WorldWideScience

Sample records for grass produc tion

  1. Mercury and Mining Produc­tion in New Spain (1810-1821

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Eugenia Romero Sotelo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents results of research on financing, transporta­tion and allotment of quicksilver in New Spain's mining industry during 1810-1821. The author points out that the  war of lnde­pendence was the main cause of the mining crisis, describes the effect of this conflict on production organization and distribu­tion of colonial silver industry, and claims that one of the strongest blows on mining was the Spanish government's credit with­ drawal. Furthermore, the study offers data on amounts of mercury available for mining, costs of its transportation, and details of its allotment and distribution to royal mines.

  2. A survey of grass-finished beef producers in Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    To meet our goal of quantifying the environmental impacts of grass-finished beef production, data on production practices in Pennsylvania were collected at the farm level via visits and online surveys. Twenty-three responses represented a total of 1,055 animals on 2,155 acres of land. Farms were rel...

  3. tion, violence and warfare.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    allow for its selection from generation to generation; (ii) that all ... fore assume thal the varill1lce in the balance between tlwse sets of .... But then, as the Introduction informs us (p.18), the important .... 11lere are some inserts referring to more recent work, such .... tion (much of it new) is presented for each order, family and.

  4. Absorção de cátions e ânions pelo capim-coastcross adubado com uréia e nitrato de amônio Cations and anions uptake by coastcross grass fertilized with urea and ammonium nitrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cândida Primavesi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Os processos fisiológicos das plantas são afetados pelo balanço de cátions e ânions absorvidos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a absorção de cátions e ânions quando plantas de capim-coastcross receberam doses elevadas de nitrogênio. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições, num esquema fatorial 2x5 - duas fontes de N: uréia e nitrato de amônio, e cinco doses de N: 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1 corte-1 . As doses de N foram aplicadas após cada corte num total de cinco cortes, durante a época das chuvas. A absorção de cátions e de ânions pelo capim-coastcross aumentou com o acréscimo das doses de N dos dois fertilizantes, sendo maior com o nitrato de amônio. Com doses crescentes de N, verificou-se entre os cátions maior absorção do K+, e do Cl- entre os ânions. Com exceção do N, a absorção do K+ foi superior à dos demais nutrientes, com redução no teor relativo de cálcio. Doses altas de N aplicadas em capim-coastcross, na forma de uréia ou de nitrato de amônio, favorecem a absorção de cátions e de ânions.Physiologic processes of plants are affected by uptake of cations and anions. The aim of this work was to determine the uptake of cations and anions when plants of coastcross grass received high doses of nitrogen. The experimental design was a randomized block, in a 2x5 factorial arrangement - two N sources: urea and ammonium nitrate and five N rates: 0, 25, 50, 100, and 200 kg ha-1 cutting-1 - with four replications. Treatments were applied after each of five consecutive cutting in the rainy season. Uptake of cations and anions by coastcross grass increased with increasing of N rates with both fertilizers, but was higher with ammonium nitrate. Increasing rates of N caused higher K+ uptake in relation to other cations, and in Cl- among the anions. Except for N, K+ uptake was greater than that of other nutrients, with a reduction on the relative content of Ca2

  5. Turning Subsistence Peasants into Ecosystem Servants: Inequality and the Produc-tion of Natural Resources in Lao P.D.R.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Kleinod

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the nexus of nature conservation, productivity and domination in inclusive conservation approaches. It argues that the turning of subsistence peasants into “stewards and custodians of biodiversity” (CBD represents a soft form of domination according to the false alternatives of ecological instrumentality in that local development is subordinated to supposed “natural” constraints. The argument draws from critical theories of societal nature relations (Horkheimer & Adorno, 2002; Görg. 2003; Moore, 2015 as well as from extensive research on ecotourism as an instrument to reconcile conservation and development in the Lao People’s Democratic Republic. From this angle, conservation is seen as a way to produce “natural” resources building on, perpetuating and creating various social inequities, based on the fiction that “nature” is essentially non-human. This case is made with regard to National Protected Areas in Laos, which are designed explicitly to accommodate local people’s needs. Among other things, ecotourism is employed to create a source of income alternative to practices seen as “unsustainable”. Thereby, economic and also moral stakes in untouched resources are to be implanted. In such way, a compromise between (rather than a reconciliation of conservation and development is imposed which is largely alien to the lived realities of local people, and only accounting partly for their needs and aspirations – an imposition which tends to produce its own countercurrents, again tying into productivity and inequality. This paper thus analyzes the workings of the nature/society dualism underlying ecological instrumentality as experienced in ecotourism as a tool for nature conservation in Laos.

