WorldWideScience

Sample records for grass element stewardship

  1. Core elements of hospital antibiotic stewardship programs from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, Loria A; Srinivasan, Arjun

    2014-10-15

    The proven benefits of antibiotic stewardship programs (ASPs) for optimizing antibiotic use and minimizing adverse events, such as Clostridium difficile and antibiotic resistance, have prompted the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) to recommend that all hospitals have an ASP. This article summarizes Core Elements of Hospital Antibiotic Stewardship Programs, a recently released CDC document focused on defining the infrastructure and practices of coordinated multidisciplinary programs to improve antibiotic use and patient care in US hospitals. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  2. Developing core elements and checklist items for global hospital antimicrobial stewardship programmes: a consensus approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulcini, C; Binda, F; Lamkang, A S; Trett, A; Charani, E; Goff, D A; Harbarth, S; Hinrichsen, S L; Levy-Hara, G; Mendelson, M; Nathwani, D; Gunturu, R; Singh, S; Srinivasan, A; Thamlikitkul, V; Thursky, K; Vlieghe, E; Wertheim, H; Zeng, M; Gandra, S; Laxminarayan, R

    2018-04-03

    With increasing global interest in hospital antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) programmes, there is a strong demand for core elements of AMS to be clearly defined on the basis of principles of effectiveness and affordability. To date, efforts to identify such core elements have been limited to Europe, Australia, and North America. The aim of this study was to develop a set of core elements and their related checklist items for AMS programmes that should be present in all hospitals worldwide, regardless of resource availability. A literature review was performed by searching Medline and relevant websites to retrieve a list of core elements and items that could have global relevance. These core elements and items were evaluated by an international group of AMS experts using a structured modified Delphi consensus procedure, using two-phased online in-depth questionnaires. The literature review identified seven core elements and their related 29 checklist items from 48 references. Fifteen experts from 13 countries in six continents participated in the consensus procedure. Ultimately, all seven core elements were retained, as well as 28 of the initial checklist items plus one that was newly suggested, all with ≥80% agreement; 20 elements and items were rephrased. This consensus on core elements for hospital AMS programmes is relevant to both high- and low-to-middle-income countries and could facilitate the development of national AMS stewardship guidelines and adoption by healthcare settings worldwide. Copyright © 2018 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Alias Mohamad; Jagir Singh, Jasbir Kaur

    1987-09-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding.

  4. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alias Mohamad Yusof; Jasbir Kaur Jagir Singh

    1987-01-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding. (author)

  5. Distribution, Diversity, and Long-Term Retention of Grass Short Interspersed Nuclear Elements (SINEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Hongliang; Wang, Hao

    2017-08-01

    Instances of highly conserved plant short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) families and their enrichment near genes have been well documented, but little is known about the general patterns of such conservation and enrichment and underlying mechanisms. Here, we perform a comprehensive investigation of the structure, distribution, and evolution of SINEs in the grass family by analyzing 14 grass and 5 other flowering plant genomes using comparative genomics methods. We identify 61 SINE families composed of 29,572 copies, in which 46 families are first described. We find that comparing with other grass TEs, grass SINEs show much higher level of conservation in terms of genomic retention: The origin of at least 26% families can be traced to early grass diversification and these families are among most abundant SINE families in 86% species. We find that these families show much higher level of enrichment near protein coding genes than families of relatively recent origin (51%:28%), and that 40% of all grass SINEs are near gene and the percentage is higher than other types of grass TEs. The pattern of enrichment suggests that differential removal of SINE copies in gene-poor regions plays an important role in shaping the genomic distribution of these elements. We also identify a sequence motif located at 3' SINE end which is shared in 17 families. In short, this study provides insights into structure and evolution of SINEs in the grass family. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  6. Evolutionary modes of emergence of short interspersed nuclear element (SINE) families in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kögler, Anja; Schmidt, Thomas; Wenke, Torsten

    2017-11-01

    Short interspersed nuclear elements (SINEs) are non-autonomous transposable elements which are propagated by retrotransposition and constitute an inherent part of the genome of most eukaryotic species. Knowledge of heterogeneous and highly abundant SINEs is crucial for de novo (or improvement of) annotation of whole genome sequences. We scanned Poaceae genome sequences of six important cereals (Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum virgatum, Sorghum bicolor, Zea mays) and Brachypodium distachyon to examine the diversity and evolution of SINE populations. We comparatively analyzed the structural features, distribution, evolutionary relation and abundance of 32 SINE families and subfamilies within grasses, comprising 11 052 individual copies. The investigation of activity profiles within the Poaceae provides insights into their species-specific diversification and amplification. We found that Poaceae SINEs (PoaS) fall into two length categories: simple SINEs of up to 180 bp and dimeric SINEs larger than 240 bp. Detailed analysis at the nucleotide level revealed that multimerization of related and unrelated SINE copies is an important evolutionary mechanism of SINE formation. We conclude that PoaS families diversify by massive reshuffling between SINE families, likely caused by insertion of truncated copies, and provide a model for this evolutionary scenario. Twenty-eight of 32 PoaS families and subfamilies show significant conservation, in particular either in the 5' or 3' regions, across Poaceae species and share large sequence stretches with one or more other PoaS families. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Environmental Stewardship: A Conceptual Review and Analytical Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J.; Whitty, Tara S.; Finkbeiner, Elena; Pittman, Jeremy; Bassett, Hannah; Gelcich, Stefan; Allison, Edward H.

    2018-04-01

    There has been increasing attention to and investment in local environmental stewardship in conservation and environmental management policies and programs globally. Yet environmental stewardship has not received adequate conceptual attention. Establishing a clear definition and comprehensive analytical framework could strengthen our ability to understand the factors that lead to the success or failure of environmental stewardship in different contexts and how to most effectively support and enable local efforts. Here we propose such a definition and framework. First, we define local environmental stewardship as the actions taken by individuals, groups or networks of actors, with various motivations and levels of capacity, to protect, care for or responsibly use the environment in pursuit of environmental and/or social outcomes in diverse social-ecological contexts. Next, drawing from a review of the environmental stewardship, management and governance literatures, we unpack the elements of this definition to develop an analytical framework that can facilitate research on local environmental stewardship. Finally, we discuss potential interventions and leverage points for promoting or supporting local stewardship and future applications of the framework to guide descriptive, evaluative, prescriptive or systematic analysis of environmental stewardship. Further application of this framework in diverse environmental and social contexts is recommended to refine the elements and develop insights that will guide and improve the outcomes of environmental stewardship initiatives and investments. Ultimately, our aim is to raise the profile of environmental stewardship as a valuable and holistic concept for guiding productive and sustained relationships with the environment.

  8. Environmental Stewardship: A Conceptual Review and Analytical Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Nathan J; Whitty, Tara S; Finkbeiner, Elena; Pittman, Jeremy; Bassett, Hannah; Gelcich, Stefan; Allison, Edward H

    2018-04-01

    There has been increasing attention to and investment in local environmental stewardship in conservation and environmental management policies and programs globally. Yet environmental stewardship has not received adequate conceptual attention. Establishing a clear definition and comprehensive analytical framework could strengthen our ability to understand the factors that lead to the success or failure of environmental stewardship in different contexts and how to most effectively support and enable local efforts. Here we propose such a definition and framework. First, we define local environmental stewardship as the actions taken by individuals, groups or networks of actors, with various motivations and levels of capacity, to protect, care for or responsibly use the environment in pursuit of environmental and/or social outcomes in diverse social-ecological contexts. Next, drawing from a review of the environmental stewardship, management and governance literatures, we unpack the elements of this definition to develop an analytical framework that can facilitate research on local environmental stewardship. Finally, we discuss potential interventions and leverage points for promoting or supporting local stewardship and future applications of the framework to guide descriptive, evaluative, prescriptive or systematic analysis of environmental stewardship. Further application of this framework in diverse environmental and social contexts is recommended to refine the elements and develop insights that will guide and improve the outcomes of environmental stewardship initiatives and investments. Ultimately, our aim is to raise the profile of environmental stewardship as a valuable and holistic concept for guiding productive and sustained relationships with the environment.

  9. Determination of rare earth elements in water ore and grass sample around monazite dressing plant by high performance liquid chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laoharojanaphand, S.

    1993-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography technique for the analysis of rare earth elements; yttrium, cerium and lanthanum, was developed. A comparison of two mobile phases between α-hydroxy isobutyric acid and mandelic acid was carried out using C 1 8 column for separation and the amount of the rare earth elements were detected by post column complex formation with Arsenazo III. It was found that α-hydroxy isobutyric acid had higher efficiency in separation of the rare earth elements than mandelic acid when 1-octanesulfonic acid was used as an organic modifier. The optimum conditions of the mobile phase were comprised of the p H of 3.65, a flow rate of 1 ml/min which resulted in the values of resolution to be 13.62 between yttrium and cerium and 3.49 between cerium and lanthanum. Standard curves of yttrium and lanthanum yielded linear range of 0.1-45 and 1-60 ppm whereas the cerium curve was in the range of 1-100 ppm. The analyses of water, ore and grass samples collected around the monazite dressing plants from Prachuap Khiri Khan and Phuket showed that none of the rare earth elements was detected in all samples from Prachuap Khiri Khan. But 0.5 ppm of yttrium and 1.5 ppm of lanthanum were found in the water samples from Phuket while in the grass samples contained yttrium and cerium in the amounts of 2 ppm and 14 ppm whereas none was detected in the ore samples by this technique under the previous conditions

  10. Assimilation and subcellular partitioning of elements by grass shrimp collected along an impact gradient

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seebaugh, David R.; Wallace, William G.

    2009-01-01

    Chronic exposure to polluted field conditions can impact metal bioavailability in prey and may influence metal transfer to predators. The present study investigated the assimilation of Cd, Hg and organic carbon by grass shrimp Palaemonetes pugio, collected along an impact gradient within the New York/New Jersey Harbor Estuary. Adult shrimp were collected from five Staten Island, New York study sites, fed 109 Cd- or 203 Hg-labeled amphipods or 14 C-labeled meals and analyzed for assimilation efficiencies (AE). Subsamples of amphipods and shrimp were subjected to subcellular fractionation to isolate metal associated with a compartment presumed to contain trophically available metal (TAM) (metal associated with heat-stable proteins [HSP - e.g., metallothionein-like proteins], heat-denatured proteins [HDP - e.g., enzymes] and organelles [ORG]). TAM- 109 Cd% and TAM- 203 Hg% in radiolabeled amphipods were ∼64% and ∼73%, respectively. Gradients in AE- 109 Cd% (∼54% to ∼75%) and AE- 203 Hg% (∼61% to ∼78%) were observed for grass shrimp, with the highest values exhibited by shrimp collected from sites within the heavily polluted Arthur Kill complex. Population differences in AE- 14 C% were not observed. Assimilated 109 Cd% partitioned to the TAM compartment in grass shrimp varied between ∼67% and ∼75%. 109 Cd bound to HSP in shrimp varied between ∼15% and ∼47%, while 109 Cd associated with metal-sensitive HDP was ∼17% to ∼44%. Percentages of assimilated 109 Cd bound to ORG were constant at ∼10%. Assimilated 203 Hg% associated with TAM in grass shrimp did not exhibit significant variation. Percentages of assimilated 203 Hg bound to HDP (∼47%) and ORG (∼11%) did not vary among populations and partitioning of 203 Hg to HSP was not observed. Using a simplified biokinetic model of metal accumulation from the diet, it is estimated that site-specific variability in Cd AE by shrimp and tissue Cd burdens in field-collected prey (polychaetes Nereis spp

  11. Plant-beneficial elements status assessment in soil-plant system in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex: shedding light on forage grass safety issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Naser A; Duarte, Armando C; Pereira, Eduarda; Ahmad, Iqbal

    2015-02-01

    Human health is closely linked with soils via plants, grazers, or plant-based products. This study estimated plant-beneficial elements (macronutrients: K, P; secondary macronutrients: Ca, Mg; micronutrients: Mo, Mn, Na, Ni, Se) in both soils and shoots of two forage grass species (Eriophorum angustifolium and Lolium perenne) prevalent in the vicinity of a chemical industry complex (Estarreja, Portugal). Both soils and plants from the chemical industrial areas exhibited differential concentrations of the studied elements. In soils, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in context of its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except P, and micronutrients such as Mo and Ni. In forage grass plant shoots, the role of contamination was evidenced as insignificant in relation to its impact on all the tested macro and secondary macronutrients except K. Between the two forage grass plants, high Se-harboring L. perenne cannot be recommended for its use as animal feed.

  12. Antibiotic stewardship in community-acquired pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viasus, Diego; Vecino-Moreno, Milly; De La Hoz, Juan M; Carratalà, Jordi

    2017-04-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to be associated with significant mortality and morbidity. As with other infectious diseases, in recent years there has been a marked increase in resistance to the antibiotics commonly used against the pathogens that cause CAP. Antimicrobial stewardship denotes coordinated interventions to improve and measure the appropriate use of antibiotics by encouraging the selection of optimal drug regimens. Areas covered: Several elements can be applied to antibiotic stewardship strategies for CAP in order to maintain or improve patient outcomes. In this regard, antibiotic de-escalation, duration of antibiotic treatment, adherence to CAP guidelines recommendations about empirical treatment, and switching from intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy may each be relevant in this context. Antimicrobial stewardship strategies, such as prospective audit with intervention and feedback, clinical pathways, and dedicated multidisciplinary teams, that have included some of these elements have demonstrated improvements in antimicrobial use for CAP without negatively affecting clinical outcomes. Expert commentary: Although there are a limited number of randomized clinical studies addressing antimicrobial stewardship strategies in CAP, there is evidence that antibiotic stewardship initiatives can be securely applied, providing benefits to both healthcare systems and patients.

  13. Worldwide Open Proficiency Test for X Ray Fluorescence Laboratories PTXRFIAEA/06: Determination of Minor and Trace Elements in Grass Mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-01-01

    The IAEA assists its Member States laboratories to maintain their readiness by producing reference materials, by developing standardized analytical methods, and by conducting interlaboratory comparisons and proficiency tests as tools for quality control. To ensure a reliable worldwide, rapid and consistent response, the IAEA Nuclear Spectrometry and Applications Laboratory in Seibersdorf, Austria organises tests. This summary report presents the results of the worldwide proficiency test IAEA-PTXRF-06 on the determination of minor and trace elements in a grass mixture. Methodologies, data evaluation approach, summary evaluation of each element and individual evaluation reports for each laboratory are also described. The test was carried out under IAEA Project 1.4.3.4 (D.3.03), Nuclear Spectrometry for Analytical Applications, under the Nuclear Science Programme. The main objective of this project is to enhance the capability of interested Member States in effective utilization of nuclear spectrometries and analytical services in industry, human health, agriculture, and in monitoring and evaluation of environmental pollution. This proficiency test was designed to identify analytical problems, to support IAEA Member States laboratories to improve the quality of their analytical results, to maintain their accreditation and to provide a regular forum for discussion and technology transfer in this area. The type of sample and the concentration levels of the analytes were designed in a way to enable identification of potential analytical problems. The next proficiency test exercise is expected to be organized in 2010

  14. Implications of silica on biorefineries – interactions with organic material and mineral elements in grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Le, Duy Michael; Sørensen, Hanne Risbjerg; Knudsen, Niels Ole

    2015-01-01

    their problems with silica in different ways. High pH and co-precipitation with mineral elements are some common ways of alleviating silica problems. Reviewing the literature for the fundamentals of silica revealed a complex chemistry that is not yet fully understood. Much is still to be learned about...

  15. 2008 stewardship report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-03-01

    The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers prepares an annual stewardship report as part of the industry's commitment to stewardship through the open and transparent reporting of progress on environmental, health and safety, and social issues. These reports also serve to provide annual benchmarking targets for the industry to surpass. This report presented the eighth annual stewardship report for 2008 and discussed indicators relating to several areas. The first involved air quality as it relates to climate change and greenhouse gases and technological solutions such as toe-to-heel air injection; geothermal energy; and carbon capture and sequestration. The issues of releasing greenhouse gases through flaring and venting were also examined along with other issues such as returning the land to a sustainable landscape; using water to produce oil and gas; ensuring the workplace is safe; and maintaining positive relationships. It was concluded that while greenhouse gas intensity has dropped, overall emissions have increase. Surface water use has also slightly increased. figs

  16. Stewardship of climate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, P.G.

    1997-01-01

    A trustee is someone who cares for a resource on behalf of another. In the case of climate, one generation cares for the climate and the myriad things climate effects on behalf of subsequent generations. This article offers reasons for accepting trusteeship as a framework for thinking about climate change; discusses what trustee duties are: considers their implications for the construction of an economics of stewardship; shows how tradeoffs would be assessed within this framework, and points towards a reconceptualization of international relations based on these ideas. 1 ref

  17. Antimicrobial stewardship: Strategies for a global response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenny Grunwald

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing antimicrobial resistance worldwide, combined with dwindling antimicrobial armamentarium, has resulted in a critical threat to the public health and safety of patients. To combat this hazard, antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs have emerged. Antimicrobial stewardship programs prevent or slow the emergence of antimicrobial resistance by coordinated interventions designed to optimize antimicrobial use to achieve the best clinical outcomes and limiting selective pressures that drive the emergence of resistance. This also reduces excessive costs attributable to suboptimal antimicrobial use. Even though an ideal effective ASP should incorporate more than one element simultaneously, it also requires a multidisciplinary team, which should include an infectious diseases physician, a clinical pharmacist with infectious diseases training, infection control professionals, hospital epidemiologist, a clinical microbiologist and an information specialist. However, for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS programs to be successful, they must address the specific needs of individual institutions, must be built on available resources, the limitations and advantages of each institution, and the available staffing and technological infrastructure.

  18. Antimicrobial stewardship: Limits for implementation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, Bhanu

    2014-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship programme (ASP) is a multifaceted approach to improve patients' clinical outcomes, prevent the emergence of antimicrobial resistance, and reduce hospital costs by prudent and focused antimicrobial use. Development of local treatment guidelines according to local ecology, rapid

  19. Micro-PIXE mapping of elemental distribution in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of the grass, Cynodon dactylon, from gold and uranium mine tailings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiersbye, I. M.; Straker, C. J.; Przybylowicz, W. J.

    1999-10-01

    A combination of PIXE, proton back-scattering (BS) spectrometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to determine in situ elemental concentrations in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) grass roots and AM fungal spores from gold and uranium mine tailings in South Africa. AM regions of roots were characterised by locally elevated P and vesicles were defined by distinctive transition metal and radionuclide distributions. Vesicles (AM structures responsible for nutrient storage), accumulated Mn, Cu, Ni and U, whereas Fe and Zn were present at lower levels than in host tissue. AM spores from mine tailings accumulated Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Br, Y, Th and U, but were deficient in P and K. The sequestration of excess metals and radionuclides in vesicles may limit metal availability, and thus toxicity, to the host.

  20. Micro-PIXE mapping of elemental distribution in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of the grass, Cynodon dactylon, from gold and uranium mine tailings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiersbye, I.M. E-mail: isabel@gecko.biol.wits.ac.za; Straker, C.J.; Przybylowicz, W.J

    1999-09-02

    A combination of PIXE, proton back-scattering (BS) spectrometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to determine in situ elemental concentrations in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) grass roots and AM fungal spores from gold and uranium mine tailings in South Africa. AM regions of roots were characterised by locally elevated P and vesicles were defined by distinctive transition metal and radionuclide distributions. Vesicles (AM structures responsible for nutrient storage), accumulated Mn, Cu, Ni and U, whereas Fe and Zn were present at lower levels than in host tissue. AM spores from mine tailings accumulated Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Br, Y, Th and U, but were deficient in P and K. The sequestration of excess metals and radionuclides in vesicles may limit metal availability, and thus toxicity, to the host.

  1. Micro-PIXE mapping of elemental distribution in arbuscular mycorrhizal roots of the grass, Cynodon dactylon, from gold and uranium mine tailings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weiersbye, I.M.; Straker, C.J.; Przybylowicz, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    A combination of PIXE, proton back-scattering (BS) spectrometry and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) was used to determine in situ elemental concentrations in arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) grass roots and AM fungal spores from gold and uranium mine tailings in South Africa. AM regions of roots were characterised by locally elevated P and vesicles were defined by distinctive transition metal and radionuclide distributions. Vesicles (AM structures responsible for nutrient storage), accumulated Mn, Cu, Ni and U, whereas Fe and Zn were present at lower levels than in host tissue. AM spores from mine tailings accumulated Ca, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Br, Y, Th and U, but were deficient in P and K. The sequestration of excess metals and radionuclides in vesicles may limit metal availability, and thus toxicity, to the host

  2. Seasonal growth and translocation of some major and trace elements in two Mediterranean grasses (Stipa tenacissima Loefl. ex L. and Lygeum spartum Loefl. ex L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nedjimi, Bouzid

    2018-05-01

    The rangelands of Stipa tenacissima and Lygeum spartum (Poaceae) constitute one of the main typical ecosystems in the Iberian Peninsula and North Africa. This study examines the seasonal changes in aboveground biomass accumulation and translocation of some major (Ca and K) and trace elements (Br, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Sr and Zn) from topsoil to shoots of these perennial grasses. Species, season and their interaction significantly affected the dry biomass (DW) and chemical composition of both species and their surrounding soil. The maximum DW was found in spring due to high physiological activity and was correlated positively with rainfall. A significant relationship between seasons and chemical elements was found. For both species the maximum concentrations of Ca, Cu and Zn were found in spring season. However L. spartum had the highest concentrations of K, Cr, Br, and Sr in autumn season, indicating exceptional ability of these species to accumulate large contents of these elements during the active growth periods. By way of contrast, in the topsoil the highest concentrations of almost all chemical elements were found in summer and autumn. Principal component analyses (PCA) showed that growth of L. spartum was highly associated with K, Ca, Zn, Br and Sr, whereas topsoil was correlated with Cu, Cr, Fe and Mn concentrations. Translocation factor (TFx) of chemical elements was not identical across the two species, demonstrating inter-specific variability to uptake chemical elements. The maximum values of TFx were recorded for K, Ca and Sr especially for L. spartum. To cope with arid conditions, S. tenacissima and L. spartum sprout quickly by increasing their rate of growth and nutrient uptake as soon as soil water is available after the rain.

  3. Antimicrobial stewardship in small animal veterinary practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guardabassi, Luca; Prescott, John F

    2015-01-01

    Despite the increasing recognition of the critical role for antimicrobial stewardship in preventing the spread of multidrug-resistant bacteria, examples of effective antimicrobial stewardship programs are rare in small animal veterinary practice. This article highlights the basic requirements...

  4. The organisational structure of urban environmental stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay Campbell; Erika S. Svendsen

    2012-01-01

    How is the organisational structure of urban environmental stewardship groups related to the diverse ways that civic stewardship is taking place in urban settings? The findings of the limited number of studies that have explored the organisational structure of civic environmentalism are combined with the research on civic stewardship to answer this question. By...

  5. Grass genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    1998-01-01

    For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...

  6. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume sward in ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture ...

  7. Antimicrobial stewardship in wound care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lipsky, Benjamin A; Dryden, Matthew; Gottrup, Finn

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: With the growing global problem of antibiotic resistance it is crucial that clinicians use antibiotics wisely, which largely means following the principles of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS). Treatment of various types of wounds is one of the more common reasons for prescribing...... of experts in infectious diseases/clinical microbiology (from the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy) and wound management (from the European Wound Management Association) who, after thoroughly reviewing the available literature and holding teleconferences, jointly produced this guidance document...

  8. Applications of Nuclear Science for Stewardship Science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cizewski, Jolie A

    2013-01-01

    Stewardship science is research important to national security interests that include stockpile stewardship science, homeland security, nuclear forensics, and non-proliferation. To help address challenges in stewardship science and workforce development, the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances (SSAA) was inaugurated ten years ago by the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U. S. Department of Energy. The goal was to enhance connections between NNSA laboratories and the activities of university scientists and their students in research areas important to NNSA, including low-energy nuclear science. This paper presents an overview of recent research in low-energy nuclear science supported by the Stewardship Science Academic Alliances and the applications of this research to stewardship science.

  9. Characteristics of Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs: Current Status of the Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS) Collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPherson, Christopher; Lee, Brian R; Terrill, Cindy; Hersh, Adam L; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Kronman, Matthew P; Newland, Jason G

    2018-01-25

    In response to the growing epidemic of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP) have been rapidly implemented in the United States (US). This study examines the prevalence of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's (CDC) seven core elements of a successful ASP within a large subset of US Children's Hospitals. In 2016, a survey was conducted of 52 pediatric hospitals assessing the presence of the seven core elements: leadership commitment, accountability, drug expertise, action, tracking, reporting, and education. Forty-nine hospitals (94%) had established ASPs and 41 hospitals (79%) included all seven core elements. Physician accountability (87%) and a dedicated ASP pharmacist or drug expert (88%) were present in the vast majority of hospitals. However, substantial variability existed in the financial support allotted to these positions. This variability did not predict program actions, tracking, reporting, and education. When compared with previous surveys, these results document a dramatic increase in the prevalence and resources of pediatric stewardship programs, although continued expansion is warranted. Further research is required to understand the feasibility of various core stewardship activities and the impact on patient outcomes in the setting of finite resources.

  10. Characteristics of Pediatric Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs: Current Status of the Sharing Antimicrobial Reports for Pediatric Stewardship (SHARPS Collaborative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher McPherson

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing epidemic of antibiotic-resistant bacterial infections, antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP have been rapidly implemented in the United States (US. This study examines the prevalence of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC seven core elements of a successful ASP within a large subset of US Children’s Hospitals. In 2016, a survey was conducted of 52 pediatric hospitals assessing the presence of the seven core elements: leadership commitment, accountability, drug expertise, action, tracking, reporting, and education. Forty-nine hospitals (94% had established ASPs and 41 hospitals (79% included all seven core elements. Physician accountability (87% and a dedicated ASP pharmacist or drug expert (88% were present in the vast majority of hospitals. However, substantial variability existed in the financial support allotted to these positions. This variability did not predict program actions, tracking, reporting, and education. When compared with previous surveys, these results document a dramatic increase in the prevalence and resources of pediatric stewardship programs, although continued expansion is warranted. Further research is required to understand the feasibility of various core stewardship activities and the impact on patient outcomes in the setting of finite resources.

  11. NOAA's Scientific Data Stewardship Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, J. J.

    2004-12-01

    The NOAA mission is to understand and predict changes in the Earth's environment and conserve and manage coastal and marine resources to meet the Nation's economic, social and environmental needs. NOAA has responsibility for long-term archiving of the United States environmental data and has recently integrated several data management functions into a concept called Scientific Data Stewardship. Scientific Data Stewardship a new paradigm in data management consisting of an integrated suite of functions to preserve and exploit the full scientific value of NOAA's, and the world's, environmental data These functions include careful monitoring of observing system performance for long-term applications, the generation of authoritative long-term climate records from multiple observing platforms, and the proper archival of and timely access to data and metadata. NOAA has developed a conceptual framework to implement the functions of scientific data stewardship. This framework has five objectives: 1) develop real-time monitoring of all satellite observing systems for climate applications, 2) process large volumes of satellite data extending up to decades in length to account for systematic errors and to eliminate artifacts in the raw data (referred to as fundamental climate data records, FCDRs), 3) generate retrieved geophysical parameters from the FCDRs (referred to as thematic climate data records TCDRs) including combining observations from all sources, 4) conduct monitoring and research by analyzing data sets to uncover climate trends and to provide evaluation and feedback for steps 2) and 3), and 5) provide archives of metadata, FCDRs, and TCDRs, and facilitate distribution of these data to the user community. The term `climate data record' and related terms, such as climate data set, have been used for some time, but the climate community has yet to settle on a concensus definition. A recent United States National Academy of Sciences report recommends using the

  12. Genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling trace element concentrations in perennial grasses grown on phytotoxic soil contaminated with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses cover diverse soils throughout the world, including sites contaminated with heavy metals, producing forages that must be safe for livestock and wildlife. Chromosome regions known as quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling forage mineral concentrations were mapped in a populatio...

  13. The Six Principles of Facilities Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Harvey H.; Klein, Eva

    2010-01-01

    Facilities stewardship means high-level and pervasive commitment to optimize capital investments, in order to achieve a high-functioning and attractive campus. It includes a major commitment to capital asset preservation and quality. Stewardship is about the long view of an institution's past and future. It ultimately forms the backdrop for…

  14. STEWARDSHIP: A Conceptual Imperative For Managerial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    resources for the management of the health sector. (Stewardship of ... of health sector development and performance. Examples of ... attempt at health sector decentralization and improving ... organizations could create inherent limitations on.

  15. Measuring the impact of antimicrobial stewardship programs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Hendrix, Ron; Poelman, Randy; Niesters, Hubert G.; Postma, Maarten J.; Sinha, Bhanu; Friedrich, Alexander W.

    Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs) are being implemented worldwide to optimize antimicrobial therapy, and thereby improve patient safety and quality of care. Additionally, this should counteract resistance development. It is, however, vital that correct and timely diagnostics are performed in

  16. Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Microbiological surveillance and antimicrobial stewardship minimise the need for ultrabroad-spectrum combination therapy for treatment of nosocomial infections in a trauma intensive care unit: An audit of an evidence-based empiric antimicrobial policy.

  17. Stockpile Stewardship at Los Alamos(U)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webster, Robert B. [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2012-06-29

    Stockpile stewardship is the retention of nuclear weapons in the stockpile beyond their original design life. These older weapons have potential changes inconsistent with the original design intent and military specifications. The Stockpile Stewardship Program requires us to develop high-fidelity, physics-based capabilities to predict, assess, certify and design nuclear weapons without conducting a nuclear test. Each year, the Lab Directors are required to provide an assessment of the safety, security, and reliability our stockpile to the President of the United States. This includes assessing whether a need to return to testing exists. This is a talk to provide an overview of Stockpile Stewardship's scientific requirements and how stewardship has changed in the absence of nuclear testing. The talk is adapted from an HQ talk to the War college, and historical unclassified talks on weapon's physics.

  18. FY 2015 - Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-04-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  19. FY 2016 - Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-03-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  20. Embedding Data Stewardship in Geoscience Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastrakova, I.; Fyfe, S.

    2013-12-01

    Ten years of technological innovation now enable vast amounts of data to be collected, managed, processed and shared. At the same time, organisations have witnessed government legislative and policy requirements for open access to public sector data, and a demand for flexibility in access to data by both machine-to-machine and human consumption. Geoscience Australia (GA) has adopted Data Stewardship as an organisation-wide initiative to improve the way we manage and share our data. The benefits to GA including: - Consolidated understanding of GA's data assets and their value to the Agency; - Recognition of the significant role of data custodianship and data management; - Well-defined governance, policies, standards, practices and accountabilities that promote the accessibility, quality and interoperability of GA's data; - Integration of disparate data sets into cohesive information products available online in real time and equally accessible to researchers, government, industry and the public. Although the theory behind data stewardship is well-defined and accepted and the benefits are generally well-understood, practical implementation requires an organisation to prepare for a long-term commitment of resources, both financial and human. Fundamentally this involves: 1. Raising awareness in the organisation of the need for data stewardship and the challenges this entails; 2. Establishing a data stewardship framework including a data governance office to set policy and drive organisational change; and 3. Embedding the functions and a culture of data stewardship into business as usual operations. GA holds a vast amount of data ranging from petabytes of Big Data to significant quantities of relatively small ';long tail' geoscientific observations and measurements. Over the past four years, GA has undertaken strategic activities that prepare us for Data Stewardship: - Organisation-wide audits of GA's data holdings and identification of custodians for each dataset

  1. 2015 Stewardship Science Academic Programs Annual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, Terri [NNSA Office of Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation, Washington, DC (United States); Mischo, Millicent [NNSA Office of Research, Development, Test, and Evaluation, Washington, DC (United States)

    2015-02-01

    The Stockpile Stewardship Academic Programs (SSAP) are essential to maintaining a pipeline of professionals to support the technical capabilities that reside at the National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) national laboratories, sites, and plants. Since 1992, the United States has observed the moratorium on nuclear testing while significantly decreasing the nuclear arsenal. To accomplish this without nuclear testing, NNSA and its laboratories developed a science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program to maintain and enhance the experimental and computational tools required to ensure the continued safety, security, and reliability of the stockpile. NNSA launched its academic program portfolio more than a decade ago to engage students skilled in specific technical areas of relevance to stockpile stewardship. The success of this program is reflected by the large number of SSAP students choosing to begin their careers at NNSA national laboratories.

  2. Antimicrobial stewardship initiatives throughout Europe: proven value for money

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin J.M. Oberjé

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial stewardship is recognized as a key component to stop the current European spread of antimicrobial resistance. It has also become evident that antimicrobial resistance is a problem that cannot be tackled by single institutions or physicians. Prevention of antimicrobial resistance needs rigorous actions at ward level, institution level, national level and at supra-national levels. Countries can learn from each other and possibly transplant best practices across borders to prevent antimicrobial resistance. The aim of this study is to highlight some of the success stories of proven cost-effective interventions, and to describe the actions that have been taken, the outcomes that have been found, and the difficulties that have been met. In some cases we came across substantial scope for real-life cost savings. Although the best approach to effectively hinder the spread of antimicrobial resistance remains unclear and may vary significantly among settings, several EU-wide examples demonstrate that cost-effective antimicrobial stewardship is possible. Such examples can encourage others to implement (the most cost-effective elements in their system.

  3. Towards Materials Sustainability through Materials Stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher D. Taylor

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Materials sustainability requires a concerted change in philosophy across the entire materials lifecycle, orienting around the theme of materials stewardship. In this paper, we address the opportunities for improved materials conservation through dematerialization, durability, design for second life, and diversion of waste streams through industrial symbiosis.

  4. Stewardship, Learning, and Memory in Disaster Resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidball, Keith G.; Krasny, Marianne E.; Svendsen, Erika; Campbell, Lindsay; Helphand, Kenneth

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we propose and explore the following hypothesis: civic ecology practices, including urban community forestry, community gardening, and other self-organized forms of stewardship of green spaces in cities, are manifestations of how memories of the role of greening in healing can be instrumentalized through social learning to…

  5. Stewardship, learning, and memory in disaster resilience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith G. Tidball; Marianne E. Krasny; Erika Svendsen; Lindsay Campbell; Kenneth. Helphand

    2010-01-01

    In this contribution, we propose and explore the following hypothesis: civic ecology practices, including urban community forestry, community gardening, and other self-organized forms of stewardship of green spaces in cities, are manifestations of how memories of the role of greening in healing can be instrumentalized through social learning to foster social-ecological...

  6. Predicting volunteer commitment in environmental stewardship programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Ryan; Rachel Kaplan; Robert E. Grese

    2001-01-01

    The natural environment benefits greatly from the work of volunteers in environmental stewardship programmes. However, little is known about volunteers' motivations for continued participation in these programmes. This study looked at the relationship between volunteer commitment and motivation, as well as the effect that volunteering has on participants'...

  7. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  8. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  9. Development of effective hospital-based antibiotic stewardship program. The role of infectious disease specialist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgios Chrysos

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive antibiotic consumption and misuse is one of the main factors responsible for the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and has been associated with increased health care costs. Active intervention is necessary in changing antimicrobial prescribing practices. The Infection Control Committee and the administration of our hospital decided to implement an antibiotic stewardship program beginning in January 2016 in order to reduce inappropriate antibiotic use and to combat antibiotic resistance through improved prescribing practices. The antimicrobial stewardship team includes an ID specialist, physicians, infection control nurses, a microbiologist and a pharmacist who are responsible for the implementation of the program. Preauthorization by an ID specialist and prospective review is necessary for all pharmacy orders of antibiotics under restriction. Pre-intervention, we collected Pharmacy and hospital data regarding antibiotic consumption and numbers of patient-days for the years 2013-2015. We calculated antibiotic use in Defined Daily Doses (DDDs/100 patient-days. After one year, the antibiotic stewardship program was effective in reducing consumption of most antibiotics. The result of the implementation of the program in our hospital was a reduction about 17% of antibiotic DDDs/100 patient-days and about 21% of the antibiotic cost/100 patient-days. Education is an essential element of our program in order to influence prescribing behavior. Lectures and brochures are used to supplement strategies. Antibiotic stewardship programs have been shown from many studies to improve patient outcomes, reduce antibiotic resistance and save money.

  10. Grass Rooting the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  11. Antifungal stewardship considerations for adults and pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdy, Rana F; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Seo, Susan K

    2017-08-18

    Antifungal stewardship refers to coordinated interventions to monitor and direct the appropriate use of antifungal agents in order to achieve the best clinical outcomes and minimize selective pressure and adverse events. Antifungal utilization has steadily risen over time in concert with the increase in number of immunocompromised adults and children at risk for invasive fungal infections (IFI). Challenges in diagnosing IFI often lead to delays in treatment and poorer outcomes. There are also emerging data linking prior antifungal exposure and suboptimal dosing to the emergence of antifungal resistance, particularly for Candida. Antimicrobial stewardship programs can take a multi-pronged bundle approach to ensure suitable prescribing of antifungals via post-prescription review and feedback and/or prior authorization. Institutional guidelines can also be developed to guide diagnostic testing in at-risk populations; appropriate choice, dose, and duration of antifungal agent; therapeutic drug monitoring; and opportunities for de-escalation and intravenous-to-oral conversion.

  12. Multi-generational stewardship of plutonium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pillay, K.K.S.

    1997-01-01

    The post-cold war era has greatly enhanced the interest in the long-term stewardship of plutonium. The management of excess plutonium from proposed nuclear weapons dismantlement has been the subject of numerous intellectual discussions during the past several years. In this context, issues relevant to long-term management of all plutonium as a valuable energy resource are also being examined. While there are differing views about the future role of plutonium in the economy, there is a recognition of the environmental and health related problems and proliferation potentials of weapons-grade plutonium. The long-term management of plutonium as an energy resource will require a new strategy to maintain stewardship for many generations to come

  13. Comparison of lime and fly ash as amendments to acidic coal mine refusej growth responses and trace-element uptake of two grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jasrow, J. D.; Zimmerman, C. A.; Dvorak, A. J.; Hinchman, R. R.

    1979-10-01

    Two commonly used revegetation species, Kentucky 31 tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and Lincoln smooth brome (Bromus inermis Leyss.) were grown for 60 days in pots containing coarse coal mine refuse (referred to as gob, pH = 3.5) that was amended with lime or alkaline fly ash. Both species were also grown in pots containing a silt-loam surface soil as a control. Morphological growth parameters were measured over time; dry weights and shoot:root ratios were determined at harvest. Concentrations of Al, As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mn, Ni, Pb, Se, V, and Zn in the plant shoots were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Plant growth of both species was not as good on either lime- or fly ash-amended gob as it was on surface soil. Although plant height and length of the longest lead were not significantly different (p > 0.10) at the end of the experiment for plants grown on the two amended-gob substrates, parameters giving an indication of plant vigor (i.e., number of leaves and stems, width of the longest lead, and biomass) were significantly greater (p < 0.01) for plants grown on lime-amended gob than for those grown on fly ash-amended gob. Significant (p < 0.05) differences in the tissue concentrations of Cd, Co, Fe, Hg, Mn, Pb, V, and Zn were found among the plants grown on the three substrates. Except for Hg and Pb, these elements were higher in plants grown on at least one of the amended-gob substrates than in plants grown on surface soil. Significant substrate differences were not observed for Al, As, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Se. The tissue concentrations of some elements - notably Al, Cu, Fe, Mn, V, and Zn - were high enough in plants from one or more of the substrates to either approach or exceed concentrations that have been reported to be associated with toxic effects in some plant species.

  14. 76 FR 11243 - Solicitation of Input From Stakeholders To Inform the National Framework for Electronics Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    ... Stakeholders To Inform the National Framework for Electronics Stewardship AGENCY: Environmental Protection... inform the national framework for electronics stewardship that is being developed by the Interagency Task Force on Electronics Stewardship. On November 15, 2010, President Obama signed a presidential...

  15. Report: Ongoing Management Improvements and Further Evaluation Vital to EPA Stewardship and Voluntary Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #2005-P-00007, February 17, 2005. We asked stakeholders to define stewardship, list motivators and obstacles to participating in stewardship programs, and outline key roles for EPA to play to foster participating in environmental stewardship.

  16. Stewardship Reporting in the DOD Agency-Wide Financial Statements for FY 1998

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1999-01-01

    ...; heritage assets, stewardship land, and stewardship investments were presented on the financial statements accurately and in accordance with generally accepted accounting standards for Federal agencies...

  17. US antibiotic stewardship and penicillin allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Kara J; Calhoun, Karen H

    2017-06-01

    The purpose of this review is to improve otolaryngologists' antibiotic stewardship by detailing current approaches to penicillin allergy. Although up to 15% of hospitalized patients in the United States have a penicillin allergy recorded on their charts, fewer than 10% of these have a true penicillin allergy. Using a combination of a detailed allergy history, skin testing and graded-dose administration, many patients whose charts say 'penicillin-allergic' can safely be treated with penicillin and cross-reacting antibiotics. This permits use of narrower-spectrum antibiotics and saves money.

