Use of an Arduino to Study Buoyancy Force
Espindola, P. R.; Cena, C. R.; Alves, D. C. B.; Bozano, D. F.; Goncalves, A. M. B.
2018-01-01
The study of buoyancy becomes very interesting when we measure the apparent weight of the body and the liquid vessel weight. In this paper, we propose an experimental apparatus that measures both the forces mentioned before as a function of the depth that a cylinder is sunk into the water. It is done using two load cells connected to an Arduino.…
Manipulating Microrobots Using Balanced Magnetic and Buoyancy Forces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Lin Feng
2018-01-01
Full Text Available We present a novel method for the three-dimensional (3D control of microrobots within a microfluidic chip. The microrobot body contains a hollow space, producing buoyancy that allows it to float in a microfluidic environment. The robot moves in the z direction by balancing magnetic and buoyancy forces. In coordination with the motion of stages in the xy plane, we achieved 3D microrobot control. A microgripper designed to grasp micron-scale objects was attached to the front of the robot, allowing it to hold and deliver micro-objects in three dimensions. The microrobot had four degrees of freedom and generated micronewton-order forces. We demonstrate the microrobot’s utility in an experiment in which it grips a 200 μm particle and delivers it in a 3D space.
Use of an Arduino to study buoyancy force
Espindola, P. R.; Cena, C. R.; Alves, D. C. B.; Bozano, D. F.; Goncalves, A. M. B.
2018-05-01
The study of buoyancy becomes very interesting when we measure the apparent weight of the body and the liquid vessel weight. In this paper, we propose an experimental apparatus that measures both the forces mentioned before as a function of the depth that a cylinder is sunk into the water. It is done using two load cells connected to an Arduino. With this experiment, the student can verify Archimedes’ principle, Newton’s third law, and calculate the density of a liquid. This apparatus can be used in fluid physics laboratories as a substitute for very expensive sensor kits or even to improve too simple approaches, usually employed, but still at low cost.
Forces in electromagnetic field and gravitational field
Weng, Zihua
2008-01-01
The force can be defined from the linear momentum in the gravitational field and electromagnetic field. But this definition can not cover the gradient of energy. In the paper, the force will be defined from the energy and torque in a new way, which involves the gravitational force, electromagnetic force, inertial force, gradient of energy, and some other new force terms etc. One of these new force terms can be used to explain why the solar wind varies velocity along the magnetic force line in...
Inertial reference frames and gravitational forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Santavy, I.
1981-01-01
The connection between different definitions of inertial, i.e. fundamental, reference frames and the corresponding characterisation of gravitational fields by gravitational forces are considered from the point of view of their possible interpretation in university introductory courses. The introduction of a special class of reference frames, denoted 'mixed reference frames' is proposed and discussed. (author)
Clifford, Corey; Kimber, Mark
2017-11-01
Over the last 30 years, an industry-wide shift within the nuclear community has led to increased utilization of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to supplement nuclear reactor safety analyses. One such area that is of particular interest to the nuclear community, specifically to those performing loss-of-flow accident (LOFA) analyses for next-generation very-high temperature reactors (VHTR), is the capacity of current computational models to predict heat transfer across a wide range of buoyancy conditions. In the present investigation, a critical evaluation of Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) and large-eddy simulation (LES) turbulence modeling techniques is conducted based on CFD validation data collected from the Rotatable Buoyancy Tunnel (RoBuT) at Utah State University. Four different experimental flow conditions are investigated: (1) buoyancy-aided forced convection; (2) buoyancy-opposed forced convection; (3) buoyancy-aided mixed convection; (4) buoyancy-opposed mixed convection. Overall, good agreement is found for both forced convection-dominated scenarios, but an overly-diffusive prediction of the normal Reynolds stress is observed for the RANS-based turbulence models. Low-Reynolds number RANS models perform adequately for mixed convection, while higher-order RANS approaches underestimate the influence of buoyancy on the production of turbulence.
Induced forces in the gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Voracek, P.
1979-01-01
In this paper the expression for the magnitude of the so-called induced force, acting on a mass particle, is deduced. The origin of this force is causally connected to the increase of the rest mass of the particle in the gravitational field. (orig.)
Non-Uniqueness of the Point of Application of the Buoyancy Force
Kliava, Janis; Megel, Jacques
2010-01-01
Even though the buoyancy force (also known as the Archimedes force) has always been an important topic of academic studies in physics, its point of application has not been explicitly identified yet. We present a quantitative approach to this problem based on the concept of the hydrostatic energy, considered here for a general shape of the…
Non-uniqueness of the point of application of the buoyancy force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kliava, Janis; Megel, Jacques
2010-01-01
Even though the buoyancy force (also known as the Archimedes force) has always been an important topic of academic studies in physics, its point of application has not been explicitly identified yet. We present a quantitative approach to this problem based on the concept of the hydrostatic energy, considered here for a general shape of the cross-section of a floating body and for an arbitrary angle of heel. We show that the location of the point of application of the buoyancy force essentially depends (i) on the type of motion experienced by the floating body and (ii) on the definition of this point. In a rolling/pitching motion, considerations involving the rotational moment lead to a particular dynamical point of application of the buoyancy force, and for some simple shapes of the floating body this point coincides with the well-known metacentre. On the other hand, from the work-energy relation it follows that in the rolling/pitching motion the energetical point of application of this force is rigidly connected to the centre of buoyancy; in contrast, in a vertical translation this point is rigidly connected to the centre of gravity of the body. Finally, we consider the location of the characteristic points of the floating bodies for some particular shapes of immersed cross-sections. The paper is intended for higher education level physics teachers and students.
Ooms, G.; Vuik, C.; Poesio, P.
2007-01-01
A theoretical investigation has been made of core-annular flow: the flow of a high-viscosity liquid core surrounded by a low-viscosity liquid annular layer through a horizontal pipe. Special attention is paid to the question of how the buoyancy force on the core, caused by a density difference
New gravitational forces from quantum theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieto, M.M.; Goldman, T.; Hughes, R.J.
1988-01-01
When a classical theory is quantized, new physical effects result. The prototypical example is the Lamb Shift of quantum electrodynamics. Even though this phenomenon could be parametrized by the ''Uehling Potential,'' it was always realized that it was a quantum aspect of electromagnetism, not a ''new force'' of nature. So, too, with theories of quantum gravity. Generically they predict that there will be spin-1 (graviphoton) and spin-0 (graviscalar) partners of the spin-2 graviton. At some level, these partners will generate new effects. Among them are (1) non-Newtonian gravitational forces and (2) substance dependance (violation of the Principle of Equivalence). We discuss these ideas in the context of recent experiments. (Experiments usually test only one of the above effects, which could be distinct.) We contrast these ideas with the alternative point of view, that there actually may be a ''fifth force'' of nature. 20 refs
Selfinteraction force in a theory of gravitation with higher derivatives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jankiewicz, C.
1981-01-01
Approximate equations of motion are derived from gravitational field equations with higher derivatives. The approximation takes into account the selfinteraction force. The selfinteraction force coincides with the analogous force resulting from the Einstein field equations. (author)
Experimental studies of gravitation and feebler forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cowsik, R.
1993-01-01
The theoretical motivations and the experimental context pertaining to the recent experimental studies of the Weak equivalence Principle and the open-quotes Fifth Forceclose quotes are reviewed briefly. With such a backdrop, the innovative design and the technical details of the several new experiments in this area are presented with a special emphasis on the experiments underway at Gauribidanur, situated on the Deccan Plateau. These experiments jointly rule out the existence of any new forces coupling to baryon or lepton number with a coupling greater than about 10 -4 of gravitation per a.m.u. at ranges of about 0.5m and longer. In a few years the author hopes to test the weak equivalence principle with sensitivity exceeding 10 -13
Self-consistent gravitational self-force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pound, Adam
2010-01-01
I review the problem of motion for small bodies in general relativity, with an emphasis on developing a self-consistent treatment of the gravitational self-force. An analysis of the various derivations extant in the literature leads me to formulate an asymptotic expansion in which the metric is expanded while a representative worldline is held fixed. I discuss the utility of this expansion for both exact point particles and asymptotically small bodies, contrasting it with a regular expansion in which both the metric and the worldline are expanded. Based on these preliminary analyses, I present a general method of deriving self-consistent equations of motion for arbitrarily structured (sufficiently compact) small bodies. My method utilizes two expansions: an inner expansion that keeps the size of the body fixed, and an outer expansion that lets the body shrink while holding its worldline fixed. By imposing the Lorenz gauge, I express the global solution to the Einstein equation in the outer expansion in terms of an integral over a worldtube of small radius surrounding the body. Appropriate boundary data on the tube are determined from a local-in-space expansion in a buffer region where both the inner and outer expansions are valid. This buffer-region expansion also results in an expression for the self-force in terms of irreducible pieces of the metric perturbation on the worldline. Based on the global solution, these pieces of the perturbation can be written in terms of a tail integral over the body's past history. This approach can be applied at any order to obtain a self-consistent approximation that is valid on long time scales, both near and far from the small body. I conclude by discussing possible extensions of my method and comparing it to alternative approaches.
Effect of Excess Gravitational Force on Cultured Myotubes in Vitro
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Shigehiro Hashimoto
2013-06-01
Full Text Available An effect of an excess gravitational force on cultured myoblasts has been studied in an experimental system with centrifugal force in vitro. Mouse myoblasts (C2C12 were seeded on a culture dish of 35 mm diameter, and cultured in the Dulbecco's Modified Eagle's Medium until the sub-confluent condition. To apply the excess gravitational force on the cultured cells, the dish was set in a conventional centrifugal machine. Constant gravitational force was applied to the cultured cells for three hours. Variations were made on the gravitational force (6 G, 10 G, 100 G, 500 G, and 800 G with control of the rotational speed of the rotator in the centrifugal machine. Morphology of the cells was observed with a phasecontrast microscope for eight days. The experimental results show that the myotube thickens day by day after the exposure to the excess gravitational force field. The results also show that the higher excess gravitational force thickens myotubes. The microscopic study shows that myotubes thicken with fusion each other.
Looking for new gravitational forces with antiprotons
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieto, M.M.; Bonner, B.E.
1987-01-01
Quite general arguments based on the principle of equivalence and modern field theory show that it is possible for the gravitational acceleration of antimatter to be different than that for matter. Further, there is no experimental evidence to rule out the possibility. In fact, some evidence indicates there may be unexpected effects. Thus, the planned experiment to measure the gravitational acceleration of antiprotons is of fundamental importance. 20 refs., 3 figs
Tamm, Gunnar; Jaluria, Yogesh
2003-11-01
An experimental investigation has been carried out on the buoyancy and pressure induced flow of hot gases in vertical shafts, in order to simulate the propagation of combustion products in elevator shafts due to fire in multilevel buildings. Various geometrical configurations are studied, with regard to natural and forced ventilation imposed at the top or bottom of the vertical shaft. The aspect ratio is taken at a fixed value of 6 and the inflow conditions for the hot gases, at a vent near the bottom, are varied in terms of the Reynolds and Grashof numbers. Temperature measurements within the shaft allow a detailed study of the steady state thermal fields, from which optimal means for smoke alleviation in high-rise building fires may be developed. Flow visualization is also used to study the flow characteristics. The results obtained indicate a wall plume as the primary transport mechanism. Flow recirculation dominates at high Grashof number flows, while increased Reynolds numbers gives rise to greater mixing in the shaft. The development and stability of the flow and its effect on the spread of smoke and hot gases are assessed for the different shaft configurations and inlet conditions. It is found that the fastest smoke removal and lowest shaft temperatures occur for a configuration with natural ventilation at the top and forced ventilation up from the shaft bottom. It is also shown that forced ventilation can be used to arrest smoke spread, as well as to dilute the effects of the fire.
Cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry and gravitational force
Hsu, J. P.
1980-01-01
Cosmic matter-antimatter asymmetry due to the gravitational interaction alone is discussed, considering the gravitational coupling of fermion matter related to the Yang-Mills (1954) gauge symmetry with the unique generalization of the four-dimensional Poincare group. Attention is given to the case of weak static fields which determines the space-time metric where only large source terms are retained. In addition, considering lowest-order Feynman diagrams, there are presented gravitational potential energies between fermions, between antifermions, and between a fermion and an antifermion. It is concluded that the gravitational force between matter is different from that between antimatter; implications from this concerning the evolution of the universe are discussed.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clifford, Corey E.; Kimber, Mark L.
2015-01-01
Although computational fluid dynamics (CFD) has not been directly utilized to perform safety analyses of nuclear reactors in the United States, several vendors are considering adopting commercial numerical packages for current and future projects. To ensure the accuracy of these computational models, it is imperative to validate the assumptions and approximations built into commercial CFD codes against physical data from flows analogous to those in modern nuclear reactors. To this end, researchers at Utah State University (USU) have constructed the Rotatable Buoyancy Tunnel (RoBuT) test facility, which is designed to provide flow and thermal validation data for CFD simulations of forced and mixed convection scenarios. In order to evaluate the ability of current CFD codes to capture the complex physics associated with these types of flows, a computational model of the RoBuT test facility is created using the ANSYS Fluent commercial CFD code. The numerical RoBuT model is analyzed at identical conditions to several experimental trials undertaken at USU. Each experiment is reconstructed numerically and evaluated with the second-order Reynolds stress model (RSM). Two different thermal boundary conditions at the heated surface of the RoBuT test section are investigated: constant temperature (isothermal) and constant surface heat flux (isoflux). Additionally, the fluid velocity at the inlet of the test section is varied in an effort to modify the relative importance of natural convection heat transfer from the heated wall of the RoBuT. Mean velocity, both in the streamwise and transverse directions, as well as components of the Reynolds stress tensor at three points downstream of the RoBuT test section inlet are compared to results obtained from experimental trials. Early computational results obtained from this research initiative are in good agreement with experimental data obtained from the RoBuT facility and both the experimental data and numerical method can be used
How can rainbow gravity affect on gravitational force?
Sefiedgar, A. S.
2015-01-01
According to Verlinde's recent proposal, the gravity is originally an entropic force. In this work, we obtain the corrections to the entropy-area law of black holes within rainbow gravity. The corrected entropy-area law leads to the modifications of the number of bits $N$. Inspired by Verlinde's argument on the entropic force, and using the modified number of bits, we can investigate the effects of rainbow gravity on the modified Newtonian dynamics, Newton's law of gravitation, and Einstein's...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandberg, V.
1988-12-01
The center of buoyancy of an arbitrary shaped body is defined in analogy to the center of gravity. The definitions of the buoyant force and center of buoyancy in terms of integrals over the area of the body are converted to volume integrals and shown to have simple intuitive interpretations
Gravitational Self-Force: Orbital Mechanics Beyond Geodesic Motion
Barack, Leor
The question of motion in a gravitationally bound two-body system is a longstanding open problem of General Relativity. When the mass ratio eta; is small, the problem lends itself to a perturbative treatment, wherein corrections to the geodesic motion of the smaller object (due to radiation reaction, internal structure, etc.) are accounted for order by order in η, using the language of an effective gravitational self-force. The prospect for observing gravitational waves from compact objects inspiralling into massive black holes in the foreseeable future has in the past 15 years motivated a program to obtain a rigorous formulation of the self-force and compute it for astrophysically interesting systems. I will give a brief survey of this activity and its achievements so far, and will identify the challenges that lie ahead. As concrete examples, I will discuss recent calculations of certain conservative post-geodesic effects of the self-force, including the O(η ) correction to the precession rate of the periastron. I will highlight the way in which such calculations allow us to make a fruitful contact with other approaches to the two-body problem.
Radiation reaction force and unification of electromagnetic and gravitational fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lo, C.Y.; Goldstein, G.R.; Napier, A.
1981-04-01
A unified theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields should modify classical electrodynamics such that the radiation reaction force is accounted for. The analysis leads to a five-dimensional unified theory of five variables. The theory is supported by showing that, for the case of a charged particle moving in a constant magnetic field, the radiation reaction force is indeed included. Moreover, this example shows explicitly that physical changes are associated with the fifth variable. Thus, the notion of a physical five-dimensional space should be seriously taken into consideration
Repulsive gravitational forces: A possible mechanism for clustering
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Eisenstaedt, J.
1977-01-01
It is well known that, in a homogeneous cosmological universe, a positive cosmological constant induces repulsive forces. We show here that in a locally inhomogeneous cosmological model these repulsive forces are related to the sign of q, the deceleration parameter of the associated cosmological space, and to the sign of m, the apparent mass of the central perturbation (which can be negative with a positive energy density everywhere). When q is almost zero--crossing the value zero--small random perturbations of the matter density are the sources of a gravitational instability which can generate a mechanism of fragmentation in an a priori homogeneous universe
Education of Gifted Students with Virtual Physics Laboratory: Buoyancy Force Topic
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Necati HIRCA
2013-06-01
Full Text Available Project-based learning approach is recommended for science education of gifted students for their independent learning will and they can intensify their attention on any issue for along time. In this study, the steps of the experiment buoyancy of liquids has been explained with the help of Algodoo Programme a learning environment in which gifted students test their hypotheses and can learn the concepts of physics with their own experiences. This study is tought to be used as a guidance material in the education of gifted students in Science and Art Centers in Turkey. Teachers in Science and Art Center (or who educate gifted students are generally inexperienced in the education of gifted students. Another problem of these teachers is the lack of adequate materials that the teachers use in the education of gifted students.
Positive segregation as a function of buoyancy force during steel ingot solidification
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Radovic, Zarko; Jaukovic, Nada; Lalovic, Milisav; Tadic, Nebojsa
2008-01-01
We analyze theoretically and experimentally solute redistribution in the dendritic solidification process and positive segregation during solidification of steel ingots. Positive segregation is mainly caused by liquid flow in the mushy zone. Changes in the liquid steel velocity are caused by the temperature gradient and by the increase in the solid fraction during solidification. The effects of buoyancy and of the change in the solid fraction on segregation intensity are analyzed. The relationships between the density change, liquid fraction and the steel composition are considered. Such elements as W, Ni, Mo and Cr decrease the effect of the density variations, i.e. they show smaller tendency to segregate. Based on the modeling and experimental results, coefficients are provided controlling the effects of chemical composition, secondary dendrite arm spacing and the solid fraction.
Theory of second order tide forces and gravitational wave experiment
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tammelo, R.R.
1989-01-01
Theory of tide forces square by vector radius is presented. The mechanism of 10 18 time gravitational wave pressure increase in case of radiation from pulsars and 10 15 time one in case of standard burst of radiation from astrophysical catastrophe is proposed. This leads to secular shifts of longitudinally free receivers by 10 -16 cm during 10 5 s in the first case and by 10 -19 cm during 10 s in the second one. A possibility of increase effect modulation is available. It is indicated that it is possible to construct a device which produces more energy at the expense of square tide forces than at the expense of linear ones. 21 refs
A rigorous derivation of gravitational self-force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gralla, Samuel E; Wald, Robert M
2008-01-01
There is general agreement that the MiSaTaQuWa equations should describe the motion of a 'small body' in general relativity, taking into account the leading order self-force effects. However, previous derivations of these equations have made a number of ad hoc assumptions and/or contain a number of unsatisfactory features. For example, all previous derivations have invoked, without proper justification, the step of 'Lorenz gauge relaxation', wherein the linearized Einstein equation is written in the form appropriate to the Lorenz gauge, but the Lorenz gauge condition is then not imposed-thereby making the resulting equations for the metric perturbation inequivalent to the linearized Einstein equations. (Such a 'relaxation' of the linearized Einstein equations is essential in order to avoid the conclusion that 'point particles' move on geodesics.) In this paper, we analyze the issue of 'particle motion' in general relativity in a systematic and rigorous way by considering a one-parameter family of metrics, g ab (λ), corresponding to having a body (or black hole) that is 'scaled down' to zero size and mass in an appropriate manner. We prove that the limiting worldline of such a one-parameter family must be a geodesic of the background metric, g ab (λ = 0). Gravitational self-force-as well as the force due to coupling of the spin of the body to curvature-then arises as a first-order perturbative correction in λ to this worldline. No assumptions are made in our analysis apart from the smoothness and limit properties of the one-parameter family of metrics, g ab (λ). Our approach should provide a framework for systematically calculating higher order corrections to gravitational self-force, including higher multipole effects, although we do not attempt to go beyond first-order calculations here. The status of the MiSaTaQuWa equations is explained
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asterios Pantokratoras
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Exact analytical solutions of boundary layer flows along a vertical porous plate with uniform suction are derived and presented in this paper. The solutions concern the Blasius, Sakiadis, and Blasius-Sakiadis flows with buoyancy forces combined with either MHD Lorentz or EMHD Lorentz forces. In addition, some exact solutions are presented specifically for water in the temperature range of 0∘C≤≤8∘C, where water density is nearly parabolic. Except for their use as benchmarking means for testing the numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations, the presented exact solutions with EMHD forces have use in flow separation control in aeronautics and hydronautics, whereas the MHD results have applications in process metallurgy and fusion technology. These analytical solutions are valid for flows with strong suction.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Lucas, Marc A. [National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton (United Kingdom); Collecte Localisation Satellite, Ramonville Saint Agne (France); Hirschi, J.J.M. [National Oceanography Centre, University of Southampton, School of Ocean and Earth Science, Southampton (United Kingdom); Marotzke, J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Meteorologie, Hamburg (Germany)
2010-04-15
We consider how a highly idealized double-hemisphere basin responds to a zonally constant restoring surface temperature profile that oscillates in time, with periods ranging from 0.5 to 32,000 years. In both hemispheres, the forcing is similar but can be either in phase or out of phase. The set-up is such that the Northern Hemisphere always produces the densest waters. The model's meridional overturning circulation (MOC) exhibits a strong response in both hemispheres on decadal to multi-millennial timescales. The amplitude of the oscillations reaches up to 140% of the steady-state maximum MOC and exhibits resonance-like behaviour, with a maximum at centennial to millennial forcing periods. When the forcing is in phase between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, there is a marked decrease in the amplitude of the MOC response as the forcing period is increased beyond the resonance period. In this case the resonance-like behaviour is identical to the one we found earlier in a single-hemisphere model and occurs for the same reasons. When the forcing is out of phase between the Northern and Southern Hemispheres, the amplitude of the MOC response is substantially greater for long forcing periods (millennial and longer), particularly in the Southern Hemisphere. This increased MOC amplitude occurs because for an out of phase forcing, either the northern or the southern deep water source is always active, leading to generally colder bottom waters and thus greater stratification in the opposite hemisphere. This increased stratification in turn stabilises the water column and thus reduces the strength of the weaker overturning cell. The interaction of the two hemispheres leads to response timescales of the deep ocean at half the forcing period. Our results suggest a possible explanation for the half-precessional time scale observed in the deep Atlantic Ocean palaeo-temperature record. (orig.)
Singular perturbation techniques in the gravitational self-force problem
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pound, Adam
2010-01-01
Much of the progress in the gravitational self-force problem has involved the use of singular perturbation techniques. Yet the formalism underlying these techniques is not widely known. I remedy this situation by explicating the foundations and geometrical structure of singular perturbation theory in general relativity. Within that context, I sketch precise formulations of the methods used in the self-force problem: dual expansions (including matched asymptotic expansions), for which I identify precise matching conditions, one of which is a weak condition arising only when multiple coordinate systems are used; multiscale expansions, for which I provide a covariant formulation; and a self-consistent expansion with a fixed worldline, for which I provide a precise statement of the exact problem and its approximation. I then present a detailed analysis of matched asymptotic expansions as they have been utilized in calculating the self-force. Typically, the method has relied on a weak matching condition, which I show cannot determine a unique equation of motion. I formulate a refined condition that is sufficient to determine such an equation. However, I conclude that the method yields significantly weaker results than do alternative methods.
Effect of Buoyancy on Forced Convection Heat Transfer in Vertical Channels - a Literature Survey
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bhattacharyya, A
1965-03-15
This report contains a short resume of the available information from various sources on the effect of free convection flow on forced convection heat transfer in vertical channels. Both theoretical and experimental investigations are included. Nearly all of the theoretical investigations are concerned with laminar flow with or without internal heat generation. More consistent data are available for upward flow than for downward flow. Curves are presented to determine whether free convection or forced convection mode of heat transfer is predominant for a particular Reynolds number and Rayleigh number. At Re{sub b} > 10{sup 5} free convection effects are negligible. Downward flow through a heated channel at low Reynolds number is unstable. Under similar conditions the overall heat transfer coefficient for downward flow tends to be higher than that for upward flow.
Nonlinear gravitational self-force: Field outside a small body
Pound, Adam
2012-10-01
A small extended body moving through an external spacetime gαβ creates a metric perturbation hαβ, which forces the body away from geodesic motion in gαβ. The foundations of this effect, called the gravitational self-force, are now well established, but concrete results have mostly been limited to linear order. Accurately modeling the dynamics of compact binaries requires proceeding to nonlinear orders. To that end, I show how to obtain the metric perturbation outside the body at all orders in a class of generalized wave gauges. In a small buffer region surrounding the body, the form of the perturbation can be found analytically as an expansion for small distances r from a representative worldline. Given only a specification of the body’s multipole moments, the field obtained in the buffer region suffices to find the metric everywhere outside the body via a numerical puncture scheme. Following this procedure at first and second order, I calculate the field in the buffer region around an arbitrarily structured compact body at sufficiently high order in r to numerically implement a second-order puncture scheme, including effects of the body’s spin. I also define nth-order (local) generalizations of the Detweiler-Whiting singular and regular fields and show that in a certain sense, the body can be viewed as a skeleton of multipole moments.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McDougall, S.R.; Mackay, E.J. [Heriot-Watt University, Edinburgh (United Kingdom). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering
1998-07-01
This paper describes a combined experimental and theoretical study of the microscopic pore-scale physics characterizing gas and liquid production from hydrocarbon reservoirs during pressure depletion. The primary focus of the study was to examine the complex interactions between interfacial tension and buoyancy forces during gas evolution within a porous medium containing oil, water and gas. A specialized 2-dimensional glass micromodel, capable of operating at pressure in excess of 35 MPa was used to visualize the physical mechanisms governing such microscopic processes. In addition, a 3-dimensional, 3-phase numerical pore-scale simulator was developed that can be used to examine gas evolution over a range of different lengthscales and for a wide range of fluid and rock properties. The model incorporates all of the important physics observed in associated laboratory micromodel experiments, including: embryonic nucleation, supersaturation effects, multiphase diffusion, bubble growth-migration-fragmentation, and three-phase spreading coefficients. The precise pore-scale mechanisms governing gas evolution were found to be far more subtle than earlier models would suggest because of the large variation of gas/oil interfacial tension with pressure. This has a profound effect upon the migration of gas structures during depletion and, in models pertaining to reservoir rock, the process of gas migration is consequently much slower than previously thought. This is the first time that such a phenomena has been modelled at the pore-scale and the implications for production forecasting are thought to be significant. (author)
Experimental determination of the gravitational forces at separations around 10 meters
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yu, H.; Ni, W.; Hu, C.; Liu, F.; Yang, C.; Liu, W.
1979-01-01
We use a Worden gravimeter to measure the gravitational forces at fixed positions when a large oil tank is full and when it is empty. The differences determine the gravitational constant at various separations around 10 m to about 10% accuracy
Li, Feng-guo; Ai, Bao-quan
2014-04-01
Transport of overdamped Brownian particles in a periodic hydrodynamical channel is investigated in the presence of an asymmetric unbiased force, a transverse gravitational force, and a pressure-driven flow. With the help of the generalized Fick-Jacobs approach, we obtain an analytical expression for the directed current and the generalized potential of mean force. It is found that, when the transverse gravitational force is larger than a certain value, the current is suppressed. Moreover, when the temporal asymmetry parameter of the unbiased force is negative, the current is always negative. However, when the temporal asymmetry parameter is positive, the transverse gravitational force and the pressure drop not only determine the direction of the current but also affect its amplitude. In particular, the competition between the asymmetric unbiased force and the pressure drop can result in multiple current reversals.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Li, Feng-guo; Ai, Bao-quan
2014-01-01
Transport of overdamped Brownian particles in a periodic hydrodynamical channel is investigated in the presence of an asymmetric unbiased force, a transverse gravitational force, and a pressure-driven flow. With the help of the generalized Fick–Jacobs approach, we obtain an analytical expression for the directed current and the generalized potential of mean force. It is found that, when the transverse gravitational force is larger than a certain value, the current is suppressed. Moreover, when the temporal asymmetry parameter of the unbiased force is negative, the current is always negative. However, when the temporal asymmetry parameter is positive, the transverse gravitational force and the pressure drop not only determine the direction of the current but also affect its amplitude. In particular, the competition between the asymmetric unbiased force and the pressure drop can result in multiple current reversals. (paper)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Masyukov, V.V.; Tsvetkov, V.P.
1990-01-01
The analytical representations of the gravitational potential of perturbed inhomogeneous ellipsoidal configurations with the account of the 'fifth' force are obtained in the form of the series in the parameter of perturbation. 11 refs
Effect of polarization force on the Jeans instability of self-gravitating dusty plasma
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Prajapati, R.P.
2011-01-01
The effect of polarization force acting on massive charged dust grains is investigated analytically on the Jeans instability of self-gravitating dusty plasma. The gravitational force acting on the massive negatively charged interstellar dust grains are considered in presence of both electrical and polarization forces. The basic equations of the problem are formulated and a general dispersion relation is obtained using plane wave approximation in low frequency wave mode. The effect of polarization force in the dispersion relation of the problem, condition of the Jeans instability and expression of the critical Jeans wave number is examined. The unstable growing modes due to self-gravitational force are studied in the situation when polarization force on the dust grain exceeds over the electrical force in magnitude. It is observed that the polarization force increases the growth rate of the system. -- Highlights: → Jeans instability of gravitating dusty plasma with polarization force is investigated. → The fundamental Jeans instability criterion is modified due to polarization effect. → The critical Jeans length decreases due to increase in polarization force. → Polarization force destabilizes the unstable Jeans mode. → The collapsing of interstellar dusty cloud is discussed.
Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy
Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul
2016-01-01
Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.
Experiment to measure the gravitational force on the antiproton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Brown, R.E.
1985-01-01
A collaboration has been formed to measure the acceleration of antiprotons in the earth's gravitational field. The technique is to produce, decelerate, and trap quantities of antiprotons, to cool them to untralow energy, and to measure their acceleration in a time-of-flight experiment. Present plans and the results of initial efforts toward this end are presented
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Iftikhar Uddin
2018-03-01
Full Text Available This attempt dedicated to the solution of buoyancy effect over a stretching sheet in existence of MHD stagnation point flow with convective boundary conditions. Thermophoresis and Brownian motion aspects are included. Incompressible fluid is electrically conducted in the presence of varying magnetic field. Boundary layer analysis is used to develop the mathematical formulation. Zero mass flux condition is considered at the boundary. Non-linear ordinary differential system of equations is constructed by means of proper transformations. Interval of convergence via numerical data and plots are developed. Characteristics of involved variables on the velocity, temperature and concentration distributions are sketched and discussed. Features of correlated parameters on Cf and Nu are examined by means of tables. It is found that buoyancy ratio and magnetic parameters increase and reduce the velocity field. Further opposite feature is noticed for higher values of thermophoresis and Brownian motion parameters on concentration distribution. Keywords: Stagnation point, MHD, Nanoparticles, Zero mass flux condition
Misner, Charles W; Wheeler, John Archibald
2017-01-01
First published in 1973, Gravitation is a landmark graduate-level textbook that presents Einstein’s general theory of relativity and offers a rigorous, full-year course on the physics of gravitation. Upon publication, Science called it “a pedagogic masterpiece,” and it has since become a classic, considered essential reading for every serious student and researcher in the field of relativity. This authoritative text has shaped the research of generations of physicists and astronomers, and the book continues to influence the way experts think about the subject. With an emphasis on geometric interpretation, this masterful and comprehensive book introduces the theory of relativity; describes physical applications, from stars to black holes and gravitational waves; and portrays the field’s frontiers. The book also offers a unique, alternating, two-track pathway through the subject. Material focusing on basic physical ideas is designated as Track 1 and formulates an appropriate one-semester graduate-level...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rasoul Nikbakhti
2016-03-01
Full Text Available This paper deals with a numerical investigation of double-diffusive natural convective heat and mass transfer in a cavity filled with Newtonian fluid. The active parts of two vertical walls of the cavity are maintained at fixed but different temperatures and concentrations, while the other two walls, as well as inactive areas of the sidewalls, are considered to be adiabatic and impermeable to mass transfer. The length of the thermally active part equals half of the height. The non-dimensional forms of governing transport equations that describe double-diffusive natural convection for two-dimensional incompressible flow are functions of temperature or energy, concentration, vorticity, and stream-function. The coupled differential equations are discretized via FDM (Finite Difference Method. The Successive-Over-Relaxation (SOR method is used in the solution of the stream function equation. The analysis has been done for an enclosure with different aspect ratios ranging from 0.5 to 11 for three different combinations of partially active sections. The results are presented graphically in terms of streamlines, isotherms and isoconcentrations. In addition, the heat and mass transfer rate in the cavity is measured in terms of the average Nusselt and Sherwood numbers for various parameters including thermal Grashof number, Lewis number, buoyancy ratio and aspect ratio. It is revealed that the placement order of partially thermally active walls and the buoyancy ratio influence significantly the flow pattern and the corresponding heat and mass transfer performance in the cavity.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Silveira, R. da
1996-07-01
Possible effects of quantum-mechanical interferences between gravitational forces and the nucleus-nucleus Coulomb interaction are discussed. It is shown that, although very small, these effects could be measured using low energy scattering between identical heavy nuclei, e.g. for the system 208 Pb + 208 Pb (E L = 5 MeV). (author)
Relativistic bound state approach to fundamental forces including gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Morsch H.P.
2012-06-01
Full Text Available To describe the structure of particle bound states of nature, a relativistic bound state formalism is presented, which requires a Lagrangian including scalar coupling of two boson fields. The underlying mechanisms are quite complex and require an interplay of overlapping boson fields and fermion-antifermion production. This gives rise to two potentials, a boson-exchange potential and one identified with the long sought confinement potential in hadrons. With minimal requirements, two elementary massless fermions (quantons - with and without charge - and one gauge boson, hadrons and leptons but also atoms and gravitational systems are described by bound states with electric and magnetic coupling between the charges and spins of quantons. No need is found for colour, Higgs-coupling and supersymmetry.
Elementary Development of the Gravitational Self-Force
Detweiler, Steven
The gravitational field of a particle of small mass m moving through curved spacetime, with metric g ab , is naturally and easily decomposed into two parts each of which satisfies the perturbed Einstein equations through O(m). One part is an inhomogeneous field h ab S which, near the particle, looks like the Coulomb m / r field with tidal distortion from the local Riemann tensor. This singular field is defined in a neighborhood of the small particle and does not depend upon boundary conditions or upon the behavior of the source in either the past or the future. The other part is a homogeneous field h ab R. In a perturbative analysis, the motion of the particle is then best described as being a geodesic in the metric g ab + h ab R. This geodesic motion includes all of the effects which might be called radiation reaction and conservative effects as well.
Mechanical characterisation of the TorPeDO: a low frequency gravitational force sensor
McManus, D. J.; Forsyth, P. W. F.; Yap, M. J.; Ward, R. L.; Shaddock, D. A.; McClelland, D. E.; Slagmolen, B. J. J.
2017-07-01
Newtonian noise is likely to be a future challenge at low frequencies for Advanced LIGO and other second generation gravitational wave detectors. We present the TorPeDO system: a dual torsion pendulum sensor designed to measure local gravitational forces to high precision. Gravitational forces induce a differential rotation between the two torsion beams, which is measured with an optical read-out. Both torsion pendulums have a common suspension point, tunable centre of mass, and resonant frequency. This produces a high level of mechanical common mode noise cancellation. We report on a controls prototype of the TorPeDO system, presenting the frequency response and tuning range of both pendulums. A noise budget and mechanical cross-coupling model for this system are also presented. We demonstrate frequency tuning of the two torsion pendulums to a difference of 4.3 μHz.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fennelly, A.J.
1978-01-01
Investigations of several problems of gravitation are discussed. The question of the existence of black holes is considered. While black holes like those in Einstein's theory may not exist in other gravity theories, trapped surfaces implying such black holes certainly do. The theories include those of Brans-Dicke, Lightman-Lee, Rosen, and Yang. A similar two-tensor theory of Yilmaz is investigated and found inconsistent and nonviable. The Newman-Penrose formalism for Riemannian geometries is adapted to general gravity theories and used to implement a search for twisting solutions of the gravity theories for empty and nonempty spaces. The method can be used to find the gravitational fields for all viable gravity theories. The rotating solutions are of particular importance for strong field interpretation of the Stanford/Marshall gyroscope experiment. Inhomogeneous cosmologies are examined in Einstein's theory as generalizations of homogeneous ones by raising the dimension of the invariance groups by one more parameter. The nine Bianchi classifications are extended to Rosen's theory of gravity for homogeneous cosmological models
Zeng, Shihao; Chen, Manna; Zhang, Ting; Hu, Wei; Guo, Qi; Lu, Daquan
2018-01-01
We illuminate an analytical model of soliton interactions in lead glass by analogizing to a gravitational force system. The orbits of spiraling solitons under a long-range interaction are given explicitly and demonstrated to follow Newton's second law of motion and the Binet equation by numerical simulations. The condition for circular orbits is obtained and the oscillating orbits are proved not to be closed. We prove the analogy between the nonlocal nonlinear optical system and gravitational system and specify the quantitative relation of the quantity between the two models.
Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL)
Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility,...
Sun, S; Eisenman, I; Stewart, AL
2016-01-01
©2016. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved. Previous studies have suggested that the global ocean density stratification below ∼3000 m is approximately set by its direct connection to the Southern Ocean surface density, which in turn is constrained by the atmosphere. Here the role of Southern Ocean surface forcing in glacial-interglacial stratification changes is investigated using a comprehensive climate model and an idealized conceptual model. Southern Ocean surface forcing is f...
Phenomenological aspects of new gravitational forces. I. Rapidly rotating compact objects
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieto, M.M.; Goldman, T.; Hughes, R.J.
1987-01-01
A general phenomenological feature of theories of quantum gravity is the existence of spin-1 and spin-0 partners of the graviton, which are expected to be massive (have finite ranges). In the static limit, the forces associated with these partners could almost cancel for particle-particle interactions and yet still produce dramatic effects for antiparticle-particle interactions (such as the gravitational attraction of antiprotons to Earth). However, at relativistic velocities the new forces could become significant even for particle-particle interactions. In this paper we show how these partners could modify the dynamics of particles at the surface of rotating, compact objects, specifically, rapidly rotating pulsars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dolesi, R.; Hueller, M.; Nicolodi, D.; Tombolato, D.; Vitale, S.; Wass, P. J.; Weber, W. J.; Evans, M.; Fritschel, P.; Weiss, R.; Gundlach, J. H.; Hagedorn, C. A.; Schlamminger, S.; Ciani, G.; Cavalleri, A.
2011-01-01
We present an analysis of Brownian force noise from residual gas damping of reference test masses as a fundamental sensitivity limit in small force experiments. The resulting acceleration noise increases significantly when the distance of the test mass to the surrounding experimental apparatus is smaller than the dimension of the test mass itself. For the Advanced LIGO interferometric gravitational wave observatory, where the relevant test mass is a suspended 340 mm diameter cylindrical end mirror, the force noise power is increased by roughly a factor 40 by the presence of a similarly shaped reaction mass at a nominal separation of 5 mm. The force noise, of order 20 fN/Hz 1/2 for 2x10 -6 Pa of residual H 2 gas, rivals quantum optical fluctuations as the dominant noise source between 10 and 30 Hz. We present here a numerical and analytical analysis for the gas damping force noise for Advanced LIGO, backed up by experimental evidence from several recent measurements. Finally, we discuss the impact of residual gas damping on the gravitational wave sensitivity and possible mitigation strategies.
Modeling of Non-Gravitational Forces for Precise and Accurate Orbit Determination
Hackel, Stefan; Gisinger, Christoph; Steigenberger, Peter; Balss, Ulrich; Montenbruck, Oliver; Eineder, Michael
2014-05-01
Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The precise reconstruction of the satellite's trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency Integrated Geodetic and Occultation Receiver (IGOR) onboard the spacecraft. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. An analysis of the orbit quality by means of internal and external validation methods on long and short timescales shows systematics, which reflect deficits in the employed force models. Following the proper analysis of this deficits, possible solution strategies are highlighted in the presentation. The employed Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for gravitational and non-gravitational forces. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). The satellite TerraSAR-X flies on a dusk-dawn orbit with an altitude of approximately 510 km above ground. Due to this constellation, the Sun almost constantly illuminates the satellite, which causes strong across-track accelerations on the plane rectangular to the solar rays. The indirect effect of the solar radiation is called Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). This force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface (visible spectra) and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed. The scope of
Poroelastic theory of consolidation in unsaturated soils incorporating gravitational body forces
Lo, Wei-Cheng; Chao, Nan-Chieh; Chen, Chu-Hui; Lee, Jhe-Wei
2017-08-01
The generalization of the poroelasticity theory of consolidation in unsaturated soils to well represent gravitational body forces is presented in the current study. Three partial differential equations featuring the displacement vector of the solid phase, along with the excess pore water and air pressures as dependent variables are derived, with coupling that occurs in the first-order temporal- and spatial- derivative terms. The former arises from viscous drag between solid and fluid, whereas the latter is attributed to the presence of gravity. Given the physically-consistent initial and boundary conditions, these coupled equations are numerically solved under uniaxial strain as a representative example. Our results reveal that variations in the excess pore water pressure due to the existence of gravitational forces increase with soil depth, but these variations are not significant if the soil layer is not sufficiently long. A dimensionless parameter is defined theoretically to quantify the impact of those forces on the final total settlement. This impact is shown to become greater as the soil layer is less stiff and has more length, and bears an inversely-proportional trend with initial water saturation.
Gauge unification of basic forces particularly of gravitation with strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salam, A.
1977-01-01
Corresponding to the two known types of gauge theories, Yang-Mills with spin-one mediating particles and Einstein Weyl with spin-two mediating particles, it is speculated that two distinct gauge unifications of the basic forces appear to be taking place. One is the familiar Yang-Mills unification of weak and electromagnetic forces with the strong. The second is the less familiar gauge unification of gravitation with spin-two tensor-dominated aspects of strong interactions. It is proposed that there are strongly interacting spin-two strong gravitons obeying Einstein's equations, and their existence gives a clue to an understanding of the (partial) confinement of quarks, as well as of the concept of hadronic temperature, through the use of Schwarzschild de-Sitter-like partially confining solitonic solutions of the strong gravity Einstein equation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
García-Senz, D. [Departament de Física, UPC, Comte d’Urgell 187, E-08036 Barcelona (Spain); Cabezón, R. M.; Thielemann, F. K. [Departement Physik, Universität Basel. Klingelbergstrasse, 82, 4056 Basel (Switzerland); Domínguez, I., E-mail: domingo.garcia@upc.edu, E-mail: ruben.cabezon@unibas.ch [Departamento de Física, Teórica y del Cosmos, Universidad de Granada, E-18071 Granada (Spain)
2016-03-10
Currently the number of models aimed at explaining the phenomena of type Ia supernovae is high and distinguishing between them is a must. In this work we explore the influence of rotation on the evolution of the nuclear flame that drives the explosion in the so-called gravitational confined detonation models. Assuming that the flame starts in a pointlike region slightly above the center of the white dwarf (WD) and adding a moderate amount of angular velocity to the star we follow the evolution of the deflagration using a smoothed particle hydrodynamics code. We find that the results are very dependent on the angle between the rotational axis and the line connecting the initial bubble of burned material with the center of the WD at the moment of ignition. The impact of rotation is larger for angles close to 90° because the Coriolis force on a floating element of fluid is maximum and its principal effect is to break the symmetry of the deflagration. Such symmetry breaking weakens the convergence of the nuclear flame at the antipodes of the initial ignition volume, changing the environmental conditions around the convergence region with respect to non-rotating models. These changes seem to disfavor the emergence of a detonation in the compressed volume at the antipodes and may compromise the viability of the so-called gravitational confined detonation mechanism.
Hackel, Stefan; Montenbruck, Oliver; Steigenberger, -Peter; Eineder, Michael; Gisinger, Christoph
Remote sensing satellites support a broad range of scientific and commercial applications. The two radar imaging satellites TerraSAR-X and TanDEM-X provide spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) and interferometric SAR data with a very high accuracy. The increasing demand for precise radar products relies on sophisticated validation methods, which require precise and accurate orbit products. Basically, the precise reconstruction of the satellite’s trajectory is based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements from a geodetic-grade dual-frequency receiver onboard the spacecraft. The Reduced Dynamic Orbit Determination (RDOD) approach utilizes models for the gravitational and non-gravitational forces. Following a proper analysis of the orbit quality, systematics in the orbit products have been identified, which reflect deficits in the non-gravitational force models. A detailed satellite macro model is introduced to describe the geometry and the optical surface properties of the satellite. Two major non-gravitational forces are the direct and the indirect Solar Radiation Pressure (SRP). Due to the dusk-dawn orbit configuration of TerraSAR-X, the satellite is almost constantly illuminated by the Sun. Therefore, the direct SRP has an effect on the lateral stability of the determined orbit. The indirect effect of the solar radiation principally contributes to the Earth Radiation Pressure (ERP). The resulting force depends on the sunlight, which is reflected by the illuminated Earth surface in the visible, and the emission of the Earth body in the infrared spectra. Both components of ERP require Earth models to describe the optical properties of the Earth surface. Therefore, the influence of different Earth models on the orbit quality is assessed within the presentation. The presentation highlights the influence of non-gravitational force and satellite macro models on the orbit quality of TerraSAR-X.
Surface Buoyancy Fluxes and the Strength of the Subpolar Gyre
Hogg, A. M.; Gayen, B.
2017-12-01
Midlatitude ocean gyres have long been considered to be driven by the mechanical wind stress on the ocean's surface (strictly speaking, the potential vorticity input from wind stress curl). However, surface buoyancy forcing (i.e. heating/cooling or freshening/salinification) also modifies the potential vorticity at the surface. Here, we present a simple argument to demonstrate that ocean gyres may (in principle) be driven by surface buoyancy forcing. This argument is derived in two ways: A Direct Numerical Simulation, driven purely by buoyancy forcing, which generates strong nonlinear gyers in the absence of wind stress; and A series of idealised eddy-resolving numerical ocean model simulations, in which wind stress and buoyancy flux are varied independently and together, are used to understand the relative importance of these two types of forcing. In these simulations, basin-scale gyres and western boundary currents with realistic magnitudes, remain even in the absence of mechanical forcing by surface wind stress. These results support the notion that surface buoyancy forcing can reorganise the potential vorticity in the ocean in such a way as to drive basin-scale gyres. The role of buoyancy is stronger in the subpolar gyre than in the subtropical gyre. We infer that surface buoyancy fluxes are likely to play a contributing role in governing the strength, variability and predictability of the North Atlantic subpolar gyre.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Thirunavu S. R.
