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Sample records for grassy stunt virus

  1. Molecular diversity of Rice grassy stunt virus in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Hoang-Anh; Nguyen, Doan-Phuong; Causse, Sandrine; Nguyen, Thanh-Duc; Ngo, Vinh-Vien; Hébrard, Eugénie

    2013-04-01

    Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV, Tenuivirus) recently emerged on rice in Vietnam, causing high yield losses during 2006-2009. The genetic diversity of RGSV is poorly documented. In this study, the two genes encoded by each ambisense segment RNA3 and RNA5 of RGSV isolates from six provinces of South Vietnam were sequenced. P3 and Pc3 (RNA3) have unknown function, P5 (RNA5) encodes the putative silencing suppressor, and Pc5 (RNA5) encodes the nucleocapsid protein (N). The sequences of 17 Vietnamese isolates were compared with reference isolates from North and South Philippines. The average nucleotide diversity among the isolates was low. We confirmed a higher variability of RNA3 than RNA5 and Pc3 than P3. No relationships between the genetic diversity and the geographic distribution of RGSV isolates could be ascertained, likely because of the long-distance migration of the insect vector. This data will contribute to a better understanding on the RGSV epidemiology in South Vietnam, a prerequisite for further management of the disease and rice breeding for resistance.

  2. Viruses involved in chickpea stunt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horn, N.M.

    1994-01-01

    Chickpea stunt is the most important virus disease of chickpea ( Cicer arietinum L). This disease is characterized by leaf chlorosis or leaf reddening (depending on the chickpea cultivar), plant stunting, internode shortening, reduction in size of

  3. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses.

  4. Genetic Similarity between Cotton Leafroll Dwarf Virus and Chickpea Stunt Disease Associated Virus in India

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    Arup Kumar Mukherjee

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV is one of the most devastating pathogens of cotton. This malady, known as cotton blue disease, is widespread in South America where it causes huge crop losses. Recently the disease has been reported from India. We noticed occurrence of cotton blue disease and chickpea stunt disease in adjoining cotton and chickpea fields and got interested in knowing if these two viral diseases have some association. By genetic studies, we have shown here that CLRDV is very close to chickpea stunt disease associated virus (CpSDaV. We were successful in transmitting the CLRDV from cotton to chickpea. Our studies indicate that CpSDaV and CLRDV in India are possibly two different strains of the same virus. These findings would be helpful in managing these serious diseases by altering the cropping patterns.

  5. Beet yellow stunt virus in cells of Sonchus oleraceus L. and its relation to host mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esau, K

    1979-10-15

    In Sonchus oleraceus L. (Asteraceae) infected with the beet yellow stunt virus (BYSV) the virions are found in phloem cells, including the sieve elements. In parenchymatous phloem cells, the virus is present mainly in the cytoplasm. In some parenchymatous cells, containing massive accumulations of virus, the flexuous rodlike virus particles are found partly inserted into mitochondrial cristae. The mitochondrial envelope is absent where virus is present in the cristae. A similar relation between virus and host mitochondria apparently has not been recorded for any other plant virus.

  6. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  7. Nucleotide sequence and taxonomy of Cycas necrotic stunt virus. Brief report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, S S; Karasev, A V; Ieki, H; Iwanami, T

    2002-11-01

    Cycas necrotic stunt virus (CNSV) is the only well-characterized virus from gymnosperm. cDNA segments corresponding to the bipartite genome RNAs (RNA1, RNA2) were synthesized and sequenced. Each RNA encoded a single polyprotein, flanked by the 5' and 3' non-coding regions (NCR) and followed by a poly (A) tail. The putative polyproteins encoded by RNA1 and RNA2 had sets of motifs, which were characteristic of viruses in the genus Nepovirus. The polyproteins showed higher sequence identities to Artichoke Italian latent virus, Grapevine chrome mosaic virus and Tomato black ring virus, all of which belong to subgroup b of the genus Nepovirus, than to other nepoviruses. Phylogenetic analysis of RNA dependent RNA polymerase and coat protein also showed closer relationships with these viruses than other viruses. The data obtained supported the taxonomical status of CNSV as a definitive member of the genus Nepovirus, subgroup b.

  8. Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus: A New Polerovirus Infecting Cool-Season Food Legumes in Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Lesemann, D-E; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H J

    2006-05-01

    ABSTRACT Serological analysis of diseased chickpea and faba bean plantings with yellowing and stunting symptoms suggested the occurrence of an unknown or uncommon member of the family Luteoviridae in Ethiopia. Degenerate primers were used for reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction amplification of the viral coat protein (CP) coding region from both chickpea and faba bean samples. Cloning and sequencing of the amplicons yielded nearly identical (96%) nucleotide sequences of a previously unrecognized species of the family Luteoviridae, with a CP amino acid sequence most closely related (identity of approximately 78%) to that of Groundnut rosette assistor virus. The complete genome (5,900 nts) of a faba bean isolate comprised six major open reading frames characteristic of polero-viruses. Of the four aphid species tested, only Aphis craccivora transmitted the virus in a persistent manner. The host range of the virus was confined to a few species of the family Fabaceae. A rabbit antiserum raised against virion preparations cross-reacted unexpectedly with Beet western yellows virus-like viruses. This necessitated the production of murine monoclonal antibodies which, in combination with the polyclonal antiserum, permitted both sensitive and specific detection of the virus in field samples by triple-antibody sandwich, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Because of the characteristic field and greenhouse symptoms in chickpea, the name Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus is proposed for this new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae).

  9. The perspective of sweetpotato chlorotic stunt virus in sweetpotato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The virus is transmitted by the whitefly species, Bemisia tabaci and Trialeurodes abutilonea, in a semi-persistent fashion. ... yields being small, and the major effect of SPCSV in constraining the yields of sweetpotato is perhaps through preventing the cultivation of high yielding but SPVD-susceptible sweetpotato cultivars.

  10. Present status of some virus diseases affecting legume crops in Tunisia, and partial characterization of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus

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    Asma NAJAR

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Field surveys were conducted in Tunisia during the 2005‒2006, 2006‒2007 and 2009‒2010 growing seasons to identify viruses which produce yellowing, reddening and/or stunting symptoms of chickpea, faba bean and pea crops. Tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA results showed that Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV was the most common virus, followed by Faba bean necrotic yellows virus, Bean leafroll virus and Beet western yellows virus. The coat protein (CP gene nucleotide sequence of seven CpCSV isolates collected from different regions of Tunisia was compared with sequences of five other isolates in the NCBI database. A homology tree of the CP nucleotide sequences was prepared and CpCSV isolates were grouped into two clusters. The first group contained two Tunisian CpCSV chickpea isolates collected from Bizerte and Kef; sequenced regions showed a high nucleotiode homology (95% to that of the Ethiopian and Sudanese CpCSV isolates. The second group included five Tunisian isolates: two from chickpea, two from pea and one from faba bean, which showed a high homology (96% when compared with the Moroccan, Egyptian and Syrian CpCSV isolates.

  11. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  12. Nucleotide sequence of a chickpea chlorotic stunt virus relative that infects pea and faba bean in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Cui-Ji; Xiang, Hai-Ying; Zhuo, Tao; Li, Da-Wei; Yu, Jia-Lin; Han, Cheng-Gui

    2012-07-01

    We determined the genome sequence of a new polerovirus that infects field pea and faba bean in China. Its entire nucleotide sequence (6021 nt) was most closely related (83.3% identity) to that of an Ethiopian isolate of chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV-Eth). With the exception of the coat protein (encoded by ORF3), amino acid sequence identities of all gene products of this virus to those of CpCSV-Eth and other poleroviruses were Polerovirus, and the name pea mild chlorosis virus is proposed.

  13. Nucleotide sequence analyses of genomic RNAs of peanut stunt virus Mi, the type strain representative of a novel PSV subgroup from China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yan, L.; Xu, Z.; Goldbach, R.W.; Chen, Y.K.; Prins, M.W.

    2005-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of Peanut stunt virus strain Mi (PSV-Mi) from China was determined and compared to other viruses of the genus Cucumovirus. The tripartite genome of PSV-Mi encoded five open reading frames (ORFs) typical of cucumoviruses. Distance analyses of four ORFs indicated that

  14. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a versatile platform for polyvalent display of antigenic epitopes and vaccine design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Shantanu; Ochoa, Wendy; Singh, Pratik; Hsu, Catherine; Schneemann, Anette; Manchester, Marianne; Olson, Mark; Reddy, Vijay

    2009-01-01

    Viruses-like particles (VLPs) are frequently being used as platforms for polyvalent display of foreign epitopes of interest on their capsid surface to improve their presentation enhancing the antigenicity and host immune response. In the present study, we used the VLPs of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), an icosahedral plant virus, as a platform to display 180 copies of 16 amino acid epitopes of ricin toxin fused to the C-terminal end of a modified TBSV capsid protein (NΔ52). Expression of the chimeric recombinant protein in insect cells resulted in spontaneous assembly of VLPs displaying the ricin epitope. Cryo-electron microscopy and image reconstruction of the chimeric VLPs at 22 A resolution revealed the locations and orientation of the ricin epitope exposed on the TBSV capsid surface. Furthermore, injection of chimeric VLPs into mice generated antisera that detected the native ricin toxin. The ease of fusing of short peptides of 15-20 residues and their ability to form two kinds (T = 1, T = 3) of bio-nanoparticles that result in the display of 60 or 180 copies of less constrained and highly exposed antigenic epitopes makes TBSV an attractive and versatile display platform for vaccine design.

  15. Yeast as a model host to study replication and recombination of defective interfering RNA of Tomato bushy stunt virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panavas, Tadas; Nagy, Peter D.

    2003-01-01

    Defective interfering (DI) RNA associated with Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which is a plus-strand RNA virus, requires p33 and p92 proteins of TBSV or the related Cucumber necrosis virus (CNV), for replication in plants. To test if DI RNA can replicate in a model host, we coexpressed TBSV DI RNA and p33/p92 of CNV in yeast. We show evidence for replication of DI RNA in yeast, including (i) dependence on p33 and p92 for DI replication; (ii) presence of active CNV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase in isolated membrane-containing preparations; (iii) increasing amount of DI RNA(+) over time; (iv) accumulation of (-)stranded DI RNA; (v) presence of correct 5' and 3' ends in DI RNA; (vi) inhibition of replication by mutations in the replication enhancer; and (vii) evolution of DI RNA over time, as shown by sequence heterogeneity. We also produced evidence supporting the occurrence of DI RNA recombinants in yeast. In summary, development of yeast as a host for replication of TBSV DI RNA will facilitate studies on the roles of viral and host proteins in replication/recombination

  16. Characterization of a Syrian Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus strain and production of polyclonal antibodies for its detection

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    Yaseen ALNAASAN

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis with two primer sets of luteoviruses was used to characterize an isolate of Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSv, genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae (SC402-08 collected from Lattakia, Syria, during the 2007‒2008 chickpea growing season. Sequence analysis revealed that the coat protein gene of the isolate shared nucleotide sequence identities ranging from 97 to 98% with the CpCSv isolates from Egypt, morocco and Syria. The capsid protein was separated as a protein of approximately 20 kDa in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and was visually detected by its reaction with CpCSV monoclonal antibody in Western blot. SC402-08 isolate of CpCSV was purified from faba bean-infected plants, and yielded 112–182 μg of purified virions kg-1 of infected tissue. The purified preparation was injected into a white rabbit, and an antiserum was obtained and used to detect CpCSv in infected tissues by tissue-blot immunoassay. The antiserum obtained was able to detect CpCSv by the immunoassay up to a dilution of 1:1,024,000.

  17. Molecular, serological and biological variation among chickpea chlorotic stunt virus isolates from five countries of North Africa and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H Josef

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV), a proposed new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae), has been reported only from Ethiopia. In attempts to determine the geographical distribution and variability of CpCSV, a pair of degenerate primers derived from conserved domains of the luteovirus coat protein (CP) gene was used for RT-PCR analysis of various legume samples originating from five countries and containing unidentified luteoviruses. Sequencing of the amplicons provided evidence for the occurrence of CpCSV also in Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Syria. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP nucleotide sequences of 18 samples from the five countries revealed the existence of two geographic groups of CpCSV isolates differing in CP sequences by 8-10%. Group I included isolates from Ethiopia and Sudan, while group II comprised those from Egypt, Morocco and Syria. For distinguishing these two groups, a simple RFLP test using HindIII and/or PvuII for cleavage of CP-gene-derived PCR products was developed. In ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy, however, isolates from these two groups could not be distinguished with rabbit antisera raised against a group-I isolate from Ethiopia (CpCSV-Eth) and a group-II isolate from Syria (CpCSV-Sy). Since none of the ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that had been produced earlier against CpCSV-Eth reacted with group-II isolates, further MAbs were produced. Of the seven MAbs raised against CpCSV-Sy, two reacted only with CpCSV-Sy and two others with both CpCSV-Sy and -Eth. This indicated that there are group I- and II-specific and common (species-specific) epitopes on the CpCSV CP and that the corresponding MAbs are suitable for specific detection and discrimination of CpCSV isolates. Moreover, CpCSV-Sy (group II) caused more severe stunting and yellowing in faba bean than CpCSV-Eth (group I). In conclusion, our data indicate the existence of a geographically associated variation in the molecular, serological and presumably

  18. Tomato bushy stunt virus and DI RNAs as a model for studying mechanisms of RNA virus replication, pathogenicity and recombination. Final technical report for 1994--1997

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    Morris, T.J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). School of Biological Sciences; Jackson, A.O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1997-12-31

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) is a small icosahedral virus with a very broad host-range. The symptoms of systemic infection range from mild mosaic to severe necrosis that often results in death. The genome of TBSV is composed of a single plus stranded RNA molecule with five genes. Two 5 inch genes are translated from the viral RNA, and the remaining three are translated from two subgenomic RNAs. Prior to the DOE supported studies, TBSV gene function had been assigned solely on the basis of sequence similarity with other virus genes of known function. The two 5 inch proximal genes (p33 and p92) were thought to be involved in viral replication, the middle gene encoded the capsid protein (p41), but no clear function was assigned to two nested 3 inch genes (p19 and p22), although it was suggested that at least one could be involved in movement. This research has determined the roles of each of the viral genes in the infection process, and the authors have obtained considerable genetic information pertinent to the contributions of the coat protein and the nested genes to the disease phenotypes observed in several host plants. They have also identified another genetic element with a short open reading frame in the 3 inch-noncoding region of the genome that provides a host-dependent replication function.

  19. Molecular Evidence for Occurrence of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus in Ash Gourd (Benincasa hispida) Germplasm Showing a Severe Yellow Stunt Disease in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Anirban; Spoorthi, P; Panwar, G; Bag, Manas Kumar; Prasad, T V; Kumar, Gunjeet; Gangopadhyay, K K; Dutta, M

    2013-06-01

    An evaluation of 70 accessions of ash gourd germplasm grown at National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources, New Delhi, India during Kharif season (2010) showed natural occurrence of a yellow stunt disease in three accessions (IC554690, IC036330 and Pusa Ujjwal). A set of begomovirus specific primers used in PCR gave expected amplicon from all the symptomatic plants; however no betasatellite was detected. Complete genome of the begomovirus (DNA-A and DNA-B), amplified through rolling circle amplification, was cloned and sequenced. The begomovirus under study shared high sequence identities to different isolates of Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) and clustered with them. Among those isolates, the DNA-A and DNA-B of the present begomovirus isolate showed highest 99.6 and 96.8 % sequence identities, respectively with an isolate reported on pumpkin from India (DNA-A: AM286433, DNA-B: AM286435). Based on the sequence analysis, the begomovirus obtained from ash gourd was considered as an isolate of ToLCNDV. Thus, the present findings constitute the first report of occurrence of a new yellow stunt disease in ash gourd from India and demonstrated the association of ToLCNDV with the symptomatic samples. Occurrence of ToLCNDV in ash gourd germplasm not only adds up a new cucurbitaceous host of this virus but also raises the concern about the perpetuation of this virus in absence of its main host tomato and thus has an epidemiological relevance for understanding the rapid spread of this virus in tomato and other hosts in Indian sub-continent.

  20. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

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    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  1. Evaluation of Rice Resistance to Southern Rice Black-Streaked Dwarf Virus and Rice Ragged Stunt Virus through Combined Field Tests, Quantitative Real-Time PCR, and Proteome Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhenchao; Yu, Lu; Jin, Linhong; Wang, Wenli; Zhao, Qi; Ran, Longlu; Li, Xiangyang; Chen, Zhuo; Guo, Rong; Wei, Yongtian; Yang, Zhongcheng; Liu, Enlong; Hu, Deyu; Song, Baoan

    2017-02-22

    Diseases caused by southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV) and rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) considerably decrease grain yield. Therefore, determining rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV is necessary. In this study, rice cultivars with high resistance to SRBSDV and RRSV were evaluated through field trials in Shidian and Mangshi county, Yunnan province, China. SYBR Green I-based quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis was used to quantitatively detect virus gene expression levels in different rice varieties. The following parameters were applied to evaluate rice resistance: acre yield (A.Y.), incidence of infected plants (I.I.P.), virus load (V.L.), disease index (D.I.), and insect quantity (I.Q.) per 100 clusters. Zhongzheyou1 (Z1) and Liangyou2186 (L2186) were considered the most suitable varieties with integrated higher A.Y., lower I.I.P., V.L., D.I. and I.Q. In order to investigate the mechanism of rice resistance, comparative label-free shotgun liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) proteomic approaches were applied to comprehensively describe the proteomics of rice varieties' SRBSDV tolerance. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR)-related proteins in Z1 and L2186 may result in the superior resistance of these varieties compared with Fengyouxiangzhan (FYXZ).

  2. Grassy Silica Nanoribbons and Strong Blue Luminescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shengping; Xie, Shuang; Huang, Guowei; Guo, Hongxuan; Cho, Yujin; Chen, Jun; Fujita, Daisuke; Xu, Mingsheng

    2016-09-01

    Silicon dioxide (SiO2) is one of the key materials in many modern technological applications such as in metal oxide semiconductor transistors, photovoltaic solar cells, pollution removal, and biomedicine. We report the accidental discovery of free-standing grassy silica nanoribbons directly grown on SiO2/Si platform which is commonly used for field-effect transistors fabrication without other precursor. We investigate the formation mechanism of this novel silica nanostructure that has not been previously documented. The silica nanoribbons are flexible and can be manipulated by electron-beam. The silica nanoribbons exhibit strong blue emission at about 467 nm, together with UV and red emissions as investigated by cathodoluminescence technique. The origins of the luminescence are attributed to various defects in the silica nanoribbons; and the intensity change of the blue emission and green emission at about 550 nm is discussed in the frame of the defect density. Our study may lead to rational design of the new silica-based materials for a wide range of applications.

  3. Effect of temperature on the pathogenesis, accumulation of viral and satellite RNAs and on plant proteome in peanut stunt virus and satellite RNA-infected plants

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    Aleksandra eObrępalska-Stęplowska

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Temperature is an important environmental factor influencing plant development in natural and diseased conditions. The growth rate of plants grown at 27°C is more rapid than for plants grown at 21°C. Thus, temperature affects the rate of pathogenesis progression in individual plants. We have analyzed the effect of temperature conditions (either 21°C or 27°C during the day on the accumulation rate of the virus and satellite RNA (satRNA in Nicotiana benthamiana plants infected by peanut stunt virus (PSV with and without its satRNA, at four time points. In addition, we extracted proteins from PSV and PSV+satRNA-infected plants harvested at 21 dpi, when disease symptoms began to appear on plants grown at 21°C and were well developed on those grown at 27°C, to assess the proteome profile in infected plants compared to mock-inoculated plants grown at these two temperatures, using 2D-gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry approaches. The accumulation rate of the viral RNAs and satRNA was more rapid at 27°C at the beginning of the infection and then rapidly decreased in PSV-infected plants. At 21 dpi, PSV and satRNA accumulation was higher at 21°C and had a tendency to increase further. In all studied plants grown at 27°C, we observed a significant drop in the identified proteins participating in photosynthesis and carbohydrate metabolism at the proteome level, in comparison to plants maintained at 21°C. On the other hand, the proteins involved in protein metabolic processes were all more abundant in plants grown at 27°C. This was especially evident when PSV-infected plants were analyzed, where increase in abundance of proteins involved in protein synthesis, degradation, and folding was revealed. In mock-inoculated and PSV-infected plants we found an increase in abundance of the majority of stress-related differently-regulated proteins and those associated with protein metabolism. In contrast, in PSV+satRNA-infected plants the shift in the

  4. Secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is known that sexual maturation is dependent on genetic and environmental factors and socio-economic status. The purpose of this study was to describe secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black South African boys from a low socio-economic status living in a township in the North West Province.

  5. Partial Molecular Characterization Of Cowpea Stunt Isolates Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Partial molecular characterization of the coat protein of the cowpea stunt-causing isolates of Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV) from Arkansas and Georgia revealed that both isolates of CMV belong to CMV subgroup I and differ at eight nucleotides positions, resulting in two amino acids difference. There was only one amino ...

  6. 5'-3' RNA-RNA interaction facilitates cap- and poly(A) tail-independent translation of tomato bushy stunt virus mrna: a potential common mechanism for tombusviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabian, Marc R; White, K Andrew

    2004-07-09

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) is the prototypical member of the genus Tombusvirus in the family Tombusviridae. The (+)-strand RNA genome of TBSV lacks both a 5' cap and a 3' poly(A) tail and instead contains a 3'-terminal RNA sequence that acts as a cap-independent translational enhancer (3' CITE). In this study, we have determined the RNA secondary structure of the translation-specific central segment of the 3' CITE, termed region 3.5 (R3.5). MFOLD structural modeling combined with solution structure mapping and comparative sequence analysis indicate that R3.5 adopts a branched structure that contains three major helices. Deletion and substitution studies revealed that two of these extended stem-loop (SL) structures are essential for 3' CITE activity in vivo. In particular, the terminal loop of one of these SLs, SL-B, was found to be critical for translation. Compensatory mutational analysis showed that SL-B functions by base pairing with another SL, SL3, in the 5' untranslated region of the TBSV genome. Thus, efficient translation of TBSV mRNA in vivo requires a 5'-3' RNA-RNA interaction that effectively circularizes the message. Similar types of interactions are also predicted to occur in TBSV subgenomic mRNAs between their 5' untranslated regions and the 3' CITE, and both genomic and subgenomic 5'-3' interactions are well conserved in all members of the genus Tombusvirus. In addition, a survey of other genera in Tombusviridae revealed the potential for similar 5'-3' RNA-RNA-based interactions in their viral mRNAs, suggesting that this mechanism extends throughout this large virus family.

  7. Incidência de viroses e enfezamentos e estimativa de perdas causadas por molicutes em milho no Paraná Occurrence of viruses and stunting diseases and estimative of yield losses by mollicutes in corn in Paraná State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth de Oliveira

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a incidência de viroses e enfezamentos e estimar as perdas causadas por enfezamentos na cultura do milho safrinha. Os diagnósticos baseados em sintomas foram confirmados por PCR ou RTPCR. Em todas as lavouras, foram identificadas plantas com sintomas de enfezamentos, em incidência de 6,2% a 49,9% (média de 20,7%. Na identificação de insetos vetores desses patógenos, a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis foi detectada em 20 lavouras das 24 amostradas, constituindo 66,6% do total de espécimens de cigarrinhas coletadas. A perda potencial causada pelos enfezamentos no período foi estimada em cerca de 16,5 milhões de dólares. A ocorrência de plantas com sintomas de "Maize rayado fino virus" e "Maize dwarf mosaic virus" foi baixa e o diagnóstico confirmado por RTPCR. A análise de 441 amostras suspeitas de infecção por "Mal de Río Cuarto virus", por DASELISA, mostrou ausência desse vírus. Resultados de PCR indicaram a presença de um possível fitoplasma distinto de "Maize bushy stunt phytoplasma" em duas plantas apresentando nanismo acentuado, folhas estreitas, enrijecidas, com deformações, e grãos na inflorescência, havendo necessidade de mais estudos para a confirmação da identidade desse possível novo fitoplasma.The objective of this work was to evaluate the occurence and yield losses by corn stunting diseases and maize viruses in "safrinha" season. Disease diagnostics based on plant symptoms were confirmed by PCR or RTPCR assays. Insect samples were collected in 24 fields for identification of vectors of the pathogens. Corn stunting diseases symptoms were observed in all crops evaluated, with incidence levels ranging from 6.2% to 49.9% (average 20.7% and the presence of the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis, was detected in 20 of the 24 areas evaluated. This insect species was prevalent, representing 66,6% of total leafhoppers specimens collected. The potential yield losses caused by mollicutes was

  8. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    that to decrease malnutrition-related mortality, interventions should aim at preventing both wasting and stunting, which often share common causes. Also, this suggests that treatment interventions should focus on children who are both wasted and stunted and therefore have the greatest deficits in muscle mass...... to target young wasted and stunted children efficiently in situations where these two conditions are present. Wasting is also associated with decreased fat mass. A decreased fat mass is frequent but inconsistent in stunting. Fat secretes multiple hormones, including leptin, which may have a stimulating...... mass. Leptin may also have an effect on bone growth. This may explain why wasted children with low fat stores have reduced linear growth when their weight-for-height remains low. It may also explain the frequent association of stunting with previous episodes of wasting. Stunting, however, can occur...

  9. The deforestation story: testing for anthropogenic origins of Africa's flammable grassy biomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, William; Zaloumis, Nicholas P

    2016-06-05

    Africa has the most extensive C4 grassy biomes of any continent. They are highly flammable accounting for greater than 70% of the world's burnt area. Much of Africa's savannas and grasslands occur in climates warm enough and wet enough to support closed forests. The combination of open grassy systems and the frequent fires they support have long been interpreted as anthropogenic artefacts caused by humans igniting frequent fires. True grasslands, it was believed, would be restricted to climates too dry or too cold to support closed woody vegetation. The idea that higher-rainfall savannas are anthropogenic and that fires are of human origin has led to initiatives to 'reforest' Africa's open grassy systems paid for by carbon credits under the assumption that the net effect of converting these system to forests would sequester carbon, reduce greenhouse gases and mitigate global warming. This paper reviews evidence for the antiquity of African grassy ecosystems and for the fires that they sustain. Africa's grassy biomes and the fires that maintain them are ancient and there is no support for the idea that humans caused large-scale deforestation. Indicators of old-growth grasslands are described. These can help distinguish secondary grasslands suitable for reforestation from ancient grasslands that should not be afforested.This article is part of the themed issue 'The interaction of fire and mankind'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  10. Body composition in stunted, compared to non-stunted, black South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The objective was to compare the body composition of black stunted, and non-stunted, children, from two rural communities in South Africa, and investigate whether increased total and central adiposity is found in stunted children. The design was a cross-sectional study. The setting was two study populations of ...

  11. Asupan protein, kalsium dan fosfor pada anak stunting dan tidak stunting usia 24-59 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Endah Mayang Sari

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indonesia is one of developing country which still facing a serious problem concerning stunting. Causes of stunting is a complex things, one of the cause is protein intake which is have effect on the level plasma insulin growth factor I (IGF-I, protein bone matrix and growth factor, also calcium and phosphorus that has an important role in bone formation. One of the province in Indonesia which has stunting prevalence above level of National prevalence is West Borneo. Pontianak as the capital city of West Borneo is still facing serious problem concerning stunting and the low level of food security. Objective: Analyze protein, calcium and phosphorus intake of stunting and non stunting children aged 24-49 months in Pontianak. Method: The study was an analytical observational with cross sectional design. Samples of the study were children aged 24-59 months in the districts of East Pontianak and North Pontianak, West Borneo, as much as 90 samples have been chosen by using simple random sampling technique. The research was conducted from July - August 2015. Statistical analysis was performed by using chi square and t-test. Results: Protein, calcium and phosphorus intake are lower to the stunting compare to non stunting children (p<0,05. Stunting prevalence of  lower protein group is higher 1,87 times than adequate protein intake group. Stunting prevalence of low calcium intake group is higher 3,625 times than adequate calcium intake group. Moreover, the stunting prevalence of low phosphor intake group is higher 2,29 times than adequate phosphor intake group. Conclusion: Protein, calcium and phosphor intake significant lower to the stunting compare to non stunting children aged 24- 59 months in Pontianak.

  12. Perbedaan Asupan Energi, Protein, Zink, dan Perkembangan pada Balita Stunting dan non Stunting

    OpenAIRE

    Adani, Farahiyah Yusni; Nindya, Triska Susila

    2017-01-01

     Background: Stunting is a nutritional problem caused by inadequate nutrition intake for  a long time and/or recurrent infectious diseases. The impacts of stunting are increase mortality,  morbidity,  health costs, decrease cognitive development, motor, and language development.There are nutrients that important to linear growth as energy, protein, and zinc. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences of intake of the energy, protein, Zinc, development in stunting and...

  13. A new method for testing and evaluating grassy airfields and its effects upon flying safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław PYTKA

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains a review of methods and technologies developed during a research project entitled “Methods of testing and evaluation of grassy airfields”, conducted at the Lublin University of Technology between 2011 and 2014. Based on the terramechanical studies of wheel-soil interactions, the authors have developed a method for the determination of wheel-grass friction and rolling resistance coefficients, which are of critical importance for the ground performance of an airplane. Moreover, a mobile application has been created for use by pilots, controllers or airfield administration crew. The application connects online with a weather service to gather atmospheric data as inputs for a mathematical model that produces a real-time cone index (CI value for a given airfield. The paper also discusses the applicability of the method within the air transportation system, as well as possible effects of the described technology upon the safety of flight operations on grassy airfields.

  14. ELM frequency dependence on toroidal rotation in the grassy ELM regime in JT-60U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, N; Kamada, Y; Isayama, A; Urano, H; Koide, Y; Sakamoto, Y; Takechi, M; Asakura, N

    2007-01-01

    A systematic study of the effect of the level of toroidal plasma rotation at the top of the ion temperature pedestal ( T i ped ) on the edge localised mode (ELM) characteristics in JT-60U has been performed. The level of toroidal plasma rotation was varied by using different combinations of tangential and perpendicular neutral beam injection (NBI). In the grassy ELM regime at high triangularity (δ) and high safety factor (q), the ELM frequency clearly increased up to 1400 Hz, when counter (ctr) plasma rotation was increased. The response of the ELM frequency was independent of poloidal beta (β p ) in the range 0.84 p 0.53. Even in non-rotating plasma with balanced-NBIs, a high ELM frequency of ∼400 Hz was observed without a large energy loss. When the frequency of the plasma rotation in the co-direction of the plasma current became higher than ∼1 kHz, type I ELMs with a frequency of ∼20 Hz was observed. The achieved pedestal pressure and plasma confinement were similar both in plasmas with type I ELMs and in plasmas with grassy ELMs. The energy loss due to grassy ELMs was evaluated from the reduction in the electron temperature, and the ratio of the energy loss to the pedestal stored energy was less than 1%

  15. SEARCH FOR RATOON STUNTING DISEASE OF

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    absence of the ratoon stunting disease can be positively ascertained in indi- vidual stalks of sugarcane in field conditions in Louisiana'. The crop as a whole shows retarded growth with deficient root system and has poor stand due to the deterioration of lateral buds. As a result the number of stalks per stool is reduced in ...

  16. Child stunting is associated with low circulating essential amino acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting affects about one-quarter of children under five worldwide. The pathogenesis of stunting is poorly understood. Nutritional interventions have had only modest effects in reducing stunting. We hypothesized that insufficiency in essential amino acids may be limiting the linear growth of childr...

  17. Differences of Fundamental Motor Skills Stunting and Non Stunting Preschool Children in Kindergarten in North Padang

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komaini, A.; Mardela, R.

    2018-04-01

    The problem that emerged is based on the result of research done by the writer in kindergarten in North Padang Sub-district which concluded that: there were kindergarten students in this sub-district who were still lack of motor ability, research data shows that 59 people (37,34%) and then 34 people (21, 52%) were in very good category, 35 people (22.15%), were in moderate category, 22 people (13.92%) were in the poor category, and 5 (5,06%) were in the very poor category. Based on this data, the authors thought that the dominant factors that affect the above situation was a nutritional factor. It could be seen from the physical appearance of kindergarten children who tend to slow growth. The purpose of this study is to explain the description and differences in stunting and non stunting Fundamental motor skills capabilities in early childhood (preschool) children. This research is comparative study with cross sectional approach. The population in this study was the students of Kindergarten of Perwari II which consisted of 60 people consisting of 37 children of stunting and 23 non stunting children in Kindergarten of North Padang Sub district, the sample was taken as a whole. The data were collected with Fundamental motor skills tests including jumping, walking, running, balance exercises, throwing and catching the ball. Technique of data analysis in this research was descriptive statistic. The result of data analysis shows that there is difference of Fundamental motor skills between stunting and non stunting children. Fundamental motor skills of non stunting or normal children are better than those who were stunting or short. While the results of Fundamental motor skills of kindergarten children in North Padang District as a whole is at a good level.

  18. Kadar kalsium serum pada anak stunting dan tidak stunting usia 24-59 bulan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulinda Kurniasari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Children with stunning as the accumulations of the lack of nutrient or continuous infection are highly at risk to suffer from illness and death. In developing country, there are 165 million children under the age of suffering from stunting. Research done showed that nationally stunting prevalence in 2013 is 37,2 percent. West Borneo is one of the twenty provinces with the stunting prevalence above the national average. During the growth period, children need calcium, especially for ossification. The lack of calcium is mainly caused by inadequate intake and or non-optimal calcium absorption. Some of the previous research has shown that the level of calcium serum of children with stunting has significantly lowered than the normal children. Objective: The aim of this study was to analyze the calcium serum level of the children with stunting aged 24-59 months in Pontianak City. Method: This study is a cross-sectional design. It conducted in East Pontianak and North Pontianak subdistricts,  from July to August 2015. A number of samples were 90 children. Statistical analysis was performed using chi-square, t-test, and logistic regression. Results: There was no significance in serum calcium level between stunting and nonstunting children (p=0,193. The average of the calcium serum level of the stunting children was 12,14±1,97 mg/dl, while the nonstunting children were 12,16±1,63 mg/dl. The t-test showed that there was no significant difference (p=0,966. Conclusion: There is no significant difference of the calcium serum level between the stunting and nonstunting children aged 24- 59 months in Pontianak City (p=0,193.

  19. History of the early dipteran systematics in Italy: from Lyncei to Battista Grassi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccetti, B

    2008-12-01

    This presentation starts with Galileo's discovery of the microscope and the first Lyncei. Giovanni Heckius and Francesco Stelluti demonstrated different kinds of mosquitoes. Later, in Florence, the Academy of Cimento solved the problem of mosquito reproduction with the discoveries of Francesco Redi, Pietro Paolo da Sangallo, Giuseppe Del Papa and Giovanni Maria Lancisi in the 18th century. In 19th century Eugenio Ficalbi reviewed the Italian Culicids. Once Battista Grassi solved the cycle of Anopheles and Plasmodia, further researches followed by Golgi, Celli, Marchiafava, Bastianelli and Bignami, as well as by Roland Ross.

  20. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  1. Seawater: an alternative grassy weed control method for post emergence herbicides in tropical turfgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, M.K.; Ismail, M.R.; Juraimi, A.S.; Hamdani, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Research was designed to reduce herbicide use by replacing post emergence herbicides with readily available sea water to control tropical turfgrass weeds. In studies evaluating the use of saline solutions for weed control, four salinity levels (0, 24, 48 and 72 dS m/sup -1/) were applied once to 30 grassy weed species, along with seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) (as a control) during December, 2007 to March, 2008. The results on injury ratings for salt tolerant weeds were categorized as highly susceptible, moderately susceptible and extremely tolerant. C. dactylon, E. indica, E. virescense, E. unioloides and I. globosa were very susceptible and found to be effectively controlled (100%) at 72 dS m/sup -1/ salinity treatment. However, two most serious weeds viz. wiry eragrostis (E. atrovirens) and lesser dropseed (S. diander), were found to be extremely tolerant, and were not controlled even at the highest salinity level of 72 dS m/sup -1/. P. vaginatum and E. atrovirens did not show significant decrease in shoot and root dry weight at highest salinity levels (72 dS m/sup -1/). The results indicate that sea water has excellent potential for sustainable control of several common grassy weeds in tropical turf. (author)

  2. Upper arm fat and muscle in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Winandi Arundito

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The prevalence of stunting in Indonesia is high, with particularly negative impacts on health during childhood as well as adolescence. Stunting impacts the health of children as well as adults, especially with  regards to future obesity. Therefore, evaluating body composition of stunted children before 2 years of age is necessary. Objective To compare upper arm fat and muscle measurements in stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months of age. Methods We analyzed secondary data of the Division of Nutrition and Metabolic Disease, Department of Child Health, Universitas Gadjah Mada Medical School, Yogyakarta which were collected using cluster random sampling from the Yogyakarta Special Province. We compared upper arm fat area (UFA, including the upper arm fat area estimate (UFE and the upper arm fat percentage (UFP, as well as upper arm muscle area (UMA and upper arm muscle area estimate (UME, among stunted and non-stunted children aged 0-24 months. Results We analyzed 2,195 children. The prevalence of stunting was 354/2,195 (16.1%. The UFA, UFE, and UFP among stunted children were significantly lower compared to non-stunted children aged 7-12 months [UFA: 4.48 vs. 5.05 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; UFE: 4.88 vs. 5.55 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively; and UFP: 30.82 vs. 32.58% (P = 0.03, respectively]. The UMA in children aged 7-12 months was also significantly lower in stunted than in non-stunted children [11.31 vs. 11.79 cm2 (P = 0.02, respectively], as well as in children aged 13-24 months [11.05 vs. 11.75 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. In addition, the UME in children aged 13-24 months was significantly lower in stunted compared to non-stunted children [10.50 vs. 11.18 cm2 (P <0.001, respectively]. Conclusion The UFA in children aged 7-12 months is smaller in stunted than in non-stunted children, whereas UMA in children aged 7-12 months and 13-24 months was smaller in stunted compared to non-stunted children.

  3. The significance of a grassy field boundary for the spatial distribution of carabids within two cereal fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saska, P.; Vodde, M.; Heijerman, Th.; Westerman, P.R.; Werf, van der W.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigated how distance from the field edge affects overall activity-density, species richness and distribution of individual carabid (Coleoptera: Carabidae) species. Carabid beetles were sampled using pitfall traps at six different locations: grassy field boundary, 0 (field edge), 4,

  4. Comparative study on the catalase activity in grassy and forestry plants exposed to low gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arteni, A. A; Mocanasu, R. C.; Arteni, V.; Creanga, I.

    2001-01-01

    Since gamma rays level in atmosphere occasionally increases affecting biosphere,the radiation effect damages seriously certain plant species. This study was focused on a grassy species,Triticum aestivum, in comparison to a forestry species, namely Quercus robur. Young plantlets were exposed to weak gamma rays delivered by a laboratory 60 Co source, for different irradiation times. The enzymatic activity of catalase was evaluated using biochemical methods. Triticum aestivum presented a slight enhancing of catalase, both in caryopsides and leafs. Quercus robur revealed a rapid linear enhancing of catalase in saplings cultivated in laboratory while saplings grown in forestry were characterized by a reduced catalase activity. Concurrent phenomena of enzyme biosynthesis stimulation and enzyme structure damage are presumed to be the cause of such behavior. (authors)

  5. Magnitude and determinants of stunting in children underfive years ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Child malnutrition is a major public health problem in Ethiopia. Surprisingly, the highest level of stunting is found in food surplus areas of the country. Objective: To identify the determinants of stunting in food surplus areas of West Gojam Zone. Method: A community based cross-sectional survey was conducted ...

  6. Household market participation and stunting in preschool children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Stunting among Malawian preschool children continues to be a concern. Method: A cross-sectional survey of 251 semi-urban households, who participated in a community-supported preschool programme, was conducted. Results: Of the 433 participating two- to five-year-old children, 34.4% had stunting.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of stunting among primary school ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Studies on stunting in children have largely focused on the underfive, establishing it as a strong predictor of mortality in these children. Few studies have documented the prevalence or determinants of stunting among school children in southwestern Nigeria. The aim of the study was to determine the ...

  8. A review of child stunting determinants in Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beal, Ty; Tumilowicz, Alison; Sutrisna, Aang; Izwardy, Doddy; Neufeld, Lynnette M

    2018-05-17

    Child stunting reduction is the first of 6 goals in the Global Nutrition Targets for 2025 and a key indicator in the second Sustainable Development Goal of Zero Hunger. The prevalence of child stunting in Indonesia has remained high over the past decade, and at the national level is approximately 37%. It is unclear whether current approaches to reduce child stunting align with the scientific evidence in Indonesia. We use the World Health Organization conceptual framework on child stunting to review the available literature and identify what has been studied and can be concluded about the determinants of child stunting in Indonesia and where data gaps remain. Consistent evidence suggests nonexclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months, low household socio-economic status, premature birth, short birth length, and low maternal height and education are particularly important child stunting determinants in Indonesia. Children from households with both unimproved latrines and untreated drinking water are also at increased risk. Community and societal factors-particularly, poor access to health care and living in rural areas-have been repeatedly associated with child stunting. Published studies are lacking on how education; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation, and the environment contribute to child stunting. This comprehensive synthesis of the available evidence on child stunting determinants in Indonesia outlines who are the most vulnerable to stunting, which interventions have been most successful, and what new research is needed to fill knowledge gaps. © 2018 The Authors. Maternal and Child Nutrition Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Trends in inequalities in child stunting in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Aditi; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; McGovern, Mark; Aguayo, Victor; Subramanian, S V

    2017-10-19

    We analysed socio-economic inequalities in stunting in South Asia and investigated disparities associated with factors at the individual, caregiver, and household levels (poor dietary diversity, low maternal education, and household poverty). We used time-series analysis of data from 55,459 children ages 6-23 months from Demographic and Health Surveys in Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan (1991-2014). Logistic regression models, adjusted for age, sex, birth order, and place of residency, examined associations between stunting and multiple types of socio-economic disadvantage. All countries had high stunting rates. Bangladesh and Nepal recorded the largest reductions-2.9 and 4.1 percentage points per year, respectively-compared to 1.3 and 0.6 percentage points in India and Pakistan, respectively. Socio-economic adversity was associated with increased risk of stunting, regardless of disadvantage type. Poor children with inadequate diets and with poorly educated mothers experienced greater risk of stunting. Although stunting rates declined in the most deprived groups, socio-economic differences were largely preserved over time and in some cases worsened, namely, between wealth quintiles. The disproportionate burden of stunting experienced by the most disadvantaged children and the worsening inequalities between socio-economic groups are of concern in countries with substantial stunting burdens. Closing the gap between best and worst performing countries, and between most and least disadvantaged groups within countries, would yield substantial improvements in stunting rates in South Asia. To do so, greater attention needs to be paid to addressing the social, economic, and political drivers of stunting with targeted efforts towards the populations experiencing the greatest disadvantage and child growth faltering. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Orbital Light Curves of UU Aquarii in Stunted Outburst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, J. W.; Honeycutt, R. K.; Henden, A. A.; Campbell, R. T.

    2018-02-01

    Stunted outbursts are ∼0.ͫ6 eruptions, typically lasting 5–10 days, which are found in some novalike cataclysmic variables, including UU Aqr. The mechanism responsible for stunted outbursts is uncertain but is likely related to an accretion disk instability or to variations in the mass transfer rate. A campaign to monitor the eclipse light curves in UU Aqr has been conducted in order to detect any light curve distortions due to the appearance of a hot spot on the disk at the location of the impact point of the accretion stream. If stunted outbursts are due to a temporary mass transfer enhancement, then predictable deformations of the orbital light curve are expected to occur during such outbursts. This study used 156 eclipses on 135 nights during the years 2000–2012. During this interval, random samples found the system to be in stunted outbursts 4%–5% of the time, yielding ∼7 eclipses obtained during some stage of stunted outburst. About half of the eclipses obtained during stunted outbursts showed clear evidence for hot spot enhancement, providing strong evidence that the stunted outbursts in UU Aqr are associated with mass transfer variations. The other half of the eclipses during stunted outburst showed little or no evidence for hot spot enhancement. Furthermore, there were no systematic changes in the hot spot signature as stunted outbursts progressed. Therefore, we have tentatively attributed the changes in hot spot visibility during stunted outburst to random blobby accretion, which likely further modulates the strength of the accretion stream on orbital timescales.

  11. Does the presence of grassy strips and landscape grain affect the spatial distribution of aphids and their carabid predators?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hassan, D. A.; Georgelin, T.; Delattre, T.; Burel, F.; Plantengenest, M.; Kindlmann, Pavel; Butet, A.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 1 (2013), s. 24-33 ISSN 1461-9555 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073; GA ČR(CZ) GEVOL/11/E036 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : Beneficial predators * biological control * Carabidae * cereal aphids * grassy strips * landscape structure Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 1.556, year: 2013

  12. Grandparents and Children's stunting in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrijner, Sandor; Smits, Jeroen

    2018-03-26

    Globally an estimated 159 million children under 5 years of age are being too short for one's age (stunted). More than one third of these children is living in Africa. Given the substantial number of sub-Saharan African (SSA) children living in households with co-residing grandparents and the negative effects of stunting on productivity and economic growth, gaining insight into the role grandparents play for children's stunting, has become increasingly important. By applying multilevel logistic regression analysis on a database with information on 344,748 children aged 6-60 months living in 31 SSA countries, the strength of the relationship between grandparental co-residence and children's stunting is examined. Interaction analysis is used to explore how this relationship is moderated by characteristics of the household and of the context in which the household is situated. Children in households with a co-residing grandmother have significantly lower odds of being stunted than other children, provided that the grandmother is in the 50-75 age range. When the grandmother is very young or very old, the likelihood of being stunted is higher. For grandfathers, no significant overall relationship is found, but our findings show that co-residence of a grandfather is associated with less stunting of girls, in poor households and in polygamous households. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Maternal waist circumference as a prediction of children's stunted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-05-08

    May 8, 2014 ... Stunted Child and Overweight Mother (SCOM) pairs in a South African setting. After a ... this study measured waist circumference, while the Mexican group ... predictor of the mothers' children's metabolic syndrome status, but.

  14. ORIGINAL ARTICLES Socio-economic predictors of stunting in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-01

    Jun 1, 2009 ... Childhood stunting continues to be a public health issue in many African ... risk of child and adult obesity.4 This wide range of effects is particularly relevant in a ... interventions, and disease control and treatment programmes.

  15. Model Pengendalian Faktor Risiko Stunting pada Anak Bawah Tiga Tahun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erna Kusumawati

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Stunting merupakan masalah gizi, terbukti data pemantauan status gizi Kabupaten Banyumas 2012 prevalensi stunting sebesar 28,37% dan prevalensi tertinggi (41,6% di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng. Tujuan penelitian untuk menganalisis faktor risiko terkait faktor anak, ibu, lingkungan terhadap stunting bawah tiga tahun (batita agar dapat dikembangkan model pengendaliannya. Penelitian menggunakan desain kasus kontrol, populasi adalah seluruh anak usia 6 sampai 36 bulan di Puskesmas Kedungbanteng Kabupaten Banyumas selama enam bulan tahun 2013. Sampel kasus adalah 50 batita stunting, sampel kontrol adalah 50 batita status normal. Teknik pengambilan sampel kasus diambil dari tujuh desa yang terbanyak stuntingnya, sedangkan kontrol adalah batita normal tetangga terdekat kasus dengan usia yang disamakan. Pengumpulan data dengan wawancara dan pengukuran. Analisis data univariat, bivariat (uji kai kuadrat, dan multivariat (uji regresi logistik ganda. Hasil penelitian menemukan karakteristik batita stunting terkena penyakit infeksi (82%, riwayat panjang badan lahir < 48 centimeter (66%, riwayat pemberian ASI dan makanan pendamping ASI kurang baik (66%, riwayat berat badan lahir rendah (8%. Pada penelitian ini, faktor risiko stunting adalah penyakit infeksi, pelayanan kesehatan, immunisasi, pengetahuan ibu, pendapatan keluarga, ketersediaan pangan keluarga, dan sanitasi lingkungan. Faktor yang paling dominan adalah penyakit infeksi. Model pengendalian stunting melalui peningkatan pemberdayaan keluarga terkait pencegahan penyakit infeksi, memanfaatkan pekarangan sebagai sumber gizi keluarga dan perbaikan sanitasi lingkungan. Model of Stunting Risk Factor Control among Children under Three Years Old Stunting is a nutritional problem, proved by the evidence of nutritional status monitoring at Banyumas District in 2012, the prevalence of stunting was 28.37% and the highest prevalence 41.6% at Kedungbanteng Primary Health Care. This study aimed to analyze risk factors

  16. Determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsu, Benedicta K; Guure, Chris; Laar, Amos K

    2017-07-27

    Malnutrition (undernutrition and overnutrition) is a major public health problem in Ghana -affecting growth and development of individuals and the nation. Stunting and overweight are of particular interest, as recent national surveys show a rising trend of overnutrition and stubbornly high burden of stunting among Ghanaian children. There are currently no data on the simultaneous occurrence of overweight and stunting within individuals in Ghana. This paper presents the burden, the individual-level, and contextual determinants of overweight with concurrent stunting among Ghanaian children. This study analyzed data set of the fourth round of the Ghana Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4). Bivariate analyses were used to describe selected characteristics of survey respondents and their children. Hierarchical modelling approach facilitated identification of significant distal, intermediate and proximal factors/determinants of concurrent stunting and overweight. Both crude and adjusted prevalence ratios via a multivariable Poison regression model with their corresponding 95% Confidence Intervals (CI) are reported. Variables with p ≤ 0.25 at the bivariate level were included in the multivariable analysis. An alpha value of 5% was used to indicate significance. Of 7550 cases (children) analyzed, the prevalence of stunting was 27.5%; underweight was 17.3%; and wasting was 7.7%. The prevalence of overweight and concurrent overweight and stunting were respectively 2.4% and 1.2%. Children who belonged to the fourth wealth quintile, were more likely to be overweight and concurrently stunted as against children belonging to the poorest quintile (aPR = 1.010; 95% CI, 1.003-1.017). Compared to religious (Christians/Muslim/Traditionalist) household heads, children whose household heads did not belong to any religion had 2 times the rates of the Overweight with concurrent stunting (PR = 2.024; 95% CI, 1.016-4.034). Children with mothers aged 20-34 and 35-49 had an

  17. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lif......An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting...... the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education....... Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels....

  18. A Literature Review of the Effect of Malaria on Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Bianca D; Black, Robert E

    2017-11-01

    Background: The current version of the Lives Saved Tool (LiST) maternal and child health impact modeling software does not include an effect of malaria on stunting. Objective: This literature review was undertaken to determine whether such a causal link should be included in the LiST model. Methods: The PubMed, Embase, and Scopus databases were searched by using broad search terms. The searches returned a total of 4281 documents. Twelve studies from among the retrieved documents were included in the review according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Results: There was mixed evidence for an effect of malaria on stunting among longitudinal observational studies, and none of the randomized controlled trials of malaria interventions found an effect of the interventions on stunting. Conclusions: There is insufficient evidence to include malaria as a determinant of stunting or an effect of malaria interventions on stunting in the LiST model. The paucity and heterogeneity of the available literature were a major limitation. In addition, the studies included in the review consistently fulfilled their ethical responsibility to treat children under observation for malaria, which may have interfered with the natural history of the disease and prevented any observable effect on stunting or linear growth. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Stunted at 10 Years. Linear Growth Trajectories and Stunting from Birth to Pre-Adolescence in a Rural Bangladeshi Cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Few studies in low-income settings analyse linear growth trajectories from foetal life to pre-adolescence. The aim of this study is to describe linear growth and stunting from birth to 10 years in rural Bangladesh and to analyse whether maternal and environmental determinants at conception are associated with linear growth throughout childhood and stunting at 10 years.Pregnant women participating in the MINIMat trial were identified in early pregnancy and a birth cohort (n = 1054 was followed with 19 growth measurements from birth to 10 years. Analyses of baseline predictors and mean height-for-age Z-scores (HAZ over time were modelled using GLMM. Logistic regression analysis was used to investigate the associations between baseline predictors and stunting (HAZ<-2 at 10 years. HAZ decreased to 2 years, followed by an increase up to 10 years, while the average height-for-age difference in cm (HAD to the WHO reference median continued to increase up to 10 years. Prevalence of stunting was highest at 2 years (50% decreasing to 29% at 10 years. Maternal height, maternal educational level and season of conception were all independent predictors of HAZ from birth to pre-adolescence (p<0.001 and stunting at 10 years. The highest probability to be stunted at 10 years was for children born by short mothers (<147.5 cm (ORadj 2.93, 95% CI: 2.06-4.20, mothers with no education (ORadj 1.74, 95% CI 1.17-2.81 or those conceived in the pre-monsoon season (ORadj 1.94, 95% CI 1.37-2.77.Height growth trajectories and prevalence of stunting in pre-adolescence showed strong intergenerational associations, social differentials, and environmental influence from foetal life. Targeting women before and during pregnancy is needed for the prevention of impaired child growth.