  6. Selecting elephant grass families and progenies to produce bioenergy through mixed models (REML/BLUP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, E V; Daher, R F; Dos Santos, A; Vivas, M; Machado, J C; Gravina, G do A; de Souza, Y P; Vidal, A K; Rocha, A Dos S; Freitas, R S

    2017-05-18

    Brazil has great potential to produce bioenergy since it is located in a tropical region that receives high incidence of solar energy and presents favorable climatic conditions for such purpose. However, the use of bioenergy in the country is below its productivity potential. The aim of the current study was to select full-sib progenies and families of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum S.) to optimize phenotypes relevant to bioenergy production through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The circulating diallel-based crossing of ten elephant grass genotypes was performed. An experimental design using the randomized block methodology, with three repetitions, was set to assess both the hybrids and the parents. Each plot comprised 14-m rows, 1.40 m spacing between rows, and 1.40 m spacing between plants. The number of tillers, plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass rate, and the dry biomass production were assessed. Genetic-statistical analyses were performed through mixed models (REML/BLUP). The genetic variance in the assessed families was explained through additive genetic effects and dominance genetic effects; the dominance variance was prevalent. Families such as Capim Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, Cameroon x Cuba-115, CPAC x Cuba-115, Cameroon x Guaçu/I.Z.2, and IAC-Campinas x CPAC showed the highest dry biomass production. The family derived from the crossing between Cana D'África and Guaçu/I.Z.2 showed the largest number of potential individuals for traits such as plant height, culm diameter, fresh biomass production, dry biomass production, and dry biomass rate. The individual 5 in the family Cana D'África x Guaçu/I.Z.2, planted in blocks 1 and 2, showed the highest dry biomass production.

  7. Effects on Environmental and Socioeconomic Sustainability of Producing Ethanol from Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, V. H.; Parish, E. S.

    2016-12-01

    Using perennial grasses to produce ethanol can enhance progress toward sustainability. A suite of 35 environmental and socioeconomic sustainability indicators was considered in a holistic sustainability assessment of a five-year switchgrass-to-ethanol production experiment centered on a demonstration-scale biorefinery in Vonore, Tennessee. By combining field measurements, literature review and expert opinion, the team was able to rate 28 of the 35 recommended sustainability indicators. The team combined these ratings within a multi-attribute decision support system tool and used this information to compare the sustainability of producing 2118 hectares of no-till switchgrass relative to two alternative business-as-usual scenarios of unmanaged pasture and tilled corn production. The results suggest that East Tennessee switchgrass production improves environmental quality overall and can be beneficial to the counties surrounding the biorefinery in terms of dollars earned and jobs created. The timing of switchgrass production also provides an opportunity to use inactive equipment and laborers. By incorporating a landscape design approach, the opportunities, constraints and most reasonable paths forward for growing bioenergy feedstock in specific context can be assessed in a way that adapts and improves local practices. Lessons learned from this case study are being incorporated into sustainability assessments of corn stover in Iowa and a variety of bioenergy feedstocks in diverse settings. The overall goal is to develop sound management practices that can address the multiple and sometimes competing demands of stakeholders.

  8. Environmental life cycle assessments of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass and winter wheat straw for biorefinery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Parajuli, Ranjan; Kristensen, Ib Sillebak; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to assess the potential environmental impacts of producing maize, grass-clover, ryegrass, and straw from winter wheat as biomass feedstocks for biorefinery. The Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) method included the following impact categories: Global Warming Potential (GWP100),...