2006-11-01
Full Text Available The effects of buoyancy forces on liquid-liquid displacement processes occurring in porous media are important in a variety of practical situations, in particular during the displacement of oil from partially-depleted underground reservoirs by means of aqueous solutions. Most previous studies involving the visualization of water/oil displacements in porous media have been undertaken in horizontal two-dimensional porous medium cells. The objective of the present work was to determine the effects of buoyancy forces; on the fingering pattern and oil recovery by conducting immiscible displacement experiments in two-dimensional consolidated porous medium cells aligned in the vertical plane. In order to obtain a clear understanding of the favourable and unfavourable effects of buoyancy forces, experiments were carried out in three different flow modes, namely horizontal, vertical upward, and vertical downward. As the effects of buoyancy forces are negligible for two-dimensional porous media in the horizontal flow mode, the recoveries obtained in this mode were used as a reference for comparison with those obtained in the two vertical modes. Displacements using five different density ratios were studied. The breakthrough time and percentage oil recovery were measured in each case. The effects of buoyancy forces, viscous forces, and capillary forces, as well as the injection flow rate, were also recorded. The results obtained indicate that the effects of buoyancy forces are very pronounced at low flow rates and low oil/water density ratios, and that even a slight increase in the flow rate causes the buoyancy forces to rapidly become less significant. Les facteurs de flottabilité exercent un effet important sur les déplacements liquide/liquide en milieu poreux dans toute une gamme de situations pratiques, en particulier lorsqu'on veut déplacer l'huile de roches réservoirs partiellement épuisées à l'aide de solutions aqueuses. La plupart des
Jo, Chris H; Roh, Young Hak; Kim, Ji Eun; Shin, Sue; Yoon, Kang Sup
2013-10-01
Despite the increasing clinical use of topical platelet-rich plasma (PRP) to enhance tissue healing and regeneration, there is no properly standardized method of autologous PRP gel preparation. This study examined the effect of the centrifugation time and gravitational force (g) on the platelet recovery ratio of PRP and determined the most effective centrifugation conditions for preparing PRP. Two-step centrifugations for preparing PRP were used in 39 subjects who had consented prior to the study's start. The separating centrifugation (Step 1, used to separate whole blood into its two main components: red blood cells and plasma) was tested from 500g to 1900g at 200g increments for 5 minutes (min), and from 100g to 1300g at 200g increments for 10 minutes. After separating centrifugation, upper plasma layer was transferred to another plain tube for the condensation centrifugation and remaining lower cell layer was discarded. The condensation centrifugation (Step 2, used to condense the platelets in the separated plasma) was tested at 1000g for 15 min, 1500g for 15 min, 2000g for 5 min and 3000g for 5 min, additionally at 1000g for 10 min and 1500g for 10 min. Platelet gelation was induced by adding 10% calcium gluconate to final PRP with volume ratio of 1:10. The optimal separating centrifugation conditions were followed by 900g for 5 minutes and the condensation conditions were followed by 1500g for 15 minutes, of which recovery ratios were 92.0 ± 3.1% and 84.3 ± 10.0%, respectively.
Isoyama, Soichiro; Barack, Leor; Dolan, Sam R; Le Tiec, Alexandre; Nakano, Hiroyuki; Shah, Abhay G; Tanaka, Takahiro; Warburton, Niels
2014-10-17
For a self-gravitating particle of mass μ in orbit around a Kerr black hole of mass M ≫ μ, we compute the O(μ/M) shift in the frequency of the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit due to the conservative piece of the gravitational self-force acting on the particle. Our treatment is based on a Hamiltonian formulation of the dynamics in terms of geodesic motion in a certain locally defined effective smooth spacetime. We recover the same result using the so-called first law of binary black-hole mechanics. We give numerical results for the innermost stable circular equatorial orbit frequency shift as a function of the black hole's spin amplitude, and compare with predictions based on the post-Newtonian approximation and the effective one-body model. Our results provide an accurate strong-field benchmark for spin effects in the general-relativistic two-body problem.
Schäfer, G.; Schutz, B.
1996-01-01
Gravity is truly universal. It is the force that pulls us to the Earth, that keeps the planets and moons in their orbits, and that causes the tides on the Earth to ebb and flow. It even keeps the Sun shining. Yet on a laboratory scale gravity is extremely weak. The Coulomb force between two protons is 1039 times stronger than the gravitational force between them. Moreover, Newton's gravitational constant is the least accurately known of the fundamental constants: it has been measured to 1 par...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kalebin, S.M.
1988-01-01
Torsion installation with magnetic suspension of test bodies for detection of small forces is considered. Installation application for verification of equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass in the case of test body incidence on the Earth (Etvesh experiment) and in the case of their incidene on the Sun (Dicke experiment) is discussed. The total mass of test bodies, produced in the form of cylinders with 3 cm radius, equals 50 kg (one lead body and one copper body); beam radius of test bodies equals 3 cm (the cylinders are tight against one another); ferrite cylinder with 3 cm radius and 10 cm height is used for their suspension in magnetic field. Effect of thermal noise and electromagnetic force disturbances on measurement results is considered. Conducted calculations show that suggested installation enables to improve the accuracy of verifying mentioned equivalence at least by one order and upwards. This suggests that such installation is a matter of interest for experiments on small force detection
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Singh, T.; Yadav, R.B.S.
1980-01-01
In the first part of the present paper the Newtonian analogue of force for the combined Kerr-NUT metric has been investigated. To the first order of approximation one component of the force vector corresponds to the Newtonian gravitational force. In the higher order of approximation the relativistic correction terms due to rotation and presence of gravitational analogue of a magnetic monopole are obtained. In the second part of the paper the motion of a freely falling body has been investigated. It is found that plane orbits are not possible. Also a radial fall is not possible and there is a rotational drag on the particle which has no Newtonian analogue. (author)
New exact solutions of Einstein's field equations: gravitational force can also be repulsive!
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dietz, W.
1988-01-01
This article has not been written for specialists of exact solutions of Einstein's field equations but for physicists who are interested in nontrivial information on this topic. We recall the history and some basic properties of exact solutions of Einstein's vacuum equations. We show that the field equations for stationary axisymmetric vacuum gravitational fields can be expressed by only one nonlinear differential equation for a complex function. This compact form of the field equations allows the generation of almost all stationary axisymmetric vacuum gravitational fields. We present a new stationary two-body solution of Einstein's equations as an application of this generation technique. This new solution proves the existence of a macroscopic, repulsive spin-spin interaction in general relativity. Some estimates that are related to this new two-body solution are given
Singhal, Kunal; Kim, Jemin; Casebolt, Jeffrey; Lee, Sangwoo; Han, Ki-Hoon; Kwon, Young-Hoo
2015-06-01
Angular momentum of the body is a highly controlled quantity signifying stability, therefore, it is essential to understand its regulation during stair descent. The purpose of this study was to investigate how older adults use gravity and ground reaction force to regulate the angular momentum of the body during stair descent. A total of 28 participants (12 male and 16 female; 68.5 years and 69.0 years of mean age respectively) performed stair descent from a level walk in a step-over-step manner at a self-selected speed over a custom made three-step staircase with embedded force plates. Kinematic and force data were used to calculate angular momentum, gravitational moment, and ground reaction force moment about the stance foot center of pressure. Women show a significantly greater change in normalized angular momentum (0.92Nms/Kgm; p=.004) as compared to men (0.45Nms/Kgm). Women produce higher normalized GRF (p=.031) during the double support phase. The angular momentum changes show largest backward regulation for Step 0 and forward regulation for Step 2. This greater difference in overall change in the angular momentum in women may explain their increased risk of fall over the stairs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Static Test for a Gravitational Force Coupled to Type 2 YBCO Superconductors
Li, Ning; Noever, David; Robertson, Tony; Koczor, Ron; Brantley, Whitt
1997-01-01
As a Bose condensate, superconductors provide novel conditions for revisiting previously proposed couplings between electromagnetism and gravity. Strong variations in Cooper pair density, large conductivity and low magnetic permeability define superconductive and degenerate condensates without the traditional density limits imposed by the Fermi energy (approx. 10(exp -6) g cc. Recent experiments have reported anomalous weight loss for a test mass suspended above a rotating type II, YBCO superconductor, with the percentage change (0.05 - 2.1 %) independent of the test mass' chemical composition and diamagnetic properties. A variation of 5 parts per 10' was reported above a stationary (non-rotating) superconductor. In experiments using a sensitive gravimeter, bulk YBCO superconductors were stably levitated in a DC magnetic field. Changes in acceleration were measured to be less than 2 parts in 108 of the normal gravitational acceleration. This result puts new limits on the strength and range of the proposed coupling between static superconductors and gravity.
Gauge unification of basic forces, particularly of gravitation with strong interactions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Salam, A.
1977-01-01
An attempt is made to present a case for the use of both the Einstein--Weyl spin-two and the Yang--Mills spin-one gauge structures for describing strong interactions. By emphasizing both spin-one and -two aspects of this force, it is hoped that a unification of this force, on the one hand, with gravity theory and, on the other, with the electromagnetic and weak interactions can be achieved. A Puppi type of tetrahedral interralation of fundamental forces, with the strong force playing a pivotal role due to its mediation through both spin-one and -two quanta, is proposed. It is claimed that the gauge invariance of gravity theory permits the use of ambuguity-free nonpolynomial techniques and thereby the securing of relistic regularization in gravity-modified field theories with the Newtonian constant G/sub N/ providing a relistic cutoff. 37 references
Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Axial skeletal loads coupled with muscle forces maintain bone in the spine and lower extremities during International Space Station (ISS) missions. Current exercise...
Dodelson, Scott
2017-01-01
Gravitational lensing is a consequence of general relativity, where the gravitational force due to a massive object bends the paths of light originating from distant objects lying behind it. Using very little general relativity and no higher level mathematics, this text presents the basics of gravitational lensing, focusing on the equations needed to understand the phenomena. It then applies them to a diverse set of topics, including multiply imaged objects, time delays, extrasolar planets, microlensing, cluster masses, galaxy shape measurements, cosmic shear, and lensing of the cosmic microwave background. This approach allows undergraduate students and others to get quickly up to speed on the basics and the important issues. The text will be especially relevant as large surveys such as LSST and Euclid begin to dominate the astronomical landscape. Designed for a one semester course, it is accessible to anyone with two years of undergraduate physics background.
Nelson, Jim; Nelson, Jane Bray
2015-01-01
In this paper, a discrepant event is used to initiate a learning cycle lesson to help students develop an understanding of the concept and equation for buoyant force. The data are gathered using readily available equipment and then graphically analyzed using a four-step analysis consistent with the modeling instructional approach. This laboratory…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Barack, Leor; Sago, Norichika
2011-01-01
We study conservative finite-mass corrections to the motion of a particle in a bound (eccentric) strong-field orbit around a Schwarzschild black hole. We assume the particle's mass μ is much smaller than the black hole mass M, and explore post-geodesic corrections of O(μ/M). Our analysis uses numerical data from a recently developed code that outputs the Lorenz-gauge gravitational self-force (GSF) acting on the particle along the eccentric geodesic. First, we calculate the O(μ/M) conservative correction to the periastron advance of the orbit, as a function of the (gauge-dependent) semilatus rectum and eccentricity. A gauge-invariant description of the GSF precession effect is made possible in the circular-orbit limit, where we express the correction to the periastron advance as a function of the invariant azimuthal frequency. We compare this relation with results from fully nonlinear numerical-relativistic simulations. In order to obtain a gauge-invariant measure of the GSF effect for fully eccentric orbits, we introduce a suitable generalization of Detweiler's circular-orbit ''redshift'' invariant. We compute the O(μ/M) conservative correction to this invariant, expressed as a function of the two invariant frequencies that parametrize the orbit. Our results are in good agreement with results from post-Newtonian calculations in the weak-field regime, as we shall report elsewhere. The results of our study can inform the development of analytical models for the dynamics of strongly gravitating binaries. They also provide an accurate benchmark for future numerical-relativistic simulations.
Wave Dragon Buoyancy Regulation Study
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Jakobsen, Jens; Kofoed, Jens Peter
Wave Dragon is a wave energy converter, which was deployed offshore at Nissum Bredning in Denmark in 2003. The experience gained from operating Wave Dragon during 2003 and 2004 has shown that the buoyancy regulation system can be improved in a number of ways. This study describes the current...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kim, Do-Yoon; Lee, Hyun-Chul; Lee, Jong-Hak; Park, Jae-Hong; Alegaonkar, Prashant S. [Center for Nanotubes and Nanostructured Composites, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Ji-Beom [Center for Nanotubes and Nanostructured Composites, Sungkyunkwan University, 300 Chunchun-dong, Jangan-Gu, Suwon, 440-746 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: jbyoo@skku.ac.kr; Han, In-Taek; Kim, Ha-Jin; Jin, Yong-Wan; Kim, Jong-Min [Samsung Advanced Institute of Technology, Mt. 14-1, Nongseo-dong, Giheung-gu, Younggin-si Gyunggi-do, 449-712 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Kee-Won [Department of Semiconducting System, Sungkyunkwan University (Korea, Republic of)
2008-04-01
The photolithography process has generally been used for the making of catalyst layers used for the synthesis of CNTs due to its comparative ease. However, this method results in the formation of undesirable catalyst particles, which deteriorate the quality of the devices. Therefore, we tried to form a catalyst layer without using any lift-off or wet etching process, especially for the formation of carbon nanotube interconnects. After spin coating the samples, which were previously fabricated with several vias, with an iron-acetate solution, the catalyst layer was pulled down into the bottom of the holes through the force of gravity. We were able to remove the catalyst layer which was coated over undesirable areas, by TMAH (tetramethylammonium hydroxide, N(CH{sub 3}){sub 4}OH) treatment. After the catalyst deposition process, we synthesized CNTs and observed them by scanning electron microscopy (SEM)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kim, Youngho; Kim, Byungkyu; Lee, Junghun; Kim, Younggeun; Shin, Sang-Mo
2011-01-01
In this paper, we describe a cantilever-type electrode (CE) array-based high-throughput sorting platform, which is a tool used to separate microparticles using gravitation and negative dielectrophoretic (n-DEP) force. This platform consists of meso-size channels and a CE array, which is designed to separate a large number of target particles by differences in their dielectric material properties (DMP) and the weight of the particles. We employ a two-step separation process, with sedimentation as the first step and n-DEP as the second step. In order to differentiate the weight and the DMP of each particle, we employ the sedimentation phenomena in a vertical channel and the CE-based n-DEP in an inclined channel. By using three kinds of polystyrene beads with diameters of 10, 25 and 50 µm, the optimal population (10 7 beads ml −1 ) of particles and the appropriate length (25 mm) of the vertical channel for high performance were determined experimentally. Conclusively, by combining sedimentation and n-DEP schemes, we achieve 74.5, 94.7 and 100% separation efficiency for sorting microparticles with a diameter of 10, 25 and 50 µm, respectively.
Analysis of Buoyancy Module Auxiliary Installation Technology Based on Numerical Simulation
Xu, Songsen; Jiao, Chunshuo; Ning, Meng; Dong, Sheng
2018-04-01
To reduce the requirement for lifting capacity and decrease the hoist cable force during the descending and laying process of a subsea production system (SPS), a buoyancy module auxiliary installation technology was proposed by loading buoyancy modules on the SPS to reduce the lifting weight. Two models are established, namely, the SPS lowering-down model and the buoyancy module floating-up model. The main study results are the following: 1) When the buoyancy module enters the water under wave condition, the amplitude of tension fluctuation is twice that when SPS enters water; 2) Under current condition, the displacement of SPS becomes three times larger because of the existence of the buoyancy module; 3) After being released, the velocity of the buoyancy module increases to a large speed rapidly and then reaches a balancing speed gradually. The buoyancy module floats up at a balancing speed and rushes out from the water at a pop-up distance; 4) In deep water, the floating-up velocity of the buoyancy module is related to its mass density and shape, and it is not related to water depth; 5) A drag parachute can reduce floating-up velocity and pop-up distance effectively. Good agreement was found between the simulation and experiment results.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Puragliesi, R.; Dehbi, A.; Leriche, E.; Soldati, A.; Deville, M.O.
2011-01-01
Highlights: → 2D study of micro-size particle depletion driven by chaotic natural convective flows in square domains. → Description of velocity and temperature first and second moments with changing in the Rayleigh number. → Strong decoupling between the turbulent kinetic energy and the dissipation rate. → Particle recirculation sustained by the vertical hot boundary layer. → Deposition mostly induced by gravity, thermophoretic and lift forces are negligible. - Abstract: In this work we investigate numerically particle deposition in the buoyancy driven flow of the differentially heated cavity (DHC). We consider two values of the Rayleigh number (Ra = 10 9 , 10 10 ) and three values of the particle diameter (d p = 15, 25, 35 [μm]). We consider the cavity filled with air and particles with the same density of water ρ w = 1000 [kg/m 3 ] (aerosol). We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) for the continuous phase, and we solve transient Navier-Stokes and energy transport equations written in an Eulerian framework, under the Boussinesq approximation, for the viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid with constant Prandtl number (Pr = 0.71). First- and second-order statistics are presented for the continuous phase as well as important quantities like turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and temperature variance with the associated production and dissipation fields. The TKE production shows different behaviour at the two Rayleigh numbers. The Lagrangian approach has been chosen for the dispersed phase description. The forces taken into account are drag, gravity, buoyancy, lift and thermophoresis. A first incursion in the sedimentation mechanisms is presented. Current results indicate that the largest contribution to particle deposition is caused by gravitational settling, but a strong recirculating zone, which liftoffs and segregates particles, contributes to decrease settling. Deposition takes place mostly at the bottom wall. The influence of lift and thermophoretic
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Puragliesi, R., E-mail: riccardo.puragliesi@psi.ch [Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Laboratoire d' Ingenierie Numerique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Dehbi, A., E-mail: abdel.dehbi@psi.ch [Nuclear Energy and Safety Research Department, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland); Leriche, E., E-mail: emmanuel.leriche@univ-st-etienne.fr [Universite de Lyon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, LMFA-UJM St-Etienne, CNRS UMR 5509 Universite de St-Etienne, 23 rue Docteur Paul Michelon, F-42023 Saint-Etienne (France); Soldati, A., E-mail: soldati@uniud.it [Dipartimento di Energetica e Macchine, Universita di Udine, Via delle Scienze 208, IT-33100 Udine (Italy); Deville, M.O., E-mail: michel.deville@epfl.ch [Laboratoire d' Ingenierie Numerique, Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, Station 9, CH-1015 Lausanne (Switzerland)
2011-10-15
Highlights: > 2D study of micro-size particle depletion driven by chaotic natural convective flows in square domains. > Description of velocity and temperature first and second moments with changing in the Rayleigh number. > Strong decoupling between the turbulent kinetic energy and the dissipation rate. > Particle recirculation sustained by the vertical hot boundary layer. > Deposition mostly induced by gravity, thermophoretic and lift forces are negligible. - Abstract: In this work we investigate numerically particle deposition in the buoyancy driven flow of the differentially heated cavity (DHC). We consider two values of the Rayleigh number (Ra = 10{sup 9}, 10{sup 10}) and three values of the particle diameter (d{sub p} = 15, 25, 35 [{mu}m]). We consider the cavity filled with air and particles with the same density of water {rho}{sub w} = 1000 [kg/m{sup 3}] (aerosol). We use direct numerical simulations (DNS) for the continuous phase, and we solve transient Navier-Stokes and energy transport equations written in an Eulerian framework, under the Boussinesq approximation, for the viscous incompressible Newtonian fluid with constant Prandtl number (Pr = 0.71). First- and second-order statistics are presented for the continuous phase as well as important quantities like turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) and temperature variance with the associated production and dissipation fields. The TKE production shows different behaviour at the two Rayleigh numbers. The Lagrangian approach has been chosen for the dispersed phase description. The forces taken into account are drag, gravity, buoyancy, lift and thermophoresis. A first incursion in the sedimentation mechanisms is presented. Current results indicate that the largest contribution to particle deposition is caused by gravitational settling, but a strong recirculating zone, which liftoffs and segregates particles, contributes to decrease settling. Deposition takes place mostly at the bottom wall. The influence of lift
14 CFR 29.755 - Hull buoyancy.
2010-01-01
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull buoyancy. 29.755 Section 29.755... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction Floats and Hulls § 29.755 Hull buoyancy. Water-based and amphibian rotorcraft. The hull and auxiliary floats, if used, must have enough...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ezeuko, C.C.; McDougall, S.R. [Heriot-Watt Univ., Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Bondino, I. [Total E and P UK Ltd., London (United Kingdom); Hamon, G. [Total S.A., Paris (France)
2008-10-15
In an attempt to investigate the impact of gravitational forces on gas evolution during solution gas drive, a number of vertically-oriented heavy oil depletion experiments have been conducted. Some of the results of these studies suggest the occurrence of gas migration during these tests. However, a major limitation of these experiments is the difficulty in visualizing the process in reservoir rock samples. Experimental observations using transparent glass models have been useful in this context and provide a sound physical basis for modelling gravitational gas migration in gas-oil systems. This paper presented a new pore network simulator that was capable of modelling the time-dependent migration of growing gas structures. Multiple pore filling events were dynamically modelled with interface tracking allowing the full range of migratory behaviours to be reproduced, including braided migration and discontinuous dispersed flow. Simulation results were compared with experiments and were found to be in excellent agreement. The paper presented the model and discussed the implication of evolution regime on recovery from heavy oil systems undergoing depressurization. The simulation results demonstrated the complex interaction of a number of network and fluid parameters. It was concluded that the concomitant effect on the competition between capillarity and buoyancy produced different gas evolution patterns during pressure depletion. 28 refs., 2 tabs., 19 figs.
Gravitational radiation reaction
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tanaka, Takahiro
2006-01-01
We give a short personally-biased review on the recent progress in our understanding of gravitational radiation reaction acting on a point particle orbiting a black hole. The main motivation of this study is to obtain sufficiently precise gravitational waveforms from inspiraling binary compact starts with a large mass ratio. For this purpose, various new concepts and techniques have been developed to compute the orbital evolution taking into account the gravitational self-force. Combining these ideas with a few supplementary new ideas, we try to outline a path to our goal here. (author)
Presenting Newtonian gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Counihan, Martin
2007-01-01
The basic principles of the Newtonian theory of gravitation are presented in a way which students may find more logically coherent, mathematically accessible and physically interesting than other approaches. After giving relatively simple derivations of the circular hodograph and the elliptical orbit from the inverse-square law, the concept of gravitational energy is developed from vector calculus. It is argued that the energy density of a gravitational field may reasonably be regarded as -g 2 /8πG, and that the inverse-square law may be replaced by a Schwarzschild-like force law without the need to invoke non-Euclidean geometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Duan, Y. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); He, S., E-mail: s.he@sheffield.ac.uk [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Sheffield, Sheffield S1 3JD (United Kingdom)
2017-02-15
Highlights: • Buoyancy may greatly redistribute the flow in a non-uniform channel. • Flow structures in the narrow gap are greatly changed when buoyancy is strong. • Large flow structures exist in wider gap, which is enhanced when heat is strong. • Buoyancy reduces mixing factor caused by large flow structures in narrow gap. - Abstract: It has been a long time since the ‘abnormal’ turbulent intensity distribution and high inter-sub-channel mixing rates were observed in the vicinity of the narrow gaps formed by the fuel rods in nuclear reactors. The extraordinary flow behaviour was first described as periodic flow structures by Hooper and Rehme (1984). Since then, the existences of large flow structures were demonstrated by many researchers in various non-uniform flow channels. It has been proved by many authors that the Strouhal number of the flow structure in the isothermal flow is dependent on the size of the narrow gap, not the Reynolds number once it is sufficiently large. This paper reports a numerical investigation on the effect of buoyancy on the large flow structures. A buoyancy-aided flow in a tightly-packed rod-bundle-like channel is modelled using large eddy simulation (LES) together with the Boussinesq approximation. The behaviour of the large flow structures in the gaps of the flow passage are studied using instantaneous flow fields, spectrum analysis and correlation analysis. It is found that the non-uniform buoyancy force in the cross section of the flow channel may greatly redistribute the velocity field once the overall buoyancy force is sufficiently strong, and consequently modify the large flow structures. The temporal and axial spatial scales of the large flow structures are influenced by buoyancy in a way similar to that turbulence is influenced. These scales reduce when the flow is laminarised, but start increasing in the turbulence regeneration region. The spanwise scale of the flow structures in the narrow gap remains more or
Nuclear Quantum Gravitation - The Correct Theory
Kotas, Ronald
2016-03-01
Nuclear Quantum Gravitation provides a clear, definitive Scientific explanation of Gravity and Gravitation. It is harmonious with Newtonian and Quantum Mechanics, and with distinct Scientific Logic. Nuclear Quantum Gravitation has 10 certain, Scientific proofs and 21 more good indications. With this theory the Physical Forces are obviously Unified. See: OBSCURANTISM ON EINSTEIN GRAVITATION? http://www.santilli- Foundation.org/inconsistencies-gravitation.php and Einstein's Theory of Relativity versus Classical Mechanics http://www.newtonphysics.on.ca/einstein/
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miller, Jonah Maxwell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2017-10-18
This report has slides on Gravitational Waves; Pound and Rebka: A Shocking Fact; Light is a Ruler; Gravity is the Curvature of Spacetime; Gravitational Waves Made Simple; How a Gravitational Wave Affects Stuff Here; LIGO; This Detection: Neutron Stars; What the Gravitational Wave Looks Like; The Sound of Merging Neutron Stars; Neutron Star Mergers: More than GWs; The Radioactive Cloud; The Kilonova; and finally Summary, Multimessenger Astronomy.
The Theory of Vortical Gravitational Fields
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Rabounski D.
2007-04-01
Full Text Available This paper treats of vortical gravitational fields, a tensor of which is the rotor of the general covariant gravitational inertial force. The field equations for a vortical gravitational field (the Lorentz condition, the Maxwell-like equations, and the continuity equation are deduced in an analogous fashion to electrodynamics. From the equations it is concluded that the main kind of vortical gravitational fields is “electric”, determined by the non-stationarity of the acting gravitational inertial force. Such a field is a medium for traveling waves of the force (they are different to the weak deformation waves of the space metric considered in the theory of gravitational waves. Standing waves of the gravitational inertial force and their medium, a vortical gravitational field of the “magnetic” kind, are exotic, since a non-stationary rotation of a space body (the source of such a field is a very rare phenomenon in the Universe.
Kostoglou, M.; Karapantsios, T. D.; Buffone, C.; Glushchuk, A.; Iorio, C.
2016-10-01
The present work attempts to model the case of combined gravitational and capillary motion of condensate for an axisymmetric fin under steady and transient fin operation conditions. The focus here is to examine the structure of the mathematical problem and to develop suitable numerical techniques rather than yield information on the macroscopic condensate flow rate and fin efficiency. The problem is formulated starting from general conditions and is simplified step by step by introducing corresponding assumptions. The particular fin shape of a paraboloid from revolution is chosen and the equations are properly non-dimensionalized. A vast reduction of the number of problem parameters is achieved in this way. The cases of isothermal fin, steady state operation and dynamic operation are treated separately using specialized numerical solution techniques developed for each case in order to improve computational efficiency and accuracy. Typical results of fin temperature and condensate film thickness are presented and discussed.
Weight, gravitation, inertia, and tides
Pujol, Olivier; Lagoute, Christophe; Pérez, José-Philippe
2015-11-01
This paper deals with the factors that influence the weight of an object near the Earth's surface. They are: (1) the Earth's gravitational force, (2) the centrifugal force due to the Earth's diurnal rotation, and (3) tidal forces due to the gravitational field of the Moon and Sun, and other solar system bodies to a lesser extent. Each of these three contributions is discussed and expressions are derived. The relationship between weight and gravitation is thus established in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate students. The analysis applies to the Newtonian limit of gravitation. The derivation is based on an experimental (or operational) definition of weight, and it is shown that it coincides with the Earth’s gravitational force modified by diurnal rotation around a polar axis and non-uniformity of external gravitational bodies (tidal term). Two examples illustrate and quantify these modifications, respectively the Eötvös effect and the oceanic tides; tidal forces due to differential gravitation on a spacecraft and an asteroid are also proposed as examples. Considerations about inertia are also given and some comments are made about a widespread, yet confusing, explanation of tides based on a centrifugal force. Finally, the expression of the potential energy of the tide-generating force is established rigorously in the appendix.
Weight, gravitation, inertia, and tides
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pujol, Olivier; Lagoute, Christophe; Pérez, José-Philippe
2015-01-01
This paper deals with the factors that influence the weight of an object near the Earth's surface. They are: (1) the Earth's gravitational force, (2) the centrifugal force due to the Earth's diurnal rotation, and (3) tidal forces due to the gravitational field of the Moon and Sun, and other solar system bodies to a lesser extent. Each of these three contributions is discussed and expressions are derived. The relationship between weight and gravitation is thus established in a direct and pedagogical manner readily understandable by undergraduate students. The analysis applies to the Newtonian limit of gravitation. The derivation is based on an experimental (or operational) definition of weight, and it is shown that it coincides with the Earth’s gravitational force modified by diurnal rotation around a polar axis and non-uniformity of external gravitational bodies (tidal term). Two examples illustrate and quantify these modifications, respectively the Eötvös effect and the oceanic tides; tidal forces due to differential gravitation on a spacecraft and an asteroid are also proposed as examples. Considerations about inertia are also given and some comments are made about a widespread, yet confusing, explanation of tides based on a centrifugal force. Finally, the expression of the potential energy of the tide-generating force is established rigorously in the appendix. (paper)
Relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvilli, M.A.
1985-01-01
In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is constructed in a unique way on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this, a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday-Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG, the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-momentum and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravitation. In virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTg leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The Universe is not closed but just ''flat''. This suggests that in the Universe a ''hidden mass'' should exist in some form of matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Vyatchanin, Sergey P.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Thorne, Kip S.
2003-01-01
It is shown that photon shot noise and radiation-pressure back-action noise are the sole forms of quantum noise in interferometric gravitational wave detectors that operate near or below the standard quantum limit, if one filters the interferometer output appropriately. No additional noise arises from the test masses' initial quantum state or from reduction of the test-mass state due to measurement of the interferometer output or from the uncertainty principle associated with the test-mass state. Two features of interferometers are central to these conclusions: (i) The interferometer output [the photon number flux N(t) entering the final photodetector] commutes with itself at different times in the Heisenberg picture, [N(t),N(t ' )]=0 and thus can be regarded as classical. (ii) This number flux is linear to high accuracy in the test-mass initial position and momentum operators x o and p o , and those operators influence the measured photon flux N(t) in manners that can easily be removed by filtering. For example, in most interferometers x o and p o appear in N(t) only at the test masses' ∼1 Hz pendular swinging frequency and their influence is removed when the output data are high-pass filtered to get rid of noise below ∼10 Hz. The test-mass operators x o and p o contained in the unfiltered output N(t) make a nonzero contribution to the commutator [N(t),N(t ' )]. That contribution is precisely canceled by a nonzero commutation of the photon shot noise and radiation-pressure noise, which also are contained in N(t). This cancellation of commutators is responsible for the fact that it is possible to derive an interferometer's standard quantum limit from test-mass considerations, and independently from photon-noise considerations, and get identically the same result. These conclusions are all true for a far wider class of measurements than just gravitational-wave interferometers. To elucidate them, this paper presents a series of idealized thought experiments that
CERN. Geneva
2005-01-01
We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort, with special emphasis on the LIGO detectors and search results.
Relativistic theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1986-01-01
In the present paper a relativistic theory of gravitation (RTG) is unambiguously constructed on the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle. In this a gravitational field is treated as the Faraday--Maxwell spin-2 and spin-0 physical field possessing energy and momentum. The source of a gravitational field is the total conserved energy-momentum tensor of matter and of a gravitational field in Minkowski space. In the RTG the conservation laws are strictly fulfilled for the energy-moment and for the angular momentum of matter and a gravitational field. The theory explains the whole available set of experiments on gravity. By virtue of the geometrization principle, the Riemannian space in our theory is of field origin, since it appears as an effective force space due to the action of a gravitational field on matter. The RTG leads to an exceptionally strong prediction: The universe is not closed but just ''flat.'' This suggests that in the universe a ''missing mass'' should exist in a form of matter
A continuous and prognostic convection scheme based on buoyancy, PCMT
Guérémy, Jean-François; Piriou, Jean-Marcel
2016-04-01
A new and consistent convection scheme (PCMT: Prognostic Condensates Microphysics and Transport), providing a continuous and prognostic treatment of this atmospheric process, is described. The main concept ensuring the consistency of the whole system is the buoyancy, key element of any vertical motion. The buoyancy constitutes the forcing term of the convective vertical velocity, which is then used to define the triggering condition, the mass flux, and the rates of entrainment-detrainment. The buoyancy is also used in its vertically integrated form (CAPE) to determine the closure condition. The continuous treatment of convection, from dry thermals to deep precipitating convection, is achieved with the help of a continuous formulation of the entrainment-detrainment rates (depending on the convective vertical velocity) and of the CAPE relaxation time (depending on the convective over-turning time). The convective tendencies are directly expressed in terms of condensation and transport. Finally, the convective vertical velocity and condensates are fully prognostic, the latter being treated using the same microphysics scheme as for the resolved condensates but considering the convective environment. A Single Column Model (SCM) validation of this scheme is shown, allowing detailed comparisons with observed and explicitly simulated data. Four cases covering the convective spectrum are considered: over ocean, sensitivity to environmental moisture (S. Derbyshire) non precipitating shallow convection to deep precipitating convection, trade wind shallow convection (BOMEX) and strato-cumulus (FIRE), together with an entire continental diurnal cycle of convection (ARM). The emphasis is put on the characteristics of the scheme which enable a continuous treatment of convection. Then, a 3D LAM validation is presented considering an AMMA case with both observations and a CRM simulation using the same initial and lateral conditions as for the parameterized one. Finally, global
Buoyancy increase and drag-reduction through a simple superhydrophobic coating.
Hwang, Gi Byoung; Patir, Adnan; Page, Kristopher; Lu, Yao; Allan, Elaine; Parkin, Ivan P
2017-06-08
A superhydrophobic paint was fabricated using 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFOTES), TiO 2 nanoparticles and ethanol. The paint has potential for aquatic application of a superhydrophobic coating as it induces increased buoyancy and drag reduction. Buoyance testing showed that the reduction of surface energy by superhydrophobic coating made it feasible that glass, a high density material, was supported by the surface tension of water. In a miniature boat sailing test, it was shown that the low energy surface treatment decreased the adhesion of water molecules to the surface of the boat resulting in a reduction of the drag force. Additionally, a robust superhydrophobic surface was fabricated through layer-by-layer coating using adhesive double side tape and the paint, and after a 100 cm abrasion test with sand paper, the surface still retained its water repellency, enhanced buoyancy and drag reduction.
Gravitational Casimir–Polder effect
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiawei Hu
2017-04-01
Full Text Available The interaction due to quantum gravitational vacuum fluctuations between a gravitationally polarizable object modelled as a two-level system and a gravitational boundary is investigated. This quantum gravitational interaction is found to be position-dependent, which induces a force in close analogy to the Casimir–Polder force in the electromagnetic case. For a Dirichlet boundary, the quantum gravitational potential for the polarizable object in its ground-state is shown to behave like z−5 in the near zone, and z−6 in the far zone, where z is the distance to the boundary. For a concrete example, where a Bose–Einstein condensate is taken as a gravitationally polarizable object, the relative correction to the radius of the BEC caused by fluctuating quantum gravitational waves in vacuum is found to be of order 10−21. Although the correction is far too small to observe in comparison with its electromagnetic counterpart, it is nevertheless of the order of the gravitational strain caused by a recently detected black hole merger on the arms of the LIGO.
Ceramic Spheres—A Novel Solution to Deep Sea Buoyancy Modules
Jiang, Bo; Blugan, Gurdial; Sturzenegger, Philip N.; Gonzenbach, Urs T.; Misson, Michael; Thornberry, John; Stenerud, Runar; Cartlidge, David; Kuebler, Jakob
2016-01-01
Ceramic-based hollow spheres are considered a great driving force for many applications such as offshore buoyancy modules due to their large diameter to wall thickness ratio and uniform wall thickness geometric features. We have developed such thin-walled hollow spheres made of alumina using slip casting and sintering processes. A diameter as large as 50 mm with a wall thickness of 0.5–1.0 mm has been successfully achieved in these spheres. Their material and structural properties were examined by a series of characterization tools. Particularly, the feasibility of these spheres was investigated with respect to its application for deep sea (>3000 m) buoyancy modules. These spheres, sintered at 1600 °C and with 1.0 mm of wall thickness, have achieved buoyancy of more than 54%. As the sphere’s wall thickness was reduced (e.g., 0.5 mm), their buoyancy reached 72%. The mechanical performance of such spheres has shown a hydrostatic failure pressure above 150 MPa, corresponding to a rating depth below sea level of 5000 m considering a safety factor of 3. The developed alumina-based ceramic spheres are feasible for low cost and scaled-up production and show great potential at depths greater than those achievable by the current deep-sea buoyancy module technologies. PMID:28773651
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondi, H.
1979-01-01
In spite of the strength of gravitational focres between celestial bodies, gravitational capture is not a simple concept. The principles of conservation of linear momentum and of conservation of angular momentum, always impose severe constraints, while conservation of energy and the vital distinction between dissipative and non-dissipative systems allows one to rule out capture in a wide variety of cases. In complex systems especially those without dissipation, long dwell time is a more significant concept than permanent capture. (author)
Investigating Students' Ideas About Buoyancy and the Influence of Haptic Feedback
Minogue, James; Borland, David
2016-04-01
While haptics (simulated touch) represents a potential breakthrough technology for science teaching and learning, there is relatively little research into its differential impact in the context of teaching and learning. This paper describes the testing of a haptically enhanced simulation (HES) for learning about buoyancy. Despite a lifetime of everyday experiences, a scientifically sound explanation of buoyancy remains difficult to construct for many. It requires the integration of domain-specific knowledge regarding density, fluid, force, gravity, mass, weight, and buoyancy. Prior studies suggest that novices often focus on only one dimension of the sinking and floating phenomenon. Our HES was designed to promote the integration of the subconcepts of density and buoyant forces and stresses the relationship between the object itself and the surrounding fluid. The study employed a randomized pretest-posttest control group research design and a suite of measures including an open-ended prompt and objective content questions to provide insights into the influence of haptic feedback on undergraduate students' thinking about buoyancy. A convenience sample (n = 40) was drawn from a university's population of undergraduate elementary education majors. Two groups were formed from haptic feedback (n = 22) and no haptic feedback (n = 18). Through content analysis, discernible differences were seen in the posttest explanations sinking and floating across treatment groups. Learners that experienced the haptic feedback made more frequent use of "haptically grounded" terms (e.g., mass, gravity, buoyant force, pushing), leading us to begin to build a local theory of language-mediated haptic cognition.
Gravitational waves from gravitational collapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Fryer, Christopher L [Los Alamos National Laboratory; New, Kimberly C [Los Alamos National Laboratory
2008-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chris L. Fryer
2011-01-01
Full Text Available Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars.
Gravitational Waves from Gravitational Collapse.
Fryer, Chris L; New, Kimberly C B
2011-01-01
Gravitational-wave emission from stellar collapse has been studied for nearly four decades. Current state-of-the-art numerical investigations of collapse include those that use progenitors with more realistic angular momentum profiles, properly treat microphysics issues, account for general relativity, and examine non-axisymmetric effects in three dimensions. Such simulations predict that gravitational waves from various phenomena associated with gravitational collapse could be detectable with ground-based and space-based interferometric observatories. This review covers the entire range of stellar collapse sources of gravitational waves: from the accretion-induced collapse of a white dwarf through the collapse down to neutron stars or black holes of massive stars to the collapse of supermassive stars. Supplementary material is available for this article at 10.12942/lrr-2011-1.
Modified entropic gravitation in superconductors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Matos, Clovis Jacinto de
2012-01-01
Verlinde recently developed a theoretical account of gravitation in terms of an entropic force. The central element in Verlinde’s derivation is information and its relation with entropy through the holographic principle. The application of this approach to the case of superconductors requires to take into account that information associated with superconductor’s quantum vacuum energy is not stored on Planck size surface elements, but in four volume cells with Planck-Einstein size. This has profound consequences on the type of gravitational force generated by the quantum vacuum condensate in superconductors, which is closely related with the cosmological repulsive acceleration responsible for the accelerated expansion of the Universe. Remarkably this new gravitational type force depends on the level of breaking of the weak equivalence principle for cooper pairs in a given superconducting material, which was previously derived by the author starting from similar principles. It is also shown that this new gravitational force can be interpreted as a surface force. The experimental detection of this new repulsive gravitational-type force appears to be challenging.
An Analysis of Tax Buoyancy Rates
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farooq Rasheed
2006-10-01
Full Text Available By using econometric techniques for estimating tax elasticities, this paper findssignificant but low tax buoyancy rates for GDP, M0 and volume of trade. Surprisingly,the theoretically important factor of tax evasion (SFTR was found to be ineffective. Thisindicates that SFTR is not an adequate measure of tax evasion. There is no significantassociation between tax revenue growth and investment, credit, public debt and inflation.This illustrates the weakness of the tax regime in Pakistan.
Density Anomalies in the Mantle and the Gravitational Core-Mantle Interaction
Kuang, Weijia; Liu, Lanbo
2003-01-01
Seismic studies suggest that the bulk of the mantle is heterogeneous, with density variations in depth as well as in horizontal directions (latitude and longitude). This density variation produces a three- dimensional gravity field throughout the Earth. On the other hand, the core density also varies in both time and space, due to convective core flow. Consequently, the fluid outer core and the solid mantle interact gravitationally due to the mass anomalies in both regions. This gravitational core-mantle interaction could play a significant role in exchange of angular momentum between the core and the mantle, and thus the change in Earth's rotation on time scales of decades and longer. Aiming at estimating the significance of the gravitational core-mantle interaction on Earth's rotation variation, we introduce in our MoSST core dynamics model a heterogeneous mantle, with a density distribution derived from seismic results. In this model, the core convection is driven by the buoyancy forces. And the density variation is determined dynamically with the convection. Numerical simulation is carried out with different parameter values, intending to extrapolate numerical results for geophysical implications.
Energy spectrum of buoyancy-driven turbulence
Kumar, Abhishek
2014-08-25
Using high-resolution direct numerical simulation and arguments based on the kinetic energy flux Πu, we demonstrate that, for stably stratified flows, the kinetic energy spectrum Eu(k)∼k-11/5, the potential energy spectrum Eθ(k)∼k-7/5, and Πu(k)∼k-4/5 are consistent with the Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling. This scaling arises due to the conversion of kinetic energy to the potential energy by buoyancy. For weaker buoyancy, this conversion is weak, hence Eu(k) follows Kolmogorov\\'s spectrum with a constant energy flux. For Rayleigh-Bénard convection, we show that the energy supply rate by buoyancy is positive, which leads to an increasing Πu(k) with k, thus ruling out Bolgiano-Obukhov scaling for the convective turbulence. Our numerical results show that convective turbulence for unit Prandt number exhibits a constant Πu(k) and Eu(k)∼k-5/3 for a narrow band of wave numbers. © 2014 American Physical Society.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.
1989-01-01
The author believes that the General Relativity Theory (GRT) suffers from a substantial deficiency since it ignors the fundamental laws of conservation of energy. Einstein neglected the classical concept of the field due to his belief in the truth of the principle of equivalence between forces of inertid gravitation. This equivalence leads, as the author says, to nonequivalence of these forces, making GRT logically contradictory from the physical point of view. The author considers GRT as a certain stage in the course of the study of space-time and gravitation, and suggests a new theory called the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation (RTG) which obeys the fundamental laws of conservation, and which is justified in some of its aspects by astronomical observations. RTG does not suffer from some deficiencies met in Einsteins theory. One is nonunique predictions of gravitation effects within the boundaries of the solar system. Also, RTG refuses some hypothesis as that of black holes. 7 refs
Kostichev, P. I.; Poddubnyi, I. I.; Razuvanov, N. G.
2017-11-01
In some DEMO blanket designs liquid metal flows in vertical ducts of rectangular cross-section between ceramic breeder units providing their cooling. Heat exchange in these conditions is governed by the influence of magnetic field (coplanar) and by buoyancy effects that depend on the flow orientation to the gravity vector (downward and upward flow). Magnetohydrodynamic and heat transfer of liquid metal in vertical rectangular ducts is not well researched. Experimental study of buoyancy effects in rectangular duct with coplanar magnetic field for one-sided heat load and downward and upward flowsis presented in this paper. The detail research with has been done on mercury MHD close loop with using of the probe technique allow to discover several advantageous and disadvantageous effects. The intensive impact of buoyancy force has been observed in a few regime of downward flow which has been laminarized by magnetic field. Due to the development in the flow of the secondary large-scale vortices heat transfer improved and the temperature fluctuations of the abnormally high intensity have been fixed. On the contrary, in the upward flow the buoyancy force stabilized the flow which lead to decreasing of the turbulence heat transfer ratio and, consequently, deterioration of heat transfer.
Gravitational effects of global textures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Noetzold, D.
1990-03-01
A solution for the dynamics of global textures is obtained. Their gravitational field during the collapse and the subsequent evolution is found to be given solely by a space-time dependent ''deficit solid angle.'' The frequency shift of photons traversing this gravitational field is calculated. The space-time dependent texture metric locally contracts the volume of three-space and thereby induces overdensities in homogeneous matter distributions. There are no gravitational forces unless matter has a nonzero angular momentum with respect to the texture origin which would be the case for moving textures
Tail thrust of bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix at different buoyancies, speeds, and swimming angles.
Ogilvy, C S; DuBois, A B
1982-06-01
1. The tail thrust of bluefish Pomatomus saltatrix was measured using a body accelerometer at different water speeds, buoyancies, and angles of water flow to determine the contribution of tail thrust in overcoming parasitic drag, induced drag, and weight directed along the track. The lengths and weights of the fish averaged 0.52 m and 1.50 kg respectively. 2. The tail thrust overcoming parasitic drag in Newtons, as measured during neutral buoyancy, was: 0.51 x speed + 0.15, with a standard error of estimate of 0.09 N. 3. When buoyancy was altered by the introduction or removal of air from a balloon implanted in the swim bladder, the tail thrust was altered by an amount of the same order as the value calculated for the induced drag of the pectoral fins. 4. The component of weight directed backward along the track was the weight in water multiplied by the sine of the angle of the swimming tunnel relative to horizontal. When this force was added to the calculated induced drag and tail thrust measured at neutral buoyancy, the rearward force equal to the tail thrust, at 45 ml negative buoyancy, 0.5 m s-1, and 15 degrees head up, was 0.12 N due to weight + 0.05 N due to induced drag + 0.40 N due to parasitic drag = 0.57 N total rearward force. 5. The conditions required for gliding were not achieved in our bluefish because the drag exceeded the component of the weight in water directed forward along the track at speeds above the stalling speed of the pectoral fins.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bassi, Angelo; Großardt, André; Ulbricht, Hendrik
2017-01-01
We discuss effects of loss of coherence in low energy quantum systems caused by or related to gravitation, referred to as gravitational decoherence. These effects, resulting from random metric fluctuations, for instance, promise to be accessible by relatively inexpensive table-top experiments, way before the scales where true quantum gravity effects become important. Therefore, they can provide a first experimental view on gravity in the quantum regime. We will survey models of decoherence induced both by classical and quantum gravitational fluctuations; it will be manifest that a clear understanding of gravitational decoherence is still lacking. Next we will review models where quantum theory is modified, under the assumption that gravity causes the collapse of the wave functions, when systems are large enough. These models challenge the quantum-gravity interplay, and can be tested experimentally. In the last part we have a look at the state of the art of experimental research. We will review efforts aiming at more and more accurate measurements of gravity ( G and g ) and ideas for measuring conventional and unconventional gravity effects on nonrelativistic quantum systems. (topical review)
Rahvar, Sohrab
2018-05-01
In this work, we study the interaction of the electromagnetic wave (EW) from a distant quasar with the gravitational wave (GW) sourced by the binary stars. While in the regime of geometric optics, the light bending due to this interaction is negligible, we show that the phase shifting on the wavefront of an EW can produce the diffraction pattern on the observer plane. The diffraction of the light (with the wavelength of λe) by the gravitational wave playing the role of gravitational grating (with the wavelength of λg) has the diffraction angle of Δβ ˜ λe/λg. The relative motion of the observer, the source of gravitational wave and the quasar results in a relative motion of the observer through the interference pattern on the observer plane. The consequence of this fringe crossing is the modulation in the light curve of a quasar with the period of few hours in the microwave wavelength. The optical depth for the observation of this phenomenon for a Quasar with the multiple images strongly lensed by a galaxy where the light trajectory of some of the images crosses the lensing galaxy is τ ≃ 0.2. By shifting the time-delay of the light curves of the multiple images in a strong lensed quasar and removing the intrinsic variations of a quasar, our desired signals, as a new method for detection of GWs can be detected.
Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings
Heiselberg, Per
2009-01-01
An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions...
An electric field in a gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harpaz, Amos
2005-01-01
The behaviour of an electric field in a gravitational field is analysed. It is found that due to the mass (energy) of the electric field, it is subjected to gravity and it falls in the gravitational field. This fall curves the electric field, a stress force (a reaction force) is created, and the interaction of this reaction force with the static charge gives rise to the creation of radiation
Ciufolini, I; Moschella, U; Fre, P
2001-01-01
Gravitational waves (GWs) are a hot topic and promise to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology, and theoretical physics. Technological developments have led us to the brink of their direct observation, which could become a reality in the coming years. The direct observation of GWs will open an entirely new field: GW astronomy. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of previously unseen phenomena, such as the coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes), the fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big-bang relics, and the new and unexpected.With a wide range of contributions by leading scientists in the field, Gravitational Waves covers topics such as the basics of GWs, various advanced topics, GW detectors, astrophysics of GW sources, numerical applications, and several recent theoretical developments. The material is written at a level suitable for postgraduate students entering the field.
Hakim, Rémi
1994-01-01
Il existe à l'heure actuelle un certain nombre de théories relativistes de la gravitation compatibles avec l'expérience et l'observation. Toutefois, la relativité générale d'Einstein fut historiquement la première à fournir des résultats théoriques corrects en accord précis avec les faits.
Experimental Study of Wind-Opposed Buoyancy-Driven Natural Ventilation
Andersen, A.; Bjerre, M.; Chen, Z. D.; Heiselberg, Per; Li, Y.
2000-01-01
Natural ventilation driven by natural forces, i.e. wind and thermal buoyancy, is an environmentally friendly system for buildings and has been increasingly used around the world in recent years to mitigate the impact on the global environment due to the significant energy consumption by heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HV AC). There is a need for the understanding and development of theories and tools related to the design, operation and control of natural ventilation systems.
Experimental Study of Wind-Opposed Buoyancy-Driven Natural Ventilation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Andersen, A.; Bjerre, M.; Chen, Z. D.
Natural ventilation driven by natural forces, i.e. wind and thermal buoyancy, is an environmentally friendly system for buildings and has been increasingly used around the world in recent years to mitigate the impact on the global environment due to the significant energy consumption by heating......, ventilation and air-conditioning (HV AC). There is a need for the understanding and development of theories and tools related to the design, operation and control of natural ventilation systems....
Mixing driven by transient buoyancy flows. I. Kinematics
Duval, W. M. B.; Zhong, H.; Batur, C.
2018-05-01
Mixing of two miscible liquids juxtaposed inside a cavity initially separated by a divider, whose buoyancy-driven motion is initiated via impulsive perturbation of divider motion that can generate the Richtmyer-Meshkov instability, is investigated experimentally. The measured Lagrangian history of interface motion that contains the continuum mechanics of mixing shows self-similar nearly Gaussian length stretch distribution for a wide range of control parameters encompassing an approximate Hele-Shaw cell to a three-dimensional cavity. Because of the initial configuration of the interface which is parallel to the gravitational field, we show that at critical initial potential energy mixing occurs through the stretching of the interface, which shows frontogenesis, and folding, owing to an overturning motion that results in unstable density stratification and produces an ideal condition for the growth of the single wavelength Rayleigh-Taylor instability. The initial perturbation of the interface and flow field generates the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability and causes kinks at the interface, which grow into deep fingers during overturning motion and unfold into local whorl structures that merge and self-organize into the Rayleigh-Taylor morphology (RTM) structure. For a range of parametric space that yields two-dimensional flows, the unfolding of the instability through a supercritical bifurcation yields an asymmetric pairwise structure exhibiting smooth RTM that transitions to RTM fronts with fractal structures that contain small length scales for increasing Peclet numbers. The late stage of the RTM structure unfolds into an internal breakwave that breaks down through wall and internal collision and sets up the condition for self-induced sloshing that decays exponentially as the two fluids become stably stratified with a diffusive region indicating local molecular diffusion.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Leutwyler, H; Mallik, S
1986-12-01
The effective action for fermions moving in external gravitational and gauge fields is analyzed in terms of the corresponding external field propagator. The central object in our approach is the covariant energy-momentum tensor which is extracted from the regular part of the propagator at short distances. It is shown that the Lorentz anomaly, the conformal anomaly and the gauge anomaly can be expressed in terms of the local polynomials which determine the singular part of the propagator. (There are no coordinate anomalies). Except for the conformal anomaly, for which we give explicit representations only in dless than or equal to4, we consider an arbitrary number of dimensions.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Metin SALTIK
1996-03-01
Full Text Available According to classical electromagnetic theory, an accelerated charge or system of charges radiates electromagnetic waves. In a radio transmitter antenna charges are accelerated along the antenna and release electromagnetic waves, which is radiated at the velocity of light in the surrounding medium. All of the radio transmitters work on this principle today. In this study an analogy is established between the principles by which accelerated charge systems markes radiation and the accelerated mass system, and the systems cousing gravitational radiation are investigated.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, E.L.
1989-01-01
The author discusses how gravitational lens studies is becoming a major focus of extragalactic astronomy and cosmology. This review is organized into five parts: an overview of the observational situation, a look at the state of theoretical work on lenses, a detailed look at three recently discovered types of lensing phenomena (luminous arcs, radio rings, quasar-galaxy associations), a review of progress on two old problems in lens studies (deriving unique lens mass distribution models, measurements of differential time delays), and an attempt to look into the future of lens studies
Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heiselberg, Per
2009-01-01
An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... quite well with the Epstein's formula ratio are presented. In some cases the measured airflow rates fit quite well with the Epstein's formula but in other cases the measured data show clear deviations from the Epstein's formula. Thus, revised formulas for natural ventilation are proposed....
Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang
2009-01-01
An experimental study of the phenomenon of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. The measurements were made for opening ratios L/D ranging from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length of the opening...... and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The basic nature of airflow through single-sided openings, including airflow rate, air velocity, temperature difference between the rooms and the dimensions of the horizontal openings, were measured. A bi-directional airflow rate was measured using the constant...... quite well with the Epstein's formula but in other cases the measured data show clear deviations from the Epstein's formula. Thus, revised formulas for natural ventilation are proposed....
Astronaut Training in the Neutral Buoyancy Simulator
1993-01-01
This photograph shows an STS-61 astronaut training for the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) servicing mission (STS-61) in the Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC's) Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS). Two months after its deployment in space, scientists detected a 2-micron spherical aberration in the primary mirror of the HST that affected the telescope's ability to focus faint light sources into a precise point. This imperfection was very slight, one-fiftieth of the width of a human hair. A scheduled Space Service servicing mission (STS-61) in 1993 permitted scientists to correct the problem. The MSFC NBS provided an excellent environment for testing hardware to examine how it would operate in space and for evaluating techniques for space construction and spacecraft servicing.
Garg, Hemanshul; Soti, Atul K.; Bhardwaj, Rajneesh
2018-02-01
We report the development of an in-house fluid-structure interaction solver and its application to vortex-induced vibration (VIV) of an elastically mounted cylinder in the presence of thermal buoyancy. The flow solver utilizes a sharp interface immersed boundary method, and in the present work, we extend it to account for the thermal buoyancy using Boussinesq approximation and couple it with a spring-mass system of the VIV. The one-way coupling utilizes an explicit time integration scheme and is computationally efficient. We present benchmark code verifications of the solver for natural convection, mixed convection, and VIV. In addition, we verify a coupled VIV-thermal buoyancy problem at a Reynolds number, Re = 150. We numerically demonstrate the onset of the VIV in the presence of the thermal buoyancy for an insulated cylinder at low Re. The buoyancy is induced by two parallel plates, kept in the direction of flow and symmetrically placed around the cylinder. The plates are maintained at the hot and cold temperature to the same degree relative to the ambient. In the absence of the thermal buoyancy (i.e., the plates are at ambient temperature), the VIV does not occur for Re ≤ 20 due to stable shear layers. By contrast, the thermal buoyancy induces flow instability and the vortex shedding helps us to achieve the VIV at Re ≤ 20, lower than the critical value of Re (≈21.7), reported in the literature, for a self-sustained VIV in the absence of the thermal buoyancy. The present simulations show that the lowest Re to achieve VIV in the presence of the thermal buoyancy is around Re ≈ 3, at Richardson number, Ri = 1. We examine the effect of the reduced velocity (UR), mass ratio (m), Prandtl number (Pr), Richardson number (Ri) on the displacement of the cylinder, lift coefficient, oscillation frequency, the phase difference between displacement and lift force, and wake structures. We obtain a significantly larger vibration amplitude of the cylinder over a wide
The earth's gravitational field
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Ramprasad, T.
. But to say that gravity acts downwards is not correct. Gravity acts down, no matter where you stand on the Earth. It is better to say that on Earth gravity pulls objects towards the centre of the Earth. So no matter where you are on Earth all objects fall... pull than objects at the poles. In combination, the equatorial bulge and the effects of centrifugal force mean that sea-level gravitational acceleration increases from about 9.780 m/s² at the equator to about 9.832 m/s² at the poles, so an object...
Superstatistics and Gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Octavio Obregón
2010-09-01
Full Text Available We suggest to consider the spacetime as a non-equilibrium system with a long-term stationary state that possess as a spatio-temporally fluctuating quantity ß . These systems can be described by a superposition of several statistics, superstatistics. We propose a Gamma distribution for f(ß that depends on a parameter ρ1. By means of it the corresponding entropy is calculated, ρ1 is identified with the probability corresponding to this model. A generalized Newton’s law of gravitation is then obtained following the entropic force formulation. We discuss some of the difficulties to try to get an associated theory of gravity.
El-Nabulsi, Rami Ahmad
2018-03-01
Recently, the notion of non-standard Lagrangians was discussed widely in literature in an attempt to explore the inverse variational problem of nonlinear differential equations. Different forms of non-standard Lagrangians were introduced in literature and have revealed nice mathematical and physical properties. One interesting form related to the inverse variational problem is the logarithmic Lagrangian, which has a number of motivating features related to the Liénard-type and Emden nonlinear differential equations. Such types of Lagrangians lead to nonlinear dynamics based on non-standard Hamiltonians. In this communication, we show that some new dynamical properties are obtained in stellar dynamics if standard Lagrangians are replaced by Logarithmic Lagrangians and their corresponding non-standard Hamiltonians. One interesting consequence concerns the emergence of an extra pressure term, which is related to the gravitational field suggesting that gravitation may act as a pressure in a strong gravitational field. The case of the stellar halo of the Milky Way is considered.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malykin, G B; Pozdnyakova, V I
2015-01-01
It is shown that when an equal-arm Michelson interferometer is involved in rotation (for example, Earth's rotation around its axis or around the Sun) and its arms are oriented differently with respect to the plane of rotation, a phase difference arises between the light rays that pass through different arms. This phase difference is due to the fact that the arms experience variously the Newtonian (nonrelativistic) scalar gravitational potential of the Coriolis forces. It is shown that the phase difference is proportional to the length of the interferometer arm, the square of the angular velocity of the rotation, and the square of the distance from the center of rotation — hence, the proposal to call this phenomenon the quadratic Sagnac effect. In the present paper, we consider, as an illustrative example, the results of the once well-known experiments of D C Miller, who claimed to observe the translational motion of Earth relative to the hypothetical ‘luminiferous ether’. It is shown that this claim can actually be explained by the fact that, because of the orbital revolution of Earth, the time dilations in the orthogonal arms of the Michelson interferometer are influenced differently by the scalar gravitational potential of the Coriolis forces. (methodological notes)
Influences of buoyancy and thermal boundary conditions on heat transfer with naturally-induced flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, J.D.; Li, J.
2002-01-01
A fundamental study is reported of heat transfer from a vertical heated tube to air which is induced naturally upwards through it by the action of buoyancy. Measurements of local heat transfer coefficient were made using a specially designed computer-controlled power supply and measurement system for conditions of uniform wall temperature and uniform wall heat flux. The effectiveness of heat transfer proved to be much lower than for conditions of forced convection. It was found that the results could be correlated satisfactorily when presented in terms of dimensionless parameters similar to those used for free convection heat transfer from vertical surfaces provided that the heat transfer coefficients were evaluated using local fluid bulk temperature calculated utilising the measured values of flow rate induced through the system. Additional experiments were performed' with pumped flow. These covered the entire mixed convection region. It was found that the data for naturally-induced flow mapped onto the pumped flow data when presented in terms of Nusselt number ratio (mixed to forced) and buoyancy parameter. Computational simulations of the experiments were performed using an advanced computer code which incorporated a buoyancy-influenced, variable property, developing wall shear flow formulation and a low Reynolds number k-ε turbulence model. These reproduced observed behaviour quite well. (author)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zakharov, Aleksandr F [Russian Federation State Scientific Center ' A.I. Alikhanov Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics' , Moscow (Russian Federation); Sazhin, Mikhail V [P.K. Shternberg State Astronomical Institute at the M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)
1998-10-31
The foundations of standard microlensing theory are discussed as applied to stars in the Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds or other nearby galaxies and gravitational microlenses assumed to lie in-between these stars and the terrestrial observer. In contrast to the review article by Gurevich et al. [48], microlensing by compact objects is mainly considered. Criteria for the identification of microlensing events are discussed as also are microlensing events not satisfying these criteria, such as non-symmetrical light curves and chromatic and polarization effects. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Galactic bulge microlensing data of the MACHO group are discussed in detail and also the LMC data of EROS and the Galactic bulge data of OGLE are presented. A detailed comparison of theoretical predictions and observations is given. (reviews of topical problems)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zakharov, Aleksandr F; Sazhin, Mikhail V
1998-01-01
The foundations of standard microlensing theory are discussed as applied to stars in the Galactic bulge, Magellanic Clouds or other nearby galaxies and gravitational microlenses assumed to lie in-between these stars and the terrestrial observer. In contrast to the review article by Gurevich et al. [48], microlensing by compact objects is mainly considered. Criteria for the identification of microlensing events are discussed as also are microlensing events not satisfying these criteria, such as non-symmetrical light curves and chromatic and polarization effects. The Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Galactic bulge microlensing data of the MACHO group are discussed in detail and also the LMC data of EROS and the Galactic bulge data of OGLE are presented. A detailed comparison of theoretical predictions and observations is given. (reviews of topical problems)
Natural ventilation of buildings: opposing wind and buoyancy
Linden, Paul; Hunt, Gary
1998-11-01
The use of natural ventilation in buildings is an attractive way to reduce energy usage thereby reducing costs and CO2 emissions. Generally, it is necessary to remove excess heat from a building and the designer can use the buoyancy forces associated with the above ambient temperatures within the building to drive a flow - 'stack' ventilation. The most efficient mode is displacement ventilation where warm air accumulates near the top of the building and flows out through upper level vents and cooler air flows in at lower levels. Ventilation will also be driven between these lower and upper openings by the wind. We report on laboratory modeling and theory which investigates the effects of an opposing wind on stack ventilation driven by a constant source of heat within a space under displacement ventilation. We show that there is a critical wind speed, expressed in dimensionless terms as a critical Froude number, above which displacement ventilation is replaced by (less efficient) mixing ventilation with reversed flow. Below this critical speed, displacement ventilation, in which the interior has a two-layer stratification, is maintained. The criterion for the change in ventilation mode is derived from general considerations of mixing efficiencies in stratified flows. We conclude that even when wind effects might appear to be dominant, the inhibition of mixing by the stable stratification within the space ensures that stack ventilation can operate over a wide range of apparently adverse conditions.
Buoyancy flow in fractures intersecting a nuclear waste repository
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wang, J.S.Y.; Tsang, C.F.
1980-07-01
The thermally induced buoyancy flow in fractured rocks around a nuclear waste repository is of major concern in the evaluation of the regional, long-term impact of nuclear waste disposal in geological formation. In this study, buoyancy flow and the development of convective cells are calculated in vertical fractures passing through or positioned near a repository. Interaction between buoyancy flow and regional hydraulic gradient is studied as a function of time, and the interference of intersecting fractures with each other is also discussed
Homogeneous purely buoyancy driven turbulent flow
Arakeri, Jaywant; Cholemari, Murali; Pawar, Shashikant
2010-11-01
An unstable density difference across a long vertical tube open at both ends leads to convection that is axially homogeneous with a linear density gradient. We report results from such tube convection experiments, with driving density caused by salt concentration difference or temperature difference. At high enough Rayleigh numbers (Ra) the convection is turbulent with zero mean flow and zero mean Reynolds shear stresses; thus turbulent production is purely by buoyancy. We observe different regimes of turbulent convection. At very high Ra the Nusselt number scales as the square root of the Rayleigh number, giving the so-called "ultimate regime" of convection predicted for Rayleigh-Benard convection in limit of infinite Ra. Turbulent convection at intermediate Ra, the Nusselt number scales as Ra^0.3. In both regimes, the flux and the Taylor scale Reynolds number are more than order of magnitude larger than those obtained in Rayleigh-Benard convection. Absence of a mean flow makes this an ideal flow to study shear free turbulence near a wall.
The effect of centrifugal buoyancy on the heat transport in rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection
Horn, Susanne; Aurnou, Jonathan
2017-11-01
In a rapidly rotating and differentially heated fluid, the centrifugal acceleration can play a similar role to that of gravity in generating convective motion. However, in the paradigm system of rotating Rayleigh-Bénard convection, centrifugal buoyancy is typically not considered in theoretical studies and, thus, usually undesired in laboratory experiments, despite being unavoidable. How centrifugal buoyancy affects the turbulent flow, including the heat transport, is still largely unknown, in particular, when it can be considered negligible. We study this problem by means of direct numerical simulations. Unlike in experiments, we are able to systematically vary the Froude number Fr (ratio of centrifugal to gravitational acceleration) and the Rossby number Ro (dimensionless rotation rate) independently, and even set each to zero exactly. We show that the centrifugal acceleration simultaneously leads to contending phenomena, e.g. reflected by an increase and a decrease of the center temperature, or a suppression and an enhancement of the heat transfer efficiency. Which one prevails as net effect strongly depends on the combination of Fr and Ro. Furthermore, we discuss implications for experiments of rapidly rotating convection. SH acknowledges funding by the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG) under Grant HO 5890/1-1, JA by the NSF Geophysics Program.
Prominence Bubbles and Plumes: Thermo-magnetic Buoyancy in Coronal Cavity Systems
Berger, Thomas; Hurlburt, N.
2009-05-01
The Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope continues to produce high spatial and temporal resolution images of solar prominences in both the Ca II 396.8 nm H-line and the H-alpha 656.3 nm line. Time series of these images show that many quiescent prominences produce large scale (50 Mm) dark "bubbles" that "inflate" into, and sometimes burst through, the prominence material. In addition, small-scale (2--5 Mm) dark plumes are seen rising into many quiescent prominences. We show typical examples of both phenomena and argue that they originate from the same mechanism: concentrated and heated magnetic flux that rises due to thermal and magnetic buoyancy to equilibrium heights in the prominence/coronal-cavity system. More generally, these bubbles and upflows offer a source of both magnetic flux and mass to the overlying coronal cavity, supporting B.C. Low's theory of CME initiation via steadily increasing magnetic buoyancy breaking through the overlying helmut streamer tension forces. Quiescent prominences are thus seen as the lowermost parts of the larger coronal cavity system, revealing through thermal effects both the cooled downflowing "drainage" from the cavity and the heated upflowing magnetic "plasmoids" supplying the cavity. We compare SOT movies to new 3D compressible MHD simulations that reproduce the dark turbulent plume dynamics to establish the magnetic and thermal character of these buoyancy-driven flows into the corona.
Semi-Empirical Models for Buoyancy-Driven Ventilation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Terpager Andersen, Karl
2015-01-01
A literature study is presented on the theories and models dealing with buoyancy-driven ventilation in rooms. The models are categorised into four types according to how the physical process is conceived: column model, fan model, neutral plane model and pressure model. These models are analysed...... and compared with a reference model. Discrepancies and differences are shown, and the deviations are discussed. It is concluded that a reliable buoyancy model based solely on the fundamental flow equations is desirable....
Is academic buoyancy anything more than adaptive coping?
Putwain, David W; Connors, Liz; Symes, Wendy; Douglas-Osborn, Erica
2012-05-01
Academic buoyancy refers to a positive, constructive, and adaptive response to the types of challenges and setbacks experienced in a typical and everyday academic setting. In this project we examined whether academic buoyancy explained any additional variance in test anxiety over and above that explained by coping. Two hundred and ninety-eight students in their final two years of compulsory schooling completed self-report measures of academic buoyancy, coping, and test anxiety. Results suggested that buoyancy was inversely related to test anxiety and unrelated to coping. With the exception of test-irrelevant thoughts, test anxiety was positively related to avoidance coping and social support. Test-irrelevant thoughts were inversely related to task focus, unrelated to social support, and positively related to avoidance. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that academic buoyancy explained a significant additional proportion of variance in test anxiety when the variance for coping had already been accounted for. These findings suggest that academic buoyancy can be considered as a distinct construct from that of adaptive coping.
Probing a gravitational cat state
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anastopoulos, C; Hu, B L
2015-01-01
We investigate the nature of a gravitational two-state system (G2S) in the simplest setup in Newtonian gravity. In a quantum description of matter a single motionless massive particle can in principle be in a superposition state of two spatially separated locations. This superposition state in gravity, or gravitational cat state, would lead to fluctuations in the Newtonian force exerted on a nearby test particle. The central quantity of importance for this inquiry is the energy density correlation. This corresponds to the noise kernel in stochastic gravity theory, evaluated in the weak field nonrelativistic limit. In this limit quantum fluctuations of the stress–energy tensor manifest as the fluctuations of the Newtonian force. We describe the properties of such a G2S system and present two ways of measuring the cat state for the Newtonian force, one by way of a classical probe, the other a quantum harmonic oscillator. Our findings include: (i) mass density fluctuations persist even in single particle systems, and they are of the same order of magnitude as the mean; (ii) a classical probe generically records a non-Markovian fluctuating force; (iii) a quantum probe interacting with the G2S system may undergo Rabi oscillations in a strong coupling regime. This simple prototypical gravitational quantum system could provide a robust testing ground to compare predictions from alternative quantum theories, since the results reported here are based on standard quantum mechanics and classical gravity. (paper)
The dispersion relation of a gravitating spiral system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Evangelidis, E.
1977-01-01
The dispersion relation has been found for a galaxy, without the assumption that the centrifugal force is balanced by the gravitational force. It has been shown that such a system (1) can be gravitationally unstable under appropriate conditions, and (2) that there is no resonance at ω=2Ω (Ω=angular velocity of the Galaxy). (Auth.)
The effects of buoyancy on turbulent nonpremixed jet flames in crossflow
Boxx, Isaac G.
An experimental research study was conducted to investigate what effect buoyancy had on the mean and instantaneous flow-field characteristics of turbulent jet-flames in crossflow (JFICF). The study used an experimental technique wherein a series of normal-gravity, hydrogen-diluted propane JFICF were compared with otherwise identical ones in low-gravity. Experiments were conducted at the University of Texas Drop Tower Facility, a new microgravity science laboratory built for this study at the University of Texas at Austin. Two different diagnostic techniques were employed, high frame-rate digital cinematographic imaging and planar laser Mie scattering (PLMS). The flame-luminosity imaging revealed significant elongation and distortion of the large-scale luminous structure of the JFICF. This was seen to affect the flametip oscillation and burnout characteristics. Mean and root-mean-square (RMS) images of flame-luminosity were computed from the flame-luminosity image sequences. These were used to compare visible flame-shapes, flame chord-lengths and jet centerline-trajectories of the normal- and low-gravity flames. In all cases the jet-centerline penetration and mean luminous flame-width were seen to increase with decreasing buoyancy. The jet-centerline trajectories for the normal-gravity flames were seen to behave differently to those of the low-gravity flames. This difference led to the conclusion that the jet transitions from a momentum-dominated forced convection limit to a buoyancy-influenced regime when it reaches xiC ≈ 3, where xiC is the Becker and Yamazaki (1978) buoyancy parameter based on local flame chord-length. The mean luminous flame-lengths showed little sensitivity to buoyancy or momentum flux ratio. Consistent with the flame-luminosity imaging experiments, comparison of the instantaneous PLMS flow-visualization images revealed substantial buoyancy-induced elongation and distortion of the large-scale shear-layer vortices in the flow. This effect
Dubey, P K; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar
2014-05-01
The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.
Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar
2014-05-01
The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Dubey, P. K.; Kumar, Yudhisther; Gupta, Reeta; Jain, Anshul; Gohiya, Chandrashekhar
2014-01-01
The Radiation Force Balance (RFB) technique is well established and most widely used for the measurement of total ultrasonic power radiated by ultrasonic transducer. The technique is used as a primary standard for calibration of ultrasonic transducers with relatively fair uncertainty in the low power (below 1 W) regime. In this technique, uncertainty comparatively increases in the range of few watts wherein the effects such as thermal heating of the target, cavitations, and acoustic streaming dominate. In addition, error in the measurement of ultrasonic power is also caused due to movement of absorber at relatively high radiated force which occurs at high power level. In this article a new technique is proposed which does not measure the balance output during transducer energized state as done in RFB. It utilizes the change in buoyancy of the absorbing target due to local thermal heating. The linear thermal expansion of the target changes the apparent mass in water due to buoyancy change. This forms the basis for the measurement of ultrasonic power particularly in watts range. The proposed method comparatively reduces uncertainty caused by various ultrasonic effects that occur at high power such as overshoot due to momentum of target at higher radiated force. The functionality of the technique has been tested and compared with the existing internationally recommended RFB technique
Geometrical Aspects of non-gravitational interactions
Roldan, Omar; Barros Jr, C. C.
2016-01-01
In this work we look for a geometric description of non-gravitational forces. The basic ideas are proposed studying the interaction between a punctual particle and an electromagnetic external field. For this purpose, we introduce the concept of proper space-time, that allow us to describe this interaction in a way analogous to the one that the general relativity theory does for gravitation. The field equations that define this geometry are similar to the Einstein's equations, where in general...
Physical optics in a uniform gravitational field
Hacyan, Shahen
2012-01-01
The motion of a (quasi-)plane wave in a uniform gravitational field is studied. It is shown that the energy of an elliptically polarized wave does not propagate along a geodesic, but in a direction that is rotated with respect to the gravitational force. The similarity with the walk-off effect in anisotropic crystals or the optical Magnus effect in inhomogeneous media is pointed out.
The Competition Between a Localised and Distributed Source of Buoyancy
Partridge, Jamie; Linden, Paul
2012-11-01
We propose a new mathematical model to study the competition between localised and distributed sources of buoyancy within a naturally ventilated filling box. The main controlling parameters in this configuration are the buoyancy fluxes of the distributed and local source, specifically their ratio Ψ. The steady state dynamics of the flow are heavily dependent on this parameter. For large Ψ, where the distributed source dominates, we find the space becomes well mixed as expected if driven by an distributed source alone. Conversely, for small Ψ we find the space reaches a stable two layer stratification. This is analogous to the classical case of a purely local source but here the lower layer is buoyant compared to the ambient, due to the constant flux of buoyancy emanating from the distributed source. The ventilation flow rate, buoyancy of the layers and also the location of the interface height, which separates the two layer stratification, are obtainable from the model. To validate the theoretical model, small scale laboratory experiments were carried out. Water was used as the working medium with buoyancy being driven directly by temperature differences. Theoretical results were compared with experimental data and overall good agreement was found. A CASE award project with Arup.
Prevention of gravitational collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Moffat, J.W.; Taylor, J.G.
1981-01-01
We apply a new theory of gravitation to the question of gravitational collapse to show that collapse is prevented in this theory under very reasonable conditions. This result also extends to prevent ultimate collapse of the Universe. (orig.)
Underdevelopment’s gravitation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marin Dinu
2013-09-01
Full Text Available The energy necessary to escape the gravitational pull of underdevelopment and to enter an evolutional trajectory dependent on the gravitational pull of development is unintelligible in economic terms.
The effects of buoyancy on shear-induced melt bands in a compacting porous medium
Butler, S. L.
2009-03-01
It has recently been shown [Holtzman, B., Groebner, N., Zimmerman, M., Ginsberg, S., Kohlstedt, D., 2003. Stress-driven melt segregation in partially molten rocks. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, Art. No. 8607; Holtzman, B.K., Kohlstedt, D.L., 2007. Stress-driven melt segregation and strain partitioning in partially molten rocks: effects of stress and strain. J. Petrol. 48, 2379-2406] that when partially molten rock is subjected to simple shear, bands of high and low porosity are formed at a particular angle to the direction of instantaneous maximum extension. These have been modeled numerically and it has been speculated that high porosity bands may form an interconnected network with a bulk, effective permeability that is enhanced in a direction parallel to the bands. As a result, the bands may act to focus mantle melt towards the axis of mid-ocean ridges [Katz, R.F., Spiegelman, M., Holtzman, B., 2006. The dynamics of melt and shear localization in partially molten aggregates. Nature 442, 676-679]. In this contribution, we examine the combined effects of buoyancy and matrix shear on a deforming porous layer. The linear theory of Spiegelman [Spiegelman, M., 1993. Flow in deformable porous media. Part 1. Simple analysis. J. Fluid Mech. 247, 17-38; Spiegelman, M., 2003. Linear analysis of melt band formation by simple shear. Geochem. Geophys. Geosyst. 4, doi:10.1029/2002GC000499, Article 8615] and Katz et al. [Katz, R.F., Spiegelman, M., Holtzman, B., 2006. The dynamics of melt and shear localization in partially molten aggregates. Nature 442, 676-679] is generalized to include both the effects of buoyancy and matrix shear on a deformable porous layer with strain-rate dependent rheology. The predictions of linear theory are compared with the early time evolution of our 2D numerical model and they are found to be in excellent agreement. For conditions similar to the upper mantle, buoyancy forces can be similar to or much greater than matrix shear-induced forces. The
Two Experimental Approaches of Looking at Buoyancy
Moreira, J. Agostinho; Almeida, A.; Carvalho, P. Simeao
2013-01-01
In our teaching practice, we find that a large number of first-year university physics and chemistry students exhibit some difficulties with applying Newton's third law to fluids because they think fluids do not react to forces. (Contains 1 table and 3 figures.)
Ridgely, Charles T.
2011-01-01
When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium…
Detection of gravitational radiation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Holten, J.W. van [ed.
1994-12-31
In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI).
Detection of gravitational radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holten, J.W. van
1994-01-01
In this report the main contributions presented at the named symposium are collected. These concern astrophysical sources of gravitational radiation, ultracryogenic gravitational wave experiments, read out and data analysis of gravitational wave antennas, cryogenic aspects of large mass cooling to mK temperatures, and metallurgical and engineering aspects of large Cu structure manufacturing. (HSI)
Relativity theory and gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bondi, H.
1986-01-01
The paper on relativity theory and gravitation is presented as a preface to the first of the articles submitted to the Journal on general relativity. Newtonian gravitation and and observation, relativity, and the sources of the gravitational field, are all discussed. (UK)
Testing the gravitational instability hypothesis?
Babul, Arif; Weinberg, David H.; Dekel, Avishai; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.
1994-01-01
We challenge a widely accepted assumption of observational cosmology: that successful reconstruction of observed galaxy density fields from measured galaxy velocity fields (or vice versa), using the methods of gravitational instability theory, implies that the observed large-scale structures and large-scale flows were produced by the action of gravity. This assumption is false, in that there exist nongravitational theories that pass the reconstruction tests and gravitational theories with certain forms of biased galaxy formation that fail them. Gravitational instability theory predicts specific correlations between large-scale velocity and mass density fields, but the same correlations arise in any model where (a) structures in the galaxy distribution grow from homogeneous initial conditions in a way that satisfies the continuity equation, and (b) the present-day velocity field is irrotational and proportional to the time-averaged velocity field. We demonstrate these assertions using analytical arguments and N-body simulations. If large-scale structure is formed by gravitational instability, then the ratio of the galaxy density contrast to the divergence of the velocity field yields an estimate of the density parameter Omega (or, more generally, an estimate of beta identically equal to Omega(exp 0.6)/b, where b is an assumed constant of proportionality between galaxy and mass density fluctuations. In nongravitational scenarios, the values of Omega or beta estimated in this way may fail to represent the true cosmological values. However, even if nongravitational forces initiate and shape the growth of structure, gravitationally induced accelerations can dominate the velocity field at late times, long after the action of any nongravitational impulses. The estimated beta approaches the true value in such cases, and in our numerical simulations the estimated beta values are reasonably accurate for both gravitational and nongravitational models. Reconstruction tests
A Six-DOF Buoyancy Tank Microgravity Test Bed with Active Drag Compensation
Sun, Chong; Chen, Shiyu; Yuan, Jianping; Zhu, Zhanxia
2017-10-01
Ground experiment under microgravity is very essential because it can verify the space enabling technologies before applied in space missions. In this paper, a novel ground experiment system that can provide long duration, large scale and high microgravity level for the six degree of freedom (DOF) spacecraft trajectory tracking is presented. In which, the most gravity of the test body is balanced by the buoyancy, and the small residual gravity is offset by the electromagnetic force. Because the electromagnetic force on the test body can be adjusted in the electromagnetic system, it can significantly simplify the balancing process using the proposed microgravity test bed compared to the neutral buoyance system. Besides, a novel compensation control system based on the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) method is developed to estimate and compensate the water resistance online, in order to improve the fidelity of the ground experiment. A six-DOF trajectory tracking in the microgravity system is applied to testify the efficiency of the proposed compensation controller, and the experimental simulation results are compared to that obtained using the classic proportional-integral-derivative (PID) method. The simulation results demonstrated that, for the six-DOF motion ground experiment, the microgravity level can reach to 5 × 10-4 g. And, because the water resistance has been estimated and compensated, the performance of the presented controller is much better than the PID controller. The presented ground microgravity system can be applied in on-orbit service and other related technologies in future.
A homogeneous static gravitational field and the principle of equivalence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chernikov, N.A.
2001-01-01
In this paper any gravitational field (both in the Einsteinian case and in the Newtonian case) is described by the connection, called gravitational. A homogeneous static gravitational field is considered in the four-dimensional area z>0 of a space-time with Cartesian coordinates x, y, z, and t. Such field can be created by masses, disposed outside the area z>0 with a density distribution independent of x, y, and t. Remarkably, in the four-dimensional area z>0, together with the primitive background connection, the primitive gravitational connection has been derived. In concordance with the Principle of Equivalence all components of such gravitational connection are equal to zero in the uniformly accelerated frame system, in which the gravitational force of attraction is balanced by the inertial force. However, all components of such background connection are equal to zero in the resting frame system, but not in the accelerated frame system
Theory of gravitational interactions
Gasperini, Maurizio
2017-01-01
This is the second edition of a well-received book that is a modern, self-contained introduction to the theory of gravitational interactions. The new edition includes more details on gravitational waves of cosmological origin, the so-called brane world scenario, and gravitational time-delay effects. The first part of the book follows the traditional presentation of general relativity as a geometric theory of the macroscopic gravitational field, while the second, more advanced part discusses the deep analogies (and differences) between a geometric theory of gravity and the “gauge” theories of the other fundamental interactions. This fills a gap within the traditional approach to general relativity which usually leaves students puzzled about the role of gravity. The required notions of differential geometry are reduced to the minimum, allowing room for aspects of gravitational physics of current phenomenological and theoretical interest, such as the properties of gravitational waves, the gravitational inter...
Gravity the quest for gravitational wave
Binétruy, Pierre
2018-01-01
What force do the Big Bang, the expansion of the Universe, dark matter and dark energy, black holes, and gravitational waves all have in common? This book uncovers gravity as a key to understanding these fascinating phenomena that have so captivated public interest in recent years. Readers will discover the latest findings on how this familiar force in our everyday lives powers the most colossal changes in the Universe. Written by the widely recognized French public scientist and leading astrophysicist Pierre Binetruy, the book also explains the recent experimental confirmation of the existence of gravitational waves.
Generalized equations of gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanyukovich, K.P.; Borisova, L.B.
1985-01-01
Equations for gravitational fields are obtained on the basis of a generalized Lagrangian Z=f(R) (R is the scalar curvature). Such an approach permits to take into account the evolution of a gravitation ''constant''. An expression for the force Fsub(i) versus the field variability is obtained. Conservation laws are formulated differing from the standard ones by the fact that in the right part of new equations the value Fsub(i) is present that goes to zero at an ultimate passage to the standard Einstein theory. An equation of state is derived for cosmological metrics for a particular case, f=bRsup(1+α) (b=const, α=const)
Optimal design and control of buoyancy-driven ventilation
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Terpager Andersen, Karl
2016-01-01
Relationships between airflow rates and opening areas of importance for design and control are analysed for buoyancy-driven ventilation in a room with two openings and uniform temperature. The optimal ratio between the inlet and outlet areas is found. The consequences of deviations from the optimum...
Buoyancy disorders in pet axolotls Ambystoma mexicanum: three cases.
Takami, Yoshinori; Une, Yumi
2018-01-31
As far as we are aware, there are no previous reports on the pathologic conditions of buoyancy disorders in Ambystoma mexicanum. Herein, we describe various clinical test results, clinical outcomes, and the pathological findings of an experimental pneumonectomy procedure in 3 A. mexicanum exhibiting abnormal buoyancy. The 3 pet A. mexicanum were adults, and their respective ages and body weights were 1, 5, and 6 yr and 48, 55, and 56 g. Two of these cases were confirmed via radiographic examination to have free air within the body cavity, and all 3 cases were found via ultrasonography to have an acoustic shadow within the body cavity and were diagnosed with pneumocoelom. Lung perforations were detected macroscopically in 2 of the cases, and all 3 cases had fibrosis in the caudal ends of the lungs. Removal of the lung lesions eliminated the abnormal buoyancy in all 3 cases. We concluded that air had leaked into the body cavity from the lungs, and we propose that lung lesions are an important cause of buoyancy disorders in A. mexicanum.
EVA Development and Verification Testing at NASA's Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory
Jairala, Juniper C.; Durkin, Robert; Marak, Ralph J.; Sipila, Stepahnie A.; Ney, Zane A.; Parazynski, Scott E.; Thomason, Arthur H.
2012-01-01
As an early step in the preparation for future Extravehicular Activities (EVAs), astronauts perform neutral buoyancy testing to develop and verify EVA hardware and operations. Neutral buoyancy demonstrations at NASA Johnson Space Center's Sonny Carter Training Facility to date have primarily evaluated assembly and maintenance tasks associated with several elements of the International Space Station (ISS). With the retirement of the Shuttle, completion of ISS assembly, and introduction of commercial players for human transportation to space, evaluations at the Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) will take on a new focus. Test objectives are selected for their criticality, lack of previous testing, or design changes that justify retesting. Assembly tasks investigated are performed using procedures developed by the flight hardware providers and the Mission Operations Directorate (MOD). Orbital Replacement Unit (ORU) maintenance tasks are performed using a more systematic set of procedures, EVA Concept of Operations for the International Space Station (JSC-33408), also developed by the MOD. This paper describes the requirements and process for performing a neutral buoyancy test, including typical hardware and support equipment requirements, personnel and administrative resource requirements, examples of ISS systems and operations that are evaluated, and typical operational objectives that are evaluated.
Gravitational waves from rotating strained neutron stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jones, D I
2002-01-01
In this review we examine the dynamics and gravitational wave detectability of rotating strained neutron stars. The discussion is divided into two halves: triaxial stars and precessing stars. We summarize recent studies on how crustal strains and magnetic fields can sustain triaxiality, and suggest that Magnus forces connected with pinned superfluid vortices might contribute to deformation also. The conclusions that could be drawn following the successful gravitational wave detection of a triaxial star are discussed, and areas requiring further study identified. The latest ideas regarding free precession are then outlined, and the recent suggestion of Middleditch et al (Middleditch et al 2000 New Astronomy 5 243; 2000 Preprint astro-ph/0010044) that the remnant of SN1987A contains a freely precessing star, spinning down by gravitational wave energy loss, is examined critically. We describe what we would learn about neutron stars should the gravitational wave detectors prove this hypothesis to be correct
Gravitational waves from inflation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guzzetti, M.C.; Bartolo, N.; Liguori, M.; Matarrese, S.
2016-01-01
The production of a stochastic background of gravitational waves is a fundamental prediction of any cosmological inflationary model. The features of such a signal encode unique information about the physics of the Early Universe and beyond, thus representing an exciting, powerful window on the origin and evolution of the Universe. We review the main mechanisms of gravitational-wave production, ranging from quantum fluctuations of the gravitational field to other mechanisms that can take place during or after inflation. These include e.g. gravitational waves generated as a consequence of extra particle production during inflation, or during the (p)reheating phase. Gravitational waves produced in inflation scenarios based on modified gravity theories and second-order gravitational waves are also considered. For each analyzed case, the expected power spectrum is given. We discuss the discriminating power among different models, associated with the validity/violation of the standard consistency relation between tensor-to-scalar ratio r and tensor spectral index ηT. In light of the prospects for (directly/indirectly) detecting primordial gravitational waves, we give the expected present-day gravitational radiation spectral energy-density, highlighting the main characteristics imprinted by the cosmic thermal history, and we outline the signatures left by gravitational waves on the Cosmic Microwave Background and some imprints in the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe. Finally, current bounds and prospects of detection for inflationary gravitational waves are summarized.
Gravitational radiation resistance, radiation damping and field fluctuations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, G.
1981-01-01
Application is made of two different generalised fluctuation-dissipation theorems and their derivations to the calculation of the gravitational quadrupole radiation resistance using the radiation-reaction force given by Misner, Thorne and Wheeler (Gravitation (San Francisco: Freeman) ch 36,37 (1973)) and the usual tidal force on one hand and the tidal force and the free gravitational radiation field on the other hand. The quantum-mechanical version (including thermal generalisations) of the well known classical quadrupole radiation damping formula is obtained as a function of the radiation resistance. (author)
Buoyancy-activated cell sorting using targeted biotinylated albumin microbubbles.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yu-Ren Liou
Full Text Available Cell analysis often requires the isolation of certain cell types. Various isolation methods have been applied to cell sorting, including fluorescence-activated cell sorting and magnetic-activated cell sorting. However, these conventional approaches involve exerting mechanical forces on the cells, thus risking cell damage. In this study we applied a novel isolation method called buoyancy-activated cell sorting, which involves using biotinylated albumin microbubbles (biotin-MBs conjugated with antibodies (i.e., targeted biotin-MBs. Albumin MBs are widely used as contrast agents in ultrasound imaging due to their good biocompatibility and stability. For conjugating antibodies, biotin is conjugated onto the albumin MB shell via covalent bonds and the biotinylated antibodies are conjugated using an avidin-biotin system. The albumin microbubbles had a mean diameter of 2 μm with a polydispersity index of 0.16. For cell separation, the MDA-MB-231 cells are incubated with the targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 for 10 min, centrifuged at 10 g for 1 min, and then allowed 1 hour at 4 °C for separation. The results indicate that targeted biotin-MBs conjugated with anti-CD44 antibodies can be used to separate MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells; more than 90% of the cells were collected in the MB layer when the ratio of the MBs to cells was higher than 70:1. Furthermore, we found that the separating efficiency was higher for targeted biotin-MBs than for targeted avidin-incorporated albumin MBs (avidin-MBs, which is the most common way to make targeted albumin MBs. We also demonstrated that the recovery rate of targeted biotin-MBs was up to 88% and the sorting purity was higher than 84% for a a heterogenous cell population containing MDA-MB-231 cells (CD44(+ and MDA-MB-453 cells (CD44-, which are classified as basal-like breast cancer cells and luminal breast cancer cells, respectively. Knowing that the CD44(+ is a commonly used cancer
Gravitational mass and Newton's universal gravitational law under relativistic conditions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vayenas, Constantinos G; Grigoriou, Dimitrios; Fokas, Athanasios
2015-01-01
We discuss the predictions of Newton's universal gravitational law when using the gravitational, m g , rather than the rest masses, m o , of the attracting particles. According to the equivalence principle, the gravitational mass equals the inertial mass, m i , and the latter which can be directly computed from special relativity, is an increasing function of the Lorentz factor, γ, and thus of the particle velocity. We consider gravitationally bound rotating composite states, and we show that the ratio of the gravitational force for gravitationally bound rotational states to the force corresponding to low (γ ≈ 1) particle velocities is of the order of (m Pl /m o ) 2 where mpi is the Planck mass (ħc/G) 1/2 . We also obtain a similar result, within a factor of two, by employing the derivative of the effective potential of the Schwarzschild geodesics of GR. Finally, we show that for certain macroscopic systems, such as the perihelion precession of planets, the predictions of this relativistic Newtonian gravitational law differ again by only a factor of two from the predictions of GR. (paper)
Anisotropic gravitational instability
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Polyachenko, V.L.; Fridman, A.M.
1988-01-01
Exact solutions of stability problems are obtained for two anisotropic gravitational systems of different geometries - a layer of finite thickness at rest and a rotating cylinder of finite radius. It is shown that the anisotropic gravitational instability which develops in both cases is of Jeans type. However, in contrast to the classical aperiodic Jeans instability, this instability is oscillatory. The physics of the anisotropic gravitational instability is investigated. It is shown that in a gravitating layer this instability is due, in particular, to excitation of previously unknown interchange-Jeans modes. In the cylinder, the oscillatory Jeans instability is associated with excitation of a rotational branch, this also being responsible for the beam gravitational instability. This is the reason why this instability and the anisotropic gravitational instability have so much in common
CERN. Geneva HR-RFA
2006-01-01
We will present a brief introduction to the physics of gravitational waves and their properties. We will review potential astrophysical sources of gravitational waves, and the physics and astrophysics that can be learned from their study. We will survey the techniques and technologies for detecting gravitational waves for the first time, including bar detectors and broadband interferometers, and give a brief status report on the international search effort.
CERN. Geneva
2006-01-01
Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yoshinobu Oshikiri
2013-01-01
Full Text Available With a gravity electrode (GE in a vertical gravity field, the buoyancy effect of ionic vacancy on the change of the partial molar volume in the redox reaction between ferricyanide (FERRI and ferrocyanide (FERRO ions was examined. The buoyancy force of ionic vacancy takes a positive or negative value, depending on whether the rate-determining step is the production or extinction of the vacancy. Though the upward convection over an upward electrode in the FERRO ion oxidation suggests the contribution of the positive buoyancy force arising from the vacancy production, the partial molar volume of the vacancy was not measured. On the other hand, for the downward convection under a downward electrode in the FERRI ion reduction, it was not completely but partly measured by the contribution of the negative buoyancy force from the vacancy extinction. Since the lifetime of the vacancy is decreased by the collision between ionic vacancies during the convection, the former result was ascribed to the shortened lifetime due to the increasing collision efficiency in the enhanced upward convection over an upward electrode, whereas the latter was thought to arise from the elongated lifetime due to the decreasing collision efficiency by the stagnation under the downward electrode.
46 CFR 160.010-5 - Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy.
2010-10-01
... 46 Shipping 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. 160.010-5... Vessels § 160.010-5 Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy. (a) Buoyant apparatus with plastic foam buoyancy must have a plastic foam body with an external protective covering. The body may be reinforced as...
The inverse square law of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Cook, A.H.