  20. Serological and molecular detection of Bean leaf roll and Chickpea chlorotic stunt luteoviruses in chickpea from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajiyusef Tara

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. is an important legume crop and widely cultivated in northwestern provinces of Iran. During a survey in the 2015 growing season a total of 170 selected chickpea plants with general yellowing symptoms including stunting and leaf bronzing were collected. Serological Elisa and tissue blot immunoassay (TIBA tests revealed the presence of Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV as the predominant viruses in the region. Some serologically positive samples of BLRV and CpCSV were selected and rechecked by RT-PCR. The results of amplified PCR products using a specific pair of primers towards the Cp gene region of the viruses were approximately 413 bp for CpCSV and 391 bp for BLRV. Results obtained from sequence comparison of BLRV (IR-F-Lor-5 isolate form two subgroups with eight other BLRV isolates from GeneBank indicating a high homology of 96% with isolates from Argentina, Germany, Tunisia, USA, Spain, and Colombia. An isolate from Norabad (Iran (IR-Nor had 98% homology with HQ840727 Libyan isolate. CpCSV sequence comparison with six other GeneBank isolates indicated 98% homology with isolates from Tunisia and Azerbaijan. The overall results of this research revealed the CpCSV and BLRV (luteoviruses associated with the yellowing disease syndrome of chickpea crops in the surveyed region.

  1. EVALUASI PENATALAKSANAAN GIZI BALITA STUNTING DI WILAYAH KERJA PUSKESMAS SIRAMPOG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himatul Khoeroh

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT SUN (Scalling Up Nutrition merupakan upaya global dalam rangka rencana aksi percepatan perbaikan gizi salah satunya menanggulangi balita stunting fokus pada 1000 HPK. Stunting merupakan prevalensi tertinggi di Wilayah kerja Puskesmas Sirampog di Kabupaten Brebes, ini menunjukkan bahwa kualitas pelayanan kesehatan masih rendah. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengevaluasi penatalaksanaan status gizi balita stunting dengan unsur input, proses dan output. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian kualitatif. Informan awal ditentukan dengan teknik purposive sampling. Metode pegumpulan data melalui wawancara mendalam, observasi dan dokumentasi terhadap 6 informan awal yang terdiri dari kepala puskesmas, bidan koordinator KIA, koordinator gizi, bidan desa, kader dan ibu balita sasaran. Dua informan triangulasi yang terdiri dari koordinator kesehatan kelurga dan koordinator gizi Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan pada tahap input yaitu tenaga kesehatan yang terlibat masih memerlukan tambahan, belum ada tenaga gizi. Pada unsur proses, sebagian program terlaksana dengan baik meliputi program sehat bagi wanita hamil, pemberian ASI Eksklusif, pemantauan tumbuh kembang, pemberian makanan tambahan, pemberian vitamin A kecuali program pemberian taburia. Pada unsur output, cakupan prevalensi stunting di Puskesmas Sirampog Kabupaten Brebes tahun 2015 sebesar 16,74 %.   ABSTRACT   SUN (Scalling Up Nutrition is  the global efforts from all shorts of countries in the framework of program attractive speeding up of nutrition improvement one of them to cope with baby of stunting  focused to 1000 HPK. Stunting is highest prevalency in estate work clinik of sirampog brebes, this is indicate that quality of health treatment is too low. The porpose of This research is to evaluate management status nutrition of baby stunting included unsure input, proses and output.. This research is the qualitative reseearch in estate work clinik of

  2. Reaching the global target to reduce stunting: an investment framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Meera; Kakietek, Jakub; D'Alimonte, Mary R; Rogers, Hilary E; Eberwein, Julia Dayton; Akuoku, Jon Kweku; Pereira, Audrey; Soe-Lin, Shan; Hecht, Robert

    2017-06-01

    Childhood stunting, being short for one's age, has life-long consequences for health, human capital and economic growth. Being stunted in early childhood is associated with slower cognitive development, reduced schooling attainment and adult incomes decreased by 5-53%. The World Health Assembly has endorsed global nutrition targets including one to reduce the number of stunted children under five by 40% by 2025. The target has been included in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG target 2.2). This paper estimates the cost of achieving this target and develops scenarios for generating the necessary financing. We focus on a key intervention package for stunting (KIPS) with strong evidence of effectiveness. Annual scale-up costs for the period of 2016-25 were estimated for a sample of 37 high burden countries and extrapolated to all low and middle income countries. The Lives Saved Tool was used to model the impact of the scale-up on stunting prevalence. We analysed data on KIPS budget allocations and expenditure by governments, donors and households to derive a global baseline financing estimate. We modelled two financing scenarios, a 'business as usual', which extends the current trends in domestic and international financing for nutrition through 2025, and another that proposes increases in financing from all sources under a set of burden-sharing rules. The 10-year financial need to scale up KIPS is US$49.5 billion. Under 'business as usual', this financial need is not met and the global stunting target is not reached. To reach the target, current financing will have to increase from US$2.6 billion to US$7.4 billion a year on average. Reaching the stunting target is feasible but will require large coordinated investments in KIPS and a supportive enabling environment. The example of HIV scale-up over 2001-11 is instructive in identifying the factors that could drive such a global response to childhood stunting. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University

  3. Stunting is characterized by chronic inflammation in Zimbabwean infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Prendergast

    Full Text Available Stunting affects one-third of children in developing countries, but the causes remain unclear. We hypothesized that enteropathy leads to low-grade inflammation, which suppresses the growth hormone-IGF axis and mediates stunting.We conducted a case-control study of 202 HIV-unexposed Zimbabwean infants who were stunted (height-for-age Z-score (HAZ -0.5; controls at 18 months. We measured biomarkers of intestinal damage (I-FABP, inflammation (CRP, AGP, IL-6 and growth hormone-IGF axis (IGF-1, IGFBP3 in infant plasma at 6 weeks and 3, 6, 12 and 18 months, and in paired maternal-infant plasma at birth. Adjusted mean differences between biomarkers were estimated using regression models. Multivariate odds ratios of stunting were estimated by logistic regression.At birth, cases were shorter (median (IQR HAZ -1.00 (-1.53, -0.08 vs 0.03 (-0.57, 0.62,; P<0.001 than controls and their mothers had lower levels of IGF-1 (adjusted mean difference (95%CI -21.4 (-39.8, -3.1 ng/mL. From 6 weeks to 12 months of age, levels of CRP and AGP were consistently higher and IGF-1 and IGFBP3 lower in cases versus controls; IGF-1 correlated inversely with inflammatory markers at all time-points. I-FABP increased between 3-12 months, indicating extensive intestinal damage during infancy, which was similar in cases and controls. In multivariate analysis, higher log10 levels of CRP (aOR 3.06 (95%CI 1.34, 6.99; P = 0.008 and AGP (aOR 7.87 (95%CI 0.74, 83.74; P = 0.087 during infancy were associated with stunting. There were no associations between levels of I-FABP, IL-6, sCD14 or EndoCAb and stunting.Stunting began in utero and was associated with low maternal IGF-1 levels at birth. Inflammatory markers were higher in cases than controls from 6 weeks of age and were associated with lower levels of IGF-1 throughout infancy. Higher levels of CRP and AGP during infancy were associated with stunting. These findings suggest that an extensive enteropathy occurs during infancy

  4. Dietary determination of stunting and anaemia among pre ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Morocco is undergoing nutrition transition with more than one third of women and children presenting anaemia while about 20% of children under the age of 15 years have stunted growth. Meanwhile the prevalence of obesity is increasing yearly by 0.5 to 1 point among women. Many nutritional strategies have been ...

  5. The effect of early childhood stunting on children's cognitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EPHA USER33

    The balance of the propensity score matching techniques was checked and found to be satisfied (P<0.01). Results: Early childhood stunting is significantly negatively associated with cognitive performance of .... linked to poorer cognitive attainment later in life (22). .... to the questionnaires and organization of the field work.

  6. Feeding patterns and stunting during early childhood in rural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Children who started complementary food either before or after the recommended 6 months time, were more likely to be stunted (P=0.01). Conclusion: The feeding practices of most mothers did not meet WHO recommendations. Behavior change communication about the importance of optimal complementary feeding and ...

  7. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  8. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  9. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Angood

    Full Text Available Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments.We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72% experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: "Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?"; "What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?"; and "What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?" There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions.Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences.

  10. BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio of stunted v. non-stunted Indian children: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savanur, Mitravinda S; Ghugre, Padmini S

    2016-06-01

    To compare the BMI, body fat and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) of stunted and non-stunted children following different growth trajectories from low socio-economic strata in Mumbai, India. Cross-sectional, case-control study. Weight, height, skinfold thicknesses and waist circumference were measured. Information regarding the duration of breast-feeding, age at initiation of complementary feeding and income was obtained. Birth weight was obtained from records. BMI, body fat, WHtR and change in weight sd were calculated. Children who were beneficiaries of anganwadis, Mumbai city, India. Three hundred and thirty children aged 2-4 years were selected in each of the stunted and non-stunted groups after matching for age and sex. After adjusting for birth weight, change in weight sd, duration of breast-feeding, age at complementary feeding initiation and income, stunted children had significantly higher body fat, WHtR and BMI than the non-stunted (Pchildren were classified based on their change in weight sd. Stunted children with no change in weight sd had higher mean body fat, BMI (Pchildren had higher BMI and WHtR than the non-stunted (both Pchildren had higher BMI than the non-stunted (Pfat in young children. Such a tendency, if continued during later childhood and adolescence, can increase the risk of obesity and non-communicable diseases.

  11. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, ...

  12. Protection of melon plants against Cucumber mosaic virus infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to characterize a virus causing severe mosaic, yellowing, stunting and leaf deformation on melon (Cucumis melo L.), and evaluate the capacity of Pseudomonas fluorescens as biofertilizer to improve plant growth and restrict the accumulation of the virus in the plant. The virus was identified as an ...

  13. Chicken astrovirus as an aetiological agent of runting-stunting syndrome in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Kyung-Il; Linnemann, Erich; Icard, Alan H; Durairaj, Vijay; Mundt, Egbert; Sellers, Holly S

    2018-04-01

    Despite descriptions of runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in broiler chickens dating back over 40 years, the aetiology has not yet been described. A novel chicken astrovirus (CkAstV) was isolated in an LMH liver cell line from the intestines of chickens affected with RSS. Clinical RSS is characterized by retarded growth and cystic crypt lesions in the small intestine. In 1-day-old broiler chickens infected with the CkAstV isolate, virus was only detected in the intestinal epithelial cells during the first few days after infection. Notably, the preferred host cells are the crypt epithelial cells following initial replication in the villous epithelial cells, thus implying viral preference for immature intestinal cells. Nevertheless, the CkAstV isolate did not induce remarkable pathological changes, despite the presence of the virus in situ. Serial chicken-to-chicken passages of the virus induced increased virulence, as displayed by decreased weight gain and the presence of cystic lesions in the small intestine reproducing clinical RSS in chickens. The analysis of the full-length genome sequences from the isolated CkAstV and the CkAstV from the bird-to-bird passages showed >99 % similarity. The data obtained in this study suggest that the CkAstV isolate is capable of inducing RSS following serial bird-to-bird passages in broilers and is as an aetiological agent of the disease.

  14. Social determinants of stunting in rural area of Wardha, Central India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh, Pradeep R; Sinha, Nirmalya; Dongre, Amol R

    2013-07-01

    Stunting is a consequence of long term, cumulative inadequacies of health and nutrition. Health system uses underweight for growth monitoring for its simplicity. Lately there is renewed interest in stunting and especially severe acute malnutrition. Stunting is a relatively neglected indicator. It is therefore imperative to understand the causes of stunting early in infancy and childhood, so that preventive measures can be taken. Hence, the present study was undertaken to study the social determinants of stunting in rural Wardha. The present cross-sectional study was undertaken in three Primary Health Centres (PHCs) of Wardha district with total population of 88,187. The sample was drawn from three PHC areas by 30-cluster sampling technique. Stunting was defined using WHO Child Growth Standards for 'height-for-age'. 'Height-for-age' values below 2 standard deviations were considered as stunted while below 3 standard deviations were considered 'severe stunting'. Prevalence of stunting was observed to be 52.3% and severe stunting was 25.1%. The significant determinants of stunting were found to be age, father's education, fathers' occupation, low income, not receiving Vitamin-A supplement during last 6 months and having anaemia. Sex, caste, mother's education and mothers' occupation did not contribute significantly to the stunting. Low income and related factors such as father's education and his occupation are important determinant of the stunting. Father being the decision maker, his education is of importance. Vitamin-A supplementation and anaemia as surrogate indicators for access to health care also found out to be significant determinants of stunting.

  15. Determinants of stunting and severe stunting among Burundian children aged 6-23 months: evidence from a national cross-sectional household survey, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkurunziza, Sandra; Meessen, Bruno; Van Geertruyden, Jean-Pierre; Korachais, Catherine

    2017-07-25

    Burundi is one of the poorest countries and is among the four countries with the highest prevalence of stunting (58%) among children aged less than 5 years. This situation undermines the economic growth of the country as undernutrition is strongly associated with less schooling and reduced economic productivity. Identifying the determinants of stunting and severe stunting may help policy-makers to direct the limited Burundian resources to the most vulnerable segments of the population, and thus make it more cost effective. This study aimed to identify predictors of stunting and severe stunting among children aged less than two years in Burundi. The sample is made up of 6199 children aged 6 to 23 months with complete anthropometric measurements from the baseline survey of an impact evaluation study of the Performance-Based financing (PBF) scheme applied to nutrition services in Burundi from 2015 to 2017. Binary and multivariable logistic regression analyses were used to examine stunting and severe stunting against a set of child, parental and household variables such as child's age or breastfeeding pattern, mother's age or knowledge of malnutrition, household size or socio-economic status. The prevalence of stunting and severe stunting were 53% [95%CI: 51.8-54.3] and 20.9% [95%CI: 19.9-22.0] respectively. Compared to children from 6-11 months, children of 12-17 months and 18-23 months had a higher risk of stunting (AdjOR:2.1; 95% CI: 1.8-2.4 and 3.2; 95% CI: 2.8-3.7). Other predictors for stunting were small babies (AdjOR=1.5; 95% CI: 1.3-1.7 for medium-size babies at birth and AdjOR=2.9; 95% CI: 2.4-3.6 for small-size babies at birth) and male children (AdjOR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.4-1.8). In addition, having no education for mothers (AdjOR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.2-2.1), incorrect mothers' child nutrition status assessment (AdjOR=3.3; 95% CI: 2.8-4), delivering at home (AdjOR=1.4; 95% CI: 1.2-1.6) were found to be predictors for stunting. More than to 2 under five children in the

  16. Birth interval and stunting in children under five years of age in Peru (1996-2014).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobrino, M; Gutiérrez, C; Alarcón, J; Dávila, M; Cunha, A J

    2017-01-01

    Examine the evolution of stunting in birth interval (BI), and associated factors from 1996 to 2014. Data were extracted from the National Demographic and Health Survey of Peru (DHS) for the years 1996, 2000, 2005, 2010 and 2014 on children birth (≤24 months vs. >24 months) and others sociodemographic variables. Crude and adjusted odds ratios with 95% confidence intervals were estimated in logistic regression for the effect of BI and other variables on stunting by each survey year. Between 1996 and 2014, stunting declined in both BI groups: ≤24 months: 35.8% to 21.8%; >24 months: 29.5% to 14.3%. BI was associated with stunting after adjustment for other variables in each survey except 2005. Of the other factors, sex, birth order (fourth child or more), maternal education and poverty were independently associated with stunting in all survey years. Residence in rural areas and in Amazon forest and highland regions was associated with stunting 1996 and 2000. Maternal age was not independently associated with stunting. While stunting showed a decreasing trend from 1996 to 2014, birth interval exceeding 24 months exerted a protective effect on stunting across the years surveyed. Poverty, low maternal education and high birth order were associated with stunting in all survey years. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Stunting berhubungan dengan perkembangan motorik anak di Kecamatan Sedayu, Bantul, Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Goreti Pantaleon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting (short body length is a body condition that is very short until surpass deficit at 2 SD under median of body length or body height of the population that be an international reference. The cause of stunting is food consumption that is not balanced and infectious disease. Many studies showed the correlation between stunting and poor motoric and mental development in early childhood, and poor cognitive performance and school performance in later childhood. The national prevalence of stunting in 2013 was 37.2%, it increased compared to 2010 (35.6% and 2007 (36.8%.Objectives: To know the correlation between stunting incidence and the development of 6-23 months old children in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: This was observational study with cross sectional design. The sample size was 100 children, whose aged 6-23 months old. They consisted of 50 stunting children and 50 non-stunting children who were selected by consecutive sampling methods. Data were collected by using structured questionnaire and assisted by psychologist to measure the development of the children. Stunting in 6-23 months old children was measured by indicator of body length for age (WHO 2005 and the measurement of development used method of Bayley Scales of Infant Development III. Data were analyzed using chi-square test and logistic regression test by 95% confidence interval.Results: Statistically, there was signifi cant correlation between stunting and motoric development of the toddler (p=0.002, but there was no significant correlation between stunting and the development of cognitive, language, socio- emotional, and adaptive of the toddler. The result of multivariate showed thatstunting and sex statistically had correlation to the motoric development (p<0.05.Conclusions: Stunting associated with children motoric development in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul,YogyakartaKEYWORDS: children development, stunting

  18. Woodland expansion in South African grassy biomes based on satellite observations (1990-2013): general patterns and potential drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowno, Andrew L; Thompson, Mark W; Hiestermann, Jens; Ripley, Brad; West, Adam G; Bond, William J

    2017-06-01

    Increases in woody plant cover in savanna grassland environments have been reported on globally for over 50 years and are generally perceived as a threat to rangeland productivity and biodiversity. Despite this, few attempts have been made to estimate the extent of woodland increase at a national scale, principally due to technical constraints such as availability of appropriate remote sensing products. In this study, we aimed to measure the extent to which woodlands have replaced grasslands in South Africa's grassy biomes. We use multiseason Landsat data in conjunction with satellite L-band radar backscatter data to estimate the extent of woodlands and grasslands in 1990 and 2013. The method employed allows for a unique, nationwide measurement of transitions between grassland and woodland classes in recent decades. We estimate that during the 23-year study period, woodlands have replaced grasslands over ~57 000 km 2 and conversely that grasslands have replaced woodlands over ~30 000 km 2 , a net increase in the extent of woodland of ~27 000 km 2 and an annual increase of 0.22%. The changes varied markedly across the country; areas receiving over 500 mm mean annual precipitation showed higher rates of woodland expansion than regions receiving 0.19% yr -1 ). The woodland change map presented here provides a unique opportunity to test the numerous models of woody plant encroachment at a national/regional scale. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Understorey productivity in temperate grassy woodland responds to soil water availability but not to elevated [CO2 ].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Luke; Bradstock, Ross A; Resco de Dios, Victor; Duursma, Remko A; Velasco, Sabrina; Boer, Matthias M

    2018-06-01

    Rising atmospheric [CO 2 ] and associated climate change are expected to modify primary productivity across a range of ecosystems globally. Increasing aridity is predicted to reduce grassland productivity, although rising [CO 2 ] and associated increases in plant water use efficiency may partially offset the effect of drying on growth. Difficulties arise in predicting the direction and magnitude of future changes in ecosystem productivity, due to limited field experimentation investigating climate and CO 2 interactions. We use repeat near-surface digital photography to quantify the effects of water availability and experimentally manipulated elevated [CO 2 ] (eCO 2 ) on understorey live foliage cover and biomass over three growing seasons in a temperate grassy woodland in south-eastern Australia. We hypothesised that (i) understorey herbaceous productivity is dependent upon soil water availability, and (ii) that eCO 2 will increase productivity, with greatest stimulation occurring under conditions of low water availability. Soil volumetric water content (VWC) determined foliage cover and growth rates over the length of the growing season (August to March), with low VWC (productivity. However, eCO 2 did not increase herbaceous cover and biomass over the duration of the experiment, or mitigate the effects of low water availability on understorey growth rates and cover. Our findings suggest that projected increases in aridity in temperate woodlands are likely to lead to reduced understorey productivity, with little scope for eCO 2 to offset these changes. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. DETERMINAN STUNTING PADA ANAK USIA 2-3 TAHUN DI TINGKAT PROVINSI (DETERMINANTS OF STUNTING IN CHILDREN 2-3 YEARS OF AGE AT PROVINCE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Latar belakang: Prevalensi pendek (stunting pada balita masih 36,6 persen. Tingginya prevalensi stunting pada anak balita merupakan refleksi masalah gizi ibu selama kehamilan dan erat kaitannya dengan kemiskinan. Secara agregat, IPKM (Indeks Pembangunan Kesehatan Masyarakat merupakan indikator kemajuan pembangunan kesehatan dan IPM (Indeks Pembangunan Manusia termasuk salah satu dari 24 indikator dalam IPKM. Tujuan analisis: mempelajari determinan faktor yang menjadi pembeda terhadap tinggi rendahnya prevalensi stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi. Metode: analisis ini merupakan studi populasi. Data yang dianalisis adalah data agregat dari variabel IPKM, KEK pada ibu hamil dan rumah tangga defisit energi dari data Riskesdas 2007. Sementara variabel IPM dan kemiskinan tahun 2007 dari data BPS. Dalam analisis ini, stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun merupakan variabel terikat, sedangkan variabel lainnya merupakan variabel bebas. Uji statistik yang digunakan adalah uji korelasi dan uji diskriminan. Hasil Analisis: Secara bivariat tidak ditemukan korelasi antara KEK pada bumil dengan stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun, namun ditemukan korelasi antara stunting dengan IPKM (r=-0,67; p=0,000, IPM (r=-0,52; p=0,002 dan kemiskinan (r=0,58;p=0,003. Hasil uji diskriminan menunjukkan bahwa IPKM adalah faktor pembeda antara prevalensi stunting rendah dan stunting tinggi pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi. Kontribusi varian IPKM terhadap perbedaan kedua kelompok stunting sebesar 34 persen. Fungsi diskriminan yang dihasilkan Z = -6.491 + 17.853 *IPKM dengan kemampuan prediksi sebesar 78,8 persen. Kesimpulan: IPKM merupakan faktor pembeda antara prevalensi stunting tinggi dan rendah pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi.     ABSTRACT Background: Stunting prevalence in children 2-3 years of age is still 36.6 percent, the high stunting in the age group shows that nutrition problem in mother during pregnancy is highly

  1. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Santos, Carla Danusa da Luz; Martins, Vinicius J B; Albuquerque, Maria Paula; Fachim, Mariana B; Sawaya, Ana Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Augmented waist circumference (WC) is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether biochemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) into stunted (-1 > HAZ ≥ -2) and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ -1) groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile) insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. WC cut-off points of 58.25cm and 67.2cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively), the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively). The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  3. Kebiasaan makan balita stunting pada masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 hari pertama kehidupan (HPK)

    OpenAIRE

    Lina Nurbaiti; Annis Catur Adi; Shrimarti R Devi; Timbuktu Harthana

    2014-01-01

    The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Comm...

  4. Kebiasaan Makan Balita Stunting Pada Masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 Hari Pertama Kehidupan (HPK)

    OpenAIRE

    Nurbaiti, Lina; Adi, Annis Catur; Devi, Shrimarti R; Harthana, Timbuktu

    2014-01-01

    The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Comm...

  5. The prevalence and risk factors of stunting among primary school children in North Sumatera, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lestari, S.; Fujiati, I. I.; Keumalasari, D.; Daulay, M.

    2018-03-01

    Stunting in primary school-aged children is a kind of health and nutrition problem in Indonesia which has an impact on the human quality resources degradation. This research aimed to determine the stunting prevalence and the risk factors associated with stunting in primary school children in North Sumatra Province. This research is an analysis of cross-sectional approach. The total sampleis 400 children aged 8-13 years old were in the study from the Medan city and Langkat regency in July - October 2017. Data collected by using questionnaire and anthropometric assessment. Stunting (<-2 SD of height-for-age Z-score) were defined by using the World Health Organization reference 2007. Chi-square analysis and logistic regression were used toassess the association between risk factors and stunting. The prevalence of stunting in primary school children was 38.87%. The factors associated with stunting school children were theeducation of mother (OR=1.53), income (OR=2.27), work of mother (OR=1.39), energy intake (OR=2.66) and protein intake (OR=2.02). The dominant factor that influences stunting in school children was energy intake. The conclusion of this study is stunting prevalence in school children in NorthSumatra higher.

  6. HUBUNGAN BBLR DAN ASI EKSLUSIF DENGAN KEJADIAN STUNTING DI PUSKESMAS LIMA PULUH PEKANBARU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Fitri

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Stunting is one of the long-term indicators for malnutrition. Stunting prevalence in Indonesia about 37.2%. Babies born with low birth weight is 10.2% and the achievement of exclusive breastfeeding is 30.2%. Survey in Limapuluh Health Centre Pekanbaru, from 18 children who perform measurements, obtained 13 infants suffered stunting. The result of interviews showed that three of them were born with low birth weight (BBLR and five are not given exclusive breastfeeding. This research is to find-out the correlation between low birth weight (BBLR and exclusive breastfeeding with stunting in Limapuluh Health Centre Pekanbaru in 2017.  This study was a quantitative analysis study used cross sectional strategy. Population consists of 300 people, sample consists of 75 people by accidental sampling technique. Analysis using univariat and bivariate. The result were 25 infant (33,3% are stunting, 22 infant (29,3% with low birth weight (BBLR and  not given exclusive breastfeeding are 55 infant (73,3%. There was a significant association between low birth weight (BBLR with stunting was obtained p value 0.000 and association between exclusive breastfeeding with stunting was obtained p value 0.021 its mean p<0,05. There is a relationship between BBLR and exclusive breastfeeding with stunting events, the Ha accepted.Stunting merupakan salah satu indikasi buruknya status gizi pada anak. Prevalensi stunting di Indonesia sebesar 37,2%. Angka kejadian bayi dengan BBLR sebanyak 10,2% dan pencapaian ASI ekslusif 30,2%. Survey di Puskesmas Lima Puluh kota Pekanbaru Provinsi Riau didapatkan dari 18 orang balita yang di ukur, 13 orang diantaranya mengalami stunting. Hasil wawancara memperlihatkan bahwa 3 orang diantaranya lahir dengan BBLR dan 5 orang tidak diberikan ASI ekslusif. Tujuan penelitian untuk mengetahui hubungan berat badan lahir rendah (BBLR dan ASI ekslusif dengan kejadian stunting di Puskesmas Lima Puluh Pekanbaru. Jenis penelitian analitik kuantitatif

  7. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Brett; Stojanovic, Dejan; Gordon, Iain J; Manning, Adrian D; Fletcher, Don; Lindenmayer, David B

    2014-01-01

    Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1) density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2) grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence) across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure) significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata) were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis) was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata) did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  8. Eaten out of house and home: impacts of grazing on ground-dwelling reptiles in Australian grasslands and grassy woodlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brett Howland

    Full Text Available Large mammalian grazers can alter the biotic and abiotic features of their environment through their impacts on vegetation. Grazing at moderate intensity has been recommended for biodiversity conservation. Few studies, however, have empirically tested the benefits of moderate grazing intensity in systems dominated by native grazers. Here we investigated the relationship between (1 density of native eastern grey kangaroos, Macropus giganteus, and grass structure, and (2 grass structure and reptiles (i.e. abundance, richness, diversity and occurrence across 18 grassland and grassy Eucalyptus woodland properties in south-eastern Australia. There was a strong negative relationship between kangaroo density and grass structure after controlling for tree canopy cover. We therefore used grass structure as a surrogate for grazing intensity. Changes in grazing intensity (i.e. grass structure significantly affected reptile abundance, reptile species richness, reptile species diversity, and the occurrence of several ground-dwelling reptiles. Reptile abundance, species richness and diversity were highest where grazing intensity was low. Importantly, no species of reptile was more likely to occur at high grazing intensities. Legless lizards (Delma impar, D. inornata were more likely to be detected in areas subject to moderate grazing intensity, whereas one species (Hemiergis talbingoensis was less likely to be detected in areas subject to intense grazing and three species (Menetia greyii, Morethia boulengeri, and Lampropholis delicata did not appear to be affected by grazing intensity. Our data indicate that to maximize reptile abundance, species richness, species diversity, and occurrence of several individual species of reptile, managers will need to subject different areas of the landscape to moderate and low grazing intensities and limit the occurrence and extent of high grazing.

  9. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  10. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, exhibiting mild mottling and stunting. The causal virus (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV) was identified and characterized on the basis of host range, aphid ...

  11. Molecular confirmation of Maize rayado fino virus as the Brazilian corn streak virus

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond,Rosemarie Wahnbaeck; Bedendo,Ivan Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas G...

  12. A Tomato necrotic dwarf virus isolate from Datura with poor transmissibility by the whitefly, Bemisia tabaci

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato necrotic dwarf virus (ToNDV); genus Torradovirus, is a whitefly-transmitted virus that caused significant losses for tomato production in the Imperial Valley of California during the 1980s. The virus causes severe stunting, dwarfing of leaves, foliar and fruit necrosis, and greatly reduced f...

  13. Lower waist circumference in mildly‐stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut‐off point than in non‐stunted counterparts.

  14. Mothers' autonomy and childhood stunting: evidence from semi-urban communities in Lao PDR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Yusuke; Nomura, Marika; Ogino, Hina; Yoshikawa, Kanako; Siengsounthone, Latsamy; Xangsayarath, Phonepadith

    2018-05-22

    Childhood stunting (height-for-age z-scores below - 2), a form of chronic undernutrition, remains a global health burden. Although a growing literature has examined the association between mothers' autonomy and childhood stunting, these studies have been limited to countries in South Asia or Sub-Saharan Africa where women have relatively lower social status than do men. Little research has analyzed the effect of mothers' autonomy on childhood stunting in Lao PDR, where women's social status is relatively high compared to that in other countries. We conducted a cross-sectional questionnaire and body scale measurement targeting 100 mothers and their 115 children (autonomy, we measured self-esteem, self-efficacy, decision-making power, freedom of mobility, and control of money. We then analyzed how each dimension was associated with the likelihood of childhood stunting. The likelihood of childhood stunting was significantly lower if mothers had higher self-efficacy for health care (OR = 0.15, p = 0.007), self-esteem (OR = 0.11, p = 0.025), or control of money (OR = 0.11, p = 0.041). In contrast, mothers' decision-making power and freedom of mobility were not significantly associated with childhood stunting. We clarified which dimensions of women's autonomy were associated with childhood stunting in Lao PDR. A closer examination of mothers' autonomy will aid proper understanding of the determinants of childhood stunting.

  15. Mosaic Stunting in jack pine seedlings in a northern Michigan bareroot nursery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynette Potvin; R. Kasten Dumroese; Martin F. Jurgensen; Dana Richter

    2010-01-01

    Mosaic, or patchy, stunting of bareroot conifer seedlings is thought to be caused by deficiencies of mycorrhizal fungi following fumigation, resulting in reduced nutrient uptake, particularly phosphorus. Mosaic stunting of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) seedlings was observed in 2005 at the USDA Forest Service JW Toumey Nursery in Watersmeet, MI. We initiated a study to...

  16. Progression of stunting and its predictors among school-aged children in western Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Friedman, J. F.; Phillips-Howard, P. A.; Mirel, L. B.; Terlouw, D. J.; Okello, N.; Vulule, J. M.; Hawley, W. A.; Nahlen, B. L.; ter Kuile, F.

    2005-01-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to assess whether a cohort of school-aged children experiences progression of stunting over a 2-y-period of observation and (2) to identify baseline nutritional and body composition risk factors for the progression of stunting. As part of a large-scale,

  17. Maternal perception of sickness as a risk factor of stunting in children aged 2-5 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Fatima Dete Dellu

    2016-11-01

    Maternal perception of sickness was the most dominant risk factor of stunting in children 2-5 years of age. A multidisciplinary approach is needed to address the range of raised issues and so combat stunting in children.

  18. Lactoferrin and lysozyme to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic childhood malnutrition, as manifested by stunted linear growth, remains a persistent barrier to optimal child growth and societal development. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is a significant underlying factor in the causal pathway to stunting, delayed cognitive development, and ulti...

  19. Status stunted dan hubungannya dengan perkembangan anak balita di wilayah pesisir Pantai Utara Kecamatan Lemahwungkuk Kota Cirebon

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    Alina Hizni

    2010-03-01

    Conclusion: There was no association between stunted status and child development; however stunted status had greater risk for delay in language development, and risk factors dominantly affecting child development were occupation and education of mothers.

  20. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013-14.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kismul, Hallgeir; Acharya, Pawan; Mapatano, Mala Ali; Hatløy, Anne

    2017-08-01

    Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013-14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother's age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother's BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother's education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address modifiable determinants such as reducing socioeconomic disparity. Nutrition

  1. Chronic stunting among under-5 children in Bangladesh: A situation analysis

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    Anwar Islam

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Malnutrition is a major problem in many developing countries, including Bangladesh. Chronic malnutrition is a major cause of mortality and morbidity among children under the age of five years. Although Bangladesh has made remarkable progress in reducing mortality in the under-fives, chronic stunting remains a formidable challenge for the country. Based on an analysis of available secondary data, this paper illustrates the current status of chronic stunting in Bangladesh. Data on selected relevant indicators such as gender, urban/rural residence, level of mother’s education, and income by wealth quintiles were extracted from the Bangladesh Health and Demography Surveys from 2004, 2007, and 2011. The data clearly suggest a strong relationship between selected socio-economic variables and stunting among children under the age of five. In rural areas, stunting prevalence rate was found to be more than six times higher than in urban areas. Income inequality was also a significant predictor of stunting. Children from the lowest wealth quintile are twice as likely to be stunted as children from the highest wealth quintile (54% of children under five in the lowest quintile compared to 27% of their counterparts in the highest wealth quintile. Similarly, the level of mother’s education is strongly related to stunting: the higher the level of mothers’ education, the lower the prevalence rate of stunting among children under five. Since wealth or income is a strong predictor of place of residence (urban/rural as well as mothers’ level of education, it can be generally concluded that inequity is the primary determinant of stunting among children under five. Bangladesh must forcefully address inequity in order to tackle the overwhelming prevalence of stunting among children under five. Despite making impressive gains to improve major health and development indicators at the macro level, Bangladesh has so far failed to adequately address the underlying

  2. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA.

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    Pascale Vonaesch

    Full Text Available Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR, about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414 were boys, and 36 percent (148/414 exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148 showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148 presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  3. Factors associated with stunting in healthy children aged 5 years and less living in Bangui (RCA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonaesch, Pascale; Tondeur, Laura; Breurec, Sébastien; Bata, Petula; Nguyen, Liem Binh Luong; Frank, Thierry; Farra, Alain; Rafaï, Clotaire; Giles-Vernick, Tamara; Gody, Jean Chrysostome; Gouandjika-Vasilache, Ionela; Sansonetti, Philippe; Vray, Muriel

    2017-01-01

    Stunting remains a major public health concern worldwide. Although its global prevalence is slowly decreasing, the actual number of affected children is still rising in Sub-Saharan Africa. In the Central African Republic (CAR), about one third of all children below the age of five are stunted. Stunting is correlated with many long-term consequences, including poor cognitive development and a higher rate of morbidity and mortality, making stunting a major contributor to poverty. In CAR, little is known about the factors that contribute to stunting. This study aimed at analysing, in a cross-sectional study, the main factors associated with stunting in a group of 414 children recruited between December 2011 and November 2013, aged five years or less and living in Bangui. For all children, demographic, socio-economic and anthropometric data were recorded and asymptomatic enteropathogen carriage was assessed in stool samples using classical microbiological assays. The study group had a mean age of 14.2±10 months. Fifty-eight percent (292/414) were boys, and 36 percent (148/414) exhibited stunted growth. Of the stunted children, 51% (75/148) showed a moderate delay in linear growth for their age group [height-for-age z-score (HAZ) between -2 and -3 SD] while 49% (73/148) presented a severe delay (HAZ 2 SD; aOR: 3.21; 95% CI: 1.50; 6.90 of overweight compared to normal weight] as also being significantly associated with stunting. This is the first study showing that even in the poorest countries of the world there is an association of stunting with being overweight.

  4. Nanismo nutricional em escolares no Brasil Stunted schoolchildren in Brazil

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    Glória Elizabeth Carneiro Laurentino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisão da literatura sobre o nanismo nutricional no Brasil. Os principais tópicos abordados foram: definição do problema, a utilização da medida da altura em escolares como método de excelência para avaliar o estado de saúde e nutrição das populações, as principais causas e conseqüências apontadas na literatura e sua magnitude no país. De acordo com a literatura a prevalência do nanismo nutricional varia entre as diversas regiões brasileiras, com nítida desvantagem para as regiões Norte e Nordeste. Sua origem tem sido atribuída especialmente a condições ambientais desfavoráveis. Há indicações de que o atraso da capacidade intelectual e menor capacidade física para o trabalho estão associados ao problema.Literature review on stunting in Brazil. The following topics have been analyzed: problem's definition, the use of schoolchildren's height as the best method to evaluate population health and nutritional status, the main causes and consequences demonstrated in the literature and, at last, the scope of this problem in Brazil. According to lierature the prevalence of stunting varies in different regions of Brazil. The poorest results are found in the North and Northeast. The main determinants of linear growth retardation are poor environmental conditions and among the consequences, results indicate lower physical and mental capacity.

  5. Perbedaan Intelligence Quotient (Iq) antara Anak Stunting dan Tidak Stunting Umur 7 €“ 12 Tahun di Sekolahdasar (Studi pada Siswa SD Negeri Buara 04 Kecamatan Ketanggungan Kabupaten Brebes)

    OpenAIRE

    Yunitasari, Linda

    2012-01-01

    Stunted is one form of malnutrition on children are calculated based on height measurement according to age (TB/U), where the value of z-score ‰¤ -2 SD (standart deviation). Child stunted have lower cognitive scores than the normal child. United Nations Imergency Children€™s Fund (UNICEF) said that children are stunted have an average IQ of 11 points lower than the average child who does stunted. The purpose of this research is to know the difference Intelligence quotient (IQ) on child stunte...

  6. Scale up of nutrition and health programs in Ethiopia and their overlap with reductions in child stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, James P; Matji, Joan; Woodruff, Bradley A; Chamois, Sylvie; Getahun, Zewditu; White, Jessica M; Rohner, Fabian

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of stunting in Sub-Saharan Africa has changed little since 2000, and the number of stunted children has increased. In contrast, Ethiopia is an example where the national stunting prevalence and number of stunted children have decreased consistently. We compare regional differences and temporal patterns in stunting with large-scale program coverage to identify where and when programs may have led to reductions in stunting. Data from three national demographic and health surveys and population statistics illustrate, at the regional level, where and when the prevalence and number of stunted children changed since 2000. Reports from large-scale nutrition and health programs were used to identify ecologic associations between geographic program coverage and reductions in stunting. From 2000 to 2005, the decline in the national stunting prevalence was mainly a result of reductions in Oromiya, SNNP and Tigray. Few nutrition programs had high coverage during this time, and economic growth may have contributed to stunting reduction by increasing household wealth and investments in sanitation. From 2005 to 2011, declines in stunting prevalence in Amhara, SNNP, Somali and Oromiya were largely responsible for national reductions. Numerous programs were implemented at scale and could have plausibly improved stunting. While ecologic relationships suggest that economic growth and large-scale programs may have contributed to the reduction in stunting in Ethiopia, stunting did not decrease in all regions despite increased program coverage expansion of the health system. Additional impact evaluations are needed identify the most effective programs to accelerate the reduction in the prevalence and number of stunted children. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Early life risk exposure and stunting in urban South African 2-year old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slemming, W; Kagura, J; Saloojee, H; Richter, L M

    2017-06-01

    Stunting is a measure of overall nutritional status and is a major public health concern because of its association with child mortality and morbidity and later adult performance. This study examined the effects of pregnancy events, birth characteristics and infant risk exposure on stunting at age 2 years. The study, established in 1990 in Soweto, an urban South African township, included 1098 mother-infant pairs enroled in the Birth to Twenty Plus longitudinal birth cohort study. In total, 22% of children were stunted at age 2 years, with males at greater risk than females [24.8 v. 19.4%, odds ratio (OR)=1.38; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.03, 1.83]. In unadjusted analysis, male sex, household socio-economic status (SES), overcrowding, maternal age, maternal education, single motherhood, ethnicity, birth weight, gestational age and duration of infant breastfeeding were all significantly associated with stunting. In multivariable analysis, higher birth weight was protective against stunting for both sexes. Higher maternal education was protective for females only (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=0.35; 95% CI: 0.14, 0.87), whereas wealthier household SES protected males (AOR for richest SES group=0.39; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.92). In this and other similar settings, current stunting prevention efforts focussing on primarily providing targeted proximal interventions, such as food supplements, risk undermining the critical importance of addressing key distal determinants of stunting such as SES and maternal education.

  8. Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2016-05-01

    Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far-reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high-burden settings, such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cairncross, Sandy

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far‐reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high‐burden settings, such as South Asia and sub‐Saharan Africa. This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated. PMID:27187910

  10. Key strategies to further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia: lessons from the ASEAN countries workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloem, Martin W; de Pee, Saskia; Hop, Le Thi; Khan, Nguyen Cong; Laillou, Arnaud; Minarto; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Soekarjo, Damayanti; Soekirman; Solon, J Antonio; Theary, Chan; Wasantwisut, Emorn

    2013-06-01

    To further reduce stunting in Southeast Asia, a rapidly changing region, its main causes need to be identified. Assess the relationship between different causes of stunting and stunting prevalence over time in Southeast Asia. Review trends in mortality, stunting, economic development, and access to nutritious foods over time and among different subgroups in Southeast Asian countries. Between 1990-2011, mortality among under-five children declined from 69/1,000 to 29/1,000 live births. Although disease reduction, one of two direct causes of stunting, has played an important role which should be maintained, improvement in meeting nutrient requirements, the other direct cause, is necessary to reduce stunting further. This requires dietary diversity, which is affected by rapidly changing factors: economic development; urbanization, giving greater access to larger variety of foods, including processed and fortified foods; parental education; and modernizing food systems, with increased distance between food producers and consumers. Wealthier consumers are increasingly able to access a more nutritious diet, while poorer consumers need support to improve access, and may also still need better hygiene and sanitation. In order to accelerate stunting reduction in Southeast Asia, availability and access to nutritious foods should be increased by collaboration between private and public sectors, and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) can play a facilitating role. The private sector can produce and market nutritious foods, while the public sector sets standards, promotes healthy food choices, and ensures access to nutritious foods for the poorest, e.g, through social safety net programs.

  11. Use and Misuse of Stunting as a Measure of Child Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perumal, Nandita; Bassani, Diego G; Roth, Daniel E

    2018-03-01

    The term "stunting" has become pervasive in international nutrition and child health research, program, and policy circles. Although originally intended as a population-level statistical indicator of children's social and economic deprivation, the conventional anthropometric definition of stunting (height-for-age z scores define chronic malnutrition. Epidemiologists often portray it as a disease, making inferences about the causes of growth faltering based on comparisons between stunted (i.e., undernourished) and nonstunted children. Stunting is commonly used to monitor public health and nutrition program effectiveness alongside calls for the "elimination of stunting." However, there is no biological basis for the -2 SD cutoff to define stunting, making it a poor individual-level classifier of malnutrition or disease. In fact, in many low- and middle-income countries, children above and below the threshold are similarly affected by growth-limiting exposures. We argue that the common use of stunting as an indicator of child linear growth has contributed to unsubstantiated assumptions about the biological mechanisms underlying linear growth impairment in low- and middle-income countries and has led to a systematic underestimation of the burden of linear growth deficits among children in low-resource settings. Moreover, because nutrition-specific short-term public health interventions may result in relatively minor changes in child height, the use of stunting prevalence to monitor health or nutrition program effectiveness may be inappropriate. A more nuanced approach to the application and interpretation of stunting as an indicator in child growth research and public health programming is warranted.

  12. DEFISIENSI VITAMIN A DAN ZINC SEBAGAIFAKTOR RISIKO TERJADINYA STUNTING PADA BALITA DI NUSA TENGGARA BARAT

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    Taufiqurrahman Taufiqurrahman

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Children of 1 - 5 years old often face nutrition problems such as undernourishment, vitamin A and zinc deficiency, anemia, stunting and low mental development index (MDI. Vitamin A deficiency can cause growth disorder and declining zinc transport and mobilization in the heart meanwhile zinc is needed in retinol binding protein synthesis. If the deficiency lasts for long it can cause growth disorder as manifested in stunting incidence. To study vitamin A and zinc deficiency as risk factors for the incidence of stunting among underfives at Nusa Tenggara Barat. The study was analytic observational with cross sectional design. Subject of the study were 327 underfives of 6 - 59 months at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Barat. Nutrition status was assessed through measurement of anthopometry, retinol serum level using HPLC, zinc serum level using AAS and hemoglobin using hemoCue. Data of individual characteristics and rearing pattern were obtained through interview and nutrient intake were measured using recall 2 x 24 hours. Data analysis used bivariate technique for variable related to stunting, chi square test for category data, independent t-test for ratio and logistic regression test to measure risk of some variables simultaneously related to incidence of stunting. The result of bivariate analysis showed that was difference in age between stunted and normal underfives (p<0.05 . In the group of underfives that were no longer breastfed there was difference in intake of zinc between stunted and normal underfives (p<0.05. The result of multivariate analysis showed that underfives that were no longer breastfed had risk 2 times greater for being stunted after the control of age, status of vitamin A and zinc. The effect is modified by age and breast-feeding. There was no evidence that showed that vitamin A and zinc deficiency among underfives were risk factors for the incidence of stunting. Variable that was individually as well as simultaneously

  13. Wasting and stunting – similarities and differences; policy and programmatic implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2014-01-01

    Full text: The terms wasting and stunting were introduced by Waterlow to differentiate among underweight children those with a low weight-for-height (wasted) from those with a low height-for-age (stunted). Wasting is often called acute malnutrition and stunting chronic malnutrition but these terms may be misleading, and may just reflect that it takes a longer time to diagnose linear growth retardation. These two forms of malnutrition are associated with changes in body composition with a reduced muscle mass but usually a normal brain size in relation to body weight. These changes are more pronounced but more easily corrected in wasting. The reduced muscle mass present in stunting may persist into adult life and may be associated with an increased fat mass. Muscle is the main store of amino-acids and other essential nutrients needed for the body’s immune response and is a major determinant of survival in infections. The low muscle mass observed in both stunting and wasting is likely to explain the association between these two conditions and increased mortality. Hence, health and nutrition programmes aiming to reduce mortality need to prevent both wasting and stunting, especially in young children who have a low muscle ass to start with. Children having an insufficient food intake lose weight and become wasted but also stop growing in height, becoming stunted if untreated. Growth in height resumes only after wasting has been at least partially corrected. Hence detecting and treating wasting in a timely fashion also helps to prevent stunting. The recent discovery that bone and body fat are both endocrine organs interacting with each other and that bone regulates energy metabolism through osteocalcin (a hormone produced by bone) may explain these observations. Stunting can also occur in the absence of wasting. A possible explanation is that linear growth requires synthesis of cartilage and bone tissues, which contain more phosphorus, calcium, magnesium and sulphur

  14. Kebiasaan makan balita stunting pada masyarakat Suku Sasak: Tinjauan 1000 hari pertama kehidupan (HPK

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    Lina Nurbaiti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The first 1000 days of a child's life is the most crucial period for child's cognitive and mental development. The lack of nutrition in the period would cause inter-generation shortness, known as stunting. Moreover, stunting could lead to brain cells development and increase the risk of degenerative disease. The phenomena was mostly found in Central Lombok with high pervelance of stunting in toddler. This research uses qualitative approach with phenomenology research design; conducted in Community Health Center (Pusat Kesehatan Masyarakat/Puskesmas in Sengkol, District of Central Lombok. This article concludes that there are diatery habit in Sasak people which became predisposing factors to the occurrence of stunting to the children in Sasak. Those are the lack of animal protein intake, mistreatment of breast milk pattern giving which causes failure to fulfill nutrition standard, and there are myth-related belief that opposes the principal of nutrition fulfillment in children.

  15. ANALISIS DETERMINAN DAN PENGARUH STUNTING TERHADAP PRESTASI BELAJAR ANAK SEKOLAH DI KUPANG DAN SUMBA TIMUR, NTT

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    Intje Picauly

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe research was conducted to find out determinant factors that can cause the incidence of stunting and how it may affect elementary school children performance. The research areas were selected based on the difference access of nutrition information. Kabupaten Sumba Timur and Kota Kupang were selected as research areas. Related primary data was taken covering anthropometric index namely body height for age (HFA; weight for age (WFA, and weight for height (WFH, and academic school performances before and after research treatment. Other data was collected by interview using questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to know determinant factors that may bring about stunting. The results showed that determinant factors of stunting were family income, mother’s nutrition knowledge, child care practices, the history of infection, immunization, protein intake, and mother education. While, stunted elementary school children had low academic performances. The higher level of stunting is the lower academic performance of elementary school children.Keywords: academic performances, determinant of Stunting, elementary school studentsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting serta dampaknya terhadap prestasi anak sekolah dasar. Penelitian dilakukan di Kota Kupang dan Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Lokasi penelitian sengaja diambil dua wilayah yang berbeda jangkauan informasi tentang gizi dan manfaatnya serta ketersediaan sarana prasarana yang dapat digunakan untuk pencapaian kondisi bebas masalah gizi. Subjek yang dibutuhkan dalam penelitian ini masing-masing sebanyak 265 siswa di Kota Kupang dan 274 di Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Adapun jenis data yang digunakan adalah data primer yang meliputi data indeks antropometri (TB/U; BB/U; BB/TB dan data hasil pengukuran nilai siswa. Selain itu data–data lain dilengkapi dan diukur menggunakan instrumen kuesioner yang bersifat terstruktur. Analisis

  16. What would it take to prevent stunted growth in children in sub-Saharan Africa?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lartey, Anna

    2015-11-01

    There is increasing agreement among the nutrition community about the use of length/height-for-age as the indicator to monitor the long-term impact of chronic nutritional deficiencies. Stunting, an indicator of linear growth failure, has both long- and short-term consequences affecting growth and development and adult work potential. The number of stunted children in sub-Saharan Africa is expected to increase by 2025 if the current trends remain. Stunting among African children peaks during the complementary feeding period, which coincides with the period when children are no longer on exclusive breastfeeding and infections are frequent. Addressing stunting has become the focus of global efforts. The World Health Assembly in 2012 set a 40 % reduction in the number of stunted children by 2025. To effectively address the issues of stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is it appropriate to examine the issue of what it takes. The WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study (MGRS) conducted in several regions of the world, including Africa has lessons on what it would take to prevent in African children. The children in the MGRS had good socioeconomic background characteristics reflected by years of maternal education and availability of basic amenities, such as potable water and sanitary conditions. The prescription of exclusive breastfeeding, high-quality diversified diets and attention to care were critical factors contributing to healthy growth for the African children. Preventing stunting in sub-Saharan Africa is possible. It requires governments to put in place policies that would create the conducive environment needed. The complex and multiple causes of stunting offer the opportunity to address stunting in a multisectoral and within a food systems approach. The global resolve to make food systems deliver on healthy diet requires all stakeholders to work together to achieve the global goal of reducing stunting. This review highlights the key elements contributing to adequate

  17. Dietetic determinants of zinc consumption in stunted children under five in maya communities from Guatemala

    OpenAIRE

    Monroy-Valle, Michele; Universidad Rafael Landívar, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Licenciatura en Nutrición Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Estadística, Epidemiología y Salud Pública; Coyoy, Wendy; Universidad Rafael Landívar, Facultad de Ciencias de la Salud, Licenciatura en Nutrición; De León, Jorge; Universidad de San Carlos de Guatemala, Facultad de Ciencias Químicas y Farmacia, Unidad de Estadística, Epidemiología y Salud Pública; Flórez, Iván D.; Departamento de Pediatría y Puericultura, Universidad de Antioquia, Medellín, Colombia; Department of Clinical Epidemiology & Biostatistics, McMaster University, Hamilton, Canada.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to identify the elements from feeding patterns that influence the intake and bioavailability of zinc in stunted children (SC) 1-5 years from Maya communities living in Huehuetenango, Guatemala. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was performed in 138 stunted children aged 1-5 years. It was applied: an inventory of zinc food sources availability, a Food Frequency Questionnaire, a questionnaire about living conditions. anthropometrics measurements and informat...