  9. Effect of two phyto hormone producer rhizobacteria on the bermuda grass growth response and tolerance to phenanthrene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Rojas-Contreras, A.; Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-01-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria that have the ability to relieve environmental stress in plants, increasing the plant growth potential. Of importance to phytoremediation, PGPR stimulate plant root development and enhance root growth.This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to phenanthrene of Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon inoculated with two phytohormone producer rhizobacteria: strains II and III, isolated from a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. (Author)

  10. Effect of two phyto hormone producer rhizobacteria on the bermuda grass growth response and tolerance to phenanthrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero-Zuniga, A.; Rojas-Contreras, A.; Rodriguez-Dorantes, A.; Montes-Villafan, S.

    2009-07-01

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are free-living bacteria that have the ability to relieve environmental stress in plants, increasing the plant growth potential. Of importance to phytoremediation, PGPR stimulate plant root development and enhance root growth.This study evaluated the growth response and the tolerance to phenanthrene of Bermuda grass: Cynodon dactylon inoculated with two phytohormone producer rhizobacteria: strains II and III, isolated from a contaminated soil with petroleum hydrocarbons. (Author)

  11. Examination of the selenium content of wheat grasses produced in different soil types in Csik Basin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamás M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the course of the research, we determined selenium and dry matter content of 35 wheat grass and 35 wheat seed samples. The selenium content of the preparation plant probes was measured by spectrofluorimetric determination (λexcitation = 380 nm, λemission = 519 nm of the resulted piazselenol complex. It was established that between the selenium content of the wheat grass and wheat seed the correlation coefficient was 0.36 at p = 0.05 level, which indicates a medium-close correlation. Similarly, there was a medium-close correlation between the selenium content of the wheat grass calculated on dry-matter basis and total selenium content of the wheat, with a correlation coefficient of 0.40 at p = 0.02 level. Afterwards, beside the selenium content, we measured the selenomethionine content by ion-exchange chromatography and highperformance liquid chromatography, and the organic selenium content was calculated. A very close correlation was established between the total selenium, selenomethionine and calculated organic selenium content of wheat (the correlation coefficients were between 0.92 and 0.99 at p = 0.01 level. The correlation between the selenomethionine content of wheat grass and wheat seed was very weak (r = 0.23.

  12. tion of tuberculous lymphadenopathy, paraspinal masses

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    of tuberculous infection, and his name continues in use to describe the spondylitis associated with this infec- tion (Pott's disease). Tuberculous spondylitis is defined as an infection caused by Mycobac-. An unusual presenta- tion of tuberculous lymphadenopathy, paraspinal masses with spondylitis in a young boy.

  13. Response of range grasses to water produced from in situ fossil fuel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, Q D; Moore, T S; Sexton, J C

    1984-11-01

    In situ-produced waters collected while retorting oil shale and tar sands to produce oil, and coal to produce gas, were tested for their effects on plant growth. Basin wildrye (Elymus cinereus), western wheatgrass (Agropyron smithii) 'Rosana', alkali sacaton (Sporobolus airoides), bluebunch wheatgrass (Agropyron spicatum) and Nuttall alkaligrass (Puccinellia airoides) were utilized. Root weight, shoot weight, total dry weight, leaf area and root/shoot weight ratios were determined. All experiments were conducted under greenhouse conditions using hydroponic techniques and horticultural grade perlite for plant support. Measurements were collected after a 10-week growth period. Results show that differences in plant growth can be monitored using dry biomass, leaf area and root to shoot ratio measurements when plants are subjected to retort waters. Plant species reaction to a water may be different. Generally, alkali sacaton, basin wildrye and western wheatgrass are least susceptible to toxicity by the majority of retort waters tested. Bluebunch wheatgrass is most susceptible. Waters from different retort procedures vary in toxicity to different plant species.

  14. Regulation of a chemical defense against herbivory produced by symbiotic fungi in grass plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Schardl, Christopher L

    2009-06-01

    Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid levels were greatly elevated in regrowth after clipping, loline-alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene expression in regrowth and basal tissues was similar to unclipped controls. The dramatic increase of lolines in regrowth reflected the much higher concentrations in young (center) versus older (outer) leaf blades, so LOL gene expression was compared in these tissues. In MF-N. siegelii, LOL gene expression was similar in younger and older leaf blades, whereas expression of N. uncinatum LOL genes and some associated biosynthesis genes was higher in younger than older leaf blades. Because lolines are derived from amino acids that are mobilized to new growth, we tested the amino acid levels in center and outer leaf blades. Younger leaf blades of aposymbiotic plants (no endophyte present) had significantly higher levels of asparagine and sometimes glutamine compared to older leaf blades. The amino acid levels were much lower in MF-N. siegelii and MF-N. uncinatum compared to aposymbiotic plants and MF with Epichloë festucae (a closely related symbiont), which lacked lolines. We conclude that loline alkaloid production in young tissue depleted these amino acid pools and was apparently regulated by availability of the amino acid substrates. As a result, lolines maximally protect young host tissues in a fashion similar to endogenous plant metabolites that conform to optimal defense theory.