  18. Intergenerational equity and long-term stewardship plans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, E. K.

    2002-01-01

    For an untold number of contaminated sites throughout the world, stewardship will be inevitable. For many such sites, stewardship will be a reasonable approach because of the uncertainties associated with present and future site conditions and site contaminants, the limited performance of available technologies, the nonavailability of technologies, and the risk and cost associated with complete cleanup. Regardless of whether stewardship is a realistic approach to site situations or simply a convenient default, it could be required at most contaminated sites for multiple generations. Because the stewardship plan is required to protect the release of hazardous contaminants to the environment, some use restrictions will be put in place to provide that protection. These use restrictions will limit access to resources for as long as the protection is required. The intergenerational quality of long-term stewardship plans and their inherent limitations on resource use require that they be designed to achieve equity among the affected generations. Intergenerational equity, defined here as the fairness of access to resources across generations, could be achieved through a well-developed stewardship plan that provides future generations with the information they need to make wise decisions about resource use. Developing and implementing such a plan would take into account the failure mechanisms of the plan's components, feature short stewardship time blocks that would allow for periodic reassessments of the site and of the stewardship program's performance, and provide present and future generations with necessary site information

  19. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  20. Antimicrobial Stewardship and Urinary Tract Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian M. Abbo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urinary tract infections are the most common bacterial infections encountered in ambulatory and long-term care settings in the United States. Urine samples are the largest single category of specimens received by most microbiology laboratories and many such cultures are collected from patients who have no or questionable urinary symptoms. Unfortunately, antimicrobials are often prescribed inappropriately in such patients. Antimicrobial use, whether appropriate or inappropriate, is associated with the selection for antimicrobial-resistant organisms colonizing or infecting the urinary tract. Infections caused by antimicrobial-resistant organisms are associated with higher rates of treatment failures, prolonged hospitalizations, increased costs and mortality. Antimicrobial stewardship consists of avoidance of antimicrobials when appropriate and, when antimicrobials are indicated, use of strategies to optimize the selection, dosing, route of administration, duration and timing of antimicrobial therapy to maximize clinical cure while limiting the unintended consequences of antimicrobial use, including toxicity and selection of resistant microorganisms. This article reviews successful antimicrobial stewardship strategies in the diagnosis and treatment of urinary tract infections.

  1. Best Practices for Curriculum, Teaching, and Evaluation Components of Aquatic Stewardship Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siemer, William F.

    This paper reviews the literature to outline principles and best practices for aquatic stewardship education. Stewardship education develops an internalized stewardship ethic and the skills needed for decision making and environmentally responsible actions. Successful stewardship education programs are designed to influence beliefs, values,…

  2. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document contains Volume II which consists of Appendices A through H

  3. Transformative leadership: an ethical stewardship model for healthcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, Cam; Voelker, Carolyn; Dixon, Rolf D; LeJeune, Adena

    2008-01-01

    The need for effective leadership is a compelling priority for those who would choose to govern in public, private, and nonprofit organizations, and applies as much to the healthcare profession as it does to other sectors of the economy (Moody, Horton-Deutsch, & Pesut, 2007). Transformative Leadership, an approach to leadership and governance that incorporates the best characteristics of six other highly respected leadership models, is an integrative theory of ethical stewardship that can help healthcare professionals to more effectively achieve organizational efficiencies, build stakeholder commitment and trust, and create valuable synergies to transform and enrich today's healthcare systems (cf. Caldwell, LeJeune, & Dixon, 2007). The purpose of this article is to introduce the concept of Transformative Leadership and to explain how this model applies within a healthcare context. We define Transformative Leadership and identify its relationship to Transformational, Charismatic, Level 5, Principle-Centered, Servant, and Covenantal Leadership--providing examples of each of these elements of Transformative Leadership within a healthcare leadership context. We conclude by identifying contributions of this article to the healthcare leadership literature.

  4. The Roles of the Accountant and Auditor in Stewardship and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While much attention has been given to accountability in public sector which has not even yielded the desired result, the same can not be said of organised private sector. ... Keywords: Stewardship, corporate governance, accountability,

  5. Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.K.; Nickelson, R.A.

    2002-01-01

    To ensure technology developed for long-term stewardship will meet existing requirements, a review of requirements was performed. In addition to identifying existing science and technology related requirements, gaps and conflicts of requirements were identified

  6. Airport Capital Improvement Planning: Stewardship for Airport Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-09-01

    "Airport Capital Improvement Planning: Stewardship for Airport Development", was : originally written in October, 1995. It documented an effort to implement the : concept of capital improvement planning with the airport development industry. : Airpor...

  7. An integrated stewardship model : Antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Panday, Prashant Nannan; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E. W. C.; Niesters, Hubert G. M.; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu

    2016-01-01

    Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship

  8. An integrated stewardship model: antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic (AID)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dik, Jan-Willem H.; Poelman, Randy; Friedrich, Alexander W.; Panday, Prashant N.; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Assen, Sander; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Niesters, Hubert G.M.; Hendrix, Ron; Sinha, Bhanu

    2015-01-01

    Considering the threat of antimicrobial resistance and the difficulties it entails in treating infections, it is necessary to cross borders and approach infection management in an integrated, multidisciplinary manner. We propose the antimicrobial, infection prevention and diagnostic stewardship

  9. FY 2014 - Stockpile and Stewardship and Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-06-01

    This Department of Energy’s (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) Fiscal Year Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (SSMP) is a key planning document for the nuclear security enterprise.

  10. Long-Term Stewardship Baseline Report and Transition Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristofferson, Keith

    2001-11-01

    Long-term stewardship consists of those actions necessary to maintain and demonstrate continued protection of human health and the environment after facility cleanup is complete. As the Department of Energy’s (DOE) lead laboratory for environmental management programs, the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) administers DOE’s long-term stewardship science and technology efforts. The INEEL provides DOE with technical, and scientific expertise needed to oversee its long-term environmental management obligations complexwide. Long-term stewardship is administered and overseen by the Environmental Management Office of Science and Technology. The INEEL Long-Term Stewardship Program is currently developing the management structures and plans to complete INEEL-specific, long-term stewardship obligations. This guidance document (1) assists in ensuring that the program leads transition planning for the INEEL with respect to facility and site areas and (2) describes the classes and types of criteria and data required to initiate transition for areas and sites where the facility mission has ended and cleanup is complete. Additionally, this document summarizes current information on INEEL facilities, structures, and release sites likely to enter long-term stewardship at the completion of DOE’s cleanup mission. This document is not intended to function as a discrete checklist or local procedure to determine readiness to transition. It is an overarching document meant as guidance in implementing specific transition procedures. Several documents formed the foundation upon which this guidance was developed. Principal among these documents was the Long-Term Stewardship Draft Technical Baseline; A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship, Volumes I and II; Infrastructure Long-Range Plan; Comprehensive Facility Land Use Plan; INEEL End-State Plan; and INEEL Institutional Plan.

  11. Nuclear materials stewardship: Our enduring mission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaacs, T.H.

    1998-01-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) and its predecessors have handled a remarkably wide variety of nuclear materials over the past 50 yr. Two fundamental changes have occurred that shape the current landscape regarding nuclear materials. If one recognizes the implications and opportunities, one sees that the stewardship of nuclear materials will be a fundamental and important job of the DOE for the foreseeable future. The first change--the breakup of the Soviet Union and the resulting end to the nuclear arms race--altered US objectives. Previously, the focus was on materials production, weapon design, nuclear testing, and stockpile enhancements. Now the attention is on dismantlement of weapons, excess special nuclear material inventories, accompanying increased concern over the protection afforded to such materials; new arms control measures; and importantly, maintenance of the safety and reliability of the remaining arsenal without testing. The second change was the raised consciousness and sense of responsibility for dealing with the environmental legacies of past nuclear arms programs. Recognition of the need to clean up radioactive contamination, manage the wastes, conduct current operations responsibly, and restore the environment have led to the establishment of what is now the largest program in the DOE. Two additional features add to the challenge and drive the need for recognition of nuclear materials stewardship as a fundamental, enduring, and compelling mission of the DOE. The first is the extraordinary time frames. No matter what the future of nuclear weapons and no matter what the future of nuclear power, the DOE will be responsible for most of the country's nuclear materials and wastes for generations. Even if the Yucca Mountain program is successful and on schedule, it will last more than 100 yr. Second, the use, management, and disposition of nuclear materials and wastes affect a variety of nationally important and diverse objectives, from national

  12. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  13. Sustainable Stewardship of the Landrace Diversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioannis Tokatlidis

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Landraces are heterogeneous populations and their variability goes through continuous alterations because of physical, genetic, and epigenetic procedures exacerbated by the ongoing climatic changes. Appropriate stewardship of landrace diversity is pivotal to promote its longevity in a manner that is sustainable from the farming perspective. A seed multiplication procedure is presented based on the assumption that in order to improve effectiveness in resource use and increase seed productivity, landraces should comprise genotypes which minimize intra-species competition. These aforementioned genotypes should be of the “weak competitor” ideotype, which are selected so as to alleviate the interplant competition and reach as high as possible crop stand uniformity. Stand uniformity is essential to ensure the same growing conditions for each plant. Reduced intra-crop inequality and equal use of inputs by individual plants will optimize crop performance. Precisely, the “weak competitor” is most often of high yield potential due to a negative association between yielding and competitive ability. Therefore, the suggested procedure involves initial reproduction at nil-competition (widely spaced plants to preclude any plant-to-plant interference for inputs where “off-type” and low yielding plants are omitted, followed by subsequent multiplication at dense stands. This may represent an effective cultural practice to improve also the landrace health status concerning seed-borne diseases in the absence of certification systems.

  14. NASA'S Earth Science Data Stewardship Activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Dawn R.; Murphy, Kevin J.; Ramapriyan, Hampapuram

    2015-01-01

    NASA has been collecting Earth observation data for over 50 years using instruments on board satellites, aircraft and ground-based systems. With the inception of the Earth Observing System (EOS) Program in 1990, NASA established the Earth Science Data and Information System (ESDIS) Project and initiated development of the Earth Observing System Data and Information System (EOSDIS). A set of Distributed Active Archive Centers (DAACs) was established at locations based on science discipline expertise. Today, EOSDIS consists of 12 DAACs and 12 Science Investigator-led Processing Systems (SIPS), processing data from the EOS missions, as well as the Suomi National Polar Orbiting Partnership mission, and other satellite and airborne missions. The DAACs archive and distribute the vast majority of data from NASA’s Earth science missions, with data holdings exceeding 12 petabytes The data held by EOSDIS are available to all users consistent with NASA’s free and open data policy, which has been in effect since 1990. The EOSDIS archives consist of raw instrument data counts (level 0 data), as well as higher level standard products (e.g., geophysical parameters, products mapped to standard spatio-temporal grids, results of Earth system models using multi-instrument observations, and long time series of Earth System Data Records resulting from multiple satellite observations of a given type of phenomenon). EOSDIS data stewardship responsibilities include ensuring that the data and information content are reliable, of high quality, easily accessible, and usable for as long as they are considered to be of value.

  15. Implementation of Rapid Molecular Infectious Disease Diagnostics: the Role of Diagnostic and Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messacar, Kevin; Parker, Sarah K; Todd, James K; Dominguez, Samuel R

    2017-03-01

    New rapid molecular diagnostic technologies for infectious diseases enable expedited accurate microbiological diagnoses. However, diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship are necessary to ensure that these technologies conserve, rather than consume, additional health care resources and optimally affect patient care. Diagnostic stewardship is needed to implement appropriate tests for the clinical setting and to direct testing toward appropriate patients. Antimicrobial stewardship is needed to ensure prompt appropriate clinical action to translate faster diagnostic test results in the laboratory into improved outcomes at the bedside. This minireview outlines the roles of diagnostic stewardship and antimicrobial stewardship in the implementation of rapid molecular infectious disease diagnostics. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  16. A boundary-spanning organization for transdisciplinary science on land stewardship: The Stewardship Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Paige. Fischer

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Although people and organizations in the Great Lakes region, USA take seriously their role as stewards of natural resources, many lack capacity to fulfill that role in a meaningful way. Stepping into that gap, The Stewardship Network (TSN envisions "a world of empowered, connected communities caring for land and water, now and forever," and fulfills that vision through its mission to "connect, equip, and mobilize people and organizations to care for land and water in their communities." TSN uses a scalable model of linked local and regional capacity building, science communication, civic engagement, and on-the-ground stewardship activities to achieve these goals. The model engages local and regional groups in an ongoing process of learning around conservation and restoration that improves social and ecological knowledge. I share the story of TSN to demonstrate how transdisciplinary science can take hold locally and expand regionally to bring people from diverse disciplines and functional roles together to solve common problems. I demonstrate how researchers and practitioners can collaborate to create enduring mechanisms of social and ecological change.

  17. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  18. Evaluation of pharmacy generalists performing antimicrobial stewardship services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreno, Joseph J; Kenney, Rachel M; Bloome, Mary; McDonnell, Jane; Rodriguez, Jennifer; Weinmann, Allison; Kilgore, Paul E; Davis, Susan L

    2015-08-01

    Improvements in medication use achieved by pharmacy generalists using a care bundle approach to antimicrobial stewardship are reported. A six-month prospective, repeated-treatment, quasi-experimental study involving three month-long intervention periods and three month-long control periods was conducted in the setting of an existing antimicrobial stewardship program at a large hospital. The intervention involved prospective audit and feedback conducted by pharmacy generalists who were trained in an antimicrobial stewardship care bundle approach. During control months, a pharmacy generalist who was not trained in antimicrobial stewardship rounded with the multidisciplinary team and provided standard-of-care pharmacy services. The primary endpoint was compliance with a care bundle of four antimicrobial stewardship metrics: documentation of indication for therapy in the medical record, selection of empirical therapy according to institutional guidelines, documented performance of indicated culture testing, and deescalation of therapy when indicated. Two-hundred eighty-six patients were enrolled in the study: 124 in the intervention group and 162 in the control group. The cumulative rate of full compliance with all care bundle components during the six-month study was significantly greater during intervention months than during control months (68.5% versus 45.7%, p management. Copyright © 2015 by the American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Antimicrobial Stewardship in Daily Practice: Managing an Important Resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Le Saux

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial stewardship is a recent concept that embodies the practical, judicious use of antimicrobials to decrease adverse outcomes from antimicrobials while optimizing the treatment of bacterial infections to reduce the emergence of resistant pathogens. The objectives of the present statement are to illustrate the principles of antimicrobial stewardship and to offer practical examples of how to make antimicrobial stewardship part of everyday hospital and outpatient practice. Vital components of antimicrobial stewardship include appropriate testing to diagnose whether infections are viral or bacterial, and using clinical follow-up rather than antibiotics in cases in which the child is not very ill and uncertainty exists. Other specific, important actions include questioning whether positive urine cultures are contaminated when there is no evidence of pyuria or inflammatory changes, and obtaining a chest radiograph to support a diagnosis of bacterial pneumonia. Optimizing the choice and dosage of antimicrobials also reduces the probability of clinical failures and subsequent courses of antimicrobials. A list of common clinical scenarios to promote stewardship is included.

  20. Long-Term Stewardship Program Science and Technology Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joan McDonald

    2002-09-01

    Many of the United States’ hazardous and radioactively contaminated waste sites will not be sufficiently remediated to allow unrestricted land use because funding and technology limitations preclude cleanup to pristine conditions. This means that after cleanup is completed, the Department of Energy will have long-term stewardship responsibilities to monitor and safeguard more than 100 sites that still contain residual contamination. Long-term stewardship encompasses all physical and institutional controls, institutions, information, and other mechanisms required to protect human health and the environment from the hazards remaining. The Department of Energy Long-Term Stewardship National Program is in the early stages of development, so considerable planning is still required to identify all the specific roles and responsibilities, policies, and activities needed over the next few years to support the program’s mission. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory was tasked with leading the development of Science and Technology within the Long-Term Stewardship National Program. As part of that role, a task was undertaken to identify the existing science and technology related requirements, identify gaps and conflicts that exist, and make recommendations to the Department of Energy for future requirements related to science and technology requirements for long-term stewardship. This work is summarized in this document.

  1. Integrating Information Networks for Collective Planetary Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, A.

    2016-12-01

    Responsible behaviour resulting from climate literacy in global environmental movement is limited to policy and planning institutions in the Global South, while remaining absent for ends-user. Thus, planetary stewardship exists only at earth system boundaries where pressures sink to the local scale while ethics remains afloat. Existing citizen participation is restricted within policy spheres, appearing synonymous to enforcements in social psychology. Much, accounted reason is that existing information mechanisms operate mostly through linear exchanges between institutions and users, therefore reinforcing only hierarchical relationships. This study discloses such relationships that contribute to broad networking gaps through information demand assessment of stakeholders in a dozen development projects based in South Asia. Two parameters widely used for this purpose are: a. Feedback: Ends-user feedback to improve consumption literacy of climate sensitive resources (through consumption displays, billing, advisory services ecolabelling, sensors) and, b. Institutional Policy: Rewarding punishing to enforce desired behaviour (subsidies, taxation). Research answered: 1. Who gets the information (Equity in Information Distribution)? As existing information publishing mechanisms are designed by and for analysts, 2. How information translates to climate action Transparency of Execution)? Findings suggested that climate goals manifested in economic policy, than environmental policy, have potential clear short-term benefits and costs, and coincide with people's economic goals Also grassroots roles for responsible behaviour are empowered with presence of end user information. Barier free climate communication process and decision making is ensured among multiplicity of stakeholders with often conflicting perspectives. Research finds significance where collaboration among information networks can better translate regional policies into local action for climate adaptation and

  2. Saint Joseph's University Institute for Environmental Stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCann, Micahel P. [Saint Joseph' s Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Springer, Clint J. [Saint Joseph' s Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States)

    2014-06-03

    Task A: Examination of the physiological, morphological, and reproductive responses of Panicum virgatum (switchgrass) cultivars identified as potential biofuel producing cultivars as well as naturally-occurring varieties of switchgrass to projected changes in climate for the central portion of the United States. This project was a multi-year project set in a field site located at the Konza Prairie Biological Station near Manhattan, KS USA. The major objective of the study was to understand the physiological and growth responses of the important biofuel grass species, Panicum virgatum (switch grass) to simulated changes in precipitation expected for the Central Plains region of the United States. Population level adaptation to broad-scale regional climates or within-population variation in genome size of this genetically and phenotypically diverse C4 grass species may influence the responses to future precipitation variability associated with climate change. Therefore, we investigated switchgrass responses to water variability between natural populations collected across latitudinal gradient and populations. P. virgatum plants from natural populations originating from Kansas, Oklahoma, and Texas received frequent, small precipitation events (“ambient’) or infrequent, large precipitation events (‘altered”) to simulate contrasting rainfall variability expected from this region. We measured leaf-level physiology, aboveground biomass varied significantly by population origin but did not differ by genome size. Our results suggest that trait variation in P. virgatum is primarily attributed to population-level adaptation across latitudinal gradient, not genome size, and that neither population-level adaptation nor genome size may be important predictors of P. virgatum responses to future climatic conditions. Based solely on the data presented here, the most important consideration when deciding what varieties of switchgrass to cultivate for biofuel feedstocks under

  3. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for stockpile stewardship and management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    In response to the end of the Cold War and changes in the world's political regimes, the United States is not producing new-design nuclear weapons. Instead, the emphasis of the U.S. nuclear weapons program is on reducing the size of the Nation's nuclear stockpile by dismantling existing nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management PEIS describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program

  4. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    E-mail addresses: 1 mike.ajieh@gmail.com, 2 dracigboanugo@yahoo.com, ... machine design was considered for processing biomass of grass origin. The machine operations include pulverization, compaction and extrusion of the briquettes.

  5. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  6. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  7. Without Testing: Stockpile Stewardship in the Second Nuclear Age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, Joseph C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-01-07

    Stockpile stewardship is a topic dear to my heart. I’ve been fascinated by it, and I’ve lived it—mostly on the technical side but also on the policy side from 2009 to 2010 at Stanford University as a visiting scholar and the inaugural William J. Perry Fellow. At Stanford I worked with Perry, former secretary of defense, and Sig Hecker, former Los Alamos Lab director (1986–1997), looking at nuclear deterrence, nuclear policy, and stockpile stewardship and at where all this was headed.

  8. Improving Wellbeing and Environmental Stewardship Through Volunteering in Nature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molsher, Robyn; Townsend, Mardie

    2016-03-01

    Environmental volunteering (EV) can provide a unique way to optimise the wellbeing of participants while fostering environmental stewardship. However, the potential of EV to create human health benefits remains an under-researched area. This study provides evidence for improved wellbeing and mood state for 32 participants from diverse backgrounds undertaking EV activities. Most participants also reported improved environmental stewardship with a greatly improved understanding of the environment and the need to conserve it. Other benefits included: 31% of those seeking work obtained it; and 50% joined a volunteer group at program completion. EV provides a unique mechanism to enhance the wellbeing of the participants, while conserving the environment.

  9. A system simulation to enhance stockpile stewardship (ASSESS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshimura, A.S.; Plantenga, T.D.; Napolitano, L.M.; Johnson, M.M.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the ASSESS project, whose goal is to construct a policy driven enterprise simulation of the DOE nuclear weapons complex (DOE/NWC). ASSESS encompasses the full range of stockpile stewardship activities by incorporating simulation component models that are developed and managed by local experts. ASSESS runs on a heterogeneous distributed computing environment and implements multi-layered user access capabilities. ASSESS allows the user to create hypothetical policies governing stockpile stewardship, simulate the resulting operation of the DOE/NWC, and analyze the relative impact of each policy

  10. Ionomics: Genes and QTLs controlling heavy metal uptake in perennial grasses grown on phytoxic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses occupy diverse soils throughout the world, including many sites contaminated with heavy metals. Uncovering the genetic architecture of QTLs controlling mineral homoeostasis is critical for understanding the biochemical pathways that determine the elemental profiles of perennial pl...

  11. Organizing urban ecosystem services through environmental stewardship governance in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2013-01-01

    How do stewardship groups contribute to the management of urban ecosystem services? In this paper, we integrate the research on environmental stewardship with the social-ecological systems literature to explain how stewardship groups serve as bridge organizations between public agencies and civic organizations, working across scales and sectors to build the flexible...

  12. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    OpenAIRE

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-01-01

    Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India) level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG) 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green ...

  13. Data Stewardship: Environmental Data Curation and a Web-of-Repositories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen S. Baker

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Scientific researchers today frequently package measurements and associated metadata as digital datasets in anticipation of storage in data repositories. Through the lens of environmental data stewardship, we consider the data repository as an organizational element central to data curation. One aspect of non-commercial repositories, their distance-from-origin of the data, is explored in terms of near and remote categories. Three idealized repository types are distinguished – local, center, and archive - paralleling research, resource, and reference collection categories respectively. Repository type characteristics such as scope, structure, and goals are discussed. Repository similarities in terms of roles, activities and responsibilities are also examined. Data stewardship is related to care of research data and responsible scientific communication supported by an infrastructure that coordinates curation activities; data curation is defined as a set of repeated and repeatable activities focusing on tending data and creating data products within a particular arena. The concept of “sphere-of-context” is introduced as an aid to distinguishing repository types. Conceptualizing a “web-of-repositories” accommodates a variety of repository types and represents an ecologically inclusive approach to data curation.

  14. Carbon stewardship: land management decisions and the potential for carbon sequestration in Colorado, USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failey, Elisabeth L; Dilling, Lisa

    2010-01-01

    Land use and its role in reducing greenhouse gases is a key element of policy negotiations to address climate change. Calculations of the potential for enhanced terrestrial sequestration have largely focused on the technical characteristics of carbon stocks, such as vegetation type and management regime, and to some degree, on economic incentives. However, the actual potential for carbon sequestration critically depends on who owns the land and additional land management decision drivers. US land ownership patterns are complex, and consequently land use decision making is driven by a variety of economic, social and policy incentives. These patterns and incentives make up the 'carbon stewardship landscape'-that is, the decision making context for carbon sequestration. We examine the carbon stewardship landscape in the US state of Colorado across several public and private ownership categories. Achieving the full potential for land use management to help mitigate carbon emissions requires not only technical feasibility and financial incentives, but also effective implementing mechanisms within a suite of often conflicting and hard to quantify factors such as multiple-use mandates, historical precedents, and non-monetary decision drivers.

  15. Eco-Visualization: Promoting Environmental Stewardship in the Museum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Tiffany

    2007-01-01

    Eco-visualizations are artworks that reinterpret environmental data with custom software to promote stewardship. Eco-visualization technology offers a new way to dynamically picture environmental data and make it meaningful to a museum population. The questions are: How might museums create new projects and programs around place-based information?…

  16. Antimicrobial stewardship in long term care facilities: what is effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-02-12

    Intense antimicrobial use in long term care facilities promotes the emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant organisms and leads to adverse effects such as C. difficile colitis. Guidelines recommend development of antimicrobial stewardship programs for these facilities to promote optimal antimicrobial use. However, the effectiveness of these programs or the contribution of any specific program component is not known. For this review, publications describing evaluation of antimicrobial stewardship programs for long term care facilities were identified through a systematic literature search. Interventions included education, guidelines development, feedback to practitioners, and infectious disease consultation. The studies reviewed varied in types of facilities, interventions used, implementation, and evaluation. Comprehensive programs addressing all infections were reported to have improved antimicrobial use for at least some outcomes. Targeted programs for treatment of pneumonia were minimally effective, and only for indicators of uncertain relevance for stewardship. Programs focusing on specific aspects of treatment of urinary infection - limiting treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria or prophylaxis of urinary infection - were reported to be effective. There were no reports of cost-effectiveness, and the sustainability of most of the programs is unclear. There is a need for further evaluation to characterize effective antimicrobial stewardship for long term care facilities.

  17. Stewardship - De nieuwe facilitaire werkelijkheid, Facto Magazine, nr. 12

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, H.B.

    2011-01-01

    Voor het succesvol besturen van organisaties bestaan in de managementliteratuur diverse modellen en theorieën. Het lijkt er op dat de stewardship-theorie, die uitgaat van wederzijds vertrouwen, beter past bij de ontwikkeling die FM op dit moment doormaakt dan de agencytheorie

  18. Ecosystem stewardship: sustainability strategies for a rapidly changing planet

    Science.gov (United States)

    F. Stuart Chapin; Stephen R. Carpenter; Gary P. Kofinas; Carl Folke; Nick Abel; William C. Clark; Per Olsson; D. Mark Stafford Smith; Brian Walker; Oran R. Young; Fikret Berkes; Reinette Biggs; J. Morgan Grove; Rosamond L. Naylor; Evelyn Pinkerton; Will Steffen; Frederick J. Swanson

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem stewardship is an action-oriented framework intended to foster the social-ecological sustainability of a rapidly changing planet. Recent developments identify three strategies that make optimal use of current understanding in an environment of inevitable uncertainty and abrupt change: reducing the magnitude of, and exposure and sensitivity to, known stresses...

  19. A state-stewardship view on executive compensation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liang, Hao; Renneboog, Luc; Li Sun, Sunny; Choi, J.; Powers, M.; Zhang, X.

    2016-01-01

    We take a state-stewardship view on the corporate governance model and executive compensation policies in economies with strong political involvement. In such a highly politically-oriented institutional environment, the business elites are not just professional managers but are also de facto

  20. 76 FR 17180 - Meeting of the Regional Resource Stewardship Council

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-28

    ... area components of the draft NRP and the benefits and challenges stemming from such programs. 5. Public... and will be called on during the public comment period. Handout materials should be limited to one printed page. Written comments are also invited and may be mailed to the Regional Resource Stewardship...

  1. United States Department of Energy Nuclear Materials Stewardship

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newton, J. W.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy launched the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative in January 2000 to accelerate the work of achieving integration and cutting long-term costs associated with the management of the Department's nuclear materials, with the principal focus on excess materials. Management of nuclear materials is a fundamental and enduring responsibility that is essential to meeting the Department's national security, nonproliferation, energy, science, and environmental missions into the distant future. The effective management of nuclear materials is important for a set of reasons: (1) some materials are vital to our national defense; (2) the materials pose physical and security risks; (3) managing them is costly; and (4) costs are likely to extend well into the future. The Department currently manages nuclear materials under eight programs, with offices in 36 different locations. Through the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative, progress was during calendar year 20 00 in achieving better coordination and integration of nuclear materials management responsibilities and in evaluating opportunities to further coordinate and integrate cross-program responsibilities for the treatment, storage, and disposition of excess nuclear materials. During CY 2001 the Departmental approach to nuclear materials stewardship changed consistent with the business processes followed by the new administration. This paper reports on the progress of the Nuclear Materials Stewardship Initiative in evaluating and implementing these opportunities, and the remaining challenges in integrating the long-term management of nuclear materials

  2. ICMR programme on Antibiotic Stewardship, Prevention of Infection & Control (ASPIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandy, Sujith J; Michael, Joy Sarojini; Veeraraghavan, Balaji; Abraham, O C; Bachhav, Sagar S; Kshirsagar, Nilima A

    2014-02-01

    Antimicrobial resistance and hospital infections have increased alarmingly in India. Antibiotic stewardship and hospital infection control are two broad strategies which have been employed globally to contain the problems of resistance and infections. For this to succeed, it is important to bring on board the various stakeholders in hospitals, especially the clinical pharmacologists. The discipline of clinical pharmacology needs to be involved in themes such as antimicrobial resistance and hospital infection which truly impact patient care. Clinical pharmacologists need to collaborate with faculty in other disciplines such as microbiology to achieve good outcomes for optimal patient care in the hospital setting. The ASPIC programme was initiated by the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) in response to the above need and was designed to bring together faculty from clinical pharmacology, microbiology and other disciplines to collaborate on initiating and improving antibiotic stewardship and concurrently curbing hospital infections through feasible infection control practices. This programme involves the participation of 20 centres per year throughout the country which come together for a training workshop. Topics pertaining to the above areas are discussed in addition to planning a project which helps to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control practices in the various centres. It is hoped that this programme would empower hospitals and institutions throughout the country to improve antibiotic stewardship and infection control and ultimately contain antimicrobial resistance.

  3. Antimicrobial Stewardship Initiatives Throughout Europe: Proven Value for Money

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oberje, E.J.M.; Tanke, M.A.C.; Jeurissen, P.P.T.

    2017-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is recognized as a key component to stop the current European spread of antimicrobial resistance. It has also become evident that antimicrobial resistance is a problem that cannot be tackled by single institutions or physicians. Prevention of antimicrobial resistance needs

  4. Antimicrobial stewardship: attempting to preserve a strategic resource

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trevor Van Schooneveld, Md

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobials hold a unique place in our drug armamentarium. Unfortunately the increase in resistance among both gram-positive and gram-negative pathogens coupled with a lack of new antimicrobial agents is threatening our ability to treat infections. Antimicrobial use is the driving force behind this rise in resistance and much of this use is suboptimal. Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASP have been advocated as a strategy to improve antimicrobial use. The goals of ASP are to improve patient outcomes while minimizing toxicity and selection for resistant strains by assisting in the selection of the correct agent, right dose, and best duration. Two major strategies for ASP exist: restriction/pre-authorization that controls use at the time of ordering and audit and feedback that reviews ordered antimicrobials and makes suggestions for improvement. Both strategies have some limitations, but have been effective at achieving stewardship goals. Other supplemental strategies such as education, clinical prediction rules, biomarkers, clinical decision support software, and institutional guidelines have been effective at improving antimicrobial use. The most effective antimicrobial stewardship programs have employed multiple strategies to impact antimicrobial use. Using these strategies stewardship programs have been able to decrease antimicrobial use, the spread of resistant pathogens, the incidence of C. difficile infection, pharmacy costs, and improved patient outcomes.

  5. 36 CFR 230.6 - Landowner forest stewardship plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manage soil, water, aesthetic qualities, recreation, timber, and fish and wildlife resources in a manner... sells or otherwise conveys land covered by a landowner forest stewardship plan, such plan shall remain... plan. 230.6 Section 230.6 Parks, Forests, and Public Property FOREST SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE...

  6. Considerations for Future Climate Data Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halem, M.; Nguyen, P. T.; Chapman, D. R.

    2009-12-01

    In this talk, we will describe the lessons learned based on processing and generating a decade of gridded AIRS and MODIS IR sounding data. We describe the challenges faced in accessing and sharing very large data sets, maintaining data provenance under evolving technologies, obtaining access to legacy calibration data and the permanent preservation of Earth science data records for on demand services. These lessons suggest a new approach to data stewardship will be required for the next decade of hyper spectral instruments combined with cloud resolving models. It will not be sufficient for stewards of future data centers to just provide the public with access to archived data but our experience indicates that data needs to reside close to computers with ultra large disc farms and tens of thousands of processors to deliver complex services on demand over very high speed networks much like the offerings of search engines today. Over the first decade of the 21st century, petabyte data records were acquired from the AIRS instrument on Aqua and the MODIS instrument on Aqua and Terra. NOAA data centers also maintain petabytes of operational IR sounders collected over the past four decades. The UMBC Multicore Computational Center (MC2) developed a Service Oriented Atmospheric Radiance gridding system (SOAR) to allow users to select IR sounding instruments from multiple archives and choose space-time- spectral periods of Level 1B data to download, grid, visualize and analyze on demand. Providing this service requires high data rate bandwidth access to the on line disks at Goddard. After 10 years, cost effective disk storage technology finally caught up with the MODIS data volume making it possible for Level 1B MODIS data to be available on line. However, 10Ge fiber optic networks to access large volumes of data are still not available from CSFC to serve the broader community. Data transfer rates are well below 10MB/s limiting their usefulness for climate studies. During

  7. Sharing Responsibility for Data Stewardship Between Scientists and Curators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedstrom, M. L.

    2012-12-01

    Data stewardship is becoming increasingly important to support accurate conclusions from new forms of data, integration of and computation across heterogeneous data types, interactions between models and data, replication of results, data governance and long-term archiving. In addition to increasing recognition of the importance of data management, data science, and data curation by US and international scientific agencies, the National Academies of Science Board on Research Data and Information is sponsoring a study on Data Curation Education and Workforce Issues. Effective data stewardship requires a distributed effort among scientists who produce data, IT staff and/or vendors who provide data storage and computational facilities and services, and curators who enhance data quality, manage data governance, provide access to third parties, and assume responsibility for long-term archiving of data. The expertise necessary for scientific data management includes a mix of knowledge of the scientific domain; an understanding of domain data requirements, standards, ontologies and analytical methods; facility with leading edge information technology; and knowledge of data governance, standards, and best practices for long-term preservation and access that rarely are found in a single individual. Rather than developing data science and data curation as new and distinct occupations, this paper examines the set of tasks required for data stewardship. The paper proposes an alternative model that embeds data stewardship in scientific workflows and coordinates hand-offs between instruments, repositories, analytical processing, publishers, distributors, and archives. This model forms the basis for defining knowledge and skill requirements for specific actors in the processes required for data stewardship and the corresponding educational and training needs.

  8. Relationship of bite mass of cattle to sward structure of four temperate grasses in short-term foraging sessions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bite mass is a fundamental element of ruminant ingestive behavior and is highly influenced by sward structure. We compared the sward structure of four grasses and related structure to the bite mass of cattle grazing the grasses. Reed canarygrass (RCG; Phalaris arundinacea L), quackgrass (QG; Elytri...

  9. Bioenergy production from roadside grass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show...

  10. Stewardship to tackle global phosphorus inefficiency: The case of Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withers, Paul J A; van Dijk, Kimo C; Neset, Tina-Simone S; Nesme, Thomas; Oenema, Oene; Rubæk, Gitte H; Schoumans, Oscar F; Smit, Bert; Pellerin, Sylvain

    2015-03-01

    The inefficient use of phosphorus (P) in the food chain is a threat to the global aquatic environment and the health and well-being of citizens, and it is depleting an essential finite natural resource critical for future food security and ecosystem function. We outline a strategic framework of 5R stewardship (Re-align P inputs, Reduce P losses, Recycle P in bioresources, Recover P in wastes, and Redefine P in food systems) to help identify and deliver a range of integrated, cost-effective, and feasible technological innovations to improve P use efficiency in society and reduce Europe's dependence on P imports. Their combined adoption facilitated by interactive policies, co-operation between upstream and downstream stakeholders (researchers, investors, producers, distributors, and consumers), and more harmonized approaches to P accounting would maximize the resource and environmental benefits and help deliver a more competitive, circular, and sustainable European economy. The case of Europe provides a blueprint for global P stewardship.

  11. Volunteer Environmental Stewardship and Affective Labour in Philadelphia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alec Foster

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent research has critically evaluated the rapid growth of volunteer urban environmental stewardship. Framings of this phenomenon have largely focused upon environmentality and/or neoliberal environments, unfortunately often presenting a totalising picture of the state and/or market utilising power from above to create environmental subjects with limited agency available to local citizens. Based upon qualitative research with volunteer urban environmental stewards in Philadelphia, affective labour is proposed as an alternative explanation for participation. Stewards volunteered their time and labour due to the intense emotional attachments they formed with their neighbourhoods, neighbours, and nonhuman others in relationships of affective labour. Volunteer urban environmental stewardship as affective labour provides room for agency on the part of individuals and groups involved in volunteer urban environmental reproduction and opens up new ways of relating to and being with human and nonhuman others.

  12. Spatially explicit data: stewardship and ethical challenges in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartter, Joel; Ryan, Sadie J; Mackenzie, Catrina A; Parker, John N; Strasser, Carly A

    2013-09-01

    Scholarly communication is at an unprecedented turning point created in part by the increasing saliency of data stewardship and data sharing. Formal data management plans represent a new emphasis in research, enabling access to data at higher volumes and more quickly, and the potential for replication and augmentation of existing research. Data sharing has recently transformed the practice, scope, content, and applicability of research in several disciplines, in particular in relation to spatially specific data. This lends exciting potentiality, but the most effective ways in which to implement such changes, particularly for disciplines involving human subjects and other sensitive information, demand consideration. Data management plans, stewardship, and sharing, impart distinctive technical, sociological, and ethical challenges that remain to be adequately identified and remedied. Here, we consider these and propose potential solutions for their amelioration.

  13. Science-based stockpile stewardship at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Immele, J.

    1995-01-01

    I would like to start by working from Vic Reis's total quality management diagram in which he began with the strategy and then worked through the customer requirements-what the Department of Defense (DoD) is hoping for from the science-based stockpile stewardship program. Maybe our customer's requirements will help guide some of the issues that we should be working on. ONe quick answer to open-quotes why have we adopted a science-based strategyclose quotes is that nuclear weapons are a 50-year responsibility, not just a 5-year responsibility, and stewardship without testing is a grand challenge. While we can do engineering maintenance and turn over and remake a few things on the short time scale, without nuclear testing, without new weapons development, and without much of the manufacturing base that we had in the past, we need to learn better just how these weapons are actually working

  14. Leveraging best practices to promote health, safety, sustainability, and stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Marjorie D

    2013-08-01

    Strategically leveraging health and safety initiatives with sustainability and stewardship helps organizations improve profitability and positively impact team member and customer attachment to the organization. Collective efficacy enhances the triple bottom line: healthy people, healthy planet, and healthy profits. The HS(3)™ Best Practice Exchanges group demonstrated that collective efficacy can leverage the social cohesion, communication channels, and activities within workplaces to promote a healthy, sustainable work culture. This in turn (1) protects the health and safety of workers, (2) preserves the natural environment, and (3) increases attachment to the organization. Community-based participatory research using the Attach21 survey assessed the progress of these companies in their efforts to integrate health, safety, sustainability, and stewardship. Monthly Best Practice Exchanges promoted collective efficacy by providing support, encouragement, and motivation to share and adopt new ideas. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  15. Water appropriation and ecosystem stewardship in the Baja desert

    OpenAIRE

    de las Heras Alejandro; Rodriguez Mario A.; Islas-Espinoza Marina

    2014-01-01

    The UNESCO San Francisco Rock Paintings polygon within El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve in the Baja California Peninsula derives its moisture from the North American monsoon. There, ranchers have depended on the desert since the 18th century. More recently, the desert has depended on the environmental stewardship of the ranchers who have allayed mining exploitation and archaeological looting. Using a Rapid Assessment Procedure (RAP), climate data, and geographical informa...

  16. Antimicrobial stewardship in long term care facilities: what is effective?

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2014-01-01

    Intense antimicrobial use in long term care facilities promotes the emergence and persistence of antimicrobial resistant organisms and leads to adverse effects such as C. difficile colitis. Guidelines recommend development of antimicrobial stewardship programs for these facilities to promote optimal antimicrobial use. However, the effectiveness of these programs or the contribution of any specific program component is not known. For this review, publications describing evaluation of antimicro...

  17. Antibiotic stewardship er etableret på Herlev Hospital

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arpi, Magnus; Gjørup, Ida; Boel, Jonas Bredtoft

    2014-01-01

    A high incidence of Clostridium difficile and multiresistant organisms and increasing consumption of cephalosporins and quinolones have required an antibiotic stewardship programme, and antibiotic audits with feedback, revised guidelines and stringent prescription rules have been successful....... The hospital intervention was managed by an antibiotic team combined with contact persons in all departments, a pocket edition of the guideline was available, and monthly commented reports about antibiotic consumption in each department were presented on the intranet. Declining use of restricted antibiotics...

  18. Nosocomial Candidiasis: Antifungal Stewardship and the Importance of Rapid Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaller, Michael A; Castanheira, Mariana

    2016-01-01

    Candidemia and other forms of candidiasis are associated with considerable excess mortality and costs. Despite the addition of several new antifungal agents with improved spectrum and potency, the frequency of Candida infection and associated mortality have not decreased in the past two decades. The lack of rapid and sensitive diagnostic tests has led to considerable overuse of antifungal agents resulting in increased costs, selection pressure for resistance, unnecessary drug toxicity, and adverse drug interactions. Both the lack of timely diagnostic tests and emergence of antifungal resistance pose considerable problems for antifungal stewardship. Whereas antifungal stewardship with a focus on nosocomial candidiasis should be able to improve the administration of antifungal therapy in terms of drug selection, proper dose and duration, source control and de-escalation therapy, an important parameter, timeliness of antifungal therapy, remains a victim of slow and insensitive diagnostic tests. Fortunately, new proteomic and molecular diagnostic tools are improving the time to species identification and detection. In this review we will describe the potential impact that rapid diagnostic testing and antifungal stewardship can have on the management of nosocomial candidiasis. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The International Society for Human and Animal Mycology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. 2003 Stewardship progress report : committed to continuous improvement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-12-01

    The stewardship initiative is a mandatory requirement for members of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP). It involves performance management and benchmarking, voluntary audits and verification, as well as training and improved communication inside and outside the industry. This fourth annual progress report describes the environment, health, safety and socio-economic stewardship initiative. This report presents an aggregate of industry performance. Stewardship of Excellence awards were presented in 2003, celebrating outstanding performance by members who demonstrated their commitment to responsible development and continuous improvement within a business framework. The awards were presented in three categories, namely environment, health and safety, and socio-economic. Northrock Resources was presented with the award in the environment category for its voluntary waste gas reduction. The health and safety recognition went to Burlington Resources Canada Ltd. for superior office ergonomics, while the award in the socio-economic category was presented to Suncor Energy Inc. for Aboriginal business development. A brief overview of the achievements of each of these three companies was presented. tabs., figs.