1987-01-01
The inverse square law of gravitation is very well established over the distances of celestial mechanics, while in electrostatics the law has been shown to be followed to very high precision. However, it is only within the last century that any laboratory experiments have been made to test the inverse square law for gravitation, and all but one has been carried out in the last ten years. At the same time, there has been considerable interest in the possibility of deviations from the inverse square law, either because of a possible bearing on unified theories of forces, including gravitation or, most recently, because of a possible additional fifth force of nature. In this article the various lines of evidence for the inverse square law are summarized, with emphasis upon the recent laboratory experiments. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ridgely, Charles T
2011-01-01
When two gravitating bodies reside in a material medium, Newton's law of universal gravitation must be modified to account for the presence of the medium. A modified expression of Newton's law is known in the literature, but lacks a clear connection with existing gravitational theory. Newton's law in the presence of a homogeneous material medium is herein derived on the basis of classical, Newtonian gravitational theory and by a general relativistic use of Archimedes' principle. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate students and those undergraduate students having prior experience with vector analysis and potential theory.
Hoffmann, William F
1964-01-01
Remarks on the observational basis of general relativity ; Riemannian geometry ; gravitation as geometry ; gravitational waves ; Mach's principle and experiments on mass anisotropy ; the many faces of Mach ; the significance for the solar system of time-varying gravitation ; relativity principles and the role of coordinates in physics ; the superdense star and the critical nucleon number ; gravitation and light ; possible effects on the solar system of φ waves if they exist ; the Lyttleton-Bondi universe and charge equality ; quantization of general relativity ; Mach's principle as boundary condition for Einstein's equations.
Simulation of buoyancy-induced turbulent flow from a hot horizontal jet
El-Amin, Mohamed
2014-02-01
Experimental visualizations and numerical simulations of a horizontal hot water jet entering cold water into a rectangular storage tank are described. Three different temperature differences and their corresponding Reynolds numbers are considered. Both experimental visualization and numerical computations are carried out for the same flow and thermal conditions. The realizable k - ε model is used for modeling the turbulent flow while the buoyancy is modeled using the Boussinesq approximation. Polynomial approximations of the water properties are used to compare with the Boussinesq approximation. Numerical solutions are obtained for unsteady flow while pressure, velocity, temperature and turbulence distributions inside the water tank as well as the Froude number are analyzed. The experimental visualizations are performed at intervals of five seconds for all different cases. The simulated results are compared with the visualized results, and both of them show the stratification phenomena and buoyancy force effects due to temperature difference and density variation. After certain times, depending on the case condition, the flow tends to reach a steady state. © 2014 Publishing House for Journal of Hydrodynamics.
Density-ratio effects on buoyancy-driven variable-density turbulent mixing
Aslangil, Denis; Livescu, Daniel; Banerjee, Arindam
2017-11-01
Density-ratio effects on the turbulent mixing of two incompressible, miscible fluids with different densities subject to constant acceleration are studied by means of high-resolution Direct Numerical Simulations. In a triply periodic domain, turbulence is generated by stirring in response to the differential buoyancy forces within the flow. Later, as the fluids become molecularly mixed, dissipation starts to overcome turbulence generation by bouyancy. Thus, the flow evolution includes both turbulence growth and decay, and it displays features present in the core region of the mixing layer of the Rayleigh-Taylor as well as Richtmyer-Meshkov instabilities. We extend the previous studies by investigating a broad range of density-ratio, from 1-14.4:1, corresponding to Atwood numbers of 0.05-0.87. Here, we focus on the Atwood number dependence of mixing-efficiency, that is defined based on the energy-conversion ratios from potential energy to total and turbulent kinetic energies, the decay characteristics of buoyancy-assisted variable-density homogeneous turbulence, and the effects of high density-ratios on the turbulence structure and mixing process. Authors acknowledge financial support from DOE-SSAA (DE-NA0003195) and NSF CAREER (#1453056) awards.
The Effects of Buoyancy on Characteristics of Turbulent Nonpremixed Jet Flames
Idicheria, Cherian; Boxx, Isaac; Clemens, Noel
2002-11-01
This work addresses the influence of buoyant forces on the underlying structure of turbulent nonpremixed jet flames. Buoyancy effects are investigated by studying transitional and turbulent propane and ethylene flames (Re_D=2500-10500) at normal, low and microgravity conditions. The reduced gravity experiments are conducted by dropping a combustion rig in the University of Texas 1.25-second drop tower and the NASA Glenn 2.2-second drop tower. The diagnostic employed is high-speed luminosity imaging using a CCD camera. The images obtained are used to compare flame length, mean, RMS and flame tip oscillation characteristics The results showed that, in contrast to previous studies, the high Reynolds number flames at all gravity levels were essentially identical. Furthermore, the parameter ξL (Becker and Yamazaki, 1978) is sufficient for quantifying the effects of buoyancy on the flame characteristics. The large-scale structure and flame tip dynamics are essentially identical to those of purely momentum driven flames provided ξL is less than approximately 3.
Gravitational radiation from electromagnetic systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nikishov, A.I.; Ritus, V.I.
1989-01-01
It is shown that the spectrum of gravitational radiation of a charge e with mass m, undergoing finite motion in an electromagnetic field, smoothly varying in the neighborhood of the orbit over a region of the order of the radius of curvature, differs in the ultrarelativistic limit from the spectrum of the charge's electromagnetic radiation. The difference consists of the frequency-independent coefficient 4πGm 2 Λ 2 /e 2 , where Λ is of the order of the Lorentz factor of the charge and depends on the direction of the wave vector and on the behavior of the field in the above-indicated region. For a plane-wave external field the gravitational and electromagnetic spectra are strictly proportional to each other for arbitrary velocities of the charge. Localization of the external forces near the orbit violates this proportionality of the spectra and weakens the gravitational radiation by an amount of the order of the square of the Lorentz factor
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Malykin, G B; Pozdnyakova, V I
2015-01-01
The paper 'Quadratic Sagnac effect — the influence of the gravitational potential of the Coriolis force on the phase difference between the arms of a rotating Michelson interferometer (an explanation of D C Miller's experimental results, 1921 – 1926)' (Usp. Fiz. Nauk 185 431 (2015) [Phys. Usp. 58 398 (2015)]) is amended and supplemented with information concerning earlier work on the influence of rotation on Michelson – Morley's nonzero results. (letters to the editors)
Gravitational effects in field gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.; Vlasov, A.A.
1979-01-01
The possibilities to describe various gravitation effects of field gravitation theory (FGT) are considered. Past-Newtonian approximation of the FGT has been constructed and on the basis of this approximation it has been shown that the field theory allows one to describe the whole set of experimental facts. The comparison of post-Newtonian parameters in FGT with those in the Einstein's theory makes it clear that these two; theories are undistinguishable from the viewpoint of any experiments, realized with post-Newtonian accuracy. Gravitational field of an island type source with spherically symmetrical distribution of matter and unstationary homogeneous model of Universe, which allows to describe the effect of cosmological red shift, are considered
R. Vlokh; M. Kostyrko
2006-01-01
Nonlinear effect of the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass on the gravitational coefficient G has been analysed. In frame of the approaches of parametric optics and gravitation nonlinearity we have shown that the gravitation field of spherically symmetric mass can lead to changes in the gravitational coefficient G.
Relativistic gravitation theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Mestvirishvili, M.A.
1984-01-01
On the basis of the special relativity and geometrization principle a relativistic gravitation theory (RGT) is unambiguously constructed with the help of a notion of a gravitational field as a physical field in Faraday-Maxwell spirit, which posesses energy momentum and spins 2 and 0. The source of gravitation field is a total conserved energy-momentum tensor for matter and for gravitation field in Minkowski space. In the RGT conservation laws for the energy momentum and angular momentum of matter and gravitational field hold rigorously. The theory explains the whole set of gravitation experiments. Here, due to the geometrization principle the Riemannian space is of a field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field origin since this space arises effectively as a result of the gravitation field action on the matter. The RGT astonishing prediction is that the Universe is not closed but ''flat''. It means that in the Universe there should exist a ''missing'' mass in some form of matter
Those Elusive Gravitational Waves
MOSAIC, 1976
1976-01-01
The presence of gravitational waves was predicted by Einstein in his theory of General Relativity. Since then, scientists have been attempting to develop a detector sensitive enough to measure these cosmic signals. Once the presence of gravitational waves is confirmed, scientists can directly study star interiors, galaxy cores, or quasars. (MA)
Gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cho, Y.M., E-mail: ymcho7@konkuk.ac.kr [Administration Building 310-4, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kimm, Kyoungtae [Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)
2016-10-10
We present a family of gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole solutions in Einstein–Weinberg–Salam theory. Our result confirms the existence of globally regular gravitating electroweak monopole which changes to the magnetically charged black hole as the Higgs vacuum value approaches to the Planck scale. Moreover, our solutions could provide a more accurate description of the monopole stars and magnetically charged black holes.
UNIVERSAL GRAVITATION AND MAGNETISM OF THE PLANETS
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
E.V. Savich
2013-10-01
Full Text Available The cores of the Solar System planets and the Sun are magnetized bodies, with the field of S-intensity, molten by the temperature of over million degrees. As similarly charged bodies, they interact with each other via repulsive forces that are considered, in the mechanism of gravitational attraction action, as resultant forces retaining the planets on the orbits at their inertial motion about the Sun.
SuperLig Ion Exchange Resin Swelling and Buoyancy Study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hassan, N.M.
2000-01-01
The objective of this study was to achieve a fundamental understanding of SuperLig resin swelling and shrinking characteristics, which lead to channeling and early breakthrough during loading cycles. The density of salt solution that causes resin floating was also determined to establish a limit for operation. Specific tests performed include (a) pH dependence, (b) ionic strength dependence and (c) buoyancy effect vs. simulant composition
A gravitational entropy proposal
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Clifton, Timothy; Tavakol, Reza; Ellis, George F R
2013-01-01
We propose a thermodynamically motivated measure of gravitational entropy based on the Bel–Robinson tensor, which has a natural interpretation as the effective super-energy–momentum tensor of free gravitational fields. The specific form of this measure differs depending on whether the gravitational field is Coulomb-like or wave-like, and reduces to the Bekenstein–Hawking value when integrated over the interior of a Schwarzschild black hole. For scalar perturbations of a Robertson–Walker geometry we find that the entropy goes like the Hubble weighted anisotropy of the gravitational field, and therefore increases as structure formation occurs. This is in keeping with our expectations for the behaviour of gravitational entropy in cosmology, and provides a thermodynamically motivated arrow of time for cosmological solutions of Einstein’s field equations. It is also in keeping with Penrose’s Weyl curvature hypothesis. (paper)
Buoyancy Effects in Turbulent Jet Flames in Crossflow
Boxx, Isaac; Idicheria, Cherian; Clemens, Noel
2003-11-01
The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of buoyancy on the structure of turbulent, non-premixed hydrocarbon jet-flames in crossflow (JFICF). This was accomplished using a small jet-in-crossflow facility which can be oriented at a variety of angles with respect to the gravity vector. This facility enables us to alter the relative influence of buoyancy on the JFICF without altering the jet-exit Reynolds number, momentum flux ratio or the geometry of the system. Results are compared to similar, but non-buoyant, JFICF studied in microgravity. Departures of jet-centerline trajectory from the well-known power-law scaling of turbulent JFICF were used to explore the transition from a buoyancy-influenced regime to a momentum dominated one. The primary diagnostic was CCD imaging of soot-luminosity. We present results on ethylene jet flames with jet-exit Reynolds numbers of 1770 to 8000 and momentum flux ratios of 5 to 13.
Response to acoustic forcing of laminar coflow jet diffusion flames
Chrystie, Robin; Chung, Suk-Ho
2014-01-01
Toward the goal of understanding and controlling instability in combustion systems, we present a fundamental characterization of the interaction of the buoyancy-induced instability in flickering flames with forced excitation of fuel supply. Laminar
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tevikyan, R.V.
1986-01-01
This paper presents equations that describe particles with spins s = 0, 1/2, 1 completely and which also describe 2s + 2 limiting fields as E → ∞. It is shown that the ordinary Hilbert-Einstein action for the gravitation field must be augmented by the action for the Bose vacuum field. This means that one must introduce in the gravitational equations a cosmological term proportional to the square of the strength of the Bose vacuum field. It is shown that the theory of gravitation describes three realities: matter, field, and vacuum field. A new form of matter--the vacuum field--is introduced into field theory
Gravitation in the 'quasi-classical' theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wignall, J.W.G.; Zangari, M.
1990-01-01
The 'quasi-classical' picture of particles as extendend periodic disturbances in a classical nonlinear field, previously shown to imply all the equations of Maxwell electrodynamics with very little formal input, is here applied to the other known long-range force, gravitation. It is shown that the picture's absolute interpretation of inertial mass and four-potential as measures of the local spacing between equal-phase hypersurfaces, together with the empirically established proportionality of gravitational 'charge' to inertial mass, leads naturally to the gravitational red-shift formula, and it thus provides a physical basis for the spacetime curvature that is the central idea of Einstein's general theory of relativity. 16 refs., 1 fig
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yilmaz, H.
1975-01-01
Schwinger's source theory is applied to the problem of gravitation and its quantization. It is shown that within the framework of a flat-space the source theory implementation leads to a violation of probability. To avoid the difficulty one must introduce a curved space-time hence the source concept may be said to necessitate the transition to a curved-space theory of gravitation. It is further shown that the curved-space theory of gravitation implied by the source theory is not equivalent to the conventional Einstein theory. The source concept leads to a different theory where the gravitational field has a stress-energy tensor t/sup nu//sub mu/ which contributes to geometric curvatures
Gravitational lensing of quasars
Eigenbrod, Alexander
2013-01-01
The universe, in all its richness, diversity and complexity, is populated by a myriad of intriguing celestial objects. Among the most exotic of them are gravitationally lensed quasars. A quasar is an extremely bright nucleus of a galaxy, and when such an object is gravitationally lensed, multiple images of the quasar are produced – this phenomenon of cosmic mirage can provide invaluable insights on burning questions, such as the nature of dark matter and dark energy. After presenting the basics of modern cosmology, the book describes active galactic nuclei, the theory of gravitational lensing, and presents a particular numerical technique to improve the resolution of astronomical data. The book then enters the heart of the subject with the description of important applications of gravitational lensing of quasars, such as the measurement of the famous Hubble constant, the determination of the dark matter distribution in galaxies, and the observation of the mysterious inner parts of quasars with much higher r...
Gravitational Waves and Neutrinos
Sturani, Riccardo
2018-01-01
We give an overview about the recent detection of gravitational waves by the Advanced LIGO first and second observing runs and by Advanced Virgo, with emphasis on the prospects for multi-messenger astronomy involving neutrinos detections.
CERN. Geneva
2016-01-01
In the past year, the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration announced the first secure detection of gravitational waves. This discovery heralds the beginning of gravitational wave astronomy: the use of gravitational waves as a tool for studying the dense and dynamical universe. In this talk, I will describe the full spectrum of gravitational waves, from Hubble-scale modes, through waves with periods of years, hours and milliseconds. I will describe the different techniques one uses to measure the waves in these bands, current and planned facilities for implementing these techniques, and the broad range of sources which produce the radiation. I will discuss what we might expect to learn as more events and sources are measured, and as this field matures into a standard part of the astronomical milieu.
The Discovery of Gravitational Repulsion by Johannes Droste
McGruder, Charles Hosewell; VanDerMeer, B. Wieb
2018-01-01
In 1687 Newton published his universal law of gravitation, which states that the gravitational force is always attractive. This law is based on our terrestrial experience with slowly moving bodies (v Einstein completed his theory of general relativity (also referred to as Einstein’s Theory of Gravitation), which is valid not just for slowly moving bodies but also for those with relativistic velocities. In 1916 Johannes Droste submitted a PhD thesis on general relativity to his advisor, H.A. Lorentz. In it he calculated the motion of a particle in what he called a “single center” and today we call the Schwarzschild field and found that highly relativistic particles experience gravitational repulsion. Thus, his thesis written in Dutch and never before translated contains the discovery of gravitational repulsion. Because of its historical importance we translate the entire section of his thesis containing the discovery of gravitational repulsion. We also translate his thesis in the hope of clearing up a major historical misconception. Namely, that David Hilbert in 1917 discovered gravitational repulsion. In fact, Hilbert rediscovered it, apparently completely independent of Droste’s work. Finally we note that one of the biggest mysteries of astrophysics is the question of how highly energetic particles in relativistic jets and cosmic rays are accelerated. It has been suggested that gravitational repulsion is the mechanism responsible for these phenomena. An historical understanding of gravitational repulsion is therefore pertinent.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petar Glišović
2015-01-01
Full Text Available Although there has been significant progress in the seismic imaging of mantle heterogeneity, the outstanding issue that remains to be resolved is the unknown distribution of mantle temperature anomalies in the distant geological past that give rise to the present-day anomalies inferred by global tomography models. To address this question, we present 3-D convection models in compressible and self-gravitating mantle initialised by different hypothetical temperature patterns. A notable feature of our forward convection modelling is the use of self-consistent coupling of the motion of surface tectonic plates to the underlying mantle flow, without imposing prescribed surface velocities (i.e., plate-like boundary condition. As an approximation for the surface mechanical conditions before plate tectonics began to operate we employ the no-slip (rigid boundary condition. A rigid boundary condition demonstrates that the initial thermally-dominated structure is preserved, and its geographical location is fixed during the evolution of mantle flow. Considering the impact of different assumed surface boundary conditions (rigid and plate-like on the evolution of thermal heterogeneity in the mantle we suggest that the intrinsic buoyancy of seven superplumes is most-likely resolved in the tomographic images of present-day mantle thermal structure. Our convection simulations with a plate-like boundary condition reveal that the evolution of an initial cold anomaly beneath the Java-Indonesian trench system yields a long-term, stable pattern of thermal heterogeneity in the lowermost mantle that resembles the present-day Large Low Shear Velocity Provinces (LLSVPs, especially below the Pacific. The evolution of subduction zones may be, however, influenced by the mantle-wide flow driven by deeply-rooted and long-lived superplumes since Archean times. These convection models also detect the intrinsic buoyancy of the Perm Anomaly that has been identified as a unique
Listening music of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Anon.
2001-01-01
Achievements of precision experiments in Japan (TAMA project) and USA (LIGO Laboratory) in the field of registration of gravitation waves using interferometric gravitational wave detectors are described. Works of the GEO groups in Hannover (Germany) and Vigro (Italy) are noted. Interferometer operation in synchronization during 160 hours demonstrating viability of the technique and its reliability is recorded. Advances in the field of the data analysis with the aim of recording of cosmic signal from noise of the interferometer are noted [ru
Romero, Gustavo E.
2017-01-01
I discuss the recent claims made by Mario Bunge on the philosophical implications of the discovery of gravitational waves. I think that Bunge is right when he points out that the detection implies the materiality of spacetime, but I reject his identification of spacetime with the gravitational field. I show that Bunge's analysis of the spacetime inside a hollow sphere is defective, but this in no way affects his main claim.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Stavroulakis N.
2008-04-01
Full Text Available The equations of gravitation together with the equations of electromagnetism in terms of the General Theory of Relativity allow to conceive an interdependence between the gravitational field and the electromagnetic field. However the technical difficulties of the relevant problems have precluded from expressing clearly this interdependence. Even the simple problem related to the field generated by a charged spherical mass is not correctly solved. In the present paper we reexamine from the outset this problem and propose a new solution.
Gravitationally confined relativistic neutrinos
Vayenas, C. G.; Fokas, A. S.; Grigoriou, D.
2017-09-01
Combining special relativity, the equivalence principle, and Newton’s universal gravitational law with gravitational rather than rest masses, one finds that gravitational interactions between relativistic neutrinos with kinetic energies above 50 MeV are very strong and can lead to the formation of gravitationally confined composite structures with the mass and other properties of hadrons. One may model such structures by considering three neutrinos moving symmetrically on a circular orbit under the influence of their gravitational attraction, and by assuming quantization of their angular momentum, as in the Bohr model of the H atom. The model contains no adjustable parameters and its solution, using a neutrino rest mass of 0.05 eV/c2, leads to composite state radii close to 1 fm and composite state masses close to 1 GeV/c2. Similar models of relativistic rotating electron - neutrino pairs give a mass of 81 GeV/c2, close to that of W bosons. This novel mechanism of generating mass suggests that the Higgs mass generation mechanism can be modeled as a latent gravitational field which gets activated by relativistic neutrinos.
Experimental study of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings
Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang
2007-01-01
An experimental study of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. Measurements were made for opening ratios L/D range from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length and the diameter of the opening, respectively. The bidirectional air flow rate was measured using constant injection tracer gas technique. Smoke visualizations showed that the air flow patterns are highly transient, unstable and complex, and ...
Modeling the Buoyancy System of a Wave Energy Power Plant
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Tom S.; Nielsen, Kirsten M.
2009-01-01
A nonlinear dynamic model of the buoyancy system in a wave energy power plant is presented. The plant ("Wave Dragon") is a floating device using the potential energy in overtopping waves to produce power. A water reservoir is placed on top of the WD, and hydro turbines lead the water to the sea...... producing electrical power. Through air chambers it is possible to control the level of the WD. It is important to control the level in order to maximize the power production in proportion to the wave height, here the amount of overtopping water and the amount of potential energy is conflicting...
Experimental study of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Heiselberg, Per; Li, Zhigang
2007-01-01
An experimental study of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through single-sided horizontal openings was performed in a full-scale laboratory test rig. Measurements were made for opening ratios L/D range from 0.027 to 4.455, where L and D are the length and the diameter of the opening......, respectively. The bidirectional air flow rate was measured using constant injection tracer gas technique. Smoke visualizations showed that the air flow patterns are highly transient, unstable and complex, and that air flow rates oscillate with time. Correlations between the Froude number Fr and the L/D ratio...
GLINT. Gravitational-wave laser INterferometry triangle
Aria, Shafa; Azevedo, Rui; Burow, Rick; Cahill, Fiachra; Ducheckova, Lada; Holroyd, Alexa; Huarcaya, Victor; Järvelä, Emilia; Koßagk, Martin; Moeckel, Chris; Rodriguez, Ana; Royer, Fabien; Sypniewski, Richard; Vittori, Edoardo; Yttergren, Madeleine
2017-11-01
When the universe was roughly one billion years old, supermassive black holes (103-106 solar masses) already existed. The occurrence of supermassive black holes on such short time scales are poorly understood in terms of their physical or evolutionary processes. Our current understanding is limited by the lack of observational data due the limits of electromagnetic radiation. Gravitational waves as predicted by the theory of general relativity have provided us with the means to probe deeper into the history of the universe. During the ESA Alpach Summer School of 2015, a group of science and engineering students devised GLINT (Gravitational-wave Laser INterferometry Triangle), a space mission concept capable of measuring gravitational waves emitted by black holes that have formed at the early periods after the big bang. Morespecifically at redshifts of 15 big bang) in the frequency range 0.01 - 1 Hz. GLINT design strain sensitivity of 5× 10^{-24} 1/√ { {Hz}} will theoretically allow the study of early black holes formations as well as merging events and collapses. The laser interferometry, the technology used for measuring gravitational waves, monitors the separation of test masses in free-fall, where a change of separation indicates the passage of a gravitational wave. The test masses will be shielded from disturbing forces in a constellation of three geocentric orbiting satellites.
Manpower Administration (DOL), Washington, DC. Job Corps.
This self-study program for high-school level contains lessons on: Speed, Acceleration, and Velocity; Force, Mass, and Distance; Types of Motion and Rest; Electricity and Magnetism; Electrical, Magnetic, and Gravitational Fields; The Conservation and Conversion of Matter and Energy; Simple Machines and Work; Gas Laws; Principles of Heat Engines;…
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Easby, J.P.
1978-01-01
For the analysis of low-flow situations in the core of the High-Temperature Gas-Cooled reactor it is necessary to have a knowledge of the variation of pressure drop and heat transfer with flow and buoyancy influence. Nitrogen at 4 bar has been used to simulate the high pressure helium in the reactor and an experiment performed for downward flow in a heated vertical pipe. The measurements show that for the range of flow and buoyancy influence parameters investigated, (2000 6 ), friction factors are reduced by up to 20% compared with a correlation for isothermal flows and heat transfer is increased by up to 40% compared with a correlation for constant fluid properties. Agreement with the limit amount of previous data is quite satisfactory. The changes in heat transfer and friction factor with buoyancy influence can be attributed to distortion of the normally linear, radial shear stress profile. Simple equations have been determined to correlate the present results but extrapolation to conditions of high flow and buoyancy influence, where the interaction of forced and free convection may be different, is not advised. (author)
Analysis of the strength of sea gas pipelines of positive buoyancy conditioned by glaciation
Malkov, Venyamin; Kurbatova, Galina; Ermolaeva, Nadezhda; Malkova, Yulia; Petrukhin, Ruslan
2018-05-01
A technique for estimating the stress state of a gas pipeline laid along the seabed in northern latitudes in the presence of glaciation is proposed. It is assumed that the pipeline lies on the bottom of the seabed, but under certain conditions on the some part of the pipeline a glaciation is formed and the gas pipeline section in the place of glaciation can come off the ground due to the positive buoyancy of the ice. Calculation of additional stresses caused by bending of the pipeline is of practical interest for strength evaluation. The gas pipeline is a two-layer cylindrical shell of circular cross section. The inner layer is made of high-strength steel, the outer layer is made of reinforced ferroconcrete. The proposed methodology for calculating the gas pipeline for strength is based on the equations of the theory of shells. The procedure takes into account the effect of internal gas pressure, external pressure of sea water, the weight of two-layer gas pipeline and the weight of the ice layer. The lifting force created by the displaced fluid and the positive buoyancy of the ice is also taken into account. It is significant that the listed loads cause only two types of deformation of the gas pipeline: axisymmetric and antisymmetric. The interaction of the pipeline with the ground as an elastic foundation is not considered. The main objective of the research is to establish the fact of separation of part of the pipeline from the ground. The method of calculations of stresses and deformations occurring in a model sea gas pipeline is presented.
Buoyancy of gas-filled bladders at great depth
Priede, Imants G.
2018-02-01
At high hydrostatic pressures exceeding 20 MPa or 200 bar, equivalent to depths exceeding ca.2000 m, the behaviour of gases deviates significantly from the predictions of standard equations such as Boyle's Law, the Ideal Gas Law and Van der Waals equation. The predictions of these equations are compared with experimental data for nitrogen, oxygen and air at 0 °C and 15 °C, at pressures up to 1100 bar (110 MPa) equivalent to full ocean depth of ca. 11000 m. Owing to reduced compressibility of gases at high pressures, gas-filled bladders at full ocean depth have a density of 847 kg m-3 for Oxygen, 622 kg m-3 for Nitrogen and 660 kg m-3 for air providing potentially useful buoyancy comparable with that available from man-made materials. This helps explain why some of the deepest-living fishes at ca. 7000 m depth (700 bar or 70 MPa) have gas-filled swim bladders. A table is provided of the density and buoyancy of oxygen, nitrogen and air at 0 °C and 15 °C from 100 to 1100 bar.
Response of mantle transition zone thickness to plume buoyancy flux
Das Sharma, S.; Ramesh, D. S.; Li, X.; Yuan, X.; Sreenivas, B.; Kind, R.
2010-01-01
The debate concerning thermal plumes in the Earth's mantle, their geophysical detection and depth characterization remains contentious. Available geophysical, petrological and geochemical evidence is at variance regarding the very existence of mantle plumes. Utilizing P-to-S converted seismic waves (P receiver functions) from the 410 and 660 km discontinuities, we investigate disposition of these boundaries beneath a number of prominent hotspot regions. The thickness of the mantle transition zone (MTZ), measured as P660s-P410s differential times (tMTZ), is determined. Our analyses suggest that the MTZ thickness beneath some hotspots correlates with the plume strength. The relationship between tMTZ, in response to the thermal perturbation, and the strength of plumes, as buoyancy flux B, follows a power law. This B-tMTZ behavior provides unprecedented insights into the relation of buoyancy flux and excess temperature at 410-660 km depth below hotspots. We find that the strongest hotspots, which are located in the Pacific, are indeed plumes originating at the MTZ or deeper. According to the detected power law, even the strongest plumes may not shrink the transition zone by significantly more than ~40 km (corresponding to a maximum of 300-400° excess temperature).
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Favre, E.
1997-01-01
Coupled buoyancy and thermo-capillary convection lead to a convective motion of the interface liquid/gas, which changes drastically the heat and mass transfer across the liquid layer. Two experiments are considered, depending on the fluid: oil or mercury. The liquid is set in a cooled cylindrical vessel, and heated by a heat flux across the center of the free surface. The basic flow, in the case of oil, is a torus. When the heat parameter increases, a stationary flow looking like petals or rays appears when the aspect ratio length/depth is small, and like concentric rings in the case of large values of the aspect ratio. The lateral confinement selects the azimuthal length wave. In the case of petals-like flow, a sub-critical Hopf bifurcation is underlined. The turbulence is found to be 'weak', even for the largest values of the Marangoni number (Ma ≅ 1.3 * 10 5 ). In the case of mercury, the thermo-capillary effect is reduced to zero, due to impurities at the surface, which have special trajectories we describe and compare to a simpler experiment. The only buoyancy forces induces an un-stationary, weakly turbulent flow as soon as the heating power exceeds 4 W (≅ 4.5 * 10 3 , calculated with h = 1 mm). The last part concerns the analysis of the effect on the flow of the boundary conditions, the geometry, the Prandtl number, the buoyancy force, with the help of the literature. Results concerning heat transfer, especially the exponent of the law Nusselt number vs. heating power, are compared with available data. (author) [fr
Towards unification of the four fundamental forces
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sivaram, C.
1987-01-01
An account of the principles involved and the progress made in understanding of four fundamental forces of nature, namely, gravitational force, electromagnetic force, electroweak force and electrostrong force is given. The attempts being made to unify these forces are also described. (M.G.B.)
Covariant theory of gravitation in the framework of special relativity
Vieira, R. S.; Brentan, H. B.
2018-04-01
In this work, we study the magnetic effects of gravity in the framework of special relativity. Imposing covariance of the gravitational force with respect to the Lorentz transformations, we show from a thought experiment that a magnetic-like force must be present whenever two or more bodies are in motion. The exact expression for this gravitomagnetic force is then derived purely from special relativity and the consequences of such a covariant theory are developed. For instance, we show that the gravitomagnetic fields satisfy a system of differential equations similar to the Maxwell equations of electrodynamics. This implies that the gravitational waves spread out with the speed of light in a flat spacetime, which is in agreement with the recent results concerning the gravitational waves detection. We also propose that the vector potential can be associated with the interaction momentum in the same way as the scalar potential is usually associated with the interaction energy. Other topics are also discussed, for example, the transformation laws for the fields, the energy and momentum stored in the gravitomagnetic fields, the invariance of the gravitational mass and so on. We remark that is not our intention here to propose an alternative theory of gravitation but, rather, only a first approximation for the gravitational phenomena, so that it can be applied whenever the gravitational force can be regarded as an ordinary effective force field and special relativity can be used with safety. To make this point clear we present briefly a comparison between our approach and that based on the (linearized) Einstein's theory. Finally, we remark that although we have assumed nothing from the electromagnetic theory, we found that gravity and electricity share many properties in common -these similarities, in fact, are just a requirement of special relativity that must apply to any physically acceptable force field.
Gravitational waves and antennas
CERN. Geneva
2003-01-01
Gravitational waves and their detection represent today a hot topic, which promises to play a central role in astrophysics, cosmology and theoretical physics. Technological developments have enabled the construction of such sensitive detectors that the detection of gravitational radiation and the start of a new astronomy could become a reality during the next few years. This is expected to bring a revolution in our knowledge of the universe by allowing the observation of hiterto unseen phenomena such as coalescence of compact objects (neutron stars and black holes) fall of stars into supermassive black holes, stellar core collapses, big bang relics and the new and unexpected. In these lectures I give a brief overview of this challenging field of modern physics. Topics : Basic properties of gravitational radiation. Astrophysical sources. Principle of operation of detectors. Interferometers (both ground based and space-based), bars and spheres. Present status of the experiments, their recent results and their f...
Ohanian, Hans C
2013-01-01
The third edition of this classic textbook is a quantitative introduction for advanced undergraduates and graduate students. It gently guides students from Newton's gravitational theory to special relativity, and then to the relativistic theory of gravitation. General relativity is approached from several perspectives: as a theory constructed by analogy with Maxwell's electrodynamics, as a relativistic generalization of Newton's theory, and as a theory of curved spacetime. The authors provide a concise overview of the important concepts and formulas, coupled with the experimental results underpinning the latest research in the field. Numerous exercises in Newtonian gravitational theory and Maxwell's equations help students master essential concepts for advanced work in general relativity, while detailed spacetime diagrams encourage them to think in terms of four-dimensional geometry. Featuring comprehensive reviews of recent experimental and observational data, the text concludes with chapters on cosmology an...
Axial gravitational waves in FLRW cosmology and memory effects
Kulczycki, Wojciech; Malec, Edward
2017-09-01
We show initial data for gravitational axial waves that are twice differentiable but that are not C2. They generate wave pulses that interact with matter in the radiation cosmological era. This forces the radiation matter to rotate. This rotation is permanent—it persists after the passage of the gravitational pulse. The observed inhomogeneities of the cosmic microwave background radiation put a bound onto discontinuities of superhorizon metric perturbations. We explicitly show that a class of smooth initial metrics that are at least C2 gives rise to gravitational wave pulses that do not interact with the background during the radiation epoch.
Kelly, Bernard J.
2010-01-01
Einstein's General Theory of Relativity is our best classical description of gravity, and informs modern astronomy and astrophysics at all scales: stellar, galactic, and cosmological. Among its surprising predictions is the existence of gravitational waves -- ripples in space-time that carry energy and momentum away from strongly interacting gravitating sources. In my talk, I will give an overview of the properties of this radiation, recent breakthroughs in computational physics allowing us to calculate the waveforms from galactic mergers, and the prospect of direct observation with interferometric detectors such as LIGO and LISA.
Supersymmetry and gravitational duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Argurio, Riccardo; Dehouck, Francois; Houart, Laurent
2009-01-01
We study how the supersymmetry algebra copes with gravitational duality. As a playground, we consider a charged Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino(NUT) solution of D=4, N=2 supergravity. We find explicitly its Killing spinors, and the projection they obey provides evidence that the dual magnetic momenta necessarily have to appear in the supersymmetry algebra. The existence of such a modification is further supported using an approach based on the Nester form. In the process, we find new expressions for the dual magnetic momenta, including the NUT charge. The same expressions are then rederived using gravitational duality.
Stereo Imaging Velocimetry of Mixing Driven by Buoyancy Induced Flow Fields
Duval, W. M. B.; Jacqmin, D.; Bomani, B. M.; Alexander, I. J.; Kassemi, M.; Batur, C.; Tryggvason, B. V.; Lyubimov, D. V.; Lyubimova, T. P.
2000-01-01
Mixing of two fluids generated by steady and particularly g-jitter acceleration is fundamental towards the understanding of transport phenomena in a microgravity environment. We propose to carry out flight and ground-based experiments to quantify flow fields due to g-jitter type of accelerations using Stereo Imaging Velocimetry (SIV), and measure the concentration field using laser fluorescence. The understanding of the effects of g-jitter on transport phenomena is of great practical interest to the microgravity community and impacts the design of experiments for the Space Shuttle as well as the International Space Station. The aim of our proposed research is to provide quantitative data to the community on the effects of g-jitter on flow fields due to mixing induced by buoyancy forces. The fundamental phenomenon of mixing occurs in a broad range of materials processing encompassing the growth of opto-electronic materials and semiconductors, (by directional freezing and physical vapor transport), to solution and protein crystal growth. In materials processing of these systems, crystal homogeneity, which is affected by the solutal field distribution, is one of the major issues. The understanding of fluid mixing driven by buoyancy forces, besides its importance as a topic in fundamental science, can contribute towards the understanding of how solutal fields behave under various body forces. The body forces of interest are steady acceleration and g-jitter acceleration as in a Space Shuttle environment or the International Space Station. Since control of the body force is important, the flight experiment will be carried out on a tunable microgravity vibration isolation mount, which will permit us to precisely input the desired forcing function to simulate a range of body forces. To that end, we propose to design a flight experiment that can only be carried out under microgravity conditions to fully exploit the effects of various body forces on fluid mixing. Recent
Dark Energy and Dark Matter Phenomena and the Universe with Variable Gravitational Mass
Gorkavyi, N.
2005-12-01
Generation of high-frequency gravitational waves near the singularity is a crucial factor for understanding the origin and dynamics of the Universe. Emission of gravitational waves increases with a decreasing radius of collapsed object much faster than a gravitational force itself. Gravitationally unstable matter of the Universe will be completely converted into gravitational radiation during the Big Crunch. According to Misner, Thorne & Wheeler (Gravitation, 1977, p.959) plane gravitational waves have not gravitational mass or spacetime is flat everywhere outside the pulse. We can propose that the gravitational mass of the Universe is vanished after converting matter into gravitational waves. This hypothesis in the framework of Einstein's theory of gravitation can solve the problem of singularity without contradiction with theorems by Penrose-Hawking; explain the acceleration of our Universe as the effect of a retarded gravitational potential (Gorkavyi, BAAS, 2003, 35, #3) and the low quadrupole in fluctuations in CMB as result of blue-shift effect in a gravitational field. Proposed solution of dark energy problem free from coincidence problems. The hypothesis keeps best parts of Big Bang theory and inflation model without any unknown physical fields or new dimensions. According to this hypothesis a relic sea of high-frequency gravitational radiation in our Universe can be very dense. Interaction of relic gravitational waves with gravitational fields of galaxies and stars can create an additional dynamical effects like pressure of relic radiation that proportional to gravitational potential GM/(Rc2). This effect can be responsible for dark matter phenomena in galaxies and the Pioneer acceleration in the solar system (Gorkavyi, BAAS, 2005, 37, #2).
Characteristics of Buoyancy Driven Natural Ventilation through Horizontal Openings
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Li, Zhigang
through horizontal openings. Two cases of full-scale measurements of buoyancy driven natural ventilation through horizontal openings are performed: one horizontal opening and one horizontal opening combined with one vertical opening. For the case of one horizontal opening, the measurements are made....... Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) are used to study these two air flow cases. The air flow rate and air flow pattern are predicted and compared with the full-scale measurements. The measurement data are used to compare two CFD models: standard k- ε model and large eddy simulation (LES) model. The cases...... transient, unstable and complex, and the air flow rates oscillate with time. Correlations between the Froude number Fr and the opening ratio L/D are obtained, which is reasonable agreement with Epstein's formula derived from brine-water measurements, but the obtained Fr values show considerable deviations...
Buoyancy-driven mixing of fluids in a confined geometry
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hallez, Y.
2007-12-01
The present work based on Direct Numerical Simulations is devoted to the study of mixing between two miscible fluids of different densities. The movement of these fluids is induced by buoyancy. Three geometries are considered: a cylindrical tube, a square channel and a plane two-dimensional flow. For cylindrical tubes, the results of numerical simulations fully confirm previous experimental findings by Seon et al., especially regarding the existence of three different flow regimes, depending on the tilt angle. The comparison of the various geometries shows that tridimensional flows in tubes or channels are similar, whereas the two-dimensional model fails to give reliable information about real 3D flows, either from a quantitative point of view or for a phenomenological understanding. A peculiar attention is put on a joint analysis of the concentration and vorticity fields and allows us to explain several subtle aspects of the mixing dynamics. (author)
Einstein-Rosen gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Astefanoaei, Iordana; Maftei, Gh.
2001-01-01
In this paper we analyse the behaviour of the gravitational waves in the approximation of the far matter fields, considering the indirect interaction between the matter sources and the gravitational field, in a cosmological model based on the Einstein-Rosen solution, Because the properties of the gravitational waves obtained as the solutions of Einstein fields equations (the gravitational field equations) are most obvious in the weak gravitational fields we consider here, the gravitational field in the linear approximation. Using the Newman-Penrose formalism, we calculate in the null-tetradic base (e a ), the spin coefficients, the directional derivates and the tetradic components of Ricci and Weyl tensors. From the Einstein field equations we obtained the solution for b(z, t) what described the behaviour of gravitational wave in Einstein-Rosen Universe and in the particular case, when t → ∞, p(z, t) leads us to the primordial gravitational waves in the Einstein-Rosen Universe. (authors)
Gravitational Waves: The Evidence Mounts
Wick, Gerald L.
1970-01-01
Reviews the work of Weber and his colleagues in their attempts at detecting extraterrestial gravitational waves. Coincidence events recorded by special detectors provide the evidence for the existence of gravitational waves. Bibliography. (LC)
Buoyancy differences among two deepwater ciscoes from the Great Lakes and their putative ancestor
Krause, A.E.; Eshenroder, R.L.; Begnoche, L.J.
2002-01-01
We analyzed buoyancy in two deepwater ciscoes, Coregonus hoyi and C. kiyi, and in C. artedi, their putative ancestor, and also analyzed how variations in fish weight, water content, and lipid content affected buoyancy. Buoyancy was significantly different among the three species (p < 0.0001). Estimates of percent buoyancy (neutral buoyancy = 0.0%) were: kiyi, 3.8%; hoyi, 4.7%; and artedi, 5.7%. Buoyancy did not change with fish weight alone (p = 0.38). Fish weight was negatively related to water content for all three species (p = 0.037). Lipid content was not significantly different between hoyi and kiyi, but artedi had significantly fewer lipids than hoyi and kiyi (p < 0.10). When artedi was removed from the analysis, fish weight and lipids accounted for 48% of the variation in buoyancy (p = 0.003), fatter hoyi were less dense than leaner hoyi, but fatter and leaner kiyi were no different in density. Our findings provide additional evidence that buoyancy regulation was a speciating mechanism in deepwater ciscoes and that kiyi is more specialized than hoyi for diel-vertical migration in deep water.
Research and development at the Marshall Space Flight Center Neutral Buoyancy Simulator
Kulpa, Vygantas P.
1987-01-01
The Neutral Buoyancy Simulator (NBS), a facility designed to imitate zero-gravity conditions, was used to test the Experimental Assembly of Structures in Extravehicular Activity (EASE) and the Assembly Concept for Construction of Erectable Space Structures (ACCESS). Neutral Buoyancy Simulator applications and operations; early space structure research; development of the EASE/ACCESS experiments; and improvement of NBS simulation are summarized.
40 CFR 1065.690 - Buoyancy correction for PM sample media.
2010-07-01
... mass, use a sample media density of 920 kg/m3. (3) For PTFE membrane (film) media with an integral... media. 1065.690 Section 1065.690 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Buoyancy correction for PM sample media. (a) General. Correct PM sample media for their buoyancy in air if...
Gravitation radiation observations
Glass, E. N.
2017-01-01
The notion of gravitational radiation begins with electromagnetic radiation. In 1887 Heinrich Hertz, working in one room, generated and received electromagnetic radiation. Maxwell's equations describe the electromagnetic field. The quanta of electromagnetic radiation are spin 1 photons. They are fundamental to atomic physics and quantum electrodynamics.
Alternative equations of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinto Neto, N.
1983-01-01
It is shown, trough a new formalism, that the quantum fluctuation effects of the gravitational field in Einstein's equations are analogs to the effects of a continuum medium in Maxwell's Electrodynamics. Following, a real example of the applications of these equations is studied. Qunatum fluctuations effects as perturbation sources in Minkowski and Friedmann Universes are examined. (L.C.) [pt
Glitches and gravitational waves
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
A M Srivastava
2017-10-09
Oct 9, 2017 ... We also discuss gravitational wave production due to rapidly changing ... efficient source of energy loss during the cooling of the neutron star. ..... [3] U S Gupta, R K Mohapatra, A M Srivastava and V K. Tiwari, Phys. Rev. D 82 ...
Extragalactic Gravitational Collapse
Rees, Martin J.
After some introductory "numerology", routes towards black hole formation are briefly reviewed; some properties of black holes relevant to theories for active galactic nuclei are then described. Applications are considered to specific models for energy generation and the production of relativistic beams. The paper concludes with a discussion of extragalactic sources of gravitational waves.
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Keywords. General relativity; gravitational waves; astrophysics; interferometry. Author Affiliations. P Ajith1 K G Arun2. LIGO Laboratory and Theoretical Astrophysics California Institute of Technology MS 18-34, Pasadena CA 91125, USA. Chennai Mathematical Institute Plot H1, SIPCOT IT Park Siruseri, Padur Post Chennai ...
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kikkawa, Keiji; Nakanishi, Noboru; Nariai, Hidekazu
1983-01-01
These proceedings contain the articles presented at the named symposium. They deal with geometrical aspects of gauge theory and gravitation, special problems in gauge theories, quantum field theory in curved space-time, quantum gravity, supersymmetry including supergravity, and grand unification. See hints under the relevant topics. (HSI)
Neutral buoyancy is optimal to minimize the cost of transport in horizontally swimming seals.
Sato, Katsufumi; Aoki, Kagari; Watanabe, Yuuki Y; Miller, Patrick J O
2013-01-01
Flying and terrestrial animals should spend energy to move while supporting their weight against gravity. On the other hand, supported by buoyancy, aquatic animals can minimize the energy cost for supporting their body weight and neutral buoyancy has been considered advantageous for aquatic animals. However, some studies suggested that aquatic animals might use non-neutral buoyancy for gliding and thereby save energy cost for locomotion. We manipulated the body density of seals using detachable weights and floats, and compared stroke efforts of horizontally swimming seals under natural conditions using animal-borne recorders. The results indicated that seals had smaller stroke efforts to swim a given speed when they were closer to neutral buoyancy. We conclude that neutral buoyancy is likely the best body density to minimize the cost of transport in horizontal swimming by seals.
Gravitational Bohr’s model with Newton’s and Weber’s potentials
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Tiandho, Yuant, E-mail: yuanttiandho@gmail.com; Triyanta, E-mail: triyanta@fi.itb.ac.id [Theoretical High Energy Physics and Instrumentation Research Division Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, Institut Teknologi Bandung, Jl. Ganesha No. 10 Bandung 40132 (Indonesia)
2015-09-30
Similarity between Newtonian gravitational force and Coulomb’s force leads one to define gravitational electric and magnetic fields or gravito-electromagnetic fields. Also, one may define a gravitational Bohr’s theory in analogy with the electromagnetic Bohr’s theory for which the latter is quite successful in explaining some properties of hydrogen atom. Unlike to the Coulomb’s force, the Newton‘s force is believed to be an approximated theory of gravity as it is unable to explain the Mercury’s orbit. This paper discusses the gravitational Bohr’s theory by taking into account the Newton’s potential and Weber’s potential; the later is a modified Newton’s gravitational potential that conforms, to some degrees, to the anomaly of the Mercury’s orbit.
Investigations of Galaxy Clusters Using Gravitational Lensing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiesner, Matthew P. [Northern Illinois Univ., DeKalb, IL (United States)
2014-08-01
In this dissertation, we discuss the properties of galaxy clusters that have been determined using strong and weak gravitational lensing. A galaxy cluster is a collection of galaxies that are bound together by the force of gravity, while gravitational lensing is the bending of light by gravity. Strong lensing is the formation of arcs or rings of light surrounding clusters and weak lensing is a change in the apparent shapes of many galaxies. In this work we examine the properties of several samples of galaxy clusters using gravitational lensing. In Chapter 1 we introduce astrophysical theory of galaxy clusters and gravitational lensing. In Chapter 2 we examine evidence from our data that galaxy clusters are more concentrated than cosmology would predict. In Chapter 3 we investigate whether our assumptions about the number of galaxies in our clusters was valid by examining new data. In Chapter 4 we describe a determination of a relationship between mass and number of galaxies in a cluster at higher redshift than has been found before. In Chapter 5 we describe a model of the mass distribution in one of the ten lensing systems discovered by our group at Fermilab. Finally in Chapter 6 we summarize our conclusions.