  18. Berat badan lahir rendah (BBLR dengan kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-24 bulan

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    Darwin Nasution

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stunting is one of the main problems of malnutrition often found in under-five children. The impacts include a delay in child’s growth, low endurance, lack of intelligence and productivity. The direct factors that influence the incidence of stunting are low birth weight (LBW while the indirect factors are socioeconomic factors such as maternal education, low family income and a large number of family members. Objective: To analyze the relationship between LBW and the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months in Yogyakarta Municipality. Method: This was a case-control study. The subjects were children aged 6-24 months with a group of cases comprising stunted children based on the indicator of height/age with a cut-off < -2 SD Z-score and the control group comprising normal children. The number of subjects for the study was 242 with the under-five children’s mothers as the research respondents. The sample selection used non-probability sampling with a consecutive sampling method. The data were analyzed by Chi-Square and multiple logistic regression. Results: The proportion of children 6-24 months who had low birth weight was 15.7 %. There was a significant relationship between LBW and the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months (OR=5.60; 95%CI:2.27 to 15.70. There was a relationship between maternal height and the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months (OR=2.14; 95%CI:1.08 to 4.33. Socioeconomic factors (maternal education, family income and a number of family members did not have a significant relationship with the incidence of stunting. Conclusion: LBW had a relationship with the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-24 months in Yogyakarta Municipality.

  19. Socio-economic differentials in child stunting are consistently larger in urban than rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T.; Morris, Saul Sutkover

    2000-01-01

    Urban-rural comparisons of childhood undernutrition suggest that urban populations are better-off than rural populations. However, these comparisons could mask the large differentials that exist among socioeconomic groups in urban areas. Data from the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) for 11 countries from three regions were used to test the hypothesis that intra-urban differentials in child stunting were greater than intra-rural differentials, and that the prevalence of stunting among the...

  20. ASUPAN SUPLEMEN BUKAN DETERMINAN KEJADIAN STUNTING ANAK BALITA (1-3 TAHUN

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    Didik Hariyadi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Supplement Intake Not Determinants Stunting Events Children (1-3 Years. This study aims relationship supplement intake with the incidence of stunting among Children aged 1-3 years who live in urban areas Kubu Raya. An observational study with the cross-sectional design. The research was conducted in Kubu Raya in August to November 2014. Measurement of nutritional status using indicators PB/U. Supplement intake asked to interview. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test.The results showed the percentage of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the amount of 39.51%.The most consumed form of supplements which are of the type syrup as much as 34.6% of 82.7% respondents toddler supplements. No significant relationship exists between supplement intake with the incidence of stunting in Children aged 1-3 years in the urban area of Kubu Raya. Abstrak: Asupan Suplemen Bukan Determinan Kejadian Stunting Anak balita (1-3 Tahun. Penelitian ini bertujuan hubungan asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada anak balita usia 1-3 tahun yang tinggal di daerah urbanKubu Raya. Penelitian ini bersifat observasional dengan rancangan cross sectional. Penelitian dilaksanakan di Kabupaten Kubu Raya pada bulan Agustus sampai November 2014. Pengukuran status gizi menggunakan indikator PB/U. Asupan suplemen ditanyakan dengan wawancara. Analisis statistik dilakukan dengan menggunakan uji Chi square.Hasil penelitian menunjukan persentase kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun yaitu sebesar 39,51%. Sebanyak 82.7% balita responden mengonsumsi suplemen, dengan bentuk suplemen yang terbanyak dikonsumsi adalah dari jenis sirup sebanyak 34.6%.Tidak ada hubungan yang bemakna antara asupan suplemen dengan kejadian stunting pada balita umur 1-3 tahun di daerah urban Kubu Raya.

  1. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Child stunting is associated with weaker human capital among native Amazonians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Undurraga, Eduardo A; Behrman, Jere R; Emmett, Susan D; Kidd, Celeste; Leonard, William R; Piantadosi, Steven T; Reyes-García, Victoria; Sharma, Abhishek; Zhang, Rebecca; Godoy, Ricardo A

    2018-01-01

    We assessed associations between child stunting, recovery, and faltering with schooling and human capital skills in a native Amazonian society of horticulturalists-foragers (Tsimane'). We used cross-sectional data (2008) from 1262 children aged 6 to 16 years in 53 villages to assess contemporaneous associations between three height categories: stunted (height-for-age Z score, HAZ-1), and three categories of human capital: completed grades of schooling, test-based academic skills (math, reading, writing), and local plant knowledge. We used annual longitudinal data (2002-2010) from all children (n = 853) in 13 villages to estimate the association between changes in height categories between the first and last years of measure and schooling and academic skills. Stunting was associated with 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling (∼24% less) and with 13-15% lower probability of showing any writing or math skills. Moderate stunting was associated with ∼20% lower scores in local plant knowledge and 9% lower probability of showing writing skills, but was not associated with schooling or math and writing skills. Compared with nonstunted children, children who became stunted had 18-21% and 15-21% lower probabilities of showing math and writing skills, and stunted children had 0.4 fewer completed grades of schooling. Stunted children who recovered showed human capital outcomes that were indistinguishable from nonstunted children. The results confirm adverse associations between child stunting and human capital skills. Predictors of growth recovery and faltering can affect human capital outcomes, even in a remote, economically self-sufficient society. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. World Perspective on the Epidemiology of Stunting between 1990 and 2015
.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Susan C; Cherian, Arlin Mary; Bhutta, Zulfiqar A

    2017-01-01

    Stunting is the most prevalent form of child undernutrition with current worldwide estimates at 156 million. The majority of these children reside in low- and middle-income countries. When stunting prevails to adulthood, optimal growth potential and economic productivity are minimized. In 2015 there were 98.5 million fewer stunted children under 5 years of age than in 1990. In East Asia and Pacific and South Asia, the stunting prevalence decreased by 24.8 and 25%, respectively. Minimal declines were observed in Latin America and the Caribbean at 12.6%, in the Middle East and North Africa at 12.9%, and in sub-Saharan Africa at 13.4%. But because large populations of children under 5 years of age are distributed disproportionately, decreases in prevalence do not translate to fewer numbers of stunted children globally. In sub-Saharan Africa, the number of stunted children increased by 12.4 million between 1990 and 2015. Adult height is dependent on nutrition-specific or nutrition-sensitive factors. Nutrition-specific factors can be targeted according to their impact at critical points of development and therefore offer multiple windows of opportunity for interventions. To date, many interventions focus on the first 1,000 days, but opportunities may extend into later childhood and adolescence.
. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  4. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

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    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA, a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  5. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yi; Turner, John G

    2008-01-01

    When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA), a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  6. The Significance of Wild Plants in the Evolutionary Ecology of Three Major Viruses Infecting Cultivated Sweetpotato in Uganda

    OpenAIRE

    Tugume Kajungu, Arthur

    2010-01-01

    The studies presented in this thesis contribute to the understanding of evolutionary ecology of three major viruses threatening cultivated sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas Lam) in East Africa: Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV; genus Potyvirus; Potyviridae), Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae) and Sweet potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV; genus Ipomovirus; Potyviridae). The viruses were serologically detected and the positive results confirmed b...

  7. Detection of sweet potato virus C, sweet potato virus 2 and sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanda, Carla M R; Santos, Susana J; Oliveira, Mônica D M; Clara, Maria Ivone E; Félix, Maria Rosário F

    2015-06-01

    Field sweet potato plants showing virus-like symptoms, as stunting, leaf distortion, mosaic and chlorosis, were collected in southwest Portugal and tested for the presence of four potyviruses, sweet potato virus C (SPVC), sweet potato virus 2 (SPV2), sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV), sweet potato virus G (SPVG), and the crinivirus sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). DsRNA fractions were extracted from symptomatic leaves and used as templates in single and multiplex RT-PCR assays using previously described specific primers for each analyzed virus. The amplified reaction products for SPVC, SPV2 and SPFMV were of expected size, and direct sequencing of PCR products revealed that they correspond to the coat protein gene (CP) and showed 98%, 99% and 99% identity, respectively, to those viruses. Comparison of the CP genomic and amino acid sequences of the Portuguese viral isolates recovered here with those of ten other sequences of isolates obtained in different countries retrieved from the GenBank showed very few differences. The application of the RT-PCR assays revealed for the first time the presence of SPVC and SPFMV in the sweet potato crop in Portugal, the absence of SPVG and SPCSV in tested plants, as well as the occurrence of triple virus infections under field conditions.

  8. Berat badan lahir rendah berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

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    Yeyen Supriyanto

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is a growth impairment resulting from chronic malnutrition condition or prolonged infectious diseases. It may cause growth retardation, low endurance, lack of intelligence and productivity. Stunting prevalence in Indonesia reached 37.2% where Special Region of Yogyakarta reached 27% and Bantul District was 18.08%. Low birth weight babies have a life chance, however, when they survive they are still vulnerable to diseases, growth retardation, and developmental disorders. Statistics showed that 90% low birth weight cases found in developing countries and the mortality rate was 35 times higher in infants with low birth weight compared to infants with normal birth weight. Objectives: To understand the relationship between weight low birth (BBLR and stunting in children 6-23 month in Sedayu District Bantul Yogyakarta.Methods: This study used observational research with cross-sectional design. The population in this study were parents and children from 6-23 months which were 1217 subjects. The sample used in this study as many as 190 subjects were selected by using proportional probability to size techniques. Data were analyzed by using chi-square test. Results: Bivariate analysis showed that low birth weight infants was significantly related with stunting (OR= 6.16; 95% CI: 3.007-12.656. In other words, children born with low birth weight status had a chance 6.16 times greater to become stunting than the children who birth weight normal Conclusion: There was a relationship between low birth weight infants and stunting in children 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul District, Yogyakarta. KEYWORDS: low birth weight, stunting, children aged 6-23 months ABSTRAKLatar belakang: Stunting adalah gangguan pertumbuhan yang terjadi akibat kondisi kekurangan gizi kronis atau penyakit infeksi kronis. Dampak yang ditimbulkan antara lain lambatnya pertumbuhan anak, daya tahan tubuh yang rendah, kurang kecerdasan dan produktivitas

  9. Association between maternal depression and child stunting in Northern Ghana: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wemakor, Anthony; Mensah, Kofi Akohene

    2016-08-24

    Stunting indicates failure to attain genetic potential for height and is a well-documented indicator for poor growth. Depression is common in women of reproductive age and women's mental health problems may affect the growth of young children. We examined the association between maternal depression and stunting in mother-child pairs attending Child Welfare Clinic (CWC) in Northern Ghana. An analytical cross-sectional study was performed involving mothers (15-45 years) and their children (0-59 months) who attended CWC at Bilpeila Health Centre, Tamale, Ghana. Socio-demographic data were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, maternal depression was measured using Centre for Epidemiological Studies Depression Screening Scale, and anthropometry was conducted on children following standard procedures. The association between maternal depression and child stunting was examined in logistic regression adjusting for potential confounders. Prevalence rates of child stunting and maternal depression were estimated at 16.1 and 27.8 % respectively in Northern Ghana. Mothers with depression when compared with those without depression tended to be younger, be currently unmarried, belong to the poorest household wealth tertile, and were more likely to have low birth weight babies, so these characteristics were adjusted for. In an adjusted multivariate logistic regression model, children of depressed mothers were almost three times more likely to be stunted compared to children of non-depressed mothers (Adjusted OR = 2.48, 95 % CI 1.29-4.77, p = 0.0011). There is a high prevalence of depression among mothers in Northern Ghana which is associated with child stunting. Further studies are needed to identify the determinants of maternal depression and to examine its association with child stunting to inform nutrition programming.

  10. A review of the evidence linking child stunting to economic outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark E; Krishna, Aditi; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, SV

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background To understand the full impact of stunting in childhood it is important to consider the long-run effects of undernutrition on the outcomes of adults who were affected in early life. Focusing on the costs of stunting provides a means of evaluating the economic case for investing in childhood nutrition. Methods We review the literature on the association between stunting and undernutrition in childhood and economic outcomes in adulthood. At the national level, we also evaluate the evidence linking stunting to economic growth. Throughout, we consider randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental approaches and observational studies. Results Long-run evaluations of two randomized nutrition interventions indicate substantial returns to the programmes (a 25% and 46% increase in wages for those affected as children, respectively). Cost-benefit analyses of nutrition interventions using calibrated return estimates report a median return of 17.9:1 per child. Assessing the wage premium associated with adult height, we find that a 1-cm increase in stature is associated with a 4% increase in wages for men and a 6% increase in wages for women in our preferred set of studies which attempt to address unobserved confounding and measurement error. In contrast, the evidence on the association between economic growth and stunting is mixed. Conclusions Countries with high rates of stunting, such as those in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, should scale up policies and programmes aiming to reduce child undernutrition as cost-beneficial investments that expand the economic opportunities of their children, better allowing them and their countries to reach their full potential. However, economic growth as a policy will only be effective at reducing the prevalence of stunting when increases in national income are directed at improving the diets of children, addressing gender inequalities and strengthening the status of women, improving sanitation and reducing

  11. A review of the evidence linking child stunting to economic outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGovern, Mark E; Krishna, Aditi; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-08-01

    To understand the full impact of stunting in childhood it is important to consider the long-run effects of undernutrition on the outcomes of adults who were affected in early life. Focusing on the costs of stunting provides a means of evaluating the economic case for investing in childhood nutrition. We review the literature on the association between stunting and undernutrition in childhood and economic outcomes in adulthood. At the national level, we also evaluate the evidence linking stunting to economic growth. Throughout, we consider randomized controlled trials (RCTs), quasi-experimental approaches and observational studies. Long-run evaluations of two randomized nutrition interventions indicate substantial returns to the programmes (a 25% and 46% increase in wages for those affected as children, respectively). Cost-benefit analyses of nutrition interventions using calibrated return estimates report a median return of 17.9:1 per child. Assessing the wage premium associated with adult height, we find that a 1-cm increase in stature is associated with a 4% increase in wages for men and a 6% increase in wages for women in our preferred set of studies which attempt to address unobserved confounding and measurement error. In contrast, the evidence on the association between economic growth and stunting is mixed. Countries with high rates of stunting, such as those in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, should scale up policies and programmes aiming to reduce child undernutrition as cost-beneficial investments that expand the economic opportunities of their children, better allowing them and their countries to reach their full potential. However, economic growth as a policy will only be effective at reducing the prevalence of stunting when increases in national income are directed at improving the diets of children, addressing gender inequalities and strengthening the status of women, improving sanitation and reducing poverty and inequities. © The Author 2017

  12. Determinants of child stunting in the Royal Kingdom of Bhutan: an in-depth analysis of nationally representative data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Victor M; Badgaiyan, Nina; Paintal, Kajali

    2015-01-01

    Stunting is associated with poor survival and development in children. Our analysis identifies the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in Bhutan using a nationally representative sample of 2085 children 0–23 months old. We find that 27.5% of children were stunted and almost half (42.6%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Children's mean height-for-age z-score deteriorated significantly with age (from −0.23 in infants 0–5 months old to −1.60 in children 18–23 months old) and levels of severe stunting were significantly higher among boys. Multivariate regression analysis indicates that children from the Eastern/Western regions had a 64% higher odds of being stunted than children from the Central region (OR 1.64; 95% CI 1.29–2.07); similarly, children from the two lower wealth quintiles had 37% higher odds of being stunted than children from the two upper wealth quintiles (OR 1.37; 95% CI 1.00–1.87). Children whose mothers received three or fewer antenatal care visits during the last pregnancy had a 31% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.31; 95% CI 1.01–1.69) while children whose mothers did not receive antenatal care from a doctor, nurse or midwife had a 51% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.51; 95% CI 1.18–1.92). Recommended complementary feeding practices tended to be associated with lower odds of stunting, particularly in the first year of life. Specifically, children who were not fed complementary foods at 6–8 months had about threefold higher odds of being severely stunted than children who were fed complementary foods (OR 2.73; 95% CI 1.06–7.02). PMID:25536283

  13. Determinants of childhood stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo: further analysis of Demographic and Health Survey 2013–14

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hallgeir Kismul

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prevalence of child stunting in the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC is among the highest in the world. There is a need to systematically investigate how stunting operates at different levels of determination and identify major factors contributing to the development of stunting. The aim of this study was to look for key determinants of stunting in the DRC. Methods This study used data from the DRC Demographic Health Survey 2013–14 which included anthropometric measurement for 9030 under 5 year children. Height-for-Age Z score was calculated and classified according to the WHO guideline. The association between stunting and bio-demographic characteristics was assessed using logistic regression. Results Prevalence of stunting was much higher in boys than girls. There was a significant rural urban gap in the prevalence of stunting with rural areas having a larger proportion of children living with stunting than urban. Male children, older than 6 months, preceding birth interval less than 24 months, being from lower wealth quintiles had the highest odds of stunting. Several provinces had in particular high odds of stunting. Early initiation of breastfeeding, mother’s age more than 20 years at the time of delivery had lower odds of stunting. The taller the mother the less likely the child was to be stunted. Similarly, mother’s BMI, access to safe water, access to hygienic toilet, mother’s education were found negatively correlated with child stunting in the bivariate logistic regression, but they lost statistical significance in multivariate analysis together with numbers of children in the family and place of residence. Conclusions Child stunting is widespread in the DRC and increasing prevalence is worrisome. This study has identified modifiable factors determining high prevalence of stunting in the DRC. Policy implementation should in particular target provinces with high prevalence of stunting and address

  14. Determinants of Stunting, Wasting, and Anemia in Guinean Preschool-Age Children: An Analysis of DHS Data From 1999, 2005, and 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Bradley A; Wirth, James P; Ngnie-Teta, Ismael; Beaulière, Jean Max; Mamady, Daffe; Ayoya, Mohamed Ag; Rohner, Fabian

    2018-03-01

    Wasting, stunting, and anemia are persistent and important forms of malnutrition in preschool-age children in the less developed world, in particular the Republic of Guinea, which was the site of a large outbreak of Ebola virus disease in 2014 to 2015. We analyzed data from 3 Demographic and Health Surveys done in Guinea in 1999, 2005, and 2012 to identify possible determinants of wasting, stunting, and anemia. All analyses, both bivariate and multivariate, were carried out separately for each of 3 age groups: less than 6 months, 6 to 23 months, and 24 to 59 months. Variables found statistically significantly associated with stunting, wasting, or anemia in bivariate analysis were placed in an age-specific logistic regression model for that outcome. Overall, anthropometric indices were available for 9228 children and hemoglobin concentrations were available for 5681 children. Logistic regression found relatively few variables associated with nutrition outcomes in children younger than 6 months. More variables were associated with nutrition outcomes in children aged 6 to 23 months. Such variables measured a wide variety of conditions, including estimated birth size, child health and nutritional status, child caring practices, mother's nutritional and health status, and household water source and sanitation. A similarly broad range of variables was statistically significantly associated with one or more nutrition outcomes in children aged 24 to 59 months. Few of the standard infant and young child feeding indicators were associated with any nutrition outcome. Improvement in the nutritional status of young children in Guinea may require a broad range of nutrition and health interventions.

  15. Competition and Facilitation between a Disease and a Predator in a Stunted Prey Population.

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    Maarten C Boerlijst

    Full Text Available The role of diseases and parasites has received relatively little attention in modelling ecological dynamics despite mounting evidence of their importance in structuring communities. In contrast to predators, parasites do not necessarily kill their host but instead they may change host life history. Here, we study the impact of a parasite that selectively infects juvenile prey individuals and prevents them from maturing into adults. The model is inspired by the Ligula intestinalis tape worm and its cyprinid fish host Rutilis rutilis. We demonstrate that the parasite can promote as well as demote the so-called stunting in its host population, that is, the accumulation of juvenile prey, which leads to strong exploitation competition and consequently to a bottleneck in maturation. If competition between infected and uninfected individuals is strong, stunting will be enhanced and bistability between a stunted and non-stunted prey population occurs. In this case, the disease competes with the predator of its host species, possibly leading to predator extinction. In contrast, if the competition between infected and uninfected individuals is weak, the stunting is relieved, and epi-zoonotic cycles will occur, with recurrent epidemic outbreaks. Here, the disease facilitates the predator, and predator density will be substantially increased. We discuss the implications of our results for the dynamics and structure of the natural Ligula-Roach system.

  16. Early-life Determinants of Stunted Adolescent Girls and Boys in Matlab, Bangladesh

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Alinda M.; Baqui, Abdullah H.; van Ginneken, Jeroen K.

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a longitudinal study, conducted in Matlab, Bangladesh, that examined to what extent the level of stunting in adolescence can be predicted by nutritional status in early childhood and maternal height. A linked set of data collected from the same individuals at two moments in time, i.e. early childhood (1988–1989) and adolescence (2001), was analyzed. The study found that the odds of being stunted in adolescence could be explained by the combined effect of being stunted in childhood and having a mother whose height was less than 145 cm. Also, girls were more likely than boys to be stunted in childhood, whereas boys were more likely than girls to be stunted in adolescence. The latter is probably attributable to differences in the pace of maturation. In terms of policy and (reproductive health) programmes, it is important to recall that adolescent girls whose height and weight were subnormal (weight <45 kg and height <145 cm) might run an obstetric risk. Following these cut-off points, 83% and 23% of 16-year-old girls in this study would face obstetric risk, respectively, for weight and height if they marry and become pregnant soon. PMID:18686552

  17. Top 10 plant viruses in molecular plant pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholthof, Karen-Beth G; Adkins, Scott; Czosnek, Henryk; Palukaitis, Peter; Jacquot, Emmanuel; Hohn, Thomas; Hohn, Barbara; Saunders, Keith; Candresse, Thierry; Ahlquist, Paul; Hemenway, Cynthia; Foster, Gary D

    2011-12-01

    Many scientists, if not all, feel that their particular plant virus should appear in any list of the most important plant viruses. However, to our knowledge, no such list exists. The aim of this review was to survey all plant virologists with an association with Molecular Plant Pathology and ask them to nominate which plant viruses they would place in a 'Top 10' based on scientific/economic importance. The survey generated more than 250 votes from the international community, and allowed the generation of a Top 10 plant virus list for Molecular Plant Pathology. The Top 10 list includes, in rank order, (1) Tobacco mosaic virus, (2) Tomato spotted wilt virus, (3) Tomato yellow leaf curl virus, (4) Cucumber mosaic virus, (5) Potato virus Y, (6) Cauliflower mosaic virus, (7) African cassava mosaic virus, (8) Plum pox virus, (9) Brome mosaic virus and (10) Potato virus X, with honourable mentions for viruses just missing out on the Top 10, including Citrus tristeza virus, Barley yellow dwarf virus, Potato leafroll virus and Tomato bushy stunt virus. This review article presents a short review on each virus of the Top 10 list and its importance, with the intent of initiating discussion and debate amongst the plant virology community, as well as laying down a benchmark, as it will be interesting to see in future years how perceptions change and which viruses enter and leave the Top 10. © 2011 The Authors. Molecular Plant Pathology © 2011 BSPP and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Factors behind the success story of under-five stunting in Peru: a district ecological multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huicho, Luis; Huayanay-Espinoza, Carlos A; Herrera-Perez, Eder; Segura, Eddy R; Niño de Guzman, Jessica; Rivera-Ch, María; Barros, Aluisio J D

    2017-01-19

    Stunting prevalence in children less than 5 years has remained stagnated in Peru from 1992 to 2007, with a rapid reduction thereafter. We aimed to assess the role of different predictors on stunting reduction over time and across departments, from 2000 to 2012. We used various secondary data sources to describe time trends of stunting and of possible predictors that included distal to proximal determinants. We determined a ranking of departments by annual change of stunting and of different predictors. To account for variation over time and across departments, we used an ecological hierarchical approach based on a multilevel mixed-effects regression model, considering stunting as the outcome. Our unit of analysis was one department-year. Stunting followed a decreasing trend in all departments, with differing slopes. The reduction pace was higher from 2007-2008 onwards. The departments with the highest annual stunting reduction were Cusco (-2.31%), Amazonas (-1.57%), Puno (-1.54%), Huanuco (-1.52%), and Ancash (-1.44). Those with the lowest reduction were Ica (-0.67%), Ucayali (-0.64%), Tumbes (-0.45%), Lima (-0.37%), and Tacna (-0.31%). Amazon and Andean departments, with the highest baseline poverty rates and concentrating the highest rural populations, showed the highest stunting reduction. In the multilevel analysis, when accounting for confounding, social determinants seemed to be the most important factors influencing annual stunting reduction, with significant variation between departments. Stunting reduction may be explained by the adoption of anti-poverty policies and sustained implementation of equitable crosscutting interventions, with focus on poorest areas. Inclusion of quality indicators for reproductive, maternal, neonatal and child health interventions may enable further analyses to show the influence of these factors. After a long stagnation period, Peru reduced dramatically its national and departmental stunting prevalence, thanks to a combination

  19. Differences in prevalence of overweight and stunting in 11-year olds across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yngve, Agneta; De Bourdeaudhuij, Ilse; Wolf, Alexandra

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess country differences in prevalence of overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in the Pro Children Survey. METHODS: A cross-sectional study conducted in a random sample of schools in nine European countries in 2003. The subjects were 8317 11-year-old children from Austria...... of stunted children was highest in Portugal, Spain and Belgium. CONCLUSIONS: The highest levels of overweight, obesity and stunting in the pro children material are found in Portugal and Spain......., Belgium, Denmark, Iceland, The Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain and Sweden. Parents reported height and weight of the children, and BMI values were analysed using the US Centers of Disease Control and Prevention and the International Obesity Task Force reference populations. Continuous variables were...

  20. Detection of Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSV) by nucleic acid spot hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bothma, G C

    1985-01-01

    Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSV) was extracted from Chrysanthemum stunt viroid-infected Chrysanthemum plants. The CSV was then purified to homogenicity from this extract by one cycle of non-denaturating vertical slab gel electrophoresis and was followed by one cycle of denaturating vertical slab gel electrophoresis. No pure circular CSV was obtained. The 3' terminal of purified ASBV was polyadenylated using poly (A) polymerase. The polyadenylated ASBV was used as a template to synthesise radioactively labelled single stranded ASBV cDNA using reverse transcriptase. The radioactively labelled recombinant DNA was hybridised to crude extracts from avocado leaves and chrysanthemum leaves. Autoradiography was employed to detect cDNA-RNA hybrids.

  1. ASUPAN SENG, KADAR SERUM SENG, DAN STUNTING PADA ANAK SEKOLAH DI PESISIR SEMARANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriyan Pramono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study is to determine prevalence of at risk inadequate intake of dietary zinc, and to analyze differences of zinc serum level between dietary zinc quintile and stunting status. A cross sectional study was conducted to 70 school children (9-12 years selected by simple random sampling. Height was measured by stadiometer and weight was measured using calibrated digital weight-scale. Zinc serum level was analyzed by Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS method, and dietary intake of zinc and iron was obtained using semi-quantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data were analyzed using Anova test. Seventy percent subjects were at risk inadequate intake of dietary zinc based on Estimated Average Requirement (EAR cut off and zinc serum levels among all subjects in this study were <65 μg/dl. There were 47.1% stunting children found in this study. Mean zinc serum levels significantly differences between dietary zinc quintile (p=0.000 and between stunting status (p=0.000. At risk inadequate dietary zinc still contributed to zinc deficiency in coastal school children population. Zinc status was significantly different between stunted and normal children.Keywords: coastal area, dietary zinc, EAR, stunting, zinc serum levelsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui prevalensi risiko kurangnya asupan seng dan menganalisis perbedaan kadar serum seng antara kuintil asupan seng dan status stunting. Studi cross sectional dilakukan terhadap 70 anak sekolah (9-12 tahun yang dipilih secara acak sederhana. Tinggi badan diukur dengan stadiometer dan berat diukur dengan menggunakan timbangan digital terkalibrasi. Kadar seng serum dianalisis dengan metode Atomic Absorbance Spectrophotometry (AAS, dan data asupan seng dan besi diperoleh melalui wawancara dengan Food Frequency Questionnaire (FFQ. Data dianalisis dengan metode analisis statistik Anova. Sejumlah 70% subjek berisiko kurangnya asupan seng makanan berdasarkan

  2. Economic inequality and child stunting in Bangladesh and Kenya: an investigation of six hypotheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinbold, Gary W

    2011-01-01

    Consistent with the increasing focus on issues of equity in developing countries, I extend the literature analyzing the relationship between economic inequality and individual health to the developing world. Using survey data from Bangladesh and Kenya with economic status measured by a wealth index and with three different geographic definitions of community, I analyze six competing hypotheses for how economic inequality may be related to stunting among children younger than 5 years old. I find little support for the predominant hypothesis that economic inequality as measured by a Gini index is an important predictor of individual health. Instead, I find that the difference between a household's wealth and the mean household wealth in the community is the measure of economic inequality that is most closely related to stunting in these countries. In particular, a 1 standard deviation increase in household wealth relative to the community mean is associated with a 30–32 percent decrease in the odds of stunting in Bangladesh and a 16–21 percent decrease in the odds of stunting in Kenya.

  3. Short-term protein intake and stimulation of protein synthesis in stunted children with cystic fibrosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geukers, Vincent G. M.; Oudshoorn, Johanna H.; Taminiau, Jan A. J. M.; van der Ent, Cornelis K.; Schilte, Piet; Ruiter, An F. C.; Ackermans, Mariëtte T.; Endert, Erik; Jonkers-Schuitema, Cora F.; Heymans, Hugo S. S.; Sauerwein, Hans P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Stunted children with cystic fibrosis (CF) have less net protein anabolism than do children without CF, and the result is retarded growth in the CF patients. It is not known whether protein intake above that recommended by the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation would further stimulate whole-body

  4. Non-specific Effects of Vaccines and Stunting: Timing May Be Essential

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berendsen, M.L.T.; Smits, J.P.J.M.; Netea, M.G.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND - Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccination possesses effects on health beyond its target disease, the so called “non-specific effects”. We evaluate these effects, as well as the effect of timing of BCG and other vaccinations, on stunting in Sub-Saharan African (SSA) children under

  5. Timing of glyphosate applications to wheat cover crops to reduce onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is economically important in irrigated onion bulb crops in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington, where cereal winter cover crops commonly are planted the previous fall to prevent wind erosion of soil. The cover crop is killed with herbicide applic...

  6. Stunt Barbie--A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-01-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end of chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her. The problem presents a connected learning opportunity…

  7. Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increases risk of stunting in children aged 12-24 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hijra Hijra

    2016-12-01

    Inappropriate complementary feeding practice increased the risk of stunting in 12-24 months old children by 8.26. This study confirms the need to scale up interventions during the first 2 years of life, including appropriate infant feeding practices.

  8. Zinc supplementation and stunted infants in Ethiopia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Haider, J.; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Background Stunting is highly prevalent in Ethiopia and many other developing countries but the reason for it is poorly understood. Zinc is essential for growth but diets in such countries often do not contain zinc in sufficient quantity or of sufficient bioavailability. Thus zinc deficiency may

  9. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency,

  10. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in

  11. Effect of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi on onion growth and onion stunting caused by Rhizoctonia solani, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    A preliminary study was conducted in a greenhouse (15 ± 1oC, with supplemental lights for 12 h/day) to determine the role of AMF on onion growth and for reducing the severity of onion stunting, using a commercial AMF inoculant, BioTerra Plus, that contains 104 propagules/g (ppg) of Glomus intraradic...

  12. Perspective: The potential role of essential amino acids and the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway in the pathogenesis of child stunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stunting is the best summary measure of chronic malnutrition in children. Approximately one-quarter of children under age 5 worldwide are stunted. Lipid-based or micronutrient supplementation has little to no impact in reducing stunting, which suggests that other critical dietary nutrients are missi...

  13. FAKTOR PENENTU STUNTING ANAK BALITA PADA BERBAGAI ZONA EKOSISTEM DI KABUPATEN KUPANG

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    Firmanu Cahyono

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to analyze difference and compare the determinants of stunting among under five years children considering different ecosystem in Kupang. It is an observational study using case control of under five children with and without stunting. There were 132 subjects chosen from lowland, middleland region, and mountainous ecosystem zones. Data was analyzed using Multiple Logistic Regression Analysis. The analysis resumes that determinants of stunting in lowland area is energy intake (p=0.002; OR=0.059; 95%CI:0.010-0.359, energy intake is a protective factor, in the middleland region is love and cares (p=0.002; OR=9.247; 95%CI:2.213-38.644 and sanitation (p=0.046; OR=2.832; 95%CI:1.020-7.860. Furthermore, the environmental sanitation as the factor in mountainous area (p=0.034; OR=3.978; 95%CI:1.112-14.230. The impact of stunting if left untreated will cause problems for generation in the future, for example impairment of mental development and physical growth, and it will end in poverty and the threat of life survival, so it need a proper intervention to handle it.Keywords: determinants, ecosystem zone, stuntingABSTRAKTujuan dari penelitian ini adalah menganalisis gambaran dan membandingkan pengaruh variabel faktor penentu stunting anak balita pada berbagai zona ekosistem di Kabupaten Kupang. Jenis penelitian menggunakan desain observational dengan rancangan case control antara kelompok balita stunting dan normal. Jumlah subjek penelitian ini sebanyak 132 subjek yang terbagi pada tiga zona ekosistem dataran rendah, dataran sedang, dan pegunungan pada bulan Maret 2015. Data dianalisis dengan menggunakan Analisis Regresi Logistik Berganda. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan faktor penentu stunting pada zona ekosistem di Kabupaten Kupang adalah sanitasi lingkungan (p=0,002; OR=2,307; 95%CI:0,120-0,721, dan kejadian sakit (p=0,007; OR=0,294; 95%CI:0,120-0,721; di zona ekosistem dataran rendah adalah asupan energi (p=0,002; OR=0

  14. Association of the Familial Coexistence of Child Stunting and Maternal Overweight with Indigenous Women in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J; Houser, R; Must, A; Palma, P; Bermudez, O

    2017-11-01

    Objectives This study investigated the association of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight with indigenous women in Guatemala. Methods We selected 2388 child-mother pairs from the data set of the Living Standards Measurement Study conducted in Guatemala in 2000. This study examined the association between maternal and household characteristics and the nutritional status of children aged 6-60 months and mothers aged 18-49 years by using multivariable logistic regression models. Results Compared with non-indigenous households, a significantly higher percentage of indigenous households exhibited stunted child and overweight mother (SCOM) pairs (15.9 vs. 22.2%). Compared with normal-weight mothers, overweight mothers were less likely to have stunted children [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) 0.66, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.50-0.88]. However, compared with mothers who were not short and overweight, short and overweight mothers were significantly more likely to have stunted children (AOR 1.80, 95% CI 1.19-2.73) and were more likely to be indigenous women living in urban areas (AOR 3.01, 95% CI 1.19-7.60) or rural areas (AOR 3.02, 95% CI 1.28-7.14). The order of observed prevalence of SCOM pairs in different types of households was as follows: urban indigenous (25.0%), rural indigenous (21.2%), rural non-indigenous (19.8%), and urban non-indigenous households (10.7%). Conclusions for Practice Urban indigenous households were more likely to have SCOM pairs. This study provided useful information for identifying the most vulnerable groups and areas with a high prevalence of the familial coexistence of child stunting and maternal overweight.

  15. Predictors of stunting and thinness in post-menarcheal adolescent girls in rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee H; Christian, Parul; Shamim, Abu Ahmed; Arju, Ummeh T; Labrique, Alain B; Rashid, Mahbubur

    2009-12-01

    To assess the nutritional status and risk factors of undernutrition in post-menarcheal girls in rural northern Bangladesh. Cross-sectional data on anthropometric measurements, dietary intake, work activity, morbidity and socio-economic status were collected from 12- to 19-year-old primigravidae (n 209) and never-pregnant adolescents (n 456) matched on age and time since menarche. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to determine predictors of stunting, thinness, upper-arm muscle (UAMZ) and fat area Z-scores (UAFZ) among the adolescent girls. A large proportion of adolescents (49 %) were stunted (height-for-age Z-score <-2) and underweight (40 %; weight-for-age Z-score <-2), but not thin (BMI-for-age <5th percentile; approximately 10 %). The mean (sd) UAMZ and UAFZ of the adolescent girls was -0.3 (0.64) and -0.9 (0.40), respectively. Lean mass increased whereas fat mass declined with age. Both stunting and thinness were positively associated with age and time since menarche (P < 0.05). Young age (12-14 years) and literacy were protective against stunting among pregnant adolescents (OR = 0.29, 95 % CI 0.09, 0.88 and OR = 0.50, 95 % CI 0.26, 0.96, respectively). Having symptoms of diarrhoea or dysentery (OR = 7.40, 95 % CI 1.43, 38.29) predicted thinness and was associated with lower UAMZ and UAFZ among never-pregnant girls (both P < 0.05). Performing light-to-moderate activities was protective against thinness among never-pregnant girls (OR = 0.43, 95 % CI 0.22, 0.82), whereas pregnant adolescents who performed high levels of strenuous activities had greater UAMZ (P < 0.05). Undernutrition was widespread among this post-menarcheal adolescent population. Younger and literate adolescents were less likely to be stunted, whereas thinness and body composition were associated with morbidity and work activity.

  16. Relationships between Wasting and Stunting and Their Concurrent Occurrence in Ghanaian Preschool Children

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    Mahama Saaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of concurrent wasting and stunting among Ghanaian preschool children. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between wasting and stunting as well as factors associated with these conditions. Methods. This paper is based on reanalysis of anthropometric and other relevant data which was collected in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The data set consisted of 2,720 preschool children aged 0–59 months. We conducted three-step moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to determine independent predictors and moderators of height-for-age Z-score. Results. Nationally, the prevalence of concurrent wasting and stunting among children aged 0–59 months was low at 1.4% but it varied geographically with the Upper East Region having the highest prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI: 1.7–5.8. Children who had low weight-for-height Z-scores were at a higher risk of linear growth retardation (stunting especially among children aged less than three years. A 1-unit increase in weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ was associated with 0.07 standard units’ increase in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ [β = 0.071 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.15]. Conclusions. The study results suggest that weight-for-height relates to linear growth but this relationship is moderated by age of child. Stunting and wasting share some common risk factors. Therefore, measures to prevent wasting may positively influence linear growth.

  17. Catch-up growth or regression to the mean? Recovery from stunting revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Noël; Preece, Michael A; Cole, Tim J

    2005-01-01

    An important question for policy is the extent to which catch-up growth can ease the impact of early stunting. Martorell et al. (1992) showed that stunted Guatemalan infants remain stunted into adulthood, whereas Adair (1999) found appreciable catch-up growth in Filipino children from 2-12 years. Both groups defined catch-up as an inverse correlation between early height and subsequent growth, but Martorell based the correlation on height, whereas Adair used height z scores. The statistical phenomenon of regression to the mean is much like catch-up growth, an inverse correlation between initial height and later height gain. The objective of this study was to reexamine the relationship between stunting and later catch-up growth in the context of regression to the mean. The design was a theoretical analysis showing that catch-up growth is more evident based on height z scores than on height, validated using data on 495 stunted South African children seen at 2 and 5 years of age. The correlation between height at 2 and height change from 2 to 5 was small based on height (-0.11) but large and highly significant based on height z score (-0.58), providing strong evidence of catch-up growth. We argue that catch-up growth should be estimated using height z score not height and that catch-up is present only when the change in z score exceeds that predicted by regression to the mean. This leads to a compact definition of catch-up growth: if z1 and z2 are the initial and final (mean) height z scores, and r is the correlation between them, then catch-up growth for groups or individuals is given by (z2 - rz1). Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  18. How consistent are associations between stunting and child development? Evidence from a meta-analysis of associations between stunting and multidimensional child development in fifteen low- and middle-income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ann C; Murray, Megan B; Thomson, Dana R; Arbour, Mary Catherine

    2016-06-01

    Despite documented associations between stunting and cognitive development, few population-level studies have measured both indicators in individual children or assessed stunting's associations with other developmental domains. Meta-analysis using publicly available data from fifteen Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS-4) to assess the association between stunting and development, controlling for maternal education, family wealth, books in the home, developmentally supportive parenting and sex of the child, stratified by country prevalence of breast-feeding ('low BF'middle-income countries. Publically available data from 58 513 children aged 36-59 months. Severe stunting (height-for-age Z-score <-3) was negatively associated with on-track development (OR=0·75; 95 % CI 0·67, 0·83). Any stunting (Z-score <-2) was negatively associated with on-track development in countries with high BF prevalence (OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·75, 0·89). Severe and any stunting were negatively associated with physical development (OR=0·77; 95 % CI 0·66, 0·89 and OR=0·82; 95 % CI 0·74, 0·91, respectively) and literacy/numeracy development in high BF countries (OR=0·45; 95 % CI 0·38, 0·53 and OR=0·59, 95 % CI 0·51, 0·68, respectively), but not low BF countries (OR=0·93; 95 % CI 0·70, 1·23 and OR=0·95, 95 % CI 0·79, 1·12, respectively). Any stunting was negatively associated with learning (OR=0·79; 95 % CI 0·72, 0·88). There was no clear association between stunting and socio-emotional development. Stunting is associated with many but not all developmental domains across a diversity of countries and cultures. However, associations varied by country breast-feeding prevalence and developmental domain.

  19. Socio-economic determinants of severe and moderate stunting among under-five children of rural Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostafa, Kamal S M

    2011-04-01

    Malnutrition among under-five children is a chronic problem in developing countries. This study explores the socio-economic determinants of severe and moderate stunting among under-five children of rural Bangladesh. The study used data from the 2007 Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey. Cross-sectional and multinomial logistic regression analyses were used to assess the effect of the socio-demographic variables on moderate and severe stunting over normal among the children. Findings revealed that over two-fifths of the children were stunted, of which 26.3% were moderately stunted and 15.1% were severely stunted. The multivariate multinomial logistic regression analysis yielded significantly increased risk of severe stunting (OR=2.53, 95% CI=1.34-4.79) and moderate stunting (OR=2.37, 95% CI=1.47-3.83) over normal among children with a thinner mother. Region, father's education, toilet facilities, child's age, birth order of children and wealth index were also important determinants of children's nutritional status. Development and poverty alleviation programmes should focus on the disadvantaged rural segments of people to improve their nutritional status.

  20. Determinants of reduced child stunting in Cambodia: analysis of pooled data from three demographic and health surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nayu; Irie, Yuki; Shibuya, Kenji

    2013-05-01

    To assess how changes in socioeconomic and public health determinants may have contributed to the reduction in stunting prevalence seen among Cambodian children from 2000 to 2010. A nationally representative sample of 10 366 children younger than 5 years was obtained from pooled data of cross-sectional surveys conducted in Cambodia in 2000, 2005, and 2010. The authors used a multivariate hierarchical logistic model to examine the association between the prevalence of childhood stunting over time and certain determinants. They estimated those changes in the prevalence of stunting in 2010 that could have been achieved through further improvements in public health indicators. Child stunting was associated with the child's sex and age, type of birth, maternal height, maternal body mass index, previous birth intervals, number of household members, household wealth index score, access to improved sanitation facilities, presence of diarrhoea, parents' education, maternal tobacco use and mother's birth during the Khmer Rouge famine. The reduction in stunting prevalence during the past decade was attributable to improvements in household wealth, sanitation, parental education, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use. The prevalence of stunting would have been further reduced by scaling up the coverage of improved sanitation facilities, extending birth intervals, and eradicating maternal tobacco use. Child stunting in Cambodia has decreased owing to socioeconomic development and public health improvements. Effective policy interventions for sanitation, birth spacing and maternal tobacco use, as well as equitable economic growth and education, are the keys to further improvement in child nutrition.

  1. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

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    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  2. Ketahanan pangan rumah tangga berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

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    Masrin Masrin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Food is one of human basic needs. If it is not fullfilled, both in their number and quality in the individual and household level will disturb the achievement of the life quality that are health, active, and sustainable and able to rise various health and nutrition problems. Stunting in children 6-23 monthswas one of chronical nutrition problems that was caused by access and afford to the food still low.Objectives: To analyze the correlation between food security of the household and stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: This was an observational study with case-control design. The samples of the study were 126 children aged 6-23 months, each for case, and control group. The samples were chosen by total sampling method. Data were analyzed by using univariate, bivariate, and multivariate. Statistic test in bivariate analysis used chi-square test and in multivariate analysis used logistic regression test.Results: Bivariate analysis showed that food security of the household had correlation with stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months (p=0.04, OR=2.70, 95% CI:0.94-8.77. The confounding variable which had significant correlation with stunting incidence in children aged 6-23 months were mother height (p=0.00, OR=2.03, 95% CI:1.14-3.65 and low birth weigth history (p=0.03, OR=3.02, 95% CI:0.98-11.04. Multivariate analysis by controlling mother height and low birth weigth history in children aged 6-23 months,showed that household food security had correlation with stunting incidence in children aged their 6-23 months (p=0.05, OR=2.62, 95% CI:0.97-7.12.Conclusions: There was significant correlation between household food security and stunting incidence in children aged at their 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.KEYWORDS: household food security, stunting, children aged in 6-23 monthsABSTRAKLatar belakang: Pangan merupakan salah satu

  3. Maize bush stunt and corn stunt: Diseases of corn caused by molicutes/ Enfezamentos vermelho e pálido: Doenças em milho causadas por molicutes

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    Nelson Sidnei Massola Júnior

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Maize Bushy Stunt and Corn Stunt are diseases of corn caused respectively by a phytoplasma (maize bushy stunt phytoplasma and by Spiroplasma kunkelii. Both agents are restricted to the floem vessels of diseased plants. The leafhopper Dalbulus maidis is the vector of the diseases. The diseases are very harmfull to corn crops and can cause severe losses. Their importance increased very much in the last years mainly due to the continuous crops, which allow the perpetuation of corn, pathogens and vector over the year. Diseased plants show shortening, redening or yellowing and excessive proliferation of ears, among others symptoms. However, symptoms are variable according to the causal agent, environmental conditions and corn genotype. Correct diagnosis of the diseases has been reached with ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” and PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”. The use of resistant genotypes of corn is the main strategy of control of the diseases.Os enfezamentos vermelho e pálido são doenças do milho causadas, respectivamente, por um fitoplasma (“maize bushy stunt phytoplasma” e pelo Spiroplasma kunkelii, organismos restritos ao floema das plantas infectadas. Ambas são transmitidas pela cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis. São doenças bastante destrutivas, podendo causar sérios prejuízos aos agricultores. A importância dessas doenças aumentou muito nos últimos anos, devido principalmente aos cultivos “safrinha”, que perpetuam o milho, os patógenos e o vetor no campo durante o ano todo. As plantas doentes exibem redução de crescimento, avermelhamento ou amarelecimento, proliferação excessiva de espigas pequenas e improdutivas, além de outros sintomas. No entanto, esses sintomas dependem do agente causal, condições climáticas e genótipo do milho. A diagnose correta tem sido feita por testes de ELISA (“enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay” e por PCR (“polymerase chain reaction”, devido à complexidade da

  4. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total...... of 298 Napier grass fields were visited and NGSD status visually assessed and 1192 samples collected for identification and confirmation of the phytoplasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays using universal primers P1/P6 nested with R16F2n/R16R2n and, tuf primers 890/340 nested with 835 and 400....... From these, 221 PCR products were sequenced and sequences aligned. Napier grass stunt disease is widely spread at an epidemic proportion, with the districts at different risk levels. The most affected districts are in central, East and North parts of the country while those in the west are least...

  5. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  6. Narrowing socioeconomic inequality in child stunting: the Brazilian experience, 1974-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Carlos Augusto; Benicio, Maria Helena D'Aquino; Conde, Wolney Lisboa; Konno, Silvia; Lovadino, Ana Lucia; Barros, Aluisio J D; Victora, Cesar Gomes

    2010-04-01

    To assess trends in the prevalence and social distribution of child stunting in Brazil to evaluate the effect of income and basic service redistribution policies implemented in that country in the recent past. The prevalence of stunting (height-for-age z score below -2 using the Child Growth Standards of the World Health Organization) among children aged less than 5 years was estimated from data collected during national household surveys carried out in Brazil in 1974-75 (n = 34,409), 1989 (n = 7374), 1996 (n = 4149) and 2006-07 (n = 4414). Absolute and relative socioeconomic inequality in stunting was measured by means of the slope index and the concentration index of inequality, respectively. Over a 33-year period, we documented a steady decline in the national prevalence of stunting from 37.1% to 7.1%. Prevalence dropped from 59.0% to 11.2% in the poorest quintile and from 12.1% to 3.3% among the wealthiest quintile. The decline was particularly steep in the last 10 years of the period (1996 to 2007), when the gaps between poor and wealthy families with children under 5 were also reduced in terms of purchasing power; access to education, health care and water and sanitation services; and reproductive health indicators. In Brazil, socioeconomic development coupled with equity-oriented public policies have been accompanied by marked improvements in living conditions and a substantial decline in child undernutrition, as well as a reduction of the gap in nutritional status between children in the highest and lowest socioeconomic quintiles. Future studies will show whether these gains will be maintained under the current global economic crisis.

  7. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

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    Luciano Lima Correia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  8. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child autonomy are presented by four dimensions - decision making, permission to travel, attitude towards domestic violence and financial autonomy - constructed using seven binary variables. Logistic regression models were used to test associations between indicators of female autonomy and the risk of having a stunted child. Women with higher autonomy {indicated by access to money [odds ratio (OR) = 0.731; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.546, 0.981] and freedom to choose to go to the market [OR = 0.593; 95% CI 0.376, 0.933]} were significantly less likely to have a stunted child, after controlling for household socio-economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy.

  9. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  10. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Dinamene; Ferreira, Filipa Santana; Atouguia, Jorge; Fortes, Filomeno; Guerra, António; Centeno-Lima, Sónia

    2015-01-01

    Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children. A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system. The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%), Giardia lamblia (20.1%) and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%). Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe) was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886), while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210). The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449). This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  11. Confirmação molecular do 'Maize rayado fino virus' como vírus da estria do milho

    OpenAIRE

    Hammond, Rosemarie Wahnbaeck; Bedendo, Ivan Paulo

    2005-01-01

    Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV), present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas G...