  20. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs

    OpenAIRE

    Okumura, Lucas Miyake; Riveros, Bruno Salgado; Gomes-da-Silva, Monica Maria; Veroneze, Izelandia

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial s...

  1. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs

    OpenAIRE

    Lucas Miyake Okumura; Bruno Salgado Riveros; Monica Maria Gomes-da-Silva; Izelandia Veroneze

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardshi...

  2. A broader view of stewardship to achieve conservation and sustainability goals in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaco Barendse

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Stewardship is a popular term for the principles and actions aimed at improving sustainability and resilience of social-ecological systems at various scales and in different contexts. Participation in stewardship is voluntary, and is based on values of altruism and long-term benefits. At a global scale, "earth stewardship" is viewed as a successor to earlier natural resource management systems. However, in South Africa, stewardship is narrowly applied to biodiversity conservation agreements on private land. Using a broader definition of stewardship, we identify all potentially related schemes that may contribute to sustainability and conservation outcomes. Stewardship schemes and actors are represented as a social network and placed in a simple typology based on objectives, mechanisms of action and operational scales. The predominant type was biodiversity stewardship programmes. The main actors were environmental non-governmental organisations participating in prominent bioregional landscape partnerships, together acting as important "bridging organisations" within local stewardship networks. This bridging enables a high degree of collaboration between non-governmental and governmental bodies, especially provincial conservation agencies via mutual projects and conservation objectives. An unintended consequence may be that management accountability is relinquished or neglected by government because of inadequate implementation capacity. Other stewardship types, such as market-based and landscape initiatives, complemented primarily biodiversity ones, as part of national spatial conservation priorities. Not all schemes related to biodiversity, especially those involving common pool resources, markets and supply chains. Despite an apparent narrow biodiversity focus, there is evidence of diversification of scope to include more civic and community-level stewardship activities, in line with the earth stewardship metaphor.

  3. Idaho National Laboratory Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    No name listed on publication

    2011-08-01

    Land and facility use planning and decisions at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Site are guided by a comprehensive site planning process in accordance with Department of Energy Policy 430.1, 'Land and Facility Use Policy,' that integrates mission, economic, ecologic, social, and cultural factors. The INL Ten-Year Site Plan, prepared in accordance with Department of Energy Order 430.1B, 'Real Property Asset Management,' outlines the vision and strategy to transform INL to deliver world-leading capabilities that will enable the Department of Energy to accomplish its mission. Land use planning is the overarching function within real property asset management that integrates the other functions of acquisition, recapitalization, maintenance, disposition, real property utilization, and long-term stewardship into a coordinated effort to ensure current and future mission needs are met. All land and facility use projects planned at the INL Site are considered through a formal planning process that supports the Ten-Year Site Plan. This Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report describes that process. The land use planning process identifies the current condition of existing land and facility assets and the scope of constraints across INL and in the surrounding region. Current land use conditions are included in the Comprehensive Land Use and Environmental Stewardship Report and facility assets and scope of constraints are discussed in the Ten-Year Site Plan. This report also presents the past, present, and future uses of land at the INL Site that are considered during the planning process, as well as outlining the future of the INL Site for the 10, 30, and 100-year timeframes.

  4. Optimizing Antibiotic Use in Nursing Homes Through Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloane, Philip D; Huslage, Kirk; Kistler, Christine E; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotic stewardship is becoming a requirement for nursing homes. Programs should be interdisciplinary and multifaceted; should have support from nursing home administrators; and should aim to promote antibiotics only when needed, not just in case. Recommended components include use of evidence-based guidelines; ongoing monitoring of antibiotic prescriptions, cultures, and study results; monitoring of health outcomes; use of nursing home-specific antibiograms; regular reporting and feedback to medical providers and nurses; and education of residents and families. ©2016 by the North Carolina Institute of Medicine and The Duke Endowment. All rights reserved.

  5. Urban ecological stewardship: understanding the structure, function and network of community-based urban land management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika s. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Urban environmental stewardship activities are on the rise in cities throughout the Northeast. Groups participating in stewardship activities range in age, size, and geography and represent an increasingly complex and dynamic arrangement of civil society, government and business sectors. To better understand the structure, function and network of these community-based...

  6. Current evidence on hospital antimicrobial stewardship objectives: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, Emelie C.; Hulscher, Marlies E. J. L.; Mouton, Johan W.; Verduin, Cees M.; Stuart, James W. T. Cohen; Overdiek, Hans W. P. M.; van der Linden, Paul D.; Natsch, Stephanie; Hertogh, Cees M. P. M.; Wolfs, Tom F. W.; Schouten, Jeroen A.; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Prins, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship is advocated to improve the quality of antimicrobial use. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether antimicrobial stewardship objectives had any effects in hospitals and long-term care facilities on four predefined patients' outcomes: clinical outcomes,

  7. Current evidence on hospital antimicrobial stewardship objectives : A systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, Emelie C.; Hulscher, Marlies E J L; Mouton, Johan W.; Verduin, Cees M.; Stuart, James W T Cohen; Overdiek, Hans W P M; van der Linden, Paul D.; Natsch, Stephanie; Hertogh, Cees M P M; Wolfs, Tom F W; Schouten, Jeroen A.; Kullberg, Bart Jan; Prins, Jan M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship is advocated to improve the quality of antimicrobial use. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether antimicrobial stewardship objectives had any effects in hospitals and long-term care facilities on four predefined patients' outcomes:

  8. Current evidence on hospital antimicrobial stewardship objectives: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuts, E.C.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Mouton, J.W.; Verduin, C.M.; Stuart, J.W.; Overdiek, H.W.; Linden, P.D. van der; Natsch, S.S.; Hertogh, C.M.; Wolfs, T.F.; Schouten, J.A.; Kullberg, B.J.; Prins, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship is advocated to improve the quality of antimicrobial use. We did a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess whether antimicrobial stewardship objectives had any effects in hospitals and long-term care facilities on four predefined patients' outcomes:

  9. Antecedents and consequences of environmental stewardship in boundary-spanning B2B teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruyter, de J.C.; Jong, de A.; Wetzels, M.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examine antecedents and consequences of environmental stewardship in frontline business-to-business teams. On the basis of data from members of 34 teams organized into regional networks, they demonstrate the differential impact of team environmental stewardship on customer satisfaction

  10. Communicating the value and benefits of silviculture through partnerships and collaborative stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    Opening comments to this session share observations on the current management climate within the USDA Forest Service. Partnerships and collaborative stewardship as agency philosophy are discussed. Silviculturists roles, as scientists and managers are compared, and the need for internal and external cooperation stressed as we strive to meet forest stewardship goals....

  11. What is urban environmental stewardship? Constructing a practitioner-derived framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. Romolini; W. Brinkley; K.L. Wolf

    2012-01-01

    Agencies and organizations deploy various strategies in response to environmental challenges, including the formulation of policy, programs, and regulations. Citizen-based environmental stewardship is increasingly seen as an innovative and important approach to improving and conserving landscape health. A new research focus on the stewardship of urban natural resources...

  12. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  13. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  14. Gasoline toxicology: overview of regulatory and product stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swick, Derek; Jaques, Andrew; Walker, J C; Estreicher, Herb

    2014-11-01

    Significant efforts have been made to characterize the toxicological properties of gasoline. There have been both mandatory and voluntary toxicology testing programs to generate hazard characterization data for gasoline, the refinery process streams used to blend gasoline, and individual chemical constituents found in gasoline. The Clean Air Act (CAA) (Clean Air Act, 2012: § 7401, et seq.) is the primary tool for the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to regulate gasoline and this supplement presents the results of the Section 211(b) Alternative Tier 2 studies required for CAA Fuel and Fuel Additive registration. Gasoline blending streams have also been evaluated by EPA under the voluntary High Production Volume (HPV) Challenge Program through which the petroleum industry provide data on over 80 refinery streams used in gasoline. Product stewardship efforts by companies and associations such as the American Petroleum Institute (API), Conservation of Clean Air and Water Europe (CONCAWE), and the Petroleum Product Stewardship Council (PPSC) have contributed a significant amount of hazard characterization data on gasoline and related substances. The hazard of gasoline and anticipated exposure to gasoline vapor has been well characterized for risk assessment purposes. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Call to Action for Surgeons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duane, Therese M.; Catena, Fausto; Tessier, Jeffrey M.; Coccolini, Federico; Kao, Lillian S.; De Simone, Belinda; Labricciosa, Francesco M.; May, Addison K.; Ansaloni, Luca; Mazuski, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Despite current antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) being advocated by infectious disease specialists and discussed by national and international policy makers, ASPs coverage remains limited to only certain hospitals as well as specific service lines within hospitals. The ASPs incorporate a variety of strategies to optimize antimicrobial agent use in the hospital, yet the exact set of interventions essential to ASP success remains unknown. Promotion of ASPs across clinical practice is crucial to their success to ensure standardization of antimicrobial agent use within an institution. To effectively accomplish this standardization, providers who actively engage in antimicrobial agent prescribing should participate in the establishment and support of these programs. Hence, surgeons need to play a major role in these collaborations. Surgeons must be aware that judicious antibiotic utilization is an integral part of any stewardship program and necessary to maximize clinical cure and minimize emergence of antimicrobial resistance. The battle against antibiotic resistance should be fought by all healthcare professionals. If surgeons around the world participate in this global fight and demonstrate awareness of the major problem of antimicrobial resistance, they will be pivotal leaders. If surgeons fail to actively engage and use antibiotics judiciously, they will find themselves deprived of the autonomy to treat their patients. PMID:27828764

  16. Improving Stewardship of Marine Resources: Linking Strategy to Opportunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciska von Heland

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The need for improved stewardship of coastal and marine resources is evident worldwide. However, complex ecosystem dynamics, institutional inertia, and budgetary constraints impede such action. This study explores how networks of change-oriented individuals or “institutional entrepreneurs” can introduce new types of human-environment interaction. The focus is on investigating the interplay between the strategies of institutional entrepreneurs and broader system dynamics that shape the context in which they are working, and possible impacts of institutional entrepreneurship on marine governance. We explore these issues in the context of Wakatobi National Park in eastern Indonesia. We suggest that creating links between different social spheres, such as between marine resource management and spirituality or between marine resource management and education, may accelerate the development of a new ecosystem stewardship. We further suggest that the use of media has significant power to show alternative futures, but that media may also serve to objectify certain resource users and increase the complexity of marine resource management. In general, institutional entrepreneurs play an important role in capturing and managing opportunity to open up space for experimentation and novel ideas, for example by linking their ideas to broader political priorities. Yet, such strategies bear the risk of institutional capture. Finally, institutional entrepreneurs sometimes have vested interests in certain solutions that may forsake experimentation toward a sustainable future.

  17. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  18. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  19. Thermogravimetric analysis of forest understory grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; John S. Kush; Sharon M. Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Forest understory grasses are of significance in the initiation, establishment and maintenance of fire, whether used as a management tool or when occurring as wildfire. The fundamental thermal properties of such grasses are critical to their behavior in fire situations and have been investigated in the current work by the application of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA...

  20. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  1. A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dornelas Marcelo C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret. In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST Project (SUCEST database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2 family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

  2. Medical table: A major tool for antimicrobial stewardship policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger, P-M; Demonchy, E; Risso, K; Courjon, J; Leroux, S; Leroux, E; Cua, É

    2017-09-01

    Infectious diseases are unpredictable, with heterogeneous clinical presentations, diverse pathogens, and various susceptibility rates to anti-infective agents. These features lead to a wide variety of clinical practices, which in turn strongly limits their evaluation. We have been using a medical table since 2005 to monitor the medical activity in our department. The observation of heterogeneous therapeutic practices led to drafting up our own antibiotic guidelines and to implementing a continuous evaluation of their observance and impact on morbidity and mortality associated with infectious diseases, including adverse effects of antibiotics, duration of hospital stay, use of intensive care, and deaths. The 10-year analysis of medical practices using the medical table is based on more than 10,000 hospitalizations. It shows simplified antibiotic therapies and a reduction in infection-related morbidity and mortality. The medical table is a major tool for antimicrobial stewardship, leading to constant benefits for patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. Promoting Environmental Stewardship through Project Based Learning (PBL)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borhan, Mohamad Termizi Bin; Ismail, Zurida

    2011-01-01

    of our fellow communities: human, plant or animal. It is grounded in an understanding of the importance of environmental quality and natural resources to the human race and the effects of human actions on the environment. Thus, it is important to provide relevant educational experiences that involve......Environmental stewardship is living responsibly as a caretaker of the environment for the benefit of present and future generations and is quickly becoming one of the most pressing public priorities for communities today. As stewards, we are personally responsible for the care and preservation......-service teachers enrolled in a chemistry teaching methods course participated in this study. The pre-service teachers were in their third year of the teacher education program. Data were collected through questionnaires containing Likert-type items designed to assess the degree of environmental concern...

  4. Multiscale science for science-based stockpile stewardship

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Margolin, L.; Sharp, D.

    2000-12-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory-Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The goal of this project has been to develop and apply the methods of multi scale science to the problems of fluid and material mixing due to instability and turbulence, and of materials characterization. Our specific focus has been on the SBSS (science-based stockpile stewardship) issue of assessing the performance of a weapons with off-design, aged, or remanufactured components in the absence of full-scale testing. Our products are physics models, based on microphysical principles and parameters, and suitable for implementation in the large scale design and assessment codes used in the nuclear weapons program.

  5. OPTIMIZING ANTIMICROBIAL PHARMACODYNAMICS: A GUIDE FOR YOUR STEWARDSHIP PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph L. Kuti, PharmD

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Pharmacodynamic concepts should be applied to optimize antibiotic dosing regimens, particularly in the face of some multidrug resistant bacterial infections. Although the pharmacodynamics of most antibiotic classes used in the hospital setting are well described, guidance on how to select regimens and implement them into an antimicrobial stewardship program in one's institution are more limited. The role of the antibiotic MIC is paramount in understanding which regimens might benefit from implementation as a protocol or use in individual patients. This review article outlines the pharmacodynamics of aminoglycosides, beta-lactams, fluoroquinolones, tigecycline, vancomycin, and polymyxins with the goal of providing a basis for strategy to select an optimized antibiotic regimen in your hospital setting.

  6. Investigating the ways in which health information technology can promote antimicrobial stewardship: a conceptual overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Abby; Cresswell, Kathrin M; Coleman, Jamie J; Pontefract, Sarah K; Slee, Ann; Williams, Robin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2017-08-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is now recognised as a threat to health worldwide. Antimicrobial stewardship aims to promote the responsible use of antibiotics and is high on international and national policy agendas. Health information technology has the potential to support antimicrobial stewardship in a number of ways, but this field is still poorly characterised and understood. Building on a recent systematic review and expert roundtable discussions, we take a lifecycle perspective of antibiotic use in hospitals and identify potential targets for health information technology-based interventions to support antimicrobial stewardship. We aim for this work to help chart a future research agenda in this critically important area.

  7. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed Stockpile Stewardship and Maintenance Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document contains Volume I of the PEIS

  8. Product Stewardship in Uranium: A Way for the Industry to Demonstrate its High Performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, Frank

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: • Product stewardship is an means for communicating the high performance on health, safety and environment of the nuclear fuel cycle including uranium mining. • It has been effective with other products and is appropriate for uranium. • Can be a vehicle for addressing public concerns across the industry. • Due to uranium’s unique characteristics it has the potential to be a best practice example of product stewardship. • Work is underway in the international arena to progress uranium product stewardship and it represent a unique opportunity to provide whole of industry benefits

  9. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Usability value and heavy metals accumulation in forage grasses grown on power station ash deposit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simić Aleksandar S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of five forage grasses (Lolium multiflorum, Festuca rubra, Festuca arundinacea, Arrhenatherum elatius and Dactylis glomerata was conducted on an uncontaminated cultivated land, of leached chernozem type, and on “Nikola Tesla A” (TENT A thermal power station ash deposit. The concentrations of: As, Pb, Cd, Zn, Ni, Fe i Cu in grasses grown on two media were compared. Grass samples have been collected in tillering stage, when they were in full development. During the vegetative period three replications cut was conducted at about 3-5 cm height, imitating mowing and grazing. The concentrations of As and Ni were elevated in media samples collected from TENT A ash deposit, while the level of all studied elements in soil samples collected from cultivated land were within allowed limits. The variance of certain elements amounts in plant material collected from TENT A ash deposit was less homogeneous; the concentrations of As, Fe and Ni were higher in grasses collected from ash deposit, but Pb and Cu concentrations were higher in grasses grown on cultivated land. The concentrations of Zn were approximately the same in plants collected from the sites, whereas Cd concentrations were slightly increased in grasses grown on ash deposit. In general, it can be concluded from the results of this study that the concentrations of heavy metals in plants collected from both sites do not exceed maximal tolerant levels for fodder. The use of grasses grown on ash deposit for forage production should be taken with reserve. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31016: Unapređenje tehnologije gajenja krmnih biljaka na oranicama i travnjacima

  11. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings...... by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology...

  12. NCDC International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) Project, Version 3

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The International Best Track Archive for Climate Stewardship (IBTrACS) dataset was developed by the NOAA National Climatic Data Center, which took the initial step...

  13. Antimicrobial stewardship: a review of prospective audit and feedback systems and an objective evaluation of outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Gladys W; Wu, Jia En; Yeo, Chay Leng; Chan, Douglas; Hsu, Li Yang

    2013-02-15

    Antimicrobial stewardship is an emerging field currently defined by a series of strategies and interventions aimed toward improving appropriate prescription of antibiotics in humans in all healthcare settings. The ultimate goal is the preservation of current and future antibiotics against the threat of antimicrobial resistance, although improving patient safety and reducing healthcare costs are important concurrent aims. Prospective audit and feedback interventions are probably the most widely practiced of all antimicrobial stewardship strategies. Although labor-intensive, they are more easily accepted by physicians compared with formulary restriction and preauthorization strategies and have a higher potential for educational opportunities. Objective evaluation of antimicrobial stewardship is critical for determining the success of such programs. Nonetheless, there is controversy over which outcomes to measure and there is a pressing need for novel study designs that can objectively assess antimicrobial stewardship interventions despite the limitations inherent in the structure of most such programs.

  14. 77 FR 6820 - Proposed Information Collection; Comment Request: Creating Stewardship Through Biodiversity...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-09

    ... Information Collection; Comment Request: Creating Stewardship Through Biodiversity Discovery in National Parks... collection (IC) described below. This collection will survey participants of Biodiversity Discovery efforts... Biodiversity Discovery refers to a variety of efforts to discover living organisms through public involvement...

  15. Participatory eHealth development to support nurses in antimicrobial stewardship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, Jobke; van Velsen, Lex; van Limburg, Maarten; de Jong, Nienke; Karreman, Joyce; Hendrix, Ron; van Gemert-Pi, Julia Elisabeth Wilhelmina Cornelia

    2014-01-01

    Background: Antimicrobial resistance poses a threat to patient safety worldwide. To stop antimicrobial resistance, Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs; programs for optimizing antimicrobial use), need to be implemented. Within these programs, nurses are important actors, as they put

  16. Participatory eHealth development to support nurses in antimicrobial stewardship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wentzel, M.J.; van Velsen, Lex Stefan; van Limburg, A.H.M.; Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Karreman, Joyce; Hendrix, Ron; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance poses a threat to patient safety worldwide. To stop antimicrobial resistance, Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs; programs for optimizing antimicrobial use), need to be implemented. Within these programs, nurses are important actors, as they put

  17. Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship for Los Angeles Unified School District

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, A.; Beattie, D.; Thomas, K.; Davis, K.; Sim, M.; Jhaveri, A.

    2007-11-01

    This Strategic Plan for Sustainable Energy Management and Environmental Stewardship states goals, measures progress toward goals and how actions are monitored to achieve continuous improvement for the Los Angeles Unified School District.

  18. Evaluation of early implementations of antibiotic stewardship program initiatives in nine Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Limburg, Maarten; Sinha, Bhanu; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia Ewc

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic resistance is a global threat to patient safety and care. In response, hospitals start antibiotic stewardship programs to optimise antibiotic use. Expert-based guidelines recommend strategies to implement such programs, but local implementations may differ per hospital.

  19. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  20. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  1. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  2. Tree-grass interactions in savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Savannas occur where trees and grasses interact to create a biome that is neither grassland nor forest. Woody and gramineous plants interact by many mechanisms, some negative (competition) and some positive (facilitation). The strength and sign...

  3. POTENTIALS OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND GRASSES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    Potentials of some agricultural waste and grasses were investigated. ... to education, printing, publishing and ... technical form, paper is an aqueous deposit ..... Period of. Soaking. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight.

  4. Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

  5. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantification

    The potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for

  6. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  7. Effective antibiotic stewardship in spinal cord injury: Challenges and a way forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skelton, Felicia; Suda, Katie; Evans, Charlesnika; Trautner, Barbara

    2018-01-11

    Context Antibiotic stewardship, defined as a multidisciplinary program to reduce the misuse of antibiotics, and in turn, antibiotic resistance, is a high priority. Persons with spinal cord injury/disorder (SCI/D) are vulnerable to receiving multiple courses of antibiotics over their lifetime given frequent healthcare exposure, and have high rates of bacterial infection with multi-drug resistant organisms. Additional challenges to evaluating appropriate use of antibiotics in this population include bacterial colonization in the urine and the differences in the presenting signs and symptoms of infection. Therefore, Veterans Health Administration (VHA) facilities with SCI/D centers need effective antibiotic stewardship programs. Results We analyzed the results of a 2012 VHA-wide survey evaluating available antibiotic stewardship resources, and compared the resources present at facilities with SCI/D (n=23) versus non-SCI/D facilities (n=107). VHA facilities with SCI/D centers are more likely to have components of an antibiotic stewardship program that have led to reduced antibiotic use in previous studies. They are also more likely to have personnel with infectious diseases training. Conclusion VHA facilities with SCI/D centers have the resources needed for antibiotic stewardship. The next step will be to determine how to implement effective antibiotic stewardship tailored for this patient care setting.

  8. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okumura, Lucas Miyake; Riveros, Bruno Salgado; Gomes-da-Silva, Monica Maria; Veroneze, Izelandia

    2016-01-01

    There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardship programs and had 30-day mortality as main outcome. Selected costs included: workload, cost of defined daily doses, length of stay, laboratory and imaging resources used to diagnose infections. Data were analyzed by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess model's robustness, tornado diagram and Cost-Effectiveness Acceptability Curve. Bundled Strategy was more expensive (Cost difference US$ 2119.70), however, it was more efficient (US$ 27,549.15 vs 29,011.46). Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that critical variables did not alter final Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio. Bundled Strategy had higher probabilities of being cost-effective, which was endorsed by cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. As health systems claim for efficient technologies, this study conclude that Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program was more cost-effective, which means that stewardship strategies with such characteristics would be of special interest in a societal and clinical perspective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  9. A cost-effectiveness analysis of two different antimicrobial stewardship programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Miyake Okumura

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of formal economic analysis to assess the efficiency of antimicrobial stewardship programs. Herein, we conducted a cost-effectiveness study to assess two different strategies of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs. A 30-day Markov model was developed to analyze how cost-effective was a Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship implemented in a university hospital in Brazil. Clinical data derived from a historical cohort that compared two different strategies of antimicrobial stewardship programs and had 30-day mortality as main outcome. Selected costs included: workload, cost of defined daily doses, length of stay, laboratory and imaging resources used to diagnose infections. Data were analyzed by deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis to assess model's robustness, tornado diagram and Cost-Effectiveness Acceptability Curve. Bundled Strategy was more expensive (Cost difference US$ 2119.70, however, it was more efficient (US$ 27,549.15 vs 29,011.46. Deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analysis suggested that critical variables did not alter final Incremental Cost-Effectiveness Ratio. Bundled Strategy had higher probabilities of being cost-effective, which was endorsed by cost-effectiveness acceptability curve. As health systems claim for efficient technologies, this study conclude that Bundled Antimicrobial Stewardship Program was more cost-effective, which means that stewardship strategies with such characteristics would be of special interest in a societal and clinical perspective.

  10. Defining antimicrobial stewardship competencies for undergraduate health professional education in the United Kingdom: A study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtenay, Molly; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Deslandes, Rhian; Hodson, Karen; Lim, Rosemary; Morris, Gary; Reeves, Scott; Weiss, Marjorie

    2018-04-16

    Multi-drug resistant infections have been identified as one of the greatest threats to human health. Healthcare professionals are involved in an array of patient care activities for which an understanding of antimicrobial stewardship is important. Although antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship competencies have been developed for healthcare professionals who adopt the role of a prescriber, competencies do not exist for other medicine-related stewardship activities. Undergraduate education provides an ideal opportunity to prepare healthcare professionals for these roles and activities. This report presents a protocol for a study designed to provide national consensus on antimicrobial stewardship competencies appropriate for undergraduate healthcare professional education. A modified Delphi process will be used in which a panel of Experts, comprising members from across the United Kingdom, with expertise in prescribing and medicines management with regard to the education and practice of healthcare professionals, and antimicrobial prescribing and stewardship, will be invited to take part in two survey rounds. The competencies developed will be applicable to all undergraduate healthcare professional education programmes. They will help to standardise curricula content and enhance the impact of antimicrobial stewardship education.

  11. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  12. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large

  13. Long-Term Stewardship At DOE's Hanford Site - 12575

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, R.J.; Grindstaff, K.D.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site is located in southeast Washington and consists of 1,518 square kilometers (586 square miles) of land. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project, Hanford workers produced plutonium for our nation's nuclear defense program until the mid 1980's. Since then, the site has been in cleanup mode that is being accomplished in phases. As we achieve remedial objectives and complete active cleanup, DOE will manage Hanford land under the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program until completion of cleanup and the site becomes ready for transfer to the post cleanup landlord - currently planned for DOE's Office of Legacy Management (LM). We define Hanford's LTS Program in the ''Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan,'' (DOE/RL-201 0-35)(1), which describes the scope including the relationship between the cleanup projects and the LTS Program. DOE designed the LTS Program to manage and provide surveillance and maintenance (S and M) of institutional controls and associated monitoring of closed waste sites to ensure the protection of human health and the environment. DOE's Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) and Hanford cleanup and operations contractors collaboratively developed this program over several years. The program's scope also includes 15 key activities that are identified in the DOE Program Plan (DOE/RL-2010-35). The LTS Program will transition 14 land segments through 2016. The combined land mass is approximately 570 square kilometers (220 square miles), with over 1,300 active and inactive waste sites and 3,363 wells. Land segments vary from buffer zone property with no known contamination to cocooned reactor buildings, demolished support facilities, and remediated cribs and trenches. DOE-RL will transition land management responsibilities from cleanup contractors to the Mission Support Contract (MSC), who will then administer the LTS Program for DOE-RL. This process requires an environment of cooperation

  14. FY 2017 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan - Biennial Plan Summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2016-03-01

    This year’s summary report updates the Fiscal Year 2016 Stockpile Stewardship and Management Plan (FY 2016 SSMP), the 25-year strategic program of record that captures the plans developed across numerous NNSA programs and organizations to maintain and modernize the scientific tools, capabilities, and infrastructure necessary to ensure the success of NNSA’s nuclear weapons mission. The SSMP is a companion to the Prevent, Counter, and Respond: A Strategic Plan to Reduce Global Nuclear Threats (FY 2017-2021) report, the planning document for NNSA’s nuclear threat reduction mission. New versions of both reports are published each year in response to new requirements and challenges. Much was accomplished in FY 2015 as part of the program of record described in this year’s SSMP. The science-based Stockpile Stewardship Program allowed the Secretaries of Energy and Defense to certify for the twentieth time that the stockpile remains safe, secure, and effective without the need for underground nuclear explosive testing. The talented scientists, engineers, and technicians at the three national security laboratories, the four nuclear weapons production plants, and the national security site are primarily responsible for this continued success. Research, development, test, and evaluation programs have advanced NNSA’s understanding of weapons physics, component aging, and material properties through first-of-a-kind shock physics experiments, along with numerous other critical experiments conducted throughout the nuclear security enterprise. The multiple life extension programs (LEPs) that are under way made progress toward their first production unit dates. The W76-1 LEP is past the halfway point in total production, and the B61-12 completed three development flight tests. Critical to this success is the budget. The Administration’s budget request for NNSA’s Weapons Activities has increased for all but one of the past seven years, resulting in a total increase of

  15. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V P

    1996-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  16. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  17. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  18. Antibiotic stewardship programs and the internist’s role

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Giusti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance (AMR is a worldwide issue, but with significant epidemiological diversity in different countries. A recently observed phenomenon is represented by the diffusion of AMR, initially confined to intensive-care units, to medical wards. This was predictable, since patients hospitalized in medical units are made up of more than 70% of elderly people (over 75 years of age in 1 case out of 2. They are fragile patients, with significant comorbidity (over a half with at least 3 diseases, weakened immune systems, and consequently a higher risk of infection. Given such a scenario, it becomes therefore both necessary and urgent to adopt a multifaceted approach of antimicrobial stewardship programs in order to prevent, detect and control the emergence of antimicrobial resistant organisms. The ideal antimicrobial program is led by an infectious diseases (ID physician and clinical pharmacist with ID training, together with a list of other important staff: clinical microbiologist, information systems specialist, infection control professional, and hospital epidemiologist. In real life, not all the Italian hospitals have got an ID physician and therefore the best canditates for antimicrobial management practices are internists if provided with a specific expertise in ID and antibiotic therapy. Adhering to the principles of optimal antimicrobial therapy in their clinical practice, the internist is able to improve the care and help to reduce the resistance of a patient at his bedside. At the same time, he can achieve other key goals reducing the length of stay and reducing the cost and utilization of health care resources.

  19. Nuclear Materials Stewardship Within the DOE Environmental Management Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilyeu, J. D.; Kiess, T. E.; Gates, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has made significant progress in planning disposition of its excess nuclear materials and has recently completed several noteworthy studies. Since establishment in 1997, the EM Nuclear Material Stewardship Program has developed disposition plans for excess nuclear materials to support facility deactivation. All nuclear materials have been removed from the Miamisburg Environmental Management Project (Mound), and disposition planning is nearing completion for the Fernald Environmental Management Project and the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site. Only a few issues remain for materials at the Hanford and Idaho sites. Recent trade studies include the Savannah River Site Canyons Nuclear Materials Identification Study, a Cesium/Strontium Management Alternatives Trade Study, a Liquid Technical Standards Trade Study, an Irradiated Beryllium Reflectors with Tritium study, a Special Performance Assessment Required Trade Study, a Neutron Source Trade Study, and development of discard criteria for uranium. A Small Sites Workshop was also held. Potential and planned future activities include updating the Plutonium-239 storage study, developing additional packaging standards, developing a Nuclear Material Disposition Handbook, determining how to recover or dispose of Pu-244 and U-233, and working with additional sites to define disposition plans for their nuclear materials

  20. Environmental stewardship for gold mining in tropical regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Isahak

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mining has gained strong popularity in recent years due to the increase in global demand for metals and other industrial raw material derived from the ground. However, information and good governance regarding activities related to mining is still very much lacking especially in underdeveloped and developing countries in the tropics. In Malaysia, the importance of environmental stewardship in mining is a new phenomenon. The new National Mineral Policy 2 calls for compliance with existing standards and guidelines, stresses on progressive and post mining rehabilitation as well as promotes the gathering and dissemination of information, best mining practices, public disclosure and corporate social responsibility. Our preliminary studies however have shown that its implementation may have been hampered by inadequate legal and administrative structures, lack of freedom of information, physical inaccessibility, lack of information and public participation. In this presentation, the above issues and measures to reduce the impact of mining, particularly that of gold on the environment with a special focus on Malaysia is discussed. These measures include alternative gold extraction methods, appropriate tailing dam construction and management, health risk assessment and risk management, compliance with the Cyanide Code and liberalization of access to information, facilitation of access to justice, the strengthening of legal and administrative structures as well as corporate accountability to the public as part of corporate social responsibility.

  1. Financial evaluations of antibiotic stewardship programs - a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Willem Hendrik Dik

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThere is an increasing awareness to counteract problems due to incorrect antimicrobial use. Interventions that are implemented are often part of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program (ASPs. Studies publishing results from these interventions are increasing, including reports on the economical effects of ASPs. This review will look at the economical sections of these studies and the methods that were used. MethodsA systematic review was performed of articles found in the PubMed and EMBASE databases published from 2000 until November 2014. Included studies found were scored for various aspects and the quality of the papers was assessed following an appropriate check list (CHEC criteria list.Results1233 studies were found, of which 149 were read completely. 99 were included in the final review. Of these studies, 57 only mentioned the costs associated with the antimicrobial medication. Others also included operational costs (n=23, costs for hospital stay (n=18 and/or other costs (n=19. 9 studies were further assessed for their quality. These studies scored between 2 and 14 out of a potential total score of 19.ConclusionsThis review gives an extensive overview of the current financial evaluation of ASPs and the quality of these economical studies. We show that there is still major potential to improve financial evaluations of ASPs. Studies do not use similar nor consistent methods or outcome measures, making it impossible draw sound conclusions and compare different studies. Finally, we make some recommendations for the future.

  2. Antimicrobial Stewardship for a Geriatric Behavioral Health Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristen Ellis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial resistance is a growing public health concern. Antimicrobial stewardship and multi-disciplinary intervention can prevent inappropriate antimicrobial use and improve patient care. Special populations, especially older adults and patients with mental health disorders, can be particularly in need of such intervention. The purpose of this project was to assess the impact of pharmacist intervention on appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing on a geriatric psychiatric unit (GPU. Patients ≥18 years old prescribed oral antibiotics during GPU admission were included. Antimicrobial appropriateness was assessed pre- and post-pharmacist intervention. During the six-month pre- and post-intervention phase, 63 and 70 patients prescribed antibiotics were identified, respectively. Subjects in the post-intervention group had significantly less inappropriate doses for indication compared to the pre-intervention group (10.6% vs. 23.9%, p = 0.02, and significantly less antibiotics prescribed for an inappropriate duration (15.8% vs. 32.4%, p < 0.01. There were no significant differences for use of appropriate drug for indication or appropriate dose for renal function between groups. Significantly more patients in the post intervention group had medications prescribed with appropriate dose, duration, and indication (51% vs. 66%, p = 0.04. Pharmacist intervention was associated with decreased rates of inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing on a geriatric psychiatric unit.

  3. Designing behaviourally informed policies for land stewardship: A new paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Don W Hine

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues the case for a new approach to the stewardship of land resources that uses behavioural science theory to support the design and application of policies that facilitate changes in behaviour by those who develop policy and the farmers who implement it. Current approaches have: focused on legally-based expert system; and have been devised by national and international bureaucracies with little or no knowledge of how land owners and managers are motivated, and how they think, behave and operate as stewards of their natural resources. A review of current approaches from the social scientific literature is provided, with a particular focus on principles from social psychology. This is followed by an examination of how these principles can be applied to influence behaviour related to land restoration and soil conservation. Examples of the problems with traditional approaches and the evolution of new approaches with full engagement of farmers as the delivery agents are provided from within the European Union, Iceland and Scotland. In the light of these examples and emerging thinking in other parts of the world, the paper sets out the basis for a new approach based on behavioural science theory and application, reinforcing the arguments already made in the literature for a social license for farming.

  4. Extended Producer Responsibility and Product Stewardship for Tobacco Product Waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Clifton; Collins, Susan; Cunningham, Shea; Stigler, Paula; Novotny, Thomas E

    2014-09-01

    This paper reviews several environmental principles, including Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR), Product Stewardship (PS), the Polluter Pays Principle (PPP), and the Precautionary Principle, as they may apply to tobacco product waste (TPW). The review addresses specific criteria that apply in deciding whether a particular toxic product should adhere to these principles; presents three case studies of similar approaches to other toxic and/or environmentally harmful products; and describes 10 possible interventions or policy actions that may help prevent, reduce, and mitigate the effects of TPW. EPR promotes total lifecycle environmental improvements, placing economic, physical, and informational responsibilities onto the tobacco industry, while PS complements EPR, but with responsibility shared by all parties involved in the tobacco product lifecycle. Both principles focus on toxic source reduction, post-consumer take-back, and final disposal of consumer products. These principles when applied to TPW have the potential to substantially decrease the environmental and public health harms of cigarette butts and other TPW throughout the world. TPW is the most commonly littered item picked up during environmental, urban, and coastal cleanups globally.

  5. Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aas, Christopher A.; Lenhart, James E.; Bray, Olin H.; Witcher, Christina Jenkin

    2004-11-01

    Sandia National Laboratories was tasked with developing the Defense Nuclear Material Stewardship Integrated Inventory Information Management System (IIIMS) with the sponsorship of NA-125.3 and the concurrence of DOE/NNSA field and area offices. The purpose of IIIMS was to modernize nuclear materials management information systems at the enterprise level. Projects over the course of several years attempted to spearhead this modernization. The scope of IIIMS was broken into broad enterprise-oriented materials management and materials forecasting. The IIIMS prototype was developed to allow multiple participating user groups to explore nuclear material requirements and needs in detail. The purpose of material forecasting was to determine nuclear material availability over a 10 to 15 year period in light of the dynamic nature of nuclear materials management. Formal DOE Directives (requirements) were needed to direct IIIMS efforts but were never issued and the project has been halted. When restarted, duplicating or re-engineering the activities from 1999 to 2003 is unnecessary, and in fact future initiatives can build on previous work. IIIMS requirements should be structured to provide high confidence that discrepancies are detected, and classified information is not divulged. Enterprise-wide materials management systems maintained by the military can be used as overall models to base IIIMS implementation concepts upon.

  6. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and digestibility coefficients were obtained for the protein, fibre, ash and fat contents of both ... Cabbage is a superior feed compared to grass for raising grass carp and a suitable low-cost alternative ... Materials and Methods ... from jumping out and was fitted with an air lift under- .... In: Aquatic weeds in South East Asia.

  7. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Crisp Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.