Measuring gravitational effects on antimatter in space
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Piacentino Giovanni Maria
2017-01-01
Full Text Available A direct measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter has never been performed to date. Recently, such an experiment has been proposed, using antihydrogen with an atom interferometer and an antihydrogen confinament has been realized at CERN. In alternative we propose an experimental test of the gravitational interaction with antimatter by measuring the branching fraction of the CP violating decay of KL in space. In fact, even if the theoretical Standard Model explains the CPV with the presence of pure phase in the KMC Kobaiashi-Maskava-Cabibbo matrix, ample room is left for contributions by other interactions and forces to generate CPV in the mixing of the neutral K and B mesons. Gravitation is a good candidate and we show that at the altitude of the International Space Station, gravitational effects may change the level of CP violation such that a 5 sigma discrimination may be obtained by collecting the KL produced by the cosmic proton flux within a few years.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Favre, E.
1997-09-26
coupled buoyancy and thermo-capillary convection lead to a convective motion of the interface liquid/gas which drastically changes the heat and mass transfer across the liquid layer. Two experiments were considered, depending on the fluid: oil or mercury. The liquid is set in a cooled cylindrical vessel, and heated by a heat flux across the center of the free surface. The basic flow, in the case of oil, is a torus. When the heat parameter increases, a stationary flow appears as petals or rays when the aspect ratio. The lateral confinement selects the azimuthal wavelength. In the case of petals-like flow, a sub-critical Hopf bifurcation is underlined. The turbulence is found to be `weak`, even for the largest values of the Marangoni number (Ma = 1.3 10{sup 5}). In the case of mercury, the thermo-capillary effect is reduced to zero to impurities at the surface which have special trajectories we describe and compare to a simpler experiment. Only the buoyancy forces induce a unstationary, weakly turbulent flow as soon as the heating power exceeds 4W (Ra = 4.5 10{sup 3}, calculated with h = 1 mm). The past part concerns the analysis of the effect on the flow of the boundary conditions, the geometry, the Prandtl number and the buoyancy force with the help of the literature. Results concerning heat transfer, in particular the exponent of the law Nusselt number vs. heating power, were compared with available data. (author) 115 refs.
Tropic responses of Phycomyces sporangiophores to gravitational and centrifugal stimuli.
DENNISON, D S
1961-09-01
A low-speed centrifuge was used to study the tropic responses of Phycomyces sporangiophores in darkness to the stimulus of combined gravitational and centrifugal forces. If this stimulus is constant the response is a relatively slow tropic reaction, which persists for up to 12 hours. The response is accelerated by increasing the magnitude of the gravitational-centrifugal force. A wholly different tropic response, the transient response, is elicited by an abrupt change in the gravitational-centrifugal stimulus. The transient response has a duration of only about 6 min. but is characterized by a high bending speed (about 5 degrees /min.). An analysis of the distribution of the transient response along the growing zone shows that the active phase of the response has a distribution similar to that of the light sensitivity for the light-growth and phototropic responses. Experiments in which sporangiophores are centrifuged in an inert dense fluid indicate that the sensory mechanism of the transient response is closely related to the physical deformation of the growing zone caused by the action of the gravitational-centrifugal force on the sporangiophore as a whole. However, the response to a steady gravitational-centrifugal force is most likely not connected with this deformation, but is probably triggered by the shifting of regions or particles of differing density relative to one another inside the cell.
Projective relativity, cosmology and gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Arcidiacono, G.
1986-01-01
This book describes the latest applications of projective geometry to cosmology and gravitation. The contents of the book are; the Poincare group and Special Relativity, the thermodynamics and electromagnetism, general relativity, gravitation and cosmology, group theory and models of universe, the special projective relativity, the Fantappie group and Big-Bang cosmology, a new cosmological projective mechanics, the plasma physics and cosmology, the projective magnetohydrodynamics field, projective relativity and waves propagation, the generalizations of the gravitational field, the general projective relativity, the projective gravitational field, the De Sitter Universe and quantum physics, the conformal relativity and Newton gravitation
Sedimentation and gravitational instability of Escherichia coli Suspension
Salin, Dominique; Douarche, Carine
2017-11-01
The successive runs and tumbles of Escherichia coli bacteria provide an active matter suspension of rod-like particles with a large swimming, Brownian like, diffusion. As opposed to inactive elongated particles, this diffusion prevents clustering of the particles and hence instability in the gravity field. We measure the time dependent E . coli concentration profile during their sedimentation. After some hours, due to the dioxygen consumption, a motile / non-motile front forms leading to a Rayleigh-Taylor type gravitational instability. Analysing both sedimentation and instability in the framework of active particle suspensions, we can measure the relevant bacteria hydrodynamic characteristics such as its single particle sedimentation velocity and its hindrance volume. Comparing these quantities to the ones of equivalent passive particles (ellipsoid, rod) we tentatively infer the effective shape and size of the bacteria involved in its buoyancy induced advection and diffusion. Laboratoire FAST University Paris Saclay France.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aich Walid
2018-01-01
Full Text Available A computational analysis of the natural ventilation process and entropy generation in 3-D prismatic greenhouse was performed using CFD. The aim of the study is to investigate how buoyancy forces influence air-flow and temperature patterns inside the greenhouse having lower level opening in its right heated façade and also upper level opening near the roof top in the opposite cooled façade. The bot-tom and all other walls are assumed to be perfect thermal insulators. Rayleigh number is the main parameter which changes from 103 to 106 and Prandtl number is fixed at Pr = 0.71. Results are reported in terms of particles trajectories, iso-surfaces of temperature, mean Nusselt number, and entropy generation. It has been found that the flow structure is sensitive to the value of Rayleigh number and that heat transfer increases with increasing this parameter. Also, it have been noticed that, using asymmetric opening positions improve the natural ventilation and facilitate the occurrence of buoyancy induced upward cross air-flow (low-level supply and upper-level extraction inside the greenhouse.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Christoph Hochenauer
2014-08-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to investigate state of the art approaches and their accuracy to compute heat transfer including radiation inside a closed cavity whereas buoyancy is the only driving force. This research is the first step of an all-embracing study dealing with underhood airflow and thermal management of vehicles. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD simulation results of buoyancy driven flow inside a simplified engine compartment are compared to experimentally gained values. The test rig imitates idle condition without any working fan. Thus, the airflow is only driven by natural convection. A conventional method used for these applications is to compute the convective heat transfer coefficient and air temperature using CFD and calculate the wall temperature separately by performing a thermal analysis. The final solution results from coupling two different software tools. In this paper thermal conditions inside the enclosure are computed by the use of CFD only. The impact of the turbulence model as well as the results of various radiation models are analyzed and compared to the experimental data.
Global gravitational anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Witten, E.
1985-01-01
A general formula for global gauge and gravitational anomalies is derived. It is used to show that the anomaly free supergravity and superstring theories in ten dimensions are all free of global anomalies that might have ruined their consistency. However, it is shown that global anomalies lead to some restrictions on allowed compactifications of these theories. For example, in the case of O(32) superstring theory, it is shown that a global anomaly related to π 7 (O(32)) leads to a Dirac-like quantization condition for the field strength of the antisymmetric tensor field. Related to global anomalies is the question of the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field. It is argued that the relevant gravitational instantons are exotic spheres. It is shown that the number of fermion zero modes in an instanton field is always even in ten dimensional supergravity. (orig.)
Gravitational properties of antimatter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, T.; Nieto, M.M.
1985-01-01
Quantum gravity is at the forefront of modern particle physics, yet there are no direct tests, for antimatter, of even the principle of equivalence. We note that modern descriptions of gravity, such as fibre bundles and higher dimensional spacetimes, allow violations of the commonly stated form of the principle of equivalence, and of CPT. We review both indirect arguments and experimental tests of the expected gravitational properties of CPT-conjugate states. We conclude that a direct experimental test of the gravitational properties of antimatter, at the 1% (or better) level, would be of great value. We identify some experimental reasons which make the antiproton a prime candidate for this test, and we strongly urge that such an experiment be done at LEAR. 21 references
Gravitation and electromagnetism
Apsel, D
1979-01-01
Through an examination of the Bohm-Aharonov experiment, a new theory of gravitation and electromagnetism is proposed. The fundamental assumption of the theory is that the motion of a particle in a combination of gravitational and electromagnetic fields is determined from a variational principle of the form delta integral /sub A//sup B /d tau =0. The form of the physical time is determined from an examination of the Maxwell-Einstein action function. The field and motion equations are formally identical to those of Maxwell-Einstein theory. The theory predicts that even in a field-free region of space, electromagnetic potentials can alter the phase of a wave function and the lifetime of a charged particle. The phase alteration has been observed in the Bohm-Aharonov experiment. There is an indication that the lifetime alteration has shown up in a recent CERN storage ring experiment. Experimental tests are proposed. (11 refs).
Kopczyński, W.; Trautman, A.
This book is a revised translation of the Polish original "Czasoprzestrzeń i grawitacja", Warszawa (Poland), Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe, 1984. Ideas about space and time are at the root of one's understanding of nature, both at the intuitive level of everyday experience and in the framework of sophisticated physical theories. These ideas have led to the development of geometry and its applications to physics. The contemporary physical theory of space and time, including its extention to the phenomena of gravitation, is Einstein's theory of relativity. The book is a short introduction to this theory. A great deal of emphasis is given to the geometrical aspects of relativity theory and its comparison with the Newtonian view of the world. There are short chapters on the origins of Einstein's theory, gravitational waves, cosmology, spinors and the Einstein-Cartan theory.
Gravitational radiation reaction in the NUT-de Sitter spacetime
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ahmed, M.
1988-07-01
The equations for gravitational perturbation in the NUT-de Sitter spacetime are obtained. Using these equations, some preliminary calculations have been made with a view to constructing the retarded Green functions. Then with the help of the retarded Green functions, the radiative Green functions have been constructed. With the aid of these radiative Green functions, the reaction force on a particle is computed and this reaction force is then shown to account correctly for the energy and the angular momentum carried away by gravitational radiation to infinity and to the horizon. (author). 9 refs
Neutrinos from gravitational collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mayle, R.; Wilson, J.R.; Schramm, D.N.
1986-05-01
Detailed calculations are made of the neutrino spectra emitted during gravitational collapse events (Type II supernovae). Those aspects of the neutrino signal which are relatively independent of the collapse model and those aspects which are sensitive to model details are discussed. The easier-to-detect high energy tail of the emitted neutrinos has been calculated using the Boltzmann equation which is compared with the result of the traditional multi-group flux limited diffusion calculations. 8 figs., 28 refs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Goldoni, R
1980-11-22
A bimetric theory of gravitation within a Machian framework is developed on the basis of considerations which are completely divorced from Newton's theory. The theory is assumed to hold in any conceivable cosmos and possesses the Machian properties of being singular in the absence of matter and of explicitly incorporating the idea that properties of space-time are determined not only by local matter, but also by the average distribution of cosmological matter.
Gravitation, Symmetry and Undergraduates
Jorgensen, Jamie
2001-04-01
This talk will discuss "Project Petrov" Which is designed to investigate gravitational fields with symmetry. Project Petrov represents a collaboration involving physicists, mathematicians as well as graduate and undergraduate math and physics students. An overview of Project Petrov will be given, with an emphasis on students' contributions, including software to classify and generate Lie algebras, to classify isometry groups, and to compute the isometry group of a given metric.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Penrose, R.
1986-01-01
The author's definition for the mass-momentum/angular momentum surrounded by a spacelike 2-surface with S/sup 2/ topology is presented. This definition is motivated by some ideas from twistor theory in relation to linearized gravitational theory. The status of this definition is examined in relation to many examples which have been worked out. The reason for introducing a slight modification of the original definition is also presented
General Relativity and Gravitation
Ehlers, J.; Murdin, P.
2000-11-01
The General Theory of Relativity (GR), created by Albert Einstein between 1907 and 1915, is a theory both of gravitation and of spacetime structure. It is based on the assumption that matter, via its energy-momentum, interacts with the metric of spacetime, which is considered (in contrast to Newtonian physics and SPECIAL RELATIVITY) as a dynamical field having degrees of freedom of its own (GRAVI...
Fivebrane gravitational anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Becker, Katrin; Becker, Melanie
2000-01-01
Freed, Harvey, Minasian and Moore (FHMM) have proposed a mechanism to cancel the gravitational anomaly of the M-theory fivebrane coming from diffeomorphisms acting on the normal bundle. This procedure is based on a modification of the conventional M-theory Chern-Simons term. We apply the FHMM mechanism in the ten-dimensional type IIA theory. We then analyze the relation to the anomaly cancellation mechanism for the type IIA fivebrane proposed by Witten
Inherent work suit buoyancy distribution: effects on lifejacket self-righting performance.
Barwood, Martin J; Long, Geoffrey M; Lunt, Heather; Tipton, Michael J
2014-09-01
Accidental immersion in cold water is an occupational risk. Work suits and life jackets (LJ) should work effectively in combination to keep the airway clear of the water (freeboard) and enable self-righting. We hypothesized that inherent buoyancy, in the suit or LJ, would be beneficial for enabling freeboard, but its distribution may influence LJ self-righting. Six participants consented to complete nine immersions. Suits and LJ tested were: flotation suit (FLOAT; 85 N inherent buoyancy); oilskins 1 (OS-1) and 2 (OS-2), both with no inherent buoyancy; LJs (inherent buoyancy/buoyancy after inflation/total buoyancy), LJ-1 50/150/200 N, LJ-2 0/290/290 N, LJ-3 80/190/270 N. Once dressed, the subject entered an immersion pool where uninflated freeboard, self-righting performance, and inflated freeboard were measured. Data were compared using Friedman's test to the 0.05 alpha level. All suits and LJs enabled uninflated and inflated freeboard, but differences were seen between the suits and LJs. Self-righting was achieved on 43 of 54 occasions, irrespective of suit or LJ. On all occasions that self-righting was not achieved, this occurred in an LJ that included inherent buoyancy (11/54 occasions). Of these 11 failures, 8 occurred (73% of occasions) when the FLOAT suit was being worn. LJs that included inherent buoyancy, that are certified as effective on their own, worked less effectively from the perspective of self-righting in combination with a work suit that also included inherent buoyancy. Equipment that is approved for use in the workplace should be tested in combination to ensure adequate performance in an emergency scenario.
Nondissipative gravitational turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gurevich, A.V.; Zybin, K.P.
1988-01-01
The nonlinear stage of development of the Jeans instability in a cold nondissipative gravitating gas is considered. It is shown that for a time exceeding the Jeans time a nondissipative gravitational singularity (NGS) is formed in the vicinity of a local density maximum. The NGS is a stationary dynamic structure, the basis of which is the singularity. The density of the gas at the center of the NGS (for r → 0) tends to infinity, and the field potential and the mean velocity of the trapped gas, possess a power singularity. The turbulent state arises as the result of development of the instability in the case of an irregular initial density distribution. It is an hierarchic structure consisting of nested moving NGS of various sizes, the NGS of smaller dimensions being trapped in the field of a NGS of larger dimensions. The scaling relations for each given NGS in this case hold for both the gas density and density of smaller size trapped NGS. A brief comparison with the observational data shows that the real hierarchic structure of the Universe ranging from scales pertaining to spherical stellar clusters up to those of rich galaxy clusters is apparently a developed gravitational turbulence
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lin, H.C.; Kasza, K.E.
1984-01-01
The thermal-hydraulic behavior of an LMFBR system under various types of plant transients is usually studied using one-dimensional (1-D) flow and energy transport models of the system components. Many of the transient events involve the change from a high to a low flow with an accompanying change in temperature of the fluid passing through the components which can be conductive to significant thermal bouyancy forces. Thermal bouyancy can exert its influence on system dynamic energy transport predictions through alterations of flow and thermal distributions which in turn can influence decay heat removal, system-response time constants, heat transport between primary and secondary systems, and thermal energy rejection at the reactor heat sink, i.e., the steam generator. In this paper the results from a comparison of a 1-D model prediction and experimental data for vertical tube bundle overall thermal density head and outlet temperature under transient conditions causing varying degrees of thermal bouyancy are presented. These comparisons are being used to generate insight into how, when, and to what degree thermal buoyancy can cause departures from 1-D model predictions
Kurokawa, Hiroyuki; Tanigawa, Takayuki
2018-06-01
The ubiquity of super-Earths poses a problem for planet formation theory to explain how they avoided becoming gas giants. Rapid recycling of the envelope gas of planets embedded in a protoplanetary disc has been proposed to delay the cooling and following accretion of disc gas. We compare isothermal and non-isothermal 3D hydrodynamical simulations of the gas flow past a planet to investigate the influence on the feasibility of the recycling mechanism. Radiative cooling is implemented by using the β cooling model. We find that, in either case, gas enters the Bondi sphere at high latitudes and leaves through the midplane regions, or vice versa when disc gas rotates sub-Keplerian. However, in contrast to the isothermal case where the recycling flow reaches the deeper part of the envelope, the inflow is inhibited from reaching the deep envelope in the non-isothermal case. Once the atmosphere starts cooling, buoyant force prevents the high-entropy disc gas from intruding the low-entropy atmosphere. We suggest that the buoyancy barrier isolates the lower envelope from the recycling and allows further cooling, which may lead runaway gas accretion onto the core.
Buoyancy Induced Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow Inside a Prismatic Cavity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Aich, Walid; Omri, Ahmed; Ben Nasrallah, Sassi
2009-01-01
This paper deals with a numerical simulation of natural convection flows in a prismatic cavity. This configuration represents solar energy collectors, conventional attic spaces of greenhouses and buildings with pitched roofs. The third dimension of the cavity is considered long enough for the flow to be considered 2D. The base is submitted to a uniform heat flux, the two top inclined walls are symmetrically cooled and the two vertical walls are assumed to be perfect thermal insulators. The aim of the study is to examine the thermal exchange by natural convection and effects of buoyancy forces on flow structure. The study provides useful information on the flow structure sensitivity to the governing parameters, the Rayleigh number (Ra) and the aspect ratio of the cavity. The hydrodynamic and thermal fields, the local Nusselt number, the temperature profile at the bottom and at the center of the cavity are investigated for a large range of Ra. The effect of the aspect ratio is examined for different values of Ra. Based on the authors knowledge, no previous results on natural convection in this geometry exist
A new method for testing Newton's gravitational law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schurr, J.; Klein, N.; Meyer, H.; Piel, H.; Walesch, H.
1991-01-01
A new experimental method is reported for determining the gravitational force of a laboratory test mass on a Fabry-Perot microwave resonator. The resonator consists of two Fabry-Perot mirrors suspended as pendulums. Changes of 2·10 -11 m in the pendulum separation can be resolved as a shift of the resonance frequency of the resonator. This limit corresponds to an acceleration of 7·10 -11 m s -2 of one mirror with respect to the other. In a first experiment, the gravitational acceleration generated by a 125 kg test mass was measured as a function of distance in the range of 10 to 15 cm and tested Newton's gravitational law with an accuracy of 1%. No deviation is found. Furthermore, the gravitational constant G is determined with similar precision. (author) 5 refs., 2 figs
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nyambuya, Golden Gadzirayi
2010-01-01
This paper is part of a series on the Azimuthally Symmetric Theory of Gravitation (ASTG). This theory is built on Laplace-Poisson's well known equation and it has been shown that the ASTG is capable of explaining, from a purely classical physics standpoint, the precession of the perihelion of solar planets as a consequence of the azimuthal symmetry emerging from the spin of the Sun. This symmetry has and must have an influence on the emergent gravitational field. We show herein that the emergent equations from the ASTG, under some critical conditions determined by the spin, do possess repulsive gravitational fields in the polar regions of the gravitating body in question. This places the ASTG on an interesting pedestal to infer the origins of outflows as a repulsive gravitational phenomenon. Outflows are a ubiquitous phenomenon found in star forming systems and their true origin is a question yet to be settled. Given the current thinking on their origin, the direction that the present paper takes is nothing short of an asymptotic break from conventional wisdom; at the very least, it is a complete paradigm shift because gravitation is not at all associated with this process, but rather it is thought to be an all-attractive force that only tries to squash matter together onto a single point. Additionally, we show that the emergent Azimuthally Symmetric Gravitational Field from the ASTG strongly suggests a solution to the supposed Radiation Problem that is thought to be faced by massive stars in their process of formation. That is, at ∼ 8-10 M sun , radiation from the nascent star is expected to halt the accretion of matter. We show that in-falling material will fall onto the equatorial disk and from there, this material will be channeled onto the forming star via the equatorial plane, thus accretion of mass continues well past the value of ∼ 8-10 M sun , albeit via the disk. Along the equatorial plane, the net force (with the radiation force included) on any
Numerical modeling of buoyancy-driven turbulent flows in enclosures
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hsieh, K.J.; Lien, F.S.
2004-01-01
Modeling turbulent natural convection in enclosures with differentially heated vertical walls is numerically challenging, in particular, when low-Reynolds-number (low-Re) models are adopted. When the turbulence level in the core region of cavity is low, most low-Re models, particular those showing good performance for bypass transitional flows, tend to relaminarize the flow and, as a consequence, significantly underpredict the near-wall turbulence intensities and boundary-layer thickness. Another challenge associated with low-turbulence buoyancy-driven flows in enclosures is its inherent unsteadiness, which can pose convergence problems when a steady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation is solved. In the present study, an unsteady RANS approach in conjunction with the low-Re k-ε model of Lien and Leschziner [Int. J. Comput. Fluid Dyn. 12 (1999) 1] is initially adopted and the predicted flow field is found effectively relaminarized. To overcome this difficulty, likely caused by the low-Re functions in the ε-equation, the two-layer approach is attempted, in which ε is prescribed algebraically using the one-equation k-l model of Wolfshtein [Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer 12 (1969) 301]. The two-layer approach combined with a quadratic stress-strain relation gives overall the best performance in terms of mean velocities, temperature and turbulence quantities
Gravitational matter-antimatter asymmetry and four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry
Hsu, J. P.
1981-01-01
A formulation of gravity based on the maximum four-dimensional Yang-Mills gauge symmetry is studied. The theory predicts that the gravitational force inside matter (fermions) is different from that inside antimatter. This difference could lead to the cosmic separation of matter and antimatter in the evolution of the universe. Moreover, a new gravitational long-range spin-force between two fermions is predicted, in addition to the usual Newtonian force. The geometrical foundation of such a gravitational theory is the Riemann-Cartan geometry, in which there is a torsion. The results of the theory for weak fields are consistent with previous experiments.
Buoyancy induced convective flow in porous media with heat source
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hwang, I.T.
1978-01-01
An unbounded fluid layer in a porous medium with an internal heat source and uniformly heated from below is studied. The layer is in the gravitational field. Linear theory predicts that the disturbances of infinitesimal amplitude will start to grow when the Rayleigh number exceeds its critical value. These disturbances do not grow without limit; but by advecting heat and momentum, the disturbances alter their forms to achieve a finite amplitude. Just like infinitesimal amplitude disturbances the degeneracies of possible solutions persist for finite amplitude solutions. This study evaluates these various forms of solutions. The small parameter method of Poincare is used to treat the problem in successive order
On gravitational wave energy in Einstein gravitational theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Folomeshkin, V.N.; Vlasov, A.A.
1978-01-01
By the example of precise wave solutions for the Einstein equations it is shown that a standard commonly adopted formulation of energy-momentum problem with pseudotensors provides us either with a zero or sign-variable values for the energy of gravitational waves. It is shown that if in the Einstein gravitational theory a strict transition to the limits of weak fields is realised then the theory gives us an unambiguous zero result for weak gravitational waves. The well-known non-zero result arises due to incorrect transition to weak field approximation in the Einstein gravitation theory
Buoyancy effects in overcooling transients calculated for the NRC pressurized thermal shock study
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Theofanous, T.G.; Iyer, K.; Nourbakhsh, H.P.; Gherson, P.
1986-05-01
The thermal-hydraulic responses of three PWRs (Oconee, Calvert Cliffs, and H.B. Robinson), to postulated Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) scenarios, which were originally determined by RELAP5 and TRAC calculations, are being further developed here with regard to buoyancy/stratification effects. These three PWRs were the subject of the NRC PTS study, and the present results helped define the thermal-hydraulic conditions utilized in the fracture mechanics calculations carried out at ORNL. The computer program REMIX, which is based on the Regional Mixing Model (RMM), was the analytical tool employed, while Purdue's 1/2-Scale HPI Thermal Mixing facility provided the basis for experimental support. Important mixing and wall heat transfer regimes are delineated on the basis of these results. We conclude that stratification is important only in cases of complete loop stagnation and that mixed-convection effects are important for downcomer flow velocities below approx.0.25 m/s. The stratification is small in magnitude, however it is important in creating a recirculating flow pattern which activates the lower plenum, pump and loop seal volumes, to participate in the mixing process. This mixing process together with the heat input from the wall metal significantly impact the cooldown rates. Heat transfer in the plume region is dominated by forced convection. On the other hand, the presence of the Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) wall cladding and wall conduction significantly dampen the free convection effects in the low velocity, mixed-convection, regime. For the stagnant loop cases, all locations outside the plume region are included in this regime. In the presence of natural loop circulation and a uniformly distributed downcomer flow, the mixed convection regime is also expected, however, the forced convection regime can also be observed in highly asymmetric flow behavior
TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Quarterly, 2000-present, Buoyancy Flux
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has quarterly Buoyancy Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...
Buoyancy package for self-contained acoustic doppler current profiler mooring
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Venkatesan, R.; Krishnakumar, V.
A buoyancy package for self-contained Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler(SC-ADCP 1200 RD instruments USA) was designed and fabricated indigenously, for subsurface mooring in coastal waters. The system design is discussed. The design to keep SC...
TAO/TRITON, RAMA, and PIRATA Buoys, Monthly, 2000-present, Buoyancy Flux
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset has monthly Buoyancy Flux data from the TAO/TRITON (Pacific Ocean, https://www.pmel.noaa.gov/gtmba/ ), RAMA (Indian Ocean,...
Numerical and Experimental Study on Negative Buoyance Induced Vortices in N-Butane Jet Flames
Xiong, Yuan; Cha, Min; Chung, Suk-Ho
2015-01-01
Near nozzle flow field in flickering n-butane diffusion jet flames was investigated with a special focus on transient flow patterns of negative buoyance induced vortices. The flow structures were obtained through Mie scattering imaging with seed
Buoyancy Regulation and the Energetics of Diving in Dolphins Seals, Sea Lions and Sea Otters
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Costa, Daniel
1998-01-01
We examined swim speed and ascent descent rates in sea lions and elephant seals in order to make comparisons in their diving strategies and how these may be effected by different strategies of buoyancy regulation...
Quantum Emulation of Gravitational Waves.
Fernandez-Corbaton, Ivan; Cirio, Mauro; Büse, Alexander; Lamata, Lucas; Solano, Enrique; Molina-Terriza, Gabriel
2015-07-14
Gravitational waves, as predicted by Einstein's general relativity theory, appear as ripples in the fabric of spacetime traveling at the speed of light. We prove that the propagation of small amplitude gravitational waves in a curved spacetime is equivalent to the propagation of a subspace of electromagnetic states. We use this result to propose the use of entangled photons to emulate the evolution of gravitational waves in curved spacetimes by means of experimental electromagnetic setups featuring metamaterials.
Probing Positron Gravitation at HERA
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gharibyan, Vahagn
2015-07-01
An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Here I develop a method based on high energy Compton scattering to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a positron's 1.3(0.2)% weaker coupling to the gravitational field relative to an electron.
Probing Positron Gravitation at HERA
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Gharibyan, Vahagn
2015-07-15
An equality of particle and antiparticle gravitational interactions holds in general relativity and is supported by indirect observations. Here I develop a method based on high energy Compton scattering to measure the gravitational interaction of accelerated charged particles. Within that formalism the Compton spectra measured at HERA rule out the positron's anti-gravity and hint for a positron's 1.3(0.2)% weaker coupling to the gravitational field relative to an electron.
Kong, X.; Delshad, M.; Wheeler, M. F.
2012-01-01
The effectiveness of CO2 storage in the saline aquifers is governed by the interplay of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. Recent experimental study reveals the impact of pressure, temperature, and salinity on interfacial tension (IFT) between CO2 and brine. The dependence of CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure on pressure (IFT) is also clearly evident in published experimental results. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that control the migration and trapping of CO2 in subsurface is crucial to design future storage projects that warrant long-term and safe containment. Simulation studies ignoring the buoyancy and also variation in interfacial tension and the effect on the petrophysical properties such as trapped CO2 saturations, relative permeability, and capillary pressure have a poor chance of making accurate predictions of CO2 injectivity and plume migration. We have developed and implemented a general relative permeability model that combines effects of pressure gradient, buoyancy, and IFT in an equation of state (EOS) compositional and parallel simulator. The significance of IFT variations on CO2 migration and trapping is assessed.
Kong, X.
2012-11-03
The effectiveness of CO2 storage in the saline aquifers is governed by the interplay of capillary, viscous, and buoyancy forces. Recent experimental study reveals the impact of pressure, temperature, and salinity on interfacial tension (IFT) between CO2 and brine. The dependence of CO2-brine relative permeability and capillary pressure on pressure (IFT) is also clearly evident in published experimental results. Improved understanding of the mechanisms that control the migration and trapping of CO2 in subsurface is crucial to design future storage projects that warrant long-term and safe containment. Simulation studies ignoring the buoyancy and also variation in interfacial tension and the effect on the petrophysical properties such as trapped CO2 saturations, relative permeability, and capillary pressure have a poor chance of making accurate predictions of CO2 injectivity and plume migration. We have developed and implemented a general relative permeability model that combines effects of pressure gradient, buoyancy, and IFT in an equation of state (EOS) compositional and parallel simulator. The significance of IFT variations on CO2 migration and trapping is assessed.
The equivalence principle and the gravitational constant in experimental relativity
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Spallicci, A.D.A.M.
1988-01-01
Fischbach's analysis of the Eotvos experiment, showing an embedded fifth force, has stressed the importance of further tests of the Equivalence Principle (EP). From Galilei and Newton, the EP played the role of a postulate for all gravitational physics and mechanics (weak EP), until Einstein, who extended the validity of the EP to all physics (strong EP). After Fischbach's publication on the fifth force, several experiments have been performed or simply proposed to test the WEP. They are concerned with possible gravitational potential anomalies, depending upon distances or matter composition. While the low level of accuracy with which the gravitational constant G is known has been recognized, experiments have been proposed to test G in the range from few cm until 200 m. This paper highlights the different features of the proposed space experiments. Possible implications on the metric formalism for objects in low potential and slow motion are briefly indicated
Quantum phenomena in gravitational field
Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A. D.; Voronin, A. Yu.; Voronin, V. V.
2011-10-01
The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold antihydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of antihydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eötvös-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology.
Quantum phenomena in gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bourdel, Th.; Doser, M.; Ernest, A.D.; Voronin, A.Y.; Voronin, V.V.
2010-01-01
The subjects presented here are very different. Their common feature is that they all involve quantum phenomena in a gravitational field: gravitational quantum states of ultracold anti-hydrogen above a material surface and measuring a gravitational interaction of anti-hydrogen in AEGIS, a quantum trampoline for ultracold atoms, and a hypothesis on naturally occurring gravitational quantum states, an Eoetvoes-type experiment with cold neutrons and others. Considering them together, however, we could learn that they have many common points both in physics and in methodology. (authors)
Gravitational Physics Research
Wu, S. T.
2000-01-01
Gravitational physics research at ISPAE is connected with NASA's Relativity Mission (Gravity Probe B (GP-B)) which will perform a test of Einstein's General Relativity Theory. GP-B will measure the geodetic and motional effect predicted by General Relativity Theory with extremely stable and sensitive gyroscopes in an earth orbiting satellite. Both effects cause a very small precession of the gyroscope spin axis. The goal of the GP-B experiment is the measurement of the gyroscope precession with very high precision. GP-B is being developed by a team at Stanford University and is scheduled for launch in the year 2001. The related UAH research is a collaboration with Stanford University and MSFC. This research is focussed primarily on the error analysis and data reduction methods of the experiment but includes other topics concerned with experiment systems and their performance affecting the science measurements. The hydrogen maser is the most accurate and stable clock available. It will be used in future gravitational physics missions to measure relativistic effects such as the second order Doppler effect. The HMC experiment, currently under development at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO), will test the performance and capability of the hydrogen maser clock for gravitational physics measurements. UAH in collaboration with the SAO science team will study methods to evaluate the behavior and performance of the HMC. The GP-B data analysis developed by the Stanford group involves complicated mathematical operations. This situation led to the idea to investigate alternate and possibly simpler mathematical procedures to extract the GP-B measurements form the data stream. Comparison of different methods would increase the confidence in the selected scheme.
Buoyancy increase and drag-reduction through a simple superhydrophobic coating
Hwang, G. B.; Patir, A.; Page, K.; Lu, Y.; Allan, E.; Parkin, I. P.
2017-01-01
A superhydrophobic paint was fabricated using 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyltriethoxysilane (PFOTES), TiO2 nanoparticles and ethanol. The paint has potential for aquatic application of a superhydrophobic coating as it induces increased buoyancy and drag reduction. Buoyance testing showed that the reduction of surface energy by superhydrophobic coating made it feasible that glass, a high density material, was supported by the surface tension of water. In a miniature boat sailing test, it was shown...
THE INFLUENCE OF BUOYANCY ON FLOW AND POLLUTANT DISPERSION IN STREET CANYONS
Buccolieri, Riccardo; Pulvirenti, Beatrice; Di Sabatino, Silvana; Britter, Rex
2008-01-01
Abstract: In this paper, the effect of buoyancy on flow and pollutant dispersion within street canyons is studied by means of computational fluid dynamics simulations. We consider a neutral boundary layer approaching a 3D street canyon assuming a wind direction perpendicular to the street canyon. The Boussinesq hypothesis for incompressible fluids is chosen for modelling buoyancy. We distinguish three cases: leeward, ground and windward wall heating. Thermal effects on both the flow ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Kofoed, Jens Peter; Tedd, James; Friis-Madsen, E.
2007-01-01
This paper reports on the real sea performance of the buoyancy control system of Wave Dragon, a floating wave energy converter using the overtopping principle. The device operates with the full independent control system which has been tested during three years of operation. The impact of the buo...... of the buoyancy control system performance on the power production is noted. This provides motivation and a target for improved control algorithms....
Gravitational radiation from dust
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Isaacson, R.A.; Welling, J.S.; Winicour, J.
1985-01-01
A dust cloud is examined within the framework of the general relativistic characteristic initial value problem. Unique gravitational initial data are obtained by requiring that the space-time be quasi-Newtonian. Explicit calculations of metric and matter fields are presented, which include all post-Newtonian corrections necessary to discuss the major physical properties of null infinity. These results establish a curved space version of the Einstein quadrupole formula, in the form ''news function equals third time derivative of transverse quadrupole moment,'' for this system. However, these results imply that some weakened notion of asymptotic flatness is necessary for the description of quasi-Newtonian systems
BUOYANCY INSTABILITIES IN A WEAKLY COLLISIONAL INTRACLUSTER MEDIUM
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Kunz, Matthew W.; Stone, James M. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Peyton Hall, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Bogdanovic, Tamara; Reynolds, Christopher S., E-mail: kunz@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: jstone@astro.princeton.edu, E-mail: tamarab@astro.umd.edu, E-mail: chris@astro.umd.edu [Department of Astronomy, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742 (United States)
2012-08-01
The intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxy clusters is a weakly collisional plasma in which the transport of heat and momentum occurs primarily along magnetic-field lines. Anisotropic heat conduction allows convective instabilities to be driven by temperature gradients of either sign: the magnetothermal instability (MTI) in the outskirts of clusters and the heat-flux buoyancy-driven instability (HBI) in their cooling cores. We employ the Athena magnetohydrodynamic code to investigate the nonlinear evolution of these instabilities, self-consistently including the effects of anisotropic viscosity (i.e., Braginskii pressure anisotropy), anisotropic conduction, and radiative cooling. We find that, in all but the innermost regions of cool-core clusters, anisotropic viscosity significantly impairs the ability of the HBI to reorient magnetic-field lines orthogonal to the temperature gradient. Thus, while radio-mode feedback appears necessary in the central few Multiplication-Sign 10 kpc, heat conduction may be capable of offsetting radiative losses throughout most of a cool core over a significant fraction of the Hubble time. Magnetically aligned cold filaments are then able to form by local thermal instability. Viscous dissipation during cold filament formation produces accompanying hot filaments, which can be searched for in deep Chandra observations of cool-core clusters. In the case of MTI, anisotropic viscosity leads to a nonlinear state with a folded magnetic field structure in which field-line curvature and field strength are anti-correlated. These results demonstrate that, if the HBI and MTI are relevant for shaping the properties of the ICM, one must self-consistently include anisotropic viscosity in order to obtain even qualitatively correct results.
Gravitaxis of Euglena gracilis depends only partially on passive buoyancy
Richter, Peter R.; Schuster, Martin; Lebert, Michael; Streb, Christine; Häder, Donat-Peter
In darkness, the unicellular freshwater flagellate Euglena gracilis shows a pronounced negative gravitactic behavior, and the cells swim actively upward in the water column. Up to now it was unclear whether this behavior is based on a passive (physical) alignment mechanism (e.g., buoyancy due to a fore-aft asymmetry of the cell body) or on an active physiological mechanism. A sounding rocket experiment was performed in which the effect of sub-1g-accelerations (0.05, 0.08, 0.12, and 0.2g) on untreated living cells and immobilized (fixation with liquid nitrogen) cells was observed. By means of computerized image analysis the angles of the cells long axis with respect to the acceleration vector were analyzed in order to calculate and compare the reorientation kinetics of the immobilized cells versus that of the controls. In both groups, the reorientation kinetics depended on the dose, but the reorientation of the living cells was about five times faster than that of the immobilized cells. This indicates that in young cells gravitaxis can be explained by a physical mechanism only to a small extend. In older cultures, in which the cells often have a drop shaped cell body, the physical reorientation is considerably faster, and a more pronounced influence of passive alignment caused by fore/aft asymmetry (drag-gravity model) can not be excluded. In addition to these results, Euglena gracilis cells seem to respond very sensitively to small accelerations when they are applied after a longer microgravity period. The data indicate that gravitactic orientation occurred at an acceleration as low as 0.05g.
Quadrupole mass detector in the field of weak plane gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borisova, L.B.
1978-01-01
Studied is the behaviour of the system which consists of two test particles connected by a string (quadrupole mass detector) and placed in the field of weak plane monochromatic gravitational waves. It is shown that at cross orientation of the detector the gravitational wave effecting such a system excites oscillations in it with the frequency equal to that of the gravitational wave source. The role of the driving force is played by the periodical change with the time of the equilibrium position. The gravitational wave does not influence the detector at its longitudinal orientation
Rotation in a gravitational billiard
Peraza-Mues, G. G.; Carvente, Osvaldo; Moukarzel, Cristian F.
Gravitational billiards composed of a viscoelastic frictional disk bouncing on a vibrating wedge have been studied previously, but only from the point of view of their translational behavior. In this work, the average rotational velocity of the disk is studied under various circumstances. First, an experimental realization is briefly presented, which shows sustained rotation when the wedge is tilted. Next, this phenomenon is scrutinized in close detail using a precise numerical implementation of frictional forces. We show that the bouncing disk acquires a spontaneous rotational velocity whenever the wedge angle is not bisected by the direction of gravity. Our molecular dynamics (MD) results are well reproduced by event-driven (ED) simulations. When the wedge aperture angle θW>π/2, the average tangential velocity Rω¯ of the disk scales with the typical wedge vibration velocity vb, and is in general a nonmonotonic function of the overall tilt angle θT of the wedge. The present work focuses on wedges with θW=2π/3, which are relevant for the problem of spontaneous rotation in vibrated disk packings. This study makes part of the PhD Thesis of G. G. Peraza-Mues.
Gravitational plasmas and galactic dynamics
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bertin, G.
1999-01-01
The discovery of dark halos, spectroscopic evidence that elliptical galaxies are dominated by collisionless dynamics and the opening of new observational windows (especially in the near-infrared) able to provide direct information on the underlying mass distribution in spiral galaxies, have significantly changed our perception of the internal structure of galaxies. The modelling tools and the theories developed to explain many interesting observations (from the study of global spiral and bar modes of galaxy disks to the construction of self-consistent anisotropic collisionless models to explain the universality of the luminosity profile of elliptical galaxies) present many analogies with parallel work in the physics of electromagnetic plasmas. Beyond specific mechanisms, the main source of similarities between the two fields is probably to be found in the common semi-empirical approach, where the major struggle is to set up the most appropriate equations to describe inherently complex systems, governed by collective behaviour in the presence of long-range forces. At the frontier of current research in extragalactic astrophysics, the Hubble space telescope and new large telescopes from the ground are giving us a view of the early dynamical stages of galaxies and on the small scale for relatively nearby galaxies, unprecedented accurate data on their structure and kinematics. After focusing on some recent results relative to the collective dynamics of stellar systems, we will identify a few basic questions that remain unresolved, where the study of galaxies as gravitational plasmas may help significantly towards further progress. (author)
GRAVITATIONAL FIELD SHIELDING AND SUPERNOVA EXPLOSIONS
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Zhang, T. X.
2010-01-01
A new mechanism for supernova explosions called gravitational field shielding is proposed, in accord with a five-dimensional fully covariant Kaluza-Klein theory with a scalar field that unifies the four-dimensional Einsteinian general relativity and Maxwellian electromagnetic theory. It is shown that a dense compact collapsing core of a star will suddenly turn off or completely shield its gravitational field when the core collapses to a critical density, which is inversely proportional to the square of mass of the core. As the core suddenly turns off its gravity, the extremely large pressure immediately stops the core collapse and pushes the mantle material of supernova moving outward. The work done by the pressure in the expansion can be the order of energy released in a supernova explosion. The gravity will resume and stop the core from a further expansion when the core density becomes less than the critical density. Therefore, the gravitational field shielding leads a supernova to impulsively explode and form a compact object such as a neutron star as a remnant. It works such that a compressed spring will shoot the oscillator out when the compressed force is suddenly removed.
Gravitational waves from the electroweak phase transition
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Leitao, Leonardo; Mégevand, Ariel; Sánchez, Alejandro D.
2012-01-01
We study the generation of gravitational waves in the electroweak phase transition. We consider a few extensions of the Standard Model, namely, the addition of scalar singlets, the minimal supersymmetric extension, and the addition of TeV fermions. For each model we consider the complete dynamics of the phase transition. In particular, we estimate the friction force acting on bubble walls, and we take into account the fact that they can propagate either as detonations or as deflagrations preceded by shock fronts, or they can run away. We compute the peak frequency and peak intensity of the gravitational radiation generated by bubble collisions and turbulence. We discuss the detectability by proposed spaceborne detectors. For the models we considered, runaway walls require significant fine tuning of the parameters, and the gravitational wave signal from bubble collisions is generally much weaker than that from turbulence. Although the predicted signal is in most cases rather low for the sensitivity of LISA, models with strongly coupled extra scalars reach this sensitivity for frequencies f ∼ 10 −4 Hz, and give intensities as high as h 2 Ω GW ∼ 10 −8
The gravitational Schwinger effect and attenuation of gravitational waves
McDougall, Patrick Guarneri
This paper will discuss the possible production of photons from gravitational waves. This process is shown to be possible by examining Feynman diagrams, the Schwinger Effect, and Hawking Radiation. The end goal of this project is to find the decay length of a gravitational wave and assert that this decay is due to photons being created at the expense of the gravitational wave. To do this, we first find the state function using the Klein Gordon equation, then find the current due to this state function. We then take the current to be directly proportional to the production rate per volume. This is then used to find the decay length that this kind of production would produce, gives a prediction of how this effect will change the distance an event creating a gravitational wave will be located, and shows that this effect is small but can be significant near the source of a gravitational wave.
Schubert, G.; Anderson, J. D.
2013-12-01
Titan's gravitational field is inferred from an analysis of archived radio Doppler data for six Cassini flybys. The analysis considers each flyby separately in contrast to the approach of lumping all the data together in a massive inversion. In this way it is possible to gain an improved understanding of the character of each flyby and its usefulness in constraining the gravitational coefficient C22 . Though our analysis is not yet complete and our final determination of C22 could differ from the result we report here by 1 or 2 sigma, we find a best-fit value of C22 equal to (13.21 × 0.17) × 10-6, significantly larger than the value of 10.0 × 10-6 obtained from an inversion of the lumped Cassini data. We also find no determination of the tidal Love number k2. The larger value of C22 implies a moment of inertia factor equal to 0.3819 × 0.0020 and a less differentiated Titan than is suggested by the smaller value. The larger value of C22 is consistent with an undifferentiated model of the satellite. While it is not possible to rule out either value of C22 , we prefer the larger value because its derivation results from a more hands on analysis of the data that extracts the weak hydrostatic signal while revealing the effects of gravity anomalies and unmodeled spacecraft accelerations on each of the six flybys.
UCN gravitational spectrometer
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawabata, Yuji
1988-01-01
Concept design is carried out of two types of ultra cold neutron scallering equipment using the fall-focusing principle. One of the systems comprises a vertical gravitational spectrometer and the other includes a horizontal gravitation analyzer. A study is made of their performance and the following results are obtained. Fall-focusing type ultra cold neutron scattering equipment can achieve a high accuracy for measurement of energy and momentum. Compared with conventional neutron scattering systems, this type of equipment can use neutron very efficiently because scattered neutrons within a larger solid angle can be used. The maximum solid angle is nearly 4π and 2π for the vertical and horizontal type, respectively. Another feature is that the size of equipment can be reduced. In the present concept design, the equipment is spherical with a diameter of about 1 m, as compared with NESSIE which is 6.7 m in length and 4.85 m in height with about the same accuracy. Two horizontal analyzers and a vertical spectroscope are proposed. They are suitable for angle-dependent non-elastic scattering in the neutron velocity range of 6∼15 m/s, pure elastic scattering in the range of 4∼7 m/s, or angle-integration non-elastic scattering in the range of 4∼15 m/s. (N.K.)
General Relativity and Gravitation
Ashtekar, Abhay; Berger, Beverly; Isenberg, James; MacCallum, Malcolm
2015-07-01
Part I. Einstein's Triumph: 1. 100 years of general relativity George F. R. Ellis; 2. Was Einstein right? Clifford M. Will; 3. Cosmology David Wands, Misao Sasaki, Eiichiro Komatsu, Roy Maartens and Malcolm A. H. MacCallum; 4. Relativistic astrophysics Peter Schneider, Ramesh Narayan, Jeffrey E. McClintock, Peter Mészáros and Martin J. Rees; Part II. New Window on the Universe: 5. Receiving gravitational waves Beverly K. Berger, Karsten Danzmann, Gabriela Gonzalez, Andrea Lommen, Guido Mueller, Albrecht Rüdiger and William Joseph Weber; 6. Sources of gravitational waves. Theory and observations Alessandra Buonanno and B. S. Sathyaprakash; Part III. Gravity is Geometry, After All: 7. Probing strong field gravity through numerical simulations Frans Pretorius, Matthew W. Choptuik and Luis Lehner; 8. The initial value problem of general relativity and its implications Gregory J. Galloway, Pengzi Miao and Richard Schoen; 9. Global behavior of solutions to Einstein's equations Stefanos Aretakis, James Isenberg, Vincent Moncrief and Igor Rodnianski; Part IV. Beyond Einstein: 10. Quantum fields in curved space-times Stefan Hollands and Robert M. Wald; 11. From general relativity to quantum gravity Abhay Ashtekar, Martin Reuter and Carlo Rovelli; 12. Quantum gravity via unification Henriette Elvang and Gary T. Horowitz.
On geometrized gravitation theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Logunov, A.A.; Folomeshkin, V.N.