  12. Effect of parental formal education on risk of child stunting in Indonesia and Bangladesh: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D; de Pee, Saskia; Sun, Kai; Sari, Mayang; Akhter, Nasima; Bloem, Martin W

    2008-01-26

    Child stunting is associated with poor child development and increased mortality. Our aim was to determine the effect of length of maternal and paternal education on stunting in children under the age of 5 years. Data for indicators of child growth and of parental education and socioeconomic status were gathered from 590,570 families in Indonesia and 395,122 families in Bangladesh as part of major nutritional surveillance programmes. The prevalence of stunting in families in Indonesia was 33.2%, while that in Bangladesh was 50.7%. In Indonesia, greater maternal formal education led to a decrease of between 4.4% and 5% in the odds of child stunting (odds ratio per year 0.950, 95% CI 0.946-0.954 in rural settings; 0.956, 0.950-0.961 in urban settings); greater paternal formal education led to a decrease of 3% in the odds of child stunting (0.970, 0.967-0.974). In Bangladesh, greater maternal formal education led to a 4.6% decrease in the odds of child stunting (0.954, 0.951-0.957), while greater paternal formal education led to a decrease of between 2.9% and 5.4% in the odds of child stunting (0.971, 0.969-0.974 in rural settings; 0.946, 0.941-0.951 in urban settings). In Indonesia, high levels of maternal and paternal education were both associated with protective caregiving behaviours, including vitamin A capsule receipt, complete childhood immunisations, better sanitation, and use of iodised salt (all peducation are strong determinants of child stunting in families in Indonesia and Bangladesh.

  13. Frequency of underweight and stunting among children entering school in a small urban locality and their association with academic performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Mirza Sultan; Husain Zaidi, Syed Aizaz; Medhat, Naila; Farooq, Hadia; Ahmad, Danial; Nasir, Waqar

    2018-01-01

    To determine the frequency of underweight and stunting among the children entering first year of school and to assess its associated factors. This descriptive, analytical study was conducted at 5 schools of Rabwah, Pakistan, from August to September 2015, and comprised all students who got admission in the selected schools during the study period. Name, father's name, gender, weight, height, status of height, and weight on Z-score charts, and marks obtained in the test were recorded. SPSS 20 was used for statistical analysis. Of the 478 participants, 212(44.4%) were boys and 266(55.6%) were girls. The overall mean age was 66.6±5.966 months (range: 41-129 months). Overall, 53(11.1%) were underweight, 22(4.6%) were severely underweight, 55(11.5%) had stunting and 12(2.5%) had severe stunting. Median marks (Interquartile Range [IQR]) in admission test for obese, overweight, normal, underweight and severely underweight children were 76.3%(37.2-84.7), 65.9%, 66.7%(56.4-72.3), 64.6%(47-71), and 67%(55.3-78), respectively. Median marks (IQR) in admission test for tall, normal height, stunted and severe stunted children were 24.1%, 67%(57.3-73), 57%(31.1-67.8), and 62.6%(49.7-68.3), respectively. Children with stunting scored significantly fewer marks compared to children of normal height (p<0.05). Stunting and underweight were common problems among children starting school. Stunting was found to be associated with lower marks in admission test.

  14. Pattern of Energy and Protein Intake among Stunted Children Aged 3–5 Years in Jatinangor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geraldo Laurus

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: A child’s optimal growth can be indicated by many factors, among them is body height, therefore stunting is one of the evidences of undergrowth. Nutrition, on the other hand, is one of variables affecting growth. This study aimed to examine the nutrition intake, in the form of energy, carbohydrate, protein, and fat in stunted children aged 3–5 years in Jatinangor. Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in September to October 2014 using the random sampling method. Dietary data from 70 stunted children aged 3–5 years in pre–school and kindegarten located in 9 urban areas in Jatinangor were collected through 3x24 Recall and Food Frequency Questionaire and analyzed. Results: Mean energy intake was 1113.6 kcal and mean carbohydrate intake was 137.4 grams. Mean protein intake was 38.4 gram and mean fat intake was 38.2 gram. Types of food highly consumed as the source of carbohydrate were white rice and biscuit, and as the source of protein were meatball, sausage, and egg. Highest consumed vegetables, fruits and snack were water spinach, cabbage, watermelon, banana, and milk respectively. Conclusions: Mean energy intake, mean carbohydrate intake, and mean fat intake are all below the recommended dietary allowance (RDA 2013 with individual value of mean energy intake is below RDA 2013 for all subjects. Mean protein intake is slightly above RDA 2013.

  15. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S, Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  16. [Coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunted children in south-western Benin households].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembélé, Bernard; Sossa Jérôme, Charles; Saizonou, Jacques; Makoutodé, Patrick Charles; Mongbo Adé, Virginie; Guedègbé Capo-Chichi, Justine; Dona Ouendo, Marius-Edgard

    To determine the prevalence and determinants of coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunted children (DBM / SCOM) in south-western Benin households. This cross-sectional study was carried out in June 2015 on 357 mother-child pairs randomly selected by a two-stage sampling technique in the city of Comè and its surroundings. Data on socio-economic factors, family, health care, dietary quality were collected by questionnaires, observation and documentary review. Anthropometric measurements were performed in mothers and children. A logistic regression analysis model was used to search for determinants of the coexistence of the two aspects of malnutrition. 19.3% of mothers were overweight and 5.7% were obese. 46% of children were stunted. The prevalence of DBM / SCOM was 11.5%. The main factors associated with DBM/SCOM were the child's age, the mother's occupation, ethnicity, social status and educational level, and the size, economic level, transportation means and food insecurity of the household. A high frequency of the coexistence of maternal overweight or obesity and stunting was observed in Comè households. Interventions based on the identified determinants are needed to act simultaneously on the double burden of malnutrition in Comè.

  17. An analysis of cross sectional survey data of stunting among Palestinian children less than five years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Nahida H; Halileh, Samia

    2013-09-01

    The object of this study is to report on determinants of stunting, defined as low height for age, among children in the occupied Palestinian territories. Using 2006-2007 cross sectional survey data collected by the Palestine Central Bureau of Statistics and using multivariate mixed model techniques for logistic regression, the relationships of stunting to characteristics of 9,051 Palestinian children less than 5 years of age living in the Palestinian territories were estimated. These characteristics included demographic and social characteristics of the child, geographic region, type of location (urban, rural, refugee camp) and food insecurity for each governorate. Listed in order of the greater contribution to the explained variation in stunting, children with lower birth weight (P refugee camps have lower rates of stunting than urban areas; however the difference does not reach statistical significance. The relationship between the child's gender and stunting is not statistically significant. Lack of food security is directly linked to stunting. The continuing incidence of food insecurity means that the deleterious effects of under-nutrition will continue to affect the children of Palestine. Removing the avoidable causes of food insecurity in the occupied Palestinian territories will alleviate under-nutrition and its deleterious effects.

  18. Faktor sosiodemografi dan tinggi badan orang tua serta hubungannya dengan kejadian stunting pada balita usia 6-23 bulan

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    Nur Afia Amin

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is linear growth disturbance indicated by the value of the z-score of TB/U less than -2 SD. There are various factors associated with the incidence of stunting. Social demographics such as low income, low parental education and the number of members in the household, also indirectly related to the incidence of stunting. Parental height is also associated with the incidence of stunting. Short mothers have the possibility of having short baby. The results of the study in Egypt showed that children born from mothers with the height of <150 cm have a higher risk to be stunted.Objectives: To determine whether sociodemographic factors and parental height were risk factors for the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: The design used case-control study. The research was conducted in April-June 2014 in the Sedayu Subdistrict. Number of samples were 252 children aged 6-23 months. The instruments were a questionnaire to determine the identity of children, the identity of respondents, nutritional status, and sociodemographic data. Infantometer used to measure the length of the children body and microtoise to measure the height of parents. Bivariate analysis using chi-square and multivariate logistic regression test.Results: The prevalence of children stunting was 16.20%. Bivariate test showed that the height of mothers significantly associated with the incidence of stunting. Multivariate analysis showed that the most influential factors to the was maternal height, while variables of employment, education, income, expenditure, number of family members, and height of father did not show significant results.Conclusions: Maternal height were the risk factor for the incidence of stunting in children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, but sociodemographic were not.KEYWORDS: stunting, sociodemographic, parental heightABSTRAKLatar belakang: Stunting

  19. Rapid detection of fifteen known soybean viruses by dot-immunobinding assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Akhtar

    2017-11-01

    A dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA) was optimized and used successfully for the rapid detection of 15 known viruses [Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Bean pod mottle virus (BPMV), Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV), Cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV), Cowpea severe mosaic virus (CPSMV), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), Peanut mottle virus (PeMoV), Peanut stunt virus (PSV), Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV), Soybean mosaic virus (SMV), Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV), Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), Tomato ringspot virus (ToRSV), and Tobacco streak virus (TSV)] infecting soybean plants in Oklahoma. More than 1000 leaf samples were collected in approximately 100 commercial soybean fields in 24 counties of Oklahoma, during the 2012-2013 growing seasons. All samples were tested by DIBA using polyclonal antibodies of the above 15 plant viruses. Thirteen viruses were detected, and 8 of them were reported for the first time in soybean crops of Oklahoma. The highest average incidence was recorded for PeMoV (13.5%) followed by SVNV (6.9%), TSV (6.4%), BYMV, (4.5%), and TRSV (3.9%), while the remaining seven viruses were detected in less than 2% of the samples tested. The DIBA was quick, and economical to screen more than 1000 samples against 15 known plant viruses in a very short time. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in-depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0-23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-3.27]; children 6-23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two-fold increased odds of stunting in children 6-23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.61); children whose mother's height was women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0-23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Children born to mothers whose height was below 145 cm, had two-fold higher odds of being stunted; children born with a low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted. Low feeding frequency and low consumption of eggs, dairy products, fruits and vegetables were associated with stunting and poor linear growth in children 6-23 months old. Children of households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Integrated Blanket Supplementary Feeding Program Reduces Levels of Stunting in Yenangyaung, Myanmar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aung, Thet; Baik, Diane

    2014-01-01

    Full text: BACKGROUND: Yenanchaung Township is the top ranked amongst the six poorest townships in the 25 townships comprising of Magway Division. There is food insecurity, poor transportation, high unemployment and migration rates widespread illiteracy, poor hygiene, and lack of health facilities. Along with food insecurity, high rates of malnutrition are found. In 2010, 39.5 percent of children under five years of age were found to be stunted, 18.1 percent wasted and 28.3 percent underweight. World Food Program (WFP) and World Vision Myanmar (WV) have been collaborating in response to the food insecurity situation in Yenangyaung since 2005 through food assistance interventions. However, in 2011, WV target villages started focusing on implementation of food activities apart from just food assistance; a more sustainable approach. Thus, the project is now focusing on maintaining the food security status of the targeted communities by strengthening the capacity in agriculture technique, alternative livelihood skills, and health/nutrition education. METHODS: This project is focused on food provision for all pregnant and lactating mothers and under 3 children according to the set criteria by WFP as well as nutrition education in the respective villages. Township health offices, village leaders and trained volunteers were used to carry out the activities of the project, including: health/nutrition education, food distribution, cooking demonstrations, integration of immunization and vitamin A supplementation, pre-/post-natal care, growth monitoring, counseling and referrals. The weight and MUAC of the children (n = 381) were taken every month, and height was measured every 3 months. Follow-up was conducted January 2012 to December 2012. Children were discharged from the program when they reached 3 years of age, regardless of the nutritional status. Thus, the data collected during the project was used to assess the impact of the program. RESULTS: No significant changes

  2. Pesticide exposure and stunting as independent predictors of neurobehavioral deficits in Ecuadorian school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grandjean, Philippe; Harari, Raul; Barr, Dana B; Debes, Frodi

    2006-03-01

    To examine possible effects on blood pressure, neurological function, and neurobehavioral tests in school-aged children with and without prenatal pesticide exposure in an area where stunting is common. In a community of Northern Ecuador with intensive floriculture and a high female employment rate, we invited 79 children attending the 2 lowest grades of a public school for clinical examinations. In addition to a thorough physical examination, we administered simple reaction time, Santa Ana dexterity test, Stanford-Binet copying, and Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised Digit Spans forward. Maternal interview included detailed assessment of occupational history to determine pesticide exposure during pregnancy. Recent and current pesticide exposure was assessed by erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity and urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites. All eligible children participated in the study, but 7 children were excluded from data analysis due to other disease or age >9 years. A total of 31 of the remaining 72 children were classified as stunted based on their height for age. Maternal occupational history revealed that 37 children had been exposed to pesticides during development. After confounder adjustment, prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with a higher systolic blood pressure than in the controls. On neurological examination, 14 exposed children and 9 controls showed > or =1 abnormalities. Of 5 neurobehavioral tests, the Stanford-Binet copying test showed a lower drawing score for copying designs in exposed children than in controls. Stunting was associated with a lower score on this test only, and both risk factors remained statistically significant in a multiple regression analysis with adjustment for demographic and social confounders. Increased excretion of dimethyl and diethyl metabolites of organophosphates was associated with increased reaction time and no other outcomes. Prenatal pesticide exposure may cause lasting

  3. What Explains Cambodia's Success in Reducing Child Stunting-2000-2014?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giacomo Zanello

    Full Text Available In many developing countries, high levels of child undernutrition persist alongside rapid economic growth. There is considerable interest in the study of countries that have made rapid progress in child nutrition to uncover the driving forces behind these improvements. Cambodia is often cited as a success case having reduced the incidence of child stunting from 51% to 34% over the period 2000 to 2014. To what extent is this success driven by improvements in the underlying determinants of nutrition, such as wealth and education, ("covariate effects" and to what extent by changes in the strengths of association between these determinants and nutrition outcomes ("coefficient effects"? Using determinants derived from the widely-applied UNICEF framework for the analysis of child nutrition and data from four Demographic and Health Surveys datasets, we apply quantile regression based decomposition methods to quantify the covariate and coefficient effect contributions to this improvement in child nutrition. The method used in the study allows the covariate and coefficient effects to vary across the entire distribution of child nutrition outcomes. There are important differences in the drivers of improvements in child nutrition between severely stunted and moderately stunted children and between rural and urban areas. The translation of improvements in household endowments, characteristics and practices into improvements in child nutrition (the coefficient effects may be influenced by macroeconomic shocks or other events such as natural calamities or civil disturbance and may vary substantially over different time periods. Our analysis also highlights the need to explicitly examine the contribution of targeted child health and nutrition interventions to improvements in child nutrition in developing countries.

  4. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deepthi Kattula

    Full Text Available Socioeconomic status (SES scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India.A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales-Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL, the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting.The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%. Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%.There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities.

  5. Girl child marriage as a risk factor for early childhood development and stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efevbera, Yvette; Bhabha, Jacqueline; Farmer, Paul E; Fink, Günther

    2017-07-01

    This paper quantitatively examines the intergenerational effects of girl child marriage, or the developmental and health outcomes of children born to women who marry before age 18. The overall objective is to understand the mechanisms through which girl child marriage affects the health and well-being of children in sub-Saharan Africa, as well as the relative magnitude and impact of these mechanisms. We used data from 37,558 mother-child pairs identified through 16 national and sub-national cross-sectional surveys across sub-Saharan Africa conducted between 2010 and 2014 by the UNICEF Multiple Indicator Clusters Survey program. The Early Childhood Development Index was used to measure child development, and stunting was used to measure health. Using logistic regression, we found that the odds of being off-track for development and being stunted were 25% and 29% higher, respectively, for children born to women who married before age 18 compared to those whose mothers married later (p early childbearing was not the sole pathway through which girl child marriage affected child development and health. Our final models revealed that disparities in advanced maternal education and wealth explained child development and stunting. We conclude that there are intergenerational consequences of girl child marriage on her child's well-being, and that through association with other contextual, socioeconomic, and biological factors, marrying early does matter for child development and health. Our findings resonate with existing literature and point toward important policy considerations for improving early childhood outcomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. INCIDENCE OF STUNTING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH FOOD INTAKE, INFECTIOUS DISEASES, AND ECONOMIC STATUS IN KENDARI, SOUTHEAST SULAWESI, INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhmad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Stunting is characterized by inhibition of growth in children that lead to failure in getting normal heights and healthy child's age. It is a public health problem in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kelurahan Mangga Dua in Kendari in 2016. Objective: This study aims to examine the relationship between food intake, infectious diseases, economic status and the incidence of stunting in Kendari, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia Methods: This was a descriptive cross sectional study with retrospective approach. This research was conducted in Public Health Center of Mata. There were 41 respondents were selected as the samples. Data were collected by questionnaires, observation, and documentation. Data were analyzed using Chi-Square test. Results: The results showed that there were significant associations between food intake (p= 0.001, infectious diseases (p= 0.000, economic status (p= 0.000, and the incidence of stunting in infants. Conclusions: It can be concluded that there is a relationship between food intake, infectious diseases and economic status with the incidence of stunting in children aged 2-4 years in the working area of Public Health Center of Mata, Kendari. Therefore, good food intake is needed for the growth and development of the child. Moreover, changing the behavior of parents by doing the healthy and clean behavior in the household to prevent infectious diseases in children infectious diseases is also very important. Economic status however also plays key role in the incidence of stunting in children

  7. The relationship between agricultural biodiversity, dietary diversity, household food security, and stunting of children in rural Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M'Kaibi, Florence K; Steyn, Nelia P; Ochola, Sophie A; Du Plessis, Lissane

    2017-03-01

    The study was to determine the role of Dietary diversity (DD), household food security (HFS), and agricultural biodiversity (AB) on stunted growth in children. Two cross-sectional studies were undertaken 6 months apart. Interviews were done with mothers/caregivers and anthropometric measurements of children 24-59 months old. HFS was assessed by household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS). A repeated 24-h recall was used to calculate a dietary diversity score (DDS). Agricultural biodiversity (AB) was calculated by counting the number of edible plants and animals. The study was undertaken in resource-poor households in two rural areas in Kenya. Mothers/Care givers and household with children of 24-59 months of age were the main subjects. The prevalence of underweight [WAZ children with stunted growth were significantly different in DDS ( P  = 0.047) after the rainy season and HFIAS ( P  = 0.009) in the dry season, but not with AB score ( P  = 0.486). The mean AB for households with children with stunted growth were lower at 6.8, compared to 7.0 for those with normal growth, however, the difference was insignificant. Data indicate that households with children with stunted growth and those without are significantly different in DDS and HFIAS but not with AB. This suggests some potential in using DDS and HFIAS as proxy measures for stunting.

  8. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. The prevalence of stunting, overweight and obesity, and metabolic disease risk in rural South African children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunger David B

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low- to middle-income countries are undergoing a health transition with non-communicable diseases contributing substantially to disease burden, despite persistence of undernutrition and infectious diseases. This study aimed to investigate the prevalence and patterns of stunting and overweight/obesity, and hence risk for metabolic disease, in a group of children and adolescents in rural South Africa. Methods A cross-sectional growth survey was conducted involving 3511 children and adolescents 1-20 years, selected through stratified random sampling from a previously enumerated population living in Agincourt sub-district, Mpumalanga Province, South Africa. Anthropometric measurements including height, weight and waist circumference were taken using standard procedures. Tanner pubertal assessment was conducted among adolescents 9-20 years. Growth z-scores were generated using 2006 WHO standards for children up to five years and 1977 NCHS/WHO reference for older children. Overweight and obesity for those 2 for overweight and obesity respectively were used for those ≥ 18 years. Waist circumference cut-offs of ≥ 94 cm for males and ≥ 80 cm for females and waist-to-height ratio of 0.5 for both sexes were used to determine metabolic disease risk in adolescents. Results About one in five children aged 1-4 years was stunted; one in three of those aged one year. Concurrently, the prevalence of combined overweight and obesity, almost non-existent in boys, was substantial among adolescent girls, increasing with age and reaching approximately 20-25% in late adolescence. Central obesity was prevalent among adolescent girls, increasing with sexual maturation and reaching a peak of 35% at Tanner Stage 5, indicating increased risk for metabolic disease. Conclusions The study highlights that in transitional societies, early stunting and adolescent obesity may co-exist in the same socio-geographic population. It is likely that this profile

  10. Control of sweet potato virus diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loebenstein, Gad

    2015-01-01

    Sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas) is ranked seventh in global food crop production and is the third most important root crop after potato and cassava. Sweet potatoes are vegetative propagated from vines, root slips (sprouts), or tubers. Therefore, virus diseases can be a major constrain, reducing yields markedly, often more than 50%. The main viruses worldwide are Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV). Effects on yields by SPFMV or SPCSV alone are minor, or but in complex infection by the two or other viruses yield losses of 50%. The orthodox way of controlling viruses in vegetative propagated crops is by supplying the growers with virus-tested planting material. High-yielding plants are tested for freedom of viruses by PCR, serology, and grafting to sweet potato virus indicator plants. After this, meristem tips are taken from those plants that reacted negative. The meristems were grown into plants which were kept under insect-proof conditions and away from other sweet potato material for distribution to farmers after another cycle of reproduction. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Riwayat gizi buruk masa lalu (stunted tidak berhubungan dengan prestasi belajar siswa SD di Kabupaten Sikka Nusa Tenggara Timur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobianus Hasan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: The main nutritional problem existed in Sikka District was high prevalence of stunting in children (49.6%. Sikka District Health Office data at 2009 and 2010 confirmed that Mego Subdistrict was categorized as area in which the citizens (particularly infants had high risk experiencing health and nutritionissues with percentage of 43.3 in 2009 and 42.3 in 2010. Elementary school student’s passing percentage at Mego Subdistrict in education year of 2009/2010 placed in rank of 15 of 21 subdistricts in Sikka District.Objectives: To determine the association between history of malnutrition (stunted and academic achievement of elementary school students at Sikka District, NTT.Methods: This was an observational study with cross sectional study design. Sample of this research were 3rd grade elementary school students who met inclusive and exclusive criteria. Bivariate and multivariate analysis was used ini this research.Results: Research result showed that bivariatelly stunted condition affects study achievement (p=0.027. External factors affecting study achievement was mother’s education (p=0.001, father’s education (p=0.001 and child’s intelligence (p=0.027. Multivariatelly, most affective factor in student’s study achievement at Mego Subdistrict was parent’s education. The most dominant factor affecting elementary student’s study achievement was mother’s education (p=0.001.Conclusions: Most students suffering stunted had low study achievement (87.2% and stunted had no significant relation to study achievement. Student’s study achievement was affected by parent’s education.KEYWORDS: stunted, study achievementABSTRAKLatar belakang: Masalah gizi utama yang ada di Kabupaten Sikka adalah tingginya balita dengan status pendek dan sangat pendek yang mencapai 49,6%. Data Dinas Kesehatan Kabupaten Sikka tahun 2009 dan 2010 menyatakan bahwa Kecamatan Mego dikategorikan sebagai wilayah dengan masyarakat

  12. Rethinking policy perspectives on childhood stunting: time to formulate a structural and multifactorial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Krishna, Aditi

    2016-05-01

    Stunting and chronic undernutrition among children in South Asia remain a major unresolved global health issue. There are compelling intrinsic and moral reasons to ensure that children attain their optimal growth potential facilitated via promotion of healthy living conditions. Investments in efforts to ensure that children's growth is not faltered also have substantial instrumental benefits in terms of cognitive and economic development. Using the case of India, we critique three prevailing approaches to reducing undernutrition among children: an over-reliance on macroeconomic growth as a potent policy instrument, a disproportionate focus on interpreting undernutrition as a demand-side problem and an over-reliance on unintegrated single-factorial (one at a time) approaches to policy and research. Using existing evidence, we develop a case for support-led policy approach with a focus on integrated and structural factors to addressing the problem of undernutrition among children in India. Key messages Eliminating child undernutrition is important from an intrinsic perspective and offers considerable instrumental benefits to individual and society. Evidence suggests that an exclusive reliance on a growth-mediated strategy to eliminate stunting needs to be reconsidered, suggesting the need for a substantial support-led strategy. Interpreting and addressing undernutrition as a demand-side problem with proximal single-factorial interventions is futile. There is an urgent need to develop interventions that address the broader structural and upstream causes of child undernutrition. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Disruption of Mediator rescues the stunted growth of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonawitz, Nicholas D; Kim, Jeong Im; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Ciesielski, Peter N; Anderson, Nickolas A; Ximenes, Eduardo; Maeda, Junko; Ralph, John; Donohoe, Bryon S; Ladisch, Michael; Chapple, Clint

    2014-05-15

    Lignin is a phenylpropanoid-derived heteropolymer important for the strength and rigidity of the plant secondary cell wall. Genetic disruption of lignin biosynthesis has been proposed as a means to improve forage and bioenergy crops, but frequently results in stunted growth and developmental abnormalities, the mechanisms of which are poorly understood. Here we show that the phenotype of a lignin-deficient Arabidopsis mutant is dependent on the transcriptional co-regulatory complex, Mediator. Disruption of the Mediator complex subunits MED5a (also known as REF4) and MED5b (also known as RFR1) rescues the stunted growth, lignin deficiency and widespread changes in gene expression seen in the phenylpropanoid pathway mutant ref8, without restoring the synthesis of guaiacyl and syringyl lignin subunits. Cell walls of rescued med5a/5b ref8 plants instead contain a novel lignin consisting almost exclusively of p-hydroxyphenyl lignin subunits, and moreover exhibit substantially facilitated polysaccharide saccharification. These results demonstrate that guaiacyl and syringyl lignin subunits are largely dispensable for normal growth and development, implicate Mediator in an active transcriptional process responsible for dwarfing and inhibition of lignin biosynthesis, and suggest that the transcription machinery and signalling pathways responding to cell wall defects may be important targets to include in efforts to reduce biomass recalcitrance.

  14. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

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    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  15. Understanding child stunting in India: a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, nutritional and environmental determinants using additive quantile regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A

    2013-01-01

    Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0-24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role.

  16. Understanding child stunting in India: a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, nutritional and environmental determinants using additive quantile regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Fenske

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. DESIGN: Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0-24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. RESULTS: At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role.

  17. Exposure to Ambient Fine Particulate Air Pollution in Utero as a Risk Factor for Child Stunting in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Nihit; Canning, David

    2017-12-23

    Pregnant mothers in Bangladesh are exposed to very high and worsening levels of ambient air pollution. Maternal exposure to fine particulate matter has been associated with low birth weight at much lower levels of exposure, leading us to suspect the potentially large effects of air pollution on stunting in children in Bangladesh. We estimate the relationship between exposure to air pollution in utero and child stunting by pooling outcome data from four waves of the nationally representative Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey conducted between 2004 and 2014, and calculating children's exposure to ambient fine particulate matter in utero using high resolution satellite data. We find significant increases in the relative risk of child stunting, wasting, and underweight with higher levels of in utero exposure to air pollution, after controlling for other factors that have been found to contribute to child anthropometric failure. We estimate the relative risk of stunting in the second, third, and fourth quartiles of exposure as 1.074 (95% confidence interval: 1.014-1.138), 1.150 (95% confidence interval: 1.069-1.237, and 1.132 (95% confidence interval: 1.031-1.243), respectively. Over half of all children in Bangladesh in our sample were exposed to an annual ambient fine particulate matter level in excess of 46 µg/m³; these children had a relative risk of stunting over 1.13 times that of children in the lowest quartile of exposure. Reducing air pollution in Bangladesh could significantly contribute to the Sustainable Development Goal of reducing child stunting.

  18. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Praktik pemberian makanan pendamping ASI (MP-ASI bukan faktor risiko kejadian stunting pada anak usia 6-23 bulan

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    Hildagardis M.E Nai

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting reflects a process of failure to reach linear growth potential as a result of suboptimal health or nutrition conditions. One of causal factors of stunting is inadequate of quality and quantity of complementary foods.Objectives: To identify complementary feeding practices such as introduction age of complementary foods, dietary diversity, and meal frequency as risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months in Sedayu Subdistrict, Bantul, Yogyakarta.Methods: Study design was case-control with ratio (1:1. The study used both quantitative methods as well as case control design and qualitative through interview. Cases were children aged 6-23 months who had length for age z-score <-2SD. Controls were children aged 6-23 months who had length for age z-score ≥-2SD who live adjacent to the case. Data were analyzed by using univariable (descriptive, bivariable (chi-square test, and multivariable analysis (multiple logistic regression.Results: The result of bivariate analysis showed that introduction age of complementary foods (OR=1.07, dietary diversity (OR=1.17, and meal frequency (OR=1.69 were not risk factors of stunting. However, compared with high dietary diversity score, low dietary diversity score (≤2, 3, 4 food groups associated with increased odds of being stunted among children aged 6-23 months (OR=2.24, 95% CI:1.00-5.01, OR=1.82, 95% CI:0.96-3.45, OR=1.66, 95% CI:0.81-3.46 respectively. The result of multivariate analysis showed that mother’s height (OR=1.86 and story of low birth weight (OR=3.23 were risk factors of stunting.Conclusions: Complementary feeding practices such as age introduction of complementary foods, dietary diversity, and meal frequency were not risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months. Mother’s height and story of low birth weight were risk factors of stunting among children aged 6-23 months.KEYWORDS: stunting, nutritional intake, nutritional

  20. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wada, Yasunobu; Tanaka, Hideaki; Yamashita, Eiki; Kubo, Chikako; Ichiki-Uehara, Tamaki; Nakazono-Nagaoka, Eiko; Omura, Toshihiro; Tsukihara, Tomitake

    2007-01-01

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  1. Effects of childhood stunting on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, A.L.

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies by us and others have shown higher energy conservation mechanisms in marginally stunted Brazilian children such as, lower resting energy expenditure, lower fat oxidation, higher susceptibility to gain weight-for-height associated with a higher prevalence of stunted-obese subjects

  2. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

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    Yasir Bin Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  3. Intra- and inter-population polymorphism in Coletinia maggii (Grassi, 1887) (Zygentoma: Nicoletiidae), an inhabitant of soil, mesovoid shallow substratum (MSS) and caves--A challenge for the strict classification of subterranean fauna?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilgado, José D; Ortuño, Vicente M

    2015-02-19

    New locations of Coletinia maggii (Grassi, 1887) have been discovered in the center of the Iberian Peninsula in different types of subterranean environments, such as a stony layer in the subsoil of an alluvial plain, an alluvial Mesovoid Shallow Substratum or Milieu Souterrain Superficiel (MSS) and a gypsum cave. This is the first record of both an alluvial MSS in the center of the Iberian Peninsula and of a subterranean species living in it. The high number of specimens captured allowed the first detailed study of the morphological intra- and inter-population variations of this species. The implications of its presence in these different environments, its wide distribution area across Europe, and the relevance of the morphological variation in the characters for the taxonomy of this species are discussed. Based on the results, Coletinia hernandoi Molero, Bach & Gaju, 2013 is proposed as a new synonym of C. maggii.

  4. Biomarkers of Environmental Enteropathy, Inflammation, Stunting, and Impaired Growth in Children in Northeast Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard L Guerrant

    Full Text Available Critical to the design and assessment of interventions for enteropathy and its developmental consequences in children living in impoverished conditions are non-invasive biomarkers that can detect intestinal damage and predict its effects on growth and development. We therefore assessed fecal, urinary and systemic biomarkers of enteropathy and growth predictors in 375 6-26 month-old children with varying degrees of malnutrition (stunting or wasting in Northeast Brazil. 301 of these children returned for followup anthropometry after 2-6m. Biomarkers that correlated with stunting included plasma IgA anti-LPS and anti-FliC, zonulin (if >12m old, and intestinal FABP (I-FABP, suggesting prior barrier disruption; and with citrulline, tryptophan and with lower serum amyloid A (SAA (suggesting impaired defenses. In contrast, subsequent growth was predicted in those with higher fecal MPO or A1AT and also by higher L/M, plasma LPS, I-FABP and SAA (showing intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation. Better growth was predicted in girls with higher plasma citrulline and in boys with higher plasma tryptophan. Interactions were also seen with fecal MPO and neopterin in predicting subsequent growth impairment. Biomarkers clustered into markers of 1 functional intestinal barrier disruption and translocation, 2 structural intestinal barrier disruption and inflammation and 3 systemic inflammation. Principle components pathway analyses also showed that L/M with %L, I-FABP and MPO associate with impaired growth, while also (like MPO associating with a systemic inflammation cluster of kynurenine, LBP, sCD14, SAA and K/T. Systemic evidence of LPS translocation associated with stunting, while markers of barrier disruption or repair (A1AT and Reg1 with low zonulin associated with fecal MPO and neopterin. We conclude that key noninvasive biomarkers of intestinal barrier disruption, LPS translocation and of intestinal and systemic inflammation can help elucidate how

  5. Ebola Virus and Marburg Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebola virus and Marburg virus Overview Ebola virus and Marburg virus are related viruses that cause hemorrhagic fevers — illnesses marked by severe bleeding (hemorrhage), organ failure and, in many ...

  6. Association of urban slum residency with infant mortality and child stunting in low and middle income countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyu, Hmwe Hmwe; Shannon, Harry S; Georgiades, Katholiki; Boyle, Michael H

    2013-01-01

    This study aimed to (i) examine the contextual influences of urban slum residency on infant mortality and child stunting over and above individual and household characteristics and (ii) identify factors that might modify any adverse effects. We obtained data from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in 45 countries between 2000 and 2009. The respondents were women (15-49 years) and their children (0-59 months). Results showed that living in a slum neighborhood was associated with infant mortality (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.15-1.57) irrespective of individual and household characteristics and this risk was attenuated among children born to women who had received antenatal care from a health professional (OR = 0.79, 95% CI = 0.63-0.99). Results also indicated that increasing child age exacerbated the risk for stunting associated with slum residency (OR = 1.19, 95% CI = 1.16-1.23). The findings suggest that improving material circumstances in urban slums at the neighborhood level as well as increasing antenatal care coverage among women living in these neighborhoods could help reduce infant mortality and stunted child growth. The cumulative impact of long-term exposure to slum neighborhoods on child stunting should be corroborated by future studies.

  7. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  8. Stunt nematode (Tylenchorhynchus claytoni) impact on southern pine seedlings and response to a field test of cover crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michelle M. Cram; Stephen W. Fraedrich

    2009-01-01

    The stunt nematode, Tylenchorhynchus claytoni, was found to cause a reduction in root volume (cm3) of loblolly pine at population densities equivalent of 125 nematodes/100 cm3 (6 in3) soil and greater. The results of a host range test conducted in containers under controlled conditions determined that buckwheat cultivar (Fagopryum esculentum...

  9. Cauliflower is a new host of a subgroup 16SrVII-B phytoplasma associated with stunting disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauliflower stunt has occurred with high levels of incidence and provoked significant yield reduction in Brazilian crops. Phytoplasmas belonging to the subgroups 16SrIII-J and 16SrXV-A were previously reported in association with the disease. In 2014, plants with typical symptoms of the disease were...

  10. Has the prevalence of stunting in South African children changed in 40 years? A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said-Mohamed, Rihlat; Micklesfield, Lisa K; Pettifor, John M; Norris, Shane A

    2015-06-05

    In the last 20 years, South Africa has experienced political, economic, and demographic transitions accompanied by an epidemiological transition. Like several sub-Saharan countries, the South African population is facing both under-and over-nutrition, and nutrition and lifestyle related chronic disease while the burden of infectious disease remains high. It is critical to understand these trends overtime in order to highlights the pitfalls and successful measures initiatives taken in the efforts to tackle malnutrition. The objective of this systematic review is to investigate the changes in the prevalence of stunting, a chronic form of undernutrition, in South Africa over 40 years, and to derive lessons from the South African experience, a country in an advanced process of transition in sub-Saharan Africa. We undertook a systematic review of publications selected from PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus. We included studies and surveys published between 1970 and 2013 if they reported the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age) in children under-6 years of age living in South Africa. We excluded studies conducted in health facility outpatients or hospital wards, or children with known chronic and acute infectious diseases. We extracted Date of data collection, study setting, ethnicity, age, sex, sample size, growth references/standards, diagnostic criteria for stunting and prevalence of stunting from each study. Over the last decade, the national prevalence of stunting has decreased. However, between and within provincial, age and ethnic group disparities remain. Unlike other countries in sub-Saharan Africa, no sex or rural/urban differences were found in preschool children. However, the analysis of long-term trends and identification of vulnerable groups is complicated by the use of different growth references/standards and sampling methods. Despite economic growth, political and social transitions, and national nutritional programs, stunting remains

  11. Drosophila insulin release is triggered by adipose Stunted ligand to brain Methuselah receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delanoue, Renald; Meschi, Eleonora; Agrawal, Neha; Mauri, Alessandra; Tsatskis, Yonit; McNeill, Helen; Léopold, Pierre

    2016-09-30

    Animals adapt their growth rate and body size to available nutrients by a general modulation of insulin-insulin-like growth factor signaling. In Drosophila, dietary amino acids promote the release in the hemolymph of brain insulin-like peptides (Dilps), which in turn activate systemic organ growth. Dilp secretion by insulin-producing cells involves a relay through unknown cytokines produced by fat cells. Here, we identify Methuselah (Mth) as a secretin-incretin receptor subfamily member required in the insulin-producing cells for proper nutrient coupling. We further show, using genetic and ex vivo organ culture experiments, that the Mth ligand Stunted (Sun) is a circulating insulinotropic peptide produced by fat cells. Therefore, Sun and Mth define a new cross-organ circuitry that modulates physiological insulin levels in response to nutrients. Copyright © 2016, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Prevalence and associated factors for stunting among 6-12 years old school age children from rural community of Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogale, Tesfahun Yonas; Bala, Elazar Tadesse; Tadesse, Minyahil; Asamoah, Benedict Oppong

    2018-05-24

    Stunting is one of the most serious and challenging public health problems in Ethiopia, which constitute a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. This study aimed to assess the prevalence and factors associated with stunting among 6-12 years old children in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia. This was a cross-sectional study conducted among 633 children 6-12 years old living in Humbo district, Southern Ethiopia, from March to April, 2015. A multistage cluster sampling technique was used to select participants from households in eight Villages in the study area. Height was measured using standard methods and height for age Z-score was computed to assess stunting. EPI info version 3.5.4 was used for data entry, whereas Anthroplus software and SPSS version 20.0 were used for computation of height for age Z-scores and statistical analyses respectively. Simple and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to examine factors associated with stunting in the study sample, using 95% confidence limits (statistical significance set at p < 0.050). Prevalence of stunting was 57%, about, 3.5% were severely stunted, 27.3% moderately stunted and 26.4% mildly stunted, and the mean (SD) was - 1.1 (±1.2). About 7 (1.1%) boys and 15 (2.4%) girls were severely stunted. Age groups 10-12 years had significantly higher rate of stunting than others. Age (AOR = 1.7, 95% CI = 1.1-2.6), big family size (AOR = 4.6, 95% CI = 2.2-9.5) and field disposal of wastes (AOR = 2.7, 95% CI = 1.2-5.8) were factors significantly associated with stunting. This study exposed high rate of stunting among school age children. Stunting remains a noticeable attribute of rural school age children. Findings suggest the need to implement evidence-based school-aged rural children nutrition policy and strategies as well as need for intervention to improve domestic waste management system in the rural community.

  13. COGNITIVE PERFORMANCE OF STUNTED PRE-SCHOOL CHILDREN UNDERGOING NUTRITIONAL RECOVERY TREATMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Thaíse Morais; Bueno, Nassib Bezerra; Azevedo, Maria de Lourdes da Silva Gomes de; Clemente, Ana Paula Grotti; Florêncio, Telma Maria de Menezes Toledo

    2018-01-01

    To determine if the treatment of stunted children offered at a specialized center influences their cognitive performance. Two groups of children from vulnerable families were selected, one consisting of stunted children being treated at the Nutrition Education and Recovery Center (CREN), and the other group of eutrophic children from a local, public day care center. At CREN, children are treated in a day-hospital system (9 hours/day, 5 days/week), receiving medical, nutritional and psycho-pedagogical support. All children were submitted to the Denver-II Development Screening Test and had their development and the height-for-age index assessed at 3 moments: at the beginning of the follow-up, and after 6 and 12 months. The socioeconomic status, according to the Brazilian Economic Classification Criteria, was assessed at the beginning of the follow-up. Data were treated by prevalence ratios for cross-sectional baseline analysis, using the Poisson regression, and by pooled prevalence ratios for longitudinal analysis, using a generalized equation estimation model, both adjusted by age, sex and economic status. Seventy-four children were included, 37 for each group. There were no differences in age, sex and socioeconomic status between groups. In the longitudinal analysis, the CREN group showed better performance in the personal-social domain (pooled prevalence ratio: 0.89; 95% confidence interval - 95%IC 0.82-0.95), with no differences in the other domains. The treatment offered at CREN satisfactorily improved the social skills of the treated children, without changing other domains.

  14. The Relationship between Livestock Ownership and Child Stunting in Three Countries in Eastern Africa Using National Survey Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosites, Emily M; Rabinowitz, Peter M; Thumbi, Samuel M; Montgomery, Joel M; Palmer, Guy H; May, Susanne; Rowhani-Rahbar, Ali; Neuhouser, Marian L; Walson, Judd L

    2015-01-01

    Livestock ownership has the potential to improve child nutrition through various mechanisms, although direct evaluations of household livestock and child stunting status are uncommon. We conducted an analysis of Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) datasets from Ethiopia (2011), Kenya (2008-2009), and Uganda (2010) among rural children under 5 years of age to compare stunting status across levels of livestock ownership. We classified livestock ownership by summing reported household numbers of goats, sheep, cattle and chickens, as well as calculating a weighted score to combine multiple species. The primary association was assessed separately by country using a log-binomial model adjusted for wealth and region, which was then stratified by child diarrheal illness, animal-source foods intake, sub-region, and wealth index. This analysis included n = 8079 children from Ethiopia, n = 3903 children from Kenya, and n = 1645 from Uganda. A ten-fold increase in household livestock ownership had significant association with lower stunting prevalence in Ethiopia (Prevalence Ratio [PR] 0.95, 95% CI 0.92-0.98) and Uganda (PR 0.87, 95% CI 0.79-0.97), but not Kenya (PR 1.01, 95% CI 0.96-1.07). The weighted livestock score was only marginally associated with stunting status. The findings varied slightly by region, but not by wealth, diarrheal disease, or animal-source food intake. This analysis suggested a slightly beneficial effect of household livestock ownership on child stunting prevalence. The small effect size observed may be related to limitations of the DHS dataset or the potentially complicated relationship between malnutrition and livestock ownership, including livestock health and productivity.

  15. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children aged 6-19 years in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huahong; Li, Hui; Zong, Xinnan

    2016-11-01

    Childhood/adolescent obesity and stunting are associated with heightened risk of metabolic syndrome. Understanding the prevalence and patterns of stunting, the emergence of overweight/obesity in children and adolescents and the concomitant risk for metabolic syndrome is of critical importance for public health policy. To investigate the prevalence of overweight, obesity and stunting in school children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing and to compare the differences in screening rates by national and international references. School children aged 6-19 years in Xuanwu, Haidian and Fangshan district were selected. Overweight and obesity in the children was screened for using the International Obesity Task-force (IOTF) and Chinese standards. Stunting was defined as height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) less than -2 using the 2009 Chinese standards and 2007 WHO reference. A total of 99 482 children were included in this survey. The prevalences of overweight and obesity are 17.7% and 14.4% in the Chinese standard, but they are 18.1% and 8.6% in the IOTF standard; there were significant differences between the prevalences of these two standards (p overweight/obesity in boys are all significantly higher than that of girls in every age-group (p children and adolescents (2.6%) according to the Chinese standards, with 2.8% in boys, higher than the 2.5% of girls (p children and adolescents (1.2%) with 1.1% in boys and 1.3% in girls (p overweight/obesity in children and adolescents aged 6-19 years in Beijing was close to western countries, which should be highly valued when considering public health policies and the problem of growth stunting should not be ignored.

  16. Stunting at birth: recognition of early-life linear growth failure in the western highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomons, Noel W; Vossenaar, Marieke; Chomat, Anne-Marie; Doak, Colleen M; Koski, Kristine G; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-07-01

    Measurements of length at birth, or in the neonatal period, are challenging to obtain and often discounted for lack of validity. Hence, classical 'under-5' stunting rates have been derived from surveys on children from 6 to 59 months of age. Guatemala has a high prevalence of stunting (49.8%), but the age of onset of growth failure is not clearly defined. The objective of the study was to assess length-for-age within the first 1.5 months of life among Guatemalan infants. As part of a cross-sectional observational study, supine length was measured in young infants. Mothers' height was measured. Length-for-age Z-scores (HAZ) were generated and stunting was defined as HAZ Guatemala. Three hundred and six newborns with a median age of 19 d. The median rural HAZ was -1.56 and prevalence of stunting was 38%; the respective urban values were -1.41 and 25%. Linear regression revealed no relationship between infant age and HAZ (r = 0.101, r(2) = 0.010, P = 0.077). Maternal height explained 3% of the variability in HAZ (r = 0.171, r(2) = 0.029, P = 0.003). Stunting must be carried over from in utero growth retardation in short-stature Guatemalan mothers. As linear growth failure in this setting begins in utero, its prevention must be linked to maternal care strategies during gestation, or even before. A focus on maternal nutrition and health in an intergenerational dimension is needed to reduce its prevalence.

  17. The stunted child with an overweight mother as a growing public health concern in resource-poor environments: a case study from Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Colleen M; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2016-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are emerging at alarming rates in low income women in many countries. Guatemala has the additional burden of a high prevalence of chronic under-nutrition (stunting) in children. The purpose of this paper is to explore the dual burden of infant and child (5-23 months) under-nutrition and maternal over-weight and obesity in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Anthropometric measures were collected in 446 mother-infant dyads in a metropolitan population of mixed indigenous (Maya) and non-indigenous descent in the Western Highlands of Guatemala. Children were identified as stunted based on a height for age <-2 below the WHO reference median and maternal overweight/obesity defined as a BMI ≥25. Stunted children with an overweight/obese mother were compared to other children who were not stunted and/or who did not have an overweight/obese mother. The prevalences of stunting (38%) and maternal overweight/obesity (45%) were high, but just 17% of the mother and child pairs were dual burden. The socio-demographic characteristics of stunted children were not influenced by maternal overweight or obesity. Policies are needed to address under-nutrition as well as preventing obesity and obesity-related chronic disease risks of stunted children and their mothers.

  18. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  19. Why are some vulnerable children healthy and others stunted? A case study of vulnerability and resilience among very young children in West Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, K.; Nagle, N.

    2014-12-01

    Stunting, when children are shorter than average for their age, poses serious problems for short- and long-term development of individuals, families and communities. Stunting is linked to increase risk or illness or death, reduced educational attainment, reduced earnings and increases the likelihood (for girls) that the next generation of children will be stunted. Stunting occurs as a result of a culmination of inadequate food/calories, experiences with frequent illness, poor care and low weight at birth. Because almost 40% of children under 5 in the developing world suffer from stunting, understanding the community, household and individual components that lead to stunting are vital as these countries aim to improve children's health and development. We focus this research on childhood stunting in the neighboring countries of Mali and Burkina Faso, two of the poorest and least developed countries in the world. The populations of both countries are heavily reliant on subsistence farming and the share of children under 5 who are stunted hovers around 30%. In this research we aim to explore child stunting with attention to biology, behavior and environment. Specifically we aim to determine why children in some food insecure communities are stunted while others in the same community are healthy and, as an extension, why some low birth weight babies grow into healthy children and others are stunted. Because of the significance of food and nutrition on stunting outcomes, and because no micro-level estimates of food production exist, we use high resolution remotely sensed imagery (~1m) combined with coarser resolution landscape data (rainfall, slope, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) to estimate community level food production for each year of the child's life. We construct a multi-level analysis through the linking of food production data to other community features gathered from Demographic and Health Survey and smaller scale community surveys gathered by USAID

  20. Breast Feeding, Sex and Body Composition as Correlates of Stunting Among Kenyan Children at 6 and 15 Months of Age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konyole, Silvenus; Omollo, Selina; Skau, Jutta; Michaelsen, Kim; Roos, Nanna; Friis, Henrik; Kinyuru, John; Owuor, Bethuel; Estambale, Benson; Owino, Victor

    2014-01-01

    Full text: Introduction and objective: Stunting is prevalent in young children in low-income countries, and has detrimental effects on psychomotor development and later working capacity. The objective of this study was to assess the association of body composition (fat-free mass and fat mass), breastfeeding and sex with stunting in Kenyan children aged 6 and 15 months Subjects and Method: As part of a nutrition trial conducted in Western Kenya, 449 six months old infants were recruited if MUAC≥11.5 cm. At six and 15 months of age, weight, recumbent length, skinfolds and mid-upper arm circumference (MUAC) were measured. Deuterium oxide dilution method was used to determine body fat and fat-free-mass. A predose saliva sample was taken prior to a dose to the infant of 0.5 g deuterium oxide per kg of body weight. Postdose saliva samples were taken after 2 and 3 hours, respectively. Deuterium enrichment was measured using Fourier Transformed Infrared Spectrophotometer. Linear regression was used to assess the association of sex, breastfeeding, fat-free mass index (FFMI), fat mass index (FMI) and body mass index (BMI) as correlates of stunting Results: At 6 months, males had FMI being 14.03 kg/m2 (95% CI 13.80; 14.26) compared to females at 13.67(95% CI 13.40; 13.94). At 15 months males had an FMI of 14.74(95% CI 14.48; 14.99) while females had 14.41(95% CI 14.18; 14.64). At age 6 and 15 months, females had a lower -0.45 (95% CI -2.37; 1.46) kg/m2 and -0.36 (95% CI -0.59;-0.13) kg/m2 FFMI compared to girls, respectively. Stunting was not associated with body composition at neither 6 nor 15 months. Those who stopped breastfeeding before 15 months (11.1%) had a 0.01(95% CI 0.002; 0.02) kg/m2 lower FFMI when they reached 15 months. Conclusion: Longer duration of breastfeeding was associated with higher FFMI in early infancy in resource poor settings .Stunting was associated with lower FMI at the age of 6 months but not at 15 months. Wasting was associated with a deficit

  1. Les coulisses du sublime Behind the scenes of the sublimeMovie stunts, machinery, special effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Grimaud

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Toute cascade de cinéma peut être perçue comme une configuration expérimentale posant au spectateur un problème d’attribution. Le cinéma livre en effet depuis ses origines une course frénétique pour rendre visuellement plausibles des actions physiquement impossibles en camouflant leurs conditions de réalisation. Qui est à l’origine de quoi ? Y a-t-il procédé et lequel ? L’acteur était-il soutenu par des machines ou par des câbles ? A-t-il effectué la cascade lui-même ? etc. Or l’acte impossible que le plateau prétend réaliser n’est jamais simplement attribuable à l’acteur, aux techniciens ou à la caméra. Il n’est jamais non plus complètement réductible à du trucage. À la fois de l’ordre de la performance physique (mais pas uniquement, un brin machinique, en grande partie collective (ou distribuée, l’effet de virtuosité au cinéma reste par ailleurs toujours inachevé sans la perception d’un spectateur pour donner à la cascade sa continuité finale. En examinant comment les cascades se font, camouflent et confondent le spectateur sur leurs sources et leur processus, cet article explore les enjeux de cette virtuosité hybride et compliquée qui arrache de façon optique l’acte à ses conditions matérielles d’exécution.Cinema is engaged from its origins in a frantic race to make physically impossible actions visually plausible by camouflaging their conditions of application. Who is at the origin of what? Is there a method and which one? Was the actor supported by machines or by cables? Did he perform the stunt himself? etc. But the impossible act which the set contends to achieve is never simply due to the actor, the technicians or the camera. It is also never completely reducible to special effects. Both physical performance (but not only, a strand machinic and largely collective (or distributed, the effect of virtuosity in movies is also still incomplete without the perception of an

  2. Decreasing stunting, anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru: results of the Good Start in Life Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechtig, Aarón; Cornale, Guido; Ugaz, María Elena; Arias, Lena

    2009-03-01

    The rates of stunting, iron-deficiency anemia, and vitamin A deficiency in Peru are among the highest in South America. There is little scaled-up experience on how to solve these problems countrywide. To evaluate the Good Start in Life Program during the period from 2000 to 2004. Data on weight, height, hemoglobin, serum retinol, urinary iodine, and age were obtained from children under 3 years of age during two transverse surveys in 2000 and 2004. In 2004, the program covered 75,000 children, 35,000 mothers, and 1 million inhabitants from 223 poor communities. The rate of stunting decreased from 54.1% to 36.9%, the rate of iron-deficiency anemia decreased from 76.0% to 52.3%, and the rate of vitamin A deficiency decreased from 30.4% to 5.3% (p anemia, and vitamin A deficiency at the national scale in Peru and many other countries.

