, X. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Altinbas, Z. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Bruno, D. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Binello, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Costanzo, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Drees, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Fischer, W. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Gassner, D. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Hock, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Harvey, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Luo, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Marusic, A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mi, C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Mernick, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Minty, M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Michnoff, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Miller, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Pikin, A. I. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Robert-Demolaize, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Samms, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Shrey, T. C. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Schoefer, V. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Tan, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Than, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; Thieberger, P. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.; White, S. M. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.
2015-05-03
In the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) 100 GeV polarized proton run in 2015, two electron lenses were used to partially compensate for the head-on beam-beam effect for the first time. Here, we describe the design of the current electron lens, detailing the hardware modifications made after the 2014 commissioning run with heavy ions. A new electron gun with 15-mm diameter cathode is characterized. The electron beam transverse profile was measured using a YAG screen and fitted with a Gaussian distribution. During operation, the overlap of the electron and proton beams was achieved using the electron backscattering detector in conjunction with an automated orbit control program.
Gravitational Physics Research
Wu, S. T.
2000-01-01
Gravitational physics research at ISPAE is connected with NASA's Relativity Mission (Gravity Probe B (GP-B)) which will perform a test of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. GP-B will measure the geodetic and motional effect predicted by General Relativity Theory with extremely stable and sensitive gyroscopes in an earth orbiting satellite. Both effects cause a very small precession of the gyroscope spin axis. The goal of the GP-B experiment is the measurement of the gyroscope precession with very high precision. GP-B is being developed by a team at Stanford University and is scheduled for launch in the year 2001. The related UAH research is a collaboration with Stanford University and MSFC. This research is focussed primarily on the error analysis and data reduction methods of the experiment but includes other topics concerned with experiment systems and their performance affecting the science measurements. The hydrogen maser is the most accurate and stable clock available. It will be used in future gravitational physics missions to measure relativistic effects such as the second order Doppler effect. The HMC experiment, currently under development at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), will test the performance and capability of the hydrogen maser clock for gravitational physics measurements. UAH in collaboration with the SAO science team will study methods to evaluate the behavior and performance of the HMC. The GP-B data analysis developed by the Stanford group involves complicated mathematical operations. This situation led to the idea to investigate alternate and possibly simpler mathematical procedures to extract the GP-B measurements form the data stream. Comparison of different methods would increase the confidence in the selected scheme.
Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves
Sathyaprakash B. S.
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers, and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves.
Sathyaprakash, B S; Schutz, Bernard F
2009-01-01
Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers), and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
A Measurement of CMB Cluster Lensing with SPT and DES Year 1 Data
Baxter, E.J.; et al.
2017-08-03
Clusters of galaxies gravitationally lens the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation, resulting in a distinct imprint in the CMB on arcminute scales. Measurement of this effect offers a promising way to constrain the masses of galaxy clusters, particularly those at high redshift. We use CMB maps from the South Pole Telescope Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) survey to measure the CMB lensing signal around galaxy clusters identified in optical imaging from first year observations of the Dark Energy Survey. We detect lensing of the CMB by the galaxy clusters at 6.5$\\sigma$ significance. Using the measured lensing signal, we constrain the amplitude of the relation between cluster mass and optical richness to roughly $20\\%$ precision, finding good agreement with recent constraints obtained with galaxy lensing. The error budget is dominated by statistical noise but includes significant contributions from systematic biases due to the thermal SZ effect and cluster miscentering.
Prevention of gravitational collapse
Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.
1981-01-01
We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)
Underdevelopment’s gravitation
Marin Dinu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The energy necessary to escape the gravitational pull of underdevelopment and to enter an evolutional trajectory dependent on the gravitational pull of development is unintelligible in economic terms.
Kesden, Michael; Cooray, Asantha; Kamionkowski, Marc
2002-07-01
Inflationary gravitational waves (GW) contribute to the curl component in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB). Cosmic shear--gravitational lensing of the CMB--converts a fraction of the dominant gradient polarization to the curl component. Higher-order correlations can be used to map the cosmic shear and subtract this contribution to the curl. Arcminute resolution will be required to pursue GW amplitudes smaller than those accessible by the Planck surveyor mission. The blurring by lensing of small-scale CMB power leads with this reconstruction technique to a minimum detectable GW amplitude corresponding to an inflation energy near 10(15) GeV.
Gravitational wave detector on the basis of light diffraction
Segizboev, T.I.; Uzhinskij, V.V.
1985-01-01
A method for detection of gravitational waves by means of light diffraction at the first maximum on oscillations in optically transparent matter under effect of gravitational waves is considered. Intensity of light flux scattering on oscillations of elastic rod is calculated. A possibility of using the diffraction method for detection of gravitational waves is disclosed
Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung
Turner, M.; Will, C.M.
1978-01-01
We present formulae and numerical results for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies (''gravitational bremsstrahlung''). Our results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. We discuss in detail the gravitational waveform (transverse-traceless part of the metric perturbation tensor), the toal luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy (antenna pattern), and the frequency spectrum. We also present a method of ''boosting'' the accuracy of these quantities to post-3/2-Newtonian order. A numerical comparison of our results with those of Peters and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post-Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1% at v=0.1c, to a few percent at v=0.35c, and to 10--20% at v=0.5c. We also compare our results with those of Smarr
Ridgely, Charles T.
2011-01-01
When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…
Detection of gravitational radiation
Holten, J.W. van [ed.
1994-12-31
In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI).
Detection of gravitational radiation
Holten, J.W. van
1994-01-01
In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI)
Relativity theory and gravitation
Bondi, H.
1986-01-01
The paper on relativity theory and gravitation is presented as a preface to the first of the articles submitted to the Journal on general relativity. Newtonian gravitation and and observation, relativity, and the sources of the gravitational field, are all discussed. (UK)
Light rays and the tidal gravitational pendulum
Farley, A. N. St J.
2018-05-01
Null geodesic deviation in classical general relativity is expressed in terms of a scalar function, defined as the invariant magnitude of the connecting vector between neighbouring light rays in a null geodesic congruence projected onto a two-dimensional screen space orthogonal to the rays, where λ is an affine parameter along the rays. We demonstrate that η satisfies a harmonic oscillator-like equation with a λ-dependent frequency, which comprises terms accounting for local matter affecting the congruence and tidal gravitational effects from distant matter or gravitational waves passing through the congruence, represented by the amplitude, of a complex Weyl driving term. Oscillating solutions for η imply the presence of conjugate or focal points along the rays. A polarisation angle, is introduced comprising the orientation of the connecting vector on the screen space and the phase, of the Weyl driving term. Interpreting β as the polarisation of a gravitational wave encountering the light rays, we consider linearly polarised waves in the first instance. A highly non-linear, second-order ordinary differential equation, (the tidal pendulum equation), is then derived, so-called due to its analogy with the equation describing a non-linear, variable-length pendulum oscillating under gravity. The variable pendulum length is represented by the connecting vector magnitude, whilst the acceleration due to gravity in the familiar pendulum formulation is effectively replaced by . A tidal torque interpretation is also developed, where the torque is expressed as a coupling between the moment of inertia of the pendulum and the tidal gravitational field. Precessional effects are briefly discussed. A solution to the tidal pendulum equation in terms of familiar gravitational lensing variables is presented. The potential emergence of chaos in general relativity is discussed in the context of circularly, elliptically or randomly polarised gravitational waves encountering the null
Cosmological perturbation effects on gravitational-wave luminosity distance estimates
Bertacca, Daniele; Raccanelli, Alvise; Bartolo, Nicola; Matarrese, Sabino
2018-06-01
Waveforms of gravitational waves provide information about a variety of parameters for the binary system merging. However, standard calculations have been performed assuming a FLRW universe with no perturbations. In reality this assumption should be dropped: we show that the inclusion of cosmological perturbations translates into corrections to the estimate of astrophysical parameters derived for the merging binary systems. We compute corrections to the estimate of the luminosity distance due to velocity, volume, lensing and gravitational potential effects. Our results show that the amplitude of the corrections will be negligible for current instruments, mildly important for experiments like the planned DECIGO, and very important for future ones such as the Big Bang Observer.
Calibration of fisheye lenses for hemispherical photography
Diaci, J.; Kolar, U.
2000-01-01
Hemispherical photography represents one of the most appropriate methods of estimating averages of solar radiation over extended periods of time. This method is based upon the use of extremely wide-angle fisheye lenses, which produce large projection distortion. To correctly interpret hemispherical photography we have to know the projection characteristics of the fisheye lens in combination with a camera body. This can be achieved through lens calibration. The first part of the article explains in detail the calibration method for fisheye lenses which are used to assess the solar radiation in forest ecology research. In the second part the results of calibration for fisheye lens Sigma 8 mm, f/4 (MF, N) are presented. The lens was used on a Nikon F50 camera body
Saito, Ryo; Naruko, Atsushi; Hiramatsu, Takashi; Sasaki, Misao
2014-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new approach to a treatment of the gravitational effects (redshift, time delay and lensing) on the observed cosmic microwave background (CMB) anisotropies based on the Boltzmann equation. From the Liouville's theorem in curved spacetime, the intensity of photons is conserved along a photon geodesic when non-gravitational scatterings are absent. Motivated by this fact, we derive a second-order line-of-sight formula by integrating the Boltzmann equation along a perturbed geodesic (curve) instead of a background geodesic (line). In this approach, the separation of the gravitational and intrinsic effects are manifest. This approach can be considered as a generalization of the remapping approach of CMB lensing, where all the gravitational effects can be treated on the same footing
Observing a Gravitational Wave Background With Lisa
Tinto, M; Armstrong, J; Estabrook, F
2000-01-01
.... Comparison of the conventional Michelson interferometer observable with the fully-symmetric Sagnac data-type allows unambiguous discrimination between a gravitational wave background and instrumental noise. The method presented here can be used to detect a confusion-limited gravitational wave background.
Reflection from the strong gravity regime in a lensed quasar at redshift z = 0.658.
Reis, R C; Reynolds, M T; Miller, J M; Walton, D J
2014-03-13
The co-evolution of a supermassive black hole with its host galaxy through cosmic time is encoded in its spin. At z > 2, supermassive black holes are thought to grow mostly by merger-driven accretion leading to high spin. It is not known, however, whether below z ≈ 1 these black holes continue to grow by coherent accretion or in a chaotic manner, though clear differences are predicted in their spin evolution. An established method of measuring the spin of black holes is through the study of relativistic reflection features from the inner accretion disk. Owing to their greater distances from Earth, there has hitherto been no significant detection of relativistic reflection features in a moderate-redshift quasar. Here we report an analysis of archival X-ray data together with a deep observation of a gravitationally lensed quasar at z = 0.658. The emission originates within three or fewer gravitational radii from the black hole, implying a spin parameter (a measure of how fast the black hole is rotating) of a = 0.87(+0.08)(-0.15) at the 3σ confidence level and a > 0.66 at the 5σ level. The high spin found here is indicative of growth by coherent accretion for this black hole, and suggests that black-hole growth at 0.5 ≤ z ≤ 1 occurs principally by coherent rather than chaotic accretion episodes.
Oguri, Masamune; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Gladders, Michael D.; Dahle, Haakon; Natarajan, Priyamvada; Dalal, Neal; Koester, Benjamin P.; Sharon, Keren; Bayliss, Matthew
2009-01-29
We derive radial mass profiles of four strong lensing selected clusters which show prominent giant arcs (Abell 1703, SDSS J1446+3032, SDSS J1531+3414, and SDSS J2111-0115), by combining detailed strong lens modeling with weak lensing shear measured from deep Subaru Suprime-cam images. Weak lensing signals are detected at high significance for all four clusters, whose redshifts range from z = 0.28 to 0.64. We demonstrate that adding strong lensing information with known arc redshifts significantly improves constraints on the mass density profile, compared to those obtained from weak lensing alone. While the mass profiles are well fitted by the universal form predicted in N-body simulations of the {Lambda}-dominated cold dark matter model, all four clusters appear to be slightly more centrally concentrated (the concentration parameters c{sub vir} {approx} 8) than theoretical predictions, even after accounting for the bias toward higher concentrations inherent in lensing selected samples. Our results are consistent with previous studies which similarly detected a concentration excess, and increases the total number of clusters studied with the combined strong and weak lensing technique to ten. Combining our sample with previous work, we find that clusters with larger Einstein radii are more anomalously concentrated. We also present a detailed model of the lensing cluster Abell 1703 with constraints from multiple image families, and find the dark matter inner density profile to be cuspy with the slope consistent with -1, in agreement with expectations.
Theory of gravitational interactions
Gasperini, Maurizio
2017-01-01
This is the second edition of a well-received book that is a modern, self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The new edition includes more details on gravitational waves of cosmological origin, the so-called brane world scenario, and gravitational time-delay effects. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field, while the second, more advanced part discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the “gauge” theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap within the traditional approach to general relativity which usually leaves students puzzled about the role of gravity. The required notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, allowing room for aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational inter...
CTQ 327: A New Gravitational Lens
Morgan, N. D.; Gregg, M. D.; Wisotzki, L.; Becker, R.; Maza, J.; Schechter, P. L.; White, R. L.
2003-08-01
We present the second gravitationally lensed quasar discovered during the course of a Hubble Space Telescope Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph snapshot survey for small-separation gravitational lenses. CTQ 327 is a double quasar with an image separation of 1.22" and a g-band flux ratio of roughly 5 to 1. Spectra reveal both components to be z=1.37 quasars, and the lensing galaxy is clearly visible after point-spread function subtraction of the two quasar components. The light profile of the lensing galaxy is well modeled by an r1/4 law, indicative of an early-type elliptical galaxy. An estimate of the lens galaxy redshift is z~0.4-0.6, based on the Faber-Jackson relationship and photometric considerations, although values outside this range are still consistent with the present data. Resolved spectra of the two quasars show similar, but not identical, continuum and emission-line features: component A exhibits weaker emission lines with respect to the continuum than does component B, and there is evidence of intrinsic differences in the emission-line profiles between the two components. Optical monitoring of the quasar pair also shows a change in the g-band flux ratio of 0.14 mag over a 3 month period. These spectral and photometric differences may be due to microlensing fluctuations from stars in the lensing galaxy, intrinsic quasar variability coupled with the system's differential time delay, or some combination of the two. The observed variability makes CTQ 327 an attractive target for future flux monitoring, aimed at time-delay or microlensing studies. Based on observations obtained with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, the W. M. Keck Observatory, and the Magellan Consortium's Walter Baade Telescope. The Space Telescope Science Institute is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. The W. M. Keck Observatory is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of
A SEARCH FOR DISK-GALAXY LENSES IN THE SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY
Feron, Chloe; Hjorth, Jens; Samsing, Johan; McKean, John P.