  8. Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Soliman, I.A.; Visser, de H.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and

  9. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil

  10. Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein

  11. Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists towards Antimicrobial Stewardship in the State of Selangor, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Umair; Hassali, Mohamed Azmi Ahmad; Ahmad, Akram; Elkalmi, Ramadan Mohamed; Zaidi, Syed Tabish Razi; Dhingra, Sameer

    2016-01-01

    Background Increasing antimicrobial resistance is one of the pressing concerns globally. Injudicious use of antibiotics is one of the modifiable factors responsible for antimicrobial resistance. Given the widespread use of antimicrobials in community settings, pharmacists have an important role in ensuring appropriate use of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to assess the perception and self-reported practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists between March–April, 2015, using a self-administered, pre-tested questionnaire in the State of Selangor, Malaysia. A simple random sampling approach was used to select pharmacy sites. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyse the data. Results A total of 188 pharmacists responded to the survey, giving a response rate of 83.5%. The majority of participants (n = 182, 96.8%) believed that antimicrobial stewardship program helps healthcare professionals to improve the quality of patient care. However, more than half of pharmacists were neutral in their opinion about the incorporation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in community pharmacies (n = 102, 54.2%). Though collaboration was often done by pharmacists with other health professionals over the use of antibiotics (n = 104, 55.3%), a significant proportion of participants (n = 102, 54.2%) rarely/occasionally participate in antimicrobial awareness campaigns. Pharmacists having postgraduate qualification were more likely to held positive perceptions of, and were engaged in, antimicrobial stewardship than their non-postgraduate counterpart (p 10 years) held positive perceptions towards antimicrobial stewardship (p<0.05). Conclusion The study highlighted some gaps in the perception and practices of community pharmacist towards antimicrobial stewardship. Development of customized interventions would be critical to bridging these gaps and

  12. Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists towards Antimicrobial Stewardship in the State of Selangor, Malaysia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umair Khan

    Full Text Available Increasing antimicrobial resistance is one of the pressing concerns globally. Injudicious use of antibiotics is one of the modifiable factors responsible for antimicrobial resistance. Given the widespread use of antimicrobials in community settings, pharmacists have an important role in ensuring appropriate use of antibiotics. The objective of this study was to assess the perception and self-reported practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship.A cross-sectional study was conducted among community pharmacists between March-April, 2015, using a self-administered, pre-tested questionnaire in the State of Selangor, Malaysia. A simple random sampling approach was used to select pharmacy sites. Descriptive and inferential statistical methods were used to analyse the data.A total of 188 pharmacists responded to the survey, giving a response rate of 83.5%. The majority of participants (n = 182, 96.8% believed that antimicrobial stewardship program helps healthcare professionals to improve the quality of patient care. However, more than half of pharmacists were neutral in their opinion about the incorporation of antimicrobial stewardship programs in community pharmacies (n = 102, 54.2%. Though collaboration was often done by pharmacists with other health professionals over the use of antibiotics (n = 104, 55.3%, a significant proportion of participants (n = 102, 54.2% rarely/occasionally participate in antimicrobial awareness campaigns. Pharmacists having postgraduate qualification were more likely to held positive perceptions of, and were engaged in, antimicrobial stewardship than their non-postgraduate counterpart (p 10 years held positive perceptions towards antimicrobial stewardship (p<0.05.The study highlighted some gaps in the perception and practices of community pharmacist towards antimicrobial stewardship. Development of customized interventions would be critical to bridging these gaps and improve their perception and

  13. Fire as a long-term stewardship issue for soils contaminated with radionuclides in the western U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shafer, David S.; DuBois, David; Etyemezian, Vic; Kavouras, Ilias; Miller, Julianne J.; Nikolich, George; Stone, Mark

    2007-01-01

    On both U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and U.S. Department of Defense sites in the southwestern United States (U.S.), significant areas of surface soils are contaminated with radionuclides from atmospheric nuclear testing, and with depleted uranium, primarily from military training. At DOE sites in Nevada, the proposed regulatory closure strategy for most sites is to leave contaminants in place with administrative controls and periodic monitoring. Closure-in-place is considered an acceptable strategy because the contaminated sites exist on access-restricted facilities, decreasing the potential risk to public receptor, the high cost and feasibility of excavating contaminated soils over large areas, and the environmental impacts of excavating desert soils that recover very slowly from disturbance. The largest of the contaminated sites on the Tonopah Test Range in Nevada covers over 1,200 hectares. However, a factor that has not been fully investigated in the long-term stewardship of these sites is the potential effects of fires. Because of the long half-lives of some of the contaminants (e.g., 24,100 years for 239 Pu) and changes in land-cover and climatic factors that are increasing the frequency of fires throughout the western U.S., it should be assumed that all of these sites will eventually burn, possibly multiple times, during the time frame when they still pose a risk. Two primary factors are contributing to increased fire frequency. The first is the spread of invasive grasses, particularly cheat grass (Bromus tectorum and Bromus rubens), which have out-competed native annuals and invaded inter-spaces between shrubs, allowing fires to burn easier. The second is a sharp increase in fire frequency and size throughout the western U.S. beginning in the mid-1980's. This second factor appears to correlate with an increase in average spring and summer temperatures, which may be contributing to earlier loss of soil moisture and longer periods of dry plant biomass

  14. Antimicrobial Stewardship in Inpatient Settings in the Asia Pacific Region: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Hitoshi; Ohmagari, Norio; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Mattar, Caline; Warren, David K

    2017-05-15

    An antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) is one of the core elements needed to optimize antimicrobial use. Although collaboration at the national level to address the importance of ASPs and antimicrobial resistance has occurred in the Asia Pacific region, hospital-level ASP implementation in this region has not been comprehensively evaluated. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the efficacy of ASPs in inpatient settings in the Asia Pacific region from January 2005 through March 2016. The impact of ASPs on various outcomes, including patient clinical outcomes, antimicrobial prescription outcomes, microbiological outcomes, and expenditure were assessed. Forty-six studies were included for a systematic review and meta-analysis. The pooled risk ratio for mortality from ASP before-after trials and 2-group comparative studies were 1.03 (95% confidence interval [CI], .88-1.19) and 0.69 (95% CI, .56-.86), respectively. The pooled effect size for change in overall antimicrobial and carbapenem consumption (% difference) was -9.74% (95% CI, -18.93% to -.99%) and -10.56% (95% CI, -19.99% to -3.03%), respectively. Trends toward decreases in the incidence of multidrug-resistant organisms and antimicrobial expenditure (range, 9.7%-58.1% reduction in cost in the intervention period/arm) were also observed. ASPs in inpatient settings in the Asia Pacific region appear to be safe and effective to reduce antimicrobial consumption and improve outcomes. However, given the significant variations in assessing the efficacy of ASPs, high-quality studies using standardized surveillance methodology for antimicrobial consumption and similar metrics for outcome measurement are needed to further promote antimicrobial stewardship in this region. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Integrating human and natural systems in community psychology: an ecological model of stewardship behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskell, Christine; Allred, Shorna Broussard

    2013-03-01

    Community psychology (CP) research on the natural environment lacks a theoretical framework for analyzing the complex relationship between human systems and the natural world. We introduce other academic fields concerned with the interactions between humans and the natural environment, including environmental sociology and coupled human and natural systems. To demonstrate how the natural environment can be included within CP's ecological framework, we propose an ecological model of urban forest stewardship action. Although ecological models of behavior in CP have previously modeled health behaviors, we argue that these frameworks are also applicable to actions that positively influence the natural environment. We chose the environmental action of urban forest stewardship because cities across the United States are planting millions of trees and increased citizen participation in urban tree planting and stewardship will be needed to sustain the benefits provided by urban trees. We used the framework of an ecological model of behavior to illustrate multiple levels of factors that may promote or hinder involvement in urban forest stewardship actions. The implications of our model for the development of multi-level ecological interventions to foster stewardship actions are discussed, as well as directions for future research to further test and refine the model.

  16. Integrated Stewardship of NASA Satellite and Field Campaign Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, J.; Tsontos, V. M.; Hardman, S. H.

    2016-02-01

    The Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) is NASA's archive, steward and distributor for physical oceanographic satellite data. Those data are typically organized along the lines of single parameters, such as Sea Surface Temperature, Ocean Winds, Salinity, etc. However there is a need supplement satellite data with in situ and various other remote sensing data to provide higher spatial and temporal sampling and information on physical processes that the satellites are not capable of measuring. This presentation will discuss how PO.DAAC is creating a stewardship and distribution plan that will accommodate satellite, in situ and other remote sensing data that can be used to solve a more integrated approach to data access and utilization along thematic lines in support of science and applications, specifically those posed by Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study (SPURS) and Oceans Melting Greenland (OMG) projects. SPURS used shipboard data, moorings and in situ instruments to investigate changes in salinity and how that information can be used in explaining the water cycle. OMG is studying ice melt in Greenland and how it contributes to changes in sea level through shipboard measurements, airborne and a variety of in situ instruments. PO.DAAC plans on adapting to stewarding and distributing these varieties of data through applications of file format and metadata standards (so data are discoverable and interoperable), extend the internal data system (to allow for better archiving, collection generation and querying of in situ and airborne data) and integration into tools (visualization and data access). We are also working on Virtual Collections with ESDWG, which could provide access to relevant data across DAACs/Agencies along thematic lines. These improvements will improve long-term data management and make it easier for users of various background, regardless if remote sensing or in situ, to discover and use the data.

  17. Antimicrobial stewardship education in US colleges and schools of pharmacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kufel, Wesley D; Jeffres, Meghan N; MacDougall, Conan; Cho, Jonathan C; Marx, Ashley H; Williams, Dennis M

    2018-05-28

    Pharmacists are key members of antimicrobial stewardship (AS) teams. It is unknown if and how US colleges and schools of pharmacy incorporate AS into their Doctor of Pharmacy (PharmD) curricula. This study was a cross-sectional, multicentre, electronic survey distributed to infectious diseases faculty or department chairs of 137 accredited and candidate-status PharmD programmes. One hundred and sixteen programmes participated, representing an 84.7% response rate. AS education was integrated into the required didactic, elective didactic and experiential education components of the curricula in 79 (68.1%), 43 (37.1%) and 97 (83.6%) PharmD programmes, respectively. The most common AS topics in required and elective didactic curricula were AS definitions, principles and purpose (98.7% and 86.0%) and the pharmacist's role in AS (93.7% and 83.7%). In the required and elective didactic curricula, lecture (93.7% and 86.0%) and case-based instruction (57.0% and 83.7%) were the most common instructional methods. For experiential education, the pharmacist's role in AS (96.9%), de-escalation of antimicrobials (96.9%) and antimicrobial dose optimization (95.9%) were the most common AS topics. PharmD programmes employing a faculty member who specializes in AS were more likely to offer AS experiential education than programmes without AS faculty (88.1% versus 71.9%, P = 0.049). Integration of AS education in US PharmD curricula is variable and there are considerable differences in the AS activities and topics delivered. PharmD programmes should attempt to expose students to AS education to prepare future pharmacists for AS practice. Efforts should be made to incorporate interprofessional collaboration into AS education.

  18. Importance of antimicrobial stewardship to the English National Health Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dixon J

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Jill Dixon, Christopher JA Duncan Department of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Royal Victoria Infirmary, Queen Victoria Road, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK Abstract: Antimicrobials are an extremely valuable resource across the spectrum of modern medicine. Their development has been associated with dramatic reductions in communicable disease mortality and has facilitated technological advances in cancer therapy, transplantation, and surgery. However, this resource is threatened by the dwindling supply of new antimicrobials and the global increase in antimicrobial resistance. There is an urgent need for antimicrobial stewardship (AMS to protect our remaining antimicrobials for future generations. AMS emphasizes sensible, appropriate antimicrobial management for the benefit of the individual and society as a whole. Within the English National Health Service (NHS, a series of recent policy initiatives have focused on all aspects of AMS, including best practice guidelines for antimicrobial prescribing, enhanced surveillance mechanisms for monitoring antimicrobial use across primary and secondary care, and new prescribing competencies for doctors in training. Here we provide a concise summary to clarify the current position and importance of AMS within the NHS and review the evidence base for AMS recommendations. The evidence supports the impact of AMS strategies on modifying prescribing practice in hospitals, with beneficial effects on both antimicrobial resistance and the incidence of Clostridium difficile, and no evidence of increased sepsis-related mortality. There is also a promising role for novel diagnostic technologies in AMS, both in enhancing microbiological diagnosis and improving the specificity of sepsis diagnosis. More work is needed to establish an evidence base for interventions to improve public and patient education regarding the role of antibiotics in common clinical syndromes, such as respiratory tract infection. Future

  19. DOE's Stewardship of Government-Owned Uranium Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J. Dale; Donaldson, Dale E.

    2002-01-01

    Beginning in the 1980's, a significant number of Department of Energy facilities have been shut down and are in the decommissioning process. The shutdown of additional facilities is planned. In addition, during the past several decades, the Department of Energy has loaned nuclear material to a wide variety of private and governmental institutions for research and educational purposes. Subsequent changes in the Department's priorities have reduced the need for nuclear materials to support the Department's programs. Similarly, there has been a reduction in the need for borrowed nuclear materials by organizations and institutions using nuclear materials 'on loan' from the Department. As a result, inventories of uranium material from the Department's facilities and 'on loan' must be removed and returned to the Department. This material is in the form of low enriched uranium (LEU), normal uranium (NU), and depleted uranium (DU) in various forms. This uranium material is located at over one hundred sites within the United States and overseas, including universities and laboratories. Much of this uranium is not needed to support national priorities and programs. The Department of Energy has assumed a stewardship role in managing nuclear materials throughout their life cycle, from acquisition to storage. Surplus uranium has created challenges for DOE in managing and storing the material as well as identifying opportunities for its further use. On behalf of the Department, the Oak Ridge Operations Office has been given the responsibility to implement the Department responsibilities in meeting these challenges and managing the Department's uranium materials. To support this effort, the Office of Nuclear Fuel Security and Uranium Technology within the ORO complex coordinates uranium management functions across the Department of Energy. This coordination provides DOE with a number of important benefits, among which are: consolidated management and storage of uranium; improved

  20. Planning for quality stewardship: The sitewide environmental impact statement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, D.

    1995-01-01

    The U.S Department of Energy is responsible for managing many large tracts of Federal land throughout this country. These sites host the nation's nuclear weapons complex, national laboratories, environmental restoration facilities, and serve other uses. The Department faces unique problems in administering this land. Many have multiple activities taking place at the same time; for example, a site may simultaneously be used for energy research, technology development, waste disposal and wildlife habitat. The sites often use radioactive and other hazardous materials and many are contaminated as a result of past management practices. In 1992 the Department institutes a policy, as stated in its National Environmental Policy Act regulations [10 CFR 1021], to prepare sitewide environmental impact statements for its large, multipurpose sites. For the first time, through the sitewide environmental impact statement process, the Department has an effective tool to plan for quality stewardship of the lands and resources entrusted to its care. The sitewide environmental impact statement is a specialized type of programmatic environmental impact statement which allows the Department to look at the geographically connected actions taking place at a given site. The sitewide statement allows a comprehensive look at the operational baseline for the entire site to determine the total cumulative impact of ongoing operations at the site. The Department can identify areas where a change in management practices would mitigate undesirable impacts; areas not at issue could continue under existing practices. As a result, an environmentally-sound operating envelope can be established. This, in turn, can serve in the future as a threshold to decide if new proposals would result in significant impacts to the site as a whole, to simplify future National Environmental Policy Act reviews

  1. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  2. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species...... that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants responded to flaming. Regrowth of the grasses was measured by harvesting aboveground biomass 2 wk after......, as they did not increase the reduction of aboveground biomass compared with the 7-d treatment interval. Knowledge on the regrowth of grass weeds after flaming treatments provided by this study can help improve recommendations given to road keepers and park managers for management on these weeds. Nomenclature...

  3. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  4. Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

  5. Environmental Stewardship at the Savannah River Site: Generations of Success - 13212

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Looney, Brian B.; Bergren, Christopher L.; Gaughan, Thomas F.; Aylward, Robert S.; Guevara, Karen C.; Whitaker, Wade C.; Hennessey, Brian T.; Mills, Gary L.; Blake, John I. [Savannah River Site, Aiken SC 29808, 773-42A (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Approximately sixty years ago, the Savannah River Site (SRS) was built to produce nuclear materials. SRS production operations impacted air, soil, groundwater, ecology, and the local environment. Throughout its history, SRS has addressed these contamination issues directly and has maintained a commitment to environmental stewardship. The Site boasts many environmental firsts. Notably, SRS was the first major Department of Energy (DOE) facility to perform a baseline ecological assessment. This pioneering effort, by Ruth Patrick and the Philadelphia Academy of Sciences, was performed during SRS planning and construction in the early 1950's. This unique early generation of work set the stage for subsequent efforts. Since that time, the scientists and engineers at SRS pro-actively identified environmental problems and developed and implemented effective and efficient environmental management and remediation solutions. This second generation, spanning the 1980's through the 2000's, is exemplified by numerous large and small cleanup actions to address metals and radionuclides, solvents and hydrocarbons, facility and area decommissioning, and ecological restoration. Recently, a third generation of environmental management was initiated as part of Enterprise SRS. This initiative to 'Develop and Deploy Next Generation Cleanup Technologies' formalizes and organizes the major technology matching, development, and implementation processes associated with historical SRS cleanup success as a resource to support future environmental management missions throughout DOE. The four elements of the current, third generation, effort relate to: 1) transition from active to passive cleanup, 2) in situ decommissioning of large nuclear facilities, 3) new long term monitoring paradigms, and 4) a major case study related to support for recovery and restoration of the Japanese Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant and surrounding environment. (authors)

  6. Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1979-05-01

    Measurements of resuspension of particulate matter from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds are described in this report. The measurements were performed in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air on to 10m 2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of silt, sprayed on to a similar grass area, were similar. The resuspension factor declined as the reciprocal of time of wind exposure and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source questions the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10 -11 m -1 . The fraction of deposited fallout resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10 per cent. (author)

  7. Integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of agri-environmental schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raymond, Christopher Mark; Reed, Mark; Bieling, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    While multiple studies have identified land managers’ preferences for agri-environmental schemes (AES), few approaches exist for integrating different understandings of landscape stewardship into the design of these measures. We compared and contrasted rural land managers’ attitudes toward AES...... to the reduced amount of funding available for entry-level and higher-level stewardship schemes in the UK since 2008, changing funding priorities, perceived overstrict compliance and lack of support for farm succession and new entrants into farming. However, there were differences in concerns across...... understandings of landscape stewardship, with production respondents citing that AES do not encourage food production, whereas environmental and holistic farmers citing that AES do not support the development of a local green food culture and associated social infrastructure. These differences also emerged...

  8. Optimizing adherence to advice from antimicrobial stewardship audit and feedback rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Matthew D M; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Ingram, Paul R; McLellan, Duncan G J; Crawford, Colin; D'Orsogna, Luca; Dyer, John

    2018-02-01

    We examined adherence to antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds in a rehabilitation service compared with the remainder of the acute hospital, and explored the reasons for this. Between October 2014 and December 2015, we retrospectively assessed the rate of non-adherence to advice from antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds between the rehabilitation service and the acute hospital, along with the source of the patient referral. Compared with the rehabilitation service, acute hospital medical staff were almost twice as likely to not adhere to advice provided on antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds (13.8% vs. 7.6%, p risk 1.8 [95% confidence interval 1.3, 2.5]). In the rehabilitation service, referrals were more likely to come from medical staff (61.9% vs. 16.3%, p model potentially applicable to other settings.

  9. Final programmatic environmental impact statement for stockpile stewardship and management. Comment response document. Volume 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    In response to the end of the Cold War and changes in the world's political regimes, the United States is not producing new-design nuclear weapons. Instead, the emphasis on the U.S. nuclear weapons program is on reducing the size of the Nation's nuclear stockpile by dismantling existing nuclear weapons. The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management PEIS describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program

  10. Final Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for stockpile stewardship and management: Volume 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-09-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has been directed by the President and Congress to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground nuclear testing. In order to fulfill that responsibility, DOE has developed a Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program to provide a single highly integrated technical program for maintaining the continued safety and reliability of the nuclear stockpile. The Stockpile Stewardship and Management Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement (PEIS) describes and analyzes alternative ways to implement the proposed actions for the Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program. This document consists of Volume III, Appendix I entitled ''National Ignition Facility Project-Specific Analysis,'' which investigates the environmental impacts resulting from constructing and operating the proposed National Ignition Facility

  11. [The absence of stewardship in the Chilean health authority after the 2004 health reform].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Tania; Sánchez, Sergio

    2014-11-26

    Stewardship is the most important political function of a health system. It is a government responsibility carried out by the health authority. Among other dimensions, it is also a meta-function that includes conduction and regulation. The Health Authority and Management Act, which came about from the health reform of 2004, separated the functions of service provision and stewardship with the aim of strengthening the role of the health authority. However, the current structure of the health system contains overlapping functions between the different entities that leads to lack of coordination and inconsistencies, and a greater weight on individual health actions at the expense of collective ones. Consequently, a properly funded national health strategy to improve the health of the population is missing. Additionally, the components of citizen participation and governance are weak. It is necessary, therefore, to revisit the Chilean health structure in order to develop one that truly enables the exercise of the health authority’s stewardship role.

  12. Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and geographical variation. ... Seven species are important pasture grasses throughout the western Transvaal, Orange Free State, northern Cape and Natal. ... Language: English.

  13. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  14. Principles and principals : do customer stewardship and agency control compete or complement when shaping frontline employee behavior?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, J.J.L.; Falk, T.; Ruyter, de J.C.; Jong, de A.; Hammerschmidt, M.

    2012-01-01

    This article introduces customer stewardship control to the marketing field. This concept represents a frontline employee’s felt ownership of and moral responsibility for customers’ overall welfare. In two studies, the authors show that customer stewardship control is a more encompassing construct

  15. Urban Ecological Stewardship: Understanding the Structure, Function and Network of Community-based Urban Land Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsay K. Campbell

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban environmental stewardship activities are on the rise in cities throughout the Northeast. Groups participating in stewardship activities range in age, size, and geography and represent an increasingly complex and dynamic arrangement of civil society, government and business sectors. To better understand the structure, function and network of these community-based urban land managers, an assessment was conducted in 2004 by the research subcommittee of the Urban Ecology Collaborative. The goal of the assessment was to better understand the role of stewardship organizations engaged in urban ecology initiatives in selected major cities in the Northeastern U.S.: Boston, New Haven, New York City, Pittsburgh, Baltimore, and Washington, D.C. A total of 135 active organizations participated in this assessment. Findings include the discovery of a dynamic social network operating within cities, and a reserve of social capital and expertise that could be better utilized. Although often not the primary land owner, stewardship groups take an increasingly significant responsibility for a wide range of land use types including street and riparian corridors, vacant lots, public parks and gardens, green roofs, etc. Responsibilities include the delivery of public programs as well as daily maintenance and fundraising support. While most of the environmental stewardship organizations operate on staffs of zero or fewer than ten, with small cohorts of community volunteers, there is a significant difference in the total amount of program funding. Nearly all respondents agree that committed resources are scarce and insufficient with stewards relying upon and potentially competing for individual donations, local foundations, and municipal support. This makes it a challenge for the groups to grow beyond their current capacity and to develop long-term programs critical to resource management and education. It also fragments groups, making it difficult for planners and

  16. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship-Mathematical Modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Sean L; Kasaie, Parastu; Anderson, Deverick J; Rubin, Michael

    2016-11-01

    Mathematical modeling is a valuable methodology used to study healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship, particularly when more traditional study approaches are infeasible, unethical, costly, or time consuming. We focus on 2 of the most common types of mathematical modeling, namely compartmental modeling and agent-based modeling, which provide important advantages-such as shorter developmental timelines and opportunities for extensive experimentation-over observational and experimental approaches. We summarize these advantages and disadvantages via specific examples and highlight recent advances in the methodology. A checklist is provided to serve as a guideline in the development of mathematical models in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-7.

  17. Treatment Modalities and Antimicrobial Stewardship Initiatives in the Management of Intra-Abdominal Infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Hoffmann

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs focus on improving the utilization of broad spectrum antibiotics to decrease the incidence of multidrug-resistant Gram positive and Gram negative pathogens. Hospital admission for both medical and surgical intra-abdominal infections (IAIs commonly results in the empiric use of broad spectrum antibiotics such as fluoroquinolones, beta-lactam beta-lactamase inhibitors, and carbapenems that can select for resistant organisms. This review will discuss the management of uncomplicated and complicated IAIs as well as highlight stewardship initiatives focusing on the proper use of broad spectrum antibiotics.

  18. Government stewardship of the for-profit private health sector in Afghanistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Harry E; Sayedi, Omarzaman; Irani, Laili; Archer, Lauren C; Sears, Kathleen; Sharma, Suneeta

    2017-04-01

    Since 2003, Afghanistan's largely unregulated for-profit private health sector has grown at a rapid pace. In 2008, the Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) launched a long-term stewardship initiative to oversee and regulate private providers and align the sector with national health goals. We examine the progress the MoPH has made towards more effective stewardship, consider the challenges and assess the early impacts on for-profit performance. We reviewed publicly available documents, publications and the grey literature to analyse the development, adoption and implementation of strategies, policies and regulations. We carried out a series of key informant/participant interviews, organizational capacity assessments and analyses of hospital standards checklists. Using a literature review of health systems strengthening, we proposed an Afghan-specific definition of six key stewardship functions to assess progress towards MoPH stewardship objectives. The MoPH and its partners have achieved positive results in strengthening its private sector stewardship functions especially in generating actionable intelligence and establishing strategic policy directions, administrative structures and a legal and regulatory framework. Progress has also been made on improving accountability and transparency, building partnerships and applying minimum required standards to private hospitals. Procedural and operational issues still need resolution and the MoPH is establishing mechanisms for resolving them. The MoPH stewardship initiative is notable for its achievements to date under challenging circumstances. Its success is due to the focus on developing a solid policy framework and building institutions and systems aimed at ensuring higher quality private services, and a rational long-term and sustainable role for the private sector. Although the MoPH stewardship initiative is still at an early stage, the evidence suggests that enhanced stewardship functions in the MoPH are leading to a

  19. Organizational ethics in Catholic health care: honoring stewardship and the work environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magill, G

    2001-04-01

    Organizational ethics refers to the integration of values into decision making, policies, and behavior throughout the multi-disciplinary environment of a health care organization. Based upon Catholic social ethics, stewardship is at the heart of organizational ethics in health care in this sense: stewardship provides the hermeneutic filter that enables basic ethical principles to be realized practically, within the context of the Catholic theology of work, to concerns in health care. This general argument can shed light on the specific topic of non-executive compensation programs as an illustration of organizational ethics in health care.

  20. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  1. Notes on the nomenclature of some grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1941-01-01

    In a former article 1) many new combinations and critical observations were published on various grasses all over the world. New investigations in critical genera together with the study of the existing literature made it necessary to accept various other arrangements in this important family. The

  2. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203 ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  3. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental conditions.

  4. Convex relationships in ecosystems containing mixtures of trees and grass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between grass production and the quantity of trees in mixed tree-grass ecosystems (savannas) is convex for all or most of its range. In other words, the grass production declines more steeply per unit increase in tree quantity...

  5. Names of Southern African grasses: Name changes and additional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main reasons for changes in botanical names are briefly reviewed, with examples from the lists. At this time, about 1040 grass species and subspecific taxa are recognized in the subcontinent. Keywords: botanical research; botanical research institute; botany; grass; grasses; identification; name change; nomenclature; ...

  6. Evolution of data stewardship over two decades at a NASA data center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, E. M.; Moroni, D. F.; Hausman, J.; Tsontos, V. M.

    2013-12-01

    Whether referred to as data science or data engineering, the technical nature and practice of data curation has seen a noticeable shift in the last two decades. The majority of this has been driven by factors of increasing data volumes and complexity, new data structures, and data virtualization through internet access that have themselves spawned new fields or advances in semantic ontologies, metadata, advanced distributed computing and new file formats. As a result of this shifting landscape, the role of the data scientist/engineer has also evolved.. We will discuss the key elements of this evolutionary shift from the perspective of data curation at the NASA Physical Oceanography Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC), which is one of 12 NASA Earth Science data centers responsible for archiving and distributing oceanographic satellite data since 1993. Earlier responsibilities of data curation in the history of the PO.DAAC focused strictly on data archiving, low-level data quality assessments, understanding and building read software for terse binary data or limited applications of self-describing file formats and metadata. Data discovery was often word of mouth or based on perusing simple web pages built for specific products. At that time the PO.DAAC served only a few tens of datasets. A single data engineer focused on a specific mission or suite of datasets from a specific physical parameter (e.g., ocean topography measurements). Since that time the number of datasets in the PO.DAAC has grown to approach one thousand, with increasing complexity of data and metadata structures in self-describing formats. Advances in ontologies, metadata, applications of MapReduce distributed computing and "big data", improvements in data discovery, data mining, and tools for visualization and analysis have all required new and evolving skill sets. The community began requiring more rigorous assessments of data quality and uncertainty. Although the expert knowledge of the

  7. Long term effects of ash fertilization of reed canary grass; Laangtidseffekter av askgoedsling vid roerflensodling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva

    2011-03-15

    harvest. The main component of the ash is silica and silica concentrations are higher when reed canary grass is grown on clay soil than on peat soil. In an earlier project within the department of agricultural research for northern Sweden, SLU Umea, reed canary grass growing on peat soil was fertilized with ash from cocombustion of reed canary grass and sorted municipal waste. This ash was beneficial for the growth of the grass and did not give increased heavy metal contents. However the experiment only lasted two years so no conclusions could be drawn about long-term effects. Crop yields and elemental composition of the crop: The yields varied very much from year to year. The first two production years, 2004 and 2005 the yield was at expected levels, 6000-7000 kg dry matter per ha and year. After that, 2006-2009 the yields have been lower than expected, 1500 - 4000 kg dry matter per ha and year. The reason for this is not known, but it could be related to climate or pests. There were no significant differences in yield between the treatments. Samples from each plot from the last harvest and stored samples from 2004 were analyzed for nutrient and heavy metal content. There were only minor significant differences between the treatments: The ash and the potassium and calcium concentrations 2009 in grass from treatment A, ash from co-combustion of reed canary grass and waste, was slightly higher than in the NPK fertilized control. The magnesium concentration in 2009 was slightly higher in grass fertilized with reed canary grass ash than in the control grass. Element balances and soil concentrations of elements: Because of the low yield levels the amounts of P and K applied were much higher than the removal with harvests (Table 2). This resulted in an increase in plant available P and K in the top soil between 2003 and 2008 (Table 3). However, in the subsoil there was a decrease especially in plant available P. The only significant differences in soil nutrients between the

  8. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  9. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces highly cross-reactive IgG antibodies to group V allergen from different grass species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Brewczyński, P. Z.; Tan, K. Y.; Mulder-Willems, H. J.; Widjaja, P.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kroon, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on IgG reactivity with group V allergen from six different grass species. One group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. Only Lolium perenne, Dactylis

  10. The influence of the cutting attachment on vibrations emitted by brush cutters and grass trimmers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wójcik Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Generally, the choice of cutting attachment used in brush cutters for brushwoods and grasses depends on the type of work, on one hand, and the size of the engine, on the other. However, at the same time, the use of individually chosen cutting elements entails a certain risk of vibration resulting from their varying design and size, which has a big impact on comfort and working time, but most importantly on operator health.

  11. EFFECT OF FLY ASHES AND SEWAGE SLUDGE ON Fe, Mn, Al, Si AND Co UPTAKE BY GRASS MIXTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Antonkiewicz

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Application of sewage sludge for environmental management of fly ashes landfill site affects chemical composition of plants. The aim of the present investigations was learning the effect of growing doses of municipal sewage sludge on the yield and uptake of Fe, Mn, Al, Si and Co by grass mixture used for environmental management of fly ashes landfill. The experimental design comprised of 5 objects differing by a dose of municipal sewage sludge supplied per 1 hectare: I. control, II. 25 t d.m., III. 50 t d.m., IV. 75 t d.m. and V. 100 t d.m. Application of sewage sludge resulted in the increase in yield. The content of analyzed elements in the grass mixture depended significantly on sewage sludge dose. Increasing doses of sewage sludge caused marked increase in Mn and Co contents, while they decreased Fe, Al and Si contents in the grass mixture. It was found that growing doses of sewage sludge caused an improvement of Fe to Mn ratio value in the grass mixture. Assessing the element content in the grass mixture in the view of forage value, it was found that Fe and Mn content did not meet the optimal value. Si content in plants was below the optimal value.

  12. Technology to support integrated Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs : a user centered and stakeholder driven development approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.; Wentzel, M.J.; Hendrix, Ron; Tjin-Kam-Jet-Siemons, Liseth

    2017-01-01

    The rise of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a severe global health problem. Tackling this problem requires the prudent prescribing of antimicrobials. This is promoted through Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs (ASPs). In this position paper we describe i) how a socio-technical multidisciplinary

  13. Science and society: the role of long-term studies in environmental stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles T. Driscoll; Kathleen F. Lambert; F. Stuart Chapin; David J. Nowak; Thomas A. Spies; Frederick J. Swanson; David B. Kittredge; Clarisse M. Hart

    2012-01-01

    Long-term research should play a crucial role in addressing grand challenges in environmental stewardship. We examine the efforts of five Long Term Ecological Research Network sites to enhance policy, management, and conservation decisions for forest ecosystems. In these case studies, we explore the approaches used to inform policy on atmospheric deposition, public...

  14. Stewardship as a Means to Create Organizational Reform: A View into Minnesota 4-H Youth Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skuza, Jennifer A.; Freeman, Dorothy M.; Bremseth, Tamara J.; Doering, Shirley A.; Quinlan, Robert B.; Morreim, Patricia A.; Deidrick, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Minnesota 4-H Youth Development (MN 4-H) used stewardship as a means to create organizational reform to address the public use of the 4-H name and emblem in terms of risk management, real estate and equipment, and finances. A task force implemented a participatory process with colleagues and stakeholders to build and implement the reform effort.…

  15. Rural Community-Based Tourism and its Impact on Ecological Consciousness, Environmental Stewardship and Social Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raftopoulos, Malayna

    2018-01-01

    Since rural community-based tourism (RCBT) emerged, it has been widely considered to be an effective means of promoting development and conserving natural resources. Through a political ecology approach, this article explores the potential of RCBT to foster long-term stewardship and transformations...

  16. The global wilderness seminar for government agencies: a meeting at the crossroads of wildlands stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nancy Roeper; Peter Landres; Don Fisher

    2006-01-01

    Two days before the 8th World Wilderness Congress began in Alaska, nearly 200 government wildlands managers from 17 countries met to share ideas about common challenges and to explore ways to improve wildland stewardship globally. The goal for this Global Wilderness Seminar for Government Agencies was to lay the foundation for an operating peer network of government...

  17. Enhancing Ecosystem Stewardship in Small-Scale Fisheries: Prospects for Latin America and the Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pereira Medeiros

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite recognition of small-scale fisheries (SSF contribution to livelihood diversity and food security worldwide, a better understanding of their social and ecological dynamics is required. This paper is a synthesis of the main findings from the special issue “Enhancing ecosystem stewardship in small-scale fisheries” published in this journal. Contributors explored ecosystem stewardship in three dimensions: impacts, monitoring and stewardship. Results suggested that ecosystem stewardship encompasses collaborative action to foster: i new perspectives on SSF management; ii a broader perspective on managers and stakeholders – as stewards for implementing these new perspectives; and iii enabling environments through partnership, networking, communication and collective action. This special issue is an output from the Too Big to Ignore (TBTI Working Group 4 - “Enhancing the Stewardship”. TBTI is a global research network and knowledge mobilization partnership intended to better comprehend SSF contributions on issues such as food security and poverty alleviation, as well as the associated impacts of global changes, through the efforts of diverse partners around the world.

  18. A special issue of the Journal of Forestry - Wilderness science and its role in wilderness stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susan F. Fox

    2016-01-01

    This special issue of the Journal of Forestry provides an overview of America’s National Wilderness Preservation System and highlights the important role that science serves in informing wilderness stewardship. The lead authors of the articles in this volume selected the Journal because it is highly respected and widely circulated among foresters and federal...

  19. Recognizing Stewardship Practices as Indicators of Social Resilience: In Living Memorials and in a Community Garden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather McMillen; Lindsay Campbell; Erika Svendsen; Renae Reynolds

    2016-01-01

    Resilience theory has received increased attention from researchers across a range of disciplines who have developed frameworks and articulated categories of indicators; however, there has been less discussion of how to recognize, and therefore support, social resilience at the community level, especially in urban areas. The value of urban environmental stewardship for...

  20. Place-Based Stewardship Education: Nurturing Aspirations to Protect the Rural Commons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallay, Erin; Marckini-Polk, Lisa; Schroeder, Brandon; Flanagan, Constance

    2016-01-01

    In this mixed-methods study, we examine the potential of place-based stewardship education (PBSE) for nurturing rural students' community attachment and aspirations to contribute to the preservation of the environmental "commons." Analyzing pre- and post-experience surveys (n = 240) and open-ended responses (n = 275) collected from…

  1. Integration of environmental stewardship and local economic development to enhance community health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Jay F

    2011-01-01

    Environmental groups working to preserve natural ecosystems and groups working to enhance local economic development often find themselves on philosophically opposite sides of the negotiation table. Case histories of cooperative engagement are provided that serve as examples of how environmental stewardship is compatible with local economic development and community health.

  2. Aspen's Global 100: Beyond Grey Pinstripes 2009-2010--Preparing MBAs for Social and Environmental Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aspen Institute, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Beyond Grey Pinstripes is a research survey and alternative ranking of business schools that spotlights innovative full-time MBA programs leading the way in integrating social and environmental stewardship into their curriculum and scholarly research. These schools are preparing today's students--tomorrow's leaders--for future market realities by…

  3. The Critical Role of Stewardship in Fund Raising: The Coaches vs. Cancer Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worley, Debra A.; Little, Jennifer K.

    2002-01-01

    Examines the critical role of stewardship in the process of fund raising. Uses the Coaches vs. Cancer campaign to illustrate the limitations of the public relations ROPE (research, objectives, planning, and evaluation) model in explaining fund raising success, and supports K.S. Kelly's contention that addition of a fifth step to the model, the…

  4. Integration of Cloud Technologies for Data Stewardship at the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, K. S.; Hausman, S. A.

    2016-02-01

    In the last year, the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and its siblings, the National Climatic Data Center and National Geophysical Data Center, were merged into one organization, the NOAA National Centers for Environmental Information (NCEI). Combining its expertise under one management has helped NCEI accelerate its efforts to embrace and integrate private, public, and hybrid cloud environments into its range of data stewardship services. These services span a range of tiers, from basic, long-term preservation and access, through enhanced access and scientific quality control, to authoritative product development and international-level services. Throughout these tiers of stewardship, partnerships and pilot projects have been launched to identify technological and policy-oriented challenges, to establish solutions to these problems, and to highlight success stories for emulation during operational integration of the cloud into NCEI's data stewardship activities. Some of these pilot activities including data storage, access, and reprocessing in Amazon Web Services, the OneStop data discovery and access framework project, and a set of Cooperative Research and Development Agreements under the Big Data Project with Amazon, Google, IBM, Microsoft, and the Open Cloud Consortium. Progress in these efforts will be highlighted along with a future vision of how NCEI could leverage hybrid cloud deployments and federated systems across NOAA to enable effective data stewardship for its oceanographic, atmospheric, climatic, and geophysical Big Data.

  5. Little Book, Big Waves: The Epistle of James and Global Stewardship in Bioethics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lora Jean Brake

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available At first glance the twenty-first century arena of biotechnology and bioethics seems worlds away from the practical concerns of the first century outlook of the New Testament book of James. A closer look, however, reveals that the issues that James addresses have applications to challenges in bioethics. This article will give an overview of James and examine James’ teaching on wealth, poverty, and generosity and its import for the issue of global stewardship in bioethics.  Stewardship concerns both a Christian’s care and management of time, talents, and treasures.  Faithful use of the resources God has given demonstrates the fruitful faith that James writes of in his epistle. The idea of global stewardship, though “stewardship” is grounded in a distinctly Christian ethic, reflects an emerging discussion in bioethics regarding the need to address the inequities present between the money and time spent on biotechnology in some of the world in proportion to the money spent on meeting the basic healthcare needs of the poor of the entire world.  This New Testament epistle gives clear indications of how the Christian is to view wealth and how the Christian is to respond to poverty.  James, though a comparatively small book, sends a crucial message across the years that should greatly impact how Christians view stewardship in terms of global healthcare needs. 

  6. Wilderness stewardship in America today and what we can do to improve it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ken Cordell; Chris Barns; David Brownlie; Tom Carlson; Chad Dawson; William Koch; Garry Oye; Chris Ryan

    2016-01-01

    The authors of this article are recently retired wilderness professionals from universities or federal agencies. We were asked to share our observations about how wilderness stewardship is being managed in America today. We based our observations on our many years of combined professional wilderness career experience as managers, trainers, scientists, educators, and...

  7. Strategies and challenges of antimicrobial stewardship in long-term care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyar, O J; Pagani, L; Pulcini, C

    2015-01-01

    As people are living longer the demand for long-term care facilities (LTCFs) continues to rise. For many reasons, antimicrobials are used intensively in LTCFs, with up to a half of this use considered inappropriate or unnecessary. Over-use of antimicrobials can have direct adverse consequences for LTCF residents and promotes the development and spread of resistant bacteria. It is therefore critical that LTCFs are able to engage in antimicrobial stewardship programmes, which have the potential to minimize the antibiotic selective pressure, while improving the quality of care received by LTCF residents. To date, no antimicrobial stewardship guidelines specific to LTCF settings have been published. Here we outline the scale of antimicrobial use in LTCFs and the underlying drivers for antibiotic over-use. We further describe the particular challenges of antimicrobial stewardship in LTCFs, and review the interventional studies that have aimed to improve antibiotic use in these settings. Practical recommendations are then drawn from this research to help guide the development and implementation of antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Copyright © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Enhancing stewardship in Latin America and Caribbean small-scale fisheries : challenges and opportunities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gasalla, M.A.; de Castro, F.

    2016-01-01

    This thematic series, entitled “Enhancing Stewardship in Latin America and Caribbean Small-Scale Fisheries”, emerged as part of a joint effort to bridge Latin-American scholars interested in networking on small-scale fisheries in the region. Built on results presented at two meetings (‘Too Big to

  9. The value of participatory development to support antimicrobial stewardship with a clinical decision support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Wentzel, Jobke; Hendrix, Ron; van Gemert-Pijnen, Lisette

    2017-01-01

    Background: Current clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are guideline- or expert-driven. They are focused on (clinical) content, not on supporting real-time workflow. Thus, CDSSs fail to optimally support prudent antimicrobial prescribing in daily

  10. The value of participatory development to support antimicrobial stewardship with a clinical decision support system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerlage-de Jong, Nienke; Wentzel, M.J.; Hendrix, Ron; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    Background Current clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) for antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are guideline- or expert-driven. They are focused on (clinical) content, not on supporting real-time workflow. Thus, CDSSs fail to optimally support prudent antimicrobial prescribing in daily

  11. Understanding micro-processes of institutionalization: stewardship contracting and national forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassandra Moseley; Susan Charnley

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines micro-processes of institutionalization, using the case of stewardship contracting within the US Forest Service. Our basic premise is that, until a new policy becomes an everyday practice among local actors, it will not become institutionalized at the macro-scale. We find that micro-processes of institutionalization are driven by a mixture of large-...

  12. Wilderness stewardship challenges in the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park World Heritage Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonja Krüger

    2007-01-01

    The location of the uKhahlamba Drakensberg Park wilderness areas along an international border and within a World Heritage Site and Transfrontier Conservation Area, provides unique opportunities and challenges for the stewardship of these areas. Although the wilderness areas were proclaimed more than 30 years ago, wilderness-specific planning, management and monitoring...

  13. Evaluation of early implementations of antibiotic stewardship program initiatives in nine Dutch hospitals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Limburg, A.H.M.; Sinha, Bhanu; Lo-Ten-Foe, Jerome R.; van Gemert-Pijnen, Julia E.W.C.

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibiotic resistance is a global threat to patient safety and care. In response, hospitals start antibiotic stewardship programs to optimise antibiotic use. Expert-based guidelines recommend strategies to implement such programs, but local implementations may differ per hospital. Earlier

  14. A Unified Framework for Measuring Stewardship Practices Applied to Digital Environmental Datasets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ge Peng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a stewardship maturity assessment model in the form of a matrix for digital environmental datasets. Nine key components are identified based on requirements imposed on digital environmental data and information that are cared for and disseminated by U.S. Federal agencies by U.S. law, i.e., Information Quality Act of 2001, agencies’ guidance, expert bodies’ recommendations, and users. These components include: preservability, accessibility, usability, production sustainability, data quality assurance, data quality control/monitoring, data quality assessment, transparency/traceability, and data integrity. A five-level progressive maturity scale is then defined for each component associated with measurable practices applied to individual datasets, representing Ad Hoc, Minimal, Intermediate, Advanced, and Optimal stages. The rationale for each key component and its maturity levels is described. This maturity model, leveraging community best practices and standards, provides a unified framework for assessing scientific data stewardship. It can be used to create a stewardship maturity scoreboard of dataset(s and a roadmap for scientific data stewardship improvement or to provide data quality and usability information to users, stakeholders, and decision makers.

  15. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  16. Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-11-07

    Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material.