  3. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  4. Common beans and cowpeas as complementary foods to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventions to decrease the burden of childhood malnutrition are urgently needed, as millions of children die annually owing to undernutrition and hundreds of millions more are left cognitively and physically stunted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a pervasive chronic subclinical inflamm...

  5. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  6. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  7. Low temperature treatment affects concentration and distribution of chrysanthemum stunt viroid in Argyranthemum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhibo eZhang

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd can infect Argyranthemum and cause serious economic loss. Low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture has been applied to eradicate viroids from their hosts, but without success in eliminating CSVd from diseased Argyranthemum. The objectives of this work were to investigate 1 the effect of low temperature treatment combined with meristem culture on elimination of CSVd, 2 the effect of low temperature treatment on CSVd distribution pattern in shoot apical meristem (SAM, and 3 CSVd distribution in flowers and stems of two infected Argyranthemum cultivars. After treatment with low temperature combined with meristem tip culture, two CSVd-free plants were found in ‘Border Dark Red’, but none in ‘Yellow Empire’. With the help of in situ hybridization, we found that CSVd distribution patterns in the SAM showed no changes in diseased ‘Yellow Empire’ following 5oC treatment, compared with non-treated plants. However, the CSVd-free area in SAM was enlarged in diseased ‘Border Dark Red’ following prolonged 5oC treatment. Localization of CSVd in the flowers and stems of infected ‘Border Dark Red’ and ‘Yellow Empire’ indicated that seeds could not transmit CSVd in these two cultivars, and CSVd existed in phloem. Results obtained in the study contributed to better understanding of the distribution of CSVd in systemically infected plants and the combination of low temperature treatment and meristem tip culture for production of viroid-free plants.

  8. Construction of Infectious cDNA Clone of a Chrysanthemum stunt viroid Korean Isolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Yeon Yoon

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd, a noncoding infectious RNA molecule, causes seriously economic losses of chrysanthemum for 3 or 4 years after its first infection. Monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd isolate SK1 (CSVd-SK1 were constructed in the plasmids pGEM-T easy vector and pUC19 vector. Linear positive-sense transcripts synthesized in vitro from the full-length monomeric cDNA clones of CSVd-SK1 could infect systemically tomato seedlings and chrysanthemum plants, suggesting that the linear CSVd RNA transcribed from the cDNA clones could be replicated as efficiently as circular CSVd in host species. However, direct inoculation of plasmid cDNA clones containing full-length monomeric cDNA of CSVd-SK1 failed to infect tomato and chrysanthemum and linear negative-sense transcripts from the plasmid DNAs were not infectious in the two plant species. The cDNA sequences of progeny viroid in systemically infected tomato and chrysanthemum showed a few substitutions at a specific nucleotide position, but there were no deletions and insertions in the sequences of the CSVd progeny from tomato and chrysanthemum plants.

  9. Role of growth hormone in stunted head growth after cranial irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clayton, P E; Shalet, S M; Price, D A; Surtees, R A; Pearson, D

    1987-10-01

    The head sizes of 38 patients, growth hormone (GH) deficient following craniospinal (n = 26) or cranial irradiation (n = 12), have been assessed before (n = 38) and on completion of GH therapy (n = 15) or at the end of a similar period of observation without GH (n = 7). These results were compared to the change in head size seen in idiopathic GH deficiency following GH therapy (n = 14). Before GH therapy, the latter had small heads (mean occipitofrontal circumference SD score (SDS) -1), which were relatively large compared to the height deficit (height SDS (CA) -4.7), and they exhibited catch-up growth with GH (delta occipitofrontal circumference SDS + 0.7, final occipitofrontal circumference SDS -0.2). In contrast, over a similar period all patients, who previously had received cranial irradiation in the dosage range 2700-4750 centi-Geigy, irrespective of the radiation schedule or GH treatment, showed a decrease in occipitofrontal circumference SDS (mean delta -0.9), a significant difference to the expected head growth of normal children over a similar period (p less than 0.01). We have noted that restricted head growth occurs in the years following cranial irradiation and is unaffected by GH therapy. Earlier work has shown that cranial irradiation may impair intelligence. The exact relationship between intellectual impairment and stunted head growth remains to be determined.

  10. Stunting, selenium deficiency and anemia are associated with poor cognitive performance in preschool children from rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gashu, Dawd; Stoecker, Barbara J; Bougma, Karim; Adish, Abdulaziz; Haki, Gulelat D; Marquis, Grace S

    2016-04-12

    Anthropometric characteristics and iron status affect cognitive performance in children. In addition, selenium can influence cognitive outcomes; protection of the brain from oxidative stress and its role in thyroid hormone metabolism are putative mechanisms. To investigate their association with cognitive performance, anthropometric indicators, iron biomarkers, and serum selenium of children (n = 541) of 54-60mo of age from rural Ethiopia were assessed. Cognitive assessment was conducted with the administration of two reasoning subtests of the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence and the school readiness test. Stunting was found in 41.4 % of children, 28.7 % were underweight, and 6.3 % were wasted. The mean score of stunted children was lower than that of non-stunted children on non-verbal reasoning (7.0 ± 3.2vs7.9 ± 3.1; p = 0.01) and the school readiness tests (4.3 ± 2.2 vs 3.3 ± 2.1; p 0.05). Selenium deficient children had lower scores on all cognitive tests than normal children (p malnutrition and micronutrient deficiency and address cognitive development in children.

  11. Household Food Insecurity as a Predictor of Stunted Children and Overweight/Obese Mothers (SCOWT) in Urban Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudiono, Trias; Nindya, Triska Susila; Andrias, Dini Ririn; Megatsari, Hario; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2018-04-26

    (1) Background : The double burden of malnutrition has been increasing in countries experiencing the nutrition transition. This study aimed to determine the relationship between household food insecurity and the double burden of malnutrition, defined as within-household stunted child and an overweight/obese mother (SCOWT). (2) Methods : A cross-sectional survey was conducted in the urban city of Surabaya, Indonesia in April and May 2015. (3) Results : The prevalence of child stunting in urban Surabaya was 36.4%, maternal overweight/obesity was 70.2%, and SCOWT was 24.7%. Although many households were food secure (42%), there were high proportions of mild (22.9%), moderate (15.3%) and severe (19.7%) food insecurity. In a multivariate logistic regression, the household food insecurity access scale (HFIAS) category significantly correlated with child stunting and SCOWT. Compared to food secure households, mildly food insecure households had the greatest odds of SCOWT (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) = 2.789; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.540⁻5.083), followed by moderately food insecure (aOR = 2.530; 95% CI = 1.286⁻4.980) and severely food insecure households (aOR = 2.045; 95% CI = 1.087⁻3.848). (4) Conclusions : These results support the hypothesis that the double burden of malnutrition is related to food insecurity, and the HFIAS category is a predictor of SCOWT.

  12. PERAN KONTEKSTUAL TERHADAP KEJADIAN BALITA PENDEK DI INDONESIA (THE CONTEXTUAL ROLE OF OCCURRENCE STUNTED ON CHILDREN UNDER FIVE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihadi Suhadi

    2013-07-01

    ? Pasang Google Toolbar supaya Anda tidak perlu kesulitan lagi dengan kosakata bahasa asing.Bangun bisnis global Anda. Iklankan ke berbagai bahasa menggunakan Google Peluang Pasar Global. Kesimpulan: Variabel yang terkait dengan terjadinya anak balita pendek, yaitu pada level individu adalah konsumsi energi anak balita. Pada level rumah tangga, terutama adalah pola asuh anak, tinggi badan ibu, sanitasi, dan status ekonomi rumah tangga. Pada level provinsi adalah kemiskinan. Saran: Perlu kerjasama lintas sektor untuk memperbaiki variabel-variabel yang terkait, agar proporsi balita pendek turun. ABSTRACT Backgrounds: The prevalence of stunted in Indonesia is 36.8 percent. Children who have severe stunted IQ 11 points lower than children who were not stunted. This analysis looking for factors that cause stunted from the contextual (from level of individual, household, and the Province to the occurrence of stunted children under five. Objectives: To know the causes of the level of individuals, households, and the province on the occurrence of stunted children under five. Methods: Data used secondary data derived from data Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2010, the tertiary data from BPS, IPKM, and IPM. The number of samples analyzed 9 897 children under five. The statistical analysis data used multilevel statistical model binary logistic regression. Results: Provincial levels have contributed 51.9 percent, 34.9 percent individuals, and households of 13.2 percent to the occurrence of stunted children under five. The proportion of stunted children under five was reduced from 44.5 to 42.5 percent if children under five improved energy consumption, to 40.8 percent if the household energy consumption improved, to 43.2 percent if the household economy improved, to 32.6 percent when corrected parenting, becomes 35.8 percent if the mother is not stunted, to 39.4 pecent when the mother's education improved, and becomes 41.4 percent if the poverty at the provincial level improved. Simak

  13. Modelling the Ecological Comorbidity of Acute Respiratory Infection, Diarrhoea and Stunting among Children Under the Age of 5 Years in Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Manda, Samuel O; Moloney, Grainne M; Odundo, Elijah O; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to assess spatial co-occurrence of acute respiratory infections (ARI), diarrhoea and stunting among children of the age between 6 and 59 months in Somalia. Data were obtained from routine biannual nutrition surveys conducted by the Food and Agriculture Organization 2007-2010. A Bayesian hierarchical geostatistical shared component model was fitted to the residual spatial components of the three health conditions. Risk maps of the common spatial effects at 1×1 km resolution were derived. The empirical correlations of the enumeration area proportion were 0.37, 0.63 and 0.66 for ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. Spatially, the posterior residual effects ranged 0.03-20.98, 0.16-6.37 and 0.08-9.66 for shared component between ARI and stunting, diarrhoea and stunting and ARI and diarrhoea, respectively. The analysis showed clearly that the spatial shared component between ARI, diarrhoea and stunting was higher in the southern part of the country. Interventions aimed at controlling and mitigating the adverse effects of these three childhood health conditions should focus on their common putative risk factors, particularly in the South in Somalia.

  14. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil

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    Saulo Augusto Silva Mantovani

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children’s conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother’s height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother’s characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  15. Faktor risiko kejadian stunting pada anak umur 6-36 bulan di Wilayah Pedalaman Kecamatan Silat Hulu, Kapuas Hulu, Kalimantan Barat

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    Siti Wahdah

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting in children under five is an indicator of nutritional status that can reflect problem of overall social economic condition in the past. Stunting that occurs in childhood is a risk factor of increasing in mortality rate, low cognitive capability and motoric development, and improper physical function. The incidence of stunting is associated with many factors such as family environment (education, occupation, income, rearing pattern, eating pattern, and number of family members, nutritional factors (exclusivebreastfeeding and duration of breastfeeding, genetic factor, infection disease, and the incidence of low birth weight. The scope of stunting in 2010 were 35,6% and 39,7% in Indonesia and Province of Kalimantan Barat.Objectives: To identify the risk factors associated with the incidence of stunting in children of 6-36 months in Silat Hulu District of Kapuas Hulu, Province of Kalimantan Barat.Methods: This was an analytic observational study with cross sectional design. Population of the study were all of underfi ves children at remote area of Subdistrict of Silat Hulu, District of Kapuas Hulu, Province of Kalimantan Barat. Data analysis used chi-square test and logistic regression analysis to identify themost dominantly determinant stunting variable.Results: The incidence of stunting was significantly associated with occupation of mother, height of father, height of mother, income, number of family members, rearing pattern, and exclusive breastfeeding supplementation (p<0.05. The incidence of stunting was not associated with occupation of father, eating pattern, duration of breastfeeding, infection disease, and education of mother (p>0.05.Conclusions: Factors associated with the incidence of stunting were the work of mothers, rearing pattern, family income, number of household members, father’s height, maternal height, and exclusive breastfeeding. The most dominant determinant of risk factors on the

  16. Strongyloides stercoralis is associated with significant morbidity in rural Cambodia, including stunting in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrer, Armelle; Khieu, Virak; Schär, Fabian; Hattendorf, Jan; Marti, Hanspeter; Neumayr, Andreas; Char, Meng Chuor; Hatz, Christoph; Muth, Sinuon; Odermatt, Peter

    2017-10-01

    Strongyloides stercoralis is a soil-transmitted nematode that can replicate within its host, leading to long-lasting and potentially fatal infections. It is ubiquitous and highly prevalent in Cambodia. The extent of morbidity associated with S. stercoralis infection is difficult to assess due to the broad spectrum of symptoms and, thus, remains uncertain. Clinical signs were compared among S. stercoralis infected vs. non-infected participants in a cross-sectional survey conducted in 2012 in eight villages of Northern Cambodia, and before and after treatment with a single oral dose of ivermectin (200μg/kg BW) among participants harboring S. stercoralis. Growth retardation among schoolchildren and adolescents was assessed using height-for-age and thinness using body mass index-for-age. S. stercoralis prevalence was 31.1% among 2,744 participants. Urticaria (55% vs. 47%, OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.6) and itching (52% vs. 48%, OR: 1.2, 95% CI: 1.0-1.4) were more frequently reported by infected participants. Gastrointestinal, dermatological, and respiratory symptoms were less prevalent in 103 mono-infected participants after treatment. Urticaria (66% vs. 11%, OR: 0.03, 95% CI: 0.01-0.1) and abdominal pain (81 vs. 27%, OR: 0.07, 95% CI: 0.02-0.2) mostly resolved by treatment. S. stercoralis infection was associated with stunting, with 2.5-fold higher odds in case of heavy infection. The morbidity associated with S. stercoralis confirmed the importance of gastrointestinal and dermatological symptoms unrelated to parasite load, and long-term chronic effects when associated with malnutrition. The combination of high prevalence and morbidity calls for the integration of S. stercoralis into ongoing STH control measures in Cambodia.

  17. Regulation of pathogenicity in hop stunt viroid-related group II citrus viroids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reanwarakorn, K; Semancik, J S

    1998-12-01

    Nucleotide sequences were determined for two hop stunt viroid-related Group II citrus viroids characterized as either a cachexia disease non-pathogenic variant (CVd-IIa) or a pathogenic variant (CVd-IIb). Sequence identity between the two variants of 95.6% indicated a conserved genome with the principal region of nucleotide difference clustered in the variable (V) domain. Full-length viroid RT-PCR cDNA products were cloned into plasmid SP72. Viroid cDNA clones as well as derived RNA transcripts were transmissible to citron (Citrus medica L.) and Luffa aegyptiaca Mill. To determine the locus of cachexia pathogenicity as well as symptom expression in Luffa, chimeric viroid cDNA clones were constructed from segments of either the left terminal, pathogenic and conserved (T1-P-C) domains or the conserved, variable and right terminal (C-V-T2) domains of CVd-IIa or CVd-IIb in reciprocal exchanges. Symptoms induced by the various chimeric constructs on the two bioassay hosts reflected the differential response observed with CVd-IIa and -IIb. Constructs with the C-V-T2 domains region from clone-IIa induced severe symptoms on Luffa typical of CVd-IIa, but were non-symptomatic on mandarin as a bioassay host for the cachexia disease. Constructs with the same region (C-V-T2) from the clone-IIb genome induced only mild symptoms on Luffa, but produced a severe reaction on mandarin, as observed for CVd-IIb. Specific site-directed mutations were introduced into the V domain of the CVd-IIa clone to construct viroid cDNA clones with either partial or complete conversions to the CVd-IIb sequence. With the introduction of six site-specific changes into the V domain of the clone-IIa genome, cachexia pathogenicity was acquired as well as a moderation of severe symptoms on Luffa.

  18. Inadequate dietary intake is not the cause of stunting amongst young children living in an informal settlement in Gauteng and rural Limpopo Province in South Africa: the NutriGro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theron, M; Amissah, A; Kleynhans, I C; Albertse, E; MacIntyre, U E

    2007-04-01

    To measure dietary intakes of young children aged 12-24 months and to determine the impact of poor diets on stunting. A quantitative food-frequency questionnaire was adapted, tested and standardised. Trained enumerators conducted in-depth interviews with the mothers/caregivers of the children. Forty stunted children in urban informal settlements and 30 stunted children in rural areas were selected and pair-matched with controls. The data were captured on the Food Finder Program of the Medical Research Council. In both urban and rural areas, the diet of stunted and non-stunted groups did differ significantly and all diets were of poor nutritional quality. Diets in both areas resembled the recommended prudent diet, i.e. low in fat and high in carbohydrates. Poor quality diets were not the primary cause of stunting.

  19. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that can lead ...

  20. Riwayat pola asuh, pola makan, asupan zat gizi berhubungan dengan stunting pada anak 24–59 bulan di Biboki Utara, Timor Tengah Utara, Nusa Tenggara Timur

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    Christin Debora Nabuasa

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: Stunting is an indicator of chronic malnutrition that reflects problem of overall social economic condition in the past and as a manifestation of further consequences of the prevalence of low birth weight and undernutrition in children underfive and absence of supreme catch-up growth in the followingyears. Stunting brings impact to physical growth disorder that results in low capacity in working memory, learning memory, visuospatial ability and cognitive function. Low economic condition, rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake for a long time cause high prevalence of stunting in children underfives. The result of basic health survey 2007 showed the prevalence of stunting at the Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur was 46.7%, in District of Timor Tengah Utara was 59.6% and at Subdistrict of Biboki Utara in two subsequent years were 64.6% and 60.2%.Objectives: To identify association between history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake and stunting in children of 24-59 months in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara District of Timor Tengah Utara Province of Nusa Tenggara Timur.Methods: The study was observational with case control design. Research instrument was questionnaire that was used to identify history of rearing pattern, eating pattern and nutrient intake through recall 4x24 hours subsequently. The study was carried out in Subdistrict of Biboki Utara with subject of the study were children of 24-59 months old involving a total of 152 subjects consisting of 76 children underfive as cases and 76 as control.Results: History of inadequate rearing pattern was 53.9%, eating pattern 55.9%, energy intake 55.9%, protein intake 52.6%, calcium intake 52.0%, infection disease 51.3%, family economy 61.8%, food tenacity 71.7%. The result of bivariate analysis showed variables of history of rearing pattern, eating pattern, nutrient intake, infection disease, family economy had significant association (p<0

  1. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Setting India. Participants A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. Primary outcome measures The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. Results The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16–39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0–23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal

  2. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Cronin, Aidan A; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-02-12

    Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0-23 months in rural India. India. A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005-2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA) and the 2012 Comprehensive Nutrition Survey in Maharashtra (CNSM), respectively, were included in the analysis. The association between WASH indicators and child stunting was assessed using logistic regression models. The prevalence of stunting ranged from 25% to 50% across the three studies. Compared with open defecation, household access to toilet facility was associated with a 16-39% reduced odds of stunting among children aged 0-23 months, after adjusting for all potential confounders (NHFS-3 (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99); HUNGaMA (OR=0.84, 95% CI 0.78 to 0.91); CNSM (OR=0.61, 95% CI 0.44 to 0.85)). Household access to improved water supply or piped water was not in itself associated with stunting. The caregiver's self-reported practices of washing hands with soap before meals (OR=0.85, 95% CI 0.76 to 0.94) or after defecation (OR=0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.93) were inversely associated with child stunting. However, the inverse association between reported personal hygiene practices and stunting was stronger among households with access to toilet facility or piped water (all interaction terms, phygiene practices are associated with reduced prevalence of stunting in rural India. Policies and programming aiming to address child stunting should encompass WASH interventions, thus shifting the emphasis from nutrition-specific to nutrition-sensitive programming. Future randomised trials are warranted to validate the causal association. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use

  3. Mother's education is the most important factor in socio-economic inequality of child stunting in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Fateh, Mansooreh; Gorgani, Neman; Fotouhi, Akbar

    2014-09-01

    Malnutrition is one of the most important health problems, especially in developing countries. The present study aimed to describe the socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants in Iran for the first time. Cross-sectional, population-based survey, carried out in 2009. Using randomized cluster sampling, weight and height of children were measured and anthropometric indices were calculated based on child growth standards given by the WHO. Socio-economic status of families was determined using principal component analysis on household assets and social specifications of families. The concentration index was used to calculate socio-economic inequality in stunting and its determinants were measured by decomposition of this index. Factors affecting the gap between socio-economic groups were recognized by using the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Shahroud District in north-eastern Iran. Children (n 1395) aged economic inequality in stunting was -0·1913. Mother's education contributed 70 % in decomposition of this index. Mean height-for-age Z-score was -0·544 and -0·335 for low and high socio-economic groups, respectively. Mother's education was the factor contributing most to the gap between these two groups. There was a significant socio-economic inequality in the studied children. If mother's education is distributed equally in all the different groups of Iranian society, one can expect to eliminate 70 % of the socio-economic inequalities. Even in high socio-economic groups, the mean height-for-age Z-score was lower than the international standards. These issues emphasize the necessity of applying new interventions especially for the improvement of maternal education.

  4. Effects of childhood stunting on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sawaya, A.L.; Bechere Fernandes, M.T.; Martins, P.A.

    2002-01-01

    Background: Previous studies by us and others have shown higher energy conservation mechanisms in marginally stunted Brazilian children such as, lower resting energy expenditure, lower fat oxidation, higher susceptibility to gain weight-for-height associated with a higher prevalence of stunted - obese subjects. Hypothesis: previous malnutrition as judged by height-for-age could be associated with alterations in fat patterning, circulating hormones such as insulin and IGF-1. In addition, previous malnutrition could be also associated with alterations in plasma lipid profiles, such as high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and hypertension. Sample and Methods: We recruited a population of 58 girls and boys with 11-14 years of age from the shantytown population in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Half of this population was of normal weight and height, and the other half was stunted. More than 300 children from to 11 years old were screened to participate in the study and were eligible if they had weight-for-height Z scores (WHZ) of -2 to +2 according to the IVCHS standards. Children recruited for the stunted group (n=28) had height-for-age (HAZ) ≤-1.5 Z score and those for the non-stunted group (n=30) had HAZ >1.50. In addition, the two groups were selectively recruited to assure group similarities in mean age and WH. General anthropometry, blood sampling for fasting insulin, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density cholesterol and IGF-1 were made as well as blood pressure. Results: Ninety two percent of the population had low values of IGF-1 indicating impaired growth. Stunted boys and girls had delayed pubertal stages. Lower fasting insulin levels and lower beta cell production according to HAM analysis in comparison to non-stunted children were found, after adjustment for differences in pubertal stages. In addition, a positive association was found between fasting insulin with age for the

  5. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

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    Jullyana F.R. Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. METHODS: this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2 or severe stunting (HAZ < -3. Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. RESULTS: the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001 and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001 stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01 were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG in both severely (initial: 91.8 mg/dL; final: 79.1 mg/dL; p = 0.01 and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2 mg/dL; final 88.7 mg/dL; p = 0.01, and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4 mg/dL; final: 42.2 mg/dL. The values of total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1 mg/dL; final: 163.5 mg/dL and initial: 109.0 mg/dL; final: 107.3 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION: the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition.

  6. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Jullyana F R; Britto, Revilane P A; Ferreira, Haroldo S; Sawaya, Ana L; Florêncio, Telma M M T

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2) or severe stunting (HAZ < -3). Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001) and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001) stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01) were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG) in both severely (initial: 91.8mg/dL; final: 79.1mg/dL; p = 0.01) and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2mg/dL; final 88.7mg/dL; p = 0.01), and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4mg/dL; final: 42.2mg/dL). The values of total cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1mg/dL; final: 163.5mg/dL and initial: 109.0mg/dL; final: 107.3mg/dL, respectively). the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization of tomato apical stunt viroid isolated from a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhoeven, J Th J; Koenraadt, H M S; Westenberg, M; Roenhorst, J W

    2017-06-01

    Tomato apical stunt viroid (TASVd) has been identified in a 24-year old seed lot of Capsicum annuum produced in Taiwan. It is the first finding of TASVd in this plant species. The isolate could be discriminated from all reported isolates of TASVd based on its nucleotide sequence, which showed only 94.8% identity with the most related genotype of TASVd. This discrimination was substantiated by phylogenetic analysis. Inoculation of a RNA extract of contaminated seeds to healthy pepper plants showed that the infectivity of the viroid had remained over time. Nevertheless, no transmission to seedlings was observed.

  8. Trends in stunting and overweight in Peruvian pre-schoolers from 1991 to 2011: findings from the Demographic and Health Surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urke, Helga Bjørnøy; Mittelmark, Maurice B; Valdivia, Martín

    2014-11-01

    To examine trends in stunting and overweight in Peruvian children, using 2006 WHO Multicentre Growth Reference Study criteria. Trend analyses using nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from Demographic and Health Surveys (1991-2011). We performed logistic regression analyses of stunting and overweight trends in sociodemographic groups (sex, age, urban-rural residence, region, maternal education and household wealth), adjusted for sampling design effects (strata, clusters and sampling weights). Peru. Children aged 0-59 months surveyed in 1991-92 (n 7999), 1996 (n 14 877), 2000 (n 11 754), 2007-08 (n 8232) and 2011 (n 8186). Child stunting declined (F(1, 5149) = 174·8, P ≤ 0·00) and child overweight was stable in the period 1991-2011 (F(1, 5147) = 0·4, P ≤ 0·54). Over the study period, levels of stunting were highest in rural compared with urban areas, the Andean and Amazon regions compared with the Coast, among children of low-educated mothers and among children living in households in the poorest wealth quintile. The trend in overweight rose among males in coastal areas (F(1, 2250) = 4·779, P ≤ 0·029) and among males in the richest wealth quintile (F(1, 1730) = 5·458, P ≤ 0·020). The 2011 levels of stunting and overweight were eight times and three and a half times higher, respectively, than the expected levels from the 2006 WHO growth standards. The trend over the study period in stunting declined in most sociodemographic subgroups. The trend in overweight was stable in most sociodemographic subgroups.

  9. Understanding the association between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries: Next steps for research and intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Jessica M; Kim, Rockli; Krishna, Aditi; McGovern, Mark; Aguayo, Victor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-11-01

    Stunting, caused by experiences of chronic nutritional deprivation, affects approximately 25% of children under age five globally (i.e., 156 million children). In this review, evidence of a relationship between stunting and child development in low- and middle-income countries is summarized, and issues for further research are discussed. We focus on studies that measured low height-for-age among children less than 5 years old as the exposure and gross/fine motor skills, psychosocial competencies, cognitive abilities, or schooling and learning milestones as the outcomes. This review highlights three key findings. First, the variability in child development tools and metrics used among studies and the differences in the timing and frequency of the assessments complicate comparisons across study findings. Second, considerable evidence from across many countries supports an association between stunting and poor child development despite methodological differences and heterogeneity in the magnitude of associations. Further, effect sizes differ by developmental domain with greater associations shown for cognitive/schooling outcomes. How stunting influences child development, which domains of child development are more affected, and how the various domains of child development influence one another require further experimental research to test causal pathways. Finally, there is mixed evidence of the additive effect of nutrition + stimulation interventions on child development. However, understanding best methods for improving child developmental outcomes - either through nutrition programs or through integrated nutrition + psychosocial stimulation programs (or nutrition + other program interventions) - is a key area of further inquiry. Given that nearly 40% of children under age five suffer from loss of developmental potential - for which stunting is likely one of the key risk factors - reductions in stunting could have tremendous implications for child development

  10. South Africa's nutritional transition: overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting in female primary school learners in rural KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tathiah, N; Moodley, I; Mubaiwa, V; Denny, L; Taylor, M

    2013-06-27

    Malnutrition substantially impacts the health outcomes of children. Globally, the childhood prevalence of overweight and obesity has increased, while underweight and stunting (though decreasing) continues to pose a major public health challenge. In low- to middle-income countries, a mixed pattern of over- and undernutrition (nutritional transition) can exist in communities. To describe the prevalence of malnutrition among female learners in the Nongoma and Ceza districts in Zululand, KwaZulu-Natal (KZN). We performed a secondary analysis of anthropometric data collected during the 2011 HPV Vaccination Demonstration Project. School health teams, comprising trained nurses, measured the height (in cm) and weight (in kg) of 963 female learners in 31 primary schools. Internationally accepted standardised measures were used as cut-offs for defining overweight, obesity, underweight and stunting. We found evidence of both under- and overnutrition. Overall, 9% of female learners were overweight, 3.8% obese, 4% underweight and 9.2% stunted (using WHO/NCHS criteria). The highest levels of stunting were in the 11 - 12-year age groups, of underweight in the 10-year age group, of overweight and obesity in the 9 - 10-year age groups. Moreover, a proportion of underweight (17.4%), overweight (11.1%) and obese (22.9%) learners were also stunted. Our study describes the prevalence of overweight and obesity, wasting and stunting of female learners in KZN and suggests the presence of a nutritional transition in these rural communities; however, further studies are needed. Our findings emphasise the need for health promotion and education programs in schools.

  11. Assessing comorbidity and correlates of wasting and stunting among children in Somalia using cross-sectional household surveys: 2007 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinyoki, Damaris K; Kandala, Ngianga-Bakwin; Manda, Samuel O; Krainski, Elias T; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne; Moloney, Grainne M; Berkley, James A; Noor, Abdisalan M

    2016-03-09

    Wasting and stunting may occur together at the individual child level; however, their shared geographic distribution and correlates remain unexplored. Understanding shared and separate correlates may inform interventions. We aimed to assess the spatial codistribution of wasting, stunting and underweight and investigate their shared correlates among children aged 6-59 months in Somalia. Cross-sectional nutritional assessments surveys were conducted using structured interviews among communities in Somalia biannually from 2007 to 2010. A two-stage cluster sampling methodology was used to select children aged 6-59 months from households across three livelihood zones (pastoral, agropastoral and riverine). Using these data and environmental covariates, we implemented a multivariate spatial technique to estimate the codistribution and divergence of the risks and correlates of wasting and stunting at the 1 × 1 km spatial resolution. 73,778 children aged 6-59 months from 1066 survey clusters in Somalia. Observed pairwise child level empirical correlations were 0.30, 0.70 and 0.73 between weight-for-height and height-for-age; height-for-age and weight-for-age, and weight-for-height and weight-for-age, respectively. Access to foods with high protein content and vegetation cover, a proxy of rainfall or drought, were associated with lower risk of wasting and stunting. Age, gender, illness, access to carbohydrates and temperature were correlates of all three indicators. The spatial codistribution was highest between stunting and underweight with relative risk values ranging between 0.15 and 6.20, followed by wasting and underweight (range: 0.18-5.18) and lowest between wasting and stunting (range: 0.26-4.32). The determinants of wasting and stunting are largely shared, but their correlation is relatively variable in space. Significant hotspots of different forms of malnutrition occurred in the South Central regions of the country. Although nutrition response in Somalia has

  12. A combined intervention of zinc, multiple micronutrients, and albendazole does not ameliorate environmental enteric dysfunction or stunting in rural Malawian children in a double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and linear growth stunting affect many rural agrarian children in the developing world and contribute to the persistently high rates of stunting that are observed worldwide. Effective interventions to consistently ameliorate EED are lacking. We tested whether ...

  13. Annulate lamellae in phloem cells of virus-infected Sonchus plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, M P; Hoefert, L L

    1977-07-01

    The occurrence of annulate lamellae (AL) in differentiating phloem of Sonchus oleraceus (Compositae) singly infected with sowthistle yellow vein virus (SYVV) and doubly infected with a combination of SYVV and beet yellow stunt virus is documented by electron microscopy. Cell types in which AL were found were immature sieve elements and phloem parenchyma cells. AL were found only in cells that also contained SYVV particles although a direct association between the virus and AL was not apparent. The substructure of the AL and the relationships between the AL and the nuclear envelope and endoplasmic reticulum are similar to those reported in other descriptions of this organelle in the literature. This report appears to be the first one concerning the association of AL with a plant virus disease.

  14. Barley yellow dwarf virus: Luteoviridae or Tombusviridae?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, W Allen; Liu, Sijun; Beckett, Randy

    2002-07-01

    Summary Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV), the most economically important virus of small grains, features highly specialised relationships with its aphid vectors, a plethora of novel translation mechanisms mediated by long-distance RNA interactions, and an ambiguous taxonomic status. The structural and movement proteins of BYDV that confer aphid transmission and phloem-limitation properties resemble those of the Luteoviridae, the family in which BYDV is classified. In contrast, many genes and cis-acting signals involved in replication and gene expression most closely resemble those of the Tombusviridae. BYDV is in genus Luteovirus, family Luteoviridae. BYDV includes at least two serotypes or viruses: BYDV-PAV and BYDV-MAV. The former BYDV-RPV is now Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV). CYDV is in genus Polerovirus, family Luteoviridae. Genus Luteovirus shares many features with family Tombusviridae. Physical properties: approximately 25 nm icosahedral (T = 3) virions. One major (22 kDa) and one minor (50-55 kDa) coat protein. 5.6-5.8 kb positive sense RNA genome with no 5'-cap and no poly(A) tail. Most grasses. Most important in oats, barley and wheat. Also infects maize and rice. Yellowing and dwarfing in barley, stunting in wheat; reddening, yellowing and blasting in oats. Some isolates cause leaf notching and curling. Key attractions: Model for the study of circulative transmission of aphid-transmitted viruses. Plethora of unusual translation mechanisms. Evidence of recombination in recent evolutionary history creates taxonomic ambiguity. Economically important virus of wheat, barley and oats, worldwide. Useful websites/meetings: International symposium: 'Barley Yellow Dwarf Disease: Recent Advances and Future Strategies', CIMMYT, El Batan, Mexico, 1-5 September 2002, http://www.cimmyt.cgiar.org/Research/wheat/Conf_BYD_02/invitation.htm http://www.cimmyt.org/Research/wheat/BYDVNEWS/htm/BYDVNEWS.htm Aphid transmission animation: http://www.ppws.vt.edu/~sforza/tmv/bydv_aph.html.

  15. Radioactivity in Scottish soils and grassy vegetation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, G.R.; Horrill, A.D.; Thomson, A.J.; Howson, G.

    1989-05-01

    In June 1987, soil and graminoid vegetation samples were collected from 159 randomly selected Scottish sites and analysed for radioactivity due to potassium-40, caesium-134 and caesium-137. Activity due to plutonium-238 and plutonium-239/240 was also measured in soils from 47 of the sites. The main aims of this survey were to determine: (a) the geographic distribution of radiocaesium activity due to fallout from the Chernobyl reactor disaster, (b) the pattern of radiation due to the naturally occurring isotope potassium-40, (c) the activity attributable to caesium-137 fallout from nuclear weapons testing prior to the Chernobyl deposition, (d) the uptake of caesium-137 by vegetation from different soil types. (author)

  16. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is Found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  17. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, the ... not travel to areas where there is a Zika virus outbreak. If you do decide to travel, first ...

  18. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Funding CDC Activities For Healthcare Providers Clinical Evaluation & Disease Sexual Transmission HIV Infection & Zika Virus Testing for Zika Test Specimens – At Time of Birth Diagnostic Tests Understanding Zika Virus Test Results ...

  19. Detection of new viruses in alfalfa, weeds and cultivated plants growing adjacent to alfalfa fields in Saudi Arabia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shahwan, I M; Abdalla, O A; Al-Saleh, M A; Amer, M A

    2017-09-01

    A total of 1368 symptomatic plant samples showing different virus-like symptoms such as mottling, chlorosis, mosaic, yellow mosaic, vein clearing and stunting were collected from alfalfa, weed and cultivated plant species growing in vicinity of alfalfa fields in five principal regions of alfalfa production in Saudi Arabia. DAS-ELISA test indicated occurrence of 11 different viruses in these samples, 10 of which were detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia. Eighty percent of the alfalfa samples and 97.5% of the weed and cultivated plants samples were found to be infected with one or more of these viruses. Nine weed plant species were found to harbor these viruses namely, Sonchus oleraceus, Chenopodium spp., Hibiscus spp., Cichorium intybus , Convolvulus arvensis , Malva parviflora , Rubus fruticosus , Hippuris vulgaris , and Flaveria trinervia . These viruses were also detected in seven cultivated crop plants growing adjacent to the alfalfa fields including Vigna unguiculata , Solanum tuberosum , Solanum melongena , Phaseolus vulgaris , Cucurbita maxima , Capsicum annuum , and Vicia faba . The newly reported viruses together with their respective percent of detection in alfalfa, and in both weeds and cultivated crop plant species together were as follows: Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV) {12.5 and 4.5%}, Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV) {2.9 and 3.5%}, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV) {1.4 and 4.5%}, Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV) {1.2 and 4.5%}, Red clover vein mosaic virus (RCVMV) {1.2 and 4%}, White clover mosaic virus (WCIMV) {1.0 and 5%}, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) {0.8 and 3%}, Pea streak virus (PeSV) {0.4 and 4.5%} and Tobacco streak virus (TSV) {0.3 and 2.5%}. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), the previously reported virus in alfalfa, had the highest percentage of detection in alfalfa accounting for 58.4% and 62.8% in the weeds and cultivated plants. Peanut stunt virus (PSV) was also detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia with a 66.7% of infection in 90

  20. Detection of new viruses in alfalfa, weeds and cultivated plants growing adjacent to alfalfa fields in Saudi Arabia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.M. Al-Shahwan

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available A total of 1368 symptomatic plant samples showing different virus-like symptoms such as mottling, chlorosis, mosaic, yellow mosaic, vein clearing and stunting were collected from alfalfa, weed and cultivated plant species growing in vicinity of alfalfa fields in five principal regions of alfalfa production in Saudi Arabia. DAS-ELISA test indicated occurrence of 11 different viruses in these samples, 10 of which were detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia. Eighty percent of the alfalfa samples and 97.5% of the weed and cultivated plants samples were found to be infected with one or more of these viruses. Nine weed plant species were found to harbor these viruses namely, Sonchus oleraceus, Chenopodium spp., Hibiscus spp., Cichorium intybus, Convolvulus arvensis, Malva parviflora, Rubus fruticosus, Hippuris vulgaris, and Flaveria trinervia. These viruses were also detected in seven cultivated crop plants growing adjacent to the alfalfa fields including Vigna unguiculata, Solanum tuberosum, Solanum melongena, Phaseolus vulgaris, Cucurbita maxima, Capsicum annuum, and Vicia faba. The newly reported viruses together with their respective percent of detection in alfalfa, and in both weeds and cultivated crop plant species together were as follows: Bean leaf roll virus (BLRV {12.5 and 4.5%}, Lucerne transient streak virus (LTSV {2.9 and 3.5%}, Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV {1.4 and 4.5%}, Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV {1.2 and 4.5%}, Red clover vein mosaic virus (RCVMV {1.2 and 4%}, White clover mosaic virus (WCIMV {1.0 and 5%}, Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV {0.8 and 3%}, Pea streak virus (PeSV {0.4 and 4.5%} and Tobacco streak virus (TSV {0.3 and 2.5%}. Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV, the previously reported virus in alfalfa, had the highest percentage of detection in alfalfa accounting for 58.4% and 62.8% in the weeds and cultivated plants. Peanut stunt virus (PSV was also detected for the first time in Saudi Arabia with a 66.7% of infection in 90

  1. Association of whole blood n-6 fatty acids with stunting in 2-to-6-year-old Northern Ghanaian children: A cross-sectional study.

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    Mary Adjepong

    Full Text Available In Northern Ghana, 33% of children are stunted due to economic disparities. Dietary fatty acids (FA are critical for growth, but whether blood FA levels are adequate in Ghanaian children is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the association between whole blood FAs and growth parameters in Northern Ghanaian children 2-6 years of age. A drop of blood was collected on an antioxidant treated card and analyzed for FA composition. Weight and height were measured and z-scores were calculated. Relationships between FAs and growth parameters were analyzed by Spearman correlations, linear regressions, and factor analysis. Of the 307 children who participated, 29.7% were stunted and 8% were essential FA deficient (triene/tetraene ratio>0.02. Essential FA did not differ between stunted and non-stunted children and was not associated with height-for-age z-score (HAZ or weight-for-age z-score (WAZ. In hemoglobin adjusted regression models, both HAZ and WAZ were positively associated with arachidonic acid (p≤0.01, dihomo-gamma-linolenic acid (DGLA, p≤0.05, docosatetraenoic acid (p≤0.01 and the ratio of DGLA/linoleic acid (p≤0.01. These data add to the growing body of evidence indicating n-6 FAs are critical in childhood linear growth. Our findings provide new insights into the health status of an understudied Northern Ghanaian population.

  2. Molecular detection and characterization of Hop stunt viroid sequence variants from naturally infected pomegranate (Punica granatum L. in Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten GORSANE

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Tunisian pomegranate Hop stunt viroid (HSVd variants are described. Dot-blot hybridization, S-Page, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR of RNA extracts from infected tissues were carried out. Results obtained by these techniques were confirmed by cDNA sequencing. The genetic diversity among the Tunisian variants was investigated, which also involved analysis of sequences of previously described HSVd variants from Tunisian citrus var. clementine and fig, and from fruit trees from other Mediterranean countries. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Tunisian pomegranate HSVd variants were clustered into two groups: a cachexia strain within the citrus type group and a recombinant citrus-plum type group. Results also showed a high haplotype diversity which was not related either to the host or to the geographical origin. Selective neutrality and genetic network tests suggest that the HSVd isolates have spread rapidly.

  3. Age-dependent decline and association with stunting of Giardia duodenalis infection among schoolchildren in rural Huye district, Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimer, Jakob; Staudacher, Olga; Steiner, Florian; Kayonga, Yvette; Havugimana, Jean Marie; Musemakweri, Andre; Harms, Gundel; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mockenhaupt, Frank P

    2015-05-01

    Giardia duodenalis infection is highly prevalent and a cause of underweight in pre-school children in rural Rwanda. The present study aimed at assessing the age-pattern of Giardia infection and its manifestation in older children, i.e., during school age. Stool samples were collected from 622 schoolchildren at two schools in the Huye district of southern Rwanda (rural, 301; urban, 321) and subjected to G. duodenalis specific PCR assays. Clinical and anthropometric data, socio-economic status and factors potentially associated with G. duodenalis infection were assessed. Of the 622 children (mean age, 10.4 years), 35.7% were infected with G. duodenalis (rural, 43.9%; urban, 28.0%; PRwanda, G. duodenalis prevalence among children declined throughout school-age. The data suggest that while lacking overt clinical manifestation at high endemicity, G. duodenalis infection is a common cause of stunting in schoolchildren. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?

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    Kerry L M Wong

    Full Text Available Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous.We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA. Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10 and quintiles (Q1 and Q5 were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII and concentration index (CIX.In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels.Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

  5. Socioeconomic inequalities in skilled birth attendance and child stunting in selected low and middle income countries: Wealth quintiles or deciles?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Kerry L M; Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio J D; Victora, Cesar G

    2017-01-01

    Wealth quintiles derived from household asset indices are routinely used for measuring socioeconomic inequalities in the health of women and children in low and middle-income countries. We explore whether the use of wealth deciles rather than quintiles may be advantageous. We selected 46 countries with available national surveys carried out between 2003 and 2013 and with a sample size of at least 3000 children. The outcomes were prevalence of under-five stunting and delivery by a skilled birth attendant (SBA). Differences and ratios between extreme groups for deciles (D1 and D10) and quintiles (Q1 and Q5) were calculated, as well as two summary measures: the slope index of inequality (SII) and concentration index (CIX). In virtually all countries, stunting prevalence was highest among the poor, and there were larger differences between D1 and D10 than between Q1 and Q5. SBA coverage showed pro-rich patterns in all countries; in four countries the gap was greater than 80 pct points. With one exception, differences between extreme deciles were larger than between quintiles. Similar patterns emerged when using ratios instead of differences. The two summary measures provide very similar results for quintiles and deciles. Patterns of top or bottom inequality varied with national coverage levels. Researchers and policymakers should consider breakdowns by wealth deciles, when sample sizes allow. Use of deciles may contribute to advocacy efforts, monitoring inequalities over time, and targeting health interventions. Summary indices of inequalities were unaffected by the use of quintiles or deciles in their calculation.

  6. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition.

  7. Cost-effectiveness of prenatal food and micronutrient interventions on under-five mortality and stunting: Analysis of data from the MINIMat randomized trial, Bangladesh.

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    Pernilla Svefors

    Full Text Available Nutrition interventions may have favourable as well as unfavourable effects. The Maternal and Infant Nutrition Interventions in Matlab (MINIMat, with early prenatal food and micronutrient supplementation, reduced infant mortality and were reported to be very cost-effective. However, the multiple micronutrients (MMS supplement was associated with an increased risk of stunted growth in infancy and early childhood. This unfavourable outcome was not included in the previous cost-effectiveness analysis. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the MINIMat interventions remain cost-effective in view of both favourable (decreased under-five-years mortality and unfavourable (increased stunting outcomes.Pregnant women in rural Bangladesh, where food insecurity still is prevalent, were randomized to early (E or usual (U invitation to be given food supplementation and daily doses of 30 mg, or 60 mg iron with 400 μg of folic acid, or MMS with 15 micronutrients including 30 mg iron and 400 μg of folic acid. E reduced stunting at 4.5 years compared with U, MMS increased stunting at 4.5 years compared with Fe60, while the combination EMMS reduced infant mortality compared with UFe60. The outcome measure used was disability adjusted life years (DALYs, a measure of overall disease burden that combines years of life lost due to premature mortality (under five-year mortality and years lived with disability (stunting. Incremental cost effectiveness ratios were calculated using cost data from already published studies.By incrementing UFe60 (standard practice to EMMS, one DALY could be averted at a cost of US$24.When both favourable and unfavourable outcomes were included in the analysis, early prenatal food and multiple micronutrient interventions remained highly cost effective and seem to be meaningful from a public health perspective.

  8. Vitamin D status is associated with underweight and stunting in children aged 6-36 months residing in the Ecuadorian Andes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mokhtar, Rana R; Holick, Michael F; Sempértegui, Fernando; Griffiths, Jeffrey K; Estrella, Bertha; Moore, Lynn L; Fox, Matthew P; Hamer, Davidson H

    2017-11-22

    There is limited knowledge on vitamin D status of children residing in the Andes and its association with undernutrition. We evaluated the vitamin D status of children residing in a low socio-economic status (SES) setting in the Ecuadorian Andes and assessed the association between vitamin D status, stunting and underweight. We hypothesized that children who were underweight would have lower serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels and lower 25(OH)D levels would be associated with a higher risk of stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional secondary analysis of a randomized controlled trial, the Vitamin A, Zinc and Pneumonia study. Children had serum 25(OH)D concentrations measured. A sensitivity analysis was undertaken to determine a vitamin D cut-off specific for our endpoints. Associations between serum 25(OH)D and underweight (defined as weight-for-age Z-score≤-1) and stunting (defined as height-for-age Z-score≤-2) were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Children residing in five low-SES peri-urban neighbourhoods near Quito, Ecuador. Children (n 516) aged 6-36 months. Mean serum 25(OH)D concentration was 58·0 (sd 17·7) nmol/l. Sensitivity analysis revealed an undernutrition-specific 25(OH)D cut-off of DDD levels were more likely to be stunted (aOR=2·8; 95 % CI 1·6, 4·7). Low serum 25(OH)D levels were more common in underweight and stunted Ecuadorian children.

  9. Prevalence of stunting and its associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-Kemekem district, Northwest Ethiopia; A community based cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geberselassie, Selamawit Bekele; Abebe, Solomon Mekonnen; Melsew, Yayehirad Alemu; Mutuku, Shadrack Mulinge; Wassie, Molla Mesele

    2018-01-01

    Children in developing countries are highly vulnerable to impaired physical growth because of poor dietary intake, lack of appropriate care, and repeated infections. This study aimed at assessing the prevalence of stunting and associated factors among children 6-59 months of age in Libo-kemekem district, northwest Ethiopia. A community based cross sectional study was conducted in Libo-Kemekem from October 15 to December 15, 2015. The multistage sampling technique was employed to select 1,320 children aged 6-59months. Data were collected by trained community health extension workers under regular supervision. Data were entered into EPI-Info version 3.5.1, and height for age was converted to Z-score with ENA-SMART software. Data were then exported to SPSS version 20 for descriptive and binary logistic regression analysees. The significance of associations was determined at p<0.05. Out of 1287 children included in the analysis, 49.4% (95% CI: 46.7%-52.3%) were found to be stunted. In the multivariate analysis, increased child age [AOR = 6.31, 95%CI: (3.65, 10.91)], family size of six and above [AOR = 1.77, 95%CI: (1.35, 2.32)] were positively associated with stunting, while, fathers with secondary school education [AOR = 0.50, 95%CI: (0.30, 0.81)], farmers as household heads [AOR = 0.56, 95%CI: (0.38, 0.84)] and self-employed parents as household head [AOR = 0.45, 95% CI: (0.28, 0.72)] were found to be preventive factors. The prevalence of stunting was high in the study area. We found that stunting was significantly correlated with child age, occupational status of household head, family size, and fathers' education. Therefore, intervention focusing on supporting housewives, family planning, and education on child feeding and nutrition should be implemented.

  10. Viruses affecting lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. in Greece; incidence and genetic variability of Bean leafroll virus and Pea enation mosaic virus

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    Elisavet K. CHATZIVASSILIOU

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In Greece, lentil (Lens culinaris Medik. crops are mainly established with non-certified seeds of local landraces, implying high risks for seed transmitted diseases. During April and May of the 2007–2012 growing seasons, surveys were conducted in eight regions of Greece (Attiki, Evros, Fthiotida, Korinthos, Kozani, Larissa, Lefkada and Viotia to monitor virus incidence in lentil fields. A total of 1216 lentil samples, from plants exhibiting symptoms suggestive of virus infection, were analyzed from 2007 to 2009, using tissue-blot immunoassays (TBIA. Pea seed-borne mosaic virus (PSbMV overall incidence was 4.9%, followed by Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV (2.4% and Bean yellow mosaic virus (BYMV (1.0%. When 274 of the samples were tested for the presence of luteoviruses, 38.8% were infected with Bean leafroll virus (BLRV. Since BLRV was not identified in the majority of the samples collected from 2007 to 2009, representative symptomatic plants (360 samples were collected in further surveys performed from 2010 to 2012 and tested by ELISA. Two viruses prevailed in those samples: BLRV (36.1% was associated with stunting, yellowing, and reddening symptoms and Pea enation mosaic virus-1 (PEMV-1 (35.0% was associated with mosaic and mottling symptoms. PSbMV (2.2%, AMV (2.2%, BYMV (3.9% and CMV (2.8% were also detected. When the molecular variability was analyzed for representative isolates, collected from the main Greek lentil production areas, five BLRV isolates showed 95% identity for the coat protein (CP gene and 99% for the 3’ end region. Three Greek PEMV isolates co-clustered with an isolate from Germany when their CP sequence was compared with isolates with no mutation in the aphid transmission gene. Overall, limited genetic variability was detected among Greek isolates of BLRV and PEMV.

  11. Localization and subcellular association of Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus in grapevine leaf tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarquini, Giulia; Ermacora, Paolo; Bianchi, Gian Luca; De Amicis, Francesca; Pagliari, Laura; Martini, Marta; Loschi, Alberto; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Loi, Nazia; Musetti, Rita

    2018-05-01

    Despite the increasing impact of Grapevine Pinot gris disease (GPG-disease) worldwide, etiology about this disorder is still uncertain. The presence of the putative causal agent, the Grapevine Pinot Gris Virus (GPGV), has been reported in symptomatic grapevines (presenting stunting, chlorotic mottling, and leaf deformation) as well as in symptom-free plants. Moreover, information on virus localization in grapevine tissues and virus-plant interactions at the cytological level is missing at all. Ultrastructural and cytochemical investigations were undertaken to detect virus particles and the associated cytopathic effects in field-grown grapevine showing different symptom severity. Asymptomatic greenhouse-grown grapevines, which tested negative for GPGV by real time RT-PCR, were sampled as controls. Multiplex real-time RT-PCR and ELISA tests excluded the presence of viruses included in the Italian certification program both in field-grown and greenhouse-grown grapevines. Conversely, evidence was found for ubiquitous presence of Grapevine Rupestris Stem Pitting-associated Virus (GRSPaV), Hop Stunt Viroid (HSVd), and Grapevine Yellow Speckle Viroid 1 (GYSVd-1) in both plant groups. Moreover, in every field-grown grapevine, GPGV was detected by real-time RT-PCR. Ultrastructural observations and immunogold labelling assays showed filamentous flexuous viruses in the bundle sheath cells, often located inside membrane-bound organelles. No cytological differences were observed among field-grown grapevine samples showing different symptom severity. GPGV localization and associated ultrastructural modifications are reported and discussed, in the perspective of assisting management and control of the disease.