1977-01-01
General properties of the geometrized gravitation theories have been considered. Geometrization of the theory is realized only to the extent that by necessity follows from an experiment (geometrization of the density of the matter Lagrangian only). Aor a general case the gravitation field equations and the equations of motion for matter are formulated in the different Riemann spaces. A covariant formulation of the energy-momentum conservation laws is given in an arbitrary geometrized theory. The noncovariant notion of ''pseudotensor'' is not required in formulating the conservation laws. It is shown that in the general case (i.e., when there is an explicit dependence of the matter Lagrangian density on the covariant derivatives) a symmetric energy-momentum tensor of the matter is explicitly dependent on the curvature tensor. There are enlisted different geometrized theories that describe a known set of the experimental facts. The properties of one of the versions of the quasilinear geometrized theory that describes the experimental facts are considered. In such a theory the fundamental static spherically symmetrical solution has a singularity only in the coordinate origin. The theory permits to create a satisfactory model of the homogeneous nonstationary Universe
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Burinskii, A.
2015-01-01
The Kerr–Newman (KN) black hole (BH) solution exhibits the external gravitational and electromagnetic field corresponding to that of the Dirac electron. For the large spin/mass ratio, a ≫ m, the BH loses horizons and acquires a naked singular ring creating two-sheeted topology. This space is regularized by the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking, leading to an extended particle that has a regular spinning core compatible with the external KN solution. We show that this core has much in common with the known MIT and SLAC bag models, but has the important advantage of being in accordance with the external gravitational and electromagnetic fields of the KN solution. A peculiar two-sheeted structure of Kerr’s gravity provides a framework for the implementation of the Higgs mechanism of symmetry breaking in configuration space in accordance with the concept of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model. Similar to other bag models, the KN bag is flexible and pliant to deformations. For parameters of a spinning electron, the bag takes the shape of a thin rotating disk of the Compton radius, with a ring–string structure and a quark-like singular pole formed at the sharp edge of this disk, indicating that the considered lepton bag forms a single bag–string–quark system
Gravitational Waves - New Perspectives
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Biesiada, M.
1999-01-01
Laser interferometric experiments planned for 2002 will open up a new window onto the Universe. The first part of the paper gives a brief intuitive introduction to gravity waves, detection techniques and enumeration of main astrophysical sources and frequency bands to which they contribute. Then two more specific issues are discussed concerning cosmological perspectives of gravity waves detection. First one is the problem of gravitational lensing of the signal from inspiralling NS-NS binaries. The magnitude of the so called magnification bias is estimated and found non-negligible for some quite realistic lens models, but strongly model-dependent. The second problem is connected with estimates of galactic and extragalactic parts of the stochastic background. The main conclusion from these two examples is that in so far as the cosmological payoff of gravitational wave detection would be high, we should substantially deepen our understanding of basic astrophysical properties of galaxies and their clusters (in terms of mass distribution) in order to draw clear cosmological conclusions. (author)
Relativistic motion of spinning particles in a gravitational field
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chicone, C.; Mashhoon, B.; Punsly, B.
2005-01-01
The relative motion of a classical relativistic spinning test particle is studied with respect to a nearby free test particle in the gravitational field of a rotating source. The effects of the spin-curvature coupling force are elucidated and the implications of the results for the motion of rotating plasma clumps in astrophysical jets are discussed
Martin, Andrew J.
2014-01-01
Background: Academic buoyancy is students' capacity to successfully overcome setback and challenge that is typical of the ordinary course of everyday academic life. It may represent an important factor on the psycho-educational landscape assisting students who experience difficulties in school and schoolwork. Aims: This study investigated the…
Testing the gravitational inverse-square law
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Adelberger, Eric; Heckel, B.; Hoyle, C.D.
2005-01-01
If the universe contains more than three spatial dimensions, as many physicists believe, our current laws of gravity should break down at small distances. When Isaac Newton realized that the acceleration of the Moon as it orbited around the Earth could be related to the acceleration of an apple as it fell to the ground, it was the first time that two seemingly unrelated physical phenomena had been 'unified'. The quest to unify all the forces of nature is one that still keeps physicists busy today. Newton showed that the gravitational attraction between two point bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. Newton's theory, which assumes that the gravitational force acts instantaneously, remained essentially unchallenged for roughly two centuries until Einstein proposed the general theory of relativity in 1915. Einstein's radical new theory made gravity consistent with the two basic ideas of relativity: the world is 4D - the three directions of space combined with time - and no physical effect can travel faster than light. The theory of general relativity states that gravity is not a force in the usual sense but a consequence of the curvature of this space-time produced by mass or energy. However, in the limit of low velocities and weak gravitational fields, Einstein's theory still predicts that the gravitational force between two point objects obeys an inverse-square law. One of the outstanding challenges in physics is to finish what Newton started and achieve the ultimate 'grand unification' - to unify gravity with the other three fundamental forces (the electromagnetic force, and the strong and weak nuclear forces) into a single quantum theory. In string theory - one of the leading candidates for an ultimate theory - the fundamental entities of nature are 1D strings and higher-dimensional objects called 'branes', rather than the point-like particles we are familiar with. String
Numerical investigations of gravitational collapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Csizmadia, Peter; Racz, Istvan, E-mail: iracz@rmki.kfki.h [RMKI, Budapest, Konkoly Thege Miklos ut 29-33, H-1121 (Hungary)
2010-03-01
Some properties of a new framework for simulating generic 4-dimensional spherically symmetric gravitating systems are discussed. The framework can be used to investigate spacetimes that undergo complete gravitational collapse. The analytic setup is chosen to ensure that our numerical method is capable to follow the time evolution everywhere, including the black hole region.
On the gravitational radiation formula
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schaefer, G.; Dehnen, H.
1980-01-01
For electromagnetically as well as gravitationally bound quantum mechanical many-body systems the coefficients of absorption and induced emission of gravitational radiation are calculated in the first-order approximation. The results are extended subsequently to systems with arbitrary non-Coulomb-like two-particle interaction potentials;it is shown explicitly that in all cases the perturbation of the binding potentials of the bound systems by the incident gravitational wave field itself must be taken into account. With the help of the thermodynamic equilibrium of gravitational radiation and quantised matter, the coefficients for spontaneous emission of gravitational radiation are derived and the gravitational radiation formula for emission of gravitational quadrupole radiation by bound quantum mechanical many-body systems is given. According to the correspondence principle the present result is completely identical with the well known classical radiation formula, by which recent criticism against this formula is refuted. Finally the quantum mechanical absorption cross section for gravitational quadrupole radiation is deduced and compared with the corresponding classical expressions. As a special example the vibrating two-mass quadrupole is treated explicitly. (author)
To theory of gravitational interaction
Minkevich, A. V.
2008-01-01
Some principal problems of general relativity theory and attempts of their solution are discussed. The Poincare gauge theory of gravity as natural generalization of Einsteinian gravitation theory is considered. The changes of gravitational interaction in the frame of this theory leading to the solution of principal problems of general relativity theory are analyzed.
Exact piecewise flat gravitational waves
van de Meent, M.
2011-01-01
We generalize our previous linear result (van de Meent 2011 Class. Quantum Grav 28 075005) in obtaining gravitational waves from our piecewise flat model for gravity in 3+1 dimensions to exact piecewise flat configurations describing exact planar gravitational waves. We show explicitly how to
Laboratory generation of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pinto, I.M.; Rotoli, G.
1988-01-01
The authors have performed calculations on the basic type of gravitational wave electromagnetic laboratory generators. Their results show that laboratory generations of gravitational wave is at limit of state-of-the-art of present-day giant electromagnetic field generation
The gravitational properties of antimatter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Goldman, T.; Hughes, R.J.; Nieto, M.M.
1986-09-01
It is argued that a determination of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter towards the earth is capable of imposing powerful constraints on modern quantum gravity theories. Theoretical reasons to expect non-Newtonian non-Einsteinian effects of gravitational strength and experimental suggestions of such effects are reviewed. 41 refs
Interaction of gravitational plane waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ferrari, V.
1988-01-01
The mathematical theory of colliding, infinite-fronted, plane gravitational waves is presented. The process of focusing, the creation of singularities and horizons, due to the interaction, and the lens effect due to a beam-like gravitational wave are discussed
Critical Effects in Gravitational Collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Chmaj, T.
2000-01-01
The models of gravitational collapse of a dynamical system are investigated by means of the Einstein equations. Different types conjunctions to gravitational field are analyzed and it is shown that in the case of week scalar field (low energy density) the system evaluated to flat space while in the case of strong field (high energy density) to black hole
Conservation laws and gravitational radiation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rastall, P.
1977-01-01
A total stress-momentum is defined for gravitational fields and their sources. The Lagrangian density is slightly different from that in the previous version of the theory, and the field equations are considerably simplified. The post-Newtonian approximation of the theory is unchanged. The existence and nature of weak gravitational waves are discussed. (author)
Vignettes in Gravitation and Cosmology
Sriramkumar, L
2012-01-01
This book comprises expository articles on different aspects of gravitation and cosmology that are aimed at graduate students. The topics discussed are of contemporary interest assuming only an elementary introduction to gravitation and cosmology. The presentations are to a certain extent pedagogical in nature, and the material developed is not usually found in sufficient detail in recent textbooks in these areas.
Are the gravitational waves quantised?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovas, Istvan
1997-01-01
If the gravitational waves are classical objects then the value of their correlation function is 1. If they are quantised, then there exist two possibilities: the gravitational waves are either completely coherent, then their correlation function is again 1, or they are only partially coherent, then their correlation function is expected to deviate from 1. Unfortunately such a deviation is not a sufficient proof for the quantised character of the gravitational waves. If the gravitational waves are quantised and generated by the change of the background metrical then they can be in a squeezed state. In a squeezed state there is a chance for the correlation between the phase of the wave and the quantum fluctuations. The observation of such a correlation would be a genuine proof of the quantised character of the gravitational wave
Gravitational wave experiments
Hamilton, W O
1993-01-01
There were three oral sessions and one poster session for Workshop C1 on Gravitational Wave Experiments. There was also an informal experimental roundtable held one after- noon. The ﬁrst two oral sessions were devoted mainly to progress reports from various interferometric and bar detector groups. A total of 15 papers were presented in these two sessions. The third session of Workshop C1 was devoted primarily to theoretical and experimental investigations associated with the proposed interferometric detectors. Ten papers were presented in this session. In addition, there were a total of 13 papers presented in the poster session. There was some overlap between the presentations in the third oral session and the posters since only two of the serious posters were devoted to technology not pertinent to interferometers. In general, the papers showed the increasing maturity of the experimental aspects of the ﬁeld since most presented the results of completed investigations rather than making promises of wonderf...
Relativistic gravitational instabilities
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schutz, B.F.
1987-01-01
The purpose of these lectures is to review and explain what is known about the stability of relativistic stars and black holes, with particular emphases on two instabilities which are due entirely to relativistic effects. The first of these is the post-Newtonian pulsational instability discovered independently by Chandrasekhar (1964) and Fowler (1964). This effectively ruled out the then-popular supermassive star model for quasars, and it sets a limit to the central density of white dwarfs. The second instability was also discovered by Chandrasekhar (1970): the gravitational wave induced instability. This sets an upper bound on the rotation rate of neutron stars, which is near that of the millisecond pulsar PSR 1937+214, and which is beginning to constrain the equation of state of neutron matter. 111 references, 5 figures
Atomic and gravitational clocks
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Canuto, V.M.; City Coll., New York; Goldman, I.
1982-01-01
Atomic and gravitational clocks are governed by the laws of electrodynamics and gravity respectively. While the strong equivalence principle (SEP) assumes that the two clocks have been synchronous at all times, recent planetary data seem to suggest a possible violation of the SEP. Past analysis of the implications of an SEP violation on different physical phenomena revealed no disagreement. However, these studies assumed that the two different clocks can be consistently constructed within the framework. The concept of scale invariance, and the physical meaning of different systems of units, are now reviewed and the construction of two clocks that do not remain synchronous-whose rates are related by a non-constant function βsub(a)-is demonstrated. The cosmological character of βsub(a) is also discussed. (author)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lopresto, J.C.; Chapman, R.D.
1980-01-01
Wavelengths of solar spectrum lines should be shifted toward the red by the Sun's gravitational field as predicted by metric theories of gravity according to the principle of equivalence. Photographic wavelengths of 738 solar Fe 1 lines and their corresponding laboratory wavelengths have been studied. The measured solar wavelength minus the laboratory wavelength (Δlambdasub(observed)) averaged for the strong lines agrees well with the theoretically predicted shift (Δlambdasub(theoretical)). Studies show that the departures depend on line strength. No dependence of the departures on wavelength was found within the existing data. By studying strong lines over a wide spectral range, velocity shifts caused by the complex motions in the solar atmosphere seem to affect the results in a minimal fashion. (orig.)
Observations of gravitational lenses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Fort, B.
1990-01-01
During the last tow years a burst of results has come from radio and optical surveys of ''galaxy lenses'' (where the main deflector is a galaxy). These are reviewed. On the other hand, in September 1985 we pointed out a very strange blue ring-like structure on a Charge-Coupled Device image of the cluster of galaxies Abell 370. This turned out to be Einstein arcs discovery. Following this discovery, new observational results have shown that many rich clusters of galaxies can produce numerous arclets: tangentially distorted images of an extremely faint galaxy population probably located at redshift larger than 1. This new class of gravitational lenses proves to be an important observational topic and this will be discussed in the second part of the paper. (author)
Feynman Lectures on Gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Borcherds, P
2003-01-01
In the early 1960s Feynman lectured to physics undergraduates and, with the assistance of his colleagues Leighton and Sands, produced the three-volume classic Feynman Lectures in Physics. These lectures were delivered in the mornings. In the afternoons Feynman was giving postgraduate lectures on gravitation. This book is based on notes compiled by two students on that course: Morinigo and Wagner. Their notes were checked and approved by Feynman and were available at Caltech. They have now been edited by Brian Hatfield and made more widely available. The book has a substantial preface by John Preskill and Kip Thorne, and an introduction entitled 'Quantum Gravity' by Brian Hatfield. You should read these before going on to the lectures themselves. Preskill and Thorne identify three categories of potential readers of this book. 1. Those with a postgraduate training in theoretical physics. 2. 'Readers with a solid undergraduate training in physics'. 3. 'Admirers of Feynman who do not have a strong physics background'. The title of the book is perhaps misleading: readers in category 2 who think that this book is an extension of the Feynman Lectures in Physics may be disappointed. It is not: it is a book aimed mainly at those in category 1. If you want to get to grips with gravitation (and general relativity) then you need to read an introductory text first e.g. General Relativity by I R Kenyon (Oxford: Oxford University Press) or A Unified Grand Tour of Theoretical Physics by Ian D Lawrie (Bristol: IoP). But there is no Royal Road. As pointed out in the preface and in the introduction, the book represents Feynman's thinking about gravitation some 40 years ago: the lecture course was part of his attempts to understand the subject himself, and for readers in all three categories it is this that makes the book one of interest: the opportunity to observe how a great physicist attempts to tackle some of the hardest challenges of physics. However, the book was written 40
Galilean test for the fifth force
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Niebauer, T.M.; McHugh, M.P.; Faller, J.E.
1987-01-01
We have carried out a direct free-fall experiment to measure the differential acceleration between two different materials (copper and uranium) falling in the Earth's gravitational field. The differential acceleration was measured to be less than 5 parts in 10/sup 10/ of the normal gravitational acceleration. This null result puts new limits on the strength and range of the proposed fifth force
Coriolis force and Sagnac effect
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Gogberashvili, Merab
2002-02-01
The optical Sagnac effect is considered, when the fictitious gravitational field simulates the reflections from the mirrors. It is shown that no contradiction exists between the conclusions of the laboratory and rotated observers. Because of the acting of gravity-like Coriolis force the trajectories of co- and anti-rotating photons have different radii in the rotating reference frame, while in the case of the equal radius the effective gravitational potentials for the photons have to be different. (author)
Aoudia, A; Ismail-Zadeh, A T; Panza, G F; Pontevivo, A
2002-01-01
The juxtaposed contraction and extension observed in the crust of the Italian Apennines and elsewhere has, for a long time, attracted the attention of geoscientists and is a long-standing enigmatic feature. Several models, invoking mainly external forces, have been put forward to explain the close association of these two end-member deformation mechanisms clearly observed by geophysical and geological investigations. These models appeal to interactions along plate margins or at the base of the lithosphere such as back-arc extension or shear tractions from mantle flow or to subduction processes such as slab roll back, retreat or pull and detachment. We present here a revisited crust and upper mantle model that supports delamination processes beneath North-Central Italy and provides a new background for the genesis and age of the recent magmatism in Tuscany. Although external forces must have been important in the building up of the Apennines, we show that internal buoyancy forces solely can explain the coexist...
Determination of the gravitational constant with a beam balance
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schlamminger, St.; Holzschuh, E.; Kuendig, W.
2002-01-01
The Newtonian gravitational constant G was determined by means of a novel beam-balance experiment with an accuracy comparable to that of the most precise torsion-balance experiments. The gravitational force of two stainless steel tanks filled with 13 521 kg mercury on 1.1 kg test masses was measured using a commercial mass comparator. A careful analysis of the data and the experimental error yields G=6.674 07(22)x10 -11 m 3 kg -1 s -2 . This value is in excellent agreement with most values previously obtained with different methods
Effects of Buoyancy on Laminar and Turbulent Premixed V-Flame
Cheng, Robert K.; Bedat, Benoit
1997-01-01
Turbulent combustion occurs naturally in almost all combustion systems and involves complex dynamic coupling of chemical and fluid mechanical processes. It is considered as one of the most challenging combustion research problems today. Though buoyancy has little effect on power generating systems operating under high pressures (e.g., IC engines and turbines), flames in atmospheric burners and the operation of small to medium furnaces and boilers are profoundly affected by buoyancy. Changes in burner orientation impacts on their blow-off, flash-back and extinction limits, and their range of operation, burning rate, heat transfer, and emissions. Theoretically, buoyancy is often neglected in turbulent combustion models. Yet the modeling results are routinely compared with experiments of open laboratory flames that are obviously affected by buoyancy. This inconsistency is an obstacle to reconciling experiments and theories. Consequently, a fundamental understanding of the coupling between turbulent flames and buoyancy is significant to both turbulent combustion science and applications. The overall effect of buoyancy relates to the dynamic interaction between the flame and its surrounding, i.e., the so-called elliptical problem. The overall flame shape, its flowfield, stability, and mean and local burning rates are dictated by both upstream and downstream boundary conditions. In steady propagating premixed flames, buoyancy affects the products region downstream of the flame zone. These effects are manifested upstream through the mean and fluctuating pressure fields to influence flame stretch and flame wrinkling. Intuitively, the effects buoyancy should diminish with increasing flow momentum. This is the justification for excluding buoyancy in turbulent combustion models that treats high Reynolds number flows. The objectives of our experimental research program is to elucidate flame-buoyancy coupling processes in laminar and turbulent premixed flames, and to
Cardiovascular Responses of Snakes to Gravitational Gradients
Hsieh, Shi-Tong T.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Ballard, R. E.; Hargens, A. R.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)
1998-01-01
Snakes are useful vertebrates for studies of gravitational adaptation, owing to their elongate body and behavioral diversification. Scansorial species have evolved specializations for regulating hemodynamics during exposure to gravitational stress, whereas, such adaptations are less well developed in aquatic and non-climbing species. We examined responses of the amphibious snake,\\italicize (Nerodia rhombifera), to increments of Gz (head-to-tail) acceleration force on both a short- and long-arm centrifuge (1.5 vs. 3.7 m radius, from the hub to tail end of snake). We recorded heart rate, dorsal aortic pressure, and carotid arterial blood flow during stepwise 0.25 G increments of Gz force (referenced at the tail) in conscious animals. The Benz tolerance of a snake was determined as the Gz level at which carotid blood flow ceased and was found to be significantly greater at the short- than long-arm centrifuge radius (1.57 Gz vs. 2.0 Gz, respectively; P=0.016). A similar pattern of response was demonstrated in semi-arboreal rat snakes,\\italicize{Elaphe obsoleta}, which are generally more tolerant of Gz force (2.6 Gz at 1.5m radius) than are water snakes. The tolerance differences of the two species reflected cardiovascular responses, which differed quantitatively but not qualitatively: heart rates increased while arterial pressure and blood flow decreased in response to increasing levels of Gz. Thus, in both species of snakes, a reduced gradient of Gz force (associated with greater centrifuge radius) significantly decreases the Gz level that can be tolerated.
Gravitation. [Book on general relativity
Misner, C. W.; Thorne, K. S.; Wheeler, J. A.
1973-01-01
This textbook on gravitation physics (Einstein's general relativity or geometrodynamics) is designed for a rigorous full-year course at the graduate level. The material is presented in two parallel tracks in an attempt to divide key physical ideas from more complex enrichment material to be selected at the discretion of the reader or teacher. The full book is intended to provide competence relative to the laws of physics in flat space-time, Einstein's geometric framework for physics, applications with pulsars and neutron stars, cosmology, the Schwarzschild geometry and gravitational collapse, gravitational waves, experimental tests of Einstein's theory, and mathematical concepts of differential geometry.
Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling
Ovalle, J.; Casadio, R.; da Rocha, R.; Sotomayor, A.
2018-02-01
We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent.
Anisotropic solutions by gravitational decoupling
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ovalle, J. [Silesian University in Opava, Institute of Physics and Research Centre of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Faculty of Philosophy and Science, Opava (Czech Republic); Universidad Simon Bolivar, Departamento de Fisica, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of); Casadio, R. [Alma Mater Universita di Bologna, Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Bologna (Italy); Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Bologna (Italy); Rocha, R. da [Universidade Federal do ABC (UFABC), Centro de Matematica, Computacao e Cognicao, Santo Andre, SP (Brazil); Sotomayor, A. [Universidad de Antofagasta, Departamento de Matematicas, Antofagasta (Chile)
2018-02-15
We investigate the extension of isotropic interior solutions for static self-gravitating systems to include the effects of anisotropic spherically symmetric gravitational sources by means of the gravitational decoupling realised via the minimal geometric deformation approach. In particular, the matching conditions at the surface of the star with the outer Schwarzschild space-time are studied in great detail, and we describe how to generate, from a single physically acceptable isotropic solution, new families of anisotropic solutions whose physical acceptability is also inherited from their isotropic parent. (orig.)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Meng, Xiaojing; Wang, Yi; Liu, Tiening; Xing, Xiao; Cao, Yingxue; Zhao, Jiangping
2016-01-01
Highlights: • The effects of radiation on predictive accuracy in numerical simulations were studied. • A scaled experimental model with a high-temperature heat source was set up. • Simulation results were discussed considering with and without radiation model. • The buoyancy force and the ventilation rate were investigated. - Abstract: This paper investigates the effects of radiation on predictive accuracy in the numerical simulations of industrial buildings. A scaled experimental model with a high-temperature heat source is set up and the buoyancy-driven natural ventilation performance is presented. Besides predicting ventilation performance in an industrial building, the scaled model in this paper is also used to generate data to validate the numerical simulations. The simulation results show good agreement with the experiment data. The effects of radiation on predictive accuracy in the numerical simulations are studied for both pure convection model and combined convection and radiation model. Detailed results are discussed regarding the temperature and velocity distribution, the buoyancy force and the ventilation rate. The temperature and velocity distributions through the middle plane are presented for the pure convection model and the combined convection and radiation model. It is observed that the overall temperature and velocity magnitude predicted by the simulations for pure convection were significantly greater than those for the combined convection and radiation model. In addition, the Grashof number and the ventilation rate are investigated. The results show that the Grashof number and the ventilation rate are greater for the pure convection model than for the combined convection and radiation model.
Gravitational radiation quadrupole formula is valid for gravitationally interacting systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Walker, M.; Will, C.M.
1980-01-01
An argument is presented for the validity of the quadrupole formula for gravitational radiation energy loss in the far field of nearly Newtonian (e.g., binary stellar) systems. This argument differs from earlier ones in that it determines beforehand the formal accuracy of approximation required to describe gravitationally self-interacting systems, uses the corresponding approximate equation of motion explicitly, and evaluate the appropriate asymptotic quantities by matching along the correct space-time light cones
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Panek, Richard
2010-01-01
Astronomers have compiled evidence that what we always thought of as the actual universe- all the planets, stars, galaxies and matter in space -represents a mere 4% of what's out there. The rest is dark: 23% is called dark matter, 73% dark energy. Scientists have ideas about what dark matter is, but hardly any understanding about dark energy. This has led to rethinking traditional physics and cosmology. Assuming the existence of dark matter and that the law of gravitation is universal, two teams of astrophysicists, from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and the Australian National University, analysed the universe's growth and to their surprise both concluded that the universe expansion is not slowing but speeding up. If the dominant force of evolution isn't gravity what is it?
Partridge, Jamie; Linden, Paul
2013-11-01
We examine the flows and stratification established in a naturally ventilated enclosure containing both a localised and vertically distributed source of buoyancy. The enclosure is ventilated through upper and lower openings which connect the space to an external ambient. Small scale laboratory experiments were carried out with water as the working medium and buoyancy being driven directly by temperature differences. A point source plume gave localised heating while the distributed source was driven by a controllable heater mat located in the side wall of the enclosure. The transient temperatures, as well as steady state temperature profiles, were recorded and are reported here. The temperature profiles inside the enclosure were found to be dependent on the effective opening area A*, a combination of the upper and lower openings, and the ratio of buoyancy fluxes from the distributed and localised source Ψ =Bw/Bp . Industrial CASE award with ARUP.
Dagan, G.; Koren, I.; Altaratz, O.; Feingold, G.
2018-05-01
Cloud feedbacks could influence significantly the overall response of the climate system to global warming. Here we study the response of warm convective clouds to a uniform temperature change under constant relative humidity (RH) conditions. We show that an increase in temperature drives competing effects at the cloud scale: a reduction in the thermal buoyancy term and an increase in the humidity buoyancy term. Both effects are driven by the increased contrast in the water vapor content between the cloud and its environment, under warming with constant RH. The increase in the moisture content contrast between the cloud and its environment enhances the evaporation at the cloud margins, increases the entrainment, and acts to cool the cloud. Hence, there is a reduction in the thermal buoyancy term, despite the fact that theoretically this term should increase.
Nonmetric theories of gravity and the gravitational frequency shift
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Coley, A.A.; Sarmiento G, A.F.; Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City)
1988-01-01
A class of nonmetric theories of gravity called metric-affine theories is investigated, emphasizing a subclass of theories called Weyl-affine theories. An experimental configuration is modeled in which the gravitational redshift of light signals conecting an artificial satellite to the earth is measured. A situation in which both bodies are forced to follow circular orbits around the sun with angular speeds determined by the solar gravitational field is considered along with the more realistic situation in which the artificial satellite and the earth are both allowed to follow general coplanar orbits. The latter is found to give rise to more severe constraints. It is found that theories under investigation must coincide with their metric counterparts up to first order in the Newtonian gravitational potential U and that any nonmetric effects within the solar neighborhood can only manifest themselves at most through small contributions at the U-squared level or at the U-cubed level. 34 references
Stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Maggiore, M.
2001-01-01
We review the motivations for the search for stochastic backgrounds of gravitational waves and we compare the experimental sensitivities that can be reached in the near future with the existing bounds and with the theoretical predictions. (author)
Gravitational scattering of electromagnetic radiation
Brooker, J. T.; Janis, A. I.
1980-01-01
The scattering of electromagnetic radiation by linearized gravitational fields is studied to second order in a perturbation expansion. The incoming electromagnetic radiation can be of arbitrary multipole structure, and the gravitational fields are also taken to be advanced fields of arbitrary multipole structure. All electromagnetic multipole radiation is found to be scattered by gravitational monopole and time-varying dipole fields. No case has been found, however, in which any electromagnetic multipole radiation is scattered by gravitational fields of quadrupole or higher-order multipole structure. This lack of scattering is established for infinite classes of special cases, and is conjectured to hold in general. The results of the scattering analysis are applied to the case of electromagnetic radiation scattered by a moving mass. It is shown how the mass and velocity may be determined by a knowledge of the incident and scattered radiation.
Highlights in gravitation and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Iyer, B.R.; Kembhavi, Ajit; Narlikar, J.V.; Vishveshwara, C.V.
1988-01-01
This book assesses research into gravitation and cosmology by examining the subject from various viewpoints: the classical and quantum pictures, along with the cosmological and astrophysical applications. There are 35 articles by experts of international standing. Each defines the state of the art and contains a concise summary of our present knowledge of a facet of gravitational physics. These edited papers are based on those first given at an international conference held in Goa, India at the end of 1987. The following broad areas are covered: classical relativity, quantum gravity, cosmology, black holes, compact objects, gravitational radiation and gravity experiments. In this volume there are also summaries of discussions on the following special topics: exact solutions of cosmological equations, mathematical aspects of general relativity, the early universe, and quantum gravity. For research workers in cosmology and gravitation this reference book provides a broad view of present achievements and current problems. (author)
Are the gravitational waves quantised?
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lovas, I.
1998-01-01
The question whether gravitational waves are quantised or not can be investigated by the help of correlation measurements. If the gravitational waves are classical objects then the value of their correlation function is 1. However, if they are quantised, then there exist two possibilities: the gravitational waves are either completely coherent, then the correlation function is again 1, or they are partially coherent, then the correlation function is expected to deviate from 1. If the gravitational waves are generated by the change of the background metrics then they can be in a squeezed state. In a squeezed state there is a chance for the correlation between the phase of the wave and the quantum fluctuations. (author)
Heuristic introduction to gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sandberg, V.D.
1982-01-01
The purpose of this article is to provide a rough and somewhat heuristic theoretical background and introduction to gravitational radiation, its generation, and its detection based on Einstein's general theory of relativity
Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy
2006-01-01
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects. ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www...
Shearfree cylindrical gravitational collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Di Prisco, A.; Herrera, L.; MacCallum, M. A. H.; Santos, N. O.
2009-01-01
We consider diagonal cylindrically symmetric metrics, with an interior representing a general nonrotating fluid with anisotropic pressures. An exterior vacuum Einstein-Rosen spacetime is matched to this using Darmois matching conditions. We show that the matching conditions can be explicitly solved for the boundary values of metric components and their derivatives, either for the interior or exterior. Specializing to shearfree interiors, a static exterior can only be matched to a static interior, and the evolution in the nonstatic case is found to be given in general by an elliptic function of time. For a collapsing shearfree isotropic fluid, only a Robertson-Walker dust interior is possible, and we show that all such cases were included in Cocke's discussion. For these metrics, Nolan and Nolan have shown that the matching breaks down before collapse is complete, and Tod and Mena have shown that the spacetime is not asymptotically flat in the sense of Berger, Chrusciel, and Moncrief. The issues about energy that then arise are revisited, and it is shown that the exterior is not in an intrinsic gravitational or superenergy radiative state at the boundary.
Quantum biological gravitational wave detectors
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kopvillem, U.Kh.
1985-01-01
A possibility of producing biological detectors of gravitational waves is considered. High sensitivity of biological systems to outer effects can be ensured by existence of molecule subgroups in Dicke states. Existence of clusters in Dicke state-giant electric dipoles (GED) is supposed in the Froehlich theory. Comparison of biological and physical detectors shows that GED systems have unique properties for detection of gravitational waves if the reception range is narrow
Release of radon contaminants from Yucca Mountain: The role of buoyancy driven flow
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Sullivan, T.M.; Pescatore, C.
1994-02-01
The potential for the repository heat source to promote buoyancy driven flow and thereby cause release of radon gas out of Yucca Mountain has been examined through a critical review of the theoretical and experimental studies of this process. The review indicates that steady-state buoyancy enhanced release of natural radon and other contaminant gases should not be a major concern at Yucca Mountain. Barometric pumping and wind pumping are identified as two processes that will have a potentially greater effect on surface releases of gases
General relativity and gravitation, 1989
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashby, N.; Bartlett, D.F.; Wyss, W.
1990-01-01
This volume records the lectures and symposia of the 12th International Conference on General Relativity and Gravitation. Plenary lecturers reviewed the major advances since the previous conference in 1986. The reviews cover classical and quantum theory of gravity, colliding gravitational waves, gravitational lensing, relativistic effects on pulsars, tests of the inverse square law, numerical relativity, cosmic microwave background radiation, experimental tests of gravity theory, gravitational wave detectors, and cosmology. The plenary lectures are complemented by summaries of symposia, provided by the chairmen. Almost 700 contributed papers were presented at these and they cover an even wider range of topics than the plenary talks. The book provides a comprehensive guide to research activity in both experimental and theoretical gravitation and its applications in astrophysics and cosmology. It will be essential reading for research workers in these fields, as well as theoretical and experimental physicists, astronomers, and mathematicians who wish to be acquainted with modern developments in gravitational theory and general relativity. All the papers and summaries of the workshop sessions are indexed separately. (16 united talks, 20 workshop sessions). (author)
Smith, A. H.
1972-01-01
The physical principles of gravitation are discussed, such as gravitational and intertial forces, weight and mass, weightlessness, size and scale effects, scale limits of gravitational effects, and gravity as a biogenic factor. The behavior of the accelerative force gravitation, is described. This law proposes and quantifies the mutual gravitational attraction existing between all bodies of matter, the force being proportional to the product of masses, and inversely related to the square of the distance separating them. Gravity orientation, chronic acceleration, and hematology are examined. Systematic responses, such as circulation and renal functions, are also considered, along with animal response to a decreased acceleration field and physiology of hyper- and hypodynamic fields.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ridgely, Charles T
2010-01-01
Many textbooks dealing with general relativity do not demonstrate the derivation of forces in enough detail. The analyses presented herein demonstrate straightforward methods for computing forces by way of general relativity. Covariant divergence of the stress-energy-momentum tensor is used to derive a general expression of the force experienced by an observer in general coordinates. The general force is then applied to the local co-moving coordinate system of a uniformly accelerating observer, leading to an expression of the inertial force experienced by the observer. Next, applying the general force in Schwarzschild coordinates is shown to lead to familiar expressions of the gravitational force. As a more complex demonstration, the general force is applied to an observer in Boyer-Lindquist coordinates near a rotating, Kerr black hole. It is then shown that when the angular momentum of the black hole goes to zero, the force on the observer reduces to the force on an observer held stationary in Schwarzschild coordinates. As a final consideration, the force on an observer moving in rotating coordinates is derived. Expressing the force in terms of Christoffel symbols in rotating coordinates leads to familiar expressions of the centrifugal and Coriolis forces on the observer. It is envisioned that the techniques presented herein will be most useful to graduate level students, as well as those undergraduate students having experience with general relativity and tensor analysis.
An experimental and analytical study of a buoyancy driven cooling system for a particle accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, B.; Ranganathan, R.
1993-05-01
A buoyancy driven closed-loop cooling system that transports the heat generated in a particle accelerator to the ambient has been evaluated both through experiments performed earlier and analysis techniques developed elsewhere. Excellent comparisons between measurements and calculations have been obtained. The model illustrates the feasibility (from a heat transfer viewpoint) of such a cooling system for a particle accelerator
An experimental and analytical study of a buoyancy driven cooling system for a particle accelerator
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Campbell, B.; Ranganathan, R.
1993-01-01
A buoyancy driven closed-loop cooling system that transports the heat generated in a particle accelerator to the ambient has been evaluated both through experiments performed earlier and analysis techniques developed elsewhere. Excellent comparisons between measurements and calculations have been obtained. The model illustrates the feasibility (from a heat transfer viewpoint) of such a cooling system for a particle accelerator
Processes governing transient responses of the deep ocean buoyancy budget to a doubling of CO2
Palter, J. B.; Griffies, S. M.; Hunter Samuels, B. L.; Galbraith, E. D.; Gnanadesikan, A.
2012-12-01
Recent observational analyses suggest there is a temporal trend and high-frequency variability in deep ocean buoyancy in the last twenty years, a phenomenon reproduced even in low-mixing models. Here we use an earth system model (GFDL's ESM2M) to evaluate physical processes that influence buoyancy (and thus steric sea level) budget of the deep ocean in quasi-steady state and under a doubling of CO2. A new suite of model diagnostics allows us to quantitatively assess every process that influences the buoyancy budget and its temporal evolution, revealing surprising dynamics governing both the equilibrium budget and its transient response to climate change. The results suggest that the temporal evolution of the deep ocean contribution to sea level rise is due to a diversity of processes at high latitudes, whose net effect is then advected in the Eulerian mean flow to mid and low latitudes. In the Southern Ocean, a slowdown in convection and spin up of the residual mean advection are approximately equal players in the deep steric sea level rise. In the North Atlantic, the region of greatest deep steric sea level variability in our simulations, a decrease in mixing of cold, dense waters from the marginal seas and a reduction in open ocean convection causes an accumulation of buoyancy in the deep subpolar gyre, which is then advected equatorward.
On the influence of buoyancy and suction/injection In Heat and Mass ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
In this paper, we examined the influence of buoyancy and suction/injection in the problem of unsteady convection with chemical reaction and radiative heat transfer past a flat porous plate moving through a binary mixture in an optically thin environment is presented. The dimensionless governing equations for this ...
Buoyancy frequency profiles and internal semidiurnal tide turning depths in the oceans
King, B.; Stone, M.; Zhang, H.P.; Gerkema, T.; Marder, M.; Scott, R.B.; Swinney, H.L.
2012-01-01
We examine the possible existence of internal gravity wave "turning depths," depths below which the local buoyancy frequency N(z) becomes smaller than the wave frequency. At a turning depth, incident gravity waves reflect rather than reaching the ocean bottom as is generally assumed. Here we
Putwain, David W.; Daly, Anthony L.; Chamberlain, Suzanne; Sadreddini, Shireen
2016-01-01
This study explores the relationship between students' self-report levels of cognitive test anxiety (worry), academic buoyancy (withstanding and successfully responding to routine school challenges and setbacks), coping processes and their achieved grades in high-stakes national examinations at the end of compulsory schooling. The sample comprised…
Nguyen, Huong Giang T; Horn, Jarod C; Thommes, Matthias; van Zee, Roger D; Espinal, Laura
2017-12-01
Addressing reproducibility issues in adsorption measurements is critical to accelerating the path to discovery of new industrial adsorbents and to understanding adsorption processes. A National Institute of Standards and Technology Reference Material, RM 8852 (ammonium ZSM-5 zeolite), and two gravimetric instruments with asymmetric two-beam balances were used to measure high-pressure adsorption isotherms. This work demonstrates how common approaches to buoyancy correction, a key factor in obtaining the mass change due to surface excess gas uptake from the apparent mass change, can impact the adsorption isotherm data. Three different approaches to buoyancy correction were investigated and applied to the subcritical CO 2 and supercritical N 2 adsorption isotherms at 293 K. It was observed that measuring a collective volume for all balance components for the buoyancy correction (helium method) introduces an inherent bias in temperature partition when there is a temperature gradient (i.e. analysis temperature is not equal to instrument air bath temperature). We demonstrate that a blank subtraction is effective in mitigating the biases associated with temperature partitioning, instrument calibration, and the determined volumes of the balance components. In general, the manual and subtraction methods allow for better treatment of the temperature gradient during buoyancy correction. From the study, best practices specific to asymmetric two-beam balances and more general recommendations for measuring isotherms far from critical temperatures using gravimetric instruments are offered.
Numerical investigation of the onset of centrifugal buoyancy in a rotating cavity
Pitz, Diogo B.; Marxen, Olaf; Chew, John
2016-11-01
Buoyancy-induced flows in a differentially heated rotating annulus present a multitude of dynamics when control parameters such as rotation rate, temperature difference and Prandtl number are varied. Whilst most of the work in this area has been motivated by applications involving geophysics, the problem of buoyancy-induced convection in rotating systems is also relevant in industrial applications such as the flow between rotating disks of turbomachinery internal air systems, in which buoyancy plays a major role and poses a challenge to accurately predict temperature distributions and heat transfer rates. In such applications the rotational speeds involved are very large, so that the centrifugal accelerations induced are much higher than gravity. In this work we perform direct numerical simulations and linear stability analysis of flow induced by centrifugal buoyancy in a sealed rotating annulus of finite gap with flat end-walls, using a canonical setup representative of an internal air system rotating cavity. The analysis focuses on the behaviour of small-amplitude disturbances added to the base flow, and how those affect the onset of Rossby waves and, ultimately, the transition to a fully turbulent state where convection columns no longer have a well-defined structure. Diogo B. Pitz acknowledges the financial support from the Capes foundation through the Science without Borders program.
Annual and seasonal mean buoyancy fluxes for the tropical Indian Ocean
Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)
Prasad, T.G.
. The fluxes of heat and freshwater across the air-sea interface, and hence the surface buoyancy flux, show strong spatial and temporal variability. The Bay of Bengal and eastern equatorial Indian Ocean are characterized by a net freshwater gain due to heavy...
Quantum gravitation. The Feynman path integral approach
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hamber, Herbert W.
2009-01-01
The book covers the theory of Quantum Gravitation from the point of view of Feynman path integrals. These provide a manifestly covariant approach in which fundamental quantum aspects of the theory such as radiative corrections and the renormalization group can be systematically and consistently addressed. The path integral method is suitable for both perturbative as well as non-perturbative studies, and is known to already provide a framework of choice for the theoretical investigation of non-abelian gauge theories, the basis for three of the four known fundamental forces in nature. The book thus provides a coherent outline of the present status of the theory gravity based on Feynman's formulation, with an emphasis on quantitative results. Topics are organized in such a way that the correspondence to similar methods and results in modern gauge theories becomes apparent. Covariant perturbation theory are developed using the full machinery of Feynman rules, gauge fixing, background methods and ghosts. The renormalization group for gravity and the existence of non-trivial ultraviolet fixed points are investigated, stressing a close correspondence with well understood statistical field theory models. Later the lattice formulation of gravity is presented as an essential tool towards an understanding of key features of the non-perturbative vacuum. The book ends with a discussion of contemporary issues in quantum cosmology such as scale dependent gravitational constants and quantum effects in the early universe. (orig.)
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aziiz Akhlish Diinal
2017-01-01
Full Text Available High-rise buildings in tropical region is identical to the use of mechanical Air Conditioning in massive scale. Nevertheless, there is an encouragement to high-rise buildings to reduce its energy consumptions, since they consume quite large amount of energy. This challenge can be overcome with various of strategies, one of them, by means of reducing the cooling load of mechanical Air Conditioning in high-rise building. Prospects come from the modern tall building design strategies, for example the use of double-skin façade to give addition of building skin which could provide indoor temperature protection from outside. Double-skin façade system has continued to increase in buildings in a tropical region such as in Indonesia. However, there is another potential of double skin façade, which is the possibility to increase the buoyancy effect in the air gap between the skin and building envelope. The possibility needs to be studied in order to give a proper way in designing double-skin façade of a high-rise building, especially on Bandung-Indonesia tropical climate. This paper explores the potential of double-skin façade in driving the air inside the façade to generate natural ventilation for a high-rise building in Bandung climate condition. Two parameters are used in exploring the buoyancy force, the width of double-skin façade and the temperature of the skin façade. In general, double-skin façade of a high-rise building in tropical climate can generate buoyancy driven ventilation for the building, it relates strongly to the distance between of the double-skin façade and the building envelope.
A new geometrical gravitational theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Obata, T.; Chiba, J.; Oshima, H.
1981-01-01
A geometrical gravitational theory is developed. The field equations are uniquely determined apart from one unknown dimensionless parameter ω 2 . It is based on an extension of the Weyl geometry, and by the extension the gravitational coupling constant and the gravitational mass are made to be dynamical and geometrical. The fundamental geometrical objects in the theory are a metric gsub(μν) and two gauge scalars phi and psi. The theory satisfies the weak equivalence principle, but breaks the strong one generally. u(phi, psi) = phi is found out on the assumption that the strong one keeps holding good at least for bosons of low spins. Thus there is the simple correspondence between the geometrical objects and the gravitational objects. Since the theory satisfies the weak one, the inertial mass is also dynamical and geometrical in the same way as is the gravitational mass. Moreover, the cosmological term in the theory is a coscalar of power -4 algebraically made of psi and u(phi, psi), so it is dynamical, too. Finally spherically symmetric exact solutions are given. The permissible range of the unknown parameter ω 2 is experimentally determined by applying the solutions to the solar system. (author)
Gravitational waves from supernova matter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Scheidegger, S; Whitehouse, S C; Kaeppeli, R; Liebendoerfer, M
2010-01-01
We have performed a set of 11 three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) core-collapse supernova simulations in order to investigate the dependences of the gravitational wave signal on the progenitor's initial conditions. We study the effects of the initial central angular velocity and different variants of neutrino transport. Our models are started up from a 15M o-dot progenitor and incorporate an effective general relativistic gravitational potential and a finite temperature nuclear equation of state. Furthermore, the electron flavour neutrino transport is tracked by efficient algorithms for the radiative transfer of massless fermions. We find that non- and slowly rotating models show gravitational wave emission due to prompt- and lepton driven convection that reveals details about the hydrodynamical state of the fluid inside the protoneutron stars. Furthermore we show that protoneutron stars can become dynamically unstable to rotational instabilities at T/|W| values as low as ∼2% at core bounce. We point out that the inclusion of deleptonization during the postbounce phase is very important for the quantitative gravitational wave (GW) prediction, as it enhances the absolute values of the gravitational wave trains up to a factor of ten with respect to a lepton-conserving treatment.
Relic gravitational waves and cosmology
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Grishchuk, Leonid P
2005-01-01
The paper begins with a brief recollection of interactions of the author with Ya B Zeldovich in the context of the study of relic gravitational waves. The principles and early results on the quantum-mechanical generation of cosmological perturbations are then summarized. The expected amplitudes of relic gravitational waves differ in various frequency windows, and therefore the techniques and prospects of their detection are distinct. One section of the paper describes the present state of efforts in direct detection of relic gravitational waves. Another section is devoted to indirect detection via the anisotropy and polarization measurements of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. It is emphasized throughout the paper that the inference about the existence and expected amount of relic gravitational waves is based on a solid theoretical foundation and the best available cosmological observations. It is also explained in great detail what went wrong with the so-called 'inflationary gravitational waves', whose amount is predicted by inflationary theorists to be negligibly small, thus depriving them of any observational significance. (reviews of topical problems)
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Groetzbach, G.
2007-12-01
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) programs have a wide application field in reactor technique, like to diverse flow types which have to be considered in Accelerator Driven nuclear reactor Systems (ADS). This requires turbulence models for the momentum and heat transfer with very different capabilities. The physical demands on the models are elaborated for selected transport mechanisms, the status quo of the modelling is discussed, and it is investigated which capabilities are offered by the market dominating commercial CFD codes. One topic of the discussion is on the already earlier achieved knowledge on the distinct anisotropy of the turbulent momentum and heat transport near walls. It is shown that this is relevant in channel flows with inhomogeneous wall conditions. The related consequences for the turbulence modelling are discussed. The second topic is the turbulent heat transport in buoyancy influenced flows. The only turbulence model for heat transfer which is available in the large commercial CFD-codes is based on the Reynolds analogy. This means, it is required to prescribe suitable turbulent Prandtl number distributions. There exist many correlations for channel flows, but they are seldom used in practical applications. Here, a correlation is deduced for the local turbulent Prandtl number which accounts for many parameters, like wall distance, molecular Prandtl number of the fluid, wall roughness and local shear stress, thermal wall condition, etc. so that it can be applied to most ADS typical heat transporting channel flows. The spatial dependence is discussed. It is shown that it is essential for reliable temperature calculations to get accurate turbulent Prandtl numbers especially near walls. If thermal wall functions are applied, then the correlation for the turbulent Prandtl number has to be consistent with the wall functions to avoid unphysical discretisation dependences. In using Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data for horizontal fluid layers it
Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Itsumi Nakamura
Full Text Available We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200-300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200-300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes, indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats.
Unexpected Positive Buoyancy in Deep Sea Sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a Echinorhinus cookei.