  17. Extraction of Spear Grass (Imperata Cylindrica As Pro-Oxidant In Polymer Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuradibah M.A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Packaging material such as plastic bags is one of the main factors that contribute to the environmental pollution due to slow degradation. The usage of metal oxide as pro-oxidant has been proven to accelerate the degradation of these materials, but the excessive usage of this pro-oxidant will be harmful to the human body. Therefore, in this research, spear grass is investigated to be used as natural based pro-oxidant that can increase the degradation rate of the polymers. In terms of that, spear grass is extracted by using pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE to obtain the metal element such as zinc (Zn and ferum (Fe. PHWE is using water as a solvent which is highly favourable due to non-toxicity and non-flammable characteristics that make it easy to handle. Box-Behnken design is used to optimize the temperature, extraction time, and sample-to-solvent ratio to get the maximum amount of Zn and Fe concentration from the extracted spear grass. As a conclusion, the leaf of spear grass contributed the highest amount of Zn and Fe concentration. The highest amount of Zn and Fe concentration is achieved at 150 °C, 20 minutes, and 3 g of sample to 45 ml of water.

  18. Antimicrobial stewardship activities: a survey of Queensland hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avent, Minyon L; Hall, Lisa; Davis, Louise; Allen, Michelle; Roberts, Jason A; Unwin, Sean; McIntosh, Kylie A; Thursky, Karin; Buising, Kirsty; Paterson, David L

    2014-11-01

    In 2011, the Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (ACSQHC) recommended that all hospitals in Australia must have an Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) program by 2013. Nevertheless, little is known about current AMS activities. This study aimed to determine the AMS activities currently undertaken, and to identify gaps, barriers to implementation and opportunities for improvement in Queensland hospitals. The AMS activities of 26 facilities from 15 hospital and health services in Queensland were surveyed during June 2012 to address strategies for effective AMS: implementing clinical guidelines, formulary restriction, reviewing antimicrobial prescribing, auditing antimicrobial use and selective reporting of susceptibility results. The response rate was 62%. Nineteen percent had an AMS team (a dedicated multidisciplinary team consisting of a medically trained staff member and a pharmacist). All facilities had access to an electronic version of Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic, with a further 50% developing local guidelines for antimicrobials. One-third of facilities had additional restrictions. Eighty-eight percent had advice for restricted antimicrobials from in-house infectious disease physicians or clinical microbiologists. Antimicrobials were monitored with feedback given to prescribers at point of care by 76% of facilities. Deficiencies reported as barriers to establishing AMS programs included: pharmacy resources, financial support by hospital management, and training and education in antimicrobial use. Several areas for improvement were identified: reviewing antimicrobial prescribing with feedback to the prescriber, auditing, and training and education in antimicrobial use. There also appears to be a lack of resources to support AMS programs in some facilities. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC?: The ACSQHC has recommended that all hospitals implement an AMS program by 2013 as a requirement of Standard 3 (Preventing and Controlling Healthcare

  19. Role of the hospitalist in antimicrobial stewardship: a review of work completed and description of a multisite collaborative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohde, Jeffrey M; Jacobsen, Diane; Rosenberg, David J

    2013-06-01

    Historically, antimicrobial stewardship programs have been led by infectious-disease physicians and pharmacists. With the growing presence of hospitalists in health and hospital systems, combined with their focus on quality improvement and patient safety, this emerging medical specialty has the potential to fill essential roles in antimicrobial stewardship programs. The goal of this article was to present the reasons hospitalists are ideally positioned to fill antimicrobial-stewardship roles, a narrative review of previously reported hospitalist-led antibiotic-stewardship projects, and a description of an ongoing multisite collaborative by the Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). A review of the published literature was performed, including an extensive review of the abstracts submitted to the Society of Hospital Medicine annual meetings. A number of examples of hospitalists developing and leading antimicrobial-stewardship programs are described. The details of a current multisite IHI/CDC hospitalist-focused initiative are discussed in detail. Hospitalists are actively involved with, and even lead, a variety of antimicrobial-stewardship programs in several different hospital systems. A large, multisite collaborative focused on hospitalist-led antimicrobial stewardship is currently in progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. A global call from five countries to collaborate in antibiotic stewardship: united we succeed, divided we might fail.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goff, Debra A; Kullar, Ravina; Goldstein, Ellie J C; Gilchrist, Mark; Nathwani, Dilip; Cheng, Allen C; Cairns, Kelly A; Escandón-Vargas, Kevin; Villegas, Maria Virginia; Brink, Adrian; van den Bergh, Dena; Mendelson, Marc

    2017-02-01

    In February, 2016, WHO released a report for the development of national action plans to address the threat of antibiotic resistance, the catastrophic consequences of inaction, and the need for antibiotic stewardship. Antibiotic stewardship combined with infection prevention comprises a collaborative, multidisciplinary approach to optimise use of antibiotics. Efforts to mitigate overuse will be unsustainable without learning and coordinating activities globally. In this Personal View, we provide examples of international collaborations to address optimal prescribing, focusing on five countries that have developed different approaches to antibiotic stewardship-the USA, South Africa, Colombia, Australia, and the UK. Although each country's approach differed, when nurtured, individual efforts can positively affect local and national antimicrobial stewardship programmes. Government advocacy, national guidelines, collaborative research, online training programmes, mentoring programmes, and social media in stewardship all played a role. Personal relationships and willingness to learn from each other's successes and failures continues to foster collaboration. We recommend that antibiotic stewardship models need to evolve from infection specialist-based teams to develop and use cadres of health-care professionals, including pharmacists, nurses, and community health workers, to meet the needs of the global population. We also recommend that all health-care providers who prescribe antibiotics take ownership and understand the societal burden of suboptimal antibiotic use, providing examples of how countries can learn, act globally, and share best antibiotic stewardship practices. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Characteristics of Antimicrobial Stewardship Programs at Veterans Affairs Hospitals: Results of a Nationwide Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Ann F; Graber, Christopher J; Jones, Makoto; Zhang, Yue; Goetz, Matthew Bidwell; Madaras-Kelly, Karl; Samore, Matthew; Kelly, Allison; Glassman, Peter A

    2016-06-01

    BACKGROUND Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) are variably implemented. OBJECTIVE To characterize variations of antimicrobial stewardship structure and practices across all inpatient Veterans Affairs facilities in 2012 and correlate key characteristics with antimicrobial usage. DESIGN A web-based survey regarding stewardship activities was administered to each facility's designated contact. Bivariate associations between facility characteristics and inpatient antimicrobial use during 2012 were determined. SETTING Total of 130 Veterans Affairs facilities with inpatient services. RESULTS Of 130 responding facilities, 29 (22%) had a formal policy establishing an ASP, and 12 (9%) had an approved ASP business plan. Antimicrobial stewardship teams were present in 49 facilities (38%); 34 teams included a clinical pharmacist with formal infectious diseases (ID) training. Stewardship activities varied across facilities, including development of yearly antibiograms (122 [94%]), formulary restrictions (120 [92%]), stop orders for antimicrobial duration (98 [75%]), and written clinical pathways for specific conditions (96 [74%]). Decreased antimicrobial usage was associated with having at least 1 full-time ID physician (P=.03), an ID fellowship program (P=.003), and a clinical pharmacist with formal ID training (P=.006) as well as frequency of systematic patient-level reviews of antimicrobial use (P=.01) and having a policy to address antimicrobial use in the context of Clostridium difficile infection (P=.01). Stop orders for antimicrobial duration were associated with increased use (P=.03). CONCLUSIONS ASP-related activities varied considerably. Decreased antibiotic use appeared related to ID presence and certain select practices. Further statistical assessments may help optimize antimicrobial practices. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;37:647-654.

  2. Stewardship challenges abortion: A proposed means to mitigate abortion's social divisiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardiff, Robert G

    2015-08-01

    Since 1973 the legislated constitutional right to abortion has produced a political dichotomy (anti-abortion versus pro-abortion) within the United States, even while witnessing a gradual decline in the rate of abortions. A third paradigm, moral stewardship, is advanced as an effective means to ameliorate this social divisiveness. Incorporating the concept of stewardship into deliberations of pregnancy termination would require recognition, through fact-based education programs, of the life circumstances that prompt the consideration to terminate a pregnancy. Based on collective responsibility, policies, and programs are needed to foster social justice for parents and for the offspring brought to term, without creating excessive burdens on women faced with an unwanted pregnancy. Moral stewardship is perceived as humanitarian to family and community and advantageous to society overall. It also offers a serious opportunity to reshape our society from divisiveness to inclusiveness, and to guide science policy judgment that enhances and strengthens social justice. Lay summary: Differing opinions over the ethics of human abortion have been legion since Roe v. Wade (1973). The disputes between pro- and anti-abortion factions have segregated society with few improvements in social justice. This study offers an alternative approach, one capable of social assimilation and justice for unwanted offspring and pregnant mothers bearing them. It promotes moral stewardship toward the unborn whose humanity and personhood are recognized genetically and supported philosophically by long-standing ethical principles. Stewardship incorporates all people at all levels of society based on collective responsibility, supported by government policies, yet not restricting a mother's choices for the future of her unborn offspring.

  3. Choosing Wisely Canada Students and Trainees Advocating for Resource Stewardship (STARS) campaign: a descriptive evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardone, Franco; Cheung, Daphne; Han, Angela; Born, Karen B; Alexander, Lisa; Levinson, Wendy; Wong, Brian M

    2017-12-19

    Resource stewardship is being increasingly recognized as an essential competency for physicians, but medical schools are just beginning to integrate this into education. We describe the evaluation of Choosing Wisely Canada's Students and Trainees Advocating for Resource Stewardship (STARS) campaign, a student-led campaign to advance resource stewardship education in medical schools across Canada. We evaluated the campaign 6 months after its launch, in November 2015. STARS students were administered a telephone survey eliciting a description of the initiatives that they had implemented or planned to implement at their schools to promote resource stewardship, and exploring their perceptions of facilitators of and barriers to successful implementation of their initiatives. We used a mixed-methods approach to analyze and summarize the data. Twenty-seven (82%) of the 33 eligible students representing all 17 medical schools responded. In 14 schools (82%), students led various local activities (e.g., interest groups, campaign weeks) to raise awareness about resource stewardship among medical students and faculty. Students contributed to curriculum change (both planned and implemented) at 10 schools (59%). Thematic analysis revealed key program characteristics that facilitated success (e.g., pan-Canadian student network, local faculty champion) as well as barriers to implementing change (e.g., complex processes to change curriculum, hierarchical nature of medical school). This student-led campaign, with support from local faculty and Choosing Wisely Canada staff, led to awareness-building activities and early curricula change at medical schools across Canada. Future plans will build on the initial momentum created by the STARS campaign to sustain and spread local initiatives. Copyright 2017, Joule Inc. or its licensors.

  4. Lead-210 and polonium-210 in grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C R

    1960-07-16

    It appears that an important contribution to the observed ..cap alpha..-activity of grass may be provided by a process of natural fall-out in which lead-210 resulting from decay of atmospheric radon, together with a fraction of the equilibrium amount of its descendant polonium-210 are deposited by rainfall directly on to foliage. Metabolic uptake of part of this activity by sheep is indicated by the presence in the kidney of polonium-210. 6 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  5. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  6. Evaluating grasses as a long-term energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, D.G.; Riche, A.B.

    2001-07-01

    The work reported here is part of an ongoing project that aims to evaluate the yields of three perennial rhizomatous grasses and determine their suitability as bio-energy crops. The work began in 1993, and the grasses have been monitored continuously since that time. This report covers the period 1999/2000, and includes: the performance of plots of the energy grasses Miscanthus grass, switchgrass and reed canary grass seven years after they were planted; assessment of the yield of 15 genotypes of Miscanthus planted in 1997; monitoring all the species throughout the growing period for the presence of pests, weeds and diseases; measurement of the amount of nitrate leached from below Miscanthus grass; investigating the occurrence of lodging in switchgrass. (Author)

  7. Behavioral approach to appropriate antimicrobial prescribing in hospitals: the Dutch Unique Method for Antimicrobial Stewardship (DUMAS) participatory intervention study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sikkens, J.J.; Agtmael, M.A. van; Peters, E.J.G.; Lettinga, K.D.; Kuip, M. van der; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, C.M.J.E.; Wagner, C.; Kramer, M.H.H.

    2017-01-01

    Importance: Inappropriate antimicrobial prescribing leads to antimicrobial resistance and suboptimal clinical outcomes. Changing antimicrobial prescribing is a complex behavioral process that is not often taken into account in antimicrobial stewardship programs. Objective: To examine whether an

  8. Determining the regional potential for a grass biomethane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, Beatrice M.; Smyth, Henry; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. → Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. → The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. → The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr -1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.

  9. Relational responsibility, and not only stewardship, a Roman Catholic view on voluntary euthanasia for dying and non-dying patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schotsmans, Paul T

    2003-01-01

    The Roman Catholic theological approach to euthanasia is radically prohibitive. The main theological argument for this prohibition is the so-called "stewardship argument": Christians cannot escape accounting to God for stewardship of the bodies given them on earth. This contribution presents an alternative approach based on European existentialist and philosophical traditions. The suggestion is that exploring the fullness of our relational responsibility is more apt for a pluralist--and even secular--debate on the legitimacy of euthanasia.

  10. Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Roex, E.; Mommer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is

  11. Earth Stewardship: An initiative by the Ecological Society of America to foster engagement to sustain Planet Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapin, F. Stuart; Pickett, S.T.A.; Power, Mary E.; Collins, Scott L.; Baron, Jill S.; Inouye, David W.; Turner, Monica G.

    2017-01-01

    The Ecological Society of America (ESA) has responded to the growing commitment among ecologists to make their science relevant to society through a series of concerted efforts, including the Sustainable Biosphere Initiative (1991), scientific assessment of ecosystem management (1996), ESA’s vision for the future (2003), Rapid Response Teams that respond to environmental crises (2005), and the Earth Stewardship Initiative (2009). During the past 25 years, ESA launched five new journals, largely reflecting the expansion of scholarship linking ecology with broader societal issues. The goal of the Earth Stewardship Initiative is to raise awareness and to explore ways for ecologists and other scientists to contribute more effectively to the sustainability of our planet. This has occurred through four approaches: (1) articulation of the stewardship concept in ESA publications and Website, (2) selection of meeting themes and symposia, (3) engagement of ESA sections in implementing the initiative, and (4) outreach beyond ecology through collaborations and demonstration projects. Collaborations include societies and groups of Earth and social scientists, practitioners and policy makers, religious and business leaders, federal agencies, and artists and writers. The Earth Stewardship Initiative is a work in progress, so next steps likely include continued nurturing of these emerging collaborations, advancing the development of sustainability and stewardship theory, improving communication of stewardship science, and identifying opportunities for scientists and civil society to take actions that move the Earth toward a more sustainable trajectory.

  12. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Kellogg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180o, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear front and back; this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.

  13. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  14. The Stewardship Role of Analyst Forecasts, and Discretionary Versus Non-Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Frimor, Hans; Sabac, Florin

    We examine the interaction between discretionary and non-discretionary accruals in a stewardship setting. Contracting includes multiple rounds of renegotiation based on contractible accounting information and non-contractible but more timely non-accounting information. We show that accounting...... timely non-accounting information (analyst earnings forecasts) increases the ex ante value of the firm and reduces costly earnings management. There is an optimal level of reversible non-discretionary accrual noise introduced through revenue recognition policies. Tight rules-based accounting regulation...... regulation aimed at increasing earnings quality from a valuation perspective (earnings persistence) may have a significant impact on how firms rationally respond in terms of allowing accrual discretion in order to alleviate the impact on the stewardship role of earnings. Increasing the precision of more...

  15. The Stewardship Role of Analyst Forecasts, and Discretionary Versus Non-Discretionary Accruals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Frimor, Hans; Sabac, Florin

    2013-01-01

    We examine the interaction between discretionary and non-discretionary accruals in a stewardship setting. Contracting includes multiple rounds of renegotiation based on contractible accounting information and non-contractible but more timely non-accounting information. We show that accounting...... timely non-accounting information (analyst earnings forecasts) increases the ex ante value of the firm and reduces costly earnings management. There is an optimal level of reversible non-discretionary accrual noise introduced through revenue recognition policies. Tight rules-based accounting regulation...... regulation aimed at increasing earnings quality from a valuation perspective (earnings persistence) may have a significant impact on how firms rationally respond in terms of allowing accrual discretion in order to alleviate the impact on the stewardship role of earnings. Increasing the precision of more...

  16. Antibiotic stewardship and empirical antibiotic treatment: How can they get along?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuccaro, Valentina; Columpsi, Paola; Sacchi, Paolo; Lucà, Maria Grazia; Fagiuoli, Stefano; Bruno, Raffaele

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this review is to focus on the recent knowledge on antibiotic stewardship and empiric antibiotic treatment in cirrhotic patients. The application of antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) rules appears to be the most appropriate strategy to globally manage cirrhotic patients with infectious complications: indeed they represent a unique way to provide both early diagnosis and appropriate therapy in order to avoid not only antibiotic over-prescription but, more importantly, selection and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Moreover, cirrhotic patients must be considered "frail" and susceptible to healthcare associated infections: applying AMS policies would assure a cost reduction and thus contribute to the improvement of public health strategies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Faith community nursing demonstrates good stewardship of community benefit dollars through cost savings and cost avoidance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Ameldia R; Coppola, Patricia; Giacona, Marian; Petriches, Anne; Stockwell, Mary Ann

    2009-01-01

    Health systems seeking responsible stewardship of community benefit dollars supporting Faith Community Nursing Networks require demonstration of positive measurable health outcomes. Faith Community Nurses (FCNs) answer the call for measurable outcomes by documenting cost savings and cost avoidances to families, communities, and health systems associated with their interventions. Using a spreadsheet tool based on Medicare reimbursements and diagnostic-related groupings, 3 networks of FCNs have together shown more than 600 000 (for calendar year 2008) healthcare dollars saved by avoidance of unnecessary acute care visits and extended care placements. The cost-benefit ratio of support dollars to cost savings and cost avoidance demonstrates that support of FCNs is good stewardship of community benefit dollars.

  18. Evaluation of Penicillin Allergy in the Hospitalized Patient: Opportunities for Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Justin R; Khan, David A

    2017-06-01

    Penicillin allergy is often misdiagnosed and is associated with adverse consequences, but testing is infrequently done in the hospital setting. This article reviews historical and contemporary innovations in inpatient penicillin allergy testing and its impact on antimicrobial stewardship. Adoption of the electronic medical record allows rapid identification of admitted patients carrying a penicillin allergy diagnosis. Collaboration with clinical pharmacists and the development of computerized clinical guidelines facilitates increased testing and appropriate use of penicillin and related β-lactams. Education of patients and their outpatient providers is the key to retaining the benefits of penicillin allergy de-labeling. Penicillin allergy testing is feasible in the hospital and offers tangible benefits towards antimicrobial stewardship. Allergists should take the lead in this endeavor and work towards overcoming personnel limitations by partnering with other health care providers and incorporating technology that improves the efficiency of allergy evaluation.

  19. Minnesota anglers' fisheries-related value orientations and their stewardship of fish resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruskotter, J.T.; Fulton, D.C.

    2008-01-01

    Research on natural resource-related values and value orientations has grown substantially over the past decade. However, existing studies have focused almost exclusively on value orientations related to wildlife and forests. This article reports data from two mail surveys of Minnesota anglers used to develop scales for measuring fisheries-related value orientations. We report results of regression analyses examining the relationship between anglers' value orientations and norms concerning fisheries stewardship and the use of technological aids to angling. Results indicate 10 items reliably measure three value orientations we termed utilitarianism, dominance, and protectionism. Regression analyses suggest anglers' stewardship norms are influenced by all three value orientation types, while support for the use of technological aids was related with protectionism and utilitarianism, but not dominance. Results suggest anglers' fisheries-related value orientations cannot be adequately captured using single domain scales. Implications for the study of natural resources-related value orientations are discussed. Copyright ?? Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  20. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  1. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  2. Grass-on-grass competition along a catenal gradient in mesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three aboveground treatments (full light competition, no light competition and clipping to simulate grazing), and two belowground treatments (full belowground competition and belowground competition excluded by a root tube), were used. On all soil depths the three grass species differed in mean mass, with E. racemosa ...

  3. Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG): development and impact of the Scottish National Antimicrobial Stewardship Programme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nathwani, Dilip; Sneddon, Jacqueline; Malcolm, William; Wiuff, Camilla; Patton, Andrea; Hurding, Simon; Eastaway, Anne; Seaton, R Andrew; Watson, Emma; Gillies, Elizabeth; Davey, Peter; Bennie, Marion

    2011-07-01

    In 2008, the Scottish Management of Antimicrobial Resistance Action Plan (ScotMARAP) was published by the Scottish Government. One of the key actions was initiation of the Scottish Antimicrobial Prescribing Group (SAPG), hosted within the Scottish Medicines Consortium, to take forward national implementation of the key recommendations of this action plan. The primary objective of SAPG is to co-ordinate and deliver a national framework or programme of work for antimicrobial stewardship. This programme, led by SAPG, is delivered by NHS National Services Scotland (Health Protection Scotland and Information Services Division), NHS Quality Improvement Scotland, and NHS National Education Scotland as well as NHS board Antimicrobial Management Teams. Between 2008 and 2010, SAPG has achieved a number of early successes, which are the subject of this review: (i) through measures to optimise prescribing in hospital and primary care, combined with infection prevention measures, SAPG has contributed significantly to reducing Clostridium difficile infection rates in Scotland; (ii) there has been engagement of all key stakeholders at local and national levels to ensure an integrated approach to antimicrobial stewardship within the wider healthcare-associated infection agenda; (iii) development and implementation of data management systems to support quality improvement; (iv) development of training materials on antimicrobial stewardship for healthcare professionals; and (v) improving clinical management of infections (e.g. community-acquired pneumonia) through quality improvement methodology. The early successes achieved by SAPG demonstrate that this delivery model is effective and provides the leadership and focus required to implement antimicrobial stewardship to improve antimicrobial prescribing and infection management across NHS Scotland. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  4. Antimicrobial Stewardship in Acute Care Centres: A Survey of 68 Hospitals in Quebec

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincent Nault

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs and quantitative monitoring of antimicrobial use are required to ensure that antimicrobials are used appropriately in the acute care setting, and have the potential to reduce costs and limit the spread of antimicrobial-resistant organisms and Clostridium difficile. Currently, it is not known what proportion of Quebec hospitals have an ASP and/or monitor antimicrobial use.

  5. Identifying and Predicting Profiles of Medical Noncompliance: Pediatric Caregivers' Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; Kim, Youllee; M'Ikanatha, Nkuchia M

    2018-05-14

    Sometimes compliance with medical recommendations is problematic. We investigated pediatric caregivers' (N = 606) patterns of noncompliance with antibiotic stewardship based on the obstacle hypothesis. We tested predictors of noncompliance framed by the obstacle hypothesis, dissonance theory, and psychological reactance. The results revealed four profiles of caregivers' stewardship: one marked by compliance (Stewards) and three marked by types of noncompliance (Stockers, Persuaders, and Dissenters). The covariate analysis showed that, although psychological reactance predicted being noncompliant, it was types of obstacles and discrepant experiences that predicted caregivers' patterns of noncompliance with antibiotic stewardship. Campaign planning often focuses on identifying the belief most associated with the targeted outcome, such as compliance. Noncompliance research, however, points out that persuaders may be successful to the extent to which they anticipate obstacles to compliance and address them in their influence attempts. A shift from medical noncompliance to patient engagement also affords an opportunity to consider how some recommendations create obstacles for others and to find positive ways to embrace conflicting needs, tensions, and reasons for refusal in order to promote collective goals.

  6. Mapping Antimicrobial Stewardship in Undergraduate Medical, Dental, Pharmacy, Nursing and Veterinary Education in the United Kingdom.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Castro-Sánchez

    Full Text Available To investigate the teaching of antimicrobial stewardship (AS in undergraduate healthcare educational degree programmes in the United Kingdom (UK.Cross-sectional survey of undergraduate programmes in human and veterinary medicine, dentistry, pharmacy and nursing in the UK. The main outcome measures included prevalence of AS teaching; stewardship principles taught; estimated hours apportioned; mode of content delivery and teaching strategies; evaluation methodologies; and frequency of multidisciplinary learning.80% (112/140 of programmes responded adequately. The majority of programmes teach AS principles (88/109, 80.7%. 'Adopting necessary infection prevention and control precautions' was the most frequently taught principle (83/88, 94.3%, followed by 'timely collection of microbiological samples for microscopy, culture and sensitivity' (73/88, 82.9% and 'minimisation of unnecessary antimicrobial prescribing' (72/88, 81.8%. The 'use of intravenous administration only to patients who are severely ill, or unable to tolerate oral treatment' was reported in ~50% of courses. Only 32/88 (36.3% programmes included all recommended principles.Antimicrobial stewardship principles are included in most undergraduate healthcare and veterinary degree programmes in the UK. However, future professionals responsible for using antimicrobials receive disparate education. Education may be boosted by standardisation and strengthening of less frequently discussed principles.

  7. The absence of stewardship in the Chilean health authority after the 2004 health reform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Herrera

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Stewardship is the most important political function of a health system. It is a government responsibility carried out by the health authority. Among other dimensions, it is also a meta-function that includes conduction and regulation. The Health Authority and Management Act, which came about from the health reform of 2004, separated the functions of service provision and stewardship with the aim of strengthening the role of the health authority. However, the current structure of the health system contains overlapping functions between the different entities that leads to lack of coordination and inconsistencies, and a greater weight on individual health actions at the expense of collective ones. Consequently, a properly funded national health strategy to improve the health of the population is missing. Additionally, the components of citizen participation and governance are weak. It is necessary, therefore, to revisit the Chilean health structure in order to develop one that truly enables the exercise of the health authority’s stewardship role

  8. Local Government Implementation of Long-Term Stewardship at Two DOE Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    John Pendergrass; Roman Czebiniak; Kelly Mott; Seth Kirshenberg; Audrey Eidelman; Zachary Lamb; Erica Pencak; Wendy Sandoz

    2003-08-13

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is responsible for cleaning up the radioactive and chemical contamination that resulted from the production of nuclear weapons. At more than one hundred sites throughout the country DOE will leave some contamination in place after the cleanup is complete. In order to protect human health and the environment from the remaining contamination DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state environmental regulatory agencies, local governments, citizens and other entities will need to undertake long-term stewardship of such sites. Long-term stewardship includes a wide range of actions needed to protect human health in the environment for as long as the risk from the contamination remains above acceptable levels, such as barriers, caps, and other engineering controls and land use controls, signs, notices, records, and other institutional controls. In this report the Environmental Law Institute (ELI) and the Energy Communities Alliance (ECA) examine how local governments, state environmental agencies, and real property professionals implement long-term stewardship at two DOE facilities, Losa Alamos National Laboratory and Oak Ridge Reservation.

  9. Impact of an Antimicrobial Stewardship Program on Antibiotic Use at a Nonfreestanding Children's Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, R Brigg; Valcarlos, Elena; Loeffler, Ann M; Gilbert, Michael; Chan, Dominic

    2017-09-01

    Pediatric stewardship programs have been successful at reducing unnecessary antibiotic use. Data from nonfreestanding children's hospitals are currently limited. This study is an analysis of antibiotic use after implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program at a community nonfreestanding children's hospital. In April 2013, an antimicrobial stewardship program that consisted of physician-group engagement and pharmacist prospective auditing and feedback was initiated. We compared antibiotic use in the preintervention period (April 2012 to March 2013) with that in the postintervention period (April 2013 to March 2015) in all units except the neonatal intensive care unit and the emergency department. In addition, drug-acquisition costs, antibiotic-specific use, death, length of stay, and case-mix index were examined. Antibiotic use decreased by 16.8% (95% confidence interval, 18.0% to -9.2%; P antibiotic use without an overt negative impact on overall clinical outcomes. The results of this study suggest that nonfreestanding children's hospitals can achieve substantial reductions in antibiotic use despite limited resources. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  10. From pasture grass to cattle milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131 I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131 I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131 I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131 I in milk were also presented. (author)

  11. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  12. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  13. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  14. Trace metal analysis in sea grasses from Mexican Caribbean Coast by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solis, C.; Issac O, K.; Martinez, A.; Lavoisier, E.; Martinez, M. A.

    2008-01-01

    The growing urban and tourist activity in the Mexican Caribbean coasts has resulted in an increase of chemical substances, metals in particular, discharged to the coastal waters. In order to reach an adequate management and conservation of these marine ecosystems it is necessary to perform an inventory of the actual conditions that reflect the vulnerability and the level of damage. Sea-grasses are considered good biological indicators of heavy metal contamination in marine systems. The goal of this preliminary work is to evaluate the concentrations of trace metals such as Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, and Pb in Thalassia testudinum, a very common sea-grass in the Mexican Caribbean Sea. Samples were collected from several locations in the coasts of the Yucatan Peninsula: Holbox, Blanquizal and Punta Allen, areas virtually uninfluenced by anthropogenic activities. Trace elements in different part plants were determined by particle induced X-ray emission (PIXE). This is a very suitable technique since it offers a fast, accurate and multi-element analysis. Also, the analysis by PIXE can be performed directly on powdered leaves without a laborious sample preparation. The trace metal concentration determined in sea-grasses growing in Caribbean generally fall in the range of the lowest valuables reported for sea grasses from the Gulf of Mexico. The results indicate that the studied areas do not present contamination by heavy metals. (Author)

  15. Interoperability Across the Stewardship Spectrum in the DataONE Repository Federation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, M. B.; Vieglais, D.; Wilson, B. E.

    2016-12-01

    Thousands of earth and environmental science repositories serve many researchers and communities, each with their own community and legal mandates, sustainability models, and historical infrastructure. These repositories span the stewardship spectrum from highly curated collections that employ large numbers of staff members to review and improve data, to small, minimal budget repositories that accept data caveat emptor and where all responsibility for quality lies with the submitter. Each repository fills a niche, providing services that meet the stewardship tradeoffs of one or more communities. We have reviewed these stewardship tradeoffs for several DataONE member repositories ranging from minimally (KNB) to highly curated (Arctic Data Center), as well as general purpose (Dryad) to highly discipline or project specific (NEON). The rationale behind different levels of stewardship reflect resolution of these tradeoffs. Some repositories aim to encourage extensive uptake by keeping processes simple and minimizing the amount of information collected, but this limits the long-term utility of the data and the search, discovery, and integration systems that are possible. Other repositories require extensive metadata input, review, and assessment, allowing for excellent preservation, discovery, and integration but at the cost of significant time for submitters and expense for curatorial staff. DataONE recognizes these different levels of curation, and attempts to embrace them to create a federation that is useful across the stewardship spectrum. DataONE provides a tiered model for repositories with growing utility of DataONE services at higher tiers of curation. The lowest tier supports read-only access to data and requires little more than title and contact metadata. Repositories can gradually phase in support for higher levels of metadata and services as needed. These tiered capabilities are possible through flexible support for multiple metadata standards and services

  16. Perennial Grass Bioenergy Cropping on Wet Marginal Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Srabani; Teuffer, Karin; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Walter, Michael F.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Richards, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    The control of soil moisture, vegetation type, and prior land use on soil health parameters of perennial grass cropping systems on marginal lands is not well known. A fallow wetness-prone marginal site in New York (USA) was converted to perennial grass bioenergy feedstock production. Quadruplicate

  17. No positive feedback between fire and a nonnative perennial grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika L. Geiger; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Semi-desert grasslands flank the “Sky Island” mountains in southern Arizona and Northern Mexico. Many of these grasslands are dominated by nonnative grasses, which potentially alter native biotic communities. One specific concern is the potential for a predicted feedback between nonnative grasses and fire. In a large-scale experiment in southern Arizona we investigated...

  18. Analysis of Fusarium causing dermal toxicosis in marram grass planters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, CHA; Samson, RA; Hoekstra, ES; Ouellet, T; Miller, JD; deRooijvanderGoes, PCEM; Baar, AJM; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    1996-01-01

    In the European coastal dunes, marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) is planted in order to control sand erosion. In the years 1986 to 1991, workers on the Wadden islands in the Netherlands planting marram grass showed lesions of skin and mucous membranes, suggesting a toxic reaction. Fusarium culmorum

  19. Conceptual model for reinforced grass on inner dike slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; ComCoast

    2005-01-01

    A desk study has been carried out in order to develop a conceptual model for the erosion of inner dike slopes with reinforced grass cover. Based on the results the following can be concluded: The presence of a geosynthetic in a grass slope can be taken into account in the EPM method by increasing

  20. Grass defoliation affecting survival and growth of seedlings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted, one in the field and the other in the greenhouse, to investigate the effects of the intensity and frequency of grass defoliation on the survival and growth of Acacia karroo seedlings. In the greenhouse, seedlings growing with heavily clipped grasses had higher biomass production than those ...

  1. Defoliation effects of perennial grasses – continuing confusion | DL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although an adequate knowledge of growth patterns and defoliation effects in perennial grasses is a prerequisite for the rational use of veld and pastures for animal production, our knowledge of this subject is far from adequate. The results of various physiological and clipping studies on tropical and sub-tropical grasses are ...

  2. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  3. EBIPM | Finding the Tools to Manage Invasive Annual Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    management decisions for a given landscape based on ecological principles. Take a look at our video " Grass Management How much could prevention save you? Guidelines to Implement EBIPM Weed Prevention Areas Grass Facts/ID The EBIPM Model Crooked River Weed Management Area Guide Tools for Educators EBIPM High

  4. Lessons learned in managing alfalfa-grass mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass-alfalfa mixtures have a number of benefits that make them attractive to producers. However, they can be problematic to establish and maintain. Research programs have made progress in understanding the benefits and challenges of alfalfa-grass mixtures. Mixtures may have greater winter survival ...

  5. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  6. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) .... Felina were evaluated in the present study. The grass was harvested from the primary growth of monocultured grasses on 19 and 26 May of 2004 and 27 May and 10 ...... Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant.

  7. Soil nitrogen mineralization not affected by grass species traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged Ikram Nosshi; Jack Butler; M. J. Trlica

    2007-01-01

    Species N use traits was evaluated as a mechanism whereby Bromus inermis (Bromus), an established invasive, might alter soil N supply in a Northern mixed-grass prairie. We compared soils under stands of Bromus with those from three representative native grasses of different litter C/N: Andropogon...

  8. Seed production and establishment of western Oregon native grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris

    2005-01-01

    It is well understood that native grasses are ecologically important and provide numerous benefits. However, unfavorable economics, low seed yields for some species, genetic issues, and a lack of experience behind the production and establishment of most western Oregon native grasses remain significant impediments for their expanded use. By necessity, adaptation of...

  9. Analysis of Some Heavy Metals in Grass ( Paspalum Orbiculare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased deposition of trace metals from vehicle exhausts on plants has raised concerns about the risks of the quality of food consumed by humans since the heavy metals emitted through the exhaust by vehicles can enter food chain through deposition on grass grazed by animals. Grass (Paspalum Orbiculare) and ...

  10. Identification of grazed grasses using epidermal characters | R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of anatomical features of the abaxial epidermis of grasses is discussed for the identification of fragments of epidermis present in samples of rumen. The reliability of this technique, and the variation of the epidermal characters in two widely distributed species of grass, is given. A "Key" to identity certain genera of ...

  11. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  12. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  13. The Capacity-Building Stewardship Model: assessment of an agricultural network as a mechanism for improving regional agroecosystem sustainability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison J. Duff

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Working lands have potential to meet agricultural production targets while serving as reservoirs of biological diversity and as sources of ecological services. Yet agricultural policy creates disincentives for this integration of conservation and production goals. While necessary, the development of a policy context that promotes agroecosystem sustainability will take time, and successful implementation will depend on a receptive agricultural audience. As the demands placed on working lands grow, there is a need for regional support networks that build agricultural producers' capacity for land stewardship. We used a social-ecological system framework to illustrate the Healthy Grown Potato Program as an agricultural network case study. Our Capacity-Building Stewardship Model reflects a 20-year experience working in collaboration with potato growers certified under an ecolabel in Wisconsin, USA. The model applies an evolving, modular farm stewardship standard to the entire farm - croplands and noncroplands. The model demonstrates an effective process for facilitating communication and shared learning among program participants, including agricultural producers, university extension specialists, nonprofit conservation partners, and industry representatives. The limitation of the model in practice has been securing funding to support expansion of the program and to ensure that the ecolabel standard is responsive to changes in the social-ecological system. Despite this constraint, the Capacity-Building Stewardship Model reveals an important mechanism for building regional commitment to conservation, with agricultural producers in a leadership role as architects, adopters, and advocates for stewardship behavior. Our experience provides important insight for the application of agri-environment schemes on private lands. The durability of a conservation ethic on working farms is likely to be enhanced when networks engage and support producers in an

  14. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  15. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  16. Rumen escape protein in grass and grass silage deterimened with a nylon bag and an enzymatic technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Rumen escape protein (REP) was determined for six grasses and 16 grass silages using a nylon bag technique and an in vitro technique using a proteolytic enzyme preparation of Streptomyces griseus. In vitro, the samples were incubated for 0, 1, 6 and 24 h. The highest correlation observed between

  17. EroGRASS : Failure of grass cover layers at seaward and shoreward dike slopes. design, construction and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Verheij, H.J.; Cao, T.M.; Dassanayake, D.; Roelvink, D.; Piontkowitz, T.

    2009-01-01

    A large number of the dikes in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions are covered with grass that is exposed to hydraulic loading from waves and currents during storm surges. During previous storm surges the grass cover layers often showed large strength and remained undamaged. A clear physical

  18. Established native perennial grasses out-compete an invasive annual grass regardless of soil water and nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. McGlone; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Thomas E. Kolb; Ty Nietupsky

    2012-01-01

    Competition and resource availability influence invasions into native perennial grasslands by nonnative annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum. In two greenhouse experiments we examined the influence of competition, water availability, and elevated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability on growth and reproduction of the invasive annual grass B. tectorum and two...

  19. Diversification of C(4) grasses (Poaceae) does not coincide with their ecological dominance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchenak-Khelladi, Yanis; Slingsby, Jasper A; Verboom, G Anthony; Bond, William J

    2014-02-01

    The radiation of a lineage and its rise to ecological dominance are distinct phenomena and driven by different processes. For example, paleoecological data has been used to show that the Cretaceous angiosperm radiation did not coincide with their rise to dominance. Using a phylogenetic approach, we here explored the evolution of C4 grasses and evaluated whether the diversification of this group and its rise to ecological dominance in the late Miocene were decoupled. We assembled a matrix including 675 grass species of the PACMAD clade and 2784 characters (ITS and ndhF) to run a molecular dating analysis using three fossils as reference calibrations. We coded species as C3 vs. C4 and reconstructed ancestral states under maximum likelihood. We used the program BiSSE to test whether rates of diversification are correlated with photosynthetic pathway and whether the radiation of C4 lineages preceded or coincided with their rise to ecological dominance from ∼10 Ma. C4 grass lineages first originated around 35 Ma at the time of the Eocene-Oligocene transition. Accelerated diversification of C4 lineages did not coincide with their rise to ecological dominance. C4-dominated grasslands have expanded only since the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The initial diversification of their biotic elements can be tracked back as far as the Eocene-Oligocene transition. We suggest that shifts in taxonomic diversification and ecological dominance were stimulated by different factors, as in the case of the early angiosperms in the Cretaceous.

  20. Perrenial Grasses for Sustainable European Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    reduction goals for agriculture. Denmark has an especially vulnerable aquatic environment due to sandy soils, a long coast line, and high precipitation. Thus, fulfilling the WFD means some areas must halve their nitrate leaching, and radical changes are required to reduce losses while maintaining profitable...... crop production. National scenarios show that up to ten million tonnes of additional biomass can be sourced in Denmark without reducing food production or increasing the area under cultivation if a biorefinery industry is established. In one of the scenarios optimized for additional environmental...... in the “environment” scenario. This scenario was achieved by converting approx. 9 % of agricultural land from annual crops into perennial grass. New experimental results support the anticipated increase in total biomass yield and reduction in nitrate leaching, when converting land currently used for grain crop...

  1. Utilisation of forage grasses for decontamination of spray-irrigated leachate from a municipal sanitary landfill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menser, H.A.; Winant, W.M.; Bennett, O.L.; Lundberg, P.E.

    1979-01-01

    Spray irrigation was used to test the survival and efficiency of forage grasses as a concentrating mechanism for the inorganic waste elements in leachate from a municipal solid waste sanitary landfill. Lime (0.67 metric tonnes ha), rock phosphate, and superphosphate (each at 11.2 metric tonnes ha) were applied in a randomised complete block design to reed canarygrass Phalaris arundinacea L., tall fescue Festuca arundinacea Schreb., cv. Ky31, orchardgrass Dactylis glomerata L., bromegrass Bromus inermis Leyss., and bermudagrass Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. cvs. Midland and Tufcote. Leachate was applied by overhead rotary sprinklers in weekly 8-h applications from 22 October 1974 to 28 April 1975. The total application averages about 155 cm. Sprayed leachate contained about 500 ppM of Ca, 150 to 200 ppM of Na, Fe, and Cl, 50 to 100 ppM of Mn, K, Mg, and N, 2 to 5 ppM of Al, Sr, Zn, and P, and less than 0.5 ppM of Ni, Co, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Cd. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) decreased from approximately 7500 mg liter in water emerging from landfill drains to 5000 mg litre in sprayed leachate. Electroconductivity ranged from 3000 to 4000 ..mu..mhos cm and pH from 5.3 to about 5.5. Leachate irrigation appreciably increased Na, Fe, Mn, Cl, and S levels in all forages except orchardgrass. Lime significantly prevented Mn accumulation and benefited forage grass persistence. Reed canarygrass generally contained the highest levels of most elements and along with Tufcote bermudagrass was more leachate-tolerant than other grasses. Seasonal factors affected the uptake of several elements, e.g. Na, Fe, Mn, Zn, K and Co were significantly lower in regrowth cuttings as compared with first cuttings of Midland bermudagrass and reed canarygrass.