2009-01-01
We present the first automated spectroscopic search for disk-galaxy lenses, using the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) database. We follow up eight gravitational lens candidates, selected among a sample of ∼40,000 candidate massive disk galaxies, using a combination of ground-based imaging and long-slit spectroscopy. We confirm two gravitational lens systems: one probable disk galaxy and one probable S0 galaxy. The remaining systems are four promising disk-galaxy lens candidates, as well as two probable gravitational lenses whose lens galaxy might be an S0 galaxy. The redshifts of the lenses are z lens ∼ 0.1. The redshift range of the background sources is z source ∼ 0.3-0.7. The systems presented here are (confirmed or candidate) galaxy-galaxy lensing systems, that is, systems where the multiple images are faint and extended, allowing an accurate determination of the lens galaxy mass and light distributions without contamination from the background galaxy. Moreover, the low redshift of the (confirmed or candidates) lens galaxies is favorable for measuring rotation points to complement the lensing study. We estimate the rest-frame total mass-to-light ratio within the Einstein radius for the two confirmed lenses: we find M tot /L I = 5.4 ± 1.5 within 3.9 ± 0.9 kpc for SDSS J081230.30+543650.9 and M tot /L I = 1.5 ± 0.9 within 1.4 ± 0.8 kpc for SDSS J145543.55+530441.2 (all in solar units). Hubble Space Telescope or adaptive optics imaging is needed to further study the systems.
Microstructured gradient-index lenses for THz photoconductive antennas
Mads Brincker
2016-02-01
Full Text Available A new type of substrate lens for photoconductive antennas (PCA’s based on sub-wavelength microstructuring is presented and studied theoretically by the use of Greens function integral equation methods (GFIEM’s. By etching sub-wavelength trenches into a flat substrate, the effective dielectric constant can be designed to function like a gradient index (GRIN lens. The proposed GRIN substrate lenses have sub-mm dimension, which is smaller than the dimensions of a typical hyper-hemispherical substrate lens (HSL, and could enable fabrication of arrays of closely packed PCA’s with individual lenses integrated directly into the PCA substrate. The performance of different GRIN lenses is compared to a HSL and shown to be comparable with regards to the terahertz radiation extraction efficiency, and it is shown that the collimating properties of these GRIN lenses can be tailored by changing the parameters used for microstructuring.
A comparison of cosmological models using time delay lenses
Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio, E-mail: jjwei@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: xfwu@pmo.ac.cn, E-mail: fmelia@email.arizona.edu [Purple Mountain Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nanjing 210008 (China)
2014-06-20
The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of ΛCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between competing models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of ∼70%-80% that the R {sub h} = ct universe is the correct cosmology versus ∼20%-30% for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic samples to estimate how large they would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ∼99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ∼150 time-delay lenses would be sufficient to rule out R {sub h} = ct at this level of accuracy, while ∼1000 time-delay lenses would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe is instead R {sub h} = ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.
Class B0631+519: Last of the Class Lenses
York, Tom; Jackson, N.; Browne, I.W.A.; Koopmans, L.V.E.; McKean, J.P.; Norbury, M.A.; Biggs, A.D.; Blandford, R.D.; de Bruyn, A.G.; Fassnacht, C.D.; Myers, S.T.; Pearson, T.J.; Phillips, P.M.; Readhead, A.C.S.; Rusin, D.; Wilkinson, P.N.; /Jodrell Bank /Kapteyn Astron. Inst., Groningen /UC, Davis /JIVE, Dwingeloo /KIPAC, Menlo Park /NFRA,
2005-05-31
We report the discovery of the new gravitational lens system CLASS B0631+519. Imaging with the VLA, MERLIN and the VLBA reveals a doubly-imaged flat-spectrum radio core, a doubly-imaged steep-spectrum radio lobe and possible quadruply-imaged emission from a second lobe. The maximum separation between the lensed images is 1.16 arcsec. High resolution mapping with the VLBA at 5 GHz resolves the most magnified image of the radio core into a number of sub-components spread across approximately 20 mas. No emission from the lensing galaxy or an odd image is detected down to 0.31 mJy (5{sigma}) at 8.4 GHz. Optical and near-infrared imaging with the ACS and NICMOS cameras on the HST show that there are two galaxies along the line of sight to the lensed source, as previously discovered by optical spectroscopy. We find that the foreground galaxy at z=0.0896 is a small irregular, and that the other, at z=0.6196 is a massive elliptical which appears to contribute the majority of the lensing effect. The host galaxy of the lensed source is detected in the HST near-infrared imaging as a set of arcs, which form a nearly complete Einstein ring. Mass modeling using non-parametric techniques can reproduce the near-infrared observations and indicates that the small irregular galaxy has a (localized) effect on the flux density distribution in the Einstein ring at the 5-10% level.
A comparison of cosmological models using time delay lenses
Wei, Jun-Jie; Wu, Xue-Feng; Melia, Fulvio
2014-01-01
The use of time-delay gravitational lenses to examine the cosmological expansion introduces a new standard ruler with which to test theoretical models. The sample suitable for this kind of work now includes 12 lens systems, which have thus far been used solely for optimizing the parameters of ΛCDM. In this paper, we broaden the base of support for this new, important cosmic probe by using these observations to carry out a one-on-one comparison between competing models. The currently available sample indicates a likelihood of ∼70%-80% that the R h = ct universe is the correct cosmology versus ∼20%-30% for the standard model. This possibly interesting result reinforces the need to greatly expand the sample of time-delay lenses, e.g., with the successful implementation of the Dark Energy Survey, the VST ATLAS survey, and the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. In anticipation of a greatly expanded catalog of time-delay lenses identified with these surveys, we have produced synthetic samples to estimate how large they would have to be in order to rule out either model at a ∼99.7% confidence level. We find that if the real cosmology is ΛCDM, a sample of ∼150 time-delay lenses would be sufficient to rule out R h = ct at this level of accuracy, while ∼1000 time-delay lenses would be required to rule out ΛCDM if the real universe is instead R h = ct. This difference in required sample size reflects the greater number of free parameters available to fit the data with ΛCDM.
Gravitational waves from inflation
Guzzetti, M.C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.
2016-01-01
The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index ηT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.
Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models
Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.
2011-01-01
Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.
Tchernin, C.; Bartelmann, M.; Huber, K.; Dekel, A.; Hurier, G.; Majer, C. L.; Meyer, S.; Zinger, E.; Eckert, D.; Meneghetti, M.; Merten, J.
2018-06-01
Context. The mass of galaxy clusters is not a direct observable, nonetheless it is commonly used to probe cosmological models. Based on the combination of all main cluster observables, that is, the X-ray emission, the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) signal, the velocity dispersion of the cluster galaxies, and gravitational lensing, the gravitational potential of galaxy clusters can be jointly reconstructed. Aims: We derive the two main ingredients required for this joint reconstruction: the potentials individually reconstructed from the observables and their covariance matrices, which act as a weight in the joint reconstruction. We show here the method to derive these quantities. The result of the joint reconstruction applied to a real cluster will be discussed in a forthcoming paper. Methods: We apply the Richardson-Lucy deprojection algorithm to data on a two-dimensional (2D) grid. We first test the 2D deprojection algorithm on a β-profile. Assuming hydrostatic equilibrium, we further reconstruct the gravitational potential of a simulated galaxy cluster based on synthetic SZ and X-ray data. We then reconstruct the projected gravitational potential of the massive and dynamically active cluster Abell 2142, based on the X-ray observations collected with XMM-Newton and the SZ observations from the Planck satellite. Finally, we compute the covariance matrix of the projected reconstructed potential of the cluster Abell 2142 based on the X-ray measurements collected with XMM-Newton. Results: The gravitational potentials of the simulated cluster recovered from synthetic X-ray and SZ data are consistent, even though the potential reconstructed from X-rays shows larger deviations from the true potential. Regarding Abell 2142, the projected gravitational cluster potentials recovered from SZ and X-ray data reproduce well the projected potential inferred from gravitational-lensing observations. We also observe that the covariance matrix of the potential for Abell 2142
Pan, Huang-Wei; Kuo, Ling-Chi; Huang, Shu-Yu; Wu, Meng-Yun; Juang, Yu-Hang; Lee, Chia-Wei; Chen, Hsin-Chieh; Wen, Ting Ting; Chao, Shiuh
2018-01-01
Silicon is a potential substrate material for the large-areal-size mirrors of the next-generation laser interferometer gravitational wave detector operated in cryogenics. Silicon nitride thin films uniformly deposited by a chemical vapor deposition method on large-size silicon wafers is a common practice in the silicon integrated circuit industry. We used plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to deposit silicon nitride films on silicon and studied the physical properties of the films that are pertinent to application of mirror coatings for laser interferometer gravitational wave detectors. We measured and analyzed the structure, optical properties, stress, Young's modulus, and mechanical loss of the films, at both room and cryogenic temperatures. Optical extinction coefficients of the films were in the 10-5 range at 1550-nm wavelength. Room-temperature mechanical loss of the films varied in the range from low 10-4 to low 10-5 within the frequency range of interest. The existence of a cryogenic mechanical loss peak depended on the composition of the films. We measured the bond concentrations of N - H , Si - H , Si - N , and Si - Si bonds in the films and analyzed the correlations between bond concentrations and cryogenic mechanical losses. We proposed three possible two-level systems associated with the N - H , Si - H , and Si - N bonds in the film. We inferred that the dominant source of the cryogenic mechanical loss for the silicon nitride films is the two-level system of exchanging position between a H+ and electron lone pair associated with the N - H bond. Under our deposition conditions, superior properties in terms of high refractive index with a large adjustable range, low optical absorption, and low mechanical loss were achieved for films with lower nitrogen content and lower N - H bond concentration. Possible pairing of the silicon nitride films with other materials in the quarter-wave stack is discussed.
Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan, E-mail: nitzhaki@post.tau.ac.il, E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com [Raymond and Beverly Sackler Faculty of Exact Sciences, School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Ramat-Aviv, 69978 (Israel)
2012-05-01
We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.
KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.
STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.
2004-10-23
While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.
Summary of session C1: experimental gravitation
Laemmerzahl, C
2008-01-01
The fact that gravity is a metric theory follows from the Einstein equivalence principle. This principle consists of (i) the universality of free fall, (ii) the universality of the gravitational redshift and (iii) the local validity of Lorentz invariance. Many experiments searching for deviations from standard general relativity test the various aspects of the Einstein equivalence principle. Here we report on experiments covering the whole Einstein equivalence principle. Until now all experiments have been in agreement with the Einstein equivalence principle. As a consequence, gravity has to be described by a metric theory. Any metric theory of gravity leads to effects such as perihelion shift, deflection of light, gravitational redshift, gravitational time delay, Lense-Thirring effect, Schiff effect, etc. A particular theory of that sort is Einstein's general relativity. For weak gravitational fields which are asymptotically flat any deviation from Einstein's general relativity can be parametrized by a few constants, the PPN parameters. Many astrophysical observations and space experiments are devoted to a better measurement of the effects and, thus, of the PPN parameters. It is clear that gravity is best tested for intermediate ranges, that is, for distances between 1 m and several astronomical units. It is highly interesting to push forward our domain of experience and to strengthen the experimental foundation of gravity also beyond these scales. This point is underlined by the fact that many quantum gravity and unification-inspired theories suggest deviation from the standard laws of gravity at very small or very large scales. In this session summary we briefly outline the status and report on the talks presented in session C1 about experimental gravitation
Giannantonio, T.; et al.
2018-02-14
Optical imaging surveys measure both the galaxy density and the gravitational lensing-induced shear fields across the sky. Recently, the Dark Energy Survey (DES) collaboration used a joint fit to two-point correlations between these observables to place tight constraints on cosmology (DES Collaboration et al. 2017). In this work, we develop the methodology to extend the DES Collaboration et al. (2017) analysis to include cross-correlations of the optical survey observables with gravitational lensing of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as measured by the South Pole Telescope (SPT) and Planck. Using simulated analyses, we show how the resulting set of five two-point functions increases the robustness of the cosmological constraints to systematic errors in galaxy lensing shear calibration. Additionally, we show that contamination of the SPT+Planck CMB lensing map by the thermal Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect is a potentially large source of systematic error for two-point function analyses, but show that it can be reduced to acceptable levels in our analysis by masking clusters of galaxies and imposing angular scale cuts on the two-point functions. The methodology developed here will be applied to the analysis of data from the DES, the SPT, and Planck in a companion work.
Anisotropic gravitational instability
Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.
1988-01-01
Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common
Newman, Andrew B. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Smith, Russell J. [Centre for Extragalactic Astronomy, University of Durham, South Road, Durham (United Kingdom); Conroy, Charlie [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States); Villaume, Alexa [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter, E-mail: anewman@obs.carnegiescience.edu [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States)
2017-08-20
We present new observations of the three nearest early-type galaxy (ETG) strong lenses discovered in the SINFONI Nearby Elliptical Lens Locator Survey (SNELLS). Based on their lensing masses, these ETGs were inferred to have a stellar initial mass function (IMF) consistent with that of the Milky Way, not the bottom-heavy IMF that has been reported as typical for high- σ ETGs based on lensing, dynamical, and stellar population synthesis techniques. We use these unique systems to test the consistency of IMF estimates derived from different methods. We first estimate the stellar M {sub *}/ L using lensing and stellar dynamics. We then fit high-quality optical spectra of the lenses using an updated version of the stellar population synthesis models developed by Conroy and van Dokkum. When examined individually, we find good agreement among these methods for one galaxy. The other two galaxies show 2–3 σ tension with lensing estimates, depending on the dark matter contribution, when considering IMFs that extend to 0.08 M {sub ⊙}. Allowing a variable low-mass cutoff or a nonparametric form of the IMF reduces the tension among the IMF estimates to <2 σ . There is moderate evidence for a reduced number of low-mass stars in the SNELLS spectra, but no such evidence in a composite spectrum of matched- σ ETGs drawn from the SDSS. Such variation in the form of the IMF at low stellar masses ( m ≲ 0.3 M {sub ⊙}), if present, could reconcile lensing/dynamical and spectroscopic IMF estimates for the SNELLS lenses and account for their lighter M {sub *}/ L relative to the mean matched- σ ETG. We provide the spectra used in this study to facilitate future comparisons.