Nakamura, Itsumi; Meyer, Carl G; Sato, Katsufumi
2015-01-01
We do not expect non air-breathing aquatic animals to exhibit positive buoyancy. Sharks, for example, rely on oil-filled livers instead of gas-filled swim bladders to increase their buoyancy, but are nonetheless ubiquitously regarded as either negatively or neutrally buoyant. Deep-sea sharks have particularly large, oil-filled livers, and are believed to be neutrally buoyant in their natural habitat, but this has never been confirmed. To empirically determine the buoyancy status of two species of deep-sea sharks (bluntnose sixgill sharks, Hexanchus griseus, and a prickly shark, Echinorhinus cookei) in their natural habitat, we used accelerometer-magnetometer data loggers to measure their swimming performance. Both species of deep-sea sharks showed similar diel vertical migrations: they swam at depths of 200-300 m at night and deeper than 500 m during the day. Ambient water temperature was around 15°C at 200-300 m but below 7°C at depths greater than 500 m. During vertical movements, all deep-sea sharks showed higher swimming efforts during descent than ascent to maintain a given swimming speed, and were able to glide uphill for extended periods (several minutes), indicating that these deep-sea sharks are in fact positively buoyant in their natural habitats. This positive buoyancy may adaptive for stealthy hunting (i.e. upward gliding to surprise prey from underneath) or may facilitate evening upward migrations when muscle temperatures are coolest, and swimming most sluggish, after spending the day in deep, cold water. Positive buoyancy could potentially be widespread in fish conducting daily vertical migration in deep-sea habitats.
Chirality and gravitational parity violation.
Bargueño, Pedro
2015-06-01
In this review, parity-violating gravitational potentials are presented as possible sources of both true and false chirality. In particular, whereas phenomenological long-range spin-dependent gravitational potentials contain both truly and falsely chiral terms, it is shown that there are models that extend general relativity including also coupling of fermionic degrees of freedom to gravity in the presence of torsion, which give place to short-range truly chiral interactions similar to that usually considered in molecular physics. Physical mechanisms which give place to gravitational parity violation together with the expected size of the effects and their experimental constraints are discussed. Finally, the possible role of parity-violating gravity in the origin of homochirality and a road map for future research works in quantum chemistry is presented. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.; Will, C.M.
1978-01-01
We present formulae and numerical results for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies (''gravitational bremsstrahlung''). Our results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. We discuss in detail the gravitational waveform (transverse-traceless part of the metric perturbation tensor), the toal luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy (antenna pattern), and the frequency spectrum. We also present a method of ''boosting'' the accuracy of these quantities to post-3/2-Newtonian order. A numerical comparison of our results with those of Peters and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post-Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1% at v=0.1c, to a few percent at v=0.35c, and to 10--20% at v=0.5c. We also compare our results with those of Smarr
Sparse representation of Gravitational Sound
Rebollo-Neira, Laura; Plastino, A.
2018-03-01
Gravitational Sound clips produced by the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) are considered within the particular context of data reduction. We advance a procedure to this effect and show that these types of signals can be approximated with high quality using significantly fewer elementary components than those required within the standard orthogonal basis framework. Furthermore, a local measure sparsity is shown to render meaningful information about the variation of a signal along time, by generating a set of local sparsity values which is much smaller than the dimension of the signal. This point is further illustrated by recourse to a more complex signal, generated by Milde Science Communication to divulge Gravitational Sound in the form of a ring tone.
Gravitational Waves and Dark Energy
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Peter L. Biermann
2014-12-01
Full Text Available The idea that dark energy is gravitational waves may explain its strength and its time-evolution. A possible concept is that dark energy is the ensemble of coherent bursts (solitons of gravitational waves originally produced when the first generation of super-massive black holes was formed. These solitons get their initial energy as well as keep up their energy density throughout the evolution of the universe by stimulating emission from a background, a process which we model by working out this energy transfer in a Boltzmann equation approach. New Planck data suggest that dark energy has increased in strength over cosmic time, supporting the concept here. The transit of these gravitational wave solitons may be detectable. Key tests include pulsar timing, clock jitter and the radio background.
Nesvizhevsky, V V; Protasov, K V
2005-01-01
An upper limit to non-Newtonian attractive forces is obtained from the measurement of quantum states of neutrons in the Earth's gravitational field. This limit improves the existing constraints in the nanometer range.
Gravitational-wave mediated preheating
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Alexander, Stephon [Center for Cosmic Origins and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Cormack, Sam, E-mail: samuel.c.cormack.gr@dartmouth.edu [Center for Cosmic Origins and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Dartmouth College, Hanover, NH 03755 (United States); Marcianò, Antonino [Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics & Department of Physics, Fudan University, 200433 Shanghai (China); Yunes, Nicolás [Department of Physics, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717 (United States); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States)
2015-04-09
We propose a new preheating mechanism through the coupling of the gravitational field to both the inflaton and matter fields, without direct inflaton–matter couplings. The inflaton transfers power to the matter fields through interactions with gravitational waves, which are exponentially enhanced due to an inflation–graviton coupling. One such coupling is the product of the inflaton to the Pontryagin density, as in dynamical Chern–Simons gravity. The energy scales involved are constrained by requiring that preheating happens fast during matter domination.
Linear interaction of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ciubotariu, C.D.
1992-01-01
Starting with the linearized Einstein equations written in the same form as Maxwell equations, a damping term is found in the wave equation. The analogy with the propagation of the electromagnetic wave in ohmic media is obvious if we introduce an 'ohmic relation' for gravitational interaction. The possibility of the amplification of gravitational waves by a suitable choice of the velocity field of a dust ('dust with negative viscosity'), for example by the use of the free-electron laser principle, is indicated. (Author)
Astrophysical sources of gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Losurdo, G. E-mail: losurdo@galileo.pi.infn.it
2000-05-01
The interferometric detectors of gravitational waves (GW) (such as VIRGO and LIGO) will search for events in a frequency band within a few Hz and a few kHz, where several sources are expected to emit. In this talk we outline briefly the current theoretical knowledge on the emission of GW in events such as the coalescence of compact binaries, the gravitational collapse, the spinning of a neutron stars. Expected amplitudes are compared with the target sensitivity of the VIRGO/LIGO interferometric detectors.
Gravitational Anomaly and Transport Phenomena
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Landsteiner, Karl; Megias, Eugenio; Pena-Benitez, Francisco
2011-01-01
Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficient. The gravitational anomaly gives rise to an anomalous vortical effect even for an uncharged fluid.
General relativity and gravitational waves
Weber, Johanna
1961-01-01
An internationally famous physicist and electrical engineer, the author of this text was a pioneer in the investigation of gravitational waves. Joseph Weber's General Relativity and Gravitational Waves offers a classic treatment of the subject. Appropriate for upper-level undergraduates and graduate students, this text remains ever relevant. Brief but thorough in its introduction to the foundations of general relativity, it also examines the elements of Riemannian geometry and tensor calculus applicable to this field.Approximately a quarter of the contents explores theoretical and experimenta
Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D.
1995-01-01
A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating heavy water moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to safeguard against a flow excursion in one of more of these parallel channels. During-full-power operation, limits safeguarded against a boiling flow excursion. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increased beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of the limiting power for previous long-term reactor operations
Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, Aiken, SC (United States)
1995-09-01
A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating heavy water moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to safeguard against a flow excursion in one of more of these parallel channels. During-full-power operation, limits safeguarded against a boiling flow excursion. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increased beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of the limiting power for previous long-term reactor operations.
Buoyancy-driven flow excursions in fuel assemblies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Laurinat, J.E.; Paul, P.K.; Menna, J.D.
1995-01-01
A power limit criterion was developed for a postulated Loss of Pumping Accident (LOPA) in one of the recently shut down heavy water production reactors at the Savannah River Site. These reactors were cooled by recirculating moderator downward through channels in cylindrical fuel tubes. Powers were limited to prevent a flow excursion from occurring in one or more of these parallel channels. During full-power operation, limits prevented a boiling flow excursion from taking place. At low flow rates, during the addition of emergency cooling water, buoyant forces reverse the flow in one of the coolant channels before boiling occurs. As power increases beyond the point of flow reversal, the maximum wall temperature approaches the fluid saturation temperature, and a thermal excursion occurs. The power limit criterion for low flow rates was the onset of flow reversal. To determine conditions for flow reversal, tests were performed in a mock-up of a fuel assembly that contained two electrically heated concentric tubes surrounded by three flow channels. These tests were modeled using a finite difference thermal-hydraulic code. According to code calculations, flow reversed in the outer flow channel before the maximum wall temperature reached the local fluid saturation temperature. Thermal excursions occurred when the maximum wall temperature approximately equaled the saturation temperature. For a postulated LOPA, the flow reversal criterion for emergency cooling water addition was more limiting than the boiling excursion criterion for full power operation. This criterion limited powers to 37% of historical levels
The 'gravitating' tensor in the dualistic theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mahanta, M.N.
1989-01-01
The exact microscopic system of Einstein-type field equations of the dualistic gravitation theory is investigated as well as an analysis of the modified energy-momentum tensor or so called 'gravitating' tensor is presented
Merging Black Holes and Gravitational Waves
Centrella, Joan
2009-01-01
This talk will focus on simulations of binary black hole mergers and the gravitational wave signals they produce. Applications to gravitational wave detection with LISA, and electronagnetic counterparts, will be highlighted.
Discovery of two new gravitation lens systems
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Guertler, J.
1988-01-01
The discovery of new quasar and radio galaxy double images produced by the gravitation lens effect is reported. The light deflecting galaxies acting as gravitational lenses could be made visible by means of image processing procedures
Parametric mechanisms for detecting gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pustovoit, V.I.; Chernozatonskii, L.A.
1981-01-01
An intense electromagnetic wave and a gravitational wave can interact to effectively generate electromagnetic waves at sum and difference frequencies. The self-effect of a monochromatic electromagnetic wave through a gravitational field leads to third-harmonic generation
Resonant-bar gravitational radiation antennas
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Blair, D.G.
1987-01-01
This paper reviews the concept of gravitational radiation, and describes the worldwide research programme for the development of high-sensitivity resonant-bar antennas which are aimed at detecting gravitational radiation from astrophysical sources. (author)
Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond
2015-01-01
Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds' oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost for
Sundby, Svein; Kristiansen, Trond
2015-01-01
Buoyancy acting on plankton, i.e. the difference in specific gravity between plankton and the ambient water, is a function of salinity and temperature. From specific gravity measurements of marine fish eggs salinity appears to be the only determinant of the buoyancy indicating that the thermal expansions of the fish egg and the ambient seawater are equal. We analyze the mechanisms behind thermal expansion in fish eggs in order to determine to what extent it can be justified to neglect the effects of temperature on buoyancy. Our results confirm the earlier assumptions that salinity is the basic determinant on buoyancy in marine fish eggs that, in turn, influence the vertical distributions and, consequently, the dispersal of fish eggs from the spawning areas. Fish populations have adapted accordingly by producing egg specific gravities that tune the egg buoyancy to create specific vertical distributions for each local population. A wide variety of buoyancy adaptations are found among fish populations. The ambient physical conditions at the spawning sites form a basic constraint for adaptation. In coastal regions where salinity increases with depth, and where the major fraction of the fish stocks spawns, pelagic and mesopelagic egg distributions dominate. However, in the larger part of worlds’ oceans salinity decreases with depth resulting in different egg distributions. Here, the principles of vertical distributions of fish eggs in the world oceans are presented in an overarching framework presenting the basic differences between regions, mainly coastal, where salinity increases with depth and the major part of the world oceans where salinity decreases with depth. We show that under these latter conditions, steady-state vertical distribution of mesopelagic fish eggs cannot exist as it does in most coastal regions. In fact, a critical spawning depth must exist where spawning below this depth threshold results in eggs sinking out of the water column and become lost
Gravitational states of antihydrogen near material surface
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Voronin, Alexei Yu., E-mail: dr.a.voronin@gmail.com [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute (Russian Federation); Froelich, Piotr [Uppsala University, Department of Quantum Chemistry (Sweden); Nesvizhevsky, Valery V. [Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) (France)
2012-12-15
We present a theoretical study of the motion of antihydrogen atoms in the Earth's gravitational field near a material surface. We predict the existence of long-living quasistationary states of antihydrogen in a superposition of the gravitational and Casimir-van der Waals potentials of the surface. We suggest an interferometric method of measuring the energy difference between such gravitational states, hence the gravitational mass of antihydrogen.
Gravitational wave reception by a sphere
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ashby, N.; Dreitlein, J.
1975-01-01
The reception of gravitational waves by an elastic self-gravitating spherical detector is studied in detail. The equations of motion of a detector driven by a gravitational wave are presented in the intuitively convenient coordinate system of Fermi. An exact analytic solution is given for the homogeneous isotropic sphere. Nonlinear effects of a massive self-gravitating system are computed for a body of mass equal to that of the earth, and are shown to be numerically important
Vector-tensor interaction of gravitation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhang Yuan-zhong; Guo han-ying
1982-11-01
In the paper, by using the equation of motion a particle, we show that the antigravity exist in the vector-tensor model of gravitation. Thus the motion of a particle deviates from the geodesic equation. In Newtonian approximation and weak gravitational field, acceleration of a particle in a spherically symmetric and astatic gravitation field is zero. The result is obviously not in agreement with gravitational phenomena.
The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna; DECIGO
Kawamura, Seiji; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi; Tsubono, Kimio; Tanaka, Takahiro; Funaki, Ikkoh; Seto, Naoki; Numata, Kenji; Sato, Shuichi; Ioka, Kunihito; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Akutsu, Tomotada; Akutsu, Tomomi
2008-01-01
DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry—Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to lau...
The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO
Kawamura, Seiji; Ando, Masaki; Nakamura, Takashi; Tsubono, Kimio; Tanaka, Takahiro; Funaki, Iklkoh; Seto, Naoki; Numata, Kenji; Sato, Shuichi; Ioka, Kunihito; Kanda, Nobuyuki; Takashima, Takeshi; Agatsuma, Kazuhiro; Akutsu, Tomotada; Akutsu, Tomomi
2008-01-01
DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry—Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to lau...
Effect of the Earth's gravitational field on the detection of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.
1988-01-01
We consider the laboratory detection of high-frequency gravitational waves in theories of gravitation based on a pseudo-Euclidean space-time. We analyze the effects due to the Earth's gravitational field on the propagation velocities of gravitational and electromagnetic waves in these theories. Experiments to test the predictions of this class of theories are discussed
Plausibility Arguments and Universal Gravitation
Cunha, Ricardo F. F.; Tort, A. C.
2017-01-01
Newton's law of universal gravitation underpins our understanding of the dynamics of the Solar System and of a good portion of the observable universe. Generally, in the classroom or in textbooks, the law is presented initially in a qualitative way and at some point during the exposition its mathematical formulation is written on the blackboard…
Scientific visualization of gravitational lenses
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Magallon, M.
1999-01-01
Concepts related to gravitational lenses are discussed and applied to develop an interactive visualization tool that allow us to investigate them. Optimization strategies were performed to elaborate the tool. Some results obtained from the application of the tool are shown [es
Wilson loops in Kerr gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Bollini, C.G.; Giambiagi, J.J.; Tiomno, J.
1981-01-01
The ordered integrals for several paths in Kerr gravitation is computed in a compact form. When the path is closed its relation with the angular parallel displacement is discussed and the corresponding Wilson loop is calculated. The validity of Mandelstam relations for gauge fields is also explicitly verified. (Author) [pt
Gravitational lensing in plasmic medium
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bisnovatyi-Kogan, G. S., E-mail: gkogan@iki.rssi.ru; Tsupko, O. Yu., E-mail: tsupko@iki.rssi.ru [Russian Academy of Sciences, Space Research Institute (Russian Federation)
2015-07-15
The influence of plasma on different effects of gravitational lensing is reviewed. Using the Hamiltonian approach for geometrical optics in a medium in the presence of gravity, an exact formula for the photon deflection angle by a black hole (or another body with a Schwarzschild metric) embedded in plasma with a spherically symmetric density distribution is derived. The deflection angle in this case is determined by the mutual combination of different factors: gravity, dispersion, and refraction. While the effects of deflection by the gravity in vacuum and the refractive deflection in a nonhomogeneous medium are well known, the new effect is that, in the case of a homogeneous plasma, in the absence of refractive deflection, the gravitational deflection differs from the vacuum deflection and depends on the photon frequency. In the presence of a plasma nonhomogeneity, the chromatic refractive deflection also occurs, so the presence of plasma always makes gravitational lensing chromatic. In particular, the presence of plasma leads to different angular positions of the same image if it is observed at different wavelengths. It is discussed in detail how to apply the presented formulas for the calculation of the deflection angle in different situations. Gravitational lensing in plasma beyond the weak deflection approximation is also considered.
Academic Training: Gravitational Waves Astronomy
2006-01-01
2006-2007 ACADEMIC TRAINING PROGRAMME LECTURE SERIES 16, 17, 18 October from 11:00 to 12:00 - Main Auditorium, bldg. 500 Gravitational Waves Astronomy M. LANDRY, LIGO Hanford Observatory, Richland, USA Gravitational wave astronomy is expected to become an observational field within the next decade. First direct detection of gravitational waves is possible with existing terrestrial-based detectors, and highly probable with proposed upgrades. In this three-part lecture series, we give an overview of the field, including material on gravitional wave sources, detection methods, some details of interferometric detectors, data analysis methods, and current results from observational data-taking runs of the LIGO and GEO projects.ENSEIGNEMENT ACADEMIQUE ACADEMIC TRAINING Françoise Benz 73127 academic.training@cern.ch If you wish to participate in one of the following courses, please tell to your supervisor and apply electronically from the course description pages that can be found on the Web at: http://www.cern...
Normalization of Gravitational Acceleration Models
Eckman, Randy A.; Brown, Aaron J.; Adamo, Daniel R.
2011-01-01
Unlike the uniform density spherical shell approximations of Newton, the con- sequence of spaceflight in the real universe is that gravitational fields are sensitive to the nonsphericity of their generating central bodies. The gravitational potential of a nonspherical central body is typically resolved using spherical harmonic approximations. However, attempting to directly calculate the spherical harmonic approximations results in at least two singularities which must be removed in order to generalize the method and solve for any possible orbit, including polar orbits. Three unique algorithms have been developed to eliminate these singularities by Samuel Pines [1], Bill Lear [2], and Robert Gottlieb [3]. This paper documents the methodical normalization of two1 of the three known formulations for singularity-free gravitational acceleration (namely, the Lear [2] and Gottlieb [3] algorithms) and formulates a general method for defining normalization parameters used to generate normalized Legendre Polynomials and ALFs for any algorithm. A treatment of the conventional formulation of the gravitational potential and acceleration is also provided, in addition to a brief overview of the philosophical differences between the three known singularity-free algorithms.
Exactly integrable analogue of a one-dimensional gravitating system
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Miller, Bruce N.; Yawn, Kenneth R.; Maier, Bill
2005-01-01
Exchange symmetry in acceleration partitions the configuration space of an N particle one-dimensional gravitational system (OGS) into N! equivalent cells. We take advantage of the resulting small angular separation between the forces in neighboring cells to construct a related integrable version of the system that takes the form of a central force problem in N-1 dimensions. The properties of the latter, including the construction of trajectories and possible continuum limits, are developed. Dynamical simulation is employed to compare the two models. For some initial conditions, excellent agreement is observed
Signature of self-gravitation in vibrating mirror interferometry
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Geszti, Tamas [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eoetvoes University, Budapest (Hungary)
2007-05-15
If - according to the Newton-Schroedinger scheme - gravitation is a classical field and its source is the mean mass density, that provides a force of attraction between the Schroedinger cat partners of the vibrating mirror in the proposed Marshall et al.experiment. That force is observable in principle as a shift of the visibility revival frequency, with respect to the c.o.m. vibration frequency to be observed mechanically. The effect is of observable size if short-range gravity is much stronger than long-range gravity.
Heat Transfer in Boiling Dilute Emulsion with Strong Buoyancy
Freeburg, Eric Thomas
Little attention has been given to the boiling of emulsions compared to that of boiling in pure liquids. The advantages of using emulsions as a heat transfer agent were first discovered in the 1970s and several interesting features have since been studied by few researchers. Early research focuses primarily on pool and flow boiling and looks to determine a mechanism by which the boiling process occurs. This thesis looks at the boiling of dilute emulsions in fluids with strong buoyant forces. The boiling of dilute emulsions presents many favorable characteristics that make it an ideal agent for heat transfer. High heat flux electronics, such as those seen in avionics equipment, produce high heat fluxes of 100 W/cm2 or more, but must be maintained at low temperatures. So far, research on single phase convection and flow boiling in small diameter channels have yet to provide an adequate solution. Emulsions allow the engineer to tailor the solution to the specific problem. The fluid can be customized to retain the high thermal conductivity and specific heat capacity of the continuous phase while enhancing the heat transfer coefficient through boiling of the dispersed phase component. Heat transfer experiments were carried out with FC-72 in water emulsions. FC-72 has a saturation temperature of 56 °C, far below that of water. The parameters were varied as follows: 0% ≤ epsilon ≤ 1% and 1.82 x 1012 ≤ RaH ≤ 4.42 x 1012. Surface temperatures along the heated surface reached temperature that were 20 °C in excess of the dispersed phase saturation temperature. An increase of ˜20% was seen in the average Nusselt numbers at the highest Rayleigh numbers. Holography was used to obtain images of individual and multiple FC-72 droplets in the boundary layer next to the heated surface. The droplet diameters ranged from 0.5 mm to 1.3 mm. The Magnus effect was observed when larger individual droplets were injected into the boundary layer, causing the droplets to be pushed
Spinor approach to gravitational motion and precession
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hestenes, D.
1986-01-01
The translational and rotational equations of motion for a small rigid body in a gravitational field are combined in a single spinor equation. Besides its computational advantages, this unifies the description of gravitational interaction in classical and quantum theory. Explicit expressions for gravitational precession rates are derived. (author)
On black holes and gravitational waves
Loinger, Angelo
2002-01-01
Black holes and gravitational waves are theoretical entities of today astrophysics. Various observed phenomena have been associated with the concept of black hole ; until now, nobody has detected gravitational waves. The essays contained in this book aim at showing that the concept of black holes arises from a misinterpretation of general relativity and that gravitational waves cannot exist.
Detecting gravitational waves from accreting neutron stars
Watts, A.L.; Krishnan, B.
2009-01-01
The gravitational waves emitted by neutron stars carry unique information about their structure and composition. Direct detection of these gravitational waves, however, is a formidable technical challenge. In a recent study we quantified the hurdles facing searches for gravitational waves from the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jackson, J. D.; Li, J.; Wang, J. [The Univ., of Manchester, Manchester (United Kingdom)
2003-07-01
Two separate effects experiments concerned with buoyancy-influenced convective heat transfer in vertical passages which have relevance to the problem of nuclear reactor containment cooling by means of buoyancy-driven airflow are described. A feature of each is that local values of heat transfer coefficient are determined on surfaces maintained at uniform temperature. Experimental results are presented which highlight the need for buoyancy-induced impairment of turbulent convective heat transfer to be accounted for in the design of such passive cooling systems. A strategy is presented for predicting the heat removal by combined convective and radiative heat transfer from a full scale nuclear reactor containment shell using such experimental results.
Gravitational convergence, shear deformation and rotation of magnetic forcelines
Giantsos, Vangelis; Tsagas, Christos G.
2017-11-01
We consider the 'kinematics' of space-like congruences and apply them to a family of self-gravitating magnetic forcelines. Our aim is to investigate the convergence and the possible focusing of these lines, as well as their rotation and shear deformation. In so doing, we introduce a covariant 1+2 splitting of the 3-D space, parallel and orthogonal to the direction of the field lines. The convergence, or not, of the latter is monitored by a specific version of the Raychaudhuri equation, obtained after propagating the spatial divergence of the unit magnetic vector along its own direction. The resulting expression shows that, although the convergence of the magnetic forcelines is affected by the gravitational pull of all the other sources, it is unaffected by the field's own gravity, irrespective of how strong the latter is. This rather counterintuitive result is entirely due to the magnetic tension, namely to the negative pressure the field exerts parallel to its lines of force. In particular, the magnetic tension always cancels out the field's energy-density input to the Raychaudhuri equation, leaving the latter free of any direct magnetic-energy contribution. Similarly, the rotation and the shear deformation of the aforementioned forcelines are also unaffected by the magnetic input to the total gravitational energy. In a sense, the magnetic lines do not seem to 'feel' their own gravitational field no matter how strong the latter may be.
Hyperunified field theory and gravitational gauge-geometry duality
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Wu, Yue-Liang
2018-01-01
A hyperunified field theory is built in detail based on the postulates of gauge invariance and coordinate independence along with the conformal scaling symmetry. All elementary particles are merged into a single hyper-spinor field and all basic forces are unified into a fundamental interaction governed by the hyper-spin gauge symmetry SP(1, D h - 1). The dimension D h of hyper-spacetime is conjectured to have a physical origin in correlation with the hyper-spin charge of elementary particles. The hyper-gravifield fiber bundle structure of biframe hyper-spacetime appears naturally with the globally flat Minkowski hyper-spacetime as a base spacetime and the locally flat hyper-gravifield spacetime as a fiber that is viewed as a dynamically emerged hyper-spacetime characterized by a non-commutative geometry. The gravitational origin of gauge symmetry is revealed with the hyper-gravifield that plays an essential role as a Goldstone-like field. The gauge-gravity and gravity-geometry correspondences bring about the gravitational gauge-geometry duality. The basic properties of hyperunified field theory and the issue on the fundamental scale are analyzed within the framework of quantum field theory, which allows us to describe the laws of nature in deriving the gauge gravitational equation with the conserved current and the geometric gravitational equations of Einstein-like type and beyond. (orig.)
Hyperunified field theory and gravitational gauge-geometry duality
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wu, Yue-Liang [International Centre for Theoretical Physics Asia-Pacific (ICTP-AP), Beijing (China); Chinese Academy of Sciences, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Beijing (China); University of Chinese Academy of Sciences (UCAS), Beijing (China)
2018-01-15
A hyperunified field theory is built in detail based on the postulates of gauge invariance and coordinate independence along with the conformal scaling symmetry. All elementary particles are merged into a single hyper-spinor field and all basic forces are unified into a fundamental interaction governed by the hyper-spin gauge symmetry SP(1, D{sub h} - 1). The dimension D{sub h} of hyper-spacetime is conjectured to have a physical origin in correlation with the hyper-spin charge of elementary particles. The hyper-gravifield fiber bundle structure of biframe hyper-spacetime appears naturally with the globally flat Minkowski hyper-spacetime as a base spacetime and the locally flat hyper-gravifield spacetime as a fiber that is viewed as a dynamically emerged hyper-spacetime characterized by a non-commutative geometry. The gravitational origin of gauge symmetry is revealed with the hyper-gravifield that plays an essential role as a Goldstone-like field. The gauge-gravity and gravity-geometry correspondences bring about the gravitational gauge-geometry duality. The basic properties of hyperunified field theory and the issue on the fundamental scale are analyzed within the framework of quantum field theory, which allows us to describe the laws of nature in deriving the gauge gravitational equation with the conserved current and the geometric gravitational equations of Einstein-like type and beyond. (orig.)
Detection of gravitational waves: a hundred year journey
Mavalvala, Nergis
2016-05-01
In February 2016, scientists announced the first ever detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes, launching a new era of gravitational wave astronomy and unprecedented tests of Einstein's theory of general relativity. I will describe the science and technology, and also the human story, behind the long quest that led to this discovery. Bio: Nergis Mavalvala is Professor of Physics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). Her research links the world of quantum mechanics, usually apparent only at the atomic scale, with gravitational waves, arising from some of the most powerful, yet elusive, forces in the cosmos. In 2016, she was part of the team that announced the first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes. She received a B.A. from Wellesley College in 1990 and a Ph.D. from MIT in 1997. She was a postdoctoral fellow and research scientist at the California Institute of Technology between 1997 and 2002. Since 2002, she has been on the Physics faculty at MIT, and was named a MacArthur Fellow in 2010. She is a Fellow of the American Physical Society and the Optical Society of America.
Hyperunified field theory and gravitational gauge-geometry duality
Wu, Yue-Liang
2018-01-01
A hyperunified field theory is built in detail based on the postulates of gauge invariance and coordinate independence along with the conformal scaling symmetry. All elementary particles are merged into a single hyper-spinor field and all basic forces are unified into a fundamental interaction governed by the hyper-spin gauge symmetry SP(1, D_h-1). The dimension D_h of hyper-spacetime is conjectured to have a physical origin in correlation with the hyper-spin charge of elementary particles. The hyper-gravifield fiber bundle structure of biframe hyper-spacetime appears naturally with the globally flat Minkowski hyper-spacetime as a base spacetime and the locally flat hyper-gravifield spacetime as a fiber that is viewed as a dynamically emerged hyper-spacetime characterized by a non-commutative geometry. The gravitational origin of gauge symmetry is revealed with the hyper-gravifield that plays an essential role as a Goldstone-like field. The gauge-gravity and gravity-geometry correspondences bring about the gravitational gauge-geometry duality. The basic properties of hyperunified field theory and the issue on the fundamental scale are analyzed within the framework of quantum field theory, which allows us to describe the laws of nature in deriving the gauge gravitational equation with the conserved current and the geometric gravitational equations of Einstein-like type and beyond.
Practicing for space underwater: inventing neutral buoyancy training, 1963-1968.
Neufeld, Michael J; Charles, John B
2015-01-01
Neutral buoyancy's value was far from obvious when human spaceflight began in 1961. Starting in 1964, Environmental Research Associates, a tiny company in the suburbs of Baltimore, developed the key innovations in an obscure research project funded by NASA's Langley Research Center. The new Houston center dismissed it until a mid-1966 EVA crisis, after which it rapidly took over. In parallel, NASA Marshall Space Flight Center developed many of the same techniques, as did many large aerospace corporations, yet the long-run technological impact of corporate activity was near zero. Because ERA and Marshall's pioneering activities led to the two long-running NASA training centers at Houston and Huntsville, those two organizations deserve primary credit for the construction of the neutral buoyancy technological system. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Abeynayaka, Helayaye Damitha Lakmali; Asaeda, Takashi; Kaneko, Yasuko
2017-08-01
Freshwater cyanobacterium Pseudanabaena galeata were cultured in chambers under artificially generated pressures, which correspond to the hydrostatic pressures at deep water. Variations occurred in gas vesicles volume, and buoyancy state of cells under those conditions were analyzed at different time intervals (5 min, 1 day, and 5 days). Variations in gas vesicles morphology of cells were observed by transmission electron microscopy images. Settling velocity (Vs) of cells which governs the buoyancy was observed with the aid of a modified optical microscope. Moreover, effects of the prolonged pressure on cell ballast composition (protein and polysaccharides) were examined. Elevated pressure conditions reduced the cell ballast and caused a complete disappearance of gas vesicles in Pseudanabaena galeata cells. Hence cyanobacteria cells were not able to float within the study period. Observations and findings of the study indicate the potential application of hydrostatic pressure, which naturally occurred in hypolimnion of lakes, to inhibit the re-suspension of cyanobacteria cells.
Tropical cloud buoyancy is the same in a world with or without ice
Seeley, Jacob T.; Romps, David M.
2016-04-01
When convective clouds grow above the melting line, where temperatures fall below 0°C, condensed water begins to freeze and water vapor is deposited. These processes release the latent heat of fusion, which warms cloud air, and many previous studies have suggested that this heating from fusion increases cloud buoyancy in the upper troposphere. Here we use numerical simulations of radiative-convective equilibrium with and without ice processes to argue that tropical cloud buoyancy is not systematically higher in a world with fusion than in a world without it. This insensitivity results from the fact that the environmental temperature profile encountered by developing tropical clouds is itself determined by convection. We also offer a simple explanation for the large reservoir of convective available potential energy in the tropical upper troposphere that does not invoke ice.
Numerical and Experimental Study on Negative Buoyance Induced Vortices in N-Butane Jet Flames
Xiong, Yuan
2015-07-26
Near nozzle flow field in flickering n-butane diffusion jet flames was investigated with a special focus on transient flow patterns of negative buoyance induced vortices. The flow structures were obtained through Mie scattering imaging with seed particles in a fuel stream using continuous-wave (CW) Argon-ion laser. Velocity fields were also quantified with particle mage velocimetry (PIV) system having kHz repetition rate. The results showed that the dynamic motion of negative buoyance induced vortices near the nozzle exit was coupled strongly with a flame flickering instability. Typically during the flame flickering, the negative buoyant vortices oscillated at the flickering frequency. The vortices were distorted by the flickering motion and exhibited complicated transient vortical patterns, such as tilting and stretching. Numerical simulations were also implemented based on an open source C++ package, LaminarSMOKE, for further validations.
Neutral buoyancy testing of architectural and environmental concepts of space vehicle design
Lenda, J. A.; Rosener, A. A.; Stephenson, M. L.
1972-01-01
Design guidelines are presented that are applicable to providing habitability areas and furniture elements for extended periods in a zero gravity environment. This was accomplished by: (1) analyzing the existing habitability crew area requirements, mobility and restraint aids, cross-cultural design, and establishing a man model for zero gravity; (2) designing specific furniture elements, chair and table, and volumes for a stateroom, office, bathroom, galley, and wardroom; and (3) neutral buoyancy testing and evaluation of these areas.
Buoyancy frequency profiles and internal semidiurnal tide turning depths in the oceans
King, B.; Stone, M.; Zhang, H.P.; Gerkema, T.; Marder, M.; Scott, R.B.; Swinney, H.L.
2012-01-01
We examine the possible existence of internal gravity wave "turning depths," depths below which the local buoyancy frequency N(z) becomes smaller than the wave frequency. At a turning depth, incident gravity waves reflect rather than reaching the ocean bottom as is generally assumed. Here we consider internal gravity waves at the lunar semidiurnal (M-2) tidal frequency, omega(M2). Profiles of N-2(z) (the quantity in the equations of motion) are computed using conductivity, temperature, and de...
Statistical Change Detection for Diagnosis of Buoyancy Element Defects on Moored Floating Vessels
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Blanke, Mogens; Fang, Shaoji; Galeazzi, Roberto
2012-01-01
. After residual generation, statistical change detection scheme is derived from mathematical models supported by experimental data. To experimentally verify loss of an underwater buoyancy element, an underwater line breaker is designed to create realistic replication of abrupt faults. The paper analyses...... the properties of residuals and suggests a dedicated GLRT change detector based on a vector residual. Special attention is paid to threshold selection for non ideal (non-IID) test statistics....
The effect of buoyancy on flow and heat transfer in curved pipes
Mochizuki, Munekazu; Ishigaki, Hiroshi; 望月 宗和; 石垣 博
1994-01-01
Fully developed laminar flow in a heated horizontal curved pipe is studied numerically. The thermal boundary conditions at the wall are uniform wall heat flux axially and uniform wall temperature peripherally. Flow and heat transfer are governed by Dean number, Prandtl number and buoyancy number. Detailed prediction of the friction factor, average heat transfer rate, velocity profile, temperature profile and secondary-flow streamlines are given.
Gravitational wave signals and cosmological consequences of gravitational reheating
Artymowski, Michał; Czerwińska, Olga; Lalak, Zygmunt; Lewicki, Marek
2018-04-01
Reheating after inflation can proceed even if the inflaton couples to Standard Model (SM) particles only gravitationally. However, particle production during the transition between de-Sitter expansion and a decelerating Universe is rather inefficient and the necessity to recover the visible Universe leads to a non-standard cosmological evolution initially dominated by remnants of the inflaton field. We remain agnostic to the specific dynamics of the inflaton field and discuss a generic scenario in which its remnants behave as a perfect fluid with a general barotropic parameter w. Using CMB and BBN constraints we derive the allowed range of inflationary scales. We also show that this scenario results in a characteristic primordial Gravitational Wave (GW) spectrum which gives hope for observation in upcoming runs of LIGO as well as in other planned experiments.
Measurement of gravitational acceleration of antimatter
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Rouhani, S.
1989-12-01
The minute yet effective impact of gravitational potential in the central region of a long tube magnetic container of non-neutral plasmas can be utilized for the measurement of the gravitational acceleration of antimatter particles. The slight change in distribution of plasma particles along the gravitational field affects the internal electric field of the plasma, which in turn affects the frequency of the magnetron motion of its particles. Thus, a rather straightforward relation is established between the gravitational acceleration of the particles and their magnetron frequencies, which is measurable directly, determining the value of the gravitational acceleration. (author). 7 refs, 3 figs
The Japanese space gravitational wave antenna - DECIGO
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kawamura, S; Seto, N; Sato, S; Arai, K; Ando, M; Tsubono, K; Agatsuma, K; Akutsu, T; Akutsu, T; Arase, Y; Nakamura, T; Tanaka, T; Funaki, I; Takashima, T; Numata, K; Ioka, K; Kanda, N; Aoyanagi, Koh-Suke; Araya, A; Asada, H
2008-01-01
DECi-hertz Interferometer Gravitational wave Observatory (DECIGO) is the future Japanese space gravitational wave antenna. The goal of DECIGO is to detect gravitational waves from various kinds of sources mainly between 0.1 Hz and 10 Hz and thus to open a new window of observation for gravitational wave astronomy. DECIGO will consist of three drag-free spacecraft, 1000 km apart from each other, whose relative displacements are measured by a Fabry-Perot Michelson interferometer. We plan to launch DECIGO pathfinder first to demonstrate the technologies required to realize DECIGO and, if possible, to detect gravitational waves from our galaxy or nearby galaxies
Buoyancy-driven mean flow in a long channel with a hydraulically constrained exit condition
Grimm, Th.; Maxworthy, T.
1999-11-01
Convection plays a major role in a variety of natural hydrodynamic systems. Those in which convection drives exchange flows through a lateral contraction and/or over a sill form a special class with typical examples being the Red and Mediterranean Seas, the Persian Gulf, and the fjords that indent many coastlines. The present work focuses on the spatial distribution and scaling of the density difference between the inflowing and outflowing fluid layers. Using a long water-filled channel, fitted with buoyancy sources at its upper surface, experiments were conducted to investigate the influence of the geometry of the strait and the channel as well as the magnitude of the buoyancy flux. Two different scaling laws, one by Phillips (1966), and one by Maxworthy (1994, 1997) were compared with the experimental results. It has been shown that a scaling law for which g[prime prime or minute] = kB02/3x/h4/3 best describes the distribution of the observed density difference along the channel, where B0 is the buoyancy flux, x the distance from the closed end of the channel, h its height at the open end (sill) and k a constant that depends on the details of the channel geometry and flow conditions. This result holds for the experimental results and appears to be valid for a number of natural systems as well.
Two-phase turbulent mixing and buoyancy drift in rod bundles
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Carlucci, L.N.; Hammouda, N.; Rowe, D.S.
2004-01-01
This paper describes the development of generalized relationships for single- and two-phase inter subchannel turbulent mixing in vertical and horizontal flows, and lateral buoyancy drift in horizontal flows. The relationships for turbulent mixing, together with a recommended one for void drift, have been implemented in a subchannel thermal hydraulics code, and assessed using a range of data on enthalpy migration in vertical steam-water lows under BWR and PWR diabatic conditions. The intent of this assessment as to optimize these relationships to give the best agreement with the enthalpy migration data for vertical flows. The optimized turbulent mixing relationships were then used as a basis to benchmark a proposed buoyancy rift model to give the best predictions of void and enthalpy migration data n horizontal flows typical of PHWR CANDU reactor operation under normal and off-normal conditions. Overall, the optimized turbulent mixing and buoyancy drift relationships have been found to predict the available data quite well, nd generally better and more consistently than currently used models. This is expected to result in more accurate calculations of subchannel distributions of phasic flows, and hence, in improved predictions of critical heat flux (CHF)
Gravitational domain walls and the dynamics of the gravitational constant G
Bunster, Claudio; Gomberoff, Andrés
2017-07-01
From the point of view of elementary particle physics, the gravitational constant G is extraordinarily small. This has led to asking whether it could have decayed to its present value from an initial one commensurate with microscopical units. A mechanism that leads to such a decay is proposed herein. It is based on assuming that G may take different values within regions of the universe separated by a novel kind of domain wall, a "G -wall." The idea is implemented by introducing a gauge potential Aμ ν ρ, and its conjugate D , which determines the value of G as an integration constant rather than a fundamental constant. The value of G jumps when one goes through a G -wall. The procedure extends one previously developed for the cosmological constant, but the generalization is far from straightforward: (i) The intrinsic geometry of a G -wall is not the same as seen from its two sides because the second law of black hole thermodynamics mandates that the jump in G must cause a discontinuity in the scale of length. (ii) The size of the decay step in G is controlled by a function G (D ) which may be chosen so as to diminish the value of G towards the asymptote G =0 . It is shown that: (i) The dynamics of the gravitational field with G treated as a dynamical variable, coupled to G -walls and matter, follows from an action principle, which is given. (ii) A particle that impinges on a G -wall may be refracted or reflected. (iii) The various forces between two particles change when a G -wall is inserted in between them. (iv) G -walls may be nucleated trough tunneling and thermal effects, whose semiclassical probabilities are evaluated. (v) If the action principle is constructed properly, the entropy of a black hole increases when the value of the gravitational constant is changed through the absorption of a G-wall by the hole.
Quantum space-time and gravitational consequences
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Namsrai, K.
1986-01-01
Relativistic particle dynamics and basic physical quantities for the general theory of gravity are reconstructed from a quantum space-time point of view. An additional force caused by quantum space-time appears in the equation of particle motion, giving rise to a reformulation of the equivalence principle up to values of O(L 2 ), where L is the fundamental length. It turns out that quantum space-time leads to quantization of gravity, i.e. the metric tensor g/sub uv/ (/ZETA/) becomes operator-valued and is not commutative at different points x/sup micro/ and y/sup micro/ in usual space-time on a large scale, and its commutator depending on the ''vielbein'' field (gaugelike graviton field) is proportional to L 2 multiplied by a translationinvariant wave function propagated between points x/sup micro/ and y/sup micro/. In the given scheme, there appears to be an antigravitational effect in the motion of a particle in the gravitational force. This effect depends on the value of particle mass; when a particle is heavy its free-fall time is long compared to that for a light-weight particle. The problem of the change of time scale and the anisotropy of inertia are discussed. From experimental data from testing of the latter effect it follows that L ≤ 10 -22 cm
NASA's Gravitational - Wave Mission Concept Study
Stebbins, Robin; Jennrich, Oliver; McNamara, Paul
2012-01-01
With the conclusion of the NASA/ESA partnership on the Laser Interferometer Space Antenna (LISA) Project, NASA initiated a study to explore mission concepts that will accomplish some or all of the LISA science objectives at lower cost. The Gravitational-Wave Mission Concept Study consisted of a public Request for Information (RFI), a Core Team of NASA engineers and scientists, a Community Science Team, a Science Task Force, and an open workshop. The RFI yielded were 12 mission concepts, 3 instrument concepts and 2 technologies. The responses ranged from concepts that eliminated the drag-free test mass of LISA to concepts that replace the test mass with an atom interferometer. The Core Team reviewed the noise budgets and sensitivity curves, the payload and spacecraft designs and requirements, orbits and trajectories and technical readiness and risk. The Science Task Force assessed the science performance by calculating the horizons. the detection rates and the accuracy of astrophysical parameter estimation for massive black hole mergers, stellar-mass compact objects inspiraling into central engines. and close compact binary systems. Three mission concepts have been studied by Team-X, JPL's concurrent design facility. to define a conceptual design evaluate kt,y performance parameters. assess risk and estimate cost and schedule. The Study results are summarized.
A measurement of the gravitational acceleration of the antiproton
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Holzscheiter, M.H.
1990-01-01
A fundamental experiment in gravity proposed by us, is the measurement of the gravitational force on antimatter. This measurement would constitute the first direct test of the Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) for antimatter. The availability of low-energy antiprotons at CERN has made such an experiment feasible, and a proposal to carry out such a measurement has been accepted by the CERN Program Committee. We plan to use a time-of-flight technique similar to that pioneered by Fairbank and Witteborn in their measurement of the gravitational force on an electron. Very slow particles are launched into a vertical drift tube and the time-of-flight spectrum of these particles is recorded. This spectrum will exhibit a cut-off point directly related to the gravitational acceleration of the particles. Obtaining very slow antiprotons involves several stages of deceleration. Antiprotons from LEAR will be initially decelerated from 2 MeV to tens of kilovolts by passing them through a thin foil. After capture and cooling in a series of ion traps, the antiprotons will be in a thermal distribution with a temperature of a few degrees Kelvin. These ultra-cold antiprotons will then be released a few at a time into the drift tube. A detector will measure the arrival time of the particles at the exit of the drift tube. H - -ion, which have almost identical electromagnetic properties to the antiprotons, will be used for comparison and as a calibration standard. 7 refs., 1 fig
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Petra Furlan
2014-03-01
Full Text Available Kindergarten curricula (Bahovec et al. 1999, 37 cover different areas of education that are sensibly interconnected and integrated. Science is one of the areas that represent child’s first learning about the surrounding world and the first introduction to nature. Science education is a very suitable approach of introducing children into basic research work, since in nature objects and phenomena are more concrete, and hence the children are instinctively attracted. Therefore, science education could act as a starting point for all other areas of education. Teaching science comprises several difficulties, which are mainly connected with the way how contents are introduced to children. This is often a great challenge and great responsibility for pre-school teachers, because the scientific content needs to be explained in an appropriate way taking into consideration the child's age, the use of correct terminology, and at the same time avoiding inadequate generalization and over-simplification. Buoyancy is a natural phenomenon that is experienced by every child, but which, on the other hand, is quite difficult to explain. With the present study we wished to assess the knowledge considering buoyancy of the part-time students within the Pre-school Teaching educational programme at the Faculty of Education of the University of Primorska, which is performed on different locations throughout Slovenia. These students already teach in the kindergartens and should be well acquainted with buoyancy from previously passed physics courses at the Faculty of Education. We examined how they explained the buoyancy to children in kindergartens, and whether the knowledge about buoyancy is affected by their working experience or the location of their study. The results show that the students’ knowledge about buoyancy is insufficient and incomplete. In addition, many misconceptions about buoyancy are transmitted to the children in the process of teaching
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Timothée R Cook
Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Because they have air stored in many body compartments, diving seabirds are expected to exhibit efficient behavioural strategies for reducing costs related to buoyancy control. We study the underwater locomotor activity of a deep-diving species from the Cormorant family (Kerguelen shag and report locomotor adjustments to the change of buoyancy with depth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using accelerometers, we show that during both the descent and ascent phases of dives, shags modelled their acceleration and stroking activity on the natural variation of buoyancy with depth. For example, during the descent phase, birds increased swim speed with depth. But in parallel, and with a decay constant similar to the one in the equation explaining the decrease of buoyancy with depth, they decreased foot-stroke frequency exponentially, a behaviour that enables birds to reduce oxygen consumption. During ascent, birds also reduced locomotor cost by ascending passively. We considered the depth at which they started gliding as a proxy to their depth of neutral buoyancy. This depth increased with maximum dive depth. As an explanation for this, we propose that shags adjust their buoyancy to depth by varying the amount of respiratory air they dive with. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Calculations based on known values of stored body oxygen volumes and on deep-diving metabolic rates in avian divers suggest that the variations of volume of respiratory oxygen associated with a respiration mediated buoyancy control only influence aerobic dive duration moderately. Therefore, we propose that an advantage in cormorants--as in other families of diving seabirds--of respiratory air volume adjustment upon diving could be related less to increasing time of submergence, through an increased volume of body oxygen stores, than to reducing the locomotor costs of buoyancy control.
Charles, John B.
2013-01-01
The technique of neutral buoyancy during water immersion was applied to a variety of questions pertaining to human performance factors in the early years of the space age. It was independently initiated by numerous aerospace contractors at nearly the same time, but specific applications depended on the problems that the developers were trying to solve. Those problems dealt primarily with human restraint and maneuverability and were often generic across extravehicular activity (EVA) and intravehicular activity (IVA) worksites. The same groups often also considered fractional gravity as well as weightless settings and experimented with ballasting to achieve lunar and Mars-equivalent loads as part of their on-going research and development. Dr. John Charles reviewed the association of those tasks with contemporary perceptions of the direction of NASA's future space exploration activities and with Air Force assessments of the military value of man in space.