  2. Influence of soil fertility on waterlogging tolerance of two Brachiaria grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de la Cruz Jiménez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available As a consequence of global warming, rainfall is expected to increase in several regions around the world. This, together with poor soil drainage, will result in waterlogged soil conditions. Brachiaria grasses are widely sown in the tropics and, these grasses confront seasonal waterlogged conditions. Several studies have indicated that an increase in nutrient availability could reduce the negative impact of waterlogging. Therefore, an outdoor study was conducted to evaluate the responses of two Brachiaria sp. grasses with contrasting tolerances to waterlogging, B. ruziziensis (sensitive and B. humidicola (tolerant, with two soil fertility levels. The genotypes were grown with two different soil fertilization levels (high and low and under well-drained or waterlogged soil conditions for 15 days. The biomass production, chlorophyll content, photosynthetic efficiency, and macro- (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S and micronutrient (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn and B contents in the shoot tissue were determined. Significant differences in the nutrient content of the genotypes and treatments were found. An increase of redoximorphic elements (Fe and Mn in the soil solution occurred with the waterlogging. The greater tolerance of B. humidicola to waterlogged conditions might be due to an efficient root system that is able to acquire nutrients (N, P, K and potentially exclude phytotoxic elements (Fe and Mn under waterlogged conditions. A high nutrient availability in the waterlogged soils did not result in an improved tolerance for B. ruziziensis. The greater growth impairment seen in the B. ruziziensis with high soil fertility and waterlogging (as opposed to low soil fertility and waterlogging was possibly due to an increased concentration of redoximorphic elements under these conditions.

  3. Using expansive grasses for monitoring heavy metal pollution in the vicinity of roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachová, Pavla; Vach, Marek; Najnarová, Eva

    2017-10-01

    We propose a method for monitoring heavy metal deposition in the vicinity of roads using the leaf surfaces of two expansive grass species which are greatly abundant. A principle of the proposed procedure is to minimize the number of operations in collecting and preparing samples for analysis. The monitored elements are extracted from the leaf surfaces using dilute nitric acid directly in the sample-collection bottle. The ensuing steps, then, are only to filter the extraction solution and the elemental analysis itself. The verification results indicate that the selected grasses Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius are well suited to the proposed procedure. Selected heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cd) in concentrations appropriate for direct determination using methods of elemental analysis can be extracted from the surface of leaves of these species collected in the vicinity of roads with medium traffic loads. Comparing the two species showed that each had a different relationship between the amounts of deposited heavy metals and distance from the road. This disparity can be explained by specific morphological properties of the two species' leaf surfaces. Due to the abundant occurrence of the two species and the method's general simplicity and ready availability, we regard the proposed approach to constitute a broadly usable and repeatable one for producing reproducible results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Report on the intercomparison run IAEA-373: Determination of radionuclides in grass sample IAEA-373

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strachnov, V; Larosa, J; Dekner, R; Fajgelj, A; Zeisler, R

    1996-02-01

    Activities in environmental monitoring of radioactive substances require natural matrix reference materials for laboratory quality assessment and support of international compatibility. A grass sample collected in the Ukraine by the International Atomic Energy Agency's (IAEA's) programme on Analytical Quality Assurance Services (AQCS) has been prepared and distributed for a world-wide intercomparison on the determination of natural and man-made radionuclides and selected trace elements. The data from 110 laboratories representing 42 countries have been evaluated and allowed the establishment of recommended activity values for K-40, Sr-90, Cs-134 and Cs-137. Information values are given for the concentrations of Mn, Rb, Th and Zn. (author)

  5. Standard elements; Elements standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, B [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1958-07-01

    Following his own experience the author recalls the various advantages, especially in the laboratory, of having pre-fabricated vacuum-line components at his disposal. (author) [French] A la suite de sa propre experience, l'auteur veut rappeler les divers avantages que presente, tout particulierement en laboratoire, le fait d'avoir a sa disposition des elements pre-fabriques de canalisations a vide. (auteur)

  6. Mapping educational opportunities for healthcare workers on antimicrobial resistance and stewardship around the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers Van Katwyk, Susan; Jones, Sara L; Hoffman, Steven J

    2018-02-05

    Antimicrobial resistance is an important global issue facing society. Healthcare workers need to be engaged in solving this problem, as advocates for rational antimicrobial use, stewards of sustainable effectiveness, and educators of their patients. To fulfill this role, healthcare workers need access to training and educational resources on antimicrobial resistance. To better understand the resources available to healthcare workers, we undertook a global environmental scan of educational programs and resources targeting healthcare workers on the topic of antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial stewardship. Programs were identified through contact with key experts, web searching, and academic literature searching. We summarized programs in tabular form, including participating organizations, region, and intended audience. We developed a coding system to classify programs by program type and participating organization type, assigning multiple codes as necessary and creating summary charts for program types, organization types, and intended audience to illustrate the breadth of available resources. We identified 94 educational initiatives related to antimicrobial resistance and antimicrobial stewardship, which represent a diverse array of programs including courses, workshops, conferences, guidelines, public outreach materials, and online-resource websites. These resources were developed by a combination of government bodies, professional societies, universities, non-profit and community organizations, hospitals and healthcare centers, and insurance companies and industry. Most programs either targeted healthcare workers collectively or specifically targeted physicians. A smaller number of programs were aimed at other healthcare worker groups including pharmacists, nurses, midwives, and healthcare students. Our environmental scan shows that there are many organizations working to develop and share educational resources for healthcare workers on antimicrobial

  7. Development and impact of a massive open online course (MOOC) for antimicrobial stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneddon, Jacqueline; Barlow, Gavin; Bradley, Sally; Brink, Adrian; Chandy, Sujith J; Nathwani, Dilip

    2018-04-01

    The University of Dundee and the BSAC developed a massive open online course (MOOC) to address the global need for education to support antimicrobial stewardship in low- and middle-income countries. An interactive course, Antimicrobial Stewardship: Managing Antibiotic Resistance, was developed and delivered via the FutureLearn© platform. The course ran over four 6 week periods during 2015 and 2016 supported by educators and was evaluated via data on uptake and feedback from learners on impact on clinical practice. In total, 32 944 people, 70% of them healthcare professionals, from 163 countries joined the course from Europe (49%), Asia (16%), Africa (13%), North America (9%), Australia (8%) and South America (5%). Between 33% and 37% of joiners in each run completed at least one step in any week of the course and 219 participants responded to a post-course survey. The course was rated good or excellent by 208 (95%) of the participants, and 83 (38%) intended to implement stewardship interventions in their own setting. A follow-up survey 6 months later suggested that 49% had implemented such interventions. The MOOC has addressed a global learning need by providing education free at the point of access, and learning from its development will help others embarking upon similar educational solutions. Initial quantitative and qualitative feedback suggests it has engaged participants and complements traditional educational methods. Measuring its real impact on clinical practice remains a challenge. The FutureLearn© platform offers flexibility for MOOCs to be sustainable through modification to remove educator facilitation but maintain active participant discussion.

  8. Applying a Data Stewardship Maturity Matrix to the NOAA Observing System Portfolio Integrated Assessment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, G.; Austin, M.

    2017-12-01

    Identification and prioritization of targeted user community needs are not always considered until after data has been created and archived. Gaps in data curation and documentation in the data production and delivery phases limit data's broad utility specifically for decision makers. Expert understanding and knowledge of a particular dataset is often required as a part of the data and metadata curation process to establish the credibility of the data and support informed decision-making. To enhance curation practices, content from NOAA's Observing System Integrated Assessment (NOSIA) Value Tree, NOAA's Data Catalog/Digital Object Identifier (DOI) projects (collection-level metadata) have been integrated with Data/Stewardship Maturity Matrices (data and stewardship quality information) focused on assessment of user community needs. This results in user focused evidence based decision making tools created by NOAA's National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NESDIS) through identification and assessment of data content gaps related to scientific knowledge and application to key areas of societal benefit. Through enabling user need feedback from the beginning of data creation through archive allows users to determine the quality and value of data that is fit for purpose. Data gap assessment and prioritization are presented in a user-friendly way using the data stewardship maturity matrices as measurement of data management quality. These decision maker tools encourages data producers and data providers/stewards to consider users' needs prior to data creation and dissemination resulting in user driven data requirements increasing return on investment. A use case focused on need for NOAA observations linked societal benefit will be used to demonstrate the value of these tools.

  9. Integrating societal perspectives and values for improved stewardship of a coastal ecosystem engineer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven B. Scyphers

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Oyster reefs provide coastal societies with a vast array of ecosystem services, but are also destructively harvested as an economically and culturally important fishery resource, exemplifying a complex social-ecological system (SES. Historically, societal demand for oysters has led to destructive and unsustainable levels of harvest, which coupled with multiple other stressors has placed oyster reefs among the most globally imperiled coastal habitats. However, more recent studies have demonstrated that large-scale restoration is possible and that healthy oyster populations can be sustained with effective governance and stewardship. However, both of these require significant societal support or financial investment. In our study, we explored relationships among how coastal societies (1 perceive and value oyster ecosystem services, (2 recognize and define problems associated with oyster decline, and (3 perceive or support stewardship initiatives. We specifically focused on the SES of eastern oysters (Crassostrea virginica and coastal societies in the northern Gulf of Mexico, a region identified as offering among the last and best opportunities to sustainably balance conservation objectives with a wild fishery. We found that, in addition to harvest-related benefits, oysters were highly valued for providing habitat, mitigating shoreline erosion, and improving water quality or clarity. Our results also showed that although most respondents recognized that oyster populations have declined, many respondents characterized the problem differently than most scientific literature does. Among a variety of initiatives for enhancing sustainability, spawning sanctuaries and reef restoration were well supported in all states, but support for harvest reductions was less consistent. Our study suggests that public support for maintaining both harvest and ecosystem services exists at societal levels and that enhancing public awareness regarding the extent and causes

  10. Environmental performance assessment of Napier grass for bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimmanterdwong, Prathana; Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon; Østergård, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    equivalence. This idea provides the quantitative indicators involving the resource use and the percent renewability of the systems. For the proposed biorefinery model, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) grown in Thailand was used as lignocellulosic feedstock. An emergy assessment was performed in two parts...... cultivation and biorefinery stages. For Napier grass cultivation, most of the emergy support came from local resources in term of evapotranspiration of Napier grass (33%) and the diesel consumption during the cultivation process (21%). The emergy sustainability indicator of the cultivation was 0...

  11. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T; Slater, F

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  12. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-01-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  13. Planning for Site Transition to Long-Term Stewardship: Identification of Requirements and Issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banaee, J.

    2002-01-01

    A systematic methodology is presented and applied for the identification of requirements and issues pertaining to the planning for, and transition to, long term stewardship (LTS). The method has been applied to three of the twelve identified LTS functions. The results of the application of the methodology to contaminated and uncontaminated federal real property in those three functions are presented. The issues that could be seen as impediments to the implementation of LTS are also identified for the three areas under consideration. The identified requirements are significant and in some cases complex to implement. It is clear that early and careful planning is required in all circumstances

  14. ESIP's Emerging Provenance and Context Content Standard Use Cases: Developing Examples and Models for Data Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramdeen, S.; Hills, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    Earth science data collections range from individual researchers' private collections to large-scale data warehouses, from computer-generated data to field or lab based observations. These collections require stewardship. Fundamentally, stewardship ensures long term preservation and the provision of access to the user community. In particular, stewardship includes capturing appropriate metadata and documentation--and thus the context of the data's creation and any changes they underwent over time --to enable data reuse. But scientists and science data managers must translate these ideas into practice. How does one balance the needs of current and (projected) future stakeholders? In 2011, the Data Stewardship Committee (DSC) of the Federation of Earth Science Information Partners (ESIP) began developing the Provenance and Context Content Standard (PCCS). As an emerging standard, PCCS provides a framework for 'what' must be captured or preserved as opposed to describing only 'how' it should be done. Originally based on the experiences of NASA and NOAA researchers within ESIP, the standard currently provides data managers with content items aligned to eight key categories. While the categories and content items are based on data life cycles of remote sensing missions, they can be generalized to cover a broader set of activities, for example, preservation of physical objects. These categories will include the information needed to ensure the long-term understandability and usability of earth science data products. In addition to the PCCS, the DSC is developing a series of use cases based on the perspectives of the data archiver, data user, and the data consumer that will connect theory and practice. These cases will act as specifications for developing PCCS-based systems. They will also provide for examination of the categories and content items covered in the PCCS to determine if any additions are needed to cover the various use cases, and also provide rationale and

  15. Impact of formulary restriction with prior authorization by an antimicrobial stewardship program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Erica E; Stevenson, Kurt B; West, Jessica E; Bauer, Karri A; Goff, Debra A

    2013-02-15

    In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance and few antimicrobials in the developmental pipeline, many institutions have developed antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs) to help implement evidence-based (EB) strategies for ensuring appropriate utilization of these agents. EB strategies for accomplishing this include formulary restriction with prior authorization. Potential limitations to this particular strategy include delays in therapy, prescriber pushback, and unintended increases in use of un-restricted antimicrobials; however, our ASP found that implementing prior authorization for select antimicrobials along with making a significant effort to educate clinicians on criteria for use ensured more appropriate prescribing of these agents, hopefully helping to preserve their utility for years to come.

  16. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship – Quasi-Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L.; Braun, Barbara I.; Milstone, Aaron M.

    2016-01-01

    Quasi-experimental studies evaluate the association between an intervention and an outcome using experiments in which the intervention is not randomly assigned. Quasi-experimental studies are often used to evaluate rapid responses to outbreaks or other patient safety problems requiring prompt non-randomized interventions. Quasi-experimental studies can be categorized into three major types: interrupted time series designs, designs with control groups, and designs without control groups. This methods paper highlights key considerations for quasi-experimental studies in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship including study design and analytic approaches to avoid selection bias and other common pitfalls of quasi-experimental studies. PMID:27267457

  17. Integrated Weed Control for Land Stewardship at Legacy Management's Rocky Flats Site in Colorado - 13086

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nelson, Jody K.

    2013-01-01

    Land stewardship is one of nine sustainability programs in the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management System. Land stewardship includes maintaining and improving ecosystem health. At the Rocky Flats Site near Westminster, Colorado, land stewardship is an integral component of the Office of Legacy Management's post-closure monitoring and management at the site. Nearly 263 hectares (650 acres) were disturbed and re-vegetated during site cleanup and closure operations. Proactive management of revegetation areas is critical to the successful reestablishment of native grasslands, wetlands, and riparian communities. The undisturbed native plant communities that occur at the site also require active management to maintain the high-quality wetlands and other habitats that are home to numerous species of birds and other wildlife such as elk and deer, rare plant communities, and the federally listed threatened Preble's meadow jumping mouse. Over the past several decades, an increase of Noxious weeds has impacted much of Colorado's Front Range. As a result, weed control is a key component of the land stewardship program at Rocky Flats. Thirty-three species of state-listed Noxious weeds are known to occur in the Central and Peripheral Operable Units at Rocky Flats, along with another five species that are considered invasive at the site. Early detection and rapid response to control new invasive species is crucial to the program. An integrated weed control/vegetation management approach is key to maintaining healthy, sustainable plant communities that are able to resist Noxious weed invasions. Weed mapping, field surveys, and field-staff training sessions (to learn how to identify new potential problem species) are conducted to help detect and prevent new weed problems. The integrated approach at Rocky Flats includes administrative and cultural techniques (prevention), mechanical controls, biological controls, and chemical controls. Several species of biocontrol

  18. Planning for Site Transition to Long-Term Stewardship: Identification of Requirements and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaee, J.

    2002-05-16

    A systematic methodology is presented and applied for the identification of requirements and issues pertaining to the planning for, and transition to, long term stewardship (LTS). The method has been applied to three of the twelve identified LTS functions. The results of the application of the methodology to contaminated and uncontaminated federal real property in those three functions are presented. The issues that could be seen as impediments to the implementation of LTS are also identified for the three areas under consideration. The identified requirements are significant and in some cases complex to implement. It is clear that early and careful planning is required in all circumstances.

  19. Planning for Site Transition to Long-Term Stewardship: Identification of Requirements and Issues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banaee, Jila

    2002-08-01

    A systematic methodology is presented and applied for the identification of requirements and issues pertaining to the planning for, and transition to, long term stewardship (LTS). The method has been applied to three of the twelve identified LTS functions. The results of the application of the methodology to contaminated and uncontaminated federal real property in those three functions are presented. The issues that could be seen as impediments to the implementation of LTS are also identified for the three areas under consideration. The identified requirements are significant and in some cases complex to implement. It is clear that early and careful planning is required in all circumstances.

  20. Monitoring, documenting and reporting the quality of antibiotic use in the Netherlands: a pilot study to establish a national antimicrobial stewardship registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrevoets, M.A.H.; Oever, J. ten; Sprong, T.; Hest, R.M. van; Groothuis, I.; Heijl, I. van; Schouten, J.A.; Hulscher, M.E.J.L.; Kullberg, B.J.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy is developing a national antimicrobial stewardship registry. This registry will report both the quality of antibiotic use in hospitals in the Netherlands and the stewardship activities employed. It is currently unclear which aspects of the

  1. Monitoring, documenting and reporting the quality of antibiotic use in the Netherlands: a pilot study to establish a national antimicrobial stewardship registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrevoets, Marvin Ah; ten Oever, Jaap; Sprong, Tom; van Hest, Reinier M.; Groothuis, Ingeborg; van Heijl, Inger; Schouten, Jeroen A.; Hulscher, Marlies E.; Kullberg, Bart-Jan

    2017-01-01

    The Dutch Working Party on Antibiotic Policy is developing a national antimicrobial stewardship registry. This registry will report both the quality of antibiotic use in hospitals in the Netherlands and the stewardship activities employed. It is currently unclear which aspects of the quality of

  2. Implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program on the medical-surgical service of a 100-bed community hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Storey Donald F

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Antimicrobial stewardship has been promoted as a key strategy for coping with the problems of antimicrobial resistance and Clostridium difficile. Despite the current call for stewardship in community hospitals, including smaller community hospitals, practical examples of stewardship programs are scarce in the reported literature. The purpose of the current report is to describe the implementation of an antimicrobial stewardship program on the medical-surgical service of a 100-bed community hospital employing a core strategy of post-prescriptive audit with intervention and feedback. Methods For one hour twice weekly, an infectious diseases physician and a clinical pharmacist audited medical records of inpatients receiving systemic antimicrobial therapy and made non-binding, written recommendations that were subsequently scored for implementation. Defined daily doses (DDDs; World Health Organization Center for Drug Statistics Methodology and acquisition costs per admission and per patient-day were calculated monthly for all administered antimicrobial agents. Results The antimicrobial stewardship team (AST made one or more recommendations for 313 of 367 audits during a 16-month intervention period (September 2009 – December 2010. Physicians implemented recommendation(s from each of 234 (75% audits, including from 85 of 115 for which discontinuation of all antimicrobial therapy was recommended. In comparison to an 8-month baseline period (January 2009 – August 2009, there was a 22% decrease in defined daily doses per 100 admissions (P = .006 and a 16% reduction per 1000 patient-days (P = .013. There was a 32% reduction in antimicrobial acquisition cost per admission (P = .013 and a 25% acquisition cost reduction per patient-day (P = .022. Conclusions An effective antimicrobial stewardship program was implemented with limited resources on the medical-surgical service of a 100-bed community hospital.

  3. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  4. From Cleanup to Stewardship. A companion report to Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure and background information to support the scoping process required for the 1998 PEIS Settlement Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    1999-10-01

    Long-term stewardship is expected to be needed at more than 100 DOE sites after DOE's Environmental Management program completes disposal, stabilization, and restoration operations to address waste and contamination resulting from nuclear research and nuclear weapons production conducted over the past 50 years. From Cleanup to stewardship provides background information on the Department of Energy (DOE) long-term stewardship obligations and activities. This document begins to examine the transition from cleanup to long-term stewardship, and it fulfills the Secretary's commitment to the President in the 1999 Performance Agreement to provide a companion report to the Department's Accelerating Cleanup: Paths to Closure report. It also provides background information to support the scoping process required for a study on long-term stewardship required by a 1998 Settlement Agreement.

  5. Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.

  6. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  7. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods......In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  8. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qiulan; Zhu Suijiang; Cheng Yaodong; Chen Gang

    2010-01-01

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. In this paper we first give a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  9. Designing a New Raster Sub-System for GRASS-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hruby

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a design of a new raster sub-system intended for modern GIS systems open for client and server operation, database connection and strong application interface (API. Motivation for such a design comes from the current state of API working in GRASS 6. If found attractive, the here presented design and its implementation (referred as RG7 may be integrated to the future new generation of the GRASS Geographical Information System version 7-8. The paper describes in details the concept of raster tiling, computer storage of rasters and basic raster access procedures. Finally, the paper gives a simple benchmarking experiment of random read access to raster files imported from the Spearfish dataset. The experiment compares the early implementation of RG7 with the current implementation of rasters in GRASS 6. As the result, the experiment shows the RG7 to be significantly faster than GRASS in random read access to large raster files.

  10. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses are members of the plant family Poaceae, and are primar- ily known for their ... Madagascar Conservation & Development is the journal of. Indian Ocean .... cording to the classification by Kellogg (2015). With 64 ..... Flowering plants.

  11. Foliage and Grass as Fuel Pellets–Small Scale Combustion of Washed and Mechanically Leached Biomass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Hari Arti Khalsa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The high contents of disadvantageous elements contained in non-woody biomass are known to cause problems during small and large scale combustion, typically resulting in a higher risk of slagging, corrosion, and increased emissions. Mechanically leaching the respective elements from the biomass through a sequence of process steps has proven to be a promising solution.The florafuel process used here is comprised of size reduction followed by washing and subsequent mechanical dewatering of the biomass. Densification of the upgraded biomass into standardized pellets (Ø 6mm enables an application in existing small-scale boilers. The presented combustion trials investigated the performance of pellets made from leached grass, foliage and a mixture of both in two small-scale boilers (<100 kWth with slightly different technology (moving grate versus water-cooled burner tube during a 4-h measurement period. Emissions were in accordance with German emissions standards except for NOx (threshold is 0.50 g/m3 in the case of pure grass pellets (0.51 g/m3 and particulate matter (PM in all but one case (foliage, 13–16 mg/m3. An electrostatic precipitator (ESP unit installed with one of the boilers successfully reduced PM emission of both the grass and mixture fuel below the threshold of 20 mg/m3 (all emission values refer to 13 vol.% O2, at standard temperature and pressure (STP. Bottom ash composition and grate temperature profiles were analyzed and discussed for one of the boilers.

  12. Sonoran Desert ecosystem transformation by a C4 grass without the grass/fire cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure and function, diversity, dominance and disturbance regimes. A classic case is the grass–fire cycle in which grass invasion increases the frequency, scale and/or intensity of wildfires and promotes the continued invasion of invasive grasses. Despite wide acceptance of the grass–fire cycle, questions linger about the relative roles that interspecific plant competition and fire play in ecosystem transformations. Location Sonoran Desert Arizona Upland of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA. Methods We measured species cover, density and saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) size structure along gradients of Pennisetum ciliare invasion at 10 unburned/ungrazed P. ciliare patches. Regression models quantified differences in diversity, cover and density with respect to P. ciliare cover, and residence time and a Fisher's exact test detected demographic changes in saguaro populations. Because P. ciliare may have initially invaded locations that were both more invasible and less diverse, we ran analyses with and without the plots in which initial infestations were located. Results Richness and diversity decreased with P. ciliare cover as did cover and density of most dominant species. Richness and diversity declined with increasing time since invasion, suggesting an ongoing transformation. The proportion of old-to-young Carnegiea gigantea was significantly lower in plots with dominant P. ciliare cover. Main conclusions Rich desert scrub (15–25 species per plot) was transformed into depauperate grassland (2–5 species per plot) within 20 years following P. ciliare invasion without changes to the fire regime. While the onset of a grass–fire cycle may drive ecosystem change in the later stages and larger scales of grass invasions of arid lands, competition by P. ciliare can drive small-scale transformations earlier in the invasion. Linking competition-induced transformation rates with

  13. BUFFEL GRASS MORPHOAGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION FROM Cenchrus GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO, LEILA REGINA GOMES PASSOS; ANTONIO, RAFAELA PRISCILA; ASSIS, JOSÉ GERALDO DE AQUINO; MOREIRA, JOSÉ NILTON; LIRA, IRLANE CRISTINE DE SOUZA ANDRADE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi-Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty-five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each cut. Characterizatio...

  14. Buffel grass morphoagronomic characterization from cenchrus germplasm active bank.

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO, L. R. G. P.; ANTONIO, R. P.; ASSIS, J. G. de A.; MOREIRA, J. N.; LIRA, I. C. de S. A.

    2017-01-01

    his study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi - Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty - five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each ...

  15. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Serensits; Matthew Cutulle; Jeffrey F. Derr

    2011-01-01

    Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual) ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass di...

  16. Postharvest residues from grass seed crops for bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Simić, Aleksandar; Čolić, Vladislava; Vučković, Savo; Dželetović, Željko; Bijelić, Zorica; Mandić, Violeta

    2016-01-01

    During grass seed production, a large amount of low forage quality biomass has been produced. Tall growing perennial grasses such as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) can be used as an alternative source for bioenergy production as they can be grown in less cultivated areas, their residues in seed production could be valuable energy source and can be potentially used as a dual purpose crop (bioenergy and forage). In this research, potentials o...

  17. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  18. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  19. Revising Payment for Ecosystem Services in the Light of Stewardship: The Need for a Legal Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Solazzo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (MEA highlighted the importance of ecosystem services for human well-being, the payments for such services have increasingly been drawing the attention of governments, the private sector and academia. Nonetheless, there is not yet a specific legal framework which is able to capture the complexity of managing natural resources and, at the same time, deal with the numerous drawbacks that have been identified by critics, who are opposed to using financialisation of the environment as a tool. This paper, after briefly summarizing some of the main features and criticisms of the Payment for Ecosystem Services (PES, will critically assess the understanding of property rights over natural resources as stewardship, rather than as entitlement, because this interpretation is more coherent with the inherent characteristics of natural resources and, consequently, of ecosystem services. The novel usage of a stewardship dimension to property rights underlines the necessity for a legal framework for PES, constituted by “property-liability rules”.

  20. Implementation of a Mobile Clinical Decision Support Application to Augment Local Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoff, Brian M; Ford, Diana C; Ince, Dilek; Ernst, Erika J; Livorsi, Daniel J; Heintz, Brett H; Masse, Vincent; Brownlee, Michael J; Ford, Bradley A

    2018-01-01

    Medical applications for mobile devices allow clinicians to leverage microbiological data and standardized guidelines to treat patients with infectious diseases. We report the implementation of a mobile clinical decision support (CDS) application to augment local antimicrobial stewardship. We detail the implementation of our mobile CDS application over 20 months. Application utilization data were collected and evaluated using descriptive statistics to quantify the impact of our implementation. Project initiation focused on engaging key stakeholders, developing a business case, and selecting a mobile platform. The preimplementation phase included content development, creation of a pathway for content approval within the hospital committee structure, engaging clinical leaders, and formatting the first version of the guide. Implementation involved a media campaign, staff education, and integration within the electronic medical record and hospital mobile devices. The postimplementation phase required ongoing quality improvement, revision of outdated content, and repeated staff education. The evaluation phase included a guide utilization analysis, reporting to hospital leadership, and sustainability and innovation planning. The mobile application was downloaded 3056 times and accessed 9259 times during the study period. The companion web viewer was accessed 8214 times. Successful implementation of a customizable mobile CDS tool enabled our team to expand beyond microbiological data to clinical diagnosis, treatment, and antimicrobial stewardship, broadening our influence on antimicrobial prescribing and incorporating utilization data to inspire new quality and safety initiatives. Further studies are needed to assess the impact on antimicrobial utilization, infection control measures, and patient care outcomes.

  1. Estimating landholders' probability of participating in a stewardship program, and the implications for spatial conservation priorities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa M Adams

    Full Text Available The need to integrate social and economic factors into conservation planning has become a focus of academic discussions and has important practical implications for the implementation of conservation areas, both private and public. We conducted a survey in the Daly Catchment, Northern Territory, to inform the design and implementation of a stewardship payment program. We used a choice model to estimate the likely level of participation in two legal arrangements--conservation covenants and management agreements--based on payment level and proportion of properties required to be managed. We then spatially predicted landholders' probability of participating at the resolution of individual properties and incorporated these predictions into conservation planning software to examine the potential for the stewardship program to meet conservation objectives. We found that the properties that were least costly, per unit area, to manage were also the least likely to participate. This highlights a tension between planning for a cost-effective program and planning for a program that targets properties with the highest probability of participation.

  2. Galvanic element. Galvanisches Element

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprengel, D.; Haelbig, H.

    1980-01-03

    The invention concerns a gas-tight sealed accumulator with positive and negative electrode plates and an auxillary electrode electroconductively bound to the latter for suppressing oxygen pressure. The auxillary electrode is an intermediate film electrode. The film catalysing oxygen reduction is hydrophilic in character and the other film is hydrophobic. A double coated foil has proved to be advantageous, the hydrophilic film being formed from polymer-bound activated carbon and the hydrophrobic film from porous polytetrafluoroethylene. A metallic network of silver or nickel is rolled into the outer side of the activated carbon film. This auxillary electrode can be used to advantage in all galvanic elements. Even primary cells fall within the scope of application for auxillary electrodes because many of these contain a highly oxidized electrodic material which tends to give off oxygen.

  3. 238U, and its decay products, in grasses from an abandoned uranium mine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Edgar; Maskall, John; Millward, Geoffrey

    2016-04-01

    Bioaccumulation of radioactive contaminants by plants is of concern particularly where the sward is an essential part of the diet of ruminants. The abandoned South Terras uranium mine, south west England, had primary deposits of uraninite (UO2) and pitchblende (U3O8), which contained up to 30% uranium. When the mine was active uranium and radium were extracted but following closure it was abandoned without remediation. Waste rock and gangue, consisting of inefficiently processed minerals, were spread around the site, including a field where ruminants are grazed. Here we report the activity concentrations of 238U, 235U 214,210Pb, and the concentrations of selected metals in the soils, roots and leaves of grasses taken from the contaminated field. Soil samples were collected at the surface, and at 30 cm depth, using an auger along a 10-point transect in the field from the foot of a waste heap. Whole, individual grass plants were removed with a spade, ensuring that their roots were intact. The soils and roots and grass leaves were freeze-dried. Activity concentrations of the radionuclides were determined by gamma spectroscopy, following 30 days incubation for development of secular equilibrium. Dried soils, roots and grasses were also digested in aqua regia and the concentrations of elements determined by ICP techniques. Maximum activity concentrations of 238U, 235U, 214Pb and 210Pb surface soils were 63,300, 4,510, 23,300 and 49,400 Bq kg-1, respectively. The mean 238U:235U ratio was 11.8 ± 1.8, an order of magnitude lower than the natural value of 138, indicating disequilibrium within the decay chain due to mineral processing. Radionuclides in the roots had 5 times lower concentration and only grass leaves in the vicinity of the waste heap had measureable values. The mean soil to root transfer factor for 238U was 36%, the mean root to leaf was 3% and overall only 0.7% of 238U was transferred from the soil to the leaves. The roots contained 0.8% iron, possibly as

  4. Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markee, E. H. [ARFRO, Environmental Science Services Administration, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

  5. Estimating grass-clover ratio variations caused by traffic intensities using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole

    Grass and especially clover have a negative yield response as a function of  traffic intensity.  Conventional grass-clover production for silage have high traffic intensity due to fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass...... to fulfill the aim [1]http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/index/publications/press_articles/dairy-2/role-of-clover.htm...

  6. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J; Worm, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.......Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis....

  7. The performance of moss, grass, and 1- and 2-year old spruce needles as bioindicators of contamination: a comparative study at the scale of the Czech Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchara, Ivan; Sucharova, Julie; Hola, Marie; Reimann, Clemens; Boyd, Rognvald; Filzmoser, Peter; Englmaier, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Moss (Pleurozium schreberi), grass (Avenella flexuosa), and 1- and 2-year old spruce (Picea abies) needles were collected over the territory of the Czech Republic at an average sample density of 1 site per 290km(2). The samples were analysed for 39 elements (Ag, Al, As, Ba, Be, Bi, Ca, Cd, Ce, Co, Cr, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ga, Hg, K, La, Li, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Nd, Ni, Pb, Pr, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Th, Tl, U, V, Y and Zn) using ICP-MS and ICP-AES techniques (the major nutrients Ca, K, Mg and Na were not analysed in moss). Moss showed by far the highest element concentrations for most elements. Exceptions were Ba (spruce), Mn (spruce), Mo (grass), Ni (spruce), Rb (grass) and S (grass). Regional distribution maps and spatial trend analysis were used to study the suitability of the four materials as bioindicators of anthropogenic contamination. The highly industrialised areas in the north-west and the far east of the country and several more local contamination sources were indicated in the distribution maps of one or several sample materials. At the scale of the whole country moss was the best indicator of known contamination sources. However, on a more local scale, it appeared that spruce needles were especially well suited for detection of urban contamination. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  9. Application of the “4R” nutrient stewardship concept to horticultural crops: getting nutrients in the “right” place

    Science.gov (United States)

    The 4R nutrient stewardship concept was introduced in 2009 by International Plant Nutrition Institute to define the right source, rate, time, and place to apply fertilizers to produce not only the most economical outcome in any given crop but to also to provide desirable social and environmental ben...

  10. Framework for Springs Stewardship Program and proposed action development: Spring Mountains National Recreation Area, Humboldt-Toiyabe National Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marc Coles-Ritchie; Stephen J. Solem; Abraham E. Springer; Burton Pendleton

    2014-01-01

    In the desert Southwest, springs are an important ecological feature and serve as a focal point for both biological and human interactions on the landscape. As a result, attention has been placed on the stewardship and protection of these important resources. Management has traditionally focused on the more accessible and heavily used eastern canyons within the Spring...

  11. Assessing the distribution of environmental stewardship organizations and their relationship to the demographics of Los Angeles County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krystle M. Golly

    2017-01-01

    An equal distribution of environmental stewardship organizations across the urban landscape provides an environment that facilitates community empowerment. The systemic issues found in Los Angeles County play an important role in the social development of the area. Through the utilization of modern technology and geographical mapping software, spatial distribution of...

  12. Networked governance and the management of ecosystem services: The case of urban environmental stewardship in New York City

    Science.gov (United States)

    James J.T. Connolly; Erika S. Svendsen; Dana R. Fisher; Lindsay K. Campbell

    2014-01-01

    Urban environmental stewardship groups have become an essential component of the governance structure that regulates ecosystem services in cities. New York City is one example where these groups have grown rapidly in number, size, and visibility since the 1970s. In this article, we combine quantitative survey data with qualitative interview data to examine the...

  13. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management

  14. How much gas can we get from grass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizami, A.S.; Orozco, A.; Groom, E.; Dieterich, B.; Murphy, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. ► The results indicated that methane potential varied from 350 to 493 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. ► We compare two distinct digestion systems using the same grass. ► A two stage wet system achieved 451 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. ► A two phase system achieved 341 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added at a 30 day retention time. -- Abstract: Grass biomethane has been shown to be a sustainable gaseous transport biofuel, with a good energy balance, and significant potential for economic viability. Of issue for the designer is the variation in characteristics of the grass depending on location of source, time of cut and species. Further confusion arises from the biomethane potential tests (BMP) which have a tendency to give varying results. This paper has dual ambitions. One of these is to highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. The results indicated that methane potential from the same grass silage varied from 350 to 493 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. The second ambition is to attempt to compare two distinct digestion systems again using the same grass: a two stage continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR); and a sequentially fed leach bed reactor connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (SLBR–UASB). The two engineered systems were designed, fabricated, commissioned and operated at small pilot scale until stable optimal operating conditions were reached. The CSTR system achieved 451 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. The SLBR–UASB achieved 341 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added at a 30 day retention time.

  15. VAM populations in relation to grass invasion associated with forest decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosatka, M; Cudlin, P; Mejstrik, V

    1991-01-01

    Spruce stands in Northern Bohemia forests, damaged to various degrees by industrial pollution, have shown establishment of grass cover following tree defoliation. Populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi were studied under this grass cover in four permanent plots with spruce under different levels of pollution stress. Soil and root samples were collected in April and June within each plot as follows: (1) sites without grass, (2) sites with initial stages of grass invasion, and (3) sites with fully developed grass cover. In all plots, the highest number of propagules were recovered from samples taken from sites having full grass cover. Mycorrhizal infection of grass was highest in the plot with the severest pollution damage and lowest in the least damaged plot. The development of grass cover and VAM infection of grass increased with tree defoliation caused by air pollution.

  16. Dose-response relationship of a new Timothy grass pollen allergoid in comparison with a 6-grass pollen allergoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Hohlfeld, J M; Al-Kadah, B; Hauswald, B; Homey, B; Hunzelmann, N; Schliemann, S; Velling, P; Worm, M; Klimek, L

    2017-11-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with grass pollen allergoids has been proven to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Based on the extensive cross-reactivity among Pooideae species, it has been suggested that grass pollen extracts could be prepared from a single species, rather than from a multiple species mixture. To find the optimal dose of a Phleum pratense (P. pratense) allergoid preparation and compare its efficacy and safety to a 6-grass pollen allergoid preparation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study (EudraCT: 2011-000674-58), three doses of P. pratense allergoid (1800 therapeutic units (TU), standard-dose 6000 TU and 18 000 TU) were compared with placebo and the marketed 6-grass pollen allergoid (6000 TU). In a pre-seasonal dosing regimen, 102 patients were randomized to five treatment groups and received nine subcutaneous injections. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in weal size (late-phase reaction [LPR]) in response to the intracutaneous testing (ICT) before and after treatment, comparing the active allergoids to placebo. Secondary outcomes were the change in Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) assessed in the allergen exposure chamber (AEC), the changes in P. pratense-serum-specific IgG 4 and the incidence of adverse events (AEs). All three doses of the P. pratense and the 6-grass pollen allergoid preparations were significantly superior to placebo for the primary outcome, whereas there were no significant differences in the change in TNSS. Compared to the standard-dose, the high-dose of P. pratense did not produce any additional significant benefit, but showed a slight increase in AEs. Yet this increase in AEs was lower than for the 6-grass pollen preparation. The standard-dose of the new P. pratense allergoid was comparable to the marketed 6-grass pollen preparation at equal dose for the parameters measured. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John

  17. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa; Laursen, Mette K; Andersen, Jens S; Sørensen, Helle F; Klink, Rabih

    2018-02-01

    Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet significantly reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms or using asthma medication at the end of trial (odds ratio = 0.66, P year posttreatment follow-up, and during the entire 5-year trial period. Also, grass allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were 22% to 30% reduced (P years). At the end of the trial, the use of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis pharmacotherapy was significantly less (27% relative difference to placebo, P < .001). Total IgE, grass pollen-specific IgE, and skin prick test reactivity to grass pollen were all reduced compared to placebo. Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms and using asthma medication, and had a positive, long-term clinical effect on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use but did not show an effect on the time to onset of asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. A novel method to characterize silica bodies in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Clemon; Ostergaard, Jason; Watkins, Eric; Chen, Changbin

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of silicon into epidermal cells of grass species is thought to be an important mechanism that plants use as a defense against pests and environmental stresses. There are a number of techniques available to study the size, density and distribution pattern of silica bodies in grass leaves. However, none of those techniques can provide a high-throughput analysis, especially for a great number of samples. We developed a method utilizing the autofluorescence of silica bodies to investigate their size and distribution, along with the number of carbon inclusions within the silica bodies of perennial grass species Koeleria macrantha. Fluorescence images were analyzed by image software Adobe Photoshop CS5 or ImageJ that remarkably facilitated the quantification of silica bodies in the dry ash. We observed three types of silica bodies or silica body related mineral structures. Silica bodies were detected on both abaxial and adaxial epidermis of K. macrantha leaves, although their sizes, density, and distribution patterns were different. No auto-fluorescence was detected from carbon inclusions. The combination of fluorescence microscopy and image processing software displayed efficient utilization in the identification and quantification of silica bodies in K. macrantha leaf tissues, which should applicable to biological, ecological and geological studies of grasses including forage, turf grasses and cereal crops.

  19. A capillary pumping device utilizing super-hydrophobic silicon grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Chun-Fei; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Chu, Chin-Chou

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we show that a compact silicon grass surface can be generated by utilizing the induced coupled plasma method with suitably chosen fabrication parameters. This super-hydrophobic structure suspends deionized water on top of the grass and keeps the contact angle at around 153°. The silicon grass is used to improve the driving efficiency of a capillary pumping micro-duct (without sidewalls), which is completely defined by a bottom hydrophilic stripe (adjacent to a Teflon substrate) and a fully top-covered hydrophobic Teflon surface which is coated on a glass substrate. The channel has a height of 3 µm and a width of 100 µm. In this work, the Teflon substrate is replaced with the silicon grass surface. When the fluid is flowing through the micro-duct on the stripe, the interface between the silicon grass and the hydrophilic stripe forms a stable air cushion barrier to the fluid, thus effectively reducing the frictional force. By changing only the interface with this replacement, we demonstrate that the average measured velocities of the new design show improvements of 21% and 17% in the driving efficiency over the original design for transporting deionized water and human blood, respectively. It is also shown that the measured data of the present design are closer to the values predicted by a theoretical analysis which relates the flow velocity to the contact angles, surface tension and fluid viscosity

  20. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  1. Genetic engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Gallagher, Joe A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Bosch, Maurice

    2017-09-01

    Grasses represent an abundant and widespread source of lignocellulosic biomass, which has yet to fulfil its potential as a feedstock for biorefining into renewable and sustainable biofuels and commodity chemicals. The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials to deconstruction is the most crucial limitation for the commercial viability and economic feasibility of biomass biorefining. Over the last decade, the targeted genetic engineering of grasses has become more proficient, enabling rational approaches to modify lignocellulose with the aim of making it more amenable to bioconversion. In this review, we provide an overview of transgenic strategies and targets to tailor grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining applications. The bioengineering efforts and opportunities summarized here rely primarily on (A) reprogramming gene regulatory networks responsible for the biosynthesis of lignocellulose, (B) remodelling the chemical structure and substitution patterns of cell wall polysaccharides and (C) expressing lignocellulose degrading and/or modifying enzymes in planta. It is anticipated that outputs from the rational engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides by such strategies could help in realizing an economically sustainable, grass-derived lignocellulose processing industry. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2015-01-01

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  3. Reconnecting cities to the biosphere: stewardship of green infrastructure and urban ecosystem services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Erik; Barthel, Stephan; Borgström, Sara; Colding, Johan; Elmqvist, Thomas; Folke, Carl; Gren, Åsa

    2014-05-01

    Within-city green infrastructure can offer opportunities and new contexts for people to become stewards of ecosystem services. We analyze cities as social-ecological systems, synthesize the literature, and provide examples from more than 15 years of research in the Stockholm urban region, Sweden. The social-ecological approach spans from investigating ecosystem properties to the social frameworks and personal values that drive and shape human interactions with nature. Key findings demonstrate that urban ecosystem services are generated by social-ecological systems and that local stewards are critically important. However, land-use planning and management seldom account for their role in the generation of urban ecosystem services. While the small scale patchwork of land uses in cities stimulates intense interactions across borders much focus is still on individual patches. The results highlight the importance and complexity of stewardship of urban biodiversity and ecosystem services and of the planning and governance of urban green infrastructure.