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort.
Weak-lensing detection of intracluster filaments with ground-based data
Maturi, Matteo; Merten, Julian
2013-11-01
According to the current standard model of cosmology, matter in the Universe arranges itself along a network of filamentary structure. These filaments connect the main nodes of this so-called "cosmic web", which are clusters of galaxies. Although its large-scale distribution is clearly characterized by numerical simulations, constraining the dark-matter content of the cosmic web in reality turns out to be difficult. The natural method of choice is gravitational lensing. However, the direct detection and mapping of the elusive filament signal is challenging and in this work we present two methods that are specifically tailored to achieve this task. A linear matched filter aims at detecting the smooth mass-component of filaments and is optimized to perform a shear decomposition that follows the anisotropic component of the lensing signal. Filaments clearly inherit this property due to their morphology. At the same time, the contamination arising from the central massive cluster is controlled in a natural way. The filament 1σ detection is of about κ ~ 0.01 - 0.005 according to the filter's template width and length, enabling the detection of structures beyond reach with other approaches. The second, complementary method seeks to detect the clumpy component of filaments. The detection is determined by the number density of subclump identifications in an area enclosing the potential filament, as was found within the observed field with the filter approach. We tested both methods against mocked observations based on realistic N-body simulations of filamentary structure and proved the feasibility of detecting filaments with ground-based data.
Testing the gravitational instability hypothesis?
Babul, Arif; Weinberg, David H.; Dekel, Avishai; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1994-01-01
We challenge a widely accepted assumption of observational cosmology: that successful reconstruction of observed galaxy density fields from measured galaxy velocity fields (or vice versa), using the methods of gravitational instability theory, implies that the observed large-scale structures and large-scale flows were produced by the action of gravity. This assumption is false, in that there exist nongravitational theories that pass the reconstruction tests and gravitational theories with certain forms of biased galaxy formation that fail them. Gravitational instability theory predicts specific correlations between large-scale velocity and mass density fields, but the same correlations arise in any model where (a) structures in the galaxy distribution grow from homogeneous initial conditions in a way that satisfies the continuity equation, and (b) the present-day velocity field is irrotational and proportional to the time-averaged velocity field. We demonstrate these assertions using analytical arguments and N-body simulations. If large-scale structure is formed by gravitational instability, then the ratio of the galaxy density contrast to the divergence of the velocity field yields an estimate of the density parameter Omega (or, more generally, an estimate of beta identically equal to Omega(exp 0.6)/b, where b is an assumed constant of proportionality between galaxy and mass density fluctuations. In nongravitational scenarios, the values of Omega or beta estimated in this way may fail to represent the true cosmological values. However, even if nongravitational forces initiate and shape the growth of structure, gravitationally induced accelerations can dominate the velocity field at late times, long after the action of any nongravitational impulses. The estimated beta approaches the true value in such cases, and in our numerical simulations the estimated beta values are reasonably accurate for both gravitational and nongravitational models. Reconstruction tests
Bharani K Mynampati
2017-07-01
Full Text Available AIM: To assess the level of glutathione, thioltransferase, and argpyrimidine in nuclear and cortical cataractous lenses as well as in the clear lenses in the north Indian population. METHODS: Human cataractous lenses were collected from the patients who underwent extracapsular cataract extraction surgery; clear lenses were collected from the freshly donated eye bank eyes. Antioxidant molecules such as glutathione and thioltransferase enzyme activity were measured; simultaneously in these lenses a blue fluorophore argpyrimidine, an advanced glycation end (AGE product level was assessed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. RESULTS: The protein concentration was found to be present at higher levels in the control lenses compared to cataract lenses. A significant decrease in the glutathione level was observed in the nuclear cataractous lenses compared to cortical cataractous (P=0.004 and clear lenses (P≤0.005, but no significant change in the level of antioxidant enzyme thioltransferase was observed. Further, argpyrimidine a blue fluorophore (AGE was found to be significantly higher in the nuclear cataract (P=0.013 compared to cortical cataract lenses. CONCLUSION: Antioxidants such as glutathione significantly decrease in age-related nuclear and cortical cataract and an AGE, argpyrimidine are present at significantly higher levels in nuclear cataract.
Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy
2006-01-01
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern...
Ridgely, Charles T
2011-01-01
When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium is herein derived on the basis of classical, Newtonian gravitational theory and by a general relativistic use of Archimedes' principle. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate students and those undergraduate students having prior experience with vector analysis and potential theory.
Hoffmann, William F
1964-01-01
Remarks on the observational basis of general relativity ; Riemannian geometry ; gravitation as geometry ; gravitational waves ; Mach's principle and experiments on mass anisotropy ; the many faces of Mach ; the significance for the solar system of time-varying gravitation ; relativity principles and the role of coordinates in physics ; the superdense star and the critical nucleon number ; gravitation and light ; possible effects on the solar system of φ waves if they exist ; the Lyttleton-Bondi universe and charge equality ; quantization of general relativity ; Mach's principle as boundary condition for Einstein's equations.
Mohammadreza Nazari
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Background: Wearing spectacles is the most common approach in correcting the refractive errors worldwide. Due to harmful effects of overexposure to solar ultraviolet radiations, the usage of multi-layer coatings in ophthalmic lenses has recently been increased. These lenses can reduce the reflections and hence increase the transmission of visible light; they can also decrease the transmission of ultraviolet rays. This study aims to compare the transmission of ultraviolet (A and B and visible rays through coated and uncoated prescriptive ophthalmic plastic lenses.Materials and Methods: In this study, 39 minus non-photochromic multi-coated white plastic single-vision lenses; 9 similar lenses but without any coatings were assessed by spectral transmittancemeter for evaluation of the transmission of visible and ultraviolet rays.Results: The transmission of visible light was 97.9%±1.07% for coated lenses and 93.5%±0.54% for lenses without coating. Ultraviolet-A transmission was 12.15%±8.02% for coated lenses compared to 66.27%±23.92% in lenses without coating. The transmission of ultraviolet-B rays was 1.21%±0.4% and 23.0%±15.97% for lenses with and without coatings, respectively.Conclusion: The transmission of visible light was significantly higher in multi-coated lenses compared to uncoated samples; whereas the transmissions of ultraviolet rays in multi-coated lenses were significantly lower than uncoated ones. Therefore, it is recommended that, except for particular cases, prescribed lenses be equipped with this multi-layer coating.
The edge-on spiral gravitational lens B1600+434
Koopmans, LVE; de Bruyn, AG; Jackson, N; Muller,; Gottlober, S; Mucket, JP; Wambsganss, J
1998-01-01
New HST and NOT observations of the gravitational lens B1600+434(1) suggest that the lensing galaxy is an edge-on spiral galaxy.(3) We have used these observations to constrain the velocity dispersion (sigma(parallel to) > 150 km/s) and oblateness (q(halo) = (c/a)(rho) > 0.5) of dark matter halo
Bayesian Inference on Gravitational Waves
Asad Ali
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The Bayesian approach is increasingly becoming popular among the astrophysics data analysis communities. However, the Pakistan statistics communities are unaware of this fertile interaction between the two disciplines. Bayesian methods have been in use to address astronomical problems since the very birth of the Bayes probability in eighteenth century. Today the Bayesian methods for the detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves have solid theoretical grounds with a strong promise for the realistic applications. This article aims to introduce the Pakistan statistics communities to the applications of Bayesian Monte Carlo methods in the analysis of gravitational wave data with an overview of the Bayesian signal detection and estimation methods and demonstration by a couple of simplified examples.
Magnification relations for Kerr lensing and testing cosmic censorship
Werner, M. C.; Petters, A. O.
2007-01-01
A Kerr black hole with mass parameter m and angular momentum parameter a acting as a gravitational lens gives rise to two images in the weak field limit. We study the corresponding magnification relations, namely, the signed and absolute magnification sums and the centroid up to post-Newtonian order. We show that there are post-Newtonian corrections to the total absolute magnification and centroid proportional to a/m, which is in contrast to the spherically symmetric case where such corrections vanish. Hence we also propose a new set of lensing observables for the two images involving these corrections, which should allow measuring a/m with gravitational lensing. In fact, the resolution capabilities needed to observe this for the Galactic black hole should in principle be accessible to current and near-future instrumentation. Since a/m>1 indicates a naked singularity, a most interesting application would be a test of the cosmic censorship conjecture. The technique used to derive the image properties is based on the degeneracy of the Kerr lens and a suitably displaced Schwarzschild lens at post-Newtonian order. A simple physical explanation for this degeneracy is also given
On Using a Space Telescope to Detect Weak-lensing Shear
Tung, Nathan; Wright, Edward
2017-11-01
Ignoring redshift dependence, the statistical performance of a weak-lensing survey is set by two numbers: the effective shape noise of the sources, which includes the intrinsic ellipticity dispersion and the measurement noise, and the density of sources that are useful for weak-lensing measurements. In this paper, we provide some general guidance for weak-lensing shear measurements from a “generic” space telescope by looking for the optimum wavelength bands to maximize the galaxy flux signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) and minimize ellipticity measurement error. We also calculate an effective galaxy number per square degree across different wavelength bands, taking into account the density of sources that are useful for weak-lensing measurements and the effective shape noise of sources. Galaxy data collected from the ultra-deep UltraVISTA Ks-selected and R-selected photometric catalogs (Muzzin et al. 2013) are fitted to radially symmetric Sérsic galaxy light profiles. The Sérsic galaxy profiles are then stretched to impose an artificial weak-lensing shear, and then convolved with a pure Airy Disk PSF to simulate imaging of weak gravitationally lensed galaxies from a hypothetical diffraction-limited space telescope. For our model calculations and sets of galaxies, our results show that the peak in the average galaxy flux S/N, the minimum average ellipticity measurement error, and the highest effective galaxy number counts all lie around the K-band near 2.2 μm.
Gravitational instantons in H-spaces
Hacyan, S.
1979-01-01
A spin coefficient method valid for spaces with positive definite metric is presented, together with a Petrov-Penrosetype classification. The theory of H-spaces is applied to self-dual gravitational instantons. (orig.)
Gravitational effects in field gravitation theory
Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Vlasov, A.A.
1979-01-01
The possibilities to describe various gravitation effects of field gravitation theory (FGT) are considered. Past-Newtonian approximation of the FGT has been constructed and on the basis of this approximation it has been shown that the field theory allows one to describe the whole set of experimental facts. The comparison of post-Newtonian parameters in FGT with those in the Einstein's theory makes it clear that these two; theories are undistinguishable from the viewpoint of any experiments, realized with post-Newtonian accuracy. Gravitational field of an island type source with spherically symmetrical distribution of matter and unstationary homogeneous model of Universe, which allows to describe the effect of cosmological red shift, are considered
R. Vlokh; M. Kostyrko
2006-01-01
Nonlinear effect of the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the gravitational coefficient G has been analysed. In frame of the approaches of parametric optics and gravitation nonlinearity we have shown that the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass can lead to changes in the gravitational coefficient G.
Relativistic gravitation theory
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1984-01-01
On the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle a relativistic gravitation theory (RGT) is unambiguously constructed with the help of a notion of a gravitational field as a physical field in Faraday-Maxwell spirit, which posesses energy momentum and spins 2 and 0. The source of gravitation field is a total conserved energy-momentum tensor for matter and for gravitation field in Minkowski space. In the RGT conservation laws for the energy momentum and angular momentum of matter and gravitational field hold rigorously. The theory explains the whole set of gravitation experiments. Here, due to the geometrization principle the Riemannian space is of a field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field action on the matter. The RGT astonishing prediction is that the Universe is not closed but ''flat''. It means that in the Universe there should exist a ''missing'' mass in some form of matter
Those Elusive Gravitational Waves
MOSAIC, 1976
1976-01-01
The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)
Gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole
Cho, Y.M., E-mail: ymcho7@konkuk.ac.kr [Administration Building 310-4, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kimm, Kyoungtae [Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-10
We present a family of gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole solutions in Einstein–Weinberg–Salam theory. Our result confirms the existence of globally regular gravitating electroweak monopole which changes to the magnetically charged black hole as the Higgs vacuum value approaches to the Planck scale. Moreover, our solutions could provide a more accurate description of the monopole stars and magnetically charged black holes.
Aasi, J.; Abbott, B. P.; Abbott, R.; Abbott, T.; Abernathy, M. R.; Acernese, F.; Ackley, K.; Adams, C.; Adams, T.; Blackburn, Lindy L.;
2013-01-01
In this paper we report on a search for short-duration gravitational wave bursts in the frequency range 64 Hz-1792 Hz associated with gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), using data from GEO600 and one of the LIGO or Virgo detectors. We introduce the method of a linear search grid to analyze GRB events with large sky localization uncertainties such as the localizations provided by the Fermi Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM). Coherent searches for gravitational waves (GWs) can be computationally intensive when the GRB sky position is not well-localized, due to the corrections required for the difference in arrival time between detectors. Using a linear search grid we are able to reduce the computational cost of the analysis by a factor of O(10) for GBM events. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our analysis pipeline can improve upon the sky localization of GRBs detected by the GBM, if a high-frequency GW signal is observed in coincidence. We use the linear search grid method in a search for GWs associated with 129 GRBs observed satellite-based gamma-ray experiments between 2006 and 2011. The GRBs in our sample had not been previously analyzed for GW counterparts. A fraction of our GRB events are analyzed using data from GEO600 while the detector was using squeezed-light states to improve its sensitivity; this is the first search for GWs using data from a squeezed-light interferometric observatory. We find no evidence for GW signals, either with any individual GRB in this sample or with the population as a whole. For each GRB we place lower bounds on the distance to the progenitor, assuming a fixed GW emission energy of 10(exp -2)Stellar Mass sq c, with a median exclusion distance of 0.8 Mpc for emission at 500 Hz and 0.3 Mpc at 1 kHz. The reduced computational cost associated with a linear search grid will enable rapid searches for GWs associated with Fermi GBM events in the Advanced detector era.