  15. Nutritional and fermentation parameters of Xaraés grass silage produced with bacterial additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erickson Tiago Pinheiro da Silva

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The use of bacterial additives in forage silages with low content of dry matter prevents undesirable fermentation and reduces losses by gases (PG and effluents (PE during the ensiling process. This study aimed to evaluate the fermentation parameters, chemical composition and in vitro digestibility of silage of Urochloa brizantha cv. Xaraés produced with bacterial additive. The inoculant contained the following strains: Propionibacterium acidipropionici + Lactobacillus plantarum; Lactobacillus buchnari; Propionibacterium acipropionici + commercial enzymes and Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus pentosaccus, at 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125% of the recommended level for sugarcane (2 g ton-1. The experiment was a completely randomized design with four replications, and six levels of inoculant (0, 25, 50, 75, 100, and 125%. There was a quadratic relationship between the inoculant addition and the levels of pH, PE, DMIVD, NDF, ADF and LIG of the silage. PG and MM increased linearly with the addition of inoculant. The N-NH3, DM, CP, CEL, HEM and EE were not affected by the inoculant. Bacterial additive at 50% provided increased DMIVD. Appropriate values were found for pH and NH3.

  16. Need. for Sto.ndo.rdizo.tion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1969-05-13

    Need. for Sto.ndo.rdizo.tion. Speech delivered at a dinner given by the Ethiopian Association of Engineers and. Architects on May 13, 1969. By Lars Wallden, UN adviser on standardization, Ministry of Commerce, Industry & Tourism and. Gebre Kiros Habtu, mechanical engineer, Ministry of Commerce, Industry & Tourism.

  17. Spin-Dependent Cross Sections in Pion Produc- tion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintex Collaboration; von Przewoski, B.; Dzemidzic, M.; Doskow, J.; Meyer, H. O.; Pollock, R. E.; Rinckel, T.; Sperisen, F.; Wolanski, M.; Haeberli, W.; Lorentz, B.; Quin, P.; Rathmann, F.; Schwartz, B.; Wise, T.; Daehnick, W.; Flammang, R.; Tedeschi, D.; Pancella, P. V.

    1997-04-01

    An experiment to measure ΔσL and ΔσT for pion production in pp scattering is in preparation at the Indiana Cooler. Both, pparrowppπ^circ and pparrowpnπ^+ reactions, will be studied. Either two charged particles or the neutron and the proton are detected in the exit channel. The experiment requires the acceleration of longitudinally polarized stored protons. Recently, longitudinally polarized beam has been successfully stored and accelerated to 400 MeV. The experiment uses the Wisconsin/IUCF polarized storage cell target. Upgrades to the experimental setup which has been used previously for a measurement of spin correlation parameters in pp elastic scattering will be discussed. The detector response is studied by means of a Monte Carlo simulation. Expected performance parameters will be presented.

  18. Farmers' Perception towards Organic-based Vegetable Produc-tion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is well established that organic farming is a production system that sustain the health of the soils, ecosystems and people. This study assessed the small-scale farmers' perception towards organic based vegetable production in Ilaro agricultural zone of Ogun state, Nigeria. A multi-stage sampling procedure was used in the ...

  19. Farmers' Perception towardsOrganic-basedVegetable Produc- tion ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    was used in the selection of 85 respondents for the study. ... hormones, antibiotics or gene manipulation. Instead, organic farmers use a range of ..... Fabusoro, E., Lawal-Adebowale, O.A., and. Akinloye, A.K. (2007). A study of rural livestock.