  4. Specialist trainees on rotation cannot replace dedicated consultant clinicians for antimicrobial stewardship of specialty disciplines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Chay Leng

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Our prospective-audit-and-feedback antimicrobial stewardship (AS program for hematology and oncology inpatients was switched from one led by dedicated clinicians to a rotating team of infectious diseases trainees in order to provide learning opportunities and attempt a “de-escalation” of specialist input towards a more protocol-driven implementation. However, process indicators including the number of recommendations and recommendation acceptance rates fell significantly during the year, with accompanying increases in broad-spectrum antibiotic prescription. The trends were reversed only upon reverting to the original setup. Dedicated clinicians play a crucial role in AS programs involving immunocompromised patients. Structured training and adequate succession/contingency planning is critical for sustainability.

  5. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2006-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  6. Biogeochemical Cycling and Environmental Stability of Pu Relevant to Long-Term Stewardship of DOE Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francis, Arokiasamy J.; Santschi, Peter H.; Honeyman, Bruce D.

    2005-06-01

    The overall objective of this proposed research is to understand the biogeochemical cycling of Pu in environments of interest to long-term DOE stewardship issues. Central to Pu cycling (transport initiation to immobilization) is the role of microorganisms. The hypothesis underlying this proposal is that microbial activity is the causative agent in initiating the mobilization of Pu in near-surface environments: through the transformation of Pu associated with solid phases, production of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) carrier phases, and the creation of microenvironments. Also, microbial processes are central to the immobilization of Pu species, through the metabolism of organically complexed Pu species and Pu associated with extracellular carrier phases and the creation of environments favorable for Pu transport retardation.

  7. Carbapenem stewardship: does ertapenem affect Pseudomonas susceptibility to other carbapenems? A review of the evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicolau, David P; Carmeli, Yehuda; Crank, Christopher W; Goff, Debra A; Graber, Christopher J; Lima, Ana Lucia L; Goldstein, Ellie J C

    2012-01-01

    The group 2 carbapenems (imipenem, meropenem and, more recently, doripenem) have been a mainstay of treatment for patients with serious hospital infections caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae and other difficult-to-treat Gram-negative pathogens as well as mixed aerobic/anaerobic infections. When ertapenem, a group 1 carbapenem, was introduced, questions were raised about the potential for ertapenem to select for imipenem- and meropenem-resistant Pseudomonas. Results from ten clinical studies evaluating the effect of ertapenem use on the susceptibility of Pseudomonas to carbapenems have uniformly shown that ertapenem use does not result in decreased Pseudomonas susceptibility to these antipseudomonal carbapenems. Here we review these studies evaluating the evidence of how ertapenem use affects P. aeruginosa as well as provide considerations for ertapenem use in the context of institutional stewardship initiatives. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. and the International Society of Chemotherapy. All rights reserved.

  8. Bedside resource stewardship in disasters: a provider's dilemma practicing in an ethical gap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Michelle

    2012-01-01

    During disasters, clinicians may be forced to play dual roles, as both a provider and an allocator of scarce resources. At present, a clear framework to govern resource stewardship at the bedside is lacking. Clinicians who find themselves practicing in this ethical gap between clinical and public health ethics can experience significant moral distress. One provider describes her experience allocating an oxygen tank in the intensive care unit at a hospital in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, immediately following the 2010 earthquake. Using a clinical vignette and reflective narrative she attempts to identify the factors that influenced her allocation decision, opening up the factors for commentary and debate by an ethicist. A better paradigm for the ethical care of patients during disasters is needed to better guide provider choices in the future.

  9. Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) Facility Stewardship Plan: Revision 2.1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torres, Juan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, Art [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-02

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE), has established the Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF) on the campus of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and has designated it as a DOE user facility. This 182,500-ft2 research facility provides state-of-the-art laboratory and support infrastructure to optimize the design and performance of electrical, thermal, fuel, and information technologies and systems at scale. This Facility Stewardship Plan provides DOE and other decision makers with information about the existing and expected capabilities of the ESIF and the expected performance metrics to be applied to ESIF operations. This plan is a living document that will be updated and refined throughout the lifetime of the facility.

  10. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship: Use of Administrative and Surveillance Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drees, Marci; Gerber, Jeffrey S; Morgan, Daniel J; Lee, Grace M

    2016-11-01

    Administrative and surveillance data are used frequently in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship (HE&AS) research because of their wide availability and efficiency. However, data quality issues exist, requiring careful consideration and potential validation of data. This methods paper presents key considerations for using administrative and surveillance data in HE&AS, including types of data available and potential use, data limitations, and the importance of validation. After discussing these issues, we review examples of HE&AS research using administrative data with a focus on scenarios when their use may be advantageous. A checklist is provided to help aid study development in HE&AS using administrative data. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-10.

  11. Research Methods in Healthcare Epidemiology and Antimicrobial Stewardship-Quasi-Experimental Designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweizer, Marin L; Braun, Barbara I; Milstone, Aaron M

    2016-10-01

    Quasi-experimental studies evaluate the association between an intervention and an outcome using experiments in which the intervention is not randomly assigned. Quasi-experimental studies are often used to evaluate rapid responses to outbreaks or other patient safety problems requiring prompt, nonrandomized interventions. Quasi-experimental studies can be categorized into 3 major types: interrupted time-series designs, designs with control groups, and designs without control groups. This methods paper highlights key considerations for quasi-experimental studies in healthcare epidemiology and antimicrobial stewardship, including study design and analytic approaches to avoid selection bias and other common pitfalls of quasi-experimental studies. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016;1-6.

  12. Considering a new domain for antimicrobial stewardship: Topical antibiotics in the open surgical wound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmiston, Charles E; Leaper, David; Spencer, Maureen; Truitt, Karen; Litz Fauerbach, Loretta; Graham, Denise; Johnson, Helen Boehm

    2017-11-01

    The global push to combat the problem of antimicrobial resistance has led to the development of antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs), which were recently mandated by The Joint Commission and the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. However, the use of topical antibiotics in the open surgical wound is often not monitored by these programs nor is it subject to any evidence-based standardization of care. Survey results indicate that the practice of using topical antibiotics intraoperatively, in both irrigation fluids and powders, is widespread. Given the risks inherent in their use and the lack of evidence supporting it, the practice should be monitored as a core part of ASPs, and alternative agents, such as antiseptics, should be considered. Copyright © 2017 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  14. Urine culture guided antibiotic interventions: A pharmacist driven antimicrobial stewardship effort in the ED.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Rowan, Nicole; Pflugeisen, Bethann Mangel; Alajbegovic, Sanjin

    2017-04-01

    Antibiotics are overprescribed for abnormal urine tests including asymptomatic bacteriuria (AB), contributing to rising antimicrobial resistance rates. Pharmacists reviewed urine cultures daily from emergency department (ED) encounters to assess antibiotic appropriateness. We studied antibiotic prescribing practices and assessed compliance to national guidelines, correlations with urine analysis (UA) components, and opportunities for antimicrobial stewardship in the ED. This quality improvement project (QIP) was a prospective cohort study at a community hospital ED, with data collected from finalized urine cultures resulting October 30, 2014 through January 5, 2015. Analyses were conducted using Chi-squared and Fisher Exact tests and stepwise multiple logistic regression. Urine cultures from 457 encounters were reviewed, of which 136 met the inclusion criteria as non-pregnant and asymptomatic for urinary tract infection (UTI). 43% of 136 patients were treated with antibiotics, for a total of 426 antibiotic days. Pharmacist interventions for these patients resulted in 122/426 (29%) of potential antibiotic days saved. Factors found to significantly increase the odds of antibiotic prescribing in asymptomatic patients included presence of leukocyte esterase (OR=4.5, 95% CI: 1.2-17.2; p=0.03) or nitrites (OR=10.8, 95% CI: 1.7-68.1; p=0.01) in the urine and age≥75 (OR=3.5, 95% CI: 1.2-9.6, p=0.02). Pharmacist intervention in discontinuing or modifying antibiotics for asymptomatic patients with urine cultures reduced unnecessary antibiotic exposure and was a first step in antimicrobial stewardship efforts in the ED. Future work includes limiting urine tests and subsequent antibiotic therapy for non-pregnant asymptomatic patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The resistance tsunami, antimicrobial stewardship, and the golden age of microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, John F

    2014-07-16

    Modern medicine is built on antibiotics. Antibiotics are something that we take for granted. We have however spent over 60 years educating bacteria to become resistant, and the global resistance tsunami has caught everyone unawares. Since bacteria have changed, we also have to change, and to change most of the practices of how we use antibiotics. Because the development of new antibiotics is so expensive, a stewardship approach may help to preserve those that we have now while we work to develop new antibiotics and to develop other approaches to controlling and treating infections. We need to adopt the ethic of Good Stewardship Practice (GSP) as an active and dynamic process of continuous improvement in antibiotic use, a process with many steps of different sizes involving everyone involved in antibiotic use. All antibiotic users have an important role to play in GSP. Although the resistance situation is pessimistic, and the future of antibiotics looks uncertain, we are fortunately entering what may be seen as the golden age of microbiology. This encompasses an astonishing array of technologies for rapid pathogen and resistance gene detection, for clone identification by genome sequencing, for identification of novel bacterial genes and for identification of the Achilles' heels of different pathogens. Future antibiotics may have to be far more targeted to the individual pathogen and the site of infection. A global tax on antibiotics might reduce their use while funding the cost of developing new antibiotics and new approaches to control of infectious diseases. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical Outcomes of a Pharmacy-Led Blood Factor Stewardship Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trueg, Anne O; Lowe, Christopher; Kiel, Patrick J

    To report the results of a pharmacist-directed blood factor stewardship program targeting off-label utilization designed to limit use to established organizational guidelines in high-risk populations. Prospective evaluation of recombinant factor VIIa and prothrombin complex concentrate orders beginning June 2013 through May 2014 and a matched retrospective cohort from June 2012 to May 2013. Matched cohorts were evaluated for 28-day mortality, change in international normalized ratio (INR), adverse events, concurrent blood product use, and cost savings. Forty-two orders for blood factor were ordered between June 2013 and May 2014, 70 orders in the year before (N = 112). Twenty eight-day mortality was not different between the cohorts: 53.9% versus 50% (P = 0.77). Blood factor use with underlying liver failure and active bleeding was strongly associated with 28-day mortality: odds ratio (95% confidence interval), 2.9 (1.5-7.14) and 2.91 (0.01-2.91), respectively. Blood products dispensed increased over the year with plasma products the most significant (1 vs. 4 P = 0.004). All other clinical outcomes were nonsignificant. An annual cost savings of $375,539 was achieved, primarily through a significant reduction in recombinant factor VIIa and avoidance in high-risk patients. Use of off-label blood factors can be controlled through a pharmacist-led stewardship program. Twenty eight-day mortality was not different between the 2 cohorts; however, identification of risk factors for death associated with blood factor use allows for restriction in high-risk populations, creates a discussion of futile care, and yields cost savings.

  17. Antimicrobial stewardship through telemedicine and its impact on multi-drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Rodrigo P; Dalmora, Camila H; Lukasewicz, Stephani A; Carvalho, Otávio; Deutschendorf, Caroline; Lima, Raquel; Leitzke, Tiago; Correa, Nilson C; Gambetta, Marcelo V

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Telemedicine technologies are increasingly being incorporated into infectious disease practice. We aimed to demonstrate the impact of antimicrobial stewardship through telemedicine on bacterial resistance rates. Methods We conducted a quasi-experimental study in a 220-bed hospital in southern Brazil. An antimicrobial stewardship program incorporating the use of telemedicine was implemented. Resistance and antimicrobial consumption rates were determined and analysed using a segmented regression model. Results After the intervention, the rate of appropriate antimicrobial prescription increased from 51.4% at baseline to 81.4%. Significant reductions in the consumption of fluoroquinolones (level change, β = -0.80; P change, β = -0.01; P = 0.98), first-generation cephalosporins (level change, β = -0.91; P change, β = +0.01; P = 0.96), vancomycin (level change, β = -0.47; P = 0.04; trend change, β = +0.17; P = 0.66) and polymyxins (level change, β = -0.15; P = 0.56; trend change, β = -1.75; P change, β = +0.84; P change, β = +0.14; P = 0.41) and cefuroxime (level change, β = +0.21; P = 0.17; trend change, β = +0.66; P = 0.02). A significant decrease in the rate of carbapenem-resistant Acinetobacter spp. isolation (level change, β = +0.66; P = 0.01; trend change, β = -1.26; P resistance.

  18. Training should be the first step toward an antifungal stewardship program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valerio, Maricela; Muñoz, Patricia; Rodríguez-González, Carmen; Sanjurjo, María; Guinea, Jesús; Bouza, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    The frequency of use of systemic antifungal agents has increased significantly in most tertiary centers. However, antifungal stewardship has received very little attention. The objective of this article was to assess the knowledge of prescribing physicians in our institution as a first step in the development of an antifungal stewardship program. Attending physicians from the departments that prescribe most antifungals were invited to complete a questionnaire based on current guidelines on diagnosis and therapy of invasive candidiasis and invasive aspergillosis (IA). The survey was completed by 60.8% (200/329) of the physicians who were invited to participate. The physicians belonged to the following departments: medical (60%), pediatric (19%), intensive care (15.5%), and surgical (5.5%). The mean (±SD) score of correct responses was 5.16±1.73. In the case of candidiasis, only 55% of the physicians clearly distinguished between colonization and infection, and 17.5% knew the local rate of fluconazole resistance. Thirty-three percent knew the accepted indications for antifungal prophylaxis, and 23% the indications for empirical therapy. However, most physicians knew which antifungals to choose when starting empirical therapy (73.5%). As for aspergillosis, most physicians (67%) could differentiate between colonization and infection, and 34.5% knew the diagnostic value of galactomannan. The radiological features of IA were well recognized by 64%, but only 31.5% were aware of the first line of treatment for IA, and 36% of the recommended duration of therapy. The usefulness of antifungal levels was known by 67%. This simple, easily completed questionnaire enabled us to identify which areas of our training strategy could be improved. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  19. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  20. Indirect effects of an invasive annual grass on seed fates of two native perennial grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan E; Merrill, Katherine T; Allen, Phil S; Beckstead, Julie; Norte, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Invasive plants exhibit both direct and indirect negative effects on recruitment of natives following invasion. We examined indirect effects of the invader Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) on seed fates of two native grass species, Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata, by removing B. tectorum and by adding inoculum of the shared seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda in factorial experiments at xeric and mesic field sites. We also included a supplemental watering treatment to increase emergence and also the potential for pathogen escape. We recorded emergence and survival of native seedlings and also determined the fate of unemerged seeds. At the xeric site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was high (34%), and effects of other pathogens and failed emergence of germinants were smaller. Cheatgrass removal negatively affected both emergence (35 vs. 25%) and spring survival (69 vs. 42%). Pyrenophora-caused seed mortality increased with inoculum augmentation for both species (22 vs. 47% overall), but emergence was negatively impacted only for P. spicata (20 vs. 34%). At the mesic site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was low (6%). Cheatgrass removal doubled emergence (26 vs. 14%). Seed mortality increased significantly with inoculum augmentation for P. spicata (12 vs. 5%) but not E. elymoides, while emergence was not significantly affected in either species. A large fraction of seeds produced germinants that failed to emerge (37%), while another large fraction (35%) was killed by other pathogens. We conclude that facilitation by cheatgrass at the xeric site but interference at the mesic site was probably mediated through litter effects that could be ameliorative or suppressive. Apparent competition between cheatgrass and native grasses could occur through Pyrenophora, especially in a xeric environment, but effects were weak or absent at emergence. This was probably because Pyrenophora attacks the same slow-germinating fraction that is subject to pre-emergence mortality from

  1. Cosmogenic Be-7 in grass of Maamora site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-khoukhi, T.; Fidah, M.; Oublaid, B.

    1994-01-01

    Be-7 is one of the radionuclides produced by the nuclear reactions of protons and alpha particulates of galactic and solar cosmic rays as well as the secondary neutrons produced during those reactions. it is submitted, as soon as it is produced, to the physical and chemical laws of the environment, such as air motions or the fixing to the atmospheric aerosols. In the framework of environmental radioactivity monitoring programme of Maamora site (Morocco), samples of grass were collected, prepared and analyzed using gamma spectrometry. The preparation consists of drying and ashing the grass. The detector used is coaxial Ge HP with 20% efficiency. Samples were counted for more than 50000 s. The activity of Be-7 calculated for samples collected in 10 km around Maamora site varies between 4 and 20 Bq/g of ashed grass. 3 refs. (author)

  2. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project...... conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can...... act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however...

  3. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate the hygro......In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate...

  4. Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily...... invaded. We used a novel, trait-based approach involving two components: identifying differences in trait composition between native and exotic components of the grass flora and evaluating contemporary trait–climate relationships across the state. The combination of trait–climate relationships and trait...

  5. Determination of 90Sr in grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Keil, R.

    1994-10-01

    A radiochemical method for the determination of 90 Sr in non-contaminated grass and soil is presented. The method is based on the leaching of 90 Sr from the mineralized samples followed by liquid-liquid extraction of 90 Y, its short lived daughter, by tributylphosphate and precipitation of Y-oxalate, which is counted in a low-level proportional counter. Based on dried samples of 30 g of soil and 100 g of grass the limit of detection is about 0.1 Bq/kg for both materials. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs

  6. Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) for the production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chughtai, F.A.; Shah, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) was carried of with various concentrations of sulphuric acid, ortho phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid to produce furfural. The study revealed that activity of various hydrolysing acids to produce furfural from kallar grass was of the following order H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ > H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ > HCl. Optimum yield (4.78%) of the produce was obtained when the material was digested with 19% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ for a period of 20 minutes. (author)

  7. Potential of Cogon Grass as an Oil Sorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Barlianti, Vera; Anggraini, Irni Fitria; Hendarsyah, Hendris

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on the potential of Cogon grass (lmperata cylindrica), a weed harmful to other plants, for use as a low-cost and biodegradable oil sorbent were carried out under various spill conditions. Flowers of Cogon grass adsorbed much larger amount of high-viscosity lubricating oil (57.9 g-oil/g-sorbent) than that adsorbed by Peat Sorb (7.7 g-oil/g-sorbent), a commercial oilsorbent based on peat. However, the flowers adsorbed only 27.9 g of low-viscosity crude oillgsorbent. In an oil-water ...

  8. Multiple photosynthetic transitions, polyploidy, and lateral gene transfer in the grass subtribe Neurachninae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christin, Pascal-Antoine; Wallace, Mark J; Clayton, Harmony; Edwards, Erika J; Furbank, Robert T; Hattersley, Paul W; Sage, Rowan F; Macfarlane, Terry D; Ludwig, Martha

    2012-10-01

    The Neurachninae is the only grass lineage known to contain C(3), C(4), and C(3)-C(4) intermediate species, and as such has been suggested as a model system for studies of photosynthetic pathway evolution in the Poaceae; however, a lack of a robust phylogenetic framework has hindered this possibility. In this study, plastid and nuclear markers were used to reconstruct evolutionary relationships among Neurachninae species. In addition, photosynthetic types were determined with carbon isotope ratios, and genome sizes with flow cytometry. A high frequency of autopolyploidy was found in the Neurachninae, including in Neurachne munroi F.Muell. and Paraneurachne muelleri S.T.Blake, which independently evolved C(4) photosynthesis. Phylogenetic analyses also showed that following their separate C(4) origins, these two taxa exchanged a gene encoding the C(4) form of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase. The C(3)-C(4) intermediate Neurachne minor S.T.Blake is phylogenetically distinct from the two C(4) lineages, indicating that intermediacy in this species evolved separately from transitional stages preceding C(4) origins. The Neurachninae shows a substantial capacity to evolve new photosynthetic pathways repeatedly. Enablers of these transitions might include anatomical pre-conditions in the C(3) ancestor, and frequent autopolyploidization. Transfer of key C(4) genetic elements between independently evolved C(4) taxa may have also facilitated a rapid adaptation of photosynthesis in these grasses that had to survive in the harsh climate appearing during the late Pliocene in Australia.

  9. Determination of trace elements in biological material by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tran Van, L.; Teherani, D.K.

    1989-01-01

    Eighteen trace elements in biological materials [grass (Imperata cylindrica), mimosa plant (Mimosa pudica), rice] by neutron activation method were determined. In the comparative analysis the content of the same element was different in each material, although they were collected at the same place and the same sampling method was applied. (author) 4 refs.; 1 fig.; 1 tab

  10. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...... compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial......, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...

  11. Ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospitalised patients: a consensus from the Antimicrobial Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society of Chemotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hara, G. Levy; Kanj, S.S.; Pagani, L.; Abbo, L.; Endimiani, A.; Wertheim, H.F.L.; Amabile-Cuevas, C.; Tattevin, P.; Mehtar, S.; Cardoso, F.; Unal, S.; Gould, I.

    2016-01-01

    The Antibiotic Stewardship and Resistance Working Groups of the International Society for Chemotherapy propose ten key points for the appropriate use of antibiotics in hospital settings. (i) Get appropriate microbiological samples before antibiotic administration and carefully interpret the results:

  12. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...

  13. Towards regional mapping of grass nutrients using remote sensing in Greater Kruger National Park

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Regional maps of grass nutrients are important to inform decision making regarding the management of savanna ecosystems. Grass nutrients plays a crucial role in understanding the distribution, densities and feeding patterns of both wild herbivores...

  14. Integrating environmental and in situ hyperspectral remote sensing variables for grass nitrogen estimation in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about the distribution of grass nitrogen (N) concentration is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. A challenge in estimating grass N concentration using remote...

  15. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for grass nutrient estimations in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on the distribution of grass quality (nutrient concentration) is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. The spatial distribution of grass nutrient concentration occurs...

  16. Development of an Evidence-Based Antimicrobial Stewardship Smartphone App in a Tertiary Academic Pediatric and Women’s Health Centre in Canada

    OpenAIRE

    Slayter, Kathryn; Turple, Jennifer; Comeau, Jeannette L; Top, Karina A; Langley, Joanne M; Mailman, Tim; Halperin, Scott A

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Smart phone use by medical professionals is ubiquitous. In a recent survey, > 90% of health care providers were interested in locally developed antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) and infectious diseases applications (“apps”). We describe the process by which our antimicrobial stewardship program (ASP) developed an app to provide guidance regarding empiric antimicrobial choice, and education about antimicrobials and pathogens, integrating local laboratory data. We also describ...

  17. Uptake of Radium by Grass and Shrubs Grown on Mineral Heaps: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laili, Z.; Omar, M.; Yusof, M.A. Wahab; Ibrahim, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study of the uptake of 226 Ra and 228 Ra by grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps was carried out. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in grass and shrubs were measured using gamma spectrometry. The result showed that grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps contained elevated levels of radium compared to grass and shrubs grown on normal soils. Thus, these plants might be used for phytoremediation of radium contaminated soil. (author)

  18. Hilly grasses and leaves: a promising unconventional feed resource for livestock.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain M.E.; Karim M.H.; Ahmed M.I.; Sultana S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different hilly grasses and leaves available in Bandarban areas of Bangladesh. Total 10 different hilly grasses and leaves such as Bottle gourd leaf (Lagenaria siceraria), Castor bean leaf (Ricinus communis), Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), Dhol kolmi (Ipomoea carnea), Giant reed leaf (Arundo donax), Hilly grass (Cynodon dactylon), Pithraj leaf (Aphanamixis polystachya), Sal leaf (Shorea robusta), Shegun leaf (Tectona grandis...

  19. Transplutonium elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivaramakrishnan, C. K.; Jadhav, A. V.; Reghuraman, K.; Mathew, K. A.; Nair, P. S.; Ramaniah, M. V.

    1973-07-01

    Research progress is reported on studies of the transplutonium elements including recovery and purification of americium, preparation of /sup 238/Pu, extraction studies using diethylhexyl phosphate. (DHM)

  20. Carbonate-silicate ratio for soil correction and influence on nutrition, biomass production and quality of palisade grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Ferreira de Souza

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Silicates can be used as soil correctives, with the advantage of being a source of silicon, a beneficial element to the grasses. However, high concentrations of silicon in the plant would affect the digestibility of the forage. To evaluate the influence of the substitution of the calcium carbonate by calcium silicate on the nutrition, biomass production and the feed quality of the palisade grass [Urochloa brizantha (C. Hochstetter ex A. Rich. R. Webster], three greenhouse experiments were conducted in completely randomized designs with four replications. Experimental units (pots contained a clayey dystrophic Rhodic Haplustox, a sandy clay loam dystrophic Typic Haplustox and a sandy loam dystrophic Typic Haplustox. Each soil received substitution proportions (0, 25, 50, 75 and 100 % of the carbonate by calcium silicate. The increase in the proportion of calcium silicate elevated the concentrations and accumulations of Si, Ca, Mg, and B, reduced Zn and did not alter P in the shoot of plants. The effects of the treatments on the other nutrients were influenced by the soil type. Inclusion of calcium silicate also increased the relative nutritional value and the digestibility and ingestion of the forage, while the concentration and accumulation of crude protein and the neutral detergent and acid detergent fibers decreased. Biomass production and feed quality of the palisade grass were generally higher with the 50 % calcium silicate treatment.

  1. Draft Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement for Stockpile Stewardship and Management: Volume 3, Appendix I, Appendix J, Appendix K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-02-01

    In response to the end of the Cold War and changes in the world's political regimes, United States is no longer producing new nuclear weapons. Instead, the US nuclear weapons program is reducing the size of the nuclear stockpile by dismantling existing weapons. DOE has been directed to maintain the safety and reliability of the reduced nuclear weapons stockpile in the absence of underground testing. Therefore, DOE has developed a stewardship and management program to provide a single highly integrated technical program. The stockpile stewardship portion of the PEIS evaluates the potential impacts of three proposed facilities: the National Ignition Facility, the Contained Firing facility, and the Atlas Facility. This volume contains appendices for these 3 facilities; alternatives affecting LANL, LLNL, SNL, and NTS are addressed. Impacts on land resources, site infrastructure, air qualaity, water resources, geology and soils, biotic resources, cultural resources, etc., are evaluated. This PEIS presents unclassified information only

  2. Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme on antibiotic usage and resistance in a tertiary hospital in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Z-G; Chen, F; Ou, Y

    2017-10-01

    Antimicrobial misuse has been commonly observed in China. This phenomenon can cause antibiotic resistance. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of an antimicrobial stewardship programme implemented in a tertiary hospital in China from 2011 to 2014. The antimicrobial stewardship programme began in 2011. Data on the consumption of antibiotics and antimicrobial resistance between 2011 and 2014 were collected. Comparison of the 2011 data with those of 2014 showed that antibiotic defined daily doses/per 100 patient-days decreased from 92.5±2.8 to 35.8±1.2 (Padministrative management, especially information management, was effective in reducing antibiotic consumption and lessening antibiotic resistance. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Designing Program Roadmaps to Catalyze Community Formation: A Case Study of the Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmapword

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dixon, Brent; Hanson, Duane; Matthern, Gretchen

    2003-01-01

    A number of broad perspective technology roadmaps have been developed in the last few years as tools for coordinating nation-wide research in targeted areas. These roadmaps share a common characteristic of coalescing the associated stakeholder groups into a special-interest community that is willing to work cooperatively in achieving the roadmap goals. These communities are key to roadmap implementation as they provide the collaborative energy necessary to obtain the political support and funding required for identified science and technology development efforts. This paper discusses the relationship between roadmaps and special-interest communities, using the recently drafted Department of Energy's Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap as a case study. Specific aspects this roadmap's design facilitated the development of a long-term stewardship community while specific realities during roadmap development impacted the realization of the design

  4. Practical aspects of grass forage seed production and quality with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GBENOU

    Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jéricho, Cotonou, Benin. 2Département de ..... size, floret per tiller (Hare and Rolston, 1990) seed per head and .... grasses and legumes cultivated as ley pastures in the ... Grassl., 35: 43-47. Clua AA ...

  5. Lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) essential oil as a potent anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that should be explored in future studies. Keywords: lemon grass; essential oil; antifungal activity; anti-inflammatory effect; citral; aromatherapy ...

  6. Short Communication: Autelogical studies on grass species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature survey of autecological studies on southern African grass species was undertaken. Results revealed that there is a comparative lack of autecological versus community studies. Where autecological studies have been conducted, most of the attention was focused on 'pasture' or 'desirable' species with ...

  7. Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of different grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration (Et) and water use efficiency (WUE) were determined for each of seven grass species during the 1986/87 seasons. The highest and lowest mean daily Et of 2, 39 and 1, 66 mm were recorded respectively for Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus. Between species, the average Et for the two ...

  8. Grass-roots approach: developing qualified nuclear personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power plants experiencing personnel recruitment problems are trying a grass-roots approach to increase the manpower pool. The Philadelphia Electric Co. and the Toledo Edison Co. are working with local educational institutions to offer nuclear-technology training specific to the needs of nuclear plants. The utilities' investment covers much of the cost of instruction as well as continued training for employees

  9. Adaptation of a decreaser and an increaser grass species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses have developed through natural selection to deter, escape and tolerate herbivory, and to escape and tolerate fire. In the semi-arid grassveld of the Eastern Cape, the species Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus have been classified as Decreaser and Increaser II plants respectively. Both species have ...

  10. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant-beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; van Elsas, J.D.

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial

  11. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.D.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial

  12. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  13. Preemergence herbicides on weed control in elephant grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is an important forage crop that has been proposed as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. However, weed interference is a major factor limiting elephant grass production. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate preemergence herbicides for selective weed control in an elephant grass pasture. Herbicide treatments included atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, imazethapyr, and atrazine at label use rates. Weedy and weed-free treatments were included. Atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine did not cause phytotoxicity on elephantgrass 35 days after treatment (DAT. However, diuron + hexazinone and imazethapyr were the most phytotoxic on elephantgrass, resulting in 81 and 70% phytotoxicity in 2014, and 7 and 6% phytotoxicity in 2015 respectively 35 DAT. All treatments provided effective weed control (>81% with the exception of ethoxysulfuron (0 and 11% in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and atrazine (59% in 2014. These results show that atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine were selectives when applied in preemergence in elephant grass pasture.

  14. Survey of Domestication Process of Grass Cutter ( Thryonomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) is cherished by many people but, its conservation status is at risk hence, the quest for domestication. An investigation into the domestication process of this rodent in four farms in Oyo and Osun States was carried out. Sixty structured questionnaires were administered to fifteen ...

  15. Grass species selection patterns on rotationally-grazed Dohne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbaceous species preference was studied during autumn and winter periods of occupation, on rotationally-grazed Dohne Sourveld, at four different stocking rates. Reports on species selection by cattle and sheep grazing together. Illustrates with graphsLanguage: English. Keywords: Grass species; Herbage availibility; ...

  16. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  17. A new grass frog from Namibia | Channing | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of grass frog of lhe genus Ptychadena is described from northern Namibia. Although superficially similar to Ptychadena schillukorum and Ptychadena mossambica, the new species differs In advertisement call, and external characters. An examination of a series of published sonagrams indicates that ...

  18. Detecting bacterial endophytes in tropical grasses of the Brachiaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria include a diverse group of soil bacteria thought to stimulate plant growth by various mechanisms. Brachiaria forage grasses, of African origin, are perennials that often grow under low-input conditions and are likely to harbour unique populations of PGP bacteria. Three bacterial strains ...

  19. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  20. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soils with Vetiver grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan

    2007-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...

  1. A survey of grass-finished beef producers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet our goal of quantifying the environmental impacts of grass-finished beef production, data on production practices in Pennsylvania were collected at the farm level via visits and online surveys. Twenty-three responses represented a total of 1,055 animals on 2,155 acres of land. Farms were rel...

  2. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and... with the endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from...

  3. Soil water use by Ceanothus velutinus and two grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Lopushinsky; G.O. Klock

    1990-01-01

    Seasonal trends of soil water content in plots of snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Dougl.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L), and pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubes- cens Buckl.) and in bare plots were measured on a burned-over forest watershed in north-central Washington. A comparison of soil water contents at depths of 12, 24,...

  4. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  5. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... stored at –20° C in a deep freezer immediately after collection. At the end of each collection period, the samples were bulked for each animal for proximate analysis according to AOAC (1980) procedures. Compositions of the concentrates, Rhodes grass, groundnut haulms, sweet potato forage and soybean ...

  6. Identification of Radical Scavengers in Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers, The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing

  7. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fed on napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) which has been adopted owing to its high dry matter. (DM) yields and palatability (Anindo ... high nutrient yields and therefore high animal output are likely to be achieved. Unfortunately, farm- ers lack specific ..... This consequently led to higher nutrient intake and weight gains.

  8. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  9. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...

  10. IgE-binding capacity of recombinant timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffer, S.; Vrtala, S.; Duchêne, M.; van Ree, R.; Kraft, D.; Scheiner, O.; Valenta, R.

    1994-01-01

    A panel of 60 cDNA clones coding for IgE-binding proteins from timothy grass pollen was immunocharacterized with sera from 30 patients allergic to grass pollen and antibodies raised against natural grass pollen allergens. In the cases of five representative patients in whom the IgE reactivity

  11. Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van M.

    1997-01-01

    In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products

  12. Tensile fracture properties of seven tropical grasses at different phenological stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Scheper, J.A.; Benvenutti, M.A.; Gordon, I.J.; Poppi, D.P.; Elgersma, A.

    2011-01-01

    The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and

  13. Aggressiveness of loose kernel smut isolate from Johnson grass on sorghum line BTx643

    Science.gov (United States)

    An isolate of loose kernel smut obtained from Johnson grass was inoculated unto six BTx643 sorghum plants in the greenhouse to determine its aggressiveness. All the BTx643 sorghum plants inoculated with the Johnson grass isolate were infected. Mean size of the teliospores from the Johnson grass, i...

  14. Impact of an antimicrobial stewardship intervention on appropriateness of prescribing for community-acquired pneumonia in an Australian regional hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Stuart E; Boutlis, Craig S; Yeo, Wilfred W; Miyakis, Spiros

    2017-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the second commonest indication for antibiotic use in Australian hospitals and is therefore a frequent target for antimicrobial stewardship. A single-centre prospective study was conducted in a regional referral hospital comparing management of adult patients with CAP before and after an educational intervention. We demonstrated a reduction in duration of therapy and reduced inappropriate use of ceftriaxone-based regimens for non-severe CAP. © 2017 Royal Australasian College of Physicians.

  15. The effectiveness of agricultural stewardship for improving water quality at the catchment scale: Experiences from an NVZ and ECSFDI watershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Paul; Grayson, Richard; Phillips, Martin; Stanley, Karen; Dodsworth, Alan; Hanson, Ann; Walker, Andrew; Foulger, Miles; McDonnell, Iain; Taylor, Simon

    2012-02-01

    SummaryAgriculture is estimated to be responsible for 70% of nitrate and 30-50% of phosphorus pollution, contributing to ecological and water treatment problems. Despite the fact that significant gaps remain in our understanding, it is known that agricultural stewardship can be highly effective in controlling water pollution at the plot and field scales. Knowledge at the catchment scale is, to a large extent, entirely lacking though and this is of paramount concern given that the catchment is the management unit used by regulatory authorities. The few studies that have examined the impact of agricultural stewardship at the catchment scale have found that Nitrate Vulnerable Zones (NVZs) in the UK have resulted in little improvement in water quality which concurs with the current catchment study. In addition to NVZs, there was little evidence to suggest that the England Catchment Sensitive Farming Delivery Initiative had impacted water quality and suggestions have been made for improvements, such as ensuring that stewardship measures are used in key pollution source areas and their implementation and impacts are monitored more closely. This will be essential if agricultural catchment management schemes are going to provide the benefits expected of them. Nevertheless, more intensive monitoring than that carried out by regulators showed a significant trend in decreasing winter nitrate peaks in some streams which is hypothesised to be due to recent reduced inorganic fertiliser application as a result of increasing prices. It was concluded that, collectively, these findings indicate that agricultural stewardship measures have the potential to improve water quality at the catchment scale but that voluntary schemes with insufficient financial reward or regulatory pressure are unlikely to be successful.

  16. Fish stakes: the pros and cons of the Marine Stewardship Council initiative: a debate from the pages of SAMUDRA Report

    OpenAIRE

    1998-01-01

    The recent effort by two global organizations, the World Wide Fund for Nature (WWF) and the Anglo-Dutch multinational, Unilever, to establish an independent Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) as a conservation partnership to create market incentives for sustainable fishing has attracted a great deal of attention-as well as controversy. In this dossier, the pros and cons of the SC initiative are argued out in a series of articles that first appeared in SAMUDRA Report, the triannual publication o...

  17. Next Generation Cloud-based Science Data Systems and Their Implications on Data and Software Stewardship, Preservation, and Provenance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, H.; Manipon, G.; Starch, M.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's upcoming missions are expected to be generating data volumes at least an order of magnitude larger than current missions. A significant increase in data processing, data rates, data volumes, and long-term data archive capabilities are needed. Consequently, new challenges are emerging that impact traditional data and software management approaches. At large-scales, next generation science data systems are exploring the move onto cloud computing paradigms to support these increased needs. New implications such as costs, data movement, collocation of data systems & archives, and moving processing closer to the data, may result in changes to the stewardship, preservation, and provenance of science data and software. With more science data systems being on-boarding onto cloud computing facilities, we can expect more Earth science data records to be both generated and kept in the cloud. But at large scales, the cost of processing and storing global data may impact architectural and system designs. Data systems will trade the cost of keeping data in the cloud with the data life-cycle approaches of moving "colder" data back to traditional on-premise facilities. How will this impact data citation and processing software stewardship? What are the impacts of cloud-based on-demand processing and its affect on reproducibility and provenance. Similarly, with more science processing software being moved onto cloud, virtual machines, and container based approaches, more opportunities arise for improved stewardship and preservation. But will the science community trust data reprocessed years or decades later? We will also explore emerging questions of the stewardship of the science data system software that is generating the science data records both during and after the life of mission.

  18. Patient and public understanding and knowledge of antimicrobial resistance and stewardship in a UK hospital: should public campaigns change focus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micallef, Christianne; Kildonaviciute, Kornelija; Castro-Sánchez, Enrique; Scibor-Stepien, Aleksandra; Santos, Reem; Aliyu, Sani H; Cooke, Fiona J; Pacey, Sarah; Holmes, Alison H; Enoch, David A

    2017-01-01

    The rising global tide of antimicrobial resistance is a well-described phenomenon. Employing effective and innovative antimicrobial stewardship strategies is an essential approach to combat this public health threat. Education of the public and patients is paramount to enable the success of such strategies. A panel of hospital multidisciplinary healthcare professionals was set up and a short quiz containing true/false statements around antimicrobial stewardship and resistance was designed and piloted. An educational leaflet with the correct replies and supporting information was also produced and disseminated. Participants were recruited on a single day (18 November 2015) from the hospital outpatient clinics and the hospital outpatient pharmacy waiting room. One hundred and forty-five completed quizzes were returned, providing a total of 1450 answers. Overall, 934 of 1450 (64%) statements were scored correctly whilst 481 (33%) were scored incorrectly; 35 (3%) statements were left unscored. We speculate that these results may demonstrate that respondents understood the statements, as only a small proportion of statements were left unanswered. The question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial resistance and the question dealing with the definition of antimicrobial stewardship obtained the most incorrect replies (85% and 72%, respectively). However, a specific factual recall question regarding only one microorganism (MRSA) received the most correct responses (99%). We describe a simple, innovative method of engagement with patients and the general public to help educate and disseminate important public health messages around antimicrobial resistance and stewardship. We also identified the need for public health campaigns to address the knowledge gaps found around this topic. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Antimicrobial Chemotherapy. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Visser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alien grasses in South Africa to date using recorded occurrences of alien grasses in the country from various literature and database sources. Using historical literature, we reviewed past efforts to introduce alien grasses into South Africa. We sourced information on the origins, uses, distributions and minimum residence times to investigate pathways and patterns of spatial extent. We identified alien grasses in South Africa that are having environmental and economic impacts and determined whether management options have been identified, and legislation created, for these species. Results: There are at least 256 alien grass species in the country, 37 of which have become invasive. Alien grass species richness increased most dramatically from the late 1800s to about 1940. Alien grass species that are not naturalised or invasive have much shorter residence times than those that have naturalised or become invasive. Most grasses were probably introduced for forage purposes, and a large number of alien grass species were trialled at pasture research stations. A large number of alien grass species in South Africa are of Eurasian origin, although more recent introductions include species from elsewhere in Africa and from Australasia. Alien grasses are most prevalent in the south-west of the country, and the Fynbos Biome has the most alien grasses and the most widespread species. We identified 11 species that have recorded environmental and economic impacts in the

  20. Toxic Elements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hajeb, Parvaneh; Shakibazadeh, Shahram; Sloth, Jens Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    Food is considered the main source of toxic element (arsenic, cadmium, lead, and mercury) exposure to humans, and they can cause major public health effects. In this chapter, we discuss the most important sources for toxic element in food and the foodstuffs which are significant contributors to h...