The method of UCN "small heating" measurement in the big gravitational spectrometer (BGS) and studies of this effect on Fomblin oil Y-HVAC 18/8
Nesvizhevsky, V. V.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Lambrecht, A.; Reynaud, S.; Lychagin, E. V.; Muzychka, A. Yu.; Nekhaev, G. V.; Strelkov, A. V.
2018-02-01
The Big Gravitational Spectrometer (BGS) takes advantage of the strong influence of the Earth's gravity on the motion of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) that makes it possible to shape and measure UCN spectra. We optimized the BGS to investigate the "small heating" of UCNs, that is, the inelastic reflection of UCNs from a surface accompanied by an energy change comparable with the initial UCN energy. UCNs whose energy increases are referred to as "Vaporized UCNs" (VUCNs). The BGS provides the narrowest UCN spectra of a few cm and the broadest "visible" VUCN energy range of up to ˜150 cm (UCN energy is given in units of its maximum height in the Earth's gravitational field, where 1.00 cm ≈ 1.02 neV). The dead-zone between the UCN and VUCN spectra is the narrowest ever achieved (a few cm). We performed measurements with and without samples without breaking vacuum. BGS provides the broadest range of temperatures (77-600 K) and the highest sensitivity to the small heating effect, up to ˜10-8 per bounce, i.e., two orders of magnitude higher than the sensitivity of alternative methods. We describe the method to measure the probability of UCN "small heating" using the BGS and illustrate it with a study of samples of the hydrogen-free oil Fomblin Y-HVAC 18/8. The data obtained are well reproducible, do not depend on sample thickness, and do not evolve over time. The measured model-independent probability P+ of UCN small heating from an energy "mono-line" 30.2 ± 2.5 cm to the energy range 35-140 cm is in the range (1.05 ±0.02s t a t )×1 0-5-(1.31 ±0.24s t a t )×1 0-5 at a temperature of 24 °C. The associated systematic uncertainty would disappear if a VUCN spectrum shape were known, for instance, from a particular model of small heating. This experiment provides the most precise and reliable value of small heating probability on Fomblin measured so far. These results are of importance for studies of UCN small heating as well as for analyzing and designing neutron
Nesvizhevsky, V V; Voronin, A Yu; Lambrecht, A; Reynaud, S; Lychagin, E V; Muzychka, A Yu; Nekhaev, G V; Strelkov, A V
2018-02-01
The Big Gravitational Spectrometer (BGS) takes advantage of the strong influence of the Earth's gravity on the motion of ultracold neutrons (UCNs) that makes it possible to shape and measure UCN spectra. We optimized the BGS to investigate the "small heating" of UCNs, that is, the inelastic reflection of UCNs from a surface accompanied by an energy change comparable with the initial UCN energy. UCNs whose energy increases are referred to as "Vaporized UCNs" (VUCNs). The BGS provides the narrowest UCN spectra of a few cm and the broadest "visible" VUCN energy range of up to ∼150 cm (UCN energy is given in units of its maximum height in the Earth's gravitational field, where 1.00 cm ≈ 1.02 neV). The dead-zone between the UCN and VUCN spectra is the narrowest ever achieved (a few cm). We performed measurements with and without samples without breaking vacuum. BGS provides the broadest range of temperatures (77-600 K) and the highest sensitivity to the small heating effect, up to ∼10 -8 per bounce, i.e., two orders of magnitude higher than the sensitivity of alternative methods. We describe the method to measure the probability of UCN "small heating" using the BGS and illustrate it with a study of samples of the hydrogen-free oil Fomblin Y-HVAC 18/8. The data obtained are well reproducible, do not depend on sample thickness, and do not evolve over time. The measured model-independent probability P + of UCN small heating from an energy "mono-line" 30.2 ± 2.5 cm to the energy range 35-140 cm is in the range 1.05±0.02 stat ×10 -5 -1.31±0.24 stat ×10 -5 at a temperature of 24 °C. The associated systematic uncertainty would disappear if a VUCN spectrum shape were known, for instance, from a particular model of small heating. This experiment provides the most precise and reliable value of small heating probability on Fomblin measured so far. These results are of importance for studies of UCN small heating as well as for analyzing and designing neutron lifetime
Lathe-cut hydrophilic contact lenses: report of 100 clinical cases.
Espy, J W
1978-10-01
In a review of the literature, it became apparent that there were very few articles describing the advantages, as well as the fitting techniques, of lathe-cut hydrophilic contact lenses. Few practitioners, including those who fit other types of hydrophilic lenses and hard lenses, have had any experience with this lens, and considerable interest has been generated by fragmentary reports of good results. This paper describes in detail the geometry of the first lathe-cut hydrophilic lens approved by the Federal Drug Administration, the fitting methods utilizing trial lenses, and the results of 100 patients successfully fitted.
A gravitational entropy proposal
Clifton, Timothy; Tavakol, Reza; Ellis, George F R
2013-01-01
We propose a thermodynamically motivated measure of gravitational entropy based on the Bel–Robinson tensor, which has a natural interpretation as the effective super-energy–momentum tensor of free gravitational fields. The specific form of this measure differs depending on whether the gravitational field is Coulomb-like or wave-like, and reduces to the Bekenstein–Hawking value when integrated over the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. For scalar perturbations of a Robertson–Walker geometry we find that the entropy goes like the Hubble weighted anisotropy of the gravitational field, and therefore increases as structure formation occurs. This is in keeping with our expectations for the behaviour of gravitational entropy in cosmology, and provides a thermodynamically motivated arrow of time for cosmological solutions of Einstein’s field equations. It is also in keeping with Penrose’s Weyl curvature hypothesis. (paper)
Gravitational wave searches using the DSN (Deep Space Network)
Nelson, S.J.; Armstrong, J.W.
1988-01-01
The Deep Space Network Doppler spacecraft link is currently the only method available for broadband gravitational wave searches in the 0.01 to 0.001 Hz frequency range. The DSN's role in the worldwide search for gravitational waves is described by first summarizing from the literature current theoretical estimates of gravitational wave strengths and time scales from various astrophysical sources. Current and future detection schemes for ground based and space based detectors are then discussed. Past, present, and future planned or proposed gravitational wave experiments using DSN Doppler tracking are described. Lastly, some major technical challenges to improve gravitational wave sensitivities using the DSN are discussed
More, Anupreeta; Oguri, Masamune; More, Surhud [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), University of Tokyo, Chiba 277-8583 (Japan); Suyu, Sherry H. [Max-Planck-Institut für Astrophysik, Karl-Schwarzschild-Str. 1, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Lee, Chien-Hsiu, E-mail: anupreeta.more@ipmu.jp [Subaru Telescope, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, 650 North Aohoku Place, Hilo, HI 96720 (United States)
2017-02-01
We present predictions for time delays between multiple images of the gravitationally lensed supernova, iPTF16geu, which was recently discovered from the intermediate Palomar Transient Factory (iPTF). As the supernova is of Type Ia where the intrinsic luminosity is usually well known, accurately measured time delays of the multiple images could provide tight constraints on the Hubble constant. According to our lens mass models constrained by the Hubble Space Telescope F814W image, we expect the maximum relative time delay to be less than a day, which is consistent with the maximum of 100 hr reported by Goobar et al. but places a stringent upper limit. Furthermore, the fluxes of most of the supernova images depart from expected values suggesting that they are affected by microlensing. The microlensing timescales are small enough that they may pose significant problems to measure the time delays reliably. Our lensing rate calculation indicates that the occurrence of a lensed SN in iPTF is likely. However, the observed total magnification of iPTF16geu is larger than expected, given its redshift. This may be a further indication of ongoing microlensing in this system.
Gravitational waves in hybrid quintessential inflationary models
Sa, Paulo M [Departamento de Fisica, Faculdade de Ciencias e Tecnologia, Universidade do Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro (Portugal); Henriques, Alfredo B, E-mail: pmsa@ualg.pt, E-mail: alfredo.henriques@ist.utl.pt [Centro Multidisciplinar de Astrofisica - CENTRA and Departamento de Fisica, Instituto Superior Tecnico, UTL, Av. Rovisco Pais, 1049-001 Lisboa (Portugal)
2011-09-22
The generation of primordial gravitational waves is investigated within the hybrid quintessential inflationary model. Using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, we calculate the full gravitational-wave energy spectrum. The post-inflationary kination period, characteristic of quintessential inflationary models, leaves a clear signature on the spectrum, namely, a sharp rise of the gravitational-wave spectral energy density {Omega}{sub GW} at high frequencies. For appropriate values of the parameters of the model, {Omega}{sub GW} can be as high as 10{sup -12} in the MHz-GHz range of frequencies.
Gravitational waves in hybrid quintessential inflationary models
Sa, Paulo M; Henriques, Alfredo B
2011-01-01
The generation of primordial gravitational waves is investigated within the hybrid quintessential inflationary model. Using the method of continuous Bogoliubov coefficients, we calculate the full gravitational-wave energy spectrum. The post-inflationary kination period, characteristic of quintessential inflationary models, leaves a clear signature on the spectrum, namely, a sharp rise of the gravitational-wave spectral energy density Ω GW at high frequencies. For appropriate values of the parameters of the model, Ω GW can be as high as 10 -12 in the MHz-GHz range of frequencies.
ALMA observations of lensed Herschel sources: testing the dark matter halo paradigm
Amvrosiadis, A.; Eales, S. A.; Negrello, M.; Marchetti, L.; Smith, M. W. L.; Bourne, N.; Clements, D. L.; De Zotti, G.; Dunne, L.; Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Ivison, R. J.; Maddox, S. J.; Valiante, E.; Baes, M.; Baker, A. J.; Cooray, A.; Crawford, S. M.; Frayer, D.; Harris, A.; Michałowski, M. J.; Nayyeri, H.; Oliver, S.; Riechers, D. A.; Serjeant, S.; Vaccari, M.
2018-04-01
With the advent of wide-area submillimetre surveys, a large number of high-redshift gravitationally lensed dusty star-forming galaxies have been revealed. Because of the simplicity of the selection criteria for candidate lensed sources in such surveys, identified as those with S500 μm > 100 mJy, uncertainties associated with the modelling of the selection function are expunged. The combination of these attributes makes submillimetre surveys ideal for the study of strong lens statistics. We carried out a pilot study of the lensing statistics of submillimetre-selected sources by making observations with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) of a sample of strongly lensed sources selected from surveys carried out with the Herschel Space Observatory. We attempted to reproduce the distribution of image separations for the lensed sources using a halo mass function taken from a numerical simulation that contains both dark matter and baryons. We used three different density distributions, one based on analytical fits to the haloes formed in the EAGLE simulation and two density distributions [Singular Isothermal Sphere (SIS) and SISSA] that have been used before in lensing studies. We found that we could reproduce the observed distribution with all three density distributions, as long as we imposed an upper mass transition of ˜1013 M⊙ for the SIS and SISSA models, above which we assumed that the density distribution could be represented by a Navarro-Frenk-White profile. We show that we would need a sample of ˜500 lensed sources to distinguish between the density distributions, which is practical given the predicted number of lensed sources in the Herschel surveys.
SUB-KILOPARSEC IMAGING OF COOL MOLECULAR GAS IN TWO STRONGLY LENSED DUSTY, STAR-FORMING GALAXIES
Spilker, J. S.; Marrone, D. P. [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Aravena, M. [Núcleo de Astronomía, Facultad de Ingeniería, Universidad Diego Portales, Av. Ejército 441, Santiago (Chile); Béthermin, M.; Breuck, C. de [European Southern Observatory, Karl Schwarzschild Straße 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Bothwell, M. S. [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, JJ Thompson Ave, Cambridge CB3 0HA (United Kingdom); Carlstrom, J. E. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, 5640 South Ellis Avenue, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Chapman, S. C.; Rotermund, K. M. [Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Collier, J. D.; Galvin, T.; Grieve, K.; O’Brien, A. [University of Western Sydney, Locked Bag 1797, Penrith, NSW 2751 (Australia); Fassnacht, C. D. [Department of Physics, University of California, One Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Gonzalez, A. H.; Ma, J. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); González-López, J. [Instituto de Astrofísica, Facultad de Física, Pontificia Universidad Católica de Chile, Av. Vicuña Mackenna 4860, 782-0436 Macul, Santiago (Chile); Hezaveh, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Malkan, M., E-mail: jspilker@as.arizona.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1547 (United States); and others
2015-10-01
We present spatially resolved imaging obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) of three CO lines in two high-redshift gravitationally lensed dusty star-forming galaxies, discovered by the South Pole Telescope. Strong lensing allows us to probe the structure and dynamics of the molecular gas in these two objects, at z = 2.78 and z = 5.66, with effective source-plane resolution of less than 1 kpc. We model the lensed emission from multiple CO transitions and the dust continuum in a consistent manner, finding that the cold molecular gas as traced by low-J CO always has a larger half-light radius than the 870 μm dust continuum emission. This size difference leads to up to 50% differences in the magnification factor for the cold gas compared to dust. In the z = 2.78 galaxy, these CO observations confirm that the background source is undergoing a major merger, while the velocity field of the other source is more complex. We use the ATCA CO observations and comparable resolution Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array dust continuum imaging of the same objects to constrain the CO–H{sub 2} conversion factor with three different procedures, finding good agreement between the methods and values consistent with those found for rapidly star-forming systems. We discuss these galaxies in the context of the star formation—gas mass surface density relation, noting that the change in emitting area with observed CO transition must be accounted for when comparing high-redshift galaxies to their lower redshift counterparts.