  20. Identification and structural characterization of serobactins, a suite of lipopeptide siderophores produced by the grass endophyte Herbaspirillum seropedicae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosconi, Federico; Davyt, Danilo; Martínez, Verónica; Martínez, Marcela; Abin-Carriquiry, Juan Andrés; Zane, Hannah; Butler, Alison; de Souza, Emanuel M; Fabiano, Elena

    2013-03-01

    Herbaspirillum seropedicae Z67 is a diazotrophic endophyte able to colonize the interior of many economically relevant crops such as rice, wheat, corn and sorghum. Structures of siderophores produced by bacterial endophytes have not yet been elucidated. The aim of this work was to identify and characterize the siderophores produced by this bacterium. In a screening for mutants unable to produce siderophores we found a mutant that had a transposon insertion in a non-ribosomal peptide synthase (NRPS) gene coding for a putative siderophore biosynthetic enzyme. The chemical structure of the siderophore was predicted using computational genomic tools. The predicted structure was confirmed by chemical analysis. We found that siderophores produced by H. seropedicae Z67 are a suite of amphiphilic lipopeptides, named serobactin A, B and C, which vary by the length of the fatty acid chain. We also demonstrated the biological activity of serobactins as nutritional iron sources for H. seropedicae. These are the first structurally described siderophores produced by endophytic bacteria. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Regulation of a Chemical Defense against Herbivory Produced by Symbiotic Fungi in Grass Plants12[W][OA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dong-Xiu; Nagabhyru, Padmaja; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2009-01-01

    Neotyphodium uncinatum and Neotyphodium siegelii are fungal symbionts (endophytes) of meadow fescue (MF; Lolium pratense), which they protect from insects by producing loline alkaloids. High levels of lolines are produced following insect damage or mock herbivory (clipping). Although loline alkaloid levels were greatly elevated in regrowth after clipping, loline-alkaloid biosynthesis (LOL) gene expression in regrowth and basal tissues was similar to unclipped controls. The dramatic increase of lolines in regrowth reflected the much higher concentrations in young (center) versus older (outer) leaf blades, so LOL gene expression was compared in these tissues. In MF-N. siegelii, LOL gene expression was similar in younger and older leaf blades, whereas expression of N. uncinatum LOL genes and some associated biosynthesis genes was higher in younger than older leaf blades. Because lolines are derived from amino acids that are mobilized to new growth, we tested the amino acid levels in center and outer leaf blades. Younger leaf blades of aposymbiotic plants (no endophyte present) had significantly higher levels of asparagine and sometimes glutamine compared to older leaf blades. The amino acid levels were much lower in MF-N. siegelii and MF-N. uncinatum compared to aposymbiotic plants and MF with Epichloë festucae (a closely related symbiont), which lacked lolines. We conclude that loline alkaloid production in young tissue depleted these amino acid pools and was apparently regulated by availability of the amino acid substrates. As a result, lolines maximally protect young host tissues in a fashion similar to endogenous plant metabolites that conform to optimal defense theory. PMID:19403726

  2. Biosurfactant-producing microorganism Pseudomonas sp. SB assists the phytoremediation of DDT-contaminated soil by two grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beibei; Wang, Qingling; Liu, Wuxing; Liu, Xiaoyan; Hou, Jinyu; Teng, Ying; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Phytoremediation together with microorganisms may confer the advantages of both phytoremediation and microbial remediation of soils containing organic contaminants. In this system biosurfactants produced by Pseudomonas sp. SB may effectively help to increase the bioavailability of organic pollutants and thereby enhance their microbial degradation in soil. Plants may enhance the rhizosphere environment for microorganisms and thus promote the bioremediation of contaminants. In the present pot experiment study, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) residues underwent an apparent decline after soil bioremediation compared with the original soil. The removal efficiency of fertilizer + tall fescue, fertilizer + tall fescue + Pseudomonas, fertilizer + perennial ryegrass, and fertilizer + perennial ryegrass + Pseudomonas treatments were 59.4, 65.6, 69.0, and 65.9%, respectively, and were generally higher than that in the fertilizer control (40.3%). Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) verifies that plant species greatly affected the soil bacterial community irrespective of inoculation with Pseudomonas sp. SB. Furthermore, community composition analysis shows that Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria and Actinobacteria were the three dominant phyla in all groups. In particular, the relative abundance of Pseudomonas for fertilizer + tall fescue + Pseudomonas (0.25%) was significantly greater than fertilizer + tall fescue and this was related to the DDT removal efficiency. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Grass genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    1998-01-01

    For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...