  1. Collaboration in Long-Term Stewardship at DOE's Hanford Site - 13019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, Rick; Brown, David; Feist, Ella; Grindstaff, Keith; Zeisloft, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km 2 (586 mi 2 ) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi 2 on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan [1]. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years,, 253.8 km 2 (98 mi 2 ) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large parcel that includes one of the six (6

  2. Collaboration in Long-Term Stewardship at DOE's Hanford Site - 13019

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moren, Rick; Brown, David [Mission Support Alliance, LLC, Richland, WA (United States); Feist, Ella [Washington Closure Hanford, LLC, Richland WA (United States); Grindstaff, Keith; Zeisloft, Jamie [US Department of Energy, Richland Operations, Richland WA (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km{sup 2} (586 mi{sup 2}) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi{sup 2} on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan [1]. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years,, 253.8 km{sup 2} (98 mi{sup 2}) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another

  3. Collaboration in long-term stewardship at DOE Hanford Site-13019

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moren, R. J.; Zeisloft, J. H.; Feist, E. T.; Brown, D.; Grindstaff, K. D.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford Site comprises approximately 1,517 km 2 (586 mi 2 ) of land in southeastern Washington. The site was established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project to produce plutonium for the nation's nuclear weapons program. As the Cold War era came to an end, the mission of the site transitioned from weapons production to environmental cleanup. As the River Corridor area of the site cleanup is completed, the mission for that portion of the site will transition from active cleanup to continued protection of environment through the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) Program. The key to successful transition from cleanup to LTS is the unique collaboration among three (3) different DOE Programs and three (3) different prime contractors with each contractor having different contracts. The LTS Program at the site is a successful model of collaboration resulting in efficient resolution of issues and accelerated progress that supports DOE's Richland Office 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site. The 2015 Vision for the Hanford Site involves shrinking the active cleanup footprint of the surface area of the site to approximately 20 mi 2 on the Central Plateau. Hanford's LTS Program is defined in DOE's planning document, Hanford Long-Term Stewardship Program Plan, DOE/RL-2010-35 Rev 1. The Plan defines the relationship and respective responsibilities between the federal cleanup projects and the LTS Program along with their respective contractors. The LTS Program involves these different parties (cleanup program and contractors) who must work together to achieve the objective for transition of land parcels. Through the collaborative efforts with the prime contractors on site over the past two years, 253.8 km 2 (98 mi 2 ) of property has been successfully transitioned from the cleanup program to the LTS Program upon completion of active surface cleanup. Upcoming efforts in the near term will include transitioning another large parcel that includes one

  4. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  5. Differentiation of plant age in grasses using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Nichola M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; Groen, Thomas A.; de Boer, Willem F.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Kohi, Edward; Peel, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development. Spectra of grasses of different ages were collected from a greenhouse study. These were used to determine if NDVI, NDWI, CAI, EVI, EVI2 and the newly proposed PhIX index could sequentially discriminate grasses of different ages, and subsequently classify grasses into their respective age category. The PhIX index was defined as: (AVNIRn+log(ASWIR2n))/(AVNIRn-log(ASWIR2n)), where AVNIRn and ASWIR2n are the respective normalised areas under the continuum removed reflectance curve within the VNIR (500-800 nm) and SWIR2 (2000-2210 nm) regions. The PhIX index was found to produce the highest phenological classification accuracy (Overall Accuracy: 79%, and Kappa Accuracy: 75%) and similar to the NDVI, EVI and EVI2 indices it statistically sequentially separates out the developmental age classes. Discrimination between seedling and dormant age classes and the adult and flowering classes was problematic for most of the tested indices. Combining information from the visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared region (SWIR) region into a single phenological index captures the phenological changes associated with plant pigments and the ligno-cellulose absorption feature, providing a robust method to discriminate the age classes of grasses. This work provides a valuable contribution into mapping spatial variation and monitoring plant growth across savanna and grassland ecosystems.

  6. Environmental stewardship practices of veterinary professionals and educators related to use and disposal of pharmaceuticals and personal care products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Jennifer; Chan, Samuel S; Conway, Flaxen D L; Stone, David

    2018-03-01

    OBJECTIVE To document the environmental stewardship practices (decisions and actions regarding use and disposal) of pet and human pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) among pet-owning veterinary-care professionals (practicing veterinarians, veterinary students, and veterinary technicians and trainees) and environmental educators. DESIGN Internet-based cross-sectional survey. SAMPLE 191 pet owners (103 veterinary-care professionals and 88 environmental educators). PROCEDURES Study participants were recruited by means of a 2-part internet survey distributed to veterinary-care professional and environmental educator networks of individuals residing in Washington state, Oregon, and southern California. Survey questions addressed motivators for environmental stewardship practices (ie, decisions and actions regarding use and disposal of pet and human PPCPs). RESULTS Data were collected from 191 respondents; the response rate for individuals who self-selected to opt in was 78% (191/246). Of the 191 respondents, 42 (22%) stored pet pharmaceuticals indefinitely. The most common disposal method was the garbage (88/191 [46%]). Veterinary-care professionals counseled clients infrequently regarding environmental stewardship practices for PPCPs. Fifty-five percent (105/191) of all respondents preferred more environmentally friendly and clinically effective PPCPs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results of the present survey emphasized the urgent need for improved educational resources to minimize environmental contamination from improper disposal of PPCPs. Environmental and economic motivations among pet owners in the veterinary-care and education professions indicate further opportunities for outreach and institutional support.

  7. Antimicrobial Stewardship: A Cross-Sectional Survey Assessing the Perceptions and Practices of Community Pharmacists in Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Asfaw Erku

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Community pharmacists are key healthcare professionals for antimicrobial stewardship programs owing to their role in dispensing of antimicrobials. The aim of the present study was to assess the perception and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship (AMS in Ethiopia. Methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted by selecting pharmacy sites through stratified simple random sampling technique. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data. Results. Majority of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS program is vital for the improvement of patient care. Almost all of respondents agreed that pharmacists can play a prominent role in AMS and infection prevention (93.2%, median = 5; IQR = 2–5. However, only 26.5% of respondents strongly agreed or agreed that AMS should be practiced at community pharmacy level (median = 4, IQR = 1–3 and more than half of community pharmacists (59.9% often/always dispense antimicrobial without a prescription. Conclusion. The present study revealed positive perceptions and practices of community pharmacists towards antimicrobial stewardship. Yet, some weak areas like integration of AMS program in community pharmacies, the significance of interprofessional involvement, and dispensing of antimicrobials without a valid prescription still need improvement.

  8. Resilience design: toward a synthesis of cognition, learning, and collaboration for adaptive problem solving in conservation and natural resource stewardship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles G. Curtin

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the resilience design approach, I propose to extend the resilience paradigm by re-examining the components of adaptive decision-making and governance processes. The approach can be divided into three core components: (1 equity design, i.e., the integration of collaborative approaches to conservation and adaptive governance that generates effective self-organization and emergence in conservation and natural resource stewardship; (2 process design, i.e., the generation of more effective knowledge through strategic development of information inputs; and (3 outcome design, i.e., the pragmatic synthesis of the previous two approaches, generating a framework for developing durable and dynamic conservation and stewardship. The design of processes that incorporate perception and learning is critical to generating durable solutions, especially in developing linkages between wicked social and ecological challenges. Starting from first principles based on human cognition, learning, and collaboration, coupled with nearly two decades of practical experience designing and implementing ecosystem-level conservation and restoration programs, I present how design-based approaches to conservation and stewardship can be achieved. This context is critical in helping practitioners and resources managers undertake more effective policy and practice.

  9. Campaign Preparation for Complex Initiatives: A Person-Centered Approach to Audience Segmentation of Parents' Antibiotic Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Rachel A; MacGeorge, Erina L; Hackman, Nicole M; M'ikanatha, Nkuchia M

    2017-10-25

    The evolution of antibiotic resistance is outpacing the speed at which new antibiotics will reach the marketplace. To slow the rate of resistance, people need to engage in antibiotic stewardship, which includes acts to prevent the spread of bacteria and judicious use of antibiotics to treat infections. This study identified the patterns and predictors of antibiotic stewardship behaviors of parents (N = 516) related to their children. The latent class analysis revealed three profiles of parental stewardship, labeled Stewards, Requesters, and Non-Stewards. The findings implied different campaign goals: to encourage Stewards to follow through on their intentions, to encourage Requesters to stop asking providers for antibiotics when their children have ear infections, and to influence Non-Stewards to accept medical advice when an antibiotic is not indicated and to dispose of leftover antibiotics. The covariate analysis provided theoretical insight into the strategies to pursue in campaigns targeting these three groups. For example, parents who perceived antibiotic-resistant infections as less serious health conditions, felt less worry when thinking about their child getting an antibiotic-resistant infection, and had stronger misattributions of antibiotics' efficacy to treat multiple symptoms were more likely to be Requesters and Non-Stewards, instead of Stewards.

  10. Automatic pre-processing for an object-oriented distributed hydrological model using GRASS-GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanzana, P.; Jankowfsky, S.; Branger, F.; Braud, I.; Vargas, X.; Hitschfeld, N.

    2012-04-01

    Landscapes are very heterogeneous, which impact the hydrological processes occurring in the catchments, especially in the modeling of peri-urban catchments. The Hydrological Response Units (HRUs), resulting from the intersection of different maps, such as land use, soil types and geology, and flow networks, allow the representation of these elements in an explicit way, preserving natural and artificial contours of the different layers. These HRUs are used as model mesh in some distributed object-oriented hydrological models, allowing the application of a topological oriented approach. The connectivity between polygons and polylines provides a detailed representation of the water balance and overland flow in these distributed hydrological models, based on irregular hydro-landscape units. When computing fluxes between these HRUs, the geometrical parameters, such as the distance between the centroid of gravity of the HRUs and the river network, and the length of the perimeter, can impact the realism of the calculated overland, sub-surface and groundwater fluxes. Therefore, it is necessary to process the original model mesh in order to avoid these numerical problems. We present an automatic pre-processing implemented in the open source GRASS-GIS software, for which several Python scripts or some algorithms already available were used, such as the Triangle software. First, some scripts were developed to improve the topology of the various elements, such as snapping of the river network to the closest contours. When data are derived with remote sensing, such as vegetation areas, their perimeter has lots of right angles that were smoothed. Second, the algorithms more particularly address bad-shaped elements of the model mesh such as polygons with narrow shapes, marked irregular contours and/or the centroid outside of the polygons. To identify these elements we used shape descriptors. The convexity index was considered the best descriptor to identify them with a threshold

  11. EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume atsaline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in thisresearch was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged inrandomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grassmonoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grassmonoculture, 6 ton/ha mulch, M4 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, without mulch;M5 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 3 ton/ha mulch; M6 = mixed cropping grass withSesbania grandiflora, 6 ton/ha mulch. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, then followed byDuncan's Multiple Range Test. The highest soil moisture content was achieved at mixed cropping grasslegumewith 6 ton/ha of mulch. The effect of mulch at saline soil significantly increased plant growth,forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Application of 3 ton/ha mulch increased plantgrowth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Plant growth, forage yield and nutritionalquality of guinea grass were not affected by monoculture or mixed cropping with Sesbania at saline soil.

  12. Diet Affects Muscle Quality and Growth Traits of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): A Comparison Between Grass and Artificial Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Honghao; Xia, Jianguo; Zhang, Xi; He, Xugang; Li, Li; Tang, Rong; Chi, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2018-01-01

    Fish muscle, the main edible parts with high protein level and low fat level, is consumed worldwide. Diet contributes greatly to fish growth performance and muscle quality. In order to elucidate the correlation between diet and muscle quality, the same batch of juvenile grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) were divided into two groups and fed with either grass ( Lolium perenne, Euphrasia pectinata and Sorghum sudanense ) or artificial feed, respectively. However, the different two diets didn't result in significant differences in all the detected water quality parameters (e.g., Tm, pH, DO, NH 3 /[Formula: see text]-N, [Formula: see text]-N, [Formula: see text], TN, TP, and TOC) between the two experimental groups. After a 4-month culture period, various indexes and expression of myogenic regulatory factor (MRFs) and their related genes were tested. The weight gain of the fish fed with artificial feed (AFG) was nearly 40% higher than the fish fed with grass (GFG). Significantly higher alkaline phosphatase, total cholestrol, high density cholestrol and total protein were detected in GFG as compared to AFG. GFG also showed increased hardness, resilience and shear force in texture profile analysis, with significantly bigger and compact muscle fibers in histologic slices. The fat accumulation was most serious in the abdomen muscle of AFG. Additionally, the expression levels of MyoG, MyoD, IGF - 1 , and MSTNs were higher, whereas Myf - 5, MRF4 , and IGF -2 were lower in most positional muscles of GFG as compared to AFG. Overall, these results suggested that feeding grass could promote muscle growth and development by stimulating muscle fiber hypertrophy, as well as significantly enhance the expression of CoL1A s. Feeding C. idellus with grass could also improve flesh quality by improving muscle characteristics, enhancing the production of collagen, meanthile, reducing fat accumulation and moisture in muscle, but at the cost of a slower growth.

  13. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jacqueline P; Hartnett, David C

    2015-09-01

    Tiller recruitment from the belowground bud bank of caespitose grasses influences their ability to monopolize local resources and, hence, their genet fitness. Differences in bud production and outgrowth among tiller types within a genet and among species may explain co-occurrence of caespitose grasses. This study aimed to characterize genet bud-bank and tiller production and dynamics in two co-occurring species and compare their vegetative reproductive strategies. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of Hesperostipa comata and Nassella viridula, dominant C3 caespitose grasses in the northern mixed-grass prairie of North America, were assessed throughout an annual cycle. The two species showed similar strategies, maintaining polycyclic tillers and thus creating mixed-age genet bud banks comprising multiple bud cohorts produced in different years. Vegetative tillers produced the majority of buds, whereas flowering tillers contributed little to the bud bank. Buds lived for at least 2 yr and were maintained in multiple developmental stages throughout the year. Because bud longevity rarely exceeded tiller longevity, tiller longevity drove turnover within the bud bank. Tiller population dynamics, more than bud production per tiller, determined the differential contribution of tiller types to the bud bank. Nassella viridula had higher bud production per tiller, a consistent annual tiller recruitment density, and greater longevity of buds on senesced and flowering tillers than H. comata. Co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses had similar bud-bank and tiller dynamics contributing to genet persistence but differed in bud characteristics that could affect genet longevity and species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  14. Diet Affects Muscle Quality and Growth Traits of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus: A Comparison Between Grass and Artificial Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish muscle, the main edible parts with high protein level and low fat level, is consumed worldwide. Diet contributes greatly to fish growth performance and muscle quality. In order to elucidate the correlation between diet and muscle quality, the same batch of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus were divided into two groups and fed with either grass (Lolium perenne, Euphrasia pectinata and Sorghum sudanense or artificial feed, respectively. However, the different two diets didn't result in significant differences in all the detected water quality parameters (e.g., Tm, pH, DO, NH3/NH4+-N, NO3--N, NO2-, TN, TP, and TOC between the two experimental groups. After a 4-month culture period, various indexes and expression of myogenic regulatory factor (MRFs and their related genes were tested. The weight gain of the fish fed with artificial feed (AFG was nearly 40% higher than the fish fed with grass (GFG. Significantly higher alkaline phosphatase, total cholestrol, high density cholestrol and total protein were detected in GFG as compared to AFG. GFG also showed increased hardness, resilience and shear force in texture profile analysis, with significantly bigger and compact muscle fibers in histologic slices. The fat accumulation was most serious in the abdomen muscle of AFG. Additionally, the expression levels of MyoG, MyoD, IGF-1, and MSTNs were higher, whereas Myf-5, MRF4, and IGF-2 were lower in most positional muscles of GFG as compared to AFG. Overall, these results suggested that feeding grass could promote muscle growth and development by stimulating muscle fiber hypertrophy, as well as significantly enhance the expression of CoL1As. Feeding C. idellus with grass could also improve flesh quality by improving muscle characteristics, enhancing the production of collagen, meanthile, reducing fat accumulation and moisture in muscle, but at the cost of a slower growth.

  15. Experience With Rapid Microarray-Based Diagnostic Technology and Antimicrobial Stewardship for Patients With Gram-Positive Bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuner, Elizabeth A; Pallotta, Andrea M; Lam, Simon W; Stowe, David; Gordon, Steven M; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To describe the impact of rapid diagnostic microarray technology and antimicrobial stewardship for patients with Gram-positive blood cultures. DESIGN Retrospective pre-intervention/post-intervention study. SETTING A 1,200-bed academic medical center. PATIENTS Inpatients with blood cultures positive for Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, E. faecium, Streptococcus pneumoniae, S. pyogenes, S. agalactiae, S. anginosus, Streptococcus spp., and Listeria monocytogenes during the 6 months before and after implementation of Verigene Gram-positive blood culture microarray (BC-GP) with an antimicrobial stewardship intervention. METHODS Before the intervention, no rapid diagnostic technology was used or antimicrobial stewardship intervention was undertaken, except for the use of peptide nucleic acid fluorescent in situ hybridization and MRSA agar to identify staphylococcal isolates. After the intervention, all Gram-positive blood cultures underwent BC-GP microarray and the antimicrobial stewardship intervention consisting of real-time notification and pharmacist review. RESULTS In total, 513 patients with bacteremia were included in this study: 280 patients with S. aureus, 150 patients with enterococci, 82 patients with stretococci, and 1 patient with L. monocytogenes. The number of antimicrobial switches was similar in the pre-BC-GP (52%; 155 of 300) and post-BC-GP (50%; 107 of 213) periods. The time to antimicrobial switch was significantly shorter in the post-BC-GP group than in the pre-BC-GP group: 48±41 hours versus 75±46 hours, respectively (P<.001). The most common antimicrobial switch was de-escalation and time to de-escalation, was significantly shorter in the post-BC-GP group than in the pre-BC-GP group: 53±41 hours versus 82±48 hours, respectively (P<.001). There was no difference in mortality or hospital length of stay as a result of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS The combination of a rapid microarray diagnostic test with an antimicrobial

  16. Controversies in Antimicrobial Stewardship: Focus on New Rapid Diagnostic Technologies and Antimicrobials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Wenzler

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial stewardship programs (ASPs are challenged with ensuring appropriate antimicrobial use while minimizing expenditures. ASPs have consistently demonstrated improved patient outcomes and significant cost reductions but are continually required to justify the costs of their existence and interventions due to the silo mentality often adopted by hospital administrators. As new technologies and antimicrobials emerge, ASPs are in a constant tug-of-war between providing optimal clinical outcomes and ensuring cost containment. Additionally, robust data on cost-effectiveness of new rapid diagnostic technologies and antimicrobials with subsequent ASP interventions to provide justification are lacking. As the implementation of an ASP will soon be mandatory for acute care hospitals in the United States, ASPs must find ways to justify novel interventions to align themselves with healthcare administrators. This review provides a framework for the justification of implementing a rapid diagnostic test or adding a new antimicrobial to formulary with ASP intervention, reviews approaches to demonstrating cost-effectiveness, and proposes methods for which ASPs may reduce healthcare expenditures via alternative tactics.

  17. Examining the concept of convenient collection: an application to extended producer responsibility and product stewardship frameworks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Travis P

    2013-03-01

    Increasingly, Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) and Product Stewardship (PS) frameworks are being adopted as a preferred policy approach to promote cost-effective diversion and recovery of post-consumer solid waste. Because the application of EPR/PS generally requires the creation of a separate and often parallel collection and/or management system, key to increasing the amount of waste recovered is to maximize the convenience of the collection system to maximize consumer participation. Convenient collection is often mandated in EPR/PS laws, however it is not defined. Convenience is a subjective construct rendering it extremely difficult to define. However, based on a dissection of post-consumer collection efforts under a generic EPR/PS system, this paper identifies and examines five categories of convenience - knowledge requirements, proximity to a collection site, opportunity to drop-off materials, the draw of the collection site, and the ease of the process-and the various factors of convenience within each of these categories. By using a simplified multiple criteria decision analysis, this paper proposes a performance matrix of criteria of convenience. Stakeholders can use this matrix to assist in the design, assessment, and/or implementation of a convenient post-consumer collection system under an EPR/PS framework. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Emergence of a global science–business initiative for ocean stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Rockström, Johan

    2017-01-01

    The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science–business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well. PMID:28784792

  19. Lessons from White Lake - Connecting Students to their Community through Environmental Stewardship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Susan

    2014-05-01

    White Lake and its surrounding community have been negatively affected by shoreline degradation and wildlife habitat loss caused primarily by historical logging practices, and reduced water quality from industrial pollution and storm water runoff. This led to the lake being identified as a Great Lakes Area of Concern by the United States Environmental Protection Agency three decades ago. Local community partners have worked diligently in recent years to reverse habitat loss, and repair damaged ecosystems. The "H2O White Lake" (Healthy Habitats On White Lake) project has involved over seven hundred middle school students in grades six through eight over the course of the last five years. Students begin by researching the environmental history of the watershed and then they monitor six tributaries of the lake for nutrient pollution and habitat degradation. Students use the field experience as a community inventory to identify stewardship needs, for which they then identify solutions that take into account land usage and community behaviors. Class projects have focused on stream bank restoration, storm water management, eradication of invasive species, shoreline clean-up, and community outreach and education. This year, the project culminated in the first ever White Lake Environmental Film Festival, for which students had the opportunity to create their own short documentary. This multiple year place based education project allows students to apply their classroom studies of surface water and groundwater dynamics to an authentic, real-world situation, conduct themselves as scientists, and feel valuable through connections with community partners.

  20. Implementation of the long term stewardship model of decommissioning power reactors. Update on the Zion project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.; Hess, J.; Moloney, B.P. [EnergySolutions EU, Swindon (United Kingdom)

    2012-11-01

    Several countries have announced programmes to phase out nuclear power. Many NPPs built in the 1960s-80s are in any case reaching the end of their planned operating lives. Over the next decade, approximately 60-80 reactors worldwide will reach end of useful life and become candidates for decontamination and dismantling (D and D). Utilities will therefore commission over the coming decade a much larger number of decommissioning programmes to discharge their license responsibilities for reactor dismantling and site remediation. One major strategic question for the utilities is whether they regard decommissioning reactors as part of their core business or whether they wish to transfer this burden and risk in part or in whole to a specialised contractor. This paper reviews progress at the first programme in the US where a non-utility company has taken on the full license responsibility from the utility to undertake site remediation and license termination. We call this model ''Long Term Stewardship'' and it is now fully underway at the Zion NPP near Chicago, Illinois. (orig.)

  1. Enabling sustainable pastoralism: policies and investments that optimise livestock production and rangeland stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, R; Davies, J

    2016-11-01

    Pastoralism is a system of dynamically managing livestock and land for economic, social and environmental benefit. To a large extent, pastoralism is an adaptation to ecological and climatic variability and is not simply a livestock production system but provides significant environmental services to humanity. Evidence from a range of national contexts shows that sustainable pastoralist development requires an understanding of the dual environmental and economic roles of pastoralism and an adaptation of policies and investments to support both. The current paper examines three cornerstones that have proven to be crucial for sustainable pastoralist development and for maximising the links between livestock production and environmental stewardship: strengthening pastoral capabilities and institutions, securing land tenure and natural resource governance, and ensuring equitable markets for pastoral diversity. To effectively support the dual economic-environmental roles of pastoralism requires not only optimisation of the production of ecosystem services through extensive livestock production, but also a major overhaul of the way we approach pastoralist development, and major investment in the people who are central to the system. As long as pastoralists remain marginalised, with weak rights and little access to services, their future will remain uncertain.

  2. New Developments in NOAA's Comprehensive Large Array-Data Stewardship System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchey, N. A.; Morris, J. S.; Carter, D. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Comprehensive Large Array-data Stewardship System (CLASS) is part of the NOAA strategic goal of Climate Adaptation and Mitigation that gives focus to the building and sustaining of key observational assets and data archives critical to maintaining the global climate record. Since 2002, CLASS has been NOAA's enterprise solution for ingesting, storing and providing access to a host of near real-time remote sensing streams such as the Polar and Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellites (POES and GOES) and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). Since October, 2011 CLASS has also been the dedicated Archive Data Segment (ADS) of the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP). As the ADS, CLASS receives raw and processed S-NPP records for archival and distribution to the broad user community. Moving beyond just remote sensing and model data, NOAA has endorsed a plan to migrate all archive holdings from NOAA's National Data Centers into CLASS while retiring various disparate legacy data storage systems residing at the National Climatic Data Center (NCDC), National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) and the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC). In parallel to this data migration, CLASS is evolving to a service-oriented architecture utilizing cloud technologies for dissemination in addition to clearly defined interfaces that allow better collaboration with partners. This evolution will require implementation of standard access protocols and metadata which will lead to cost effective data and information preservation.

  3. Vertically Differentiating Environmental Standards: The Case of the Marine Stewardship Council

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon R. Bush

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the externally-led vertical differentiation of third-party certification standards using the case of the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC. We analyze this process in two dimensions. First, fisheries employ strategies to capture further market value from fishing practices that go beyond their initial conditions for certification and seek additional recognition for these activities through co-labelling with, amongst others, international NGOs. Second, fisheries not yet able to meet the requirements of MSC standards are being enrolled in NGO and private sector sponsored Fisheries Improvement Projects (FIPs, providing an alternative route to global markets. In both cases the credibility and authority of the MSC is challenged by new coalitions of market actors opening up new strategies for capturing market value and/or improving the conditions of international market access. Through the lens of global value chains, the results offer new insights on how such standards not only influence trade and markets, but are also starting to change their internal governance in response to threats to their credibility by actors and modes of coordination in global value chains.

  4. Emergence of Global Adaptive Governance for Stewardship of Regional Marine Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Österblom

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Overfishing has historically caused widespread stock collapses in the Southern Ocean. Until recently, illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU fishing threatened to result in the collapse of some of the few remaining valuable fish stocks in the region and vulnerable seabird populations. Currently, this unsustainable fishing has been reduced to less than 10% of former levels. We describe and analyze the emergence of the social-ecological governance system that made it possible to curb the fisheries crisis. For this purpose, we investigated the interplay between actors, social networks, organizations, and institutions in relation to environmental outcomes. We drew on a diversity of methods, including qualitative interviews, quantitative social network and survey data, and literature reviews. We found that the crisis triggered action of an informal group of actors over time, which led to a new organization (ISOFISH that connected two independent networks (nongovermental organizations and the fishing industry, and later (COLTO linked to an international body and convention (CCAMLR. The emergence of the global adaptive governance systems for stewardship of a regional marine resource took place over a 15-year period. We describe in detail the emergence process and illustrate the usefulness of analyzing four features of governance and understanding social-ecological processes, thereby describing structures and functions, and their link to tangible environmental outcomes.

  5. [Public health stewardship and governance regarding the Colombian healthcare system, 2012-2013].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth-Deubel, André N; Molina-Marín, Gloria

    2013-01-01

    Analysing decision-making concerning public health issues regarding the Colombian healthcare system from a market economy-based approach. This study involved applying Glaser and Strauss's grounded theory in six Colombian cities during 2012: Bogotá, Barranquilla, Bucaramanga, Leticia, Medellin and Pasto. 120 individual interviews were conducted with professionals involved in decision-making, running public healthcare programmes and making policy within public and private institutions. Fourteen focus groups were held with community organisation leaders. The findings suggested national and municipal health authorities' weak stewardship and ineffective governance regarding public healthcare policy and programmes, related to a lack of staff trained in public health management issues. In turn, this was related to political parties' interference and private insurers' particular interests and the structural fragmentation of functions and actors within the health system, thereby limiting public health development. A new axiology is necessary for achieving effective governance (I.e. cooperation between Colombian Healthcare Social Security System actors) to overcome current incompetence and financial self-interest predominating within the Colombian healthcare system.

  6. Emergence of a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Österblom, Henrik; Jouffray, Jean-Baptiste; Folke, Carl; Rockström, Johan

    2017-08-22

    The ocean represents a fundamental source of micronutrients and protein for a growing world population. Seafood is a highly traded and sought after commodity on international markets, and is critically dependent on healthy marine ecosystems. A global trend of wild stocks being overfished and in decline, as well as multiple sustainability challenges associated with a rapid growth of aquaculture, represent key concerns in relation to the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Existing efforts aimed to improve the sustainability of seafood production have generated important progress, primarily at the local and national levels, but have yet to effectively address the global challenges associated with the ocean. This study highlights the importance of transnational corporations in enabling transformative change, and thereby contributes to advancing the limited understanding of large-scale private actors within the sustainability science literature. We describe how we engaged with large seafood producers to coproduce a global science-business initiative for ocean stewardship. We suggest that this initiative is improving the prospects for transformative change by providing novel links between science and business, between wild-capture fisheries and aquaculture, and across geographical space. We argue that scientists can play an important role in facilitating change by connecting knowledge to action among global actors, while recognizing risks associated with such engagement. The methods developed through this case study contribute to identifying key competences in sustainability science and hold promises for other sectors as well.

  7. Next step in antibiotic stewardship: Pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gugkaeva, Z; Crago, J S; Yasnogorodsky, M

    2017-08-01

    Penicillin allergy limits therapeutic options for patients but often disappears over time, leaving patients erroneously labelled allergic and leading to the utilization of broad-spectrum and more expensive antibiotics. Penicillin allergy can be effectively assessed via skin testing. To improve patient access to penicillin allergy testing by implementing a pharmacist-provided service in a hospital setting. Beta-lactams remain a mainstream therapy for many infections due to their effectiveness, low side effects and affordability. Typically, patient access to penicillin allergy testing is limited by the availability of allergy specialists, who traditionally perform such testing. A pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing service was implemented at our hospital in 2015 and became a powerful antibiotic stewardship tool. Removing penicillin allergy from patient profiles significantly expanded therapeutic options, expedited discharges and reduced costs of care. Pharmacists can expand patient access to penicillin allergy testing. Pharmacist-provided penicillin allergy testing permitted optimized antibiotic treatment and expedited discharges. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Community-Based Prescribing for Impetigo in Remote Australia: An Opportunity for Antimicrobial Stewardship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Stefanie Jane; Cush, James; Ward, Jeanette E

    2017-01-01

    To support antibiotic prescribing for both hospital and community-based health professionals working in remote North Western Australia, a multidisciplinary Antimicrobial Stewardship (AMS) Committee was established in 2013. This Committee is usually focused on hospital-based prescribing. A troubling increase in sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim resistance in Staphylococcus aureus antibiograms from 9 to 18% over 1 year prompted a shift in gaze to community prescribing. Finding a paucity of relevant research, we first investigated contextual factors influencing local prescribing. We also designed a systematic survey of experts with experience relevant to our setting using a structured response survey (12 questions) to better understand specific AMS risks. Using these findings, recommendations were formulated for the AMS Committee. Prescribing recommendations in a regional Skin Infections Protocol had previously been altered in December 2014. From 15 experts, we received 9 comprehensive responses (60%) about AMS risks in community prescribing. If feasible, prescribing audits also would have been valuable. Ten recommendations regarding specific antibiotic recommendations were submitted to the AMS Committee. As AMS Committees in Australia usually focus on hospital-based prescribing, novel methods such as external expert opinion could inform deliberations about community-based prescribing. Our approach meant that this AMS Committee was able to intervene in the 2017 organizational review of the regional Skin Infections Protocol used by prescribers likely unaware of AMS risks. This experience demonstrates the value of incorporating AMS principles in community-based prescribing in context of a remote setting.

  9. Expert consensus regarding drivers of antimicrobial stewardship in companion animal veterinary practice: a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Kay; King, Caroline; Nuttall, Tim; Smith, Matt; Flowers, Paul

    2018-03-23

    Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global challenge facing both human and animal healthcare professionals; an effective response to this threat requires a 'One-Health' approach to antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) to preserve important antibiotics for urgent clinical need. However, understanding of barriers and enablers to effective AMS behaviour in companion animal veterinary practice is currently limited. We conducted a Delphi study of 16 nationally recognised experts from UK-based veterinary policymakers, university academics and leaders of professional bodies. This Delphi study sought to identify veterinary behaviours which experts believe contribute to AMR and form vital aspects of AMS. Analysis of Delphi findings indicated a perceived hierarchy of behaviours, the most influential being antibiotic prescribing behaviours and interactions with clients. Other veterinary behaviours perceived as being important related to interactions with veterinary colleagues; infection control practices; and the use of diagnostic tests to confirm infection. Key barriers and enablers to AMS within each of these behavioural domains were identified. Specific interventions to address important barriers and enablers are recommended. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to establish expert consensus at a national level about which 'behaviours' (aspects of veterinarian practice) should be targeted in relation to AMR and AMS in companion animal veterinary practice. © British Veterinary Association (unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  10. A Report to Congress on Long-Term Stewardship. Volume II, Site Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2001-01-01

    During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as for other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over a 100 sites in 30 States and one U.S. Territory. Hundreds of thousand of acres of residually contaminated soils, contaminated groundwater, surface water and sediment contamination, and contaminated buildings are present at many sites across the country. These sites range in size from less than one acre, containing only a single facility, to large sites spanning over 100,000 acres with huge uranium enrichment plants and plutonium processing canyons. Since 1989, the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) program has made significant progress in addressing this environmental legacy. Millions of cubic meters of waste have been removed, stabilized, or disposed of, resulting in significant risk and cost reduction. In addition, DOE began disposing of transuranic (i.e., plutonium-contaminated) waste in the nation’s first deep geologic repository – the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant in New Mexico. DOE is now carrying out its long-term stewardship obligations at dozens of sites, including smaller sites where DOE has completed cleanup work for the entire site and many larger sites where DOE has remediated portions of the site.

  11. Metronidazole stewardship initiative at Christchurch hospitals-achievable with immediate benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardiner, Sharon J; Metcalf, Sarah Cl; Chin, Paul Kl; Doogue, Matthew P; Dalton, Simon C; Chambers, Stephen T

    2018-04-13

    To evaluate an antimicrobial stewardship (AMS) initiative to change hospital prescribing practice for metronidazole. In October 2015, the Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB) AMS committee changed advice for metronidazole to promote two times daily dosing for most indications, prioritisation of the oral route and avoidance of double anaerobic cover. Adoption of the initiative was facilitated via change in prescribing guidelines, education and ongoing pharmacy support. Usage and expenditure on metronidazole for adult inpatients were compared for the five years pre- and two years post-change. Other district health boards (DHBs) were surveyed to determine their dosing recommendation for metronidazole IV. Mean annual metronidazole IV use, as defined daily doses per 1,000 occupied bed days, decreased by 43% post-initiative. Use of non-IV (oral or rectal) formulations increased by 104%. Total savings associated with the initiative were approximately $33,400 in drug costs plus $78,200 per annum in IV giving sets and post-dose flushes. Twelve of 20 (60%) DHBs (including CDHB) endorse twice daily IV dosing. In addition to financial savings, reduction in IV doses has potential benefits, including avoidance of IV catheter-associated complications such as bloodstream infections. Approaches to metronidazole dosing vary across DHBs and could benefit from national coordination.

  12. Using Private Rights to Manage Natural Resources: Is Stewardship Linked to Ownership?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick W. Gilmour

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available There is increasing interest in privatizing natural resource systems to promote sustainability and conservation goals. Though economic theory suggests owners of private property rights have an incentive to act as resource stewards, few studies have tested this empirically. This paper asks whether private rights-owners were more conservative with respect to their management opinions than nonrights-owners in five Australian abalone (Haliotis spp. fisheries. Multiple regression analyses were used to link opinions to demographic, economic, and attitudinal variables. In contrast to standard economic assumptions, nonrights-owners suggested more conservative catch limits than did rights-owners, confirming qualitative observations of behavior in management workshops. Differing views about the condition of the resource and differing levels of experience contributed to these results. The first of its kind, this study directly demonstrates that private rights do not necessarily promote the greatest level of stewardship. This has substantial implications for how natural resources are governed globally, but also warns against applying simplistic behavioral assumptions to complex social-ecological systems.

  13. Adaptation of a hospital electronic referral system for antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawlins, Matthew D M; Raby, Edward; Sanfilippo, Frank M; Douglass, Rae; Chambers, Jonathan; McLellan, Duncan; Dyer, John R

    2018-05-04

    To evaluate the impact of the adaptation of an existing electronic referral application for use in antimicrobial stewardship prospective audit and feedback rounds (antimicrobial rounds). Retrospective, single-centre observational study between March 2015 and February 2016. A new quaternary referral centre. Adults referred for antimicrobial rounds outside of the intensive care and haematology units. Adaptation of an electronic referral application used by medical and allied health staff. A questionnaire-style referral form was designed to capture patient clinical details using a combination of free text and dropdown menus. Clinical pharmacists were educated and granted access to the system. The proportion of completed electronic referrals of total round reviews by month for the 12 months after implementation. The time from request to completion of reviews. The impact on adherence to advice provided on rounds. The impact on the institutional usage of broad-spectrum antibiotics: glycopeptides, carbapenems, third and fourth generation cephalosporins, fluoroquinolones and piperacillin/tazobactam. Over the study period, the proportion of electronic referrals of completed antimicrobial round reviews increased from 59% to 88% (P < 0.001); 75.7% of accepted electronic referrals were seen within 48 h of request. The proportion of advice ignored fell from 18% to 8.5% (P < 0.001). Piperacillin/tazobactam, fluoroquinolone and glycopeptide usage decreased. The adaptation of an electronic referral application for antimicrobial rounds was associated with increased adherence to advice and reduction in use in target antibiotics. Our model is now used at other institutions.

  14. Strategic Program Planning Lessons Learned In Developing The Long-Term Stewardship Science and Technology Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dixon, B.W.; Hanson, D.J.; Matthern, G.E.

    2003-04-24

    Technology roadmapping is a strategic planning method used by companies to identify and plan the development of technologies necessary for new products. The U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Environmental Management has used this same method to refine requirements and identify knowledge and tools needed for completion of defined missions. This paper describes the process of applying roadmapping to clarify mission requirements and identify enhancing technologies for the Long-Term Stewardship (LTS) of polluted sites after site cleanup has been completed. The nature of some contamination problems is such that full cleanup is not achievable with current technologies and some residual hazards remain. LTS maintains engineered contaminant barriers and land use restriction controls, and monitors residual contaminants until they no longer pose a risk to the public or the environment. Roadmapping was used to clarify the breadth of the LTS mission, to identify capability enhancements needed to improve mission effectiveness and efficiency, and to chart out the research and development efforts to provide those enhancements. This paper is a case study of the application of roadmapping for program planning and technical risk management. Differences between the planned and actual application of the roadmapping process are presented along with lessons learned. Both the process used and lessons learned should be of interest for anyone contemplating a similar technology based planning effort.

  15. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... red clover-grass silage diet (1,494μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  16. Microbiological Quality of Panicum maximum Grass Silage with Addition of Lactobacillus sp. as Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsih, S.; Sulistiyanto, B.; Utama, C. S.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate microbiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp as starter. The completely randomized design was been used on this research with 4 treaments and 3 replications. The treatments were P0 ( Panicum maximum grass silage without addition Lactobacillus sp ), P1 ( Panicum maximum grass silage with 2% addition Lactobacillus sp), P2 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 4% addition Lactobacillus sp) and P3 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 6% addition Lactobacillus sp).The parameters were microbial populations of Panicum maximum grass silage (total lactic acid bacteria, total bacteria, total fungi, and Coliform bacteria. The data obtained were analyzed variance (ANOVA) and further tests performed Duncan’s Multiple Areas. The population of lactic acid bacteria was higher (PMicrobiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp was better than no addition Lactobacillus sp.

  17. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  18. Fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armijo, J.S.

    1976-01-01

    A fuel element for nuclear reactors is proposed which has a higher corrosion resisting quality in reactor operations. The zirconium alloy coating around the fuel element (uranium or plutonium compound) has on its inside a protection layer of metal which is metallurgically bound to the substance of the coating. As materials are namned: Alluminium, copper, niobium, stainless steel, and iron. This protective metallic layer has another inner layer, also metallurgically bound to its surface, which consists usually of a zirconium alloy. (UWI) [de

  19. Effect of Additives and Fuel Blending on Emissions and Ash-Related Problems from Small-Scale Combustion of Reed Canary Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Fournel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural producers are interested in using biomass available on farms to substitute fossil fuels for heat production. However, energy crops like reed canary grass contain high nitrogen (N, sulfur (S, potassium (K and other ash-forming elements which lead to increased emissions of gases and particulate matter (PM and ash-related operational problems (e.g., melting during combustion. To address these problematic behaviors, reed canary grass was blended with wood (50 wt% and fuel additives (3 wt% such as aluminum silicates (sewage sludge, calcium (limestone and sulfur (lignosulfonate based additives. When burned in a top-feed pellet boiler (29 kW, the four blends resulted in a 17%–29% decrease of PM concentrations compared to pure reed canary grass probably because of a reduction of K release to flue gas. Nitrogen oxides (NOx and sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions varied according to fuel N and S contents. This explains the lower NOx and SO2 levels obtained with wood based products and the higher SO2 generation with the grass/lignosulfonate blend. The proportion of clinkers found in combustion ash was greatly lessened (27%–98% with the use of additives, except for lignosulfonate. The positive effects of some additives may allow agricultural fuels to become viable alternatives.

  20. Estimating the content of clover and grass in the sward using a consumer camera and image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Karstoft, Henrik; Søegaard, Karen

    the dry matter ratio of clover and grass in clover grass fields from sparse close up images. First, the light conditions is determined, which is used for selecting model parameters to estimate the coverage of both clover and grass. Next, the clover and grass coverage are transformed to give the dry matter...