TEMPLATES: Targeting Extremely Magnified Panchromatic Lensed Arcs and Their Extended Star formation
Spilker, Justin; Rigby, Jane R.; Vieira, Joaquin D.; TEMPLATES Team
2018-06-01
TEMPLATES is a JWST Early Release Science program designed to produce high signal-to-noise imaging and IFU spectroscopic data cubes for four gravitationally lensed galaxies at high redshift. The program will spatially resolve the star formation in galaxies across the peak of cosmic star formation in an extinction-robust manner. Lensing magnification pushes JWST to the highest spatial resolutions possible at these redshifts, to map the key spectral diagnostics of star formation and dust extinction: H-alpha, Pa-alpha, and 3.3um PAH emission within individual distant galaxies. Our targets are among the brightest, best-characterized lensed systems known, and include both UV-bright 'normal' galaxies and heavily dust-obscured submillimeter galaxies, at a range of stellar masses and luminosities. I will describe the scientific motivation for this program, detail the targeted galaxies, and describe the planned data products to be delivered to the community in advance of JWST Cycle 2.
Strong deflection lensing by charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity
Eiroa, Ernesto F.; Sendra, Carlos M. [Instituto de Astronomia y Fisica del Espacio (IAFE, CONICET-UBA), Buenos Aires (Argentina); Universidad de Buenos Aires, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Buenos Aires (Argentina)
2014-11-15
We examine a class of charged black holes in scalar-tensor gravity as gravitational lenses. We find the deflection angle in the strong deflection limit, from which we obtain the positions and the magnifications of the relativistic images. We compare our results with those corresponding to the Reissner-Norstroem spacetime and we analyze the observational aspects in the case of the Galactic supermassive black hole. (orig.)
Lensing smoothing of BAO wiggles
Dio, Enea Di, E-mail: enea.didio@oats.inaf.it [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G.B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy)
2017-03-01
We study non-perturbatively the effect of the deflection angle on the BAO wiggles of the matter power spectrum in real space. We show that from redshift z ∼2 this introduces a dispersion of roughly 1 Mpc at BAO scale, which corresponds approximately to a 1% effect. The lensing effect induced by the deflection angle, which is completely geometrical and survey independent, smears out the BAO wiggles. The effect on the power spectrum amplitude at BAO scale is about 0.1 % for z ∼2 and 0.2 % for z ∼4. We compare the smoothing effects induced by the lensing potential and non-linear structure formation, showing that the two effects become comparable at z ∼ 4, while the lensing effect dominates for sources at higher redshifts. We note that this effect is not accounted through BAO reconstruction techniques.
Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung
Turner, M.; Will, C.M.
1977-07-01
Formulae and numerical results are presented for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies. Results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. The gravitational waveform, the total luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy, and the frequency spectrum are discussed in detail. A method boosting the accuracy of these quantities to post Newtonian order is also presented. A numerical comparison of results with those of Peters, and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1 percent at v = 0.1 c, to a few percent at v = 0.35 c, and to 10 to 20 percent at v = 0.5 c
3D weak lensing with spin wavelets on the ball
Leistedt, Boris; McEwen, Jason D.; Kitching, Thomas D.; Peiris, Hiranya V.
2015-12-01
We construct the spin flaglet transform, a wavelet transform to analyze spin signals in three dimensions. Spin flaglets can probe signal content localized simultaneously in space and frequency and, moreover, are separable so that their angular and radial properties can be controlled independently. They are particularly suited to analyzing cosmological observations such as the weak gravitational lensing of galaxies. Such observations have a unique 3D geometrical setting since they are natively made on the sky, have spin angular symmetries, and are extended in the radial direction by additional distance or redshift information. Flaglets are constructed in the harmonic space defined by the Fourier-Laguerre transform, previously defined for scalar functions and extended here to signals with spin symmetries. Thanks to various sampling theorems, both the Fourier-Laguerre and flaglet transforms are theoretically exact when applied to bandlimited signals. In other words, in numerical computations the only loss of information is due to the finite representation of floating point numbers. We develop a 3D framework relating the weak lensing power spectrum to covariances of flaglet coefficients. We suggest that the resulting novel flaglet weak lensing estimator offers a powerful alternative to common 2D and 3D approaches to accurately capture cosmological information. While standard weak lensing analyses focus on either real- or harmonic-space representations (i.e., correlation functions or Fourier-Bessel power spectra, respectively), a wavelet approach inherits the advantages of both techniques, where both complicated sky coverage and uncertainties associated with the physical modeling of small scales can be handled effectively. Our codes to compute the Fourier-Laguerre and flaglet transforms are made publicly available.
Relativistic theory of gravitation
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvilli, M.A.
1985-01-01
In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is constructed in a unique way on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this, a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday-Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG, the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-momentum and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravitation. In virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTg leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The Universe is not closed but just ''flat''. This suggests that in the Universe a ''hidden mass'' should exist in some form of matter
Aspheric lenses for terahertz imaging.
Lo, Yat Hei; Leonhardt, Rainer
2008-09-29
We present novel designs for aspheric lenses used in terahertz (THz) imaging. As different surfaces result in different beam shaping properties and in different losses from reflection and absorption, the resultant imaging resolution (i.e. the focal spot size) depends critically on the design approach. We evaluate the different lens designs using Kirchhoff's scalar diffraction theory, and test the predictions experimentally. We also show that our lenses can achieve sub-wavelength resolution. While our lens designs are tested with THz radiation, the design considerations are applicable also to other regions of the electro-magnetic spectrum.
On the gravitational constant change
Milyukov, V.K.
1986-01-01
The nowadays viewpoint on the problem of G gravitational constant invariability is presented in brief. The methods and results of checking of the G dependence on the nature of substance (checking of the equivalence principle), G dependepce on distance (checking of Newton gravity law) and time (cosmological experiments) are presented. It is pointed out that all performed experiments don't give any reasons to have doubts in G constancy in space and time and G independence on the nature of the substance
Abbey, Ashkan M.; Gregori, Ninel Z.; Surapaneni, Krishna; Miller, Darlene
2014-01-01
Purpose While manufacturers recommend cleaning ophthalmic lenses with detergent and water and then a specific disinfectant, disinfectants are rarely used in ophthalmic practices. The aim of this pilot study was to evaluate the efficacy of detergent and water versus bleach, a recommended disinfectant, to eliminate common ocular bacteria and viruses from ophthalmic lenses. Methods Three bacterial strains (Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and two viral strains (adenovirus and herpes simplex virus (HSV) type-1) were individually inoculated to 20 gonioscopy and laser lenses. Lenses were washed with detergent and water and then disinfected with 10% bleach. All lenses were cultured after inoculation, after detergent and water, and after the bleach. Bacterial cultures in thioglycollate broth were observed for 3 weeks and viral cultures for 2 weeks. The presence of viruses was also detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results All 20 lenses inoculated with Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium straitum, adenovirus, and HSV-1 showed growth after inoculation, but no growth after detergent/water and after the bleach. All lenses showed positive HSV and adenovirus PCR after inoculation and negative PCR after detergent/water and after bleach. All MRSA contaminated lenses showed growth after inoculation and no growth after detergent and water. However, one lens showed positive growth after bleach. Conclusions Cleaning with detergent and water appeared to effectively eliminate bacteria and viruses from the surface of contaminated ophthalmic lenses. Further studies are warranted to design practical disinfection protocols that minimize lens damage. PMID:24747806
Alireza Khosravi
2015-12-01
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The aim of this study is to present an objective method based on support vector machines (SVMs and gravitational search algorithm (GSA which is initially utilized for recognition the pattern among risk factors and hypertension (HTN to stratify and analysis HTN’s risk factors in an Iranian urban population. METHODS: This community-based and cross-sectional research has been designed based on the probabilistic sample of residents of Isfahan, Iran, aged 19 years or over from 2001 to 2007. One of the household members was randomly selected from different age groups. Selected individuals were invited to a predefined health center to be educated on how to collect 24-hour urine sample as well as learning about topographic parameters and blood pressure measurement. The data from both the estimated and measured blood pressure [for both systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP] demonstrated that optimized SVMs have a highest estimation potential. RESULTS: This result was particularly more evident when SVMs performance is evaluated with regression and generalized linear modeling (GLM as common methods. Blood pressure risk factors impact analysis shows that age has the highest impact level on SBP while it falls second on the impact level ranking on DBP. The results also showed that body mass index (BMI falls first on the impact level ranking on DBP while have a lower impact on SBP. CONCLUSION: Our analysis suggests that salt intake could efficiently influence both DBP and SBP with greater impact level on SBP. Therefore, controlling salt intake may lead to not only control of HTN but also its prevention.
Tevikyan, R.V.
1986-01-01
This paper presents equations that describe particles with spins s = 0, 1/2, 1 completely and which also describe 2s + 2 limiting fields as E → ∞. It is shown that the ordinary Hilbert-Einstein action for the gravitation field must be augmented by the action for the Bose vacuum field. This means that one must introduce in the gravitational equations a cosmological term proportional to the square of the strength of the Bose vacuum field. It is shown that the theory of gravitation describes three realities: matter, field, and vacuum field. A new form of matter--the vacuum field--is introduced into field theory
Gravitational radiation reaction
Tanaka, Takahiro
2006-01-01
We give a short personally-biased review on the recent progress in our understanding of gravitational radiation reaction acting on a point particle orbiting a black hole. The main motivation of this study is to obtain sufficiently precise gravitational waveforms from inspiraling binary compact starts with a large mass ratio. For this purpose, various new concepts and techniques have been developed to compute the orbital evolution taking into account the gravitational self-force. Combining these ideas with a few supplementary new ideas, we try to outline a path to our goal here. (author)
Presenting Newtonian gravitation
Counihan, Martin
2007-01-01
The basic principles of the Newtonian theory of gravitation are presented in a way which students may find more logically coherent, mathematically accessible and physically interesting than other approaches. After giving relatively simple derivations of the circular hodograph and the elliptical orbit from the inverse-square law, the concept of gravitational energy is developed from vector calculus. It is argued that the energy density of a gravitational field may reasonably be regarded as -g 2 /8πG, and that the inverse-square law may be replaced by a Schwarzschild-like force law without the need to invoke non-Euclidean geometry
Gravitational Lens Time Delays Using Polarization Monitoring
Andrew Biggs
2017-11-01
Full Text Available Gravitational lens time delays provide a means of measuring the expansion of the Universe at high redshift (and therefore in the ‘Hubble flow’ that is independent of local calibrations. It was hoped that many of the radio lenses found in the JVAS/CLASS survey would yield time delays as these were selected to have flat spectra and are dominated by multiple compact components. However, despite extensive monitoring with the Very Large Array (VLA, time delays have only been measured for three of these systems (out of 22. We have begun a programme to reanalyse the existing VLA monitoring data with the goal of producing light curves in polarized flux and polarization position angle, either to improve delay measurements or to find delays for new sources. Here, we present preliminary results on the lens system B1600+434 which demonstrate the presence of correlated and substantial polarization variability in each image.
Improvements to the Root Finding Algorithm in VBBinaryLensing
Heintz, Tyler; Hoag, Ava; Bozza, Valerio; Oberst, Thomas
2018-01-01
VBBinaryLensing is the leading code for fitting magnification maps to microlensing events by binary lenses, most especially for exoplanet discoveries. The majority of the code’s runtime is devoted to finding roots of a fifth order complex polynomial arising from the binary lens equation. This is currently accomplished via the ZROOTS subroutine, which employs Laguerre’s method. Skowron and Gould’s (2012) algorithm, which employs a combination of Laguerre’s and Newton’s methods, presents the possibility of faster runtimes. We introduce a C++ translation of Skowron and Gould’s algorithm and test it as a replacement for ZROOTS in VBBinaryLensing. We find that this new implementation both reduces the time spent finding roots and makes the code more robust in extreme regimes.
Photometric redshift requirements for lens galaxies in galaxy-galaxy lensing analyses
Nakajima, R.; Mandelbaum, R.; Seljak, U.; Cohn, J. D.; Reyes, R.; Cool, R.
2012-03-01
Weak gravitational lensing is a valuable probe of galaxy formation and cosmology. Here we quantify the effects of using photometric redshifts (photo-z) in galaxy-galaxy lensing, for both sources and lenses, both for the immediate goal of using galaxies with photo-z as lenses in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and as a demonstration of methodology for large, upcoming weak lensing surveys that will by necessity be dominated by lens samples with photo-z. We calculate the bias in the lensing mass calibration as well as consequences for absolute magnitude (i.e. k-corrections) and stellar mass estimates for a large sample of SDSS Data Release 8 (DR8) galaxies. The redshifts are obtained with the template-based photo-z code ZEBRA on the SDSS DR8 ugriz photometry. We assemble and characterize the calibration samples (˜9000 spectroscopic redshifts from four surveys) to obtain photometric redshift errors and lensing biases corresponding to our full SDSS DR8 lens and source catalogues. Our tests of the calibration sample also highlight the impact of observing conditions in the imaging survey when the spectroscopic calibration covers a small fraction of its footprint; atypical imaging conditions in calibration fields can lead to incorrect conclusions regarding the photo-z of the full survey. For the SDSS DR8 catalogue, we find σΔz/(1+z)= 0.096 and 0.113 for the lens and source catalogues, with flux limits of r= 21 and 21.8, respectively. The photo-z bias and scatter is a function of photo-z and template types, which we exploit to apply photo-z quality cuts. By using photo-z rather than spectroscopy for lenses, dim blue galaxies and L* galaxies up to z˜ 0.4 can be used as lenses, thus expanding into unexplored areas of parameter space. We also explore the systematic uncertainty in the lensing signal calibration when using source photo-z, and both lens and source photo-z; given the size of existing training samples, we can constrain the lensing signal calibration (and
Yilmaz, H.
1975-01-01
Schwinger's source theory is applied to the problem of gravitation and its quantization. It is shown that within the framework of a flat-space the source theory implementation leads to a violation of probability. To avoid the difficulty one must introduce a curved space-time hence the source concept may be said to necessitate the transition to a curved-space theory of gravitation. It is further shown that the curved-space theory of gravitation implied by the source theory is not equivalent to the conventional Einstein theory. The source concept leads to a different theory where the gravitational field has a stress-energy tensor t/sup nu//sub mu/ which contributes to geometric curvatures
Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos
Sturani, Riccardo
2018-01-01
We give an overview about the recent detection of gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO first and second observing runs and by Advanced Virgo, with emphasis on the prospects for multi-messenger astronomy involving neutrinos detections.