  12. Hubungan sosial ekonomi, pola asuh, pola makan dengan stunting pada siswa sekolah dasar di Kecamatan Lut Tawar, Kabupaten Aceh Tengah

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basri Aramico

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTBackground: High prevalence of stunted children that indicates nutrition problem in Indonesia is a chronic problem associated with poverty, low education, and lack of service and environmental health. The low birth weight infant will have an impact on growth disorders in children.      Objectives: To identify association between social economic aspect of the family, rearing pattern, eating pattern and stunting in elementary school children in Lut Tawar Subditrict Central Aceh Regency.Methods: The study were analytic observational with cross sectional design and qualitative method. Data were obtained through observation and interview using questionnaire. Samples were 378 children from 11 elementary school in Lut Tawar Subdistrict Central Aceh Regency. Samples were selected by proportional random sampling. Analysis used chi-square at confi dence interval 95%. Number of samples were 378 children.Results: There were association between maternal education and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=4.06; father education and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=3.37; number of underfi ves with nutritional status (p=0.007 OR=2.71; income of parent and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=7.8; rearing pattern and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=8.07; eating pattern and nutritional status (p<0.001 OR=6.01. There were dominant association between rearing pattern and nutritional status with OR 8, between eating patern,income of parent and nutritional status with OR of 6.01 There were no association between acces and utilization of health service and nutritional status (p=0,78 OR=0,93.Conclusions: There were signifi cant association between rearing pattern, eating pattern, and nutritional status.KEYWORDS: stunting, rearing pattern, eating patternABSTRAKLatar belakang: Tingginya prevalensi anak pendek yang menunjukkan masalah gizi di Indonesia merupakan masalah kronis yang berkaitan dengan kemiskinan, rendahnya pendidikan, dan kurang memadainya pelayanan

  13. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  14. Phytophthora viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Guohong; Hillman, Bradley I

    2013-01-01

    Phytophthora sp. is a genus in the oomycetes, which are similar to filamentous fungi in morphology and habitat, but phylogenetically more closely related to brown algae and diatoms and fall in the kingdom Stramenopila. In the past few years, several viruses have been characterized in Phytophthora species, including four viruses from Phytophthora infestans, the late blight pathogen, and an endornavirus from an unnamed Phytophthora species from Douglas fir. Studies on Phytophthora viruses have revealed several interesting systems. Phytophthora infestans RNA virus 1 (PiRV-1) and PiRV-2 are likely the first members of two new virus families; studies on PiRV-3 support the establishment of a new virus genus that is not affiliated with established virus families; PiRV-4 is a member of Narnaviridae, most likely in the genus Narnavirus; and Phytophthora endornavirus 1 (PEV1) was the first nonplant endornavirus at the time of reporting. Viral capsids have not been found in any of the above-mentioned viruses. PiRV-1 demonstrated a unique genome organization that requires further examination, and PiRV-2 may have played a role in late blight resurgence in 1980s-1990s. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Schmallenberg Virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    explore the potential of this infection crossing the species barrier and thereby .... The virus targets mainly the brain of the unborn animal resulting in neurological ... The virus is located in the blood of the adult infected animal or in the central ...

  16. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Zika Virus Credit: NIAID A female Aedes mosquito. This type of mosquito can transmit Zika, ... transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Zika virus can be transmitted from an infected pregnant woman ...

  17. CHANDIPURA VIRUS

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CHANDIPURA VIRUS. First isolated from a village called Chandipura near Nagpur in 1965 in India. Belongs to rhabdoviridae family. Used as a Model System to study RNA virus multiplication in the infected cell at molecular level. Notes:

  18. PENGEMBANGAN FORMULA SIRUP ZINK DARI EKSTRAK IKAN BILIH (Mystacoleucus- padangensis SEBAGAI ALTERNATIF SUPLEMENTASI ZINK ORGANIK PADA ANAK PENDEK (STUNTED USIA 12-36 BULAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Yuniritha

    2015-03-01

      The extract of bilih fish (mystaleuseuspadangensis zinc syrup is made from basic ingredient of bilih fish which contains 27,8 mg zinc/100 gram syrup. It is much higher than other food zinc source. The use of the extract of bilih fish as an alternative of organic zinc supplementation can be used for those who have zinc deficiency. Therefore, it is essential to be studied as an alternative intervention program for stunting in children aged 12-36 months. This objective of this study is to develop zinc formula syrup from the extract of bilih fish (mystaleuseuspadangensis as an organic zinc supplementation for stunted children. This laboratory experimental research is begun by extracting the fish bilih using a standard method. The extract of bilih fish is formulated in the form of suspension syrup, at the laboratory of Biology and Liquid Preparation in the Faculty of Pharmacy, Gajah Mada University in Yogyakarta. The extract of bilih fish is very high in zinc content (161, 97 mg/100 gram, with main preparation of Zinc Citrate, Vitamin A and protein, added with simplex syrup (64%, CMC-Na, Citric Acid, fruit flavor and food color subtances. This supplement syrup formula is based on International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group (IZiNCG, with 3 best formulas based on organoleptic test, formula F 4.1, F 2.2 and F 2.3. The zinc syrup formula from extract of bilih fish could be an alternative of organic zinc supplementation to address zinc deficiency in stunted children. Keywords: extract bilih, zinc supplementation, stunting

  19. A Systematic Analysis on mRNA and MicroRNA Expression in Runting and Stunting Chickens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Haiping; Xu, Zhenqiang; Ma, Jinge; Li, Bixiao; Lin, Shudai; Nie, Qinghua; Luo, Qingbin; Zhang, Xiquan

    2015-01-01

    Runting and stunting syndrome (RSS), which is characterized by lower body weight, widely occurs in broilers. Some RSS chickens simply exhibit slow growth without pathological changes. An increasing number of studies indicate that broiler strains differ in susceptibility to infectious diseases, most likely due to their genetic differences. The objective of this study was to detect the differentially expressed miRNAs and mRNAs in RSS and normal chickens. By integrating miRNA with mRNA expression profiling, potential molecular mechanisms involved in RSS could be further explored. Twenty-two known miRNAs and 1,159 genes were differentially expressed in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens (P chicken liver albeit with reduced abundance. Dual-luciferase reporter assay indicated that gga-miR-30b/c directly target CARS through binding to its 3′UTR. The miR-30b/c: CARS regulation mainly occurred in liver. In thigh muscle and the hypothalamus, miR-30b/c are expressed at higher levels in RSS chickens compared with normal chickens from 2 to 6 w of age, and notably significant differences are observed at 4 w of age. PMID:26010155

  20. The effect of adding zinc to vitamin A on IGF-1, bone age and linear growth in stunted children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adriani, Merryana; Wirjatmadi, Bambang

    2014-10-01

    A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial of a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A with daily zinc supplementation was conducted with children in Mojo village, Surabaya City. Children aged 48 to 60 months were randomized to receive a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A plus zinc sulfate (n=12) or a single dose of 200,000 I.U. of vitamin A (n=12) plus placebo six days a week for six months. Children were evaluated weekly for nutrient intake and for IGF-1, C-reactive protein levels, gamma globulin levels, serum zinc, serum retinol, bone age and the index height for age at six months. At the end of the study, there was a significant increase in the serum retinol level (pbone age (p<0.01), and gamma globulin level (p<0.04) and a significant decrease in the amount of infection/inflammation measured by CRP level (p<0.001). There was also a significant correlation between CRP level and height for age (p<0.01), and between gamma level and height for age (p<0.01). These results suggest that combined vitamin A and zinc supplementation reduces the risk of infection and increases linear growth among children, and thus may play a key role in controlling infection and stunted growth for children under five years old. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  1. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-07-01

    Nearly 200 million young children in developing countries around the world are stunted due to in great extent to malnutrition during infancy. Even though breast feeding is the best nourishment a mother can provide to her baby, after about six months of age, complementary foods, also called as weaning foods, are needed to meet the infant's nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, complementary feeding sometimes reduces breast milk intake and can introduce a potential source of contamination leading to a number of gastrointestinal infections, which can substantially impair growth. Thus, it is very important to accurately measure the amount of breast milk consumed and also to assessthe amount and quality of complementary foods introduced to the infant's diet. An isotopic method for measuring breast milk intake based on deuterium dilution and kinetics has been validated using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Recently, a more economical infrared spectroscopy (IS) method has also been used and validated against IRMS. The objectives of this CRP were i) to develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast milk intake using regionally available equipment, ii) use isotopic methods to evaluate nutrient reserves, namely vitamin A, iron and zinc, and energy expenditure in mothers to determine the relative needs for nutritional supplements of mothers in the region, and iii) to use isotopic techniques to compare the nutrient density of milk with nutrient levels in the mother to learn for which nutrients breast milk is a reliable indicator of maternal nutrient reserves in marginally nourished women.

  2. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Nearly 200 million young children in developing countries around the world are stunted due to in great extent to malnutrition during infancy. Even though breast feeding is the best nourishment a mother can provide to her baby, after about six months of age, complementary foods, also called as weaning foods, are needed to meet the infant's nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, complementary feeding sometimes reduces breast milk intake and can introduce a potential source of contamination leading to a number of gastrointestinal infections, which can substantially impair growth. Thus, it is very important to accurately measure the amount of breast milk consumed and also to assess the amount and quality of complementary foods introduced to the infant's diet. An isotopic method for measuring breast milk intake based on deuterium dilution and kinetics has been validated using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Recently, a more economical infrared spectroscopy (IS) method has also been used and validated against IRMS. The objectives of this CRP were i) to develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast milk intake using regionally available equipment, ii) use isotopic methods to evaluate nutrient reserves, namely vitamin A, iron and zinc, and energy expenditure in mothers to determine the relative needs for nutritional supplements of mothers in the region, and iii) to use isotopic techniques to compare the nutrient density of milk with nutrient levels in the mother to learn for which nutrients breast milk is a reliable indicator of maternal nutrient reserves in marginally nourished women

  3. Cultivated grapevines represent a symptomless reservoir for the transmission of hop stunt viroid to hop crops: 15 years of evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kawaguchi-Ito

    Full Text Available Hop stunt was a mysterious disorder that first emerged in the 1940s in commercial hops in Japan. To investigate the origin of this disorder, we infected hops with natural Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd isolates derived from four host species (hop, grapevine, plum and citrus, which except for hop represent possible sources of the ancestral viroid. These plants were maintained for 15 years, then analyzed the HpSVd variants present. Here we show that the variant originally found in cultivated grapevines gave rise to various combinations of mutations at positions 25, 26, 54, 193, and 281. However, upon prolonged infection, these variants underwent convergent evolution resulting in a limited number of adapted mutants. Some of them showed nucleotide sequences identical to those currently responsible for hop stunt epidemics in commercial hops in Japan, China, and the United States. Therefore, these results indicate that we have successfully reproduced the original process by which a natural HpSVd variant naturally introduced into cultivated hops was able to mutate into the HpSVd variants that are currently present in commercial hops. Furthermore, and importantly, we have identified cultivated grapevines as a symptomless reservoir in which HSVd can evolve and be transmitted to hop crops to cause epidemics.

  4. Earlier introduction of aguitas is associated with higher risk of stunting in infants and toddlers in the Western Highlands of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doak, Colleen M; van der Starre, Robine E; van Beusekom, Ilse; Campos Ponce, Maiza; Vossenaar, Marieke; Solomons, Noel W

    2013-03-01

    In many cultures, simple herbal infusions, thin gruels, or sweetened water (agüitas in Guatemalan parlance) are given to infants and toddlers. Formative research has shown that the use of agüitas in early child feeding is deeply embedded in Guatemalan culture. We examined the prevalence and timing of the introduction of agüitas during early life in a low-income population of metropolitan Quetzaltenango in relation to stunting in children. Responses from 456 mothers of children aged 5-23 mo were analyzed by using logistic regression to explore relations between linear growth (stunting), diarrhea, and age at the first introduction of agüitas. A total of 358 of 456 infants (79%) were agüita users independent of sex or ethnicity. Of infants given agüitas, one-fourth of subjects were introduced to agüitas within the first 2.9 wk of age, and one-half of subjects were introduced to agüitas within the first 9 wk of age. Subjects introduced to agüitas before 2.9 wk of age were 1.8 times more likely to be stunted (95% CI: 1.1, 2.8; P = 0.03) irrespective of ethnicity. Children who had ever been given agüitas were twice as likely to have also had diarrhea (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.3, 3.3) and more likely to have needed medical attention for diarrhea (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.1, 4.2), but diarrheal experience was independent of stunting. Because of the early introduction of agüitas and the high prevalence of stunting in Guatemala, longitudinal studies are urgently needed to clarify the causal relations. This trial was registered at Nederlands Trial register as NTR3273 for 5-mo-olds and Nederlands Trial register as NTR3292 for infants ≥6 mo.

  5. Sanitation, hookworm, anemia, stunting, and wasting in primary school children in southern Ethiopia: Baseline results from a study in 30 schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimes, Jack E T; Tadesse, Gemechu; Gardiner, Iain A; Yard, Elodie; Wuletaw, Yonas; Templeton, Michael R; Harrison, Wendy E; Drake, Lesley J

    2017-10-01

    Inadequate nutrition; neglected topical diseases; and insufficient water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) are interrelated problems in schools in low-income countries, but are not routinely tackled together. A recent three-year longitudinal study investigated integrated school health and nutrition approaches in 30 government primary schools in southern Ethiopia. Here, we report on baseline associations between sanitation, hookworm infection, anemia, stunting, and wasting. In each school, the Schistosoma mansoni, S. haematobium, and soil-transmitted helminth infection intensities; blood hemoglobin concentrations; heights; and weights of approximately 125 students were assessed. Of these 125 students, approximately 20 were randomly selected for student WASH surveys. Of these 20, approximately 15 were randomly selected for household sanitation observations. School WASH was also assessed through a combination of observations and questions to the headteacher. Mixed-effects logistic regression was used to compare household sanitation with hookworm infection (the other parasites being much less prevalent); and hookworm infection with anemia, stunting, and wasting. Blood, stool, and urine samples were provided by 3,729 children, and student WASH and household WASH surveys were conducted with 596 and 448 of these students, respectively. Hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, and S. mansoni infections had prevalences of 18%, 4.8%, 0.6%, and 0.3%, respectively, and no S. haematobium infections were found. Anemia, stunting, and wasting had prevalences of 23%, 28%, and 14%, respectively. No statistically significant associations were found between latrine absence or evidence of open defecation at home, and hookworm infection (adjusted odds ratio, OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.476-3.44; and adjusted OR = 1.21, 95% CI: 0.468-3.12; respectively); or between hookworm infection and anemia, stunting, or wasting (adjusted OR = 1.24, 95% CI: 0

  6. Seed Transmission of Beet Curly Top Virus and Beet Curly Top Iran Virus in a Local Cultivar of Petunia in Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anabestani, Ameneh; Behjatnia, Seyed Ali Akbar; Izadpanah, Keramat; Tabein, Saeid

    2017-01-01

    Beet curly top virus (BCTV) and beet curly top Iran virus (BCTIV) are known as the causal agents of curly top disease in beet and several other dicotyledonous plants in Iran. These viruses are transmitted by Circulifer species, and until now, there has been no confirmed report of their seed transmission. A percentage (38.2–78.0%) of the seedlings developed from the seeds of a petunia local cultivar under insect-free conditions showed stunting, interveinal chlorosis, leaf curling, and vein swelling symptoms, and were infected by BCTV when tested by PCR. Presence of BCTV in seed extracts of petunia local cultivar was confirmed by PCR and IC-PCR, followed by sequencing. Agroinoculation of curly top free petunia plants with a BCTV infectious clone resulted in BCTV infection of plants and their developed seeds. These results show the seed infection and transmission of BCTV in a local cultivar of petunia. Similar experiments performed with BCTIV showed that this virus is also seed transmissible in the same cultivar of petunia, although with a lower rate (8.8–18.5%). Seed transmission of curly top viruses may have significant implications in the epidemiology of these viruses. PMID:29035342

  7. Herança da resistência ao enfezamento em milho Inheritance of the resistance to corn stunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Trevizoli Silveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a herança da resistência ao complexo de enfezamento em milho e determinar as melhores fontes de resistência entre as linhagens estudadas. Foram realizadas as análises dialélica e médias de gerações em linhagens de milho. Para a análise dialélica, foram cruzadas 12 linhagens de milho, em dialélico parcial. Para análises de médias de gerações, foram cruzadas três linhagens resistentes e quatro suscetíveis, para a obtenção das gerações F1, F2, RCP R e RCP S. Os trabalhos foram conduzidos em Jaboticabal, SP. A incidência de enfezamento foi avaliada no estádio fenológico R3. Efeitos significativos quanto à capacidade geral de combinação e capacidade específica de combinação foram obtidos, o que indicou que, no controle do caráter enfezamentos, estão envolvidos tanto os efeitos aditivos quanto os de dominância. Análises de médias de gerações mostraram a presença de poucos genes envolvidos com o controle da resistência, com predominância de efeitos aditivos, o que permite a seleção de genótipos resistentes. As linhagens L02, L03 e L05 poderão ser utilizadas como fontes de resistência, em futuras combinações híbridas.The objectives of this work were to determine the inheritance of resistance to corn stunt and determine the best resistance sources among the studied inbred lines. Diallel analysis and generation means were made for corn inbred lines. For the diallel analysis, twelve corn-inbred lines were crossed, in a partial diallel scheme. For the analyses of generation means, three resistant inbred lines and four susceptible ones were crossed, to obtain the F1, F2, RCP R and RCP S generations. The experiments were carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. Corn sfunt incidence was evaluated at the phenological phase R3. Significant effects for CGC and CEC were obtained, which indicated that both additive and dominance effects were involved in corn expression of

  8. Stunting and wasting are associated with poorer psychomotor and mental development in HIV-exposed Tanzanian infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Christine M; Manji, Karim P; Kupka, Roland; Bellinger, David C; Spiegelman, Donna; Kisenge, Rodrick; Msamanga, Gernard; Fawzi, Wafaie W; Duggan, Christopher P

    2013-02-01

    Infants born to HIV-infected women are at increased risk of impaired neurodevelopment, but little research has attempted to identify modifiable risk factors. The objective of this prospective cohort analysis was to identify maternal, socioeconomic, and child correlates of psychomotor and mental development in the first 18 mo of life among Tanzanian infants born to HIV-infected women. We hypothesized that child HIV infection, morbidity, and undernutrition would be associated with lower developmental status when taking into consideration maternal health and socioeconomic factors. Baseline maternal characteristics were recorded during pregnancy, birth characteristics were collected immediately after delivery, infant micronutrient status was measured at 6 wk and 6 mo, and anthropometric measurements and morbidity histories were performed at monthly follow-up visits. The Psychomotor Development Index (PDI) and Mental Development Index (MDI) of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition (BSID-II) were used to assess developmental functioning at 6, 12, and 18 mo of age. Multivariate repeated regression models with time-varying covariates were used to estimate adjusted mean MDI and PDI scores for each level of the variables. A total of 311 infants contributed ≥1 BSID-II assessments for 657 PDI and 655 MDI measurements. Of infants, 51% were male, 23% were born preterm, 7% were low birth weight, and 10% were HIV-positive at 6 wk. Preterm birth, child HIV infection, stunting, and wasting were independently associated with lower PDI and MDI scores. Strategies to lower mother-to-child transmission of HIV, prevent preterm birth, and enhance child growth could contribute to improved child psychomotor and mental development.

  9. Digestion of chrysanthemum stunt viroid by leaf extracts of Capsicum chinense indicates strong RNA-digesting activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iraklis, Boubourakas; Kanda, Hiroko; Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Onda, Mayu; Ota, Nao; Koeda, Sota; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    CSVd could not infect Nicotiana benthamiana when the plants were pretreated with crude leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. C. chinense leaves were revealed to contain strong RNA-digesting activity. Several studies have identified active antiviral and antiviroid agents in plants. Capsicum plants are known to contain antiviral agents, but the mechanism of their activity has not been determined. We aimed to elucidate the mechanism of Capsicum extract's antiviroid activity. Chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd) was inoculated into Nicotiana benthamiana plants before or after treating the plants with a leaf extract of Capsicum chinense 'Sy-2'. CSVd infection was determined using quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) 3 weeks after inoculation. When Capsicum extract was sprayed or painted onto N. benthamiana before inoculation, it was effective in preventing infection by CSVd. To evaluate CSVd digestion activity in leaf extracts, CSVd was mixed with leaf extracts of Mirabilis, Phytolacca, Pelargonium and Capsicum. CSVd-digesting activities were examined by quantifying undigested CSVd using qRT-PCR, and RNA gel blotting permitted visualization of the digested CSVd. Only Capsicum leaf extract digested CSVd, and in the Capsicum treatment, small digested CSVd products were detected by RNA gel blot analysis. When the digesting experiment was performed for various cultivars and species of Capsicum, only cultivars of C. chinense showed strong CSVd-digesting activity. Our observations indicated that Capsicum extract contains strong RNA-digesting activity, leading to the conclusion that this activity is the main mechanism for protection from infection by CSVd through spraying or painting before inoculation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a strong RNA-digesting activity by a plant extract.

  10. Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudeep, A B; Jadi, R S; Mishra, A C

    2009-11-01

    Ganjam virus (GANV), a member of genus Nairovirus of family Bunyavirdae is of considerable veterinary importance in India. Though, predominantly tick borne, GANV was also isolated from mosquitoes, man and sheep. Neutralizing and complement fixing antibodies to GANV have been detected in animal and human sera collected from different parts of the country. Thirty three strains of GANV have been isolated from India, mainly from Haemaphysalis ticks. The virus replicated in certain vertebrate and mosquito cell lines and found pathogenic to laboratory animals. One natural infection and five laboratory-acquired infections in men were also reported. GANV is antigenically related to Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) of Africa, which is highly pathogenic for sheep and goats causing 70-90 per cent mortality among the susceptible population. Recent molecular studies have demonstrated that GANV is an Asian variant of NSDV and both these viruses are related to the dreaded Crimean Congo haemorrhagic fever (CCHF) group viruses. The versatility of the virus to replicate in different arthropod species, its ability to infect sheep, goat and man makes it an important zoonotic agent.

  11. Stunting coexisting with overweight in 2·0-4·9-year-old Indonesian children: prevalence, trends and associated risk factors from repeated cross-sectional surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachmi, Cut Novianti; Agho, Kingsley Emwinyore; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-10-01

    The persistence of undernutrition, along with overweight and obesity, constitute the double burden of malnutrition. The present study aimed to: (i) describe the prevalence and trends of concurrent stunting and overweight in Indonesian children; (ii) identify potentially associated risk factors; and (iii) determine whether stunted children are at greater risk of overweight compared with those of healthy height. A secondary data analysis of children aged 2·0-4·9 years in four cross-sectional studies of the Indonesian Family Life Survey. Children's height and BMI Z-scores were calculated based on the WHO Child Growth Standards (2006). We defined 'concurrent stunting and overweight' as height-for-age Z-score +1. Multivariate generalised linear latent and mixed models were used to determine associated risk factors. Thirteen out of twenty-seven provinces in Indonesia. Children (n 4101) from four waves of the Indonesian Family Life Survey (1993-2007). There were inconsistent trends in the prevalence of concurrent stunting and overweight from waves 1 to 4. Children were more likely to be stunted and overweight when they were in the youngest age group (2·0-2·9 years), were weaned after the age of 6 months, had short-statured mothers or lived in rural areas. Stunted children were significantly more likely to be overweight than healthy-height children (OR>1) but did not differ significantly different across each wave (OR=1·34-2·01). Concurrent stunting and overweight occurs in Indonesian children aged 2·0-4·9 years. Current policies and programmes need to be tailored for the management of this phenomenon.

  12. Powassan (POW) Virus Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Health Professionals Related Topics For International Travelers Powassan Virus Disease Basics Download this fact sheet formatted for ... Virus Disease Fact Sheet (PDF) What is Powassan virus? Powassan virus is a tickborne flavivirus that is ...

  13. A note on outbreak of cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV) in common bean in the River Nile State, Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamed, A. A.; Elkhair, J.; Elfaha, A.

    2010-01-01

    An outbreak of a devastating virus disease occurred in common ben (phaseolus vulgaris) in Berber area, the River Nile State, during the 2004/2005 cropping season, with symptoms of stunting and yellowing. The disease incidence reached a level of more than 85% in all visited fields. One hundred fifty symptomatic samples, collected from different fields at Hudeiba, Berber and Shendi were blotted on nitrocellulose membranes and tested for the presence of different viruses, using the tissue blot immunoassay (TBIA) technique. The results of the serological tests revealed that 95% of the samples were positive for cowpea mild mottle virus (CPMMV). Among the common bean genotypes screened for resistance to CPMMV, only RO/2/1 and Giza 3 were resistant to the disease.(Author)

  14. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C

    2016-05-01

    The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Estimating the global prevalence of zinc deficiency: results based on zinc availability in national food supplies and the prevalence of stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Ryan Wessells

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Adequate zinc nutrition is essential for adequate growth, immunocompetence and neurobehavioral development, but limited information on population zinc status hinders the expansion of interventions to control zinc deficiency. The present analyses were conducted to: (1 estimate the country-specific prevalence of inadequate zinc intake; and (2 investigate relationships between country-specific estimated prevalence of dietary zinc inadequacy and dietary patterns and stunting prevalence. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: National food balance sheet data were obtained from the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake were calculated based on the estimated absorbable zinc content of the national food supply, International Zinc Nutrition Consultative Group estimated physiological requirements for absorbed zinc, and demographic data obtained from United Nations estimates. Stunting data were obtained from a recent systematic analysis based on World Health Organization growth standards. An estimated 17.3% of the world's population is at risk of inadequate zinc intake. Country-specific estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was negatively correlated with the total energy and zinc contents of the national food supply and the percent of zinc obtained from animal source foods, and positively correlated with the phytate: zinc molar ratio of the food supply. The estimated prevalence of inadequate zinc intake was correlated with the prevalence of stunting (low height-for-age in children under five years of age (r = 0.48, P<0.001. CONCLUSIONS AND SIGNIFICANCE: These results, which indicate that inadequate dietary zinc intake may be fairly common, particularly in Sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia, allow inter-country comparisons regarding the relative likelihood of zinc deficiency as a public health problem. Data from these analyses should be used to determine

  16. Freshwater Clams (Pilsbryoconcha Exilis) as an Potential Local Mineral Sources in Weaning Food to Overcome Stunting in Grobogan, Central Java, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putri, S. R.; Anjani, Gemala; Wijayanti, Hartanti Sandi; Nuryanto

    2018-02-01

    Based on a preliminary survey in Grobogan Central Java, one of the local food that has a prospective nutrient content developed is freshwater clams. Results of PSG report in 2015, especially in Grobogan district with stunting problem of 31.5% consisting of 7.2% very short and 24.1% short. From the stunting event factor, the role of weaning food in the form of baby porridge is the most important component in the fulfillment of infant nutrition. The research is divided into two stages of the research is the initial stage to make the formulation process by way of freshwater clams, nutrient analysis, and formula calculation. The second stage is the process of formulation weaning food by way of formula making, nutrient analysis, and acceptance test of weaning food on the baby slurry is substituted by the freshwater clams. The influence statistically different substitution of freshwater clams on protein content (p=0.014), fat (p=0,041), carbohydrate (p=0,039), water (p=0,0001), ash (p=0.0001), iron (p=0.0001), and zinc (p=0.0001). There is no influence substitution of freshwater clams on energy content (p=0,129) and fiber (p=0,225). The percentage of favorite level on the acceptance test of color (p=0,005) and taste (p=0,006) was statistically different, but there was no difference flavour (p=0,913) and texture (p=0,198). freshwater clams flour is rich in iron and zinc content, so it can serve as local food, especially in Grobogan Central Java as a stunting handling. Obtained from the results of several formulations substituted of freshwater clams in formulation 2 is a formula that can meet the standards of KEPMENKES except on the content of protein and moisture content. Formula 2 acceptable to the panelists, except for the assessment of taste.

  17. Relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting in South Asia: Insights from nationally representative data from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, India, Nepal, and Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Rockli; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Corsi, Daniel J; Aguayo, Víctor M; Subramanian, S V

    2017-08-01

    Optimal growth and development in early childhood is determined by a complex interplay of child, maternal, household, environmental, and socioeconomic factors that influence nutritional intake, but interventions to reduce child undernutrition sometimes target specific risk factors in isolation. In this analysis, we assess the relative importance of 13 correlates of child stunting selected based on a collective review of existing multi-factorial frameworks: complementary feeding, breastfeeding, feeding frequency, dietary diversity, maternal height, body mass index (BMI), education, age at marriage, child vaccination, access to improved drinking source and sanitation facilities, household indoor air quality, and household wealth. The analytic sample consisted of nationally representative cross-sectional surveys from the most recent Demographic and Health Surveys for Bangladesh (2014), India (2005), Nepal (2011), and Pakistan (2013), and from the National Nutrition Survey for Afghanistan (2013). In the mutually adjusted logistic regression model for 3,159 infants aged 6-8 months, short maternal stature (OR: 2.93; 95% CI: 1.93-4.46) and lack of complementary foods (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.12-1.93) were associated with significantly higher risk of stunting. For 18,586 children aged 6-23 months, the strongest correlates of child stunting were: maternal height (OR: 3.37, 95% CI: 2.82-4.03), household wealth (OR: 2.25, 95% CI: 1.72-2.94), maternal BMI (OR: 1.59, 95% CI: 1.27-2.00), minimum dietary diversity (OR: 1.48, 95% CI: 1.27-1.72), maternal education (OR: 1.36, 95% CI: 1.18-1.56), and age at marriage (OR: 1.17, 95% CI: 1.05-1.30). Full vaccination and minimum dietary frequency were also found to be important for severe stunting for children of this age group. Some differences were found in the relative ordering and statistical significance of the correlates in country-specific analyses. Our findings indicate that comprehensive strategies incorporating a broader progress

  18. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  19. Stunted by climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    With expertise in geography and human health, Marta Jankowska and David López-Carr worked with a team of specialists in climate science, statistics, demography and policy to study climate change impacts on child malnutrition in Mali.

  20. Higher household expenditure on animal-source and nongrain foods lowers the risk of stunting among children 0-59 months old in Indonesia: implications of rising food prices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sari, Mayang; de Pee, Saskia; Bloem, Martin W; Sun, Kai; Thorne-Lyman, Andrew L; Moench-Pfanner, Regina; Akhter, Nasima; Kraemer, Klaus; Semba, Richard D

    2010-01-01

    Because the global financial crisis and high food prices affect food consumption, we characterized the relationship between stunting and nongrain food expenditure at the household level among children 0-59 mo old in Indonesia's rural and urban poor population. Expenditure and height-for-age data were obtained from a population-based sample of 446,473 children in rural and 143,807 in urban poor areas in Indonesia. Expenditure on food was grouped into categories: animal, plant, total nongrain, and grain. The prevalence of stunting in rural and urban poor areas was 33.8 and 31.2%, respectively. In rural areas, the odds ratios (OR) (5th vs. first quintile) for stunting were similar for proportion of household expenditure on animal (0.87; 95% CI = 0.85-0.90; P global crises.

  1. SARS virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ... consequence.Protein spike similar. HE gene absent. 2787 nucleotides. Largest genome. Jumps species by genetic deletion. < 300 compounds screened. Glycyrrhizin (liquorics/mullatha) seems attractive. Antivirals not effective. Vaccines – animal model only in monkeys. Killed corona or knockout weakened virus as targets.

  2. Impact Of Maternal Socio-Economic Determinants On Early Childhood Stunting In Maldives An Analysis Of Maldives Demographic Health Survey 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminath Adeela

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Under nutrition is a direct consequence of poverty with its characteristics of low socio-economic status poor living conditions poor maternal education large family size inadequate access to quality food safe water and health services. Recently there have been significant improvements in the overall health of the Maldivian population with an increase in life expectancy and a decline in maternal and infant mortality rates. However infant under nutrition is still a concern. Field testing of WHO growth standards in 2006 in Maldives indicated that more than one third of children under five years were stunted and that children classified as tall hardly reach the WHO standard for mean height. Examining maternal characteristics that may contribute to under nutrition in Maldivian children will assist in designingimplementing population based public health interventions aimed at improving infant and childhood nutrition. This study is based on secondary analysis of data from the Maldives Demographic Health Survey MDHS 2009. The study results showed that height for age z-score was lowest from ages 6 to 29 months. Factors significantly associated with the rate of stunting included size of child at birth height of the mother duration of breastfeeding difficulties in obtaining money needed for medical help for mother absence of a health service provider when obtaining medical help for mother after adjusting for socio-economic factors.

  3. Mixed-methods study identifies key strategies for improving infant and young child feeding practices in a highly stunted rural indigenous population in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kelley; Henretty, Nicole; Chary, Anita; Webb, Meghan Farley; Wehr, Heather; Moore, Jillian; Baird, Caitlin; Díaz, Anne Kraemer; Rohloff, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Guatemala's rural indigenous population suffers from one of the highest rates of chronic child malnutrition (stunting) in the world. Successfully addressing stunting requires defining the barriers to and opportunities for new behaviour-change initiatives. We undertook a mixed-methods assessment of feeding practices and food purchasing behaviours around infants and young children aged 6-36 months in two rural indigenous Guatemalan communities. We found that most caregivers were aware only of acute forms of child malnutrition and that they greatly underestimated the local prevalence of malnutrition. Despite moderate adherence to exclusive breastfeeding and timing of complementary food introduction, diets had poor diversity and inadequate meal frequency. Furthermore, perceptions of food insecurity were high even in the presence of land ownership and agricultural production. Although fortified foods were highly valued, they were considered expensive. At the same time, proportionally equivalent amounts of money were spent on junk foods or other processed foods by most participants. Biological mothers often lacked autonomy for food purchasing and nutritional decisions because of the power exerted by husbands and paternal grandmothers. Our findings suggest several creative and community-based programming initiatives including education about the acute vs. chronic malnutrition distinction, engaging landowners in discussions about domestic food consumption, engaging with caregivers to redirect funds towards fortified foods rather than junk food purchases and directing behaviour-change initiatives towards all household stakeholders. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Stunting and helminth infection in early preschool-age children in a resource-poor community in the Amazon lowlands of Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gyorkos, Theresa W; Maheu-Giroux, Mathieu; Casapía, Martín; Joseph, Serene A; Creed-Kanashiro, Hilary

    2011-04-01

    The World Health Organization recommends deworming of children aged 12-24 months in highly endemic areas. Our research objectives were to: 1) examine prevalence patterns of helminth infection in early childhood; 2) assess the association between helminth infection and socio-demographic characteristics; and 3) examine the effect of the intensity of helminth infection on stunting and anemia. A survey of children (7-9 and 12-14 months) living in Belén (Peru) was undertaken between July 2007 and February 2008. A questionnaire was administered to obtain socio-demographic characteristics, blood and stool samples were collected, and length-for-age Z scores were calculated. The Kato-Katz method was used to determine the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris, Trichuris, and hookworm infections. Of 370 participating children, 349 had parasitological results. Infections first appeared in children at 8 months of age. The prevalence of any helminth infection increased linearly to approximately 37.0% (95%CI: 24.3-51.3%) by 14 months of age. Multivariate analysis showed that age, female sex, and residing in the floodplain were significant determinants of helminth infection. Among infected children, moderate-to-heavy infection of any helminth was associated with stunting (βadjusted=-0.84; 95%CI: -1.48, -0.20). These results support the implementation of deworming programs aimed at young children in highly endemic areas. Copyright © 2010 Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence and factors associated with stunting and excess weight in children aged 0-5 years from the Brazilian semi-arid region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clariana V; Dumith, Samuel C; César, Juraci A

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the prevalence of excess weight and low height, and identify associated factors among children younger than five years. Cross-census study. A total of 1,640 children from two municipalities in Piauí, Brazil were included. The prevalence of low height was 10.9% (95% CI: 9.3 to 12.4), inversely associated with mother's younger age and low level of education, lower socioeconomic status, mothers who had fewer than six prenatal consultations, and households that had more than one child younger than 5 years. Excess weight prevalence was 19.1% (95% CI: 17.2 to 21.0), and remained inversely associated with lower maternal age, low maternal education, and cesarean delivery. Stunting was greater in children aged between 12 and 23 months, while excess weight decreased with age. It is noteworthy that the stunting rate, although decreasing, is still high, while the prevalence of excess weight, even in this very poor area, already exceeds the expected percentage for a population with better socioeconomic level. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  6. Influenza (Flu) Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Influenza (Flu) Viruses Language: English (US) Español Recommend on Facebook ... influenza circulate and cause illness. More Information about Flu Viruses Types of Influenza Viruses Influenza A and ...

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your ...

  8. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  9. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page ... Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus if you ...

  12. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  13. Dengue virus receptor

    OpenAIRE

    Hidari, Kazuya I.P.J.; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-01-01

    Dengue virus is an arthropod-borne virus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. Dengue virus causes fever and hemorrhagic disorders in humans and non-human primates. Direct interaction of the virus introduced by a mosquito bite with host receptor molecule(s) is crucial for virus propagation and the pathological progression of dengue diseases. Therefore, elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underlying the interaction between dengue virus and its receptor(s) in both humans and mosquitoes is essent...

  14. Computer Virus and Trends

    OpenAIRE

    Tutut Handayani; Soenarto Usna,Drs.MMSI

    2004-01-01

    Since its appearance the first time in the mid-1980s, computer virus has invited various controversies that still lasts to this day. Along with the development of computer systems technology, viruses komputerpun find new ways to spread itself through a variety of existing communications media. This paper discusses about some things related to computer viruses, namely: the definition and history of computer viruses; the basics of computer viruses; state of computer viruses at this time; and ...

  15. Laboratory Investigations of African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus as a Potential Reservoir Host Species for Monkeypox Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina L Hutson

    Full Text Available Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa, where it is a major public health concern. Although Monkeypox virus (MPXV and monkeypox disease in humans have been well characterized, little is known about its natural history, or its maintenance in animal populations of sylvatic reservoir(s. In 2003, several species of rodents imported from Ghana were involved in a monkeypox outbreak in the United States with individuals of three African rodent genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funisciurus shown to be infected with MPXV. Here, we examine the course of MPXV infection in Cricetomys gambianus (pouched Gambian rats and this rodent species' competence as a host for the virus. We obtained ten Gambian rats from an introduced colony in Grassy Key, Florida and infected eight of these via scarification with a challenge dose of 4X104 plaque forming units (pfu from either of the two primary clades of MPXV: Congo Basin (C-MPXV: n = 4 or West African (W-MPXV: n = 4; an additional 2 animals served as PBS controls. Viral shedding and the effect of infection on activity and physiological aspects of the animals were measured. MPXV challenged animals had significantly higher core body temperatures, reduced activity and increased weight loss than PBS controls. Viable virus was found in samples taken from animals in both experimental groups (C-MPXV and W-MPXV between 3 and 27 days post infection (p.i. (up to 1X108 pfu/ml, with viral DNA found until day 56 p.i. The results from this work show that Cricetomys gambianus (and by inference, probably the closely related species, Cricetomys emini can be infected with MPXV and shed viable virus particles; thus suggesting that these animals may be involved in the maintenance of MPXV in wildlife mammalian populations. More research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology of MPXV and the role of Gambian rats and other species.

  16. Two food-assisted maternal and child health nutrition programs helped mitigate the impact of economic hardship on child stunting in Haiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donegan, Shannon; Maluccio, John A; Myers, Caitlin K; Menon, Purnima; Ruel, Marie T; Habicht, Jean-Pierre

    2010-06-01

    Rigorous evaluations of food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition programs are stymied by the ethics of randomizing recipients to a control treatment. Using nonexperimental matching methods, we evaluated the effect of 2 such programs on child linear growth in Haiti. The 2 well-implemented programs offered the same services (food assistance, behavior change communication, and preventive health services) to pregnant and lactating women and young children. They differed in that one (the preventive program) used blanket targeting of all children 6-23 mo, whereas the other (the recuperative program) targeted underweight (weight-for-age Z score effects on height-for-age Z scores (HAZ) and stunting (HAZ growth in a time of deteriorating economic circumstances.

  17. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0–4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agho, Kingsley E.; Li, Mu; Baur, Louise Alison

    2016-01-01

    Objective The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a) determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0–4.9 years; and b) examine associated risk factors. Design A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007) of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards). Weight-for-age-z-score +1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively. Results There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%), as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%). The prevalence of ‘at-risk’/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all Poverweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2–2·9 years) or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education. Conclusions The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required. PMID:27167973

  18. Differences in Body Build in Children of Different Ethnic Groups and their Impact on the Prevalence of Stunting, Thinness, Overweight, and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Bee Koon; Wong, Jyh Eiin; Norimah, A Karim; Deurenberg, Paul

    2016-03-01

    The prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity among children differs by ethnicity. It is not known whether differences in body build across the ethnic groups influence the interpretation of nutritional parameters. To explore the differences in body build across the 5 main ethnic groups in Malaysia and to determine whether differences in body build have an impact on the interpretation of nutrition indicators. A total of 3227 children aged 2.0 to 12.9 years who participated in the South East Asian Nutrition Surveys (SEANUTS) in Malaysia were included in this analysis. Body weight, height, sitting height, wrist and knee breadths, and biceps and subscapular skinfolds were measured, and relative leg length, slenderness index, and sum of skinfolds were calculated. Z scores for height-for-age (HAZ) and body mass index-for-age (BAZ) were calculated using the World Health Organization (WHO) 2007 growth standards. Differences in relative leg length and slenderness across the ethnic groups were correlated with HAZ and BAZ. Correction for differences in body build did, in some ethnic groups, have significant impact on the prevalence of stunting, thinness, overweight, and obesity, and the pattern of prevalence across ethnic groups changed. At the population level, corrections for body build had only minor and mostly nonsignificant effects on prevalence, but at an individual level, corrections for body build placed a substantial number of children in different height or weight categories. Whether these misclassifications warrant additional assessment of body build in clinical practice will need further investigation. © The Author(s) 2016.

  19. Epstein - Barr Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Štorkánová, Lenka

    2011-01-01

    Epstein-Barr virus Bachelor thesis summarizes the findings of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), its general characteristics, transmission and spread of the virus, symptoms of disease and subsequent therapy and recovery. More specifically, it focuses on infectious mononucleosis, as well as more generally to other diseases, which the Epstein-Barr virus causes. It includes details of the vaccine against EB virus. There are the statistics on the incidence of infectious mononucleosis.

  20. Virus-Vectored Influenza Virus Vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripp, Ralph A.; Tompkins, S. Mark

    2014-01-01

    Despite the availability of an inactivated vaccine that has been licensed for >50 years, the influenza virus continues to cause morbidity and mortality worldwide. Constant evolution of circulating influenza virus strains and the emergence of new strains diminishes the effectiveness of annual vaccines that rely on a match with circulating influenza strains. Thus, there is a continued need for new, efficacious vaccines conferring cross-clade protection to avoid the need for biannual reformulation of seasonal influenza vaccines. Recombinant virus-vectored vaccines are an appealing alternative to classical inactivated vaccines because virus vectors enable native expression of influenza antigens, even from virulent influenza viruses, while expressed in the context of the vector that can improve immunogenicity. In addition, a vectored vaccine often enables delivery of the vaccine to sites of inductive immunity such as the respiratory tract enabling protection from influenza virus infection. Moreover, the ability to readily manipulate virus vectors to produce novel influenza vaccines may provide the quickest path toward a universal vaccine protecting against all influenza viruses. This review will discuss experimental virus-vectored vaccines for use in humans, comparing them to licensed vaccines and the hurdles faced for licensure of these next-generation influenza virus vaccines. PMID:25105278

  1. Assessment of the effectiveness of a small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement on reducing anaemia and stunting in refugee populations in the Horn of Africa: Secondary data analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Style

    Full Text Available Stunting and micronutrient malnutrition are persistent public health problems in refugee populations. UNHCR and its partner organisations implement blanket supplementary feeding programmes using a range of special nutritional products as one approach to address these issues. The evidence base for the efficacy and effectiveness of a small quantity lipid-based nutrient supplement, Nutributter®, in reducing stunting and anaemia is limited. Secondary data analysis was used to assess the effectiveness of Nutributter® distribution on anaemia and stunting in children aged 6-23 months (programme target group and 6-59 months (the standard age group sampled in routine nutrition surveys. Analysis was conducted using routine pre and post-intervention cross-sectional nutrition survey data collected between 2008-2011 in five refugee camps in Kenya and Djibouti. Changes in total anaemia (Haemoglobin<110g/L, anaemia categories (mild, moderate and severe, and stunting (height-for-age z-score <-2 were explored using available data on the Nutributter® programme and contextual factors. A significant reduction in the prevalence of anaemia in children aged 6-23 months and 6-59 months was seen in four of five, and in all five camps, respectively (p<0.05. Reductions ranged from 12.4 to 23.0, and 18.3 to 29.3 percentage points in each age group. Improvements were largely due to reductions in moderate and severe anaemia and occurred where the prevalence of acute malnutrition was stable or increasing. No change in stunting was observed in four of five camps. The replicability of findings across five sites strongly suggests that Nutributter® distribution was associated with a reduction in anaemia, but not stunting, among refugee children in the Horn of Africa. Benefits were not restricted to the 6-23 month target group targeted by the nutrition programme. However, even following this intervention anaemia remained a serious public health problem and additional work to

  2. Expression of Separate Proteins in the Same Plant Leaves and Cells Using Two Independent Virus-Based Gene Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria R. Mendoza

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant viral vectors enable the expression of proteins at high levels in a relatively short time. For many purposes (e.g., cell biological interaction studies it may be desirable to express more than one protein in a single cell but that is often not feasible when using a single virus vector. Such a co-expression strategy requires the simultaneous delivery by two compatible and non-competitive viruses that can co-exist to each express a separate protein. Here, we report on the use of two agro-launchable coat-protein gene substitution GFP-expressing virus vector systems based on Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV referred to as TG, and Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV annotated as TRBO-G. TG expressed GFP in Nicotiana benthamiana, tomato, lettuce and cowpea, whereas expression from TRBO-G was detected only in the first two species. Upon co-infiltration of the two vectors co-expression was monitored by: molecular detection of the two slightly differently sized GFPs, suppressor-complementation assays, and using TG in combination with TRBO-RFP. All the results revealed that in N. benthamiana and tomato the TBSV and TMV vectors accumulated and expressed proteins in the same plants, the same leaves, and in the same cells. Therefore, co-expression by these two vectors provides a platform for fast and high level expression of proteins to study their cell biology or other properties.

  3. The p19 protein of Grapevine Algerian latent virus is a determinant of systemic infection of Chenopodium quinoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Semin; Cho, Won Kyong; Lee, Hyeok-Geun; Park, Sang-Ho; Sohn, Seong-Han; Kim, Kook-Hyung

    2012-04-01

    A previous study showed that both Grapevine Algerian latent virus (GALV) and Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) systemically infect Nicotiana benthamiana, but GALV causes systemic infection whereas TBSV causes only local lesions in Chenopodium quinoa (C. quinoa). We recently isolated GALV strain Naju (GALV-N) from Limonium sinense and TBSV strain Sacheon (TBSV-S) from tomato. Both viruses belong to the genus Tombusvirus and have a similar genome organization. To identify determinants of systemic infection of GALV-N in C. quinoa in the current study, we generated infectious clones and capsid protein (CP)-deletion clones for the two viruses and confirmed that CP of GALV-N is required for systemic infection of C. quinoa due to its primary structural role in virus assembly. Through the use of chimeras, we identified a viral factor in addition to CP that contributes to systemic infection by GALV-N. Inactivation of the p19 demonstrated that host-specific activities of p19 are necessary for efficient systemic infection of C. quinoa by GALV-N. Our study is the first report to determine the viral factors required for systemic infection of GALV in C. quinoa. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Viruses infecting reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschang, Rachel E

    2011-11-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch's postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  5. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  6. An individual-level meta-analysis assessing the impact of community-level sanitation access on child stunting, anemia, and diarrhea: Evidence from DHS and MICS surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, David A; Grisham, Thomas; Slawsky, Erik; Narine, Lutchmie

    2017-06-01

    A lack of access to sanitation is an important risk factor child health, facilitating fecal-oral transmission of pathogens including soil-transmitted helminthes and various causes of diarrheal disease. We conducted a meta-analysis of cross-sectional surveys to determine the impact that community-level sanitation access has on child health for children with and without household sanitation access. Using 301 two-stage demographic health surveys and multiple indicator cluster surveys conducted between 1990 and 2015 we calculated the sanitation access in the community as the proportion of households in the sampled cluster that had household access to any type of sanitation facility. We then conducted exact matching of children based on various predictors of living in a community with high access to sanitation. Using logistic regression with the matched group as a random intercept we examined the association between the child health outcomes of stunted growth, any anemia, moderate or severe anemia, and diarrhea in the previous two weeks and the exposure of living in a community with varying degrees of community-level sanitation access. For children with household-level sanitation access, living in a community with 100% sanitation access was associated with lowered odds of stunting (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.97, 95%; confidence interval (CI) = 0.94-1.00; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children), any anemia (AOR = 0.73; 95% CI = 0.67-0.78; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children), moderate or severe anemia (AOR = 0.72, 95% CI = 0.68-0.77; n = 5,319 matched groups, 299,033 children) and diarrhea (AOR = 0.94; 95% CI = 0.91-0.97); n = 16,379 matched groups, 1,603,731 children) compared to living in a community with sanitation access. For children without household-level sanitation access, living in communities with 0% sanitation access was associated with higher odds of stunting (AOR = 1.04, 95% CI = 1.02-1.06; n = 14,153 matched groups, 1,175,167 children), any

  7. Zika virus disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel I Al-Afaleq

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the virus family Flaviviridae. The virus was isolated in 1947 from a rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest of Uganda. The virus causes sporadic mild human infections in Africa and later in Asia. However, by 2007 a major shift in its infection pattern was noticed and thousands of human infections were reported in the State of Yap and Federated States of Micronesia. In the last 3 years, major outbreaks have continued to occur and the virus has spread to several Pacific and American countries. These outbreaks were mostly asymptomatic; however, there were more severe clinical signs associated with the infections. Those signs included microcephaly and Guillain–Barre syndrome. It is believed that various species of mosquitoes can biologically transmit the virus. However, Aedes aegypti is most widely associated with the Zika virus. Recently, new modes of virus transmission have been reported, including mother-to-fetus, sexual, blood transfusion, animal bites, laboratory exposure and breast milk. Differential diagnosis is very important as some other arboviruses such as yellow fever virus, West Nile virus, dengue virus, and chikungunya virus have similar clinical manifestations to the Zika virus infection as well as relating serologically to some of these viruses. Established laboratory diagnostic tests to detect the Zika virus are limited, with reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction being the most widely used test. Taking into consideration the quickness of the spread of infection, size of the infected population and change of the infection severity pattern, the Zika virus infection merits collective efforts on all levels to prevent and control the disease. Limited research work and data, concurrent infection with other arboviruses, involvement of biological vectors, mass crowd events, human and trade movements and lack of vaccines are some of the challenges that we face in our efforts to prevent and

  8. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) is a rare and deadly disease ...