Gravitational lensing and extra dimensions
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
He, X-G.; University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC; Joshi, G.C.; McKellar, B.H.J.
1999-08-01
We study gravitational tensing and the bending of light in low energy scale (M s ) gravity theories with extra space-time dimensions 'n'. We find that due to the presence of spin-2 Kaluza-Klein states from compactification, a correction to the deflection angle with a strong quadratic dependence on the photon energy is introduced. No deviation from the Einstein General Relativity prediction for the deflection angle for photons grazing the Sun in the visible band with 15% accuracy (90% c.l.) implies that the scale M s has to be larger than 1.4(2/(n-2)) 1/4 TeV and approximately 4 TeV for n=2. This lower bound is comparable with that from collider physics constraints. Gravitational tensing experiments with higher energy photons can provide stronger constraints. (authors)
New case of gravitational lensing
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Surdej, J.; Swings, J.-P.; Magain, P.; Borgeest, U.; Kayser, R.; Refsdal, S.; Courvoisier, T.J.-L.; Kellermann, K.I.; Kuehr, H.
1987-10-22
The authors report a brief description of a gravitational lens system UM673 = Q0142 - 100 = PHL3703. It consists of two images, A and B, separated by 2.2 arc s at a redshift zsub(q) = 2.719. The lensing galaxy has also been found. It lies very near the line connecting the two QSO (quasi-stellar objects) images, approx. 0.8 arc s from the fainter one. Application of gravitational optometry to this system leads to a value Msub(o) or approx. = 2.4 x 10/sup 11/ M solar masses for the mass of the lensing galaxy and to ..delta..t approx. 7 weeks for the most likely travel-time difference between the two light paths to the QSO.
Gravitating multidefects from higher dimensions
Giovannini, Massimo
2007-01-01
Warped configurations admitting pairs of gravitating defects are analyzed. After devising a general method for the construction of multidefects, specific examples are presented in the case of higher-dimensional Einstein-Hilbert gravity. The obtained profiles describe diverse physical situations such as (topological) kink-antikink systems, pairs of non-topological solitons and bound configurations of a kink and of a non-topological soliton. In all the mentioned cases the geometry is always well behaved (all relevant curvature invariants are regular) and tends to five-dimensional anti-de Sitter space-time for large asymptotic values of the bulk coordinate. Particular classes of solutions can be generalized to the framework where the gravity part of the action includes, as a correction, the Euler-Gauss-Bonnet combination. After scrutinizing the structure of the zero modes, the obtained results are compared with conventional gravitating configurations containing a single topological defect.
Magnetic tension and gravitational collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Tsagas, Christos G
2006-01-01
The gravitational collapse of a magnetized medium is investigated by studying qualitatively the convergence of a timelike family of non-geodesic worldlines in the presence of a magnetic field. Focusing on the field's tension, we illustrate how the winding of the magnetic forcelines due to the fluid's rotation assists the collapse, while shear-like distortions in the distribution of the field's gradients resist contraction. We also show that the relativistic coupling between magnetism and geometry, together with the tension properties of the field, lead to a magneto-curvature stress that opposes the collapse. This tension stress grows stronger with increasing curvature distortion, which means that it could potentially dominate over the gravitational pull of the matter. If this happens, a converging family of non-geodesic worldlines can be prevented from focusing without violating the standard energy conditions
Bayesian Inference on Gravitational Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Asad Ali
2015-12-01
Full Text Available The Bayesian approach is increasingly becoming popular among the astrophysics data analysis communities. However, the Pakistan statistics communities are unaware of this fertile interaction between the two disciplines. Bayesian methods have been in use to address astronomical problems since the very birth of the Bayes probability in eighteenth century. Today the Bayesian methods for the detection and parameter estimation of gravitational waves have solid theoretical grounds with a strong promise for the realistic applications. This article aims to introduce the Pakistan statistics communities to the applications of Bayesian Monte Carlo methods in the analysis of gravitational wave data with an overview of the Bayesian signal detection and estimation methods and demonstration by a couple of simplified examples.
Topological quantization of gravitational fields
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Patino, Leonardo; Quevedo, Hernando
2005-01-01
We introduce the method of topological quantization for gravitational fields in a systematic manner. First we show that any vacuum solution of Einstein's equations can be represented in a principal fiber bundle with a connection that takes values in the Lie algebra of the Lorentz group. This result is generalized to include the case of gauge matter fields in multiple principal fiber bundles. We present several examples of gravitational configurations that include a gravitomagnetic monopole in linearized gravity, the C-energy of cylindrically symmetric fields, the Reissner-Nordstroem and the Kerr-Newman black holes. As a result of the application of the topological quantization procedure, in all the analyzed examples we obtain conditions implying that the parameters entering the metric in each case satisfy certain discretization relationships
Post-Newtonian gravitational bremsstrahlung
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Turner, M.; Will, C.M.
1977-07-01
Formulae and numerical results are presented for the gravitational radiation emitted during a low-deflection encounter between two massive bodies. Results are valid through post-Newtonian order within general relativity. The gravitational waveform, the total luminosity and total emitted energy, the angular distribution of emitted energy, and the frequency spectrum are discussed in detail. A method boosting the accuracy of these quantities to post Newtonian order is also presented. A numerical comparison of results with those of Peters, and of Kovacs and Thorne shows that the post Newtonian method is reliable to better than 0.1 percent at v = 0.1 c, to a few percent at v = 0.35 c, and to 10 to 20 percent at v = 0.5 c
Gravitational waves and dragging effects
Bičák, Jiří; Katz, Joseph; Lynden-Bell, Donald
2008-08-01
Linear and rotational dragging effects of gravitational waves on local inertial frames are studied in purely vacuum spacetimes. First, the linear dragging caused by a simple cylindrical pulse is investigated. Surprisingly strong transverse effects of the pulse are exhibited. The angular momentum in cylindrically symmetric spacetimes is then defined and confronted with some results in the literature. In the main part, a general procedure is developed for studying weak gravitational waves with translational but not axial symmetry which can carry angular momentum. After a suitable averaging the rotation of local inertial frames due to such rotating waves can be calculated explicitly and illustrated graphically. This is done in detail in the accompanying paper. Finally, the rotational dragging is given for strong cylindrical waves interacting with a rotating cosmic string with a small angular momentum.
Asmar, Sami; Renzetti, Nicholas
1994-01-01
The Deep Space Network generates accurate radio science data observables for investigators who use radio links between spacecraft and the Earth to examine small changes in the phase and/or amplitude of the signal to study a wide variety of structures and phenomena in space. Several such studies are directed at aspects of the theory of general relativity such as gravitational redshift and gravitational waves. A gravitational wave is a propagating, polarized gravitational field, a ripple in the curvature of space-time. In Einstein's theory of general relativity, the waves are propagating solutions of the Einstein field equations. Their amplitudes are dimensionless strain amplitudes that change the fractional difference in distance between test masses and the rates at which separated clocks keep time. Predicted by all relativistic theories of gravity, they are extremely weak (the ratio of gravitational forces to electrical forces is about 10(sup -40)) and are generated at detectable levels only by astrophysical sources - very massive sources under violent dynamical conditions. The waves have never been detected but searches in the low-frequency band using Doppler tracking of many spacecraft have been conducted and others are being planned. Upper limits have been placed on the gravitational wave strength with the best sensitivities to date are for periodic waves being 7 x 10(sup -15).
On the gravitational constant change
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Milyukov, V.K.
1986-01-01
The nowadays viewpoint on the problem of G gravitational constant invariability is presented in brief. The methods and results of checking of the G dependence on the nature of substance (checking of the equivalence principle), G dependepce on distance (checking of Newton gravity law) and time (cosmological experiments) are presented. It is pointed out that all performed experiments don't give any reasons to have doubts in G constancy in space and time and G independence on the nature of the substance
Galactic Structures from Gravitational Radii
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Salvatore Capozziello
2018-02-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate that the existence of a Noether symmetry in f ( R theories of gravity gives rise to an additional gravitational radius, besides the standard Schwarzschild one, determining the dynamics at galactic scales. By this feature, it is possible to explain the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation and the rotation curve of gas-rich galaxies without the dark matter hypothesis. Furthermore, under the same standard, the Fundamental Plane of elliptical galaxies can be addressed.
On neutron stars and gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Castagnino, M.A.
1987-01-01
From the variational principle for the total internal energy of a neutron star and some restrictions of the form of the metric coefficients, equations of structure which are valid for every metric theory of gravitation have been found. Some simple solutions of the structure equations to find the maximum mass of a neutron star are also presented. Finally it is studied this problem using a post post-Newtonian parametrization
Cylindrical collapse and gravitational waves
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Herrera, L [Escuela de FIsica, Faculdad de Ciencias, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela (Venezuela); Santos, N O [Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, CNRS/FRE 2460 LERMA/ERGA, Tour 22-12, 4eme etage, BoIte 142, 4 place Jussieu, 75252 Paris Cedex 05 (France); Laboratorio Nacional de Computacao Cientifica, 25651-070 Petropolis RJ (Brazil); Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas, 22290-180 Rio de Janeiro RJ (Brazil)
2005-06-21
We study the matching conditions for a collapsing anisotropic cylindrical perfect fluid, and we show that its radial pressure is non-zero on the surface of the cylinder and proportional to the time-dependent part of the field produced by the collapsing fluid. This result resembles the one that arises for the radiation-though non-gravitational-in the spherically symmetric collapsing dissipative fluid, in the diffusion approximation.
Field theory approach to gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yilmaz, H.
1978-01-01
A number of authors considered the possibility of formulating a field-theory approach to gravitation with the claim that such an approach would uniquely lead to Einstein's theory of general relativity. In this article it is shown that the field theory approach is more generally applicable and uniqueness cannot be claimed. Theoretical and experimental reasons are given showing that the Einsteinian limit appears to be unviable
Generalized field theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yilmaz, H.
1976-01-01
It is shown that if, on empirical grounds, one rules out the existence of cosmic fields of Dicke-Brans (scalar) and Will Nordvedt (vector, tensor) type, then the most general experimentally viable and theoretically reasonable theory of gravitation seems to be a LAMBDA-dependent generalization of Einstein and Yilmez theories, which reduces to the former for LAMBDA=0 and to the latter for LAMBDA=1
Gravitational Instabilities in Circumstellar Disks
Kratter, Kaitlin; Lodato, Giuseppe
2016-09-01
Star and planet formation are the complex outcomes of gravitational collapse and angular momentum transport mediated by protostellar and protoplanetary disks. In this review, we focus on the role of gravitational instability in this process. We begin with a brief overview of the observational evidence for massive disks that might be subject to gravitational instability and then highlight the diverse ways in which the instability manifests itself in protostellar and protoplanetary disks: the generation of spiral arms, small-scale turbulence-like density fluctuations, and fragmentation of the disk itself. We present the analytic theory that describes the linear growth phase of the instability supplemented with a survey of numerical simulations that aim to capture the nonlinear evolution. We emphasize the role of thermodynamics and large-scale infall in controlling the outcome of the instability. Despite apparent controversies in the literature, we show a remarkable level of agreement between analytic predictions and numerical results. In the next part of our review, we focus on the astrophysical consequences of the instability. We show that the disks most likely to be gravitationally unstable are young and relatively massive compared with their host star, Md/M*≥0.1. They will develop quasi-stable spiral arms that process infall from the background cloud. Although instability is less likely at later times, once infall becomes less important, the manifestations of the instability are more varied. In this regime, the disk thermodynamics, often regulated by stellar irradiation, dictates the development and evolution of the instability. In some cases the instability may lead to fragmentation into bound companions. These companions are more likely to be brown dwarfs or stars than planetary mass objects. Finally, we highlight open questions related to the development of a turbulent cascade in thin disks and the role of mode-mode coupling in setting the maximum angular
On the linear conformal gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Pal'chik, M.Ya.; Fradkin, E.S.
1984-01-01
Conformal gravitation is analyzed under the assumption that its solution possesses the property of conformal symmetry. This assumption has sense in the case of small distances and only for definite types of matter fields, namely: at special choice of matter fields and their interactions, providing a lack of conformal anomalies; or at definite magnitudes of binding constants, coinciding with the zeroes of the Gell-Mann-Low function. The field equations, of the group-theoretical natura are obtained
Gravitation and bilocal field theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Vollendorf, F.
1975-01-01
The starting point is the conjecture that a field theory of elementary particles can be constructed only in a bilocal version. Thus the 4-dimensional space time has to be replaced by the 8-dimensional manifold R 8 of all ordered pairs of space time events. With special reference to the Schwarzschild metric it is shown that the embedding of the time space into the manifold R 8 yields a description of the gravitational field. (orig.) [de
Gravitation, Thermodynamics, and Quantum Theory
Wald, Robert M.
1999-01-01
During the past 30 years, research in general relativity has brought to light strong hints of a very deep and fundamental relationship between gravitation, thermodynamics, and quantum theory. The most striking indication of such a relationship comes from black hole thermodynamics, where it appears that certain laws of black hole mechanics are, in fact, simply the ordinary laws of thermodynamics applied to a system containing a black hole. This article will review the present status of black h...
Accelerating Photons with Gravitational Radiation
Shore, Graham M
2001-01-01
The nature of superluminal photon propagation in the gravitational field describing radiation from a time-dependent, isolated source (the Bondi-Sachs metric) is considered in an effective theory which includes interactions which violate the strong equivalence principle. Such interactions are, for example, generated by vacuum polarisation in conventional QED in curved spacetime. The relation of the resulting light-cone modifications to the Peeling Theorem for the Bondi-Sachs spacetime is explained.
Radiatively-induced gravitational leptogenesis
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
McDonald, J.I., E-mail: pymcdonald@swansea.ac.uk; Shore, G.M., E-mail: g.m.shore@swansea.ac.uk
2015-12-17
We demonstrate how loop effects in gravitational backgrounds lead to a difference in the propagation of matter and antimatter, and show this is forbidden in flat space due to CPT and translation invariance. This mechanism, which is naturally present in beyond the standard model (BSM) theories exhibiting C and CP violation, generates a curvature-dependent chemical potential for leptons in the low-energy effective Lagrangian, allowing a matter–antimatter asymmetry to be generated in thermodynamic equilibrium, below the BSM scale.
Looking towards gravitational wave detection
Barsotti, Lisa
2009-05-01
It is an exciting time in gravitational wave research. The first generation ground detectors, which aim to detect gravitational waves in the audio-frequency region, have been successfully operated at their design sensitivity. One integrated year of coincident data from the three LIGO interferometers in United States has been collected between 2005 and 2007, in partial coincidence with the two European detectors, VIRGO and GEO. All the detectors are currently being upgraded, and they will come back on-line in the next few months with a factor 2 better sensitivity. A major upgrade of LIGO and VIRGO, scheduled to happen immediately after their upcoming science runs, will bring on-line second generation detectors 4 years from now. Their sensitivity is designed to be 10 times better than the first generation detectors, resulting in an expected event rate of at least a few per year. Looking farther into the future, space-based detectors such as LISA propose to cover a lower range of frequencies which are inaccessible on Earth, enhancing the opportunity of understanding our Universe trough gravitational waves.
Thermal duality and gravitational collapse
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Hewitt, Michael
2015-01-01
Thermal duality is a relationship between the behaviour of heterotic string models of the E(8)×E(8) or SO(32) types at inversely related temperatures, a variant of T duality in the Euclidean regime. This duality would have consequences for the nature of the Hagedorn transition in these string models. We propose that the vacuum admits a family of deformations in situations where there are closed surfaces of constant area but high radial acceleration (a string regularized version of a Penrose trapped surface), such as would be formed in situations of extreme gravitational collapse. This would allow a radical resolution of the firewall paradox by allowing quantum effects to significantly modify the spacetime geometry around a collapsed object. A string bremsstrahlung process would convert the kinetic energy of infalling matter in extreme gravitational collapse to form a region of the deformed vacuum, which would be equivalent to forming a high temperature string phase. A heuristic criterion for the conversion process is presented, relating Newtonian gravity to the string tension, suggesting an upper limit to the strength of the gravitational interaction. This conversion process might have observable consequences for charged particles falling into a rotating collapsed object by producing high energy particles via a variant of the Penrose process. (paper)
A Uniﬁed Theory of Interaction: Gravitation and Electrodynamics
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wagener P.
2008-10-01
Full Text Available A theory is proposed from which the basic equations of gravitation and electromagnetism are derived from a single Lagrangian. The total energy of an atom can be expressed in a power series of the fine structure constant, $alpha$. Specific selections of these terms yield the relativistic correction to the Bohr values of the hydrogen spectrum and the Sommerfeld-Dirac equation for the fine structure spectrum of the hydrogen atom. Expressions for the classical electron radius and some of the Large Number Coincidences are derived. A Lorentz-type force equation is derived for both gravitation and electrodynamics. Electron spin is shown to be an effect of fourth order in $alpha$.
Gravitational waves from the collision of tidally disrupted stars with massive black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
East, William E.
2014-01-01
We use simulations of hydrodynamics coupled with full general relativity to investigate the gravitational waves produced by a star colliding with a massive black hole when the star's tidal disruption radius lies far outside of the black hole horizon. We consider both main-sequence and white-dwarf compaction stars, and nonspinning black holes, as well as those with near-extremal spin. We study the regime in between where the star can be accurately modeled by a point particle, and where tidal effects completely suppress the gravitational wave signal. We find that nonnegligible gravitational waves can be produced even when the star is strongly affected by tidal forces, as well as when it collides with large angular momentum. We discuss the implications that these results have for the potential observation of gravitational waves from these sources with future detectors.
Gravitational Forces in the Spatial Impacts of Urban Sprawl
de Noronha Vaz, E.; Nijkamp, P.
2015-01-01
Urban sprawl has become an increasing concern in Europe, given the abandonment of rural areas and loss of natural landscapes. In southern Europe remarkable changes have been witnessed in the last few decades concerning land-use and socio-economic growth. Much of this change has had an impact on the
Tissue Engineered Skeletal Myofibers can Directly "Sense" Gravitational Force Changes
Vandenburgh, Herman H.; Shansky, J.; DelTatto, M.; Lee, Peter; Meir, J.
1999-01-01
Long-term manned space flight requires a better understanding of skeletal muscle atrophy resulting from microgravity. Atrophy most likely results from changes at both the systemic level (e.g. decreased circulating growth hormone, increased circulating glucocorticoids) and locally (e.g. decreased myofiber resting tension). Differentiated skeletal myofibers in tissue culture have provided a model system over the last decade for gaining a better understanding of the interactions of exogenous growth factors, endogenous growth factors, and muscle fiber tension in regulating protein turnover rates and muscle cell growth. Tissue engineering these cells into three dimensional bioartificial muscle (BAM) constructs has allowed us to extend their use to Space flight studies for the potential future development of countermeasures. Embryonic avian muscle cells were isolated and BAMs tissue engineered as described previously. The myoblasts proliferate and fuse into aligned postmitotic myofibers after ten to fourteen days in vitro. A cylindrical muscle-like structure containing several thousand myofibers is formed which is approximately 30 mm in length, 2-3 mm in diameter, and attached at each end. For the Space Shuttle experiments, the BAMs were transferred to 55 mL bioreactor cartridges (6 BAMs/cartridge). At Kennedy Space Center, the cartridges were mounted in two Space Tissue Loss (STL) Modules (three to four cartridges per Module) and either maintained as ground controls or loaded in a Mid-Deck locker of the Space Shuttle. The BAM cartridges were continuously perfused during the experiment at 1.5 mL/ min with tissue culture medium. Eighteen BAMs were flown for nine days on Mission STS66 while eighteen BAMs served as ground controls. The complete experiment was repeated on Mission STS77 with twenty four BAMs in each group. BAMs could be maintained in a healthy state for at least 30 days in the perfusion bioreactor cartridges. The BAM muscle fibers directly detected both the loss of gravity and the reloading effects of 1 x g. While total cellular metabolism and total protein degradation rates were not altered during 9 to 10 days in Space, protein synthesis rates were significantly reduced and resulted in significant myofiber atrophy compared to ground controls. One g reloading of the flight muscle cells post-flight significantly increased protein synthesis rates and the synthesis rates of myosin heavy chain, fibronectin, and collagen. Tissue cultured muscle cells can directly "sense" changes in gravity and provide a valid model to begin the study of countermeasures. Based on our ground based experiments, and the experiments of others, growth hormone and/or insulin-like growth factors are attractive protein therapeutics which may assisting attenuating skeletal muscle wasting in space. Our laboratory is developing a new cell-based delivery system for this and other potential therapeutic factors for attenuating muscle and bone wasting.
Nonisentropic Nonsteady Liquid Flow with Centrifugal, Gravitational, and Dissipative Forces
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Sidransky, Fred
1966-01-01
The method of characteristics is used to present general compatibility relations for nonsteady liquid flow or water-hammer theory which permit the investigation of the dynamics of the flow under diverse conditions...
Sun, Xiaohang; Lee, Hoon Joo; Michielsen, Stephen; Wilusz, Eugene
2018-05-01
Although profiles of axisymmetric capillary bridges between two cylindrical fibers have been extensively studied, little research has been reported on capillary bridges under external forces such as the gravitational force. This is because external forces add significant complications to the Laplace-Young equation, making it difficult to predict drop profiles based on analytical approaches. In this paper, simulations of capillary bridges between two vertically stacked cylindrical fibers with gravitational effect taken into consideration are studied. The asymmetrical structure of capillary bridges that are hard to predict based on analytical approaches was studied via a numerical approach based on Surface Evolver (SE). The axial and the circumferential spreading of liquids on two identical fibers in the presence of gravitational effects are predicted to determine when the gravitational effects are significant or can be neglected. The effect of liquid volume, equilibrium contact angle, the distance between two fibers and fiber radii. The simulation results were verified by comparing them with experimental measurements. Based on SE simulations, curves representing the spreading of capillary bridges along the two cylindrical fibers were obtained. The gravitational effect was scaled based on the difference of the spreading on upper and lower fibers.
Gravitational quadrupolar coupling to equivalence principle test masses: the general case
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Lockerbie, N A
2002-01-01
This paper discusses the significance of the quadrupolar gravitational force in the context of test masses destined for use in equivalence principle (EP) experiments, such as STEP and MICROSCOPE. The relationship between quadrupolar gravity and rotational inertia for an arbitrary body is analysed, and the special, gravitational, role of a body's principal axes of inertia is revealed. From these considerations the gravitational quadrupolar force acting on a cylindrically symmetrical body, due to a point-like attracting source mass, is derived in terms of the body's mass quadrupole tensor. The result is shown to be in agreement with that obtained from MacCullagh's formula (as the starting point). The theory is then extended to cover the case of a completely arbitrary solid body, and a compact formulation for the quadrupolar force on such a body is derived. A numerical example of a dumb-bell's attraction to a local point-like gravitational source is analysed using this theory. Close agreement is found between the resulting quadrupolar force on the body and the difference between the net and the monopolar forces acting on it, underscoring the utility of the approach. A dynamical technique for experimentally obtaining the mass quadrupole tensors of EP test masses is discussed, and a means of validating the results is noted
Gravitational lensing of gravitational waves: a statistical perspective
Li, Shun-Sheng; Mao, Shude; Zhao, Yuetong; Lu, Youjun
2018-05-01
In this paper, we study the strong gravitational lensing of gravitational waves (GWs) from a statistical perspective, with particular focus on the high frequency GWs from stellar binary black hole coalescences. These are most promising targets for ground-based detectors such as Advanced Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory (aLIGO) and the proposed Einstein Telescope (ET) and can be safely treated under the geometrical optics limit for GW propagation. We perform a thorough calculation of the lensing rate, by taking account of effects caused by the ellipticity of lensing galaxies, lens environments, and magnification bias. We find that in certain GW source rate scenarios, we should be able to observe strongly lensed GW events once per year (˜1 yr-1) in the aLIGO survey at its design sensitivity; for the proposed ET survey, the rate could be as high as ˜80 yr-1. These results depend on the estimate of GW source abundance, and hence can be correspondingly modified with an improvement in our understanding of the merger rate of stellar binary black holes. We also compute the fraction of four-image lens systems in each survey, predicting it to be ˜30 per cent for the aLIGO survey and ˜6 per cent for the ET survey. Finally, we evaluate the possibility of missing some images due to the finite survey duration, by presenting the probability distribution of lensing time delays. We predict that this selection bias will be insignificant in future GW surveys, as most of the lens systems ({˜ } 90{per cent}) will have time delays less than ˜1 month, which will be far shorter than survey durations.
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Jackson, J.D.; Axcell, B.P.; Johnston, S.E.
1987-01-01
A combined experimental and theoretical investigation of heat transfer in a vertical tube and annulus, countercurrent flow heat exchanger is reported. The working fluid was liquid sodium. Included in the range of conditions covered were those which are of interest in connection with the low flow rate operation of fast reactor intermediate heat exchanger systems. The heat transfer process ranged from that of pure forced convection to combined forced and free convection. By changing the direction of fluid flow or the direction of heat flow four different configurations were studied. In two cases the convection process was buoyancy aided and in the other two it was buoyancy opposed. Results are presented showing the influence of flow rate and temperature difference on overall heat transfer coefficient for each case. A theoretical model of turbulent flow and heat transfer incorporating influences of buoyancy was used to produce results for the range of conditions covered in the experiments. The predictions of overall heat transfer coefficient were found to be in reasonable general agreement with the measurements. It was clear from these calculations that the influence of buoyancy on heat transfer stemmed largely, under the conditions of the present experiment, from the modification of the convection process due to the distortion of the velocity field. This led to an enhancement of the heat transfer for the buoyancy-aided process and an impairment for the buoyancy-opposed process. The contribution of the turbulent diffusion of heat was relatively small. (author)
Hydrodynamics, fields and constants in gravitational theory
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Stanyukovich, K.P.; Mel'nikov, V.N.
1983-01-01
Results of original inveatigations into problems of standard gravitation theory and its generalizations are presented. The main attention is paid to the application of methods of continuous media techniques in the gravitation theory; to the specification of the gravitation role in phenomena of macro- and microworld, accurate solutions in the case, when the medium is the matter, assigned by hydrodynamic energy-momentum tensor; and to accurate solutions for the case when the medium is the field. GRT generalizations are analyzed, such as the new cosmologic hypothesis which is based on the gravitation vacuum theory. Investigations are performed into the quantization of cosmological models, effects of spontaneous symmetry violation and particle production in cosmology. Graeity theory with fundamental Higgs field is suggested in the framework of which in the atomic unit number one can explain possible variations of the effective gravitational bonds, and in the gravitation bond, variations of masses of all particles
Gravitational waves from instabilities in relativistic stars
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Andersson, Nils
2003-01-01
This paper provides an overview of stellar instabilities as sources of gravitational waves. The aim is to put recent work on secular and dynamical instabilities in compact stars in context, and to summarize the current thinking about the detectability of gravitational waves from various scenarios. As a new generation of kilometre length interferometric detectors is now coming online this is a highly topical theme. The review is motivated by two key questions for future gravitational-wave astronomy: are the gravitational waves from various instabilities detectable? If so, what can these gravitational-wave signals teach us about neutron star physics? Even though we may not have clear answers to these questions, recent studies of the dynamical bar-mode instability and the secular r-mode instability have provided new insights into many of the difficult issues involved in modelling unstable stars as gravitational-wave sources. (topical review)
Production of Purely Gravitational Dark Matter
Ema, Yohei; Nakayama, Kazunori; Tang, Yong
2018-01-01
In the purely gravitational dark matter scenario, the dark matter particle does not have any interaction except for gravitational one. We study the gravitational particle production of dark matter particle in such a minimal setup and show that correct amount of dark matter can be produced depending on the inflation model and the dark matter mass. In particular, we carefully evaluate the particle production rate from the transition epoch to the inflaton oscillation epoch in a realistic inflati...
Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China); Shu, De-ming [Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States); Li, Aiguo, E-mail: aiguo.li@sinap.ac.cn [Shanghai Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, CAS, Shanghai 201800 (China)
2017-05-01
The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.
Compensation for gravitational sag of bent mirror
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Mao, Chengwen; Jiang, Hui; He, Yan; Liang, Dongxu; Lan, Xuying; Yan, Shuai; Shu, De-ming; Li, Aiguo
2017-01-01
The gravitational sag of aspheric bent mirrors with face-up or face-down geometry produces a nonnegligible optical error. As an effective compensation, width optimization is used to match the combined effects of the gravitational and bending moments. This method is described by analytical expressions and two calculation algorithms. The results of theoretical simulations and finite element analysis have proved that this method can reduce the slope error resulting from gravitational sag to the level of nano radians.
A radiometer for stochastic gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ballmer, Stefan W
2006-01-01
The LIGO Scientific Collaboration recently reported a new upper limit on an isotropic stochastic background of gravitational waves obtained based on the data from the third LIGO science run (S3). Here I present a new method for obtaining directional upper limits on stochastic gravitational waves that essentially implements a gravitational wave radiometer. The LIGO Scientific Collaboration intends to use this method for future LIGO science runs
Progress in gravitational wave detection: Interferometers
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Kuroda, Kazuaki
2002-01-01
A gravitational wave (GW) is a physical entity of space-time derived from Einstein's theory of general relativity. Challenging projects to observe gravitational waves are being conducted throughout the world. A Japanese project involving a 300 m baseline laser interferometer, TAMA, achieved 1000 hr of continuous observation with the best sensitivity in the world during the summer of 2001. After achieving promising results, the realization of LCGT (Large-scale Cryogenic Gravitational wave Telescope) will become possible in the near future
On buoyancy-driven natural ventilation of a room with a heated floor
Gladstone, Charlotte; Woods, Andrew W.
2001-08-01
The natural ventilation of a room, both with a heated floor and connected to a cold exterior through two openings, is investigated by combining quantitative models with analogue laboratory experiments. The heated floor generates an areal source of buoyancy while the openings allow displacement ventilation to operate. When combined, these produce a steady state in which the air in the room is well-mixed, and the heat provided by the floor equals the heat lost by displacement. We develop a quantitative model describing this process, in which the advective heat transfer through the openings is balanced with the heat flux supplied at the floor. This model is successfully tested with observations from small-scale analogue laboratory experiments. We compare our results with the steady-state flow associated with a point source of buoyancy: for a given applied heat flux, an areal source produces heated air of lower temperature but a greater volume flux of air circulates through the room. We generalize the model to account for the effects of (i) a cooled roof as well as a heated floor, and (ii) an external wind or temperature gradient. In the former case, the direction of the flow through the openings depends on the temperature of the exterior air relative to an averaged roof and floor temperature. In the latter case, the flow is either buoyancy dominated or wind dominated depending on the strength of the pressure associated with the wind. Furthermore, there is an intermediate multiple-solution regime in which either flow regime may develop.
Vibration Energy Harvester with Bi-stable Curved Beam Spring Offset by Gravitational Acceleration
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Yamamoto, Koki; Fujita, Takayuki; Kanda, Kensuke; Maenaka, Kazusuke; Badel, Adrien; Formosa, Fabien
2015-01-01
We developed MEMS bi-stable spring for vibration energy harvester (VEH), which consists of intrinsically curved shape spring and gravitational acceleration. By applying the gravitational acceleration, the curved beam is offset to the gravity direction. It will make more symmetrical bi-stable motion and the symmetry is improved from 3.3 to 65.4%. We proposed that the combination between curved beam and gravity acceleration for decreasing snap- through acceleration. From the analytical result, we investigate the combination can effective to use for decreasing of snap-through force. We also fabricated the prototype device by using MEMS fabrication process. The frequency response for horizontal direction and the acceleration response for vertical direction are measured. The acceleration response shows that the gravitational acceleration improves the symmetry of snap-through force. (paper)
Some speculations on a causal unification of relativity, gravitation, and quantum mechanics
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Buonomano, V; Engel, A [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Instituto de Matematica
1976-03-01
Some speculations on a causal model that could provide a common conceptual foundation for relativity, gravitation, and quantum mechanics are presented. The present approach is a unification of three theories, the first being the repulsive theory of gravitational forces first proposed by Lesage who attempted to explain gravitational forces from the principle of conservation of momentum of the hypothetical particles gravitons. The second of these theories is the Brownian motion theory of quantum mechanics or stochastic mechanics, which treats the nondeterministic nature of quantum mechanics as being due to a Brownian motion of all objects. This Brownian motion being caused by the statistical variation in the graviton flux. The above two theories are unified in this article with the causal theory of special relativity. The Big Bang theory of the creation of the Universe is assumed. An experimental test is proposed.
Discontinuous Galerkin method for computing gravitational waveforms from extreme mass ratio binaries
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Field, Scott E; Hesthaven, Jan S; Lau, Stephen R
2009-01-01
Gravitational wave emission from extreme mass ratio binaries (EMRBs) should be detectable by the joint NASA-ESA LISA project, spurring interest in analytical and numerical methods for investigating EMRBs. We describe a discontinuous Galerkin (dG) method for solving the distributionally forced 1+1 wave equations which arise when modeling EMRBs via the perturbation theory of Schwarzschild black holes. Despite the presence of jump discontinuities in the relevant polar and axial gravitational 'master functions', our dG method achieves global spectral accuracy, provided that we know the instantaneous position, velocity and acceleration of the small particle. Here these variables are known, since we assume that the particle follows a timelike geodesic of the Schwarzschild geometry. We document the results of several numerical experiments testing our method, and in our concluding section discuss the possible inclusion of gravitational self-force effects.
Feasibility analysis of gravitational experiments in space
Everitt, C. W. F.
1977-01-01
Experiments on gravitation and general relativity suggested by different workers in the past ten or more years are reviewed, their feasibility examined, and the advantages of performing them in space were studied. The experiments include: (1) the gyro relativity experiment; (2) experiments to test the equivalence of gravitational and inertial mass; (3) an experiment to look for nongeodesic motion of spinning bodies in orbit around the earth; (4) experiments to look for changes of the gravitational constant G with time; (5) a variety of suggestions; laboratory tests of experimental gravity; and (6) gravitational wave experiments.
Possible role of torsion in gravitational theories
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Nieh, H.T.
1983-01-01
Torsion is of interest in an indirect way, in that it has the potential of being an important ingredient in a future successful quantum theory of gravitation. Einstein's theory of gravitation, despite its simplicity and elegance, and its successes in large-scale gravitational phenomena, can only be regarded as a macroscopic classical theory. It is a non-renormalizable quantum field theory, and, therefore, lacks the status of a good microscopic theory. It is the search for a successful quantum field theory of gravitation that poses as one of the great challenges to theoretical physics today. (Auth.)
Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sathyaprakash B. S.
2009-03-01
Full Text Available Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers, and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
Observing a Gravitational Wave Background With Lisa
National Research Council Canada - National Science Library
Tinto, M; Armstrong, J; Estabrook, F
2000-01-01
... formation of several observables. All are independent of lasers and frequency standard phase fluctuations, but have different couplings to gravitational waves and to the various LISA instrumental noises...
Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology with Gravitational Waves.
Sathyaprakash, B S; Schutz, Bernard F
2009-01-01
Gravitational wave detectors are already operating at interesting sensitivity levels, and they have an upgrade path that should result in secure detections by 2014. We review the physics of gravitational waves, how they interact with detectors (bars and interferometers), and how these detectors operate. We study the most likely sources of gravitational waves and review the data analysis methods that are used to extract their signals from detector noise. Then we consider the consequences of gravitational wave detections and observations for physics, astrophysics, and cosmology.
Gravitational Wave Astrophysics: Opening the New Frontier
Centrella, Joan
2012-01-01
A new era in astronomy will begin when the gravitational wave window onto the universe opens in approx. 5 years, as ground-based detectors make the first detections in the high-frequency regime. Since the universe is nearly transparent to gravitational waves, these signals carry direct information about their sources - such as masses, spins, luminosity distances, and orbital parameters - through dense, obscured regions across cosmic time. This talk will explore gravitational waves as cosmic messengers, highlighting key sources and opportunities for multi-messenger astronomy across the gravitational wave spectrum.
Actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Ivanenko, D.D.
1982-01-01
Problems of actuality of the Einstein theory of gravitation are lightened. The great Einstein theory of gravitation is shown to remain a reliable base of understanding of modern physical world pattern and its inevitable further inexhaustible precising. The main GRT difficulties are enumirated: determination of reference systems, presence of singularities in the theory, absence of consistent determination of the gravity energy, impossibility of accounting the relations between atomic, gravitational and cosmological characteristics. The attention is paid to gauge, twistor problems and to unified interaction theory. The great contribution of the soviet science in the theory of gravitation is stressed
Astrophysical Gravitational Wave Sources Literature Catalog
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Numerically-generated gravitational waveforms for circular inspiral into Kerr black holes. These waveforms were developed using Scott Hughes' black hole perturbation...
A Review of Some Recent Studies on Buoyancy Driven Flows in an Urban Environment
Bodhisatta Hajra
2014-01-01
This paper reviews some recent studies (after 2000) pertaining to buoyancy driven flows in nature and thier use in reducing air pollution levels in a city (city ventilation). Natural convection flows occur due to the heating and cooling of various urban surfaces (e.g., mountain slopes), leading to upslope and downslope flows. Such flows can have a significant effect on city ventilation which has been the subject of study in the recent times due to increased pollution levels in a city. A major...
Effect of Earth gravitational field on the detection of gravitational waves
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Denisov, V.I.; Eliseev, V.A.
1987-01-01
Results of laboratory detection of high-frequency gravitational waves from the view point of gravitation theories formulated on the basis of pseudoeuclidean space-time are calculated. Peculiarities due to different effects of the Earth gravitational field on the rates of gravitational and electromagnetic wave propagation in these theories are analysed. Experiments on check of predictions of the given class of theories are suggested
The Scales of Gravitational Lensing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Francesco De Paolis
2016-03-01
Full Text Available After exactly a century since the formulation of the general theory of relativity, the phenomenon of gravitational lensing is still an extremely powerful method for investigating in astrophysics and cosmology. Indeed, it is adopted to study the distribution of the stellar component in the Milky Way, to study dark matter and dark energy on very large scales and even to discover exoplanets. Moreover, thanks to technological developments, it will allow the measure of the physical parameters (mass, angular momentum and electric charge of supermassive black holes in the center of ours and nearby galaxies.
Testing Fundamental Gravitation in Space
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Turyshev, Slava G.
2013-10-15
General theory of relativity is a standard theory of gravitation; as such, it is used to describe gravity when the problems in astronomy, astrophysics, cosmology, and fundamental physics are concerned. The theory is also relied upon in many modern applications involving spacecraft navigation, geodesy, and time transfer. Here we review the foundations of general relativity and discuss its current empirical status. We describe both the theoretical motivation and the scientific progress that may result from the new generation of high-precision tests that are anticipated in the near future.
Moduli destabilization via gravitational collapse
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hwang, Dong-il [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Pedro, Francisco G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Hamburg (Germany). Theory Group; Yeom, Dong-han [Sogang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of). Center for Quantum Spacetime; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics
2013-06-15
We examine the interplay between gravitational collapse and moduli stability in the context of black hole formation. We perform numerical simulations of the collapse using the double null formalism and show that the very dense regions one expects to find in the process of black hole formation are able to destabilize the volume modulus. We establish that the effects of the destabilization will be visible to an observer at infinity, opening up a window to a region in spacetime where standard model's couplings and masses can differ significantly from their background values.
General definition of gravitational tension
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Harmark, T.; Obers, N.A.
2004-01-01
In this note we give a general definition of the gravitational tension in a given asymptotically translationally-invariant spatial direction of a space-time. The tension is defined via the extrinsic curvature in analogy with the Hawking-Horowitz definition of energy. We show the consistency with the ADM tension formulas for asymptotically-flat space-times, in particular for Kaluza-Klein black hole solutions. Moreover, we apply the general tension formula to near-extremal branes, constituting a check for non-asymptotically flat space-times. (author)
Primordial gravitational waves and cosmology.
Krauss, Lawrence M; Dodelson, Scott; Meyer, Stephan
2010-05-21
The observation of primordial gravitational waves could provide a new and unique window on the earliest moments in the history of the universe and on possible new physics at energies many orders of magnitude beyond those accessible at particle accelerators. Such waves might be detectable soon, in current or planned satellite experiments that will probe for characteristic imprints in the polarization of the cosmic microwave background, or later with direct space-based interferometers. A positive detection could provide definitive evidence for inflation in the early universe and would constrain new physics from the grand unification scale to the Planck scale.
Gravitational field of relativistic gyratons
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Frolov, Valeri P [Theoretical Physics Institute, Department of Physics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, T6G 2J1 (Canada)
2007-05-15
A gyraton is an object moving with the speed of light and having finite energy and internal angular momentum (spin). First we derive the gravitational field of a gyraton in the linear approximation. After this we study solutions of the vacuum Einstein equations for gyratons. We demonstrate that these solutions in 4 and higher dimensions reduce to two linear problems in a Euclidean space. A similar reduction is also valid for gyraton solutions of the Einstein-Maxwell gravity and in supergravity. Namely, we demonstrate that in the both cases the solutions in 4 and higher dimensions reduce to linear problems in a Euclidean space.
Gravitational polarizability of black holes
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Damour, Thibault; Lecian, Orchidea Maria
2009-01-01
The gravitational polarizability properties of black holes are compared and contrasted with their electromagnetic polarizability properties. The 'shape' or 'height' multipolar Love numbers h l of a black hole are defined and computed. They are then compared to their electromagnetic analogs h l EM . The Love numbers h l give the height of the lth multipolar 'tidal bulge' raised on the horizon of a black hole by faraway masses. We also discuss the shape of the tidal bulge raised by a test-mass m, in the limit where m gets very close to the horizon.
Radiatively-induced gravitational leptogenesis
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J.I. McDonald
2015-12-01
Full Text Available We demonstrate how loop effects in gravitational backgrounds lead to a difference in the propagation of matter and antimatter, and show this is forbidden in flat space due to CPT and translation invariance. This mechanism, which is naturally present in beyond the standard model (BSM theories exhibiting C and CP violation, generates a curvature-dependent chemical potential for leptons in the low-energy effective Lagrangian, allowing a matter–antimatter asymmetry to be generated in thermodynamic equilibrium, below the BSM scale.
Review on possible gravitational anomalies
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Amador, Xavier E
2005-01-01
This is an updated introductory review of 2 possible gravitational anomalies that has attracted part of the Scientific community: the Allais effect that occur during solar eclipses, and the Pioneer 10 spacecraft anomaly, experimented also by Pioneer 11 and Ulysses spacecrafts. It seems that, to date, no satisfactory conventional explanation exist to these phenomena, and this suggests that possible new physics will be needed to account for them. The main purpose of this review is to announce 3 other new measurements that will be carried on during the 2005 solar eclipses in Panama and Colombia (Apr. 8) and in Portugal (Oct.15)
Prasanna, A R
2017-01-01
This book suitable for post graduates in Physics and Astrophysics aims at introducing the theory of general relativity as an important background for doing astrophysics. Starting from a detailed discussion of the various mathematical concepts for doing general relativity, the book introduces the geometric description of gravity. It gives a brief historical perspective to classical mechanics and electrodynamics making an attempt to establish the necessity of special relativity as propounded by Einstein extending to General Relativity. This book is a good starting point for post graduates wanting to pursue the modern topics of Cosmology, High energy astrophysics and related areas.
An experimental test of Newton's law of gravitation for small accelerations
International Nuclear Information System (INIS)
Schubert, Sven
2011-10-01
The experiment presented in this thesis has been designed to test Newton's law of gravitation in the limit of small accelerations caused by weak gravitational forces. It is located at DESY, Hamburg, and is a modification of an experiment that was carried out in Wuppertal, Germany, until 2002 in order to measure the gravitational constant G. The idea of testing Newton's law in the case of small accelerations emerged from the question whether the flat rotation curves of spiral galaxies can be traced back to Dark Matter or to a law of gravitation that deviates from Newton on cosmic scales like e.g. MOND (Modified Newtonian Dynamics). The core of this experiment is a microwave resonator which is formed by two spherical concave mirrors that are suspended as pendulums. Masses between 1 and 9 kg symmetrically change their distance to the mirrors from far to near positions. Due to the increased gravitational force the mirrors are pulled apart and the length of the resonator increases. This causes a shift of the resonance frequency which can be translated into a shift of the mirror distance. The small masses are sources of weak gravitational forces and cause accelerations on the mirrors of about 10 -10 m/s 2 . These forces are comparable to those between stars on cosmic scales and the accelerations are in the vicinity of the characteristic acceleration of MOND a 0 ∼ 1.2.10 -10 m/s 2 , where deviations from Newton's law are expected. Thus Newton's law could be directly checked for correctness under these conditions. First measurements show that due to the sensitivity of this experiment many systematic influences have to be accounted for in order to get consistent results. Newton's law has been confirmed with an accuracy of 3%. MOND has also been checked. In order to be able to distinguish Newton from MOND with other interpolation functions the accuracy of the experiment has to be improved. (orig.)
The gravitational law of social interaction
Levy, Moshe; Goldenberg, Jacob
2014-01-01
While a great deal is known about the topology of social networks, there is much less agreement about the geographical structure of these networks. The fundamental question in this context is: how does the probability of a social link between two individuals depend on the physical distance between them? While it is clear that the probability decreases with the distance, various studies have found different functional forms for this dependence. The exact form of the distance dependence has crucial implications for network searchability and dynamics: Kleinberg (2000) [15] shows that the small-world property holds if the probability of a social link is a power-law function of the distance with power -2, but not with any other power. We investigate the distance dependence of link probability empirically by analyzing four very different sets of data: Facebook links, data from the electronic version of the Small-World experiment, email messages, and data from detailed personal interviews. All four datasets reveal the same empirical regularity: the probability of a social link is proportional to the inverse of the square of the distance between the two individuals, analogously to the distance dependence of the gravitational force. Thus, it seems that social networks spontaneously converge to the exact unique distance dependence that ensures the Small-World property.
Velocity Potential in Engineering Hydraulics versus Force Potential in Groundwater Dynamics
Weyer, K.
2013-12-01
required to overcome the resistance to downward flow in penetrated rocks. As one of the consequences, the engineering hydraulics concept of buoyancy forces does not comply with physics. In general the vectorial forces within gravitationally-driven flow systems are ignored when using engineering hydraulics. Scheidegger (1974, p. 79) states, however, verbatim and unequivocally: 'It is thus a force potential and not a velocity potential which governs flow through porous media' (emphasis added). This presentation will outline the proper forces for groundwater flow and their calculations based on Hubbert's force potential and additional physical insights by Weyer (1978). REFERENCES Bear, J. 1972. Dynamics of Fluids in Porous Media. American Elsevier Publishing Company, Inc., New York, NY, USA. de Marsily, G. 1986. Quantitative Hydrogeology: Groundwater Hydrology for Engineers. Academic Press, San Diego, California, USA. Hubbert, M.K. 1940. The theory of groundwater motion. Journal of Geology 48(8): 785-944. Muskat, Morris, 1937. The flow of homogeneous fluids through porous media. McGraw-Hill Book Company Inc., New York, NY, USA Scheidegger. A.E., 1974. The physics of flow through permeable media. Third Edition. University of Toronto Press, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Weyer, K.U., 1978. Hydraulic forces in permeable media. Bulletin du B.R.G.M., Vol. 91, pp. 286-297, Orléans, France.
Belleman, R.G.; Bédorf, J.; Portegies Zwart, S.F.
2008-01-01
We present the results of gravitational direct N-body simulations using the graphics processing unit (GPU) on a commercial NVIDIA GeForce 8800GTX designed for gaming computers. The force evaluation of the N-body problem is implemented in "Compute Unified Device Architecture" (CUDA) using the GPU to