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.
Gravitating multidefects from higher dimensions
Giovannini, Massimo
2007-01-01
Warped configurations admitting pairs of gravitating defects are analyzed. After devising a general method for the construction of multidefects, specific examples are presented in the case of higher-dimensional Einstein-Hilbert gravity. The obtained profiles describe diverse physical situations such as (topological) kink-antikink systems, pairs of non-topological solitons and bound configurations of a kink and of a non-topological soliton. In all the mentioned cases the geometry is always well behaved (all relevant curvature invariants are regular) and tends to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time for large asymptotic values of the bulk coordinate. Particular classes of solutions can be generalized to the framework where the gravity part of the action includes, as a correction, the Euler-Gauss-Bonnet combination. After scrutinizing the structure of the zero modes, the obtained results are compared with conventional gravitating configurations containing a single topological defect.
Topological quantization of gravitational fields
Patino, Leonardo; Quevedo, Hernando
2005-01-01
We introduce the method of topological quantization for gravitational fields in a systematic manner. First we show that any vacuum solution of Einstein's equations can be represented in a principal fiber bundle with a connection that takes values in the Lie algebra of the Lorentz group. This result is generalized to include the case of gauge matter fields in multiple principal fiber bundles. We present several examples of gravitational configurations that include a gravitomagnetic monopole in linearized gravity, the C-energy of cylindrically symmetric fields, the Reissner-Nordstroem and the Kerr-Newman black holes. As a result of the application of the topological quantization procedure, in all the analyzed examples we obtain conditions implying that the parameters entering the metric in each case satisfy certain discretization relationships
Huterer, Dragan
2002-01-01
We study the power of upcoming weak lensing surveys to probe dark energy. Dark energy modifies the distance-redshift relation as well as the matter power spectrum, both of which affect the weak lensing convergence power spectrum. Some dark-energy models predict additional clustering on very large scales, but this probably cannot be detected by weak lensing alone due to cosmic variance. With reasonable prior information on other cosmological parameters, we find that a survey covering 1000 sq deg down to a limiting magnitude of R=27 can impose constraints comparable to those expected from upcoming type Ia supernova and number-count surveys. This result, however, is contingent on the control of both observational and theoretical systematics. Concentrating on the latter, we find that the nonlinear power spectrum of matter perturbations and the redshift distribution of source galaxies both need to be determined accurately in order for weak lensing to achieve its full potential. Finally, we discuss the sensitivity of the three-point statistics to dark energy
Optics Demonstrations Using Cylindrical Lenses
Ivanov, Dragia; Nikolov, Stefan
2015-01-01
In this paper we consider the main properties of cylindrical lenses and propose several demonstrational experiments that can be performed with them. Specifically we use simple glasses full of water to demonstrate some basic geometrical optics principles and phenomena. We also present some less standard experiments that can be performed with such…
Relativistic gravitation theory for the modified Newtonian dynamics paradigm
Bekenstein, Jacob D.
2004-01-01
The modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) paradigm of Milgrom can boast of a number of successful predictions regarding galactic dynamics; these are made without the assumption that dark matter plays a significant role. MOND requires gravitation to depart from Newtonian theory in the extragalactic regime where dynamical accelerations are small. So far relativistic gravitation theories proposed to underpin MOND have either clashed with the post-Newtonian tests of general relativity, or failed to provide significant gravitational lensing, or violated hallowed principles by exhibiting superluminal scalar waves or an a priori vector field. We develop a relativistic MOND inspired theory which resolves these problems. In it gravitation is mediated by metric, a scalar, and a 4-vector field, all three dynamical. For a simple choice of its free function, the theory has a Newtonian limit for nonrelativistic dynamics with significant acceleration, but a MOND limit when accelerations are small. We calculate the β and γ parameterized post-Newtonian coefficients showing them to agree with solar system measurements. The gravitational light deflection by nonrelativistic systems is governed by the same potential responsible for dynamics of particles. To the extent that MOND successfully describes dynamics of a system, the new theory's predictions for lensing by that system's visible matter will agree as well with observations as general relativity's predictions made with a dynamically successful dark halo model. Cosmological models based on the theory are quite similar to those based on general relativity; they predict slow evolution of the scalar field. For a range of initial conditions, this last result makes it easy to rule out superluminal propagation of metric, scalar, and vector waves
Experimental hint for gravitational CP violation
Gharibyan, Vahagn [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron, Hamburg (Germany). MDI Group
2016-01-15
An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Gravity dependence on rotation or spin direction is experimentally constrained only at low energies. Here a method based on high energy Compton scattering is developed to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a gravitational CP violation around 13 GeV energies, at a maximal level of 1.3±0.2% for the charge and 0.68±0.09% for the space parity. A stronger gravitational coupling to left helicity electrons relative to right helicity positrons is detected.
Gravitational perturbation theory and synchrotron radiation
Breuer, R A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik und Astrophysik, Muenchen (F.R. Germany). Inst. fuer Astrophysik
1975-01-01
This article presents methods and results for a gravitational perturbation theory which treats massless fields as linearized perturbations of an arbitrary gravitational vacuum background spacetime. The formalism is outlined for perturbations of type (22) spacetimes. As an application, high-frequency radiation emitted by particles moving approximately on relativistic circular geodesic orbits is computed. More precisely, the test particle assumption is made; throughout it is therefore assumed that the reaction of the radiation on the particle motion is negligible. In particular, these orbits are studied in the gravitational field of a spherically symmetric (Schwarzschild-) black hole as well as of a rotating (Kerr-) black hole. In this model, the outgoing radiation is highly focussed and of much higher fequency than the orbital frequency, i.e. one is dealing with 'gravitational synchrotron radiation'.
Experimental hint for gravitational CP violation
Gharibyan, Vahagn
2016-01-01
An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Gravity dependence on rotation or spin direction is experimentally constrained only at low energies. Here a method based on high energy Compton scattering is developed to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a gravitational CP violation around 13 GeV energies, at a maximal level of 1.3±0.2% for the charge and 0.68±0.09% for the space parity. A stronger gravitational coupling to left helicity electrons relative to right helicity positrons is detected.
Listening music of gravitation
Anon.
2001-01-01
Achievements of precision experiments in Japan (TAMA project) and USA (LIGO Laboratory) in the field of registration of gravitation waves using interferometric gravitational wave detectors are described. Works of the GEO groups in Hannover (Germany) and Vigro (Italy) are noted. Interferometer operation in synchronization during 160 hours demonstrating viability of the technique and its reliability is recorded. Advances in the field of the data analysis with the aim of recording of cosmic signal from noise of the interferometer are noted [ru
Romero, Gustavo E.
2017-01-01
I discuss the recent claims made by Mario Bunge on the philosophical implications of the discovery of gravitational waves. I think that Bunge is right when he points out that the detection implies the materiality of spacetime, but I reject his identification of spacetime with the gravitational field. I show that Bunge's analysis of the spacetime inside a hollow sphere is defective, but this in no way affects his main claim.
Stavroulakis N.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The equations of gravitation together with the equations of electromagnetism in terms of the General Theory of Relativity allow to conceive an interdependence between the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field. However the technical difficulties of the relevant problems have precluded from expressing clearly this interdependence. Even the simple problem related to the field generated by a charged spherical mass is not correctly solved. In the present paper we reexamine from the outset this problem and propose a new solution.
Umbach, Marion
2009-01-01
This thesis presents first results on the development of achromatic refractive X-ray lenses which can be used for scientific experiments at synchrotron sources. First of all the different requirements for achromatic X-ray lenses have been worked out. There are different types of lenses, one type can be used for monochromatized sources when the energy is scanned while the spot size should be constant. The other type can be used at beamlines providing a broad energy band. By a combination of focusing and defocusing elements we have developed a lens system that strongly reduces the chromatic aberration of a refractive lens in a given energy range. The great challenge in the X-ray case - in contrast to the visible range - the complex refractive index, which is very similar for the possible materials in the X-ray spectrum. For precise studies a numerical code has been developed, which calculates the different rays on their way through the lenses to the detector plane via raytracing. In this numerical code the intensity distribution in the detector plane has been analyzed for a chromatic and the corresponding achromatic system. By optimization routines for the two different fields of applications specific parameter combinations were found. For the experimental verification an achromatic system has been developed, consisting of biconcave SU-8 lenses and biconvex Nickel Fresnel lenses. Their fabrication was based on the LIGA-process, including a further innovative development, namely the fabrication of two different materials on one wafer. In the experiment at the synchrotron source ANKA the energy was varied in a specific energy range in steps of 0.1 keV. The intensity distribution for the different energies was detected at a certain focal length. For the achromatic system a reduction of the chromatic aberration could be clearly shown. Achromatic refractive X-ray lenses, especially for the use at synchrotron sources, have not been developed so far. As a consequence of the
Fedorov, Oleg
2016-07-01
Space materials science is one of the priorities of different national and international space programs. The physical processes of heat and mass transfer in microgravity (including effect of g-jitter) is far from complete clarity, especially for important practical technology for producing crystals from the melt. The idea of the impact on crystallizing melt by low frequency vibration includes not only the possibility to suppress unwanted microaccelerations, but also to actively influence the structure of the crystallization front. This approach is one of the most effective ways to influence the quality of materials produced in flight conditions. The subject of this work is the effect of vibrations on the thermal and hydrodynamic processes during crystal growth using Bridgman and floating zone techniques, which have the greatest prospect of practical application in space. In the present approach we consider the gravitational convection, Marangoni convection, as well as the effect of vibration on the melt for some special cases. The results of simulation were compared with some experimental data obtained by the authors using a transparent model substance - succinonitrile (Bridgman method), and silicon (floating zone method). Substances used, process parameters and characteristics of the experimental units correspond the equipment developed for onboard research and serve as a basis for selecting optimum conditions vibration exposure as a factor affecting the solidification pattern. The direction of imposing vibrations coincides with the axis of the crystal, the frequency is presented by the harmonic law, and the force of gravity was varied by changing its absolute value. Mathematical model considered axisymmetric approximation of joint convective-conductive energy transfer in the system crystal - melt. Upon application of low-frequency oscillations of small amplitude along the axis of growing it was found the suppression of the secondary vortex flows near the
GRAVITATIONAL MICROLENSING EVENTS AS A TARGET FOR THE SETI PROJECT
Rahvar, Sohrab, E-mail: rahvar@sharif.edu [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P.O. Box 11365–9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)
2016-09-01
The detection of signals from a possible extrasolar technological civilization is one of the most challenging efforts of science. In this work, we propose using natural telescopes made of single or binary gravitational lensing systems to magnify leakage of electromagnetic signals from a remote planet that harbors Extraterrestrial Intelligent (ETI) technology. Currently, gravitational microlensing surveys are monitoring a large area of the Galactic bulge to search for microlensing events, finding more than 2000 events per year. These lenses are capable of playing the role of natural telescopes, and, in some instances, they can magnify radio band signals from planets orbiting around the source stars in gravitational microlensing systems. Assuming that the frequency of electromagnetic waves used for telecommunication in ETIs is similar to ours, we propose follow-up observation of microlensing events with radio telescopes such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA), the Low Frequency Demonstrators, and the Mileura Wide-Field Array. Amplifying signals from the leakage of broadcasting by an Earth-like civilization will allow us to detect them as far as the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Our analysis shows that in binary microlensing systems, the probability of amplification of signals from ETIs is more than that in single microlensing events. Finally, we propose the use of the target of opportunity mode for follow-up observations of binary microlensing events with SKA as a new observational program for searching ETIs. Using optimistic values for the factors of the Drake equation provides detection of about one event per year.
Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos
Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.
2017-09-01
Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.
Relativistic theory of gravitation
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1986-01-01
In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday--Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-moment and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravity. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTG leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The universe is not closed but just ''flat.'' This suggests that in the universe a ''missing mass'' should exist in a form of matter
Keeton, Charles R.; Petters, A.O.