  9. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  10. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix. PMID:24281093

  11. Zika virus disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... May 2015, the virus was discovered for the first time in Brazil. It has now spread to many territories, states, and countries in: Caribbean Islands Central America Mexico South America Pacific Islands Africa The virus ...

  12. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with facebook share with twitter share with linkedin Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) Credit: CDC This is the ... the United States. Why Is the Study of Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) a Priority for NIAID? In ...

  13. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    RSV; Palivizumab; Respiratory syncytial virus immune globulin; Bronchiolitis - RSV ... Crowe JE. Respiratory syncytial virus. In: Kliegman RM, Stanton BF, St. Geme JW, Schor NF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 20th ...

  14. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson, James S.; Heng, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  15. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  16. Zika Virus - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Are Here: Home → Multiple Languages → All Health Topics → Zika Virus URL of this page: https://medlineplus.gov/languages/ ... V W XYZ List of All Topics All Zika Virus - Multiple Languages To use the sharing features on ...

  17. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. VIRUS FAMILIES – contd. Minus strand RNA viruses. Rhabdovirus e.g. rabies. Paramyxovirus e.g. measles, mumps. Orthomyxovirus e.g. influenza. Retroviruses. RSV, HTLV, MMTV, HIV. Notes:

  18. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy ...

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ...

  1. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurri, Francisco D

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight.

  2. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on 'Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition' held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers

  3. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-09-01

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on `Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition` held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers Refs, figs, tabs, graphs

  4. [Mumps vaccine virus transmission].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otrashevskaia, E V; Kulak, M V; Otrashevskaia, A V; Karpov, I A; Fisenko, E G; Ignat'ev, G M

    2013-01-01

    In this work we report the mumps vaccine virus shedding based on the laboratory confirmed cases of the mumps virus (MuV) infection. The likely epidemiological sources of the transmitted mumps virus were children who were recently vaccinated with the mumps vaccine containing Leningrad-Zagreb or Leningrad-3 MuV. The etiology of the described cases of the horizontal transmission of both mumps vaccine viruses was confirmed by PCR with the sequential restriction analysis.

  5. Nairobi sheep disease virus/Ganjam virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    M D, Baron; B, Holzer

    2015-08-01

    Nairobi sheep disease virus (NSDV) is a tick-borne virus which causes a severe disease in sheep and goats, and has been responsible for several outbreaks of disease in East Africa. The virus is also found in the Indian subcontinent, where it is known as Ganjam virus. The virus only spreads through the feeding of competent infected ticks, and is therefore limited in its geographic distribution by the distribution of those ticks, Rhipicephalus appendiculata in Africa and Haemaphysalis intermedia in India. Animals bred in endemic areas do not normally develop disease, and the impact is therefore primarily on animals being moved for trade or breeding purposes. The disease caused by NSDV has similarities to several other ruminant diseases, and laboratory diagnosis is necessary for confirmation. There are published methods for diagnosis based on polymerase chain reaction, for virus growth in cell culture and for other simple diagnostic tests, though none has been commercialised. There is no established vaccine against NSDV, although cell-culture attenuated strains have been developed which show promise and could be put into field trials if it were deemed necessary. The virus is closely related to Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever virus, and studies on NSDV may therefore be useful in understanding this important human pathogen.

  6. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth / For Kids / What's West Nile Virus? Print en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  7. Characteristic of pandemic virus

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Graphics. Characteristic of pandemic virus. The virus was highly transmissible. Risk of hospitalization was 2X and risk of death was about 11X more in comparison to seasonal influenza. Virus continues to be susceptible to Osaltamivir, the only drug available. Vaccines are available but ...

  8. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is caused by a virus transmitted primarily by Aedes mosquitoes. People with Zika virus disease can have symptoms including mild fever, skin ... framework. Q&A: Zika virus and complication ... mosquito from the Aedes genus, mainly Aedes aegypti in tropical regions. Aedes ...

  9. Molecular Characterization of Bombyx mori Cytoplasmic Polyhedrosis Virus Genome Segment 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Keiko; Nagaoka, Sumiharu; Winkler, Stefan; Kotani, Kumiko; Yagi, Hiroaki; Nakanishi, Kae; Miyajima, Shigetoshi; Kobayashi, Jun; Mori, Hajime

    2001-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of the genome segment 4 (S4) of Bombyx mori cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus (BmCPV) was determined. The 3,259-nucleotide sequence contains a single long open reading frame which spans nucleotides 14 to 3187 and which is predicted to encode a protein with a molecular mass of about 130 kDa. Western blot analysis showed that S4 encodes BmCPV protein VP3, which is one of the outer components of the BmCPV virion. Sequence analysis of the deduced amino acid sequence of BmCPV VP3 revealed possible sequence homology with proteins from rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) S2, Nilaparvata lugens reovirus S4, and Fiji disease fijivirus S4. This may suggest that plant reoviruses originated from insect viruses and that RRSV emerged more recently than other plant reoviruses. A chimeric protein consisting of BmCPV VP3 and green fluorescent protein (GFP) was constructed and expressed with BmCPV polyhedrin using a baculovirus expression vector. The VP3-GFP chimera was incorporated into BmCPV polyhedra and released under alkaline conditions. The results indicate that specific interactions occur between BmCPV polyhedrin and VP3 which might facilitate BmCPV virion occlusion into the polyhedra. PMID:11134312

  10. Management of grassy bald communities in the Roan Highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    James T. Donaldson; N. Schubert; Lisa C. Huff

    2010-01-01

    No place better exemplifies that which is rare and unique within high-elevation communities of the Appalachian Mountains than the highlands of Roan Mountain. The Roan Highlands are protected through a landscape-level conservation initiative originally established by the Southern Appalachian Highlands Conservancy and the U.S. Forest Service in 1974.

  11. Blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum)-Virus Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    At least six viruses have been found in highbush blueberry plantings in the Pacific Northwest: Blueberry mosaic virus, Blueberry red ringspot virus, Blueberry scorch virus, Blueberry shock virus, Tobacco ringspot virus, and Tomato ringspot virus. Six other virus and virus-like diseases of highbush b...

  12. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  14. Epidemiology and integrated management of persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses of legume and cereal crops in West Asia and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G

    2009-05-01

    Cool-season food legumes (faba bean, lentil, chickpea and pea) and cereals (bread and durum wheat and barley) are the most important and widely cultivated crops in West Asia and North Africa (WANA), where they are the main source of carbohydrates and protein for the majority of the population. Persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses pose a significant limitation to legume and cereal production worldwide. Surveys conducted in many countries in WANA during the last three decades established that the most important of these viruses are: Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV: genus Nanovirus; family Nanoviridae), Bean leafroll virus (BLRV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect legume crops, and Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV (BYDV-MAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect cereal crops. Loss in yield caused by these viruses is usually high when infection occurs early in the growing season. Many aphid vector species for the above-mentioned viruses are reported to be prevalent in the WANA region. In addition, in this region many wild species (annual or perennial) were found infected with these viruses and may play an important role in their ecology and spread. Fast spread of these diseases was always associated with high aphid vector populations and activity. Although virus disease management can be achieved by combining several control measures, development of resistant genotypes is undoubtedly one of the most appropriate control methods. Over the last three decades barley and wheat genotypes resistant to BYDV, faba bean genotypes resistant to BLRV, and

  15. Protoplasts and plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakishi, H.; Lesney, M.S.; Carlson, P.

    1984-01-01

    The use of protoplasts in the study of plant viruses has attracted considerable attention since its inception in the late 1960s. This article is an attempt to assess the current status of protoplasts (primarily) and all cell cultures (in some instances) in studies of virus infection, virus replication, cytopathology, cross-protection, virus resistance, and the use of in vitro methods and genetic engineering to recover virus-resistant plants. These areas of study proved difficult to do entirely with whole plants or plant parts. However, because protoplasts could be synchronously infected with virus, they provided a valuable alternative means of following biochemical and cytological events in relation to the virus growth cycle in a more precise manner than previously possible

  16. Two Crinivirus-specific proteins of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV), P26 and P9, are self-interacting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Lucy R; Hwang, Min Sook; Falk, Bryce W

    2009-11-01

    Interactions of Lettuce infectious yellows virus (LIYV)-encoded proteins were tested by yeast-two-hybrid (Y2H) assays. LIYV-encoded P34, Hsp70h, P59, CP, CPm, and P26 were tested in all possible pairwise combinations. Interaction was detected only for the P26-P26 combination. P26 self-interaction domains were mapped using a series of N- and C-terminal truncations. Orthologous P26 proteins from the criniviruses Beet pseudoyellows virus (BPYV), Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), and Lettuce chlorosis virus (LCV) were also tested, and each exhibited strong self-interaction but no interaction with orthologous proteins. Two small putative proteins encoded by LIYV RNA2, P5 and P9, were also tested for interactions with the six aforementioned LIYV proteins and each other. No interactions were detected for P5, but P9-P9 self-interaction was detected. P26- and P9-encoding genes are present in all described members of the genus Crinivirus, but are not present in other members of the family Closteroviridae. LIYV P26 has previously been demonstrated to induce a unique LIYV cytopathology, plasmalemma deposits (PLDs), but no role is yet known for P9.

  17. [The great virus comeback].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2013-01-01

    Viruses have been considered for a long time as by-products of biological evolution. This view is changing now as a result of several recent discoveries. Viral ecologists have shown that viral particles are the most abundant biological entities on our planet, whereas metagenomic analyses have revealed an unexpected abundance and diversity of viral genes in the biosphere. Comparative genomics have highlighted the uniqueness of viral sequences, in contradiction with the traditional view of viruses as pickpockets of cellular genes. On the contrary, cellular genomes, especially eukaryotic ones, turned out to be full of genes derived from viruses or related elements (plasmids, transposons, retroelements and so on). The discovery of unusual viruses infecting archaea has shown that the viral world is much more diverse than previously thought, ruining the traditional dichotomy between bacteriophages and viruses. Finally, the discovery of giant viruses has blurred the traditional image of viruses as small entities. Furthermore, essential clues on virus history have been obtained in the last ten years. In particular, structural analyses of capsid proteins have uncovered deeply rooted homologies between viruses infecting different cellular domains, suggesting that viruses originated before the last universal common ancestor (LUCA). These studies have shown that several lineages of viruses originated independently, i.e., viruses are polyphyletic. From the time of LUCA, viruses have coevolved with their hosts, and viral lineages can be viewed as lianas wrapping around the trunk, branches and leaves of the tree of life. Although viruses are very diverse, with genomes encoding from one to more than one thousand proteins, they can all be simply defined as organisms producing virions. Virions themselves can be defined as infectious particles made of at least one protein associated with the viral nucleic acid, endowed with the capability to protect the viral genome and ensure its

  18. Tubaramure, a Food-Assisted Integrated Health and Nutrition Program, Reduces Child Stunting in Burundi: A Cluster-Randomized Controlled Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Olney, Deanna; Ruel, Marie

    2018-03-01

    Food-assisted maternal and child health and nutrition (FA-MCHN) programs are widely used to address undernutrition, but little is known about their effectiveness in improving child linear growth. We assessed the impact of Burundi's Tubaramure FA-MCHN program on linear growth. The program targeted women and their children during the first 1000 d and included 1) food rations, 2) strengthening of health services and promotion of their use, and 3) behavior change communication (BCC). A second objective was to assess the differential effect when varying the timing and duration of receiving food rations. We used a 4-arm, cluster-randomized controlled study to assess program impact with the use of cluster fixed-effects double-difference models with repeated cross-sectional data (baseline and follow-up 4 y later with ∼3550 children in each round). Treatment arms received food rations (corn-soy blend and micronutrient-fortified vegetable oil) for the first 1000 d (T24), from pregnancy through the child reaching 18 mo (T18), or from birth through the child reaching 24 mo ["no food during pregnancy" (TNFP)]. All treatment arms received BCC for the first 1000 d. The control arm received no food rations or BCC. Stunting (height-for-age z score effect in the T24 [7.4 percentage points (pp); P effect across arms were not significant (P > 0.01). Secondary analyses showed that the effect was limited to children whose mother and head of household had some primary education and who lived in households with above-median assets. FA-MCHN programs are an effective development tool to improve child linear growth and can protect children from political and economic shocks in vulnerable countries such as Burundi. A better understanding of how to improve the nutritional status of children in the worst-off households is needed. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01072279.

  19. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  20. I. Identification and characterization of dasheen mosaic virus in Chinese evergreen plants (Aglaonema commutatum) in California. II. New approaches for detecting plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kositratana, W.

    1985-01-01

    Chinese evergreen plants (Aglaonema commutatum) with symptoms of mild stunting, chlorosis, leaf distortion and mosaic, were observed in Southern California. Flexuous rods (ca. 750 nm) were detected in leaf dip and partially purified preparations. Dasheen mosac virus (DMV) was identified as the causal agent on the basis of host range, morphology and reaction with DMV antiserum in immunodouble diffusion and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) tests. Tetragonia expansa was found to be a new host of this virus. Surveys indicate that DMV is not widespread in cultivars of A. commutatum in Southern California. The virus was purified from leaves of seedling Philodendron selloum by clarification with CCl 4 , CHCl 3 , and Triton X-100, precipitation with PEG-8000 and centrifugation in either Cs 2 SO 4 -sucrose cushion gradients or Cs 2 SO 4 equilibrium density gradients. Purified virions formed a single UV-absorbing infectious band with densities of 1.31 and 1.245 g/ml in CsCl 2 and Cs 2 SO 4 equilibrium density gradients, respectively, and a sedimentation coefficient of 154 S as determined by a linear-log sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Dasheen mosaic virus has a plus-sense ssRNA with the M.W. of 3.2 x 10 6 under denaturing conditions. Molecular hybridization analysis using 3 H-complementary DNA specific to DMV-Ca RNA showed that DMV-Ca isolate was more closely related to DMV-Fiji isolate than to DMV-Fla isolate, and was very distantly related to ZYMV, TEV. PeMoC and PVY

  1. Enrichment of Phosphatidylethanolamine in Viral Replication Compartments via Co-opting the Endosomal Rab5 Small GTPase by a Positive-Strand RNA Virus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Positive-strand RNA viruses build extensive membranous replication compartments to support replication and protect the virus from antiviral responses by the host. These viruses require host factors and various lipids to form viral replication complexes (VRCs. The VRCs built by Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV are enriched with phosphatidylethanolamine (PE through a previously unknown pathway. To unravel the mechanism of PE enrichment within the TBSV replication compartment, in this paper, the authors demonstrate that TBSV co-opts the guanosine triphosphate (GTP-bound active form of the endosomal Rab5 small GTPase via direct interaction with the viral replication protein. Deletion of Rab5 orthologs in a yeast model host or expression of dominant negative mutants of plant Rab5 greatly decreases TBSV replication and prevents the redistribution of PE to the sites of viral replication. We also show that enrichment of PE in the viral replication compartment is assisted by actin filaments. Interestingly, the closely related Carnation Italian ringspot virus, which replicates on the boundary membrane of mitochondria, uses a similar strategy to the peroxisomal TBSV to hijack the Rab5-positive endosomes into the viral replication compartments. Altogether, usurping the GTP-Rab5-positive endosomes allows TBSV to build a PE-enriched viral replication compartment, which is needed to support peak-level replication. Thus, the Rab family of small GTPases includes critical host factors assisting VRC assembly and genesis of the viral replication compartment.

  2. Complete genomic characterization of milk vetch dwarf virus isolates from cowpea and broad bean in Anhui province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chenhua; Zheng, Hongying; Yan, Dankan; Han, Kelei; Song, Xijiao; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Dongfang; Chen, Jianping; Yan, Fei

    2017-08-01

    Cowpea and broad bean plants showing severe stunting and leaf rolling symptoms were observed in Hefei city, Anhui province, China, in 2014. Symptomatic plants from both species were shown to be infected with milk vetch dwarf virus (MDV) by PCR. The complete genomes of MDV isolates from cowpea and broad bean were sequenced. Each of them had eight genomic DNAs that differed between the two isolates by 10.7% in their overall nucleotide sequences. In addition, the MDV genomes from cowpea and broad bean were associated with two and three alphasatellite DNAs, respectively. This is the first report of MDV on cowpea in China and the first complete genome sequences of Chinese MDV isolates.

  3. Global organization of a positive-strand RNA virus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodong Wu

    Full Text Available The genomes of plus-strand RNA viruses contain many regulatory sequences and structures that direct different viral processes. The traditional view of these RNA elements are as local structures present in non-coding regions. However, this view is changing due to the discovery of regulatory elements in coding regions and functional long-range intra-genomic base pairing interactions. The ∼4.8 kb long RNA genome of the tombusvirus tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV contains these types of structural features, including six different functional long-distance interactions. We hypothesized that to achieve these multiple interactions this viral genome must utilize a large-scale organizational strategy and, accordingly, we sought to assess the global conformation of the entire TBSV genome. Atomic force micrographs of the genome indicated a mostly condensed structure composed of interconnected protrusions extending from a central hub. This configuration was consistent with the genomic secondary structure model generated using high-throughput selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (i.e. SHAPE, which predicted different sized RNA domains originating from a central region. Known RNA elements were identified in both domain and inter-domain regions, and novel structural features were predicted and functionally confirmed. Interestingly, only two of the six long-range interactions known to form were present in the structural model. However, for those interactions that did not form, complementary partner sequences were positioned relatively close to each other in the structure, suggesting that the secondary structure level of viral genome structure could provide a basic scaffold for the formation of different long-range interactions. The higher-order structural model for the TBSV RNA genome provides a snapshot of the complex framework that allows multiple functional components to operate in concert within a confined context.

  4. Zika virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougnet, Laurence; Thill, Chloé; Pougnet, Richard; Auvinet, Henri; Giacardi, Christophe; Drouillard, Isabelle

    2016-12-01

    A 21-year old woman from New-Caledonia had 40 ̊C fever with vomiting, arthralgia, myalgia, and measles-like rash. Etiological analyses showed primary infection with Zika virus. Because of severe clinical presentation, she was hospitalized in the intensive care unit of the Brest military Hospital. Zika virus is mainly transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes. If they settle in Metropolitan France, Zika virus might also spread there.

  5. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  6. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  7. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) What is Ebola Virus Disease? ...

  8. Yeast for virus research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Richard Yuqi

    2017-01-01

    Budding yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and fission yeast (Schizosaccharomyces pombe) are two popular model organisms for virus research. They are natural hosts for viruses as they carry their own indigenous viruses. Both yeasts have been used for studies of plant, animal and human viruses. Many positive sense (+) RNA viruses and some DNA viruses replicate with various levels in yeasts, thus allowing study of those viral activities during viral life cycle. Yeasts are single cell eukaryotic organisms. Hence, many of the fundamental cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation or programed cell death are highly conserved from yeasts to higher eukaryotes. Therefore, they are particularly suited to study the impact of those viral activities on related cellular activities during virus-host interactions. Yeasts present many unique advantages in virus research over high eukaryotes. Yeast cells are easy to maintain in the laboratory with relative short doubling time. They are non-biohazardous, genetically amendable with small genomes that permit genome-wide analysis of virologic and cellular functions. In this review, similarities and differences of these two yeasts are described. Studies of virologic activities such as viral translation, viral replication and genome-wide study of virus-cell interactions in yeasts are highlighted. Impacts of viral proteins on basic cellular functions such as cell cycle regulation and programed cell death are discussed. Potential applications of using yeasts as hosts to carry out functional analysis of small viral genome and to develop high throughput drug screening platform for the discovery of antiviral drugs are presented. PMID:29082230

  9. Viruses infecting marine molluscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arzul, Isabelle; Corbeil, Serge; Morga, Benjamin; Renault, Tristan

    2017-07-01

    Although a wide range of viruses have been reported in marine molluscs, most of these reports rely on ultrastructural examination and few of these viruses have been fully characterized. The lack of marine mollusc cell lines restricts virus isolation capacities and subsequent characterization works. Our current knowledge is mostly restricted to viruses affecting farmed species such as oysters Crassostrea gigas, abalone Haliotis diversicolor supertexta or the scallop Chlamys farreri. Molecular approaches which are needed to identify virus affiliation have been carried out for a small number of viruses, most of them belonging to the Herpesviridae and birnaviridae families. These last years, the use of New Generation Sequencing approach has allowed increasing the number of sequenced viral genomes and has improved our capacity to investigate the diversity of viruses infecting marine molluscs. This new information has in turn allowed designing more efficient diagnostic tools. Moreover, the development of experimental infection protocols has answered some questions regarding the pathogenesis of these viruses and their interactions with their hosts. Control and management of viral diseases in molluscs mostly involve active surveillance, implementation of effective bio security measures and development of breeding programs. However factors triggering pathogen development and the life cycle and status of the viruses outside their mollusc hosts still need further investigations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. A mixed methods study to assess the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting among children under-five years in Districts Thatta and Sujawal, Sindh Province, Pakistan: study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumra Kureishy

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Maternal and child malnutrition is widely prevalent in low and middle income countries. In Pakistan, widespread food insecurity and malnutrition are the main contributors to poor health, low survival rates and the loss of human capital development. The nutritional status trends among children exhibit a continuous deteriorating with rates of malnutrition exceeding the WHO critical threshold. With the high prevalence of maternal and child malnutrition, it is important to identify effective preventative approaches, especially for reducing stunting in children under-five years of age. The primary aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting in children under-five years. Methods A mixed methods study design will be conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of food-based interventions to prevent stunting among children under-five years in districts Thatta and Sujawal, Sindh Province, Pakistan. The study will include cross sectional surveys, a community-based cluster randomized controlled trial and a process evaluation. The study participants will be pregnant women, lactating mothers and children under-five years. The cross-sectional surveys will be conducted with 7360 study participants at baseline and endline. For the randomized control trial, 5000 participants will be recruited and followed monthly for compliance of food-based supplements, dietary diversity, pregnancy outcomes, and maternal and child morbidity and mortality. Anthropometric measurements and hemoglobin levels will be measured at baseline, quarterly and at endline. The interventions will consist of locally produced lipid-based nutrient supplement (Wawamum for children 6–23 months, micronutrient powders for children 24–59 months, and wheat soya blends for pregnant and lactating mothers. Government lady health workers will deliver interventions to participants. The effectiveness of the project will be measured in

  11. Screening for sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.)) viruses and their elimination using thermotheraphy-meristem tip culture technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkorful, E.

    2012-11-01

    Despite its high potential for food security, production of sweet potato is constrained by viruses which reduce yield by 90%. It is therefore essential to screen for, identify and eliminate these viruses in elite clones before dissemination to farmers. In this study, visual symptomatology and PCR-based techniques were used to identify sweet potato viruses. Visual symptomatology revealed virus associated symptoms ranging from vein clearing, interveinal chlorosis, chlorotic spots, upward curling on leaf edges, leaf narrowing and distortion, purpling, blistering, reduction of the leaf blades and general leaf yellowing in all 22 accessions grown on the field. Disease Incidence (DI) significantly (p≤0.05) varied between accessions with US003 having the lowest (20%) while ten accessions had 90% DI at the end of the study. Index of symptom severity of all plants (ISSap) ranged from 1.08±0.09 to 3.67 ±0.11 with VOTCR003 having the lowest suggesting that it is a moderately susceptible accession while VOTCR002 had the highest suggesting that it is susceptible to viral diseases. Contrarily, index of symptom severity of diseased plants (ISSdp) ranged from 2.00±0.25 to 3.75±0.32. The accession VOTCR002 had the highest ISSdp. Visual symptomatology showed that VOTCR002 had the highest DI, ISSap and ISSdp suggesting that it is highly susceptible to viral diseases. Ten severely infected accessions were tested for Sweet Potato leaf curl virus (SPLCV), Sweet Potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV), Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) and Sweet Potato mild mottle virus (SPMMV) using PCR and RT-PCR techniques. RT-PCR did not amplify any of the virus genomes due to prolonged storage enzymes, In contrast, PCR detected SPLCV in 30% of the accessions. Plants infected with SPLCV were grown in the chamber at 35 degrees celsius for 4 weeks followed by meristem top culture. The regenerants were indexed after ten weeks for SPLCV. Fifty two percent (52.385 od the regenerants were

  12. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rydberg, Henny; Marrone, Gaetano; Strömdahl, Susanne; von Schreeb, Johan

    2015-01-01

    Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity. We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001. Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  13. A Promising Tool to Assess Long Term Public Health Effects of Natural Disasters: Combining Routine Health Survey Data and Geographic Information Systems to Assess Stunting after the 2001 Earthquake in Peru.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henny Rydberg

    Full Text Available Research on long-term health effects of earthquakes is scarce, especially in low- and middle-income countries, which are disproportionately affected by disasters. To date, progress in this area has been hampered by the lack of tools to accurately measure these effects. Here, we explored whether long-term public health effects of earthquakes can be assessed using a combination of readily available data sources on public health and geographic distribution of seismic activity.We used childhood stunting as a proxy for public health effects. Data on stunting were attained from Demographic and Health Surveys. Earthquake data were obtained from U.S. Geological Survey's ShakeMaps, geographic information system-based maps that divide earthquake affected areas into different shaking intensity zones. We combined these two data sources to categorize the surveyed children into different earthquake exposure groups, based on how much their area of residence was affected by the earthquake. We assessed the feasibility of the approach using a real earthquake case--an 8.4 magnitude earthquake that hit southern Peru in 2001.Our results indicate that the combination of health survey data and disaster data may offer a readily accessible and accurate method for determining the long-term public health consequences of a natural disaster. Our work allowed us to make pre- and post-earthquake comparisons of stunting, an important indicator of the well-being of a society, as well as comparisons between populations with different levels of exposure to the earthquake. Furthermore, the detailed GIS based data provided a precise and objective definition of earthquake exposure. Our approach should be considered in future public health and disaster research exploring the long-term effects of earthquakes and potentially other natural disasters.

  14. Controle químico da cigarrinha-do-milho e incidência dos enfezamentos causados por molicutes Chemical control of corn leafhopper and incidence of corn stunting diseases caused by mollicutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Martins de Oliveira

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a eficiência do tratamento inseticida de sementes de milho no controle de Dalbulus maidis e na redução da incidência de enfezamentos em viveiro telado e em campo. Foram realizados dois experimentos; no experimento 1, em viveiro telado, sementes de milho foram tratadas com imidacloprid e thiamethoxan e, nessas plantas, cigarrinhas sadias, cigarrinhas infectantes com fitoplasma ou com espiroplasma foram confinadas. Avaliaram-se eficiência de controle, incidência de plantas com enfezamentos, altura das plantas e produção de grãos. No experimento 2, em campo, imidacloprid e thiamethoxan foram utilizados em tratamento de sementes e pulverizações aos 10 e 20 dias após a semeadura. A incidência de enfezamentos e a produção de grãos foram avaliadas. Em viveiro telado, os produtos imidacloprid e thiamethoxan proporcionaram controle de adultos de D. maidis acima de 50%, até o trigésimo dia, e reduziram a incidência de doenças e danos no crescimento e produção das plantas infectadas expostas às cigarrinhas infectantes aos dois dias após a emergência. Em campo, não foi constatada redução na incidência de enfezamentos ou ganho em produção, possivelmente devido ao fluxo migratório de cigarrinhas infectantes.The objective of this work was to verify the efficiency of maize seed treatment on Dalbulus maidis control, and its effect on corn stunting diseases incidence, at screenhouse and at field. Two experiments were carried out. In the experiment 1 ( screenhouse, maize seeds were treated with imidacloprid or with thiamethoxan. Healthy leafhoppers, phytoplasma infective leafhoppers, and spiroplasma infective leafhoppers were confined in plants. Efficiency of control, incidence of plants with corn stunting diseases, plant height, and grain production were evaluated. In the experiment 2 (field imidacloprid and thiamethoxan were used for seed treatment and sprayed at 10 and 20 days after sowing

  15. A Combined Intervention of Zinc, Multiple Micronutrients, and Albendazole Does Not Ameliorate Environmental Enteric Dysfunction or Stunting in Rural Malawian Children in a Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alfred Z; Shulman, Robert J; Crocker, Audrey H; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Maleta, Kenneth M; Devaraj, Sridevi; Manary, Mark J; Trehan, Indi

    2017-01-01

    Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and linear growth stunting affect many rural agrarian children in the developing world and contribute to the persistently high rates of stunting that are observed worldwide. Effective interventions to consistently ameliorate EED are lacking. We tested whether a bundle of safe and affordable interventions would decrease EED and stunting over 12-24 wk in a cohort of rural Malawian children 12-35 mo old. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in which the intervention group received a single dose of albendazole and 14 d of zinc at enrollment and after 20 wk. The intervention group also received a daily multiple micronutrient powder throughout the 24 wk of study. The primary outcomes were improvements in EED, as measured by the urinary lactulose-to-mannitol ratio (L:M ratio) from dual-sugar absorption testing, and linear growth. Urinary L:M ratios and anthropometric measurements were evaluated after 12 and 24 wk of intervention and compared with a placebo group that did not receive any of these interventions. A total of 254 children were enrolled at a mean age of 24 mo; 55% were female. Their mean weight-for-age z score was -1.5, and their mean length-for-age z score was -0.9. After 12 and 24 wk of study, increases in the L:M ratio did not differ between the intervention group (0.071 and 0.088 units, respectively) and the placebo group (0.073 and 0.080 units, respectively) (P = 0.87 and 0.19, respectively). Relative changes in length and weight also did not differ significantly between groups at any time point. The combined usage of albendazole, zinc, and a daily multiple micronutrient powder did not decrease EED or stunting in this population of agrarian children 12-35 mo old in rural Malawi. Alternative interventions to improve these diseases should be investigated. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02253095. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. A century of plant virus management in the Salinas valley of California, 'East of Eden'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisler, G C; Duffus, J E

    2000-11-01

    involves several cultural practices, but the use of resistant varieties is the most effective and is necessary where soils are infested. Rhizomania-resistant varieties are now available that perform almost as well as the non-resistant varieties under non-rhizomania conditions. Another soil-borne disease termed lettuce dieback, caused by a tomato bushy stunt-like tombusvirus, has become economically limiting to romaine and leaf lettuce varieties. The virus has no known vector and it seems to be moved through infested soil and water. Heavy rains in the past 4 years have caused flooding of the Salinas River and lettuce fields along the river have been affected severely by dieback. Studies are now in progress to characterize this new virus and identify sources of resistance. Agriculture in the Salinas Valley continues to grow and diversify, driven by demands for 'clean', high quality food by the American public and for export. The major aspects of plant virus control, including crop-free periods, breeding for resistance, elimination of inoculum sources, and vector control will continue to be vital to this expansion. Undoubtedly, the advances in crop production through genetic manipulation and advances in pest management through biological control will eventually become an important part of agricultural improvement.

  17. Pepino mosaic virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt, van der R.A.A.

    2009-01-01

    Pepino mosaic virus (PepMV) is a relatively new plant virus that has become a signifi cant agronomical problem in a relatively short period of time. It is a member of the genus Potexvirus within the family Flexiviridae and is readily mechanically transmissible. It is capable of infecting tomato

  18. Avian influenza virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is type A influenza that is adapted to avian host species. Although the virus can be isolated from numerous avian species, the natural host reservoir species are dabbling ducks, shorebirds and gulls. Domestic poultry species (poultry being defined as birds that are rais...

  19. Hepatitis viruses overview

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hepatitis is major cause of morbidity or mortality worldwide, particularly in the developing world. The major causes of infective hepatitis are hepatitis viruses. A, B, C, D or E. In the acute phase, there are no clinical features that can reliably differentiate between these viruses. Infection may be asymptomatic or can present as.

  20. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  1. Tobacco ringspot virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), and its vector, the dagger nematodes (Xiphinema americanum and related species) are widely distributed throughout the world. Cucumber, melon, and watermelon are particularly affected by TRSV. Symptoms can vary with plant age, the strain of the virus, and environment...

  2. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.

  3. Viruses in reptiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariel, Ellen

    2011-09-21

    The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself.

  4. ICTV Virus Taxonomy Profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simmonds, Peter; Becher, Paul; Bukh, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The Flaviviridae is a family of small enveloped viruses with RNA genomes of 9000-13 000 bases. Most infect mammals and birds. Many flaviviruses are host-specific and pathogenic, such as hepatitis C virus in the genus Hepacivirus. The majority of known members in the genus Flavivirus are arthropod...

  5. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purdy, Michael A.; Harrison, Tim J.; Jameel, S.; Meng, X.J.; Okamoto, H.; Poel, Van Der W.H.M.; Smith, Donald B.; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Knowles, Nick J.

    2017-01-01

    The family Hepeviridae includes enterically transmitted small non-enveloped positive-sense RNA viruses. It includes the genera Piscihepevirus, whose members infect fish, and Orthohepevirus, whose members infect mammals and birds. Members of the genus Orthohepevirus include hepatitis E virus, which

  6. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili,, David; Basta, Tamara; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2016-01-01

    Viruses infecting members of Archaea, the third domain of life, constitute an integral, yet unique part of the virosphere. Many of these viruses, specifically the species that infect hyperthermophilic hosts, display morphotypes – for example, bottle shaped, spindle shaped, droplet shaped, coil sh...

  7. Strategy as a Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Obed Madsen, Søren

    This article is based on virus theory (Røvik, 2007, 2011), and proposes to develop a framework that defines technology as a virus that penetrates the organism of an organization. The framework develops a new vocabulary, which can help in analyzing technologies and their negative effects on actors...... and organizations. In this paper, the virus theory is used to analyze a strategy process in an organization as an example of a technology. It shows how the strategy over time creates a memory loss, where the managers who are exposed to the virus forget their critique of the new strategy concept. The article also...... shows how resistant can be understood as being immune to a virus, since the strategy concepts bears resemblance to a former strategy concept. The article also argues that there should be more focus on the negative impacts of management tool and especially how organizations and managers are dealing...

  8. Widespread distribution and a new recombinant species of Brazilian virus associated with cotton blue disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvie P

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cotton blue disease (CBD, an important global cotton crop pathology responsible for major economic losses, is prevalent in the major cotton-producing states of Brazil. Typical CBD symptoms include stunting due to internodal shortening, leaf rolling, intense green foliage, and yellowing veins. Atypical CBD symptoms, including reddish and withered leaves, were also observed in Brazilian cotton fields in 2007. Recently, a Polerovirus named Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV was shown to be associated with CBD. Results To understand the distribution and genetic diversity of CLRDV in Brazil, we analyzed 23 CBD-symptomatic plants from susceptible cotton varieties originating from five of the six most important cotton-growing states, from 2004–2007. Here, we report on CLRDV diversity in plants with typical or atypical CBD symptoms by comparing viral coat protein, RNA polymerase (RdRp, and intergenic region genomic sequences. Conclusion The virus had a widespread distribution with a low genetic diversity; however, three divergent isolates were associated with atypical CBD symptoms. These divergent isolates had a CLRDV-related coat protein but a distinct RdRp sequence, and probably arose from recombination events. Based on the taxonomic rules for the family Luteoviridae, we propose that these three isolates represent isolates of a new species in the genus Polerovirus.

  9. Widespread distribution and a new recombinant species of Brazilian virus associated with cotton blue disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, T F; Corrêa, R L; Castilho, Y; Silvie, P; Bélot, J-L; Vaslin, M F S

    2008-10-20

    Cotton blue disease (CBD), an important global cotton crop pathology responsible for major economic losses, is prevalent in the major cotton-producing states of Brazil. Typical CBD symptoms include stunting due to internodal shortening, leaf rolling, intense green foliage, and yellowing veins. Atypical CBD symptoms, including reddish and withered leaves, were also observed in Brazilian cotton fields in 2007. Recently, a Polerovirus named Cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV) was shown to be associated with CBD. To understand the distribution and genetic diversity of CLRDV in Brazil, we analyzed 23 CBD-symptomatic plants from susceptible cotton varieties originating from five of the six most important cotton-growing states, from 2004-2007. Here, we report on CLRDV diversity in plants with typical or atypical CBD symptoms by comparing viral coat protein, RNA polymerase (RdRp), and intergenic region genomic sequences. The virus had a widespread distribution with a low genetic diversity; however, three divergent isolates were associated with atypical CBD symptoms. These divergent isolates had a CLRDV-related coat protein but a distinct RdRp sequence, and probably arose from recombination events. Based on the taxonomic rules for the family Luteoviridae, we propose that these three isolates represent isolates of a new species in the genus Polerovirus.

  10. Laboratory investigations of African Pouched Rats (Cricetomys gambianus) as a potential reservoir host species for Monkeypox Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutson, Christina L.; Nakazawa, Yoshinori J.; Self, Joshua; Olson, Victoria A.; Regnery, Russell L.; Braden, Zachary; Weiss, Sonja; Malekani, Jean; Jackson, Eddie; Tate, Mallory; Karem, Kevin L.; Rocke, Tonie E.; Osorio, Jorge E.; Damon, Inger K.; Carroll, Darin S.

    2015-01-01

    Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease endemic to central and western Africa, where it is a major public health concern. Although Monkeypox virus (MPXV) and monkeypox disease in humans have been well characterized, little is known about its natural history, or its maintenance in animal populations of sylvatic reservoir(s). In 2003, several species of rodents imported from Ghana were involved in a monkeypox outbreak in the United States with individuals of three African rodent genera (Cricetomys, Graphiurus, Funisciurus) shown to be infected with MPXV. Here, we examine the course of MPXV infection in Cricetomys gambianus (pouched Gambian rats) and this rodent species’ competence as a host for the virus. We obtained ten Gambian rats from an introduced colony in Grassy Key, Florida and infected eight of these via scarification with a challenge dose of 4X104 plaque forming units (pfu) from either of the two primary clades of MPXV: Congo Basin (C-MPXV: n = 4) or West African (W-MPXV: n = 4); an additional 2 animals served as PBS controls. Viral shedding and the effect of infection on activity and physiological aspects of the animals were measured. MPXV challenged animals had significantly higher core body temperatures, reduced activity and increased weight loss than PBS controls. Viable virus was found in samples taken from animals in both experimental groups (C-MPXV and W-MPXV) between 3 and 27 days post infection (p.i.) (up to 1X108pfu/ml), with viral DNA found until day 56 p.i. The results from this work show that Cricetomys gambianus (and by inference, probably the closely related species, Cricetomys emini) can be infected with MPXV and shed viable virus particles; thus suggesting that these animals may be involved in the maintenance of MPXV in wildlife mammalian populations. More research is needed to elucidate the epidemiology of MPXV and the role of Gambian rats and other species.

  11. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  12. Zika virus infection: a public health emergency!

    OpenAIRE

    Qureshi, Muhammad Salman Haider; Qureshi, Bakhtawar Wajeeha; Khan, Ramsha

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus belongs to the family of Flaviviridae. The Flaviviridae family also includes other human pathogens like West Nile virus (WNV), Yellow fever virus (YFV), mosquito transmitted Dengue virus (DENV), Tick borne encephalitic virus (TBEV) and Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV). Zika virus is a mosquito-borne disease and is transmitted by Aedes aegypti mosquito.

  13. Hepatitis A virus antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Novak, J.; Kselikova, M.; Urbankova, J.

    1980-01-01

    A description is presented of a radioimmunoassay designed to prove the presence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus (HA Ab, anti-Ha) using an Abbott HAVAB set. This proof as well as the proof of the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis B virus is based on competition between a normal antibody against hepatitis A virus and a 125 I-labelled antibody for the binding sites of a specific antigen spread all over the surface of a tiny ball; this is then indirect proof of the antibody under investigation. The method is described of reading the results from the number of impulses per 60 seconds: the higher the titre of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in the serum examined, the lower the activity of the specimen concerned. The rate is reported of incidence of the antibody against the hepatitis A virus in a total of 68 convalescents after hepatitis A; the antibody was found in 94.1%. The immunoglobulin made from the convalescents' plasma showed the presence of antibodies in dilutions as high as 1:250 000 while the comparable ratio for normal immunoglobulin Norga was only 1:2500. Differences are discussed in the time incidence of the antibodies against the hepatitis A virus, the antibodies against the surface antigen of hepatitis B, and the antibody against the nucleus of the hepatitis V virus. (author)

  14. Ocular Tropism of Respiratory Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A.; Tumpey, Terrence M.

    2013-01-01

    SUMMARY Respiratory viruses (including adenovirus, influenza virus, respiratory syncytial virus, coronavirus, and rhinovirus) cause a broad spectrum of disease in humans, ranging from mild influenza-like symptoms to acute respiratory failure. While species D adenoviruses and subtype H7 influenza viruses are known to possess an ocular tropism, documented human ocular disease has been reported following infection with all principal respiratory viruses. In this review, we describe the anatomical proximity and cellular receptor distribution between ocular and respiratory tissues. All major respiratory viruses and their association with human ocular disease are discussed. Research utilizing in vitro and in vivo models to study the ability of respiratory viruses to use the eye as a portal of entry as well as a primary site of virus replication is highlighted. Identification of shared receptor-binding preferences, host responses, and laboratory modeling protocols among these viruses provides a needed bridge between clinical and laboratory studies of virus tropism. PMID:23471620

  15. Colour break in reverse bicolour daffodils is associated with the presence of Narcissus mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Kevin M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daffodils (Narcissus pseudonarcissus are one of the world's most popular ornamentals. They also provide a scientific model for studying the carotenoid pigments responsible for their yellow and orange flower colours. In reverse bicolour daffodils, the yellow flower trumpet fades to white with age. The flowers of this type of daffodil are particularly prone to colour break whereby, upon opening, the yellow colour of the perianth is observed to be 'broken' into patches of white. This colour break symptom is characteristic of potyviral infections in other ornamentals such as tulips whose colour break is due to alterations in the presence of anthocyanins. However, reverse bicolour flowers displaying colour break show no other virus-like symptoms such as leaf mottling or plant stunting, leading some to argue that the carotenoid-based colour breaking in reverse bicolour flowers may not be caused by virus infection. Results Although potyviruses have been reported to cause colour break in other flower species, enzyme-linked-immunoassays with an antibody specific to the potyviral family showed that potyviruses were not responsible for the occurrence of colour break in reverse bicolour daffodils. Colour break in this type of daffodil was clearly associated with the presence of large quantities of rod-shaped viral particles of lengths 502-580 nm in tepals. Sap from flowers displaying colour break caused red necrotic lesions on Gomphrena globosa, suggesting the presence of potexvirus. Red necrotic lesions were not observed in this indicator plant when sap from reverse bicolour flowers not showing colour break was used. The reverse transcriptase polymerase reactions using degenerate primers to carla-, potex- and poty-viruses linked viral RNA with colour break and sequencing of the amplified products indicated that the potexvirus Narcissisus mosaic virus was the predominant virus associated with the occurrence of the colour break

  16. Cotton leaf curl Burewala virus with intact or mutant transcriptional activator proteins: complexity of cotton leaf curl disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Jitendra; Gunapati, Samatha; Alok, Anshu; Lalit, Adarsh; Gadre, Rekha; Sharma, Naresh C; Roy, Joy K; Singh, Sudhir P

    2015-05-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is a serious disease of cotton on the Indian subcontinent. In the present study, three cotton leaf curl viruses, cotton leaf curl Burewala virus (CLCuBuV), cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV) and cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMV), and their associated satellites, cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB) and cotton leaf curl Multan alphasatellite (CLCuMA), were detected. CLCuBuV with either intact (CLCuBuV-1) or mutant (CLCuBuV-2) transcriptional activator protein (TrAP) were detected in different plants. Agroinoculation with CLCuBuV-1 or CLCuBuV-2 together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, resulted in typical leaf curling and stunting of tobacco plants. Inoculation with CLCuKoV or an isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-2), together with CLCuMB and CLCuMA, induced severe leaf curling, while the other isolate of CLCuMV (CLCuMV-1), which was recombinant in origin, showed mild leaf curling in tobacco. To investigate the effect of intact or mutant TrAP and also the recombination events, CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2, CLCuMV-1 or CLCuMV-2 together with the satellites (CLCuMA and CLCuMB) were transferred to cotton via whitefly-mediated transmission. Cotton plants containing CLCuBuV-1, CLCuBuV-2 or CLCuMV-2 together with satellites showed curling and stunting, whereas the plants having CLCuMV-1 and the satellites showed only mild and indistinguishable symptoms. CLCuBuV-1 (intact TrAP) showed severe symptoms in comparison to CLCuBuV-2 (mutant TrAP). The present study reveals that two types of CLCuBuV, one with an intact TrAP and the other with a mutant TrAP, exist in natural infection of cotton in India. Additionally, CLCuMuV-1, which has a recombinant origin, induces mild symptoms in comparison to the other CLCuMV isolates.

  17. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...... virulent. Virulence factors both depend on the ability of VHSV to enter a cell and on the speed and efficiencyof virus replication in the cells. Apparently the viral nucleocapsid protein plays a very important role for the later and seems to be the target for determination of a virulence marker....

  18. Zika virus in Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veasna Duong

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored.

  19. Zika virus in Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Veasna Duong; Philippe Dussart; Philippe Buchy

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of...

  20. Zika virus in Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, Veasna; Dussart, Philippe; Buchy, Philippe

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne virus that was first isolated from a sentinel rhesus monkey in the Zika Forest in Uganda in 1947. In Asia, the virus was isolated in Malaysia from Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in 1966, and the first human infections were reported in 1977 in Central Java, Indonesia. In this review, all reported cases of ZIKV infection in Asia as of September 1, 2016 are summarized and some of the hypotheses that could currently explain the apparently low incidence of Zika cases in Asia are explored. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  1. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  2. BS-virus-finder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shengjie; Hu, Xuesong; Xu, Fengping

    2018-01-01

    Background: DNA methylation plays a key role in the regulation of gene expression and carcinogenesis. Bisulfite sequencing studies mainly focus on calling SNP, DMR, and ASM. Until now, only a few software tools focus on virus integration using bisulfite sequencing data. Findings: We have developed...... a new and easy-to-use software tool, named BS-virus-finder (BSVF, RRID:SCR_015727), to detect viral integration breakpoints in whole human genomes. The tool is hosted at https://github.com/BGI-SZ/BSVF. Conclusions: BS-virus-finder demonstrates high sensitivity and specificity. It is useful in epigenetic...

  3. Identification and Molecular Analysis of Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV in Mazandaran Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Moradi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Among legume crops, common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is one of the most important worldwide crops, because of its cultivation area and nutritional value. The closely related potyviruses Bean common mosaic virus (BCMV and Bean common mosaic necrosis virus (BCMNV are the most common and most destructive viruses that infect common beans throughout the world. The viruses induced similar symptoms in numerous bean genotypes, including mosaic, leaf distortion, stunting, and lethal necrosis. Like all potyviruses, BCMV and BCMNV have non-enveloped flexuous filamentous virions of 750 nm long and 11–13 nm wide, which encapsidate a single-stranded, positive-sense RNA molecule of approximately 10,000 nt long. Both are naturally transmitted by aphids in a non-persistent manner and by seed, which explains their worldwide distribution. These viruses are major constraints on bean production and can cause serious crop losses. Mazanadaran province in north of Iran is one of the major producing areas of legumes, so identification of these viruses is a concern. However, so far, no studies have been done with these viruses in this province. The aim of this research was to study the existence of BCMV and BCMNV in research areas and determining of their phylogenetic relationship. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR with degenerate primers for conserved sequences of the viral genomes has facilitated the rapid detection of many potyviruses and enabled partial genomic sequencing. In the absence of complete genomic sequences of potyviruses, CI-coding region is more suitable for diagnostic and taxonomy purposes, rather than the coat protein (CP usually used. The CI gene most accurately reflects the taxonomic status according to the complete ORF. Materials and Methods: From July to September 2013 and 2014, a total of 50 leaf samples of beans showing virus symptoms were collected from different bean fields in Mazandaran province. Total RNA was extracted from all

  4. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.

  5. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG ... Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates Practice ...

  6. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  7. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  8. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    First page Back Continue Last page Overview Graphics. CLASSIFICATION OF VIRUSES. On basis of morphology. On basis of chemical composition. On basis of structure of genome. On basis of mode of replication. Notes:

  9. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and ... on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & Governance ...

  10. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... and Pregnancy Page Navigation ▼ ACOG Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September ...

  11. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ... Infographic Resources & Publications Committee Opinions Practice ... Coding Health Info Technology Professional Liability Managing Your ...

  12. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  13. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ... pregnant. Related: Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Committee Opinions Practice Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal ...

  14. Hepatitis E Virus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Before the discovery of hepatitis E virus (HEV), many epidemics of hepatitis in ... HEV was discovered in 1983 in the ... HEV infection is increased by HIV infection in pregnancy. (Caron et al. .... immunosuppressive therapy on the natural history.

  15. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pregnancy Book Patient Education FAQs Patient Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy ... Council on Patient Safety For Patients Patient FAQs Spanish Pamphlets Teen Health About ACOG About Us Leadership & ...

  16. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Login My ACOG Join Pay Dues Follow us: Women's Health Care Physicians Contact Us My ACOG ACOG Departments Donate Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus ...

  17. VIRUS instrument enclosures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prochaska, T.; Allen, R.; Mondrik, N.; Rheault, J. P.; Sauseda, M.; Boster, E.; James, M.; Rodriguez-Patino, M.; Torres, G.; Ham, J.; Cook, E.; Baker, D.; DePoy, Darren L.; Marshall, Jennifer L.; Hill, G. J.; Perry, D.; Savage, R. D.; Good, J. M.; Vattiat, Brian L.

    2014-08-01

    The Visible Integral-Field Replicable Unit Spectrograph (VIRUS) instrument will be installed at the Hobby-Eberly Telescope† in the near future. The instrument will be housed in two enclosures that are mounted adjacent to the telescope, via the VIRUS Support Structure (VSS). We have designed the enclosures to support and protect the instrument, to enable servicing of the instrument, and to cool the instrument appropriately while not adversely affecting the dome environment. The system uses simple HVAC air handling techniques in conjunction with thermoelectric and standard glycol heat exchangers to provide efficient heat removal. The enclosures also provide power and data transfer to and from each VIRUS unit, liquid nitrogen cooling to the detectors, and environmental monitoring of the instrument and dome environments. In this paper, we describe the design and fabrication of the VIRUS enclosures and their subsystems.

  18. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way ofdescribing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledgeproduction. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basicdistinctions...... that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable enginesof organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized bystability in terms of their basic productive configuration, while at the same time allowing for a highdegree of variation in terms...... of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...

  19. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Shop Career Connection Home Clinical Guidance & Publications Practice Management Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and ... Bulletins Patient Education Green Journal Clinical Updates ... Annual Meeting CME Overview CREOG Meetings Calendar Congressional ...