2006-01-01
We study gravitational lensing by compact objects in gravity theories that can be written in a post-post-Newtonian (PPN) framework: i.e., the metric is static and spherically symmetric, and can be written as a Taylor series in m /r, where m is the gravitational radius of the compact object. Working invariantly, we compute corrections to standard weak-deflection lensing observables at first and second order in the perturbation parameter ε=θ/θ E , where θ is the angular gravitational radius and θ E is the angular Einstein ring radius of the lens. We show that the first-order corrections to the total magnification and centroid position vanish universally for gravity theories that can be written in the PPN framework. This arises from some surprising, fundamental relations among the lensing observables in PPN gravity models. We derive these relations for the image positions, magnifications, and time delays. A deep consequence is that any violation of the universal relations would signal the need for a gravity model outside the PPN framework (provided that some basic assumptions hold). In practical terms, the relations will guide observational programs to test general relativity, modified gravity theories, and possibly the cosmic censorship conjecture. We use the new relations to identify lensing observables that are accessible to current or near-future technology, and to find combinations of observables that are most useful for probing the spacetime metric. We give explicit applications to the galactic black hole, microlensing, and the binary pulsar J0737-3039
Flat liquid crystal diffractive lenses with variable focus and magnification
Valley, Pouria
Non-mechanical variable lenses are important for creating compact imaging devices. Various methods employing dielectrically actuated lenses, membrane lenses, and liquid crystal lenses were previously proposed [1-4]. In This dissertation the design, fabrication, and characterization of innovative flat tunable-focus liquid crystal diffractive lenses (LCDL) are presented. LCDL employ binary Fresnel zone electrodes fabricated on Indium-Tin-Oxide using conventional micro-photolithography. The light phase can be adjusted by varying the effective refractive index of a nematic liquid crystal sandwiched between the electrodes and a reference substrate. Using a proper voltage distribution across various electrodes the focal length can be changed between several discrete values. Electrodes are shunted such that the correct phase retardation step sequence is achieved. If the number of 2pi zone boundaries is increased by a factor of m the focal length is changed from f to f/m based on the digitized Fresnel zone equation: f = rm2/2mlambda, where r m is mth zone radius, and lambda is the wavelength. The chromatic aberration of the diffractive lens is addressed and corrected by adding a variable fluidic lens. These LCDL operate at very low voltage levels (+/-2.5V ac input), exhibit fast switching times (20-150 ms), can have large apertures (>10 mm), and small form factor, and are robust and insensitive to vibrations, gravity, and capillary effects that limit membrane and dielectrically actuated lenses. Several tests were performed on the LCDL including diffraction efficiency measurement, switching dynamics, and hybrid imaging with a refractive lens. Negative focal lengths are achieved by adjusting the voltages across electrodes. Using these lenses in combination, magnification can be changed and zoom lenses can be formed. These characteristics make LCDL a good candidate for a variety of applications including auto-focus and zoom lenses in compact imaging devices such as camera
RELICS: A Candidate Galaxy Arc at z~10 and Other Brightly Lensed z>6 Galaxies
Salmon, Brett; Coe, Dan; Bradley, Larry; Bradac, Marusa; Huang, Kuang-Han; Oesch, Pascal; Brammer, Gabriel; Stark, Daniel P.; Sharon, Keren; Trenti, Michele; Avila, Roberto J.; Ogaz, Sara; Acebron, Ana; Andrade-Santos, Felipe; Carrasco, Daniela; Cerny, Catherine; Cibirka, Nathália; Dawson, William; Frye, Brenda; Hoag, Austin; Jones, Christine; Mainali, Ramesh; Ouchi, Masami; Paterno-Mahler, Rachel; Rodney, Steven; Umetsu, Keiichi; Zitrin, Adi; RELICS
2018-01-01
Massive foreground galaxy clusters magnify and distort the light of objects behind them, permitting a view into both the extremely distant and intrinsically faint galaxy populations. We present here some of the most brightly lensed z>6 galaxy candidates known from the Reionization Lensing Cluster Survey (RELICS) and the discovery of a particularly fortuitous z~10 galaxy candidate which has been arced by the effects of strong gravitational lensing. The z~10 candidate has a lensed H-band magnitude of 25.8 AB mag and a high lensing magnification (~4-7). The inferred upper limits on the stellar mass (log [M_star /M_Sun]=9.5) and star formation rate (log [SFR/(M_Sun/yr)]=1.5) indicate that this candidate is a typical star-forming galaxy on the z>6 SFR-M_star relation. We rule out the only low-z solution as unphysical based on the required stellar mass, dust attenuation, size, and [OIII] EW needed for a z~2 SED to match the data. Finally, we reconstruct the source-plane image and estimate the candidate's physical size at z~10, finding a half-light radius of r_e 9 candidates. While the James Webb Space Telescope will detect z>10 with ease, this rare candidate offers the potential for unprecedented spatial resolution less than 500 Myr after the Big Bang.
Deane, R. P.; Obreschkow, D.; Heywood, I.
2015-09-01
Strong gravitational lensing provides some of the deepest views of the Universe, enabling studies of high-redshift galaxies only possible with next-generation facilities without the lensing phenomenon. To date, 21-cm radio emission from neutral hydrogen has only been detected directly out to z ˜ 0.2, limited by the sensitivity and instantaneous bandwidth of current radio telescopes. We discuss how current and future radio interferometers such as the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) will detect lensed H I emission in individual galaxies at high redshift. Our calculations rely on a semi-analytic galaxy simulation with realistic H I discs (by size, density profile and rotation), in a cosmological context, combined with general relativistic ray tracing. Wide-field, blind H I surveys with the SKA are predicted to be efficient at discovering lensed H I systems, increasingly so at z ≳ 2. This will be enabled by the combination of the magnification boosts, the steepness of the H I luminosity function at the high-mass end, and the fact that the H I spectral line is relatively isolated in frequency. These surveys will simultaneously provide a new technique for foreground lens selection and yield the highest redshift H I emission detections. More near term (and existing) cm-wave facilities will push the high-redshift H I envelope through targeted surveys of known lenses.
Confirmation of general relativity on large scales from weak lensing and galaxy velocities
Reyes, Reinabelle; Mandelbaum, Rachel; Seljak, Uros; Baldauf, Tobias; Gunn, James E.; Lombriser, Lucas; Smith, Robert E.
2010-03-01
Although general relativity underlies modern cosmology, its applicability on cosmological length scales has yet to be stringently tested. Such a test has recently been proposed, using a quantity, EG, that combines measures of large-scale gravitational lensing, galaxy clustering and structure growth rate. The combination is insensitive to `galaxy bias' (the difference between the clustering of visible galaxies and invisible dark matter) and is thus robust to the uncertainty in this parameter. Modified theories of gravity generally predict values of EG different from the general relativistic prediction because, in these theories, the `gravitational slip' (the difference between the two potentials that describe perturbations in the gravitational metric) is non-zero, which leads to changes in the growth of structure and the strength of the gravitational lensing effect. Here we report that EG = 0.39+/-0.06 on length scales of tens of megaparsecs, in agreement with the general relativistic prediction of EG~0.4. The measured value excludes a model within the tensor-vector-scalar gravity theory, which modifies both Newtonian and Einstein gravity. However, the relatively large uncertainty still permits models within f() theory, which is an extension of general relativity. A fivefold decrease in uncertainty is needed to rule out these models.
Nord, B.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Lin, H.; Diehl, H. T.; Kuropatkin, N.; Allam, S.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Merritt, K. W.; Helsby, J.; Amara, A.; Collett, T.; Caminha, G. B.; De Bom, C.; Da Pereira, M. Elidaiana S.; Desai, S.; Dúmet-Montoya, H.; Furlanetto, C.; Gill, M.
2016-01-01
We report the observation and confirmation of the first group- and cluster-scale strong gravitational lensing systems found in Dark Energy Survey data. Through visual inspection of data from the Science Verification season, we identified 53 candidate systems. We then obtained spectroscopic follow-up of 21 candidates using the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph at the Gemini South telescope and the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph at the Magellan/Baade telescope. With this follow-up, we confirmed six candidates as gravitational lenses: three of the systems are newly discovered, and the remaining three were previously known. Of the 21 observed candidates, the remaining 15 either were not detected in spectroscopic observations, were observed and did not exhibit continuum emission (or spectral features), or were ruled out as lensing systems. The confirmed sample consists of one group-scale and five galaxy-cluster-scale lenses. The lensed sources range in redshift z ∼ 0.80–3.2 and in i -band surface brightness i SB ∼ 23–25 mag arcsec −2 (2″ aperture). For each of the six systems, we estimate the Einstein radius θ E and the enclosed mass M enc , which have ranges θ E ∼ 5″–9″ and M enc ∼ 8 × 10 12 to 6 × 10 13 M ⊙ , respectively.
Nord, B.; Buckley-Geer, E.; Lin, H.; Diehl, H. T.; Kuropatkin, N.; Allam, S.; Finley, D. A.; Flaugher, B.; Gaitsch, H.; Merritt, K. W. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory, P.O. Box 500, Batavia, IL 60510 (United States); Helsby, J. [Kavli Institute for Cosmological Physics, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL 60637 (United States); Amara, A. [Department of Physics, ETH Zurich, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 16, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Collett, T. [Institute of Cosmology and Gravitation, University of Portsmouth, Portsmouth, PO1 3FX (United Kingdom); Caminha, G. B.; De Bom, C.; Da Pereira, M. Elidaiana S. [ICRA, Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Físicas, Rua Dr. Xavier Sigaud 150, CEP 22290-180, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Desai, S. [Excellence Cluster Universe, Boltzmannstrasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Dúmet-Montoya, H. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro—Campus Macaé, Rua Aloísio Gomes da Silva, 50—Granja dos Cavaleiros, Cep: 27930-560, Macaé, RJ (Brazil); Furlanetto, C. [University of Nottingham, School of Physics and Astronomy, Nottingham NG7 2RD (United Kingdom); Gill, M., E-mail: nord@fnal.gov [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, Menlo Park, CA 94025 (United States); Collaboration: DES Collaboration; and others
2016-08-10
We report the observation and confirmation of the first group- and cluster-scale strong gravitational lensing systems found in Dark Energy Survey data. Through visual inspection of data from the Science Verification season, we identified 53 candidate systems. We then obtained spectroscopic follow-up of 21 candidates using the Gemini Multi-object Spectrograph at the Gemini South telescope and the Inamori-Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph at the Magellan/Baade telescope. With this follow-up, we confirmed six candidates as gravitational lenses: three of the systems are newly discovered, and the remaining three were previously known. Of the 21 observed candidates, the remaining 15 either were not detected in spectroscopic observations, were observed and did not exhibit continuum emission (or spectral features), or were ruled out as lensing systems. The confirmed sample consists of one group-scale and five galaxy-cluster-scale lenses. The lensed sources range in redshift z ∼ 0.80–3.2 and in i -band surface brightness i {sub SB} ∼ 23–25 mag arcsec{sup −2} (2″ aperture). For each of the six systems, we estimate the Einstein radius θ {sub E} and the enclosed mass M {sub enc}, which have ranges θ {sub E} ∼ 5″–9″ and M {sub enc} ∼ 8 × 10{sup 12} to 6 × 10{sup 13} M {sub ⊙}, respectively.
Incoherently combining logarithmic aspheric lenses for extended depth of field.
Chu, Kaiqin; George, Nicholas; Chi, Wanli
2009-10-01
We describe a method for combining concentric logarithmic aspheric lenses in order to obtain an extended depth of field. Substantial improvement in extending the depth of field is obtained by carefully controlling the optical path difference among the concentric lenses so that their outputs combine incoherently. The system is analyzed through diffraction theory and the point spread function is shown to be highly invariant over a long range of object distances. After testing the image performance on a three-dimensional scene, we found that the incoherently combined logarithmic aspheres can provide a high-quality image over an axial distance corresponding to a defocus of +/- 14(lambda/4). Studies of the images of two-point objects are presented to illustrate the resolution of these lenses.
Copolymers for soft hydrophilic contact lenses: development and investigations
Schwach, G.W.
1978-05-01
Low esters of methacrylic acid which may be polymerized by different methods are used predominantly for producing soft hydrophilic contact lenses. Compounds of the vinyl-type often are added to improve the optical and mechanical qualities. Composition as well as possibilities of polymerization by irradiation were tested so long until copolymers were found which finally allowed the production of soft hydrophilic contact lenses. Swelling characteristics and permeability of the different elastomeres are to be investigated in order to guarantee sufficient compatibility of contact lenses. Contamination of the lens materials by microorganisms is also a point of special interest. The effects on the hydrophilic contact lens-copolymers by different substances used for cleaning and storage solutions have been investigated as well. (author)
Parabolic crossed planar polymeric x-ray lenses
Nazmov, V.; Reznikova, E.; Mohr, J.; Saile, V.; Vincze, L.; Vekemans, B.; Bohic, S.; Somogyi, A.
2011-01-01
The principles of design and manufacturing of the polymer planar x-ray lenses focusing in one and two directions, as well as the peculiarities of optical behaviors and the results of the lens test are reported in this paper. The methods of electron and deep x-ray lithography used in lens manufacturing allow the manufacture of ten or more x-ray lenses on one substrate; the lenses show focal lengths down to several centimeters for photon energies between 5 and 40 keV. The measured focus size was 105 nm for a linear lens with an intensity gain of about 407, and 300 × 770 nm for a crossed lens with an intensity gain of 6470.
Lenstronomy: Multi-purpose gravitational lens modeling software package
Birrer, Simon; Amara, Adam
2018-04-01
Lenstronomy is a multi-purpose open-source gravitational lens modeling python package. Lenstronomy reconstructs the lens mass and surface brightness distributions of strong lensing systems using forward modelling and supports a wide range of analytic lens and light models in arbitrary combination. The software is also able to reconstruct complex extended sources as well as point sources. Lenstronomy is flexible and numerically accurate, with a clear user interface that could be deployed across different platforms. Lenstronomy has been used to derive constraints on dark matter properties in strong lenses, measure the expansion history of the universe with time-delay cosmography, measure cosmic shear with Einstein rings, and decompose quasar and host galaxy light.
Serendipitous discovery of a strong-lensed galaxy in integral field spectroscopy from MUSE
Galbany, Lluís; Collett, Thomas E.; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Sánchez, Sebastián F.; Anderson, Joseph P.; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo
2018-06-01
2MASX J04035024-0239275 is a bright red elliptical galaxy at redshift 0.0661 that presents two extended sources at 2″ to the north-east and 1″ to the south-west. The sizes and surface brightnesses of the two blue sources are consistent with a gravitationally-lensed background galaxy. In this paper we present MUSE observations of this galaxy from the All-weather MUse Supernova Integral-field Nearby Galaxies (AMUSING) survey, and report the discovery of a background lensed galaxy at redshift 0.1915, together with other 15 background galaxies at redshifts ranging from 0.09 to 0.9, that are not multiply imaged. We have extracted aperture spectra of the lens and all the sources and fit the stellar continuum with STARLIGHT to estimate their stellar and emission line properties. A trace of past merger and active nucleus activity is found in the lensing galaxy, while the background lensed galaxy is found to be star-forming. Modeling the lensing potential with a singular isothermal ellipsoid, we find an Einstein radius of 1."45±0."04, which corresponds to 1.9 kpc at the redshift of the lens and it is much smaller than its effective radius (reff ˜ 9″"). Comparing the Einstein mass and the STARLIGHT stellar mass within the same aperture yields a dark matter fraction of 18% ± 8 % within the Einstein radius. The advent of large surveys such as the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) will discover a number of strong-lensed systems, and here we demonstrate how wide-field integral field spectroscopy offers an excellent approach to study them and to precisely model lensing effects.
Simulations for 21 cm radiation lensing at EoR redshifts
Romeo, Alessandro; Metcalf, Robert Benton; Pourtsidou, Alkistis
2018-02-01
We introduce simulations aimed at assessing how well weak gravitational lensing of 21cm radiation from the Epoch of Reionization (z ˜ 8) can be measured by a Square Kilometre Array (SKA)-like radio telescope. A simulation pipeline has been implemented to study the performance of lensing reconstruction techniques. We show how well the lensing signal can be reconstructed using the 3D quadratic lensing estimator in Fourier space assuming different survey strategies. The numerical code introduced in this work is capable of dealing with issues that cannot be treated analytically such as the discreteness of visibility measurements and the inclusion of a realistic model for the antennas distribution. This paves the way for future numerical studies implementing more realistic re-ionization models, foreground subtraction schemes, and testing the performance of lensing estimators that take into account the non-Gaussian distribution of HI after re-ionization. If multiple frequency channels covering z ˜ 7-11.6 are combined, Phase 1 of SKA-Low should be able to obtain good quality images of the lensing potential with a total resolution of ˜1.6 arcmin. The SKA-Low Phase 2 should be capable of providing images with high fidelity even using data from z ˜ 7.7 to 8.3. We perform tests aimed at evaluating the numerical implementation of the mapping reconstruction. We also discuss the possibility of measuring an accurate lensing power spectrum. Combining data from z ˜ 7 to 11.6 using the SKA2-Low telescope model, we find constraints comparable to sample variance in the range L < 1000, even for survey areas as small as 25 deg2.
Develaki, Maria
2012-01-01
The availability of teaching units on the nature of science (NOS) can reinforce classroom instruction in the subject, taking into account the related deficiencies in textbook material and teacher training. We give a sequence of teaching units in which the teaching of Newton's gravitational theory is used as a basis for reflecting on the…
DYNAMIC SPECTRAL MAPPING OF INTERSTELLAR PLASMA LENSES
Tuntsov, Artem V.; Walker, Mark A. [Manly Astrophysics, 3/22 Cliff Street, Manly 2095 (Australia); Koopmans, Leon V. E. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, NL-9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Bannister, Keith W.; Stevens, Jamie; Johnston, Simon [CSIRO Astronomy and Space Science, P.O. Box 76, Epping NSW 1710 (Australia); Reynolds, Cormac; Bignall, Hayley E., E-mail: Artem.Tuntsov@manlyastrophysics.org, E-mail: Mark.Walker@manlyastrophysics.org, E-mail: koopmans@astro.rug.nl [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research—Curtin University, Perth (Australia)
2016-02-01
Compact radio sources sometimes exhibit intervals of large, rapid changes in their flux density, due to lensing by interstellar plasma crossing the line of sight. A novel survey program has made it possible to discover these “Extreme Scattering Events” (ESEs) in real time, resulting in a high-quality dynamic spectrum of an ESE observed in PKS 1939–315. Here we present a method for determining the column-density profile of a plasma lens, given only the dynamic radio spectrum of the lensed source, under the assumption that the lens is either axisymmetric or totally anisotropic. Our technique relies on the known, strong frequency dependence of the plasma refractive index in order to determine how points in the dynamic spectrum map to positions on the lens. We apply our method to high-frequency (4.2–10.8 GHz) data from the Australia Telescope Compact Array of the PKS 1939–315 ESE. The derived electron column-density profiles are very similar for the two geometries we consider, and both yield a good visual match to the data. However, the fit residuals are substantially above the noise level, and deficiencies are evident when we compare the predictions of our model to lower-frequency (1.6–3.1 GHz) data on the same ESE, thus motivating future development of more sophisticated inversion techniques.
Cai, Rong-Gen; Yang, Tao
2017-02-01
We investigate the constraint ability of the gravitational wave (GW) as the standard siren on the cosmological parameters by using the third-generation gravitational wave detector: the Einstein Telescope. The binary merger of a neutron with either a neutron or black hole is hypothesized to be the progenitor of a short and intense burst of γ rays; some fraction of those binary mergers could be detected both through electromagnetic radiation and gravitational waves. Thus we can determine both the luminosity distance and redshift of the source separately. We simulate the luminosity distances and redshift measurements from 100 to 1000 GW events. We use two different algorithms to constrain the cosmological parameters. For the Hubble constant H0 and dark matter density parameter Ωm, we adopt the Markov chain Monte Carlo approach. We find that with about 500-600 GW events we can constrain the Hubble constant with an accuracy comparable to Planck temperature data and Planck lensing combined results, while for the dark matter density, GWs alone seem not able to provide the constraints as good as for the Hubble constant; the sensitivity of 1000 GW events is a little lower than that of Planck data. It should require more than 1000 events to match the Planck sensitivity. Yet, for analyzing the more complex dynamical property of dark energy, i.e., the equation of state w , we adopt a new powerful nonparametric method: the Gaussian process. We can reconstruct w directly from the observational luminosity distance at every redshift. In the low redshift region, we find that about 700 GW events can give the constraints of w (z ) comparable to the constraints of a constant w by Planck data with type-Ia supernovae. Those results show that GWs as the standard sirens to probe the cosmological parameters can provide an independent and complementary alternative to current experiments.
Replica casting technique for micro Fresnel lenses characterization
Gasparin, Stefania; Tosello, Guido; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard
2012-01-01
The available measuring techniques are not always suitable for the characterization of optical surfaces such as Fresnel lenses or polished specimens. A way to overcome these challenges is to reproduce the optical components surface using a polymer casting method and to measure the replicated...
Cosmological information in Gaussianized weak lensing signals
Joachimi, B.; Taylor, A. N.; Kiessling, A.
2011-11-01
Gaussianizing the one-point distribution of the weak gravitational lensing convergence has recently been shown to increase the signal-to-noise ratio contained in two-point statistics. We investigate the information on cosmology that can be extracted from the transformed convergence fields. Employing Box-Cox transformations to determine optimal transformations to Gaussianity, we develop analytical models for the transformed power spectrum, including effects of noise and smoothing. We find that optimized Box-Cox transformations perform substantially better than an offset logarithmic transformation in Gaussianizing the convergence, but both yield very similar results for the signal-to-noise ratio. None of the transformations is capable of eliminating correlations of the power spectra between different angular frequencies, which we demonstrate to have a significant impact on the errors in cosmology. Analytic models of the Gaussianized power spectrum yield good fits to the simulations and produce unbiased parameter estimates in the majority of cases, where the exceptions can be traced back to the limitations in modelling the higher order correlations of the original convergence. In the ideal case, without galaxy shape noise, we find an increase in the cumulative signal-to-noise ratio by a factor of 2.6 for angular frequencies up to ℓ= 1500, and a decrease in the area of the confidence region in the Ωm-σ8 plane, measured in terms of q-values, by a factor of 4.4 for the best performing transformation. When adding a realistic level of shape noise, all transformations perform poorly with little decorrelation of angular frequencies, a maximum increase in signal-to-noise ratio of 34 per cent, and even slightly degraded errors on cosmological parameters. We argue that to find Gaussianizing transformations of practical use, it will be necessary to go beyond transformations of the one-point distribution of the convergence, extend the analysis deeper into the non
The Effect of Various Contact Lenses on Intraocular Pressure Measurement by Goldman Tonometer
Monireh Mahjoob
2014-06-01
Full Text Available Background: Today, contact lenses have extensive usages. Contact lens places on cornea, so it may induce variation on cornea and these variations can influence the measurement of intraocular pressure (IOP by Goldman tonometer. The aim of this research was to study the effect of various contact lenses on measurement of intraocular pressure by Goldman tonometer. Materials and Methods: In this study, 80 subjects aged 18-25 were selected randomly among patients of Al-Zahra ophthalmology center. None of them has any eye pathological problems. Before wearing the lens, intraocular pressure was measured, and then patients were divided into two groups of soft and hard contact lenses. Soft and hard contact lenses were placed on the eye for two hours, and the intraocular pressure was measured again. Results: The mean of IOP before wearing contact lenses and two hours later was 15.96 mmHg and 13.93, s respectively. Paired test showed a significant difference between IOP before and after wearing contact lenses (p=0.001.There was no significant differences in mean of intraocular pressure decline before and after placing the contact lens in both soft and hard lenses. Conclusion: According to this study, the intraocular pressure decreases after wearing contact lenses (CL. This decline may be due to variation in properties of cornea after wearing CL that can also affect IOP measurement.
Direct Laser Writing of Nanophotonic Structures on Contact Lenses.
AlQattan, Bader; Yetisen, Ali K; Butt, Haider
2018-04-24
Contact lenses are ubiquitous biomedical devices used for vision correction and cosmetic purposes. Their application as quantitative analytical devices is highly promising for point-of-care diagnostics. However, it is a challenge to integrate nanoscale features into commercial contact lenses for application in low-cost biosensors. A neodymium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Nd:YAG) laser (1064 nm, 3 ns pulse, 240 mJ) in holographic interference patterning mode was utilized to produce optical nanostructures over the surface of a hydrogel contact lens. One-dimensional (925 nm) and two-dimensional (925 nm × 925 nm) nanostructures were produced on contact lenses and analyzed by spectroscopy and angle-resolve measurements. The holographic properties of these nanostructures were tested in ambient moisture, fully hydrated, and artificial tear conditions. The measurements showed a rapid tuning of optical diffraction from these nanostructures from 41 to 48°. The nanostructures were patterned near the edges of the contact lens to avoid any interference and obstruction to the human vision. The formation of 2D nanostructures on lenses increased the diffraction efficiency by more than 10%. The versatility of the holographic laser ablation method was demonstrated by producing four different 2D nanopattern geometries on contact lenses. Hydrophobicity of the contact lens was characterized by contact angle measurements, which increased from 59.0° at pristine condition to 62.5° at post-nanofabrication. The holographic nanostructures on the contact lens were used to sense the concentration of Na + ions. Artificial tear solution was used to simulate the conditions in dry eye syndrome, and nanostructures on the contact lenses were used to detect the electrolyte concentration changes (±47 mmol L -1 ). Nanopatterns on a contact lens may be used to sense other ocular diseases in early stages at point-of-care settings.
Weak lensing galaxy cluster field reconstruction
Jullo, E.; Pires, S.; Jauzac, M.; Kneib, J.-P.
2014-02-01
In this paper, we compare three methods to reconstruct galaxy cluster density fields with weak lensing data. The first method called FLens integrates an inpainting concept to invert the shear field with possible gaps, and a multi-scale entropy denoising procedure to remove the noise contained in the final reconstruction, that arises mostly from the random intrinsic shape of the galaxies. The second and third methods are based on a model of the density field made of a multi-scale grid of radial basis functions. In one case, the model parameters are computed with a linear inversion involving a singular value decomposition (SVD). In the other case, the model parameters are estimated using a Bayesian Monte Carlo Markov Chain optimization implemented in the lensing software LENSTOOL. Methods are compared on simulated data with varying galaxy density fields. We pay particular attention to the errors estimated with resampling. We find the multi-scale grid model optimized with Monte Carlo Markov Chain to provide the best results, but at high computational cost, especially when considering resampling. The SVD method is much faster but yields noisy maps, although this can be mitigated with resampling. The FLens method is a good compromise with fast computation, high signal-to-noise ratio reconstruction, but lower resolution maps. All three methods are applied to the MACS J0717+3745 galaxy cluster field, and reveal the filamentary structure discovered in Jauzac et al. We conclude that sensitive priors can help to get high signal-to-noise ratio, and unbiased reconstructions.
McFarland, P.J.; Rambauske, W.R.
1973-01-01
Description is given of a system of catoptric lenses for combining energies provided by a certain number of sources, e.g. optical energies provided by a certain number of lasers. This system comprises sets of mirrors the reflecting surfaces of which have their focuses spaced from a common axis. The mirrors of all these sets are arranged on a common frame, which makes aperture-locking impossible. This can be applied to thermonuclear fusion [fr
Gravitational waves and antennas
CERN. Geneva
2003-01-01
Gravitational waves and their detection represent today a hot topic, which promises to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology and theoretical physics. Technological developments have enabled the construction of such sensitive detectors that the detection of gravitational radiation and the start of a new astronomy could become a reality during the next few years. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of hiterto unseen phenomena such as coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big bang relics and the new and unexpected. In these lectures I give a brief overview of this challenging field of modern physics. Topics : Basic properties of gravitational radiation. Astrophysical sources. Principle of operation of detectors. Interferometers (both ground based and space-based), bars and spheres. Present status of the experiments, their recent results and their f...
Ohanian, Hans C
2013-01-01
The third edition of this classic textbook is a quantitative introduction for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It gently guides students from Newton's gravitational theory to special relativity, and then to the relativistic theory of gravitation. General relativity is approached from several perspectives: as a theory constructed by analogy with Maxwell's electrodynamics, as a relativistic generalization of Newton's theory, and as a theory of curved spacetime. The authors provide a concise overview of the important concepts and formulas, coupled with the experimental results underpinning the latest research in the field. Numerous exercises in Newtonian gravitational theory and Maxwell's equations help students master essential concepts for advanced work in general relativity, while detailed spacetime diagrams encourage them to think in terms of four-dimensional geometry. Featuring comprehensive reviews of recent experimental and observational data, the text concludes with chapters on cosmology an...
The theory of stochastic cosmological lensing
Fleury, Pierre; Uzan, Jean-Philippe [Institut d' Astrophysique de Paris, UMR 7095 du CNRS, 98 bis Bd Arago, 75014 Paris (France); Larena, Julien, E-mail: fleury@iap.fr, E-mail: j.larena@ru.ac.za, E-mail: uzan@iap.fr [Department of Mathematics, Rhodes University, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa)
2015-11-01
On the scale of the light beams subtended by small sources, e.g. supernovae, matter cannot be accurately described as a fluid, which questions the applicability of standard cosmic lensing to those cases. In this article, we propose a new formalism to deal with small-scale lensing as a diffusion process: the Sachs and Jacobi equations governing the propagation of narrow light beams are treated as Langevin equations. We derive the associated Fokker-Planck-Kolmogorov equations, and use them to deduce general analytical results on the mean and dispersion of the angular distance. This formalism is applied to random Einstein-Straus Swiss-cheese models, allowing us to: (1) show an explicit example of the involved calculations; (2) check the validity of the method against both ray-tracing simulations and direct numerical integration of the Langevin equation. As a byproduct, we obtain a post-Kantowski-Dyer-Roeder approximation, accounting for the effect of tidal distortions on the angular distance, in excellent agreement with numerical results. Besides, the dispersion of the angular distance is correctly reproduced in some regimes.