  20. Crop-associated virus reduces the rooting depth of non-crop perennial native grass more than non-crop-associated virus with known viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmstrom, Carolyn M; Bigelow, Patrick; Trębicki, Piotr; Busch, Anna K; Friel, Colleen; Cole, Ellen; Abdel-Azim, Heba; Phillippo, Colin; Alexander, Helen M

    2017-09-15

    As agricultural acreage expanded and came to dominate landscapes across the world, viruses gained opportunities to move between crop and wild native plants. In the Midwestern USA, virus exchange currently occurs between widespread annual Poaceae crops and remnant native perennial prairie grasses now under consideration as bioenergy feedstocks. In this region, the common aphid species Rhopalosiphum padi L. (the bird cherry-oat aphid) transmits several virus species in the family Luteoviridae, including Barley yellow dwarf virus (BYDV-PAV, genus Luteovirus) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus (CYDV-RPV and -RPS, genus Polerovirus). The yellow dwarf virus (YDV) species in these two genera share genetic similarities in their 3'-ends, but diverge in the 5'-regions. Most notably, CYDVs encode a P0 viral suppressor of RNA silencing (VSR) absent in BYDV-PAV. Because BYDV-PAV has been reported more frequently in annual cereals and CYDVs in perennial non-crop grasses, we examine the hypothesis that the viruses' genetic differences reflect different affinities for crop and non-crop hosts. Specifically, we ask (i) whether CYDVs might persist within and affect a native non-crop grass more strongly than BYDV-PAV, on the grounds that the polerovirus VSR could better moderate the defenses of a well-defended perennial, and (ii) whether the opposite pattern of effects might occur in a less defended annual crop. Because previous work found that the VSR of CYDV-RPS possessed greater silencing suppressor efficiency than that of CYDV-RPV, we further explored (iii) whether a novel grass-associated CYDV-RPS isolate would influence a native non-crop grass more strongly than a comparable CYDV-RPV isolate. In growth chamber studies, we found support for this hypothesis: only grass-associated CYDV-RPS stunted the shoots and crowns of Panicum virgatum L. (switchgrass), a perennial native North American prairie grass, whereas crop-associated BYDV-PAV (and coinfection with BYDV-PAV and CYDV-RPS) most

  1. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  2. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  3. Viruses and Multiple Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virtanen, Jussi Oskari; Jacobson, Steve

    2016-01-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a heterogeneous disease that develops as an interplay between the immune system and environmental stimuli in genetically susceptible individuals. There is increasing evidence that viruses may play a role in MS pathogenesis acting as these environmental triggers. However, it is not known if any single virus is causal, or rather several viruses can act as triggers in disease development. Here, we review the association of different viruses to MS with an emphasis on two herpesviruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6). These two agents have generated the most impact during recent years as possible co-factors in MS disease development. The strongest argument for association of EBV with MS comes from the link between symptomatic infectious mononucleosis and MS and from seroepidemiological studies. In contrast to EBV, HHV-6 has been found significantly more often in MS plaques than in MS normal appearing white matter or non-MS brains and HHV-6 re-activation has been reported during MS clinical relapses. In this review we also suggest new strategies, including the development of new infectious animal models of MS and antiviral MS clinical trials, to elucidate roles of different viruses in the pathogenesis of this disease. Furthermore, we introduce the idea of using unbiased sequence-independent pathogen discovery methodologies, such as next generation sequencing, to study MS brain tissue or body fluids for detection of known viral sequences or potential novel viral agents. PMID:22583435

  4. Transmission of Influenza A Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Gabriele; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2015-01-01

    Influenza A viruses cause respiratory infections that range from asymptomatic to deadly in humans. Widespread outbreaks (pandemics) are attributable to ‘novel’ viruses that possess a viral hemagglutinin (HA) gene to which humans lack immunity. After a pandemic, these novel viruses form stable virus lineages in humans and circulate until they are replaced by other novel viruses. The factors and mechanisms that facilitate virus transmission among hosts and the establishment of novel lineages are not completely understood, but the HA and basic polymerase 2 (PB2) proteins are thought to play essential roles in these processes by enabling avian influenza viruses to infect mammals and replicate efficiently in their new host. Here, we summarize our current knowledge of the contributions of HA, PB2, and other viral components to virus transmission and the formation of new virus lineages. PMID:25812763

  5. Evolutionary ecology of virus emergence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennehy, John J

    2017-02-01

    The cross-species transmission of viruses into new host populations, termed virus emergence, is a significant issue in public health, agriculture, wildlife management, and related fields. Virus emergence requires overlap between host populations, alterations in virus genetics to permit infection of new hosts, and adaptation to novel hosts such that between-host transmission is sustainable, all of which are the purview of the fields of ecology and evolution. A firm understanding of the ecology of viruses and how they evolve is required for understanding how and why viruses emerge. In this paper, I address the evolutionary mechanisms of virus emergence and how they relate to virus ecology. I argue that, while virus acquisition of the ability to infect new hosts is not difficult, limited evolutionary trajectories to sustained virus between-host transmission and the combined effects of mutational meltdown, bottlenecking, demographic stochasticity, density dependence, and genetic erosion in ecological sinks limit most emergence events to dead-end spillover infections. Despite the relative rarity of pandemic emerging viruses, the potential of viruses to search evolutionary space and find means to spread epidemically and the consequences of pandemic viruses that do emerge necessitate sustained attention to virus research, surveillance, prophylaxis, and treatment. © 2016 New York Academy of Sciences.

  6. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. WHO 2006 child growth standards: implications for the prevalence of stunting and underweight-for-age in a birth cohort of Gabonese children in comparison to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention 2000 growth charts and the National Center for Health Statistics 1978 growth references

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwarz, Norbert G.; Grobusch, Martin P.; Decker, Marie-Luise; Goesch, Julia; Poetschke, Marc; Oyakhirome, Sunny; Kombila, Davy; Fortin, Julien; Lell, Bertrand; Issifou, Saadou; Kremsner, Peter G.; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the proportion of children being stunted and underweight-for-age at 3, 9 and 15 months in Lambaréné, Gabon, using the WHO child growth standards released in 2006 as compared with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 2000 and the National Center for Health

  8. Molecular confirmation of Maize rayado fino virus as the Brazilian corn streak virus Confirmação molecular do 'Maize rayado fino virus' como vírus da estria do milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemarie Wahnbaeck Hammond

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV, present in various countries in Latin America, has shown similarities to corn streak virus that occurs in Brazil, regarding pathogenic, serological and histological characteristics. In the current report both virus were molecularly compared to confirm the similarities between them. MRFV was identified by nucleic acid hybridization in samples of maize tissues exhibiting symptoms of "corn stunt" disease, collected from two Brazilian States - São Paulo and Minas Gerais. The coat protein gene and 3'non-translated region of MRFV were amplified from infected tissues by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR using MRFV-specific primers, and were characterized by nucleotide sequence and phylogenetic analysis of the cloned PCR products. Phylogenetic analysis of the relationships between the Brazilian isolates and isolates obtained from Latin America and the United States reveals a close relationship to isolates from Brazil, Peru and Bolivia. Results support the proposal that the Brazilian corn streak virus be regarded as an isolate of MRFV and provide evidence for the presence of MRFV in "corn stunt' disease in Brazil.O vírus do rayado fino do milho (MRFV, presente em vários países da América Latina, tem mostrado semelhança ao vírus da risca do milho que ocorre no Brasil, em relação a características patogênicas, sorológicas e histológicas. No presente trabalho, ambos os vírus foram comparados molecularmente, visando confirmar a similaridade entre os mesmos. O MRFV foi identificado por hibridização de ácido nucléico em amostras de tecido que apresentavam sintomas de enfezamento, coletadas nos estados de São Paulo e Minas Gerais. O gene da capa protéica e a região 3' não traduzida do MRFV foram amplificados, a partir de tecidos infectados, através da transcrição reversa por reação em cadeia da polimerase (RT-PCR, usando-se os iniciadores específicos para o vírus, obtendo-se a seq

  9. Recombinant Vaccinia Virus: Immunization against Multiple Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkus, Marion E.; Piccini, Antonia; Lipinskas, Bernard R.; Paoletti, Enzo

    1985-09-01

    The coding sequences for the hepatitis B virus surface antigen, the herpes simplex virus glycoprotein D, and the influenza virus hemagglutinin were inserted into a single vaccinia virus genome. Rabbits inoculated intravenously or intradermally with this polyvalent vaccinia virus recombinant produced antibodies reactive to all three authentic foreign antigens. In addition, the feasibility of multiple rounds of vaccination with recombinant vaccinia virus was demonstrated.

  10. Viruses, definitions and reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Libia Herrero-Uribe

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are known to be abundant, ubiquitous, and to play a very important role in the health and evolution of life organisms. However, most biologists have considered them as entities separate from the realm of life and acting merely as mechanical artifacts that can exchange genes between different organisms. This article reviews some definitions of life organisms to determine if viruses adjust to them, and additionally, considers new discoveries to challenge the present definition of viruses. Definitions of life organisms have been revised in order to validate how viruses fit into them. Viral factories are discussed since these mini-organelles are a good example of the complexity of viral infection, not as a mechanical usurpation of cell structures, but as a driving force leading to the reorganization and modification of cell structures by viral and cell enzymes. New discoveries such as the Mimivirus, its virophage and viruses that produce filamentous tails when outside of their host cell, have stimulated the scientific community to analyze the current definition of viruses. One way to be free for innovation is to learn from life, without rigid mental structures or tied to the past, in order to understand in an integrated view the new discoveries that will be unfolded in future research. Life processes must be looked from the complexity and trans-disciplinarity perspective that includes and accepts the temporality of the active processes of life organisms, their interdependency and interrelation among them and their environment. New insights must be found to redefine life organisms, especially viruses, which still are defined using the same concepts and knowledge of the fifties. Rev. Biol. Trop. 59 (3: 993-998. Epub 2011 September 01.Los virus son abundantes, ubicuos, y juegan un papel muy importante en la salud y en la evolución de los organismos vivos. Sin embargo, la mayoría de los biólogos los siguen considerado como entidades separadas

  11. Alguns fatores associados a excesso de peso, baixa estatura e déficit de peso em menores de 5 anos Some risk factors associated with overweight, stunting and wasting among children under 5 years old

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia R. Vitolo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Examinar fatores socioeconômicos e outras condições de vida familiar associadas a excesso de peso, baixa estatura e baixo peso para a estatura em menores de 5 anos. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal avaliou 3.957 crianças entre 1 mês e 5 anos de idade durante campanha nacional de imunização no município de São Leopoldo (RS em 2002. As condições socioeconômicas e de saneamento das áreas de abrangência das unidades de saúde foram agrupadas por análise de cluster dos setores do censo populacional de 2001. RESULTADOS: Déficit de peso para estatura ocorreu em 2,6% das crianças, baixa estatura em 9,1% e excesso de peso em 9,8%. A regressão logística multivariada sugere que os fatores associados à chance de excesso de peso foram: área de condições socioeconômicas alta (RC = 1,47; IC95% 1,09-1,96, filhos únicos (RC = 1,44; IC95% 1,00-2,07 e peso ao nascer ≥ 2.500 g (RC = 2,21; IC95%1,27-3,83. A chance de déficit de peso associou-se ao baixo peso ao nascer (RC = 3,46; IC95% 2,06-5,80 e idade da mãe OBJECTIVE: To explore whether socioeconomic and sanitary conditions, maternal and child factors are associated with overweight, stunting, and wasting in children under five year old in the city of São Leopoldo, southern Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 3,957 children aged 1 month to 5 years conducted in all primary care services of the city during the National Children's Vaccination Day in 2002. Maternal and child factors were assessed by a questionnaire. Children's height and weight were measured. Cluster analysis was used to group the areas served by the primary care services according to socioeconomic and sanitary conditions of the census tracts assessed by the 2001 National Census. RESULTS: Wasting was observed in 2.6% of children, stunting in 9.1% and overweight in 9.8%. The multivariable logistic regression model suggests that overweight was associated with higher socioeconomic status and better sanitation of

  12. Prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus, hepatitis C virus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and syphilis remain major infections around the world. In Angola, about 166 000 individuals are living with HIV, representing a prevalence of 1.98% in adults between 15 and 49 years of age. In a 2003 study in Luanda, 4.5% ...

  13. [Viruses and civilization].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chastel, C

    1999-01-01

    A few million years ago, when primates moved from the east African forest to the savannah, they were already infected with endogenous viruses and occultly transmitted them to the prime Homo species. However it was much later with the building of the first large cities in Mesopotamia that interhuman viral transmission began in earnest. Spreading was further enhanced with the organization of the Egyptian, Greek, Roman, and Arab empires around the Mediterranean. Discovery of the New World in 1492 led to an unprecedented clash of civilizations and the destruction of pre-Columbian Indian civilizations. It also led to a rapid spread of viruses across the Atlantic Ocean with the emergence of yellow fever and appearance of smallpox and measles throughout the world. However the greatest opportunities for worldwide viral development have been created by our present, modern civilization. This fact is illustrated by epidemic outbreaks of human immunodeficiency virus, Venezuela hemorrhagic fever, Rift valley fever virus, and monkey pox virus. Close analysis underscores the major role of human intervention in producing these events.

  14. Nipah Virus (NiV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Nipah Virus (NiV) Note: Javascript is disabled or is not ... gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Nipah virus (NiV) is a member of the family Paramyxoviridae , ...

  15. Epstein-Barr virus test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  16. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  17. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gisder, Sebastian; Genersch, Elke

    2015-01-01

    Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus), or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus), and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach) applied in the field. PMID:26702462

  18. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014- ...

  19. Chino del tomate virus:Relationships to Other Begomoviruses and Identification of A-Component Variants that Affect Symptom Expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, J K; Ostrow, K M; Idris, A M; Stenger, D C

    2000-05-01

    Phylogenetic and distance analyses place Chino del tomate virus (CdTV) in the New World clade of begomoviruses and indicate that CdTV and Tomato leaf crumple virus (TLCrV) are closely related strains of the same virus. One cloned CdTV A component (pCdTV-H6), when inoculated to tomato with the B component (pCdTV-B52), produced mild symptoms and low DNA titers. Another cloned CdTV A component (pCdTV-H8), when coinoculated to tomato with the B component, produced moderate leaf curling and veinal chlorosis similar to that of TLCrV. Coinoculation of both CdTV A components and the B component to tomato produced wild-type chino del tomate (CdT) disease symptoms consisting of severe leaf curling, veinal and interveinal chlorosis, and stunting. The two CdTV A components were nearly identical, except at nucleotide positions 1,722 and 2,324. The polymorphism at nucleotide 1,722 resulted in a change at Rep amino acid 261. The second polymorphism at nucleotide 2,324 resulted in changes at Rep amino acid 60 and AC4 amino acid 10. Two chimeric A components constructed by reciprocal exchange of a fragment bearing the polymorphic site at nucleotide 1,722 were evaluated for symptom phenotype. One chimeric A component (pCdTV-H86) produced wild-type CdT symptoms when coinoculated to tomato with the B component. The reciprocal chimeric A component (pCdTV-H68), when coin-oculated to tomato with the B component, also produced severe leaf curling, veinal chlorosis, and stunting. However, pCdTV-H68 induced less obvious interveinal chlorosis than wild-type or pCdTV-H86. Examination of A component genotypes recovered from tomato coinoculated with pCdTV-H6 and pCdTV-H8 indicated that recombination occurred to produce a genotype identical to pCdTV-H86. These results indicate that subtle genotypic variation has significant effects on symptom expression and may explain phenotypic differences observed among isolates and cloned DNAs of CdTV and TLCrV.

  20. Zika virus: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Rawal

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Zika virus has been in the news for quite some time due to the ongoing recent outbreak in the Southern America, which started in December 2015. It has been declared a public health emergency by the World Health Organization in February 2016 owing to its association with the congenital deformities, particularly microcephaly in infants borne to the infected mothers. The rapid spread of the virus throughout the United States of America and subsequently to Asia has raised serious international concerns. Its spread to countries neighboring India is a serious threat to the Indian population. This review article gives an overview about the virus, its diagnosis, clinical features, and the management.

  1. Archaeal virus-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, T.E.F.

    2013-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis provides novel insights in several aspects of the molecular

    biology of archaea, bacteria and their viruses.

    Three fundamentally different groups of viruses are associated with the three domains of life.

    Archaeal viruses are

  2. Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Douvoyiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

  3. Global emergence of Zika virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Tjan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus (ZIKV belongs to the flaviviruses (family Flaviviridae, which includes dengue, yellow fever, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. Zika virus was isolated in 1947, in the Zika forest near Kampala, Uganda, from one of the rhesus monkeys used as sentinel animals in a yellow fever research program.

  4. Control of Newcastle disease virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV), also know as avian paramyxovirus serotype 1, is an important poultry pathogen worldwide. In naive poultry, the virulent forms of the virus cause high mortality. Because of this the virus is reportable to the World Organization for Animal Health and can be an important ...

  5. An introduction to computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  6. SARS – virus jumps species

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    SARS – virus jumps species. Coronavirus reshuffles genes; Rotteir et al, Rotterdam showed the virus to jump from cats to mouse cells after single gene mutation ? Human disease due to virus jumping from wild or domestic animals; Present favourite animal - the cat; - edible or domestic.

  7. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  8. Monoclonal antibodies against plant viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandler, E.; Dietzgen, R.G.

    1984-01-01

    Ever since antigenic properties of plant viruses were discovered antisera have been raised and used for plant virus diagnosis and for the analysis of virus structure as well. From the early qualitative diagnosis method of precipitating the virus in clarified sap of an infected plant and the first quantitative application of the precipitin test vast progress has been made with regard to the development of highly sensitive and highly quantitative methods for virus detection. Of equal importance was the improvement of methods for separating virus from host cell components since the specificity of antisera raised against a virus could be increased by using an antigen for immunization highly concentrated and largely freed from contaminating host substances. The introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) into plant virology allows detection of virus in nanogram quantities. Still, the conventionally raised antisera, no matter how pure an antigen was used for immunization, are polyclonal. They contain products of thousands of different antibody-secreting plasma cell clones which can be directed against all antigenic determinants (epitopes) of the virus, but also against antigens of the host plant that may not have been entirely separated from the immunizing virus during the purification procedure. Even after cross adsorption of polyclonal antisera some residual heterogeneity can be expected to remain. Within these boundaries the information gained with polyclonal antisera on virus structure and on virus diagnosis has to be interpreted

  9. Velvet bean severe mosaic virus: a distinct begomovirus species causing severe mosaic in Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaim, Mohammad; Kumar, Yogesh; Hallan, Vipin; Zaidi, A A

    2011-08-01

    Velvet bean [Mucuna pruriens (L.) DC] is one of the most important medicinal plants. It is used to treat many ailments, but is widely used for the treatment especially for Parkinson's disease because of the presence of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (L-dopa) in it. It was noticed in last 5 years that the plants in the field showed severe mosaic, downward curling of the leaves, stunting, etc. This is consistently observed over the years in India. The disease was transmitted by whiteflies and by grafting and the causal agent was found to be a bipartite begomovirus. The whole genome was amplified by rolling circle amplification (RCA) using ϕ-29 DNA polymerase and characterized. DNA-A and DNA-B shared a 124-nucleotide (nt) long highly conserved (98%) common region (CR). Comparisons with other begomovirus showed that DNA-A sequence has highest identity (76%) with an isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV; AY937195) reported from India. This data suggested that the present isolate is a new species of genus Begomovirus for which the name "Velvet bean severe mosaic virus" (VbSMV) is proposed. DNA-B has a maximum sequence identity of 49% with an isolate of Horsegram yellow mosaic virus (HgYMV; AM932426) reported from India. Infectious clones consisting of a 1.7 mer partial tandem repeat of DNA-A and a dimer of DNB-B were constructed and agro-inoculated to Macuna pruriens (L.) DC plants, which showed field observed symptoms 24 days post-infiltration (dpi). In phylogenetic analysis, DNA-A and DNA-B of the present isolate grouped with DNA-A of different begomoviruses reported from fabaceous crops. The study presents first ever molecular evidence of any disease in velvet bean and whole genome analysis of the causative virus which is a distinct bipartite species of Begomovirus.

  10. Infecção mista pelo Sugarcane mosaic virus e Maize rayado fino virus provoca danos na cultura do milho no estado de São Paulo Mixed infection by Sugarcane mosaic virus and Maize rayado fino virus causing breaking yields in maize in São Paulo state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos César Gonçalves

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Os dois principais vírus que infectam o milho no Brasil são o Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV e o Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV, cujos principais vetores são o afídeo Rhopalosiphum maidis e a cigarrinha Dalbulus maidis, respectivamente. O MRFV é freqüentemente encontrado em infecções mistas com fitoplasmas e espiroplasmas, causando as doenças denominadas enfezamentos do milho. Em uma lavoura de milho próxima a Santo Antonio da Posse, SP, cercada por campos de cana-de-açúcar, foi encontrada alta incidência de plantas apresentando mosaico, riscas, nanismo e espigas com falhas no enchimento de grãos. Análises serológicas com anti-soros específicos detectaram a presença do SCMV e MRFV nessas plantas. A infecção pelo SCMV também foi confirmada por RT-PCR com primers específicos e análise de seqüências. Em observações de preparações contrastadas negativamente em TEM, partículas flexuosas (ca.770 nm e isométricas (ca.30 nm foram detectadas. Em cortes ultrafinos, inclusões citoplasmáticas, típicas de Potyviridae, foram observadas; não foi encontrada a presença de espiroplasmas nem de fitoplasmas. Esses resultados mostram que a infecção conjunta por SCMV e MRFV pode ser responsável pelos danos encontrados nessa lavoura.The two main viruses infecting maize in Brazil are Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV and Maize rayado fino virus (MRFV, whose main vectors are the aphid Rhopalosiphum maidis and the leafhopper Dalbulus maidis, respectively. MRFV is frequently found in mixed infections with phytoplasms and spiroplasms causing the so-called corn stunting diseases. In a maize commercial field close to Santo Antonio da Posse, São Paulo state, surrounded by sugarcane fields, it was found a high incidence of plants showing mosaic, striping, stunting and cobs with decreased number of grains. Serological analysis with specific antisera detected the presence of SCMV and MRFV in these plants. SCMV infection was also confirmed by RT

  11. Virus Nilam: Identifikasi, Karakter Biologi dan Fisik, Serta Upaya Pengendaliannya

    OpenAIRE

    Miftakhurohmah, Miftakhurohmah; Noveriza, Rita

    2015-01-01

    Infeksi virus pada tanaman nilam dapat menyebabkan penurunan produksi dan kualitas minyak. Sembilan jenis virus diidentifikasi menginfeksi tanaman nilam, yaitu Patchouli mosaic virus (PatMoV), Patchouli mild mosaic virus (PatMMV), Telosma mosaic virus (TeMV), Peanut stripe virus (PStV), Patchouli yellow mosaic virus (PatYMV), Tobacco necrosis virus (TNV), Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2), Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), dan Cymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV). Kesembilan virus tersebut memiliki genom ...

  12. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  13. Virus en Endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Vigueras, Scarlette; Salazar Navarrete, Luis; Pérez Tomás, Ricardo; Segura Egea, Juan José; Viñas, Miguel; López-López, José

    2014-01-01

    La infección endodóntica es la infección que afecta al sistema de conductos radiculares y, sin duda, es el principal agente etiológico de las periodontitis apicales. Además, de las bacterias patógenas endodónticas, se ha buscado en los últimos años asociar la presencia de virus en distintos tipos de patología endodóntica. Los virus que más se han buscado y asociado son los pertenecientes a la familia herpesvirus, los cuales se han encontrado presentes en patologías periapicales principalmente...

  14. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    pathogen-associated molecular patterns have emerged in great detail. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge regarding the receptors used to detect RNA virus invasion, the molecular structures these receptors sense, and the involved downstream signaling pathways.......Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...

  15. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  16. Epidemiology of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, David S

    2016-11-01

    Zika virus is an arbovirus belonging to the Flaviviridae family known to cause mild clinical symptoms similar to those of dengue and chikungunya. Zika is transmitted by different species of Aedes mosquitoes. Nonhuman primates and possibly rodents play a role as reservoirs. Direct interhuman transmission has also been reported. Human cases have been reported in Africa and Asia, Easter Island, the insular Pacific region, and Brazil. Its clinical profile is that of a dengue-like febrile illness, but recently associated Guillain-Barre syndrome and microcephaly have appeared. There is neither a vaccine nor prophylactic medications available to prevent Zika virus infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Viruses in renovated waters

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Nupen, EM

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available , for permission to present this paper. ?8? References 1. REPORT. CONMITTEE ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY ANAGEMEZIT OF PME SANITARY ENGINEERING DIVISION (1970). Engineering evaluation of virus hazard in water. Jour. Eng. Div. Proc. Am. Soc. Civ. Eng. SA 1, 7112... Water Systems, Austin, Texas, 1974 13. CARESON, G.F., WOODA.RD, F.E., WENTWORTII, D.P. and SPRODI, O.J. (1968) Virus inactivation on clay particles in natural waters. Journ. Wat. Pollut. Cont. Fed., 4Q R39, 7116. 14. MOSJ~EY, J.W. (1967...

  18. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  19. Resistance to Two Heterologous Neurotropic Oncolytic Viruses, Semliki Forest Virus and Vaccinia Virus, in Experimental Glioma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Boeuf, Fabrice; Lemay, Chantal; De Silva, Naomi; Diallo, Jean-Simon; Cox, Julie; Becker, Michelle; Choi, Youngmin; Ananth, Abhirami; Sellers, Clara; Breton, Sophie; Roy, Dominic; Falls, Theresa; Brun, Jan; Hemminki, Akseli; Hinkkanen, Ari; Bell, John C.

    2013-01-01

    Attenuated Semliki Forest virus (SFV) may be suitable for targeting malignant glioma due to its natural neurotropism, but its replication in brain tumor cells may be restricted by innate antiviral defenses. We attempted to facilitate SFV replication in glioma cells by combining it with vaccinia virus, which is capable of antagonizing such defenses. Surprisingly, we found parenchymal mouse brain tumors to be refractory to both viruses. Also, vaccinia virus appears to be sensitive to SFV-induced antiviral interference. PMID:23221568

  20. RNA viruses in the sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Andrew S; Rise, Matthew L; Culley, Alexander I; Steward, Grieg F

    2009-03-01

    Viruses are ubiquitous in the sea and appear to outnumber all other forms of marine life by at least an order of magnitude. Through selective infection, viruses influence nutrient cycling, community structure, and evolution in the ocean. Over the past 20 years we have learned a great deal about the diversity and ecology of the viruses that constitute the marine virioplankton, but until recently the emphasis has been on DNA viruses. Along with expanding knowledge about RNA viruses that infect important marine animals, recent isolations of RNA viruses that infect single-celled eukaryotes and molecular analyses of the RNA virioplankton have revealed that marine RNA viruses are novel, widespread, and genetically diverse. Discoveries in marine RNA virology are broadening our understanding of the biology, ecology, and evolution of viruses, and the epidemiology of viral diseases, but there is still much that we need to learn about the ecology and diversity of RNA viruses before we can fully appreciate their contributions to the dynamics of marine ecosystems. As a step toward making sense of how RNA viruses contribute to the extraordinary viral diversity in the sea, we summarize in this review what is currently known about RNA viruses that infect marine organisms.

  1. Zika Virus: An Emerging Worldwide Threat

    OpenAIRE

    Irfan A. Rather; Jameel B. Lone; Vivek K. Bajpai; Woon K. Paek; Jeongheui Lim

    2017-01-01

    ZIKA virus (ZIKV) poses a severe threat to the world. Recent outbreaks of ZIKV after 2007 along with its quick transmission have made this virus a matter of international concern. The virus shows symptoms that are similar to those caused in the wake of dengue virus (DENV) and other flaviviruses, which makes it difficult to discern the viral infection. Diagnosis is further complicated as the virus cross-reacts with antibodies of other viruses. Currently, molecular diagnosis of the virus is bei...

  2. Ebola virus acceptors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-05-18

    May 18, 2009 ... genome sequencing centre; HSP, High scoring Segment pair;. NHGRI, National ... the genome of the rhesus monkey (rhesus macaque, Macaca mulatta). The sequencing and comparative analysis was funded by the National ... Definition. Accession ..... Marburg virus genomics and association with a large.

  3. Zika virus and placenta

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Beuy Joob; Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus infection is the new arboviral infection problem. The serious outcome of infection and induction of abnormal infant become the big issue in reproductive medicine. The pathogenesis and pathology of the placenta in the affected case is an interesting issue. Here, the authors focus and discuss on this topic in this short article.

  4. Viruses of haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-11-13

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  5. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. S. Luk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages. Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  6. Apple mosaic virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), a member of the ilarvirus group, naturally infects Betula, Aesculus, Humulus, and several crop genera in the family Rosaceae (Malus, Prunus, Rosa and Rubus). ApMV was first reported in Rubus in several blackberry and raspberry cultivars in the United States and subsequentl...

  7. ICTV virus taxonomy profile

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    García, María Laura; Bó, Dal Elena; Graça, da John V.; Gago-Zachert, Selma; Hammond, John; Moreno, Pedro; Natsuaki, Tomohide; Pallás, Vicente; Navarro, Jose A.; Reyes, Carina A.; Luna, Gabriel Robles; Sasaya, Takahide; Tzanetakis, Ioannis E.; Vaira, Anna María; Verbeek, Martin; Lefkowitz, Elliot J.; Davison, Andrew J.; Siddell, Stuart G.; Simmonds, Peter; Adams, Michael J.; Smith, Donald B.; Orton, Richard J.; Sanfaçon, Hélène

    2017-01-01

    The Ophioviridae is a family of filamentous plant viruses, with single-stranded negative, and possibly ambisense, RNA genomes of 11.3-12.5 kb divided into 3-4 segments, each encapsidated separately. Virions are naked filamentous nucleocapsids, forming kinked circles of at least two different contour

  8. Viruses of the Archaea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basta, T.; Garrett, Roger Antony; Prangishvili,, David

    2009-01-01

    Double-stranded deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) viruses that infect members of the third domain of life, the Archaea, are diverse and exceptional in both their morphotypes and their genomic properties. The majority of characterized species infect hyperthermophilic hosts and carry morphological featur...

  9. The 3.2 Angstrom Resolution Structure of the Polymorphic Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus Ribonucleoprotein Particle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speir, Jeffrey Alan

    in the atomic structures of the DNA tumor papovaviruses (SV40 and polyoma). The swollen structure is closely similar to the expanded form of tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) previously determined at 8A resolution by X-ray crystallography.

  10. Animal Models of Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradley, Michael P; Nagamine, Claude M

    2017-01-01

    Zika virus has garnered great attention over the last several years, as outbreaks of the disease have emerged throughout the Western Hemisphere. Until quite recently Zika virus was considered a fairly benign virus, with limited clinical severity in both people and animals. The size and scope of the outbreak in the Western Hemisphere has allowed for the identification of severe clinical disease that is associated with Zika virus infection, most notably microcephaly among newborns, and an association with Guillian–Barré syndrome in adults. This recent association with severe clinical disease, of which further analysis strongly suggested causation by Zika virus, has resulted in a massive increase in the amount of both basic and applied research of this virus. Both small and large animal models are being used to uncover the pathogenesis of this emerging disease and to develop vaccine and therapeutic strategies. Here we review the animal-model–based Zika virus research that has been performed to date. PMID:28662753

  11. Archaeal viruses of the sulfolobales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2015-01-01

    in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs...... with an environmental virus mixture isolated from Yellowstone National Park (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012). Experimental studies of isolated genetic elements from this mixture revealed that SMV1 (S ulfolobus Monocauda Virus 1), a tailed spindle-shaped virus, can induce spacer acquisition...... and the techniques used both to infect laboratory strains with these virus mixtures and to obtain purified virus particles. Secondly, we present the experimental conditions required for activating SMV1-induced spacer acquisition in two different Sulfolobus species....

  12. Evolutionary relationship of alfalfa mosaic virus with cucumber mosaic virus and brome mosaic virus

    OpenAIRE

    Savithri, HS; Murthy, MRN

    1983-01-01

    The amino acid sequences of the non-structural protein (molecular weight 35,000; 3a protein) from three plant viruses - cucumber mosaic, brome mosaic and alfalfa mosaic have been systematically compared using the partial genomic sequences for these three viruses already available. The 3a protein of cucumber mosaic virus has an amino acid sequence homology of 33.7% with the corresponding protein of brome mosaic virus. A similar protein from alfalfa mosaic virus has a homology of 18.2% and 14.2...

  13. Experimental intraocular infection of exotic cockerels with field strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Jonathan Badau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intraocular (conjunctival infection of exotic cockerels with a new field strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV was conducted to explore the concurrence of some pathological changes with humoral immune responses. After the NDV infection of 4-week-old cockerels, pathologic changes and antibody responses were observed. The clinical signs observed after the artificial inoculation included inappetence, depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, wing and leg paralysis, torticollis and weight loss. Morbidity due to the NDV was 100%, but mortality was 80% by day 18-21 post-infection. Early hyperthermia followed by terminal hypothermia, decreased packed cell volume (PCV, and 231.4 folds peak-antibody response were observed. Necrotic and/or inflammatory lesions were present in the proventriculus, intestine, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Neurologic and digestive tract perturbations occurred in 10% and 85% of cases, respectively. The disease consistently caused stunted growth, decreased PCV, and necro-inflammatroy lesions concurrent with antibody response, suggesting probable involvement of immune-mediated mechanisms and cell membrane desialylation by viral neuraminidase in the pathogenesis.

  14. Hepatitis E virus coinfection with hepatotropic viruses in Egyptian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaki, Maysaa El Sayed; Salama, Osama Saad; Mansour, Fathy Awaad; Hossein, Shaimaa

    2008-06-01

    Major hepatotropic viruses continue to be important causes of acute viral hepatitis in developing countries. This work was carried out to detect the seroprevalence of hepatitis E virus (HEV) markers in children with acute viral hepatitis due to hepatotropic viruses (A, B and C) and non-A, non-B, non-C acute hepatitis, and to ascertain the influence of HEV superinfection in individuals infected with hepatitis viruses (A, B and C). We studied prospectively 162 children with sporadic acute hepatitis who reported to our hospital. Thirteen healthy controls were also included in the study. Laboratory investigations were performed, including complete liver function tests. Complete serological profiles for hepatitis viruses A, B, C and E were evaluated. HEV immunoglobulin G was detected with highest percentage among patients with hepatitis B (56.7%), followed by patients with hepatitis C virus (52.0%), hepatitis A virus (34.1%) and combined hepatitis B and C viruses (30.0%). The detection rate among patients with non-A, non-B, non-C hepatitis was 7.1%. HEV immunoglobulin M was found in 4.5% of hepatitis A virus patients and in 3.3% of hepatitis B patients. The prevalence of HEV immunoglobulin G and immunoglobulin M correlated with the levels of hepatic aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase in patients with dual markers of infection with hepatitis E and other viruses compared to patients with acute hepatitis due to A and C viruses. HEV serological markers are common among children with acute viral hepatitis, especially from hepatitis C and B viruses. There may be increased sensitivity to HEV coinfection in association with hepatitis B and C infections. Dual infection with HEV and other hepatotropic viruses was associated with greater elevation of aspartate and alanine aminotransferases.

  15. Extraction of total nucleic acid based on silica-coated magnetic particles for RT-qPCR detection of plant RNA virus/viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi; Ge, Guanglu; Liu, Yi; Yan, Wenlong; Xia, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a nucleic acid extraction method based on silica-coated magnetic particles (SMPs) and RT-qPCR assay was developed to detect Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and grape yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1). The amplification sequences of RT-qPCR were reversely transcribed in vitro as RNA standard templates. The standard curves covered six or seven orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 100 copies per each assay. Extraction efficiency of the SMPs method was evaluated by recovering spiked ssRNAs from plant samples and compared to two commercial kits (TRIzol and RNeasy Plant mini kit). Results showed that the recovery rate of SMPs method was comparable to the commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from lily leaves, whereas it was two or three times higher than commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from grapevine leaves. SMPs method was also used to extract viral nucleic acid from15 ArMV-positive lily leaf samples and 15 LSV-positive lily leaf samples. SMPs method did not show statistically significant difference from other methods on detecting ArMV, but LSV. The SMPs method has the same level of virus load as the TRIzol, and its mean virus load of was 0.5log10 lower than the RNeasy Plant mini kit. Nucleic acid was extracted from 19 grapevine-leaf samples with SMPs and the two commercial kits and subsequently screened for HSVd and GYSVd-1 by RT-qPCR. Regardless of HSVd or GYSVd-1, SMPs method outperforms other methods on both positive rate and the viroid load. In conclusion, SMPs method was able to efficiently extract the nucleic acid of RNA viruses or viroids, especially grapevine viroids, from lily-leaf or grapevine-leaf samples for RT-qPCR detection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-04-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to have a predilection to cause conjunctivitis and influenza-like illness (ILI), although HPAI H7N7 virus has also caused fatal respiratory disease. Low pathogenic H9N2 viruses have caused mild ILI and its occurrence may be under-recognised for this reason. In contrast, contemporary HPAI H5N1 viruses are exceptional in their virulence for humans and differ from human seasonal influenza viruses in their pathogenesis. Patients have a primary viral pneumonia progressing to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Over 380 human cases have been confirmed to date, with an overall case fatality of 63%. The zoonotic transmission of avian influenza is a rare occurrence, butthe greater public health concern is the adaptation of such viruses to efficient human transmission, which could lead to a pandemic. A better understanding of the ecology of avian influenza viruses and the biological determinants of transmissibility and pathogenicity in humans is important for pandemic preparedness.

  17. Detection of selected plant viruses by microarrays

    OpenAIRE

    HRABÁKOVÁ, Lenka

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this master thesis was the simultaneous detection of four selected plant viruses ? Apple mosaic virus, Plum pox virus, Prunus necrotic ringspot virus and Prune harf virus, by microarrays. The intermediate step in the process of the detection was optimizing of multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR).

  18. Virus-host interaction in feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniwaki, Sueli Akemi; Figueiredo, Andreza Soriano; Araujo, João Pessoa

    2013-12-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) infection has been the focus of several studies because this virus exhibits genetic and pathogenic characteristics that are similar to those of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). FIV causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in cats, nevertheless, a large fraction of infected cats remain asymptomatic throughout life despite of persistent chronic infection. This slow disease progression may be due to the presence of factors that are involved in the natural resistance to infection and the immune response that is mounted by the animals, as well as due to the adaptation of the virus to the host. Therefore, the study of virus-host interaction is essential to the understanding of the different patterns of disease course and the virus persistence in the host, and to help with the development of effective vaccines and perhaps the cure of FIV and HIV infections. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Single virus genomics: a new tool for virus discovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Zeigler Allen

    Full Text Available Whole genome amplification and sequencing of single microbial cells has significantly influenced genomics and microbial ecology by facilitating direct recovery of reference genome data. However, viral genomics continues to suffer due to difficulties related to the isolation and characterization of uncultivated viruses. We report here on a new approach called 'Single Virus Genomics', which enabled the isolation and complete genome sequencing of the first single virus particle. A mixed assemblage comprised of two known viruses; E. coli bacteriophages lambda and T4, were sorted using flow cytometric methods and subsequently immobilized in an agarose matrix. Genome amplification was then achieved in situ via multiple displacement amplification (MDA. The complete lambda phage genome was recovered with an average depth of coverage of approximately 437X. The isolation and genome sequencing of uncultivated viruses using Single Virus Genomics approaches will enable researchers to address questions about viral diversity, evolution, adaptation and ecology that were previously unattainable.

  20. Understanding Zika virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, John S

    2017-01-01

    This article describes what pediatric healthcare professionals should know about Zika virus (ZIKV). ZIKV is classified as an arthropod-borne, single-stranded RNA virus of the Flaviviridae family and genus Flavivirus. ZIKV is not new. The virus was first discovered almost 70 years ago in Uganda. The first isolate of the virus was found in rhesus monkeys in the Zika Forrest, hence the nomenclature. The primary route of ZIKV transmission to humans is through the bite of an infected Aedes species mosquito-primarily Aedes aegypti. When the mosquito bites individuals infected with the virus, mosquitos then become the vector of transmitting the infection to others. Women can also pass ZIKV to their fetus during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. ZIKV can also be transmitted through sexual activity from an individual who is infected with the virus to his or her partners. It is estimated that approximately 18% of individuals infected with ZIKV will go on to develop symptoms. When symptoms develop, it is usually within 3-12 days, although this may vary. Most often, symptoms are mild and self-limited. The most common symptoms are fever, arthralgia, maculopapular rash, and conjunctivitis lasting up to seven days. Less frequent symptoms include headache, vertigo, myalgia, vomiting, and diarrhea. At present, there is no vaccine available to prevent ZIKV and no specific antiviral treatment. Supportive care consisting of rest, hydration, analgesics, antihistamines, and antipyretics is recommended as needed. Given that there is no vaccine or treatment for ZIKV, considerable efforts must be focused on prevention. One of the most effective ways of preventing ZIKV infection is through avoiding mosquito bites, especially when traveling to or residing in areas where transmission is present. Precautions should include wearing appropriate attire with the objective of having as little skin exposed as possible, use of screens for windows and doors, and use of insect repellent. What is

  1. Dengue Virus and Autophagy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas S. Heaton

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Several independent groups have published that autophagy is required for optimal RNA replication of dengue virus (DENV. Initially, it was postulated that autophagosomes might play a structural role in replication complex formation. However, cryo-EM tomography of DENV replication complexes showed that DENV replicates on endoplasmic reticulum (ER cisternae invaginations and not on classical autophagosomes. Recently, it was reported that autophagy plays an indirect role in DENV replication by modulating cellular lipid metabolism. DENV-induced autophagosomes deplete cellular triglycerides that are stored in lipid droplets, leading to increased β-oxidation and energy production. This is the first example of a virus triggering autophagy to modulate cellular physiology. In this review, we summarize these data and discuss new questions and implications for autophagy during DENV replication.

  2. Eastern Equine Encephalitis Virus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borucki, M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2010-08-05

    Eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV) is a mosquito-borne virus capable of causing large outbreaks of encephalitis in humans and horses. In North America, EEEV infection has a very high mortality rate in humans, and survivors often suffer severe neurological sequelae. Interestingly, EEEV infections from South American isolates are generally subclinical. Although EEEV is divided into two antigenic varieties and four lineages, only eleven isolates have been sequenced and eight of these are from the North American variety (Lineage I). Most sequenced strains were collected from mosquitoes and only one human isolate has been sequenced. EEEV isolates exist from a variety of hosts, vectors, years, and geographical locations and efforts should focus on sequencing strains that represent this diversity.

  3. Uukuniemi virus, Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, Anna; Zelená, Hana; Papadopoulou, Elpida; Mrázek, Jakub

    2018-04-20

    Following the identification of severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome and Heartland viruses, the interest on tick-borne phleboviruses has increased rapidly. Uukuniemi virus has been proposed as a model for tick-borne phleboviruses. However, the number of available sequences is limited. In the current study we performed whole-genome sequencing on two Uukuniemi viral strains isolated in 2000 and 2004 from Ixodes ricinus ticks in the Czech Republic. Both strains cluster together with Potepli63 strain isolated in the country in 1963. Although the Czech strains were isolated many years apart, a high identity was seen at the nucleotide and amino acid levels, suggesting that UUKV has a relatively stable genome. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  4. Orchitis in roosters with reduced fertility associated with avian infectious bronchitis virus and avian metapneumovirus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villarreal, L Y B; Brandão, P E; Chacón, J L; Assayag, M S; Maiorka, P C; Raffi, P; Saidenberg, A B S; Jones, R C; Ferreira, A J P

    2007-12-01

    The pathogenesis of infection involving both infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) causes reproductive damage in hens after viral replication in the epithelium of the oviduct, resulting in loss of cilia and degeneration and necrosis of the epithelial and glandular cells. Although IBV has been indicated as a possible cause of the formation of calcium stones in the epididymus of roosters, a definitive association has not been confirmed. This report describes the detection of IBV and aMPV in the testes of roosters from a Brazilian poultry broiler breeder's flock with epididymal stones and low fertility. Samples of testis, trachea, and lungs from breeder males aged 57 wk were positive for IBV by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), and virus isolation and testis samples were also positive for aMPV by RT-PCR. The inoculation of testis samples into embryonated chicken eggs via the allantoic cavity resulted in curled, hemorrhagic, and stunted embryos typical of IBV infection. The allantoic fluid was positive by RT-PCR aimed to amplify the region coding for the S1 subunit of the IBV S gene, but it was not positive for aMPV. Sequence analysis of the amplified fragment revealed a close relationship with European IBV genotype D274, previously unreported in Brazil. These results indicate that IBV and perhaps aMPV are likely to have played a role in the pathogenesis of the testicular disease described and should be regarded as factors that can influence male fertility disease in chickens.

  5. The effectiveness of nutrition education for overweight/obese mothers with stunted children (NEO-MOM) in reducing the double burden of malnutrition in Indonesia: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmudiono, Trias; Nindya, Triska Susila; Andrias, Dini Ririn; Megatsari, Hario; Rosenkranz, Richard R

    2016-06-08

    Nutrition transition in developing countries were induced by rapid changes in food patterns and nutrient intake when populations adopt modern lifestyles during economic and social development, urbanization and acculturation. Consequently, these countries suffer from the double burden of malnutrition, consisting of unresolved undernutrition and the rise of overweight/obesity. The prevalence of the double burden of malnutrition tends to be highest for moderate levels (third quintile) of socioeconomic status. Evidence suggests that modifiable factors such as intra-household food distribution and dietary diversity are associated with the double burden of malnutrition, given household food security. This article describes the study protocol of a behaviorally based nutrition education intervention for overweight/obese mothers with stunted children (NEO-MOM) in reducing the double burden of malnutrition. NEO-MOM is a randomized controlled trial with a three-month behavioral intervention for households involving pairs of 72 stunted children aged 2-5 years old and overweight/obese mothers (SCOWT) in urban Indonesia. The SCOWT pairs were randomly assigned to either an intervention group or to a comparison group that received usual care plus printed educational materials. The intervention consisted of six classroom sessions on nutrition education and home visits performed by trained community health workers using a motivational interviewing approach. The primary outcomes of this study are the prevalence of double burden of malnutrition as measured in SCOWT, child's height-for-age z-score (HAZ) and maternal body mass index (BMI). Because previous studies are mainly observational in nature, this study advances understanding of the double burden of malnutrition through a fully powered randomized controlled trial. The intervention assists participants in self-administered goal setting to improve diet and child feeding behaviors by improving self-efficacy. Maternal self

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus Vaccines

    OpenAIRE

    Dudas, Robert A.; Karron, Ruth A.

    1998-01-01

    Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most important cause of viral lower respiratory tract illness (LRI) in infants and children worldwide and causes significant LRI in the elderly and in immunocompromised patients. The goal of RSV vaccination is to prevent serious RSV-associated LRI. There are several obstacles to the development of successful RSV vaccines, including the need to immunize very young infants, who may respond inadequately to vaccination; the existence of two antigenically d...

  7. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  8. Thermoactivation of viruses by microwaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahnel, H.; von Brodorotti, H.S.

    1981-01-01

    Eight different viruses, suspended in drinking water, were examined for their ability to be inactivated by microwaves from a microwave oven. Up to a virus content of 10/sup 5/ TCID/sub 50//ml inactivation was successful within a few minutes of microwave treatment and occurred in parallel to the heat stability of the viruses. Evidence for direct effects of microwaves on viruses could not be detected. 7 of the viruses studied were inactivated rapidly when temperatures of 50 to 65/sup 0/C under microwave treatment were reached in the flowing water, while a bovine parvovirus was only inactivated by temperatures above 90/sup 0/C. The advantages of a thermal virus-decontamination of fluids and material by microwaves are discussed.

  9. [Nosocomial virus infections].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggers, H J

    1986-12-01

    Enveloped viruses, e.g. influenza- or varicella viruses may cause highly contagious airborne infections. Their spread is difficult to control, also in hospitals. In the case of influenza and varicella immune prophylaxis and chemotherapy/chemoprophylaxis are possible. This is of particular significance, since varicella and zoster are of increasing importance for immunocompromized patients. Diarrhea is caused to a large extent by viruses. Rotavirus infections play an important role in infancy, and are frequently acquired in the hospital. In a study on infectious gastroenteritis of infants in a hospital we were able to show that 30 percent of all rotavirus infections were of nosocomial origin. Admission of a rotavirus-excreting patient (or personnel) may start a long chain of rotavirus infections on pediatric wards. Even careful hygienic measures in the hospital can hardly prevent the spread of enterovirus infections. Such infections may be severe and lethal for newborns, as shown by us in a study on an outbreak of echovirus 11 disease on a maternity ward. We have recently obtained data on the "stickiness" of enteroviruses on human skin. This could explain essential features of the spread of enteroviruses in the population.

  10. Viruses manipulate the marine environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohwer, Forest; Thurber, Rebecca Vega

    2009-05-14

    Marine viruses affect Bacteria, Archaea and eukaryotic organisms and are major components of the marine food web. Most studies have focused on their role as predators and parasites, but many of the interactions between marine viruses and their hosts are much more complicated. A series of recent studies has shown that viruses have the ability to manipulate the life histories and evolution of their hosts in remarkable ways, challenging our understanding of this almost invisible world.

  11. Virus Information Update CIAC-2301

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-21

    a tune through a sound card. Byway is reported to be in the wild internationally, especially in Venezuela, Mexico , Bulgaria, UK and USA. REMOVAL NOTE...1482, Varicella Type: Program. Disk Location: Features: Damage: Size: See Also: Notes: v6-146: This virus was written to hurt users of the TBCLEAN...antivirus package. If you have a file infected with the Varicella virus, and if you tried to clean this virus infected file with tbclean, what would

  12. Advances in virus research. Volume 29

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauffer, M.A.; Maramorosch, K.

    1984-01-01

    This book contains nine chapters. Some of the titles are: Molecular Biology of Wound Tumor Virus; The Application of Monoclonal Antibodies in the Study of Viruses; Prions: Novel Infectious Pathogens; and Monoclonal Antibodies Against Plant Viruses

  13. RECOVIR Software for Identifying Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakravarty, Sugoto; Fox, George E.; Zhu, Dianhui

    2013-01-01

    Most single-stranded RNA (ssRNA) viruses mutate rapidly to generate a large number of strains with highly divergent capsid sequences. Determining the capsid residues or nucleotides that uniquely characterize these strains is critical in understanding the strain diversity of these viruses. RECOVIR (an acronym for "recognize viruses") software predicts the strains of some ssRNA viruses from their limited sequence data. Novel phylogenetic-tree-based databases of protein or nucleic acid residues that uniquely characterize these virus strains are created. Strains of input virus sequences (partial or complete) are predicted through residue-wise comparisons with the databases. RECOVIR uses unique characterizing residues to identify automatically strains of partial or complete capsid sequences of picorna and caliciviruses, two of the most highly diverse ssRNA virus families. Partition-wise comparisons of the database residues with the corresponding residues of more than 300 complete and partial sequences of these viruses resulted in correct strain identification for all of these sequences. This study shows the feasibility of creating databases of hitherto unknown residues uniquely characterizing the capsid sequences of two of the most highly divergent ssRNA virus families. These databases enable automated strain identification from partial or complete capsid sequences of these human and animal pathogens.

  14. About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthcare Professionals Clinical Overview Laboratory Diagnosis HPIV Seasons Resources & References About Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Symptoms & Illnesses Lists symptoms and ...

  15. Virus Diseases Infecting Almond Germplasm in Lebanon

    OpenAIRE

    Adeeb Saad; Yusuf Abou-Jawdah; Zahi Kanaan-Atallah

    2000-01-01

    Cultivated and wild almond species were surveyed for virus diseases. Four viruses infected cultivated almonds (Prunus dulcis): Prunus necrotic ringspot virus (PNRSV), Prune dwarf virus (PDV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV). Only ACLSV and ApMV were detected on wild almonds, (Prunus orientalis and P. korschinskii). The occurence of PNRSV or PDV on seeds used for the production of rootstocks, on seedlings in nurseries, and on mother plants reve...

  16. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  17. Prevention of Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Transmission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections in hemodialysis (HD) patients are associated with adverse outcomes, especially after kidney transplantation. Review: In the HD setting, cross-contamination to patients via environmental surfaces, supplies, equipment, multiple-dose medication vials ...

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Hepatitis C Virus Co-infection in Cameroon: Investigation of the Genetic Diversity and Virulent ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING AJOL · RESOURCES ... DNA sequencing, and bioinformatics tools for sequence management and analysis.

  19. Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Human immunodeficiency virus and hepatitus B virus co-infection amog patients in Kano Nigeria. EE Nwokedi, MA Emokpae, AI Dutse. Abstract. No Abstract. Nigerian Journal of Medicine Vol. 15(3) July-September 2006: 227-229. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD ...

  20. General properties of grapevine viruses occurring in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Eszter Cseh; András Takács; László Kocsis; Richard Gáborjányi

    2012-01-01

    The past fifty years important advances have been made in the field of grapevine virus research, including characterization of pathogens and control measurements. Still the occurrence of Grapevine fanleaf virus (GFLV), Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Tomato black ring virus (TBRV), Grapevine chrome mosaic virus (GCMV), Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), Grapevine Bulgarian latent virus (GBLV), Grapevine fleck virus (GFkV), Grapevine leafroll- associated viruses (GLRaV1-4), Grapevine virus A (GVA), Grape...