  4. Aleloquímico produzido pela gramínea forrageira Brachiaria humidicola Allelochemical produced by the forage grass Brachiaria humidicola

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.P.S. Souza Filho

    2005-03-01

    chemical compounds produced by the forage grass Brachiaria humidicola. The allelopathic effects of the extracts, fractions and compound were tested on seed germination and root elongation of the weeds Mimosa pudica, Senna obtusifolia and Senna occidentalis. Germination bioassays were developed under 25 ºC and a photoperiod of 12 hours. For root elongation, the bioassay conditions were 25 ºC and photoperiod of 24 hours. Hydromethanolic extract was used as a source for isolating and identifying p-coumaric acid. The allelopathic effects were positively related to p-coumaric acid concentration, weed species and the evaluated parameter. Comparatively, S. occidentalis and M. pudica showed the greatest sensitivity to the allelopathic effects. For S. obtusifolia no allelopathic effects promoted by p-coumaric acid on seed germination or on root elongation could be detected under the concentration of 1.0 and 8.0 mg L-1. Root elongation was more sensitive to p-coumaric acid allelophatic effects than seed germination.

  5. urf e meteorologi l instrument tion for fyfwi

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    g uge on o rd the shipAF prom t les P nd Q we see th t y nd l rgeD the slow sensors sele ted for fyfwi re the s me s those used in the swi system ex ept the humidity sensorF sn the swi. systemD otroni s humidity sensor is used long with w oung r di tion shield where s in the fyfwi set upD w oung humidity sensor with w oung.

  6. Biochanin A (an isoflavone produced by red clover) promotes weight gain of steers grazed in mixed grass pastures and fed dried-distillers grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biochanin A (BCA) is an isoflavone produced by red clover (Trifloium pratense L.) that can inhibit hyper-ammonia producing bacteria (HAB) to reduce deamination in the rumen and increase the feed amino acids available for gastric digestion. An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect...

  7. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  8. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings...... by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology...

  9. Effect of legume–grass silages and α-tocopherol supplementation on fatty acid composition and α-tocopherol, β-carotene and retinol concentrations in organically produced bovine milk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Martinsson, K

    2012-01-01

    - or three-cut red clover–grass silages (R2 and R3, respectively) or two-cut birdsfoot trefoil–grass silage (B2). In Exp. 2, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley silage with red clover (S3) or long-term ley silage with white clover (L3) in combination with the supplementation of RRR...

  10. 49 CFR 1242.13 - Administration-communica- tions (account XX-19-05).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration-communica- tions (account XX-19-05... Structures § 1242.13 Administration—communica- tions (account XX-19-05). Separate common administration... (XX-19-20) ...

  11. AREAS OF MARKETING ACTIVITIES AND ESPECIALLY OF COMMUNICATION POLICY ON THE MARKET FLOWER PRODUC-TION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyulnara M. Gasymova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article studies basic aspects of marketing applying on the Russian flower market. The author has identified the main trends of marketing activities of companies and selected features of marketing mix of the flowers. In addition, the features of the communication policy of flower companies are identified. The author conducted a competitive analysis of companies at the wholesale and retail sectors of the Russian flower market.

  12. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  13. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  14. Electrica.l Insta.lla.tions in Multi-storey Buildings

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    different diversity factors of the individual sections. However .... auxiliary drives for the heating system and ventila- tion, as well as ... For multi-storey buildings preference is generally given to ... Group p. f correction is expedient if large banks of.

  15. Grass Rooting the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  16. Lessons learned in managing alfalfa-grass mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass-alfalfa mixtures have a number of benefits that make them attractive to producers. However, they can be problematic to establish and maintain. Research programs have made progress in understanding the benefits and challenges of alfalfa-grass mixtures. Mixtures may have greater winter survival ...

  17. snerti lEhissip tion flux me surements over south f y of feng l during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    his p per des ri es me surement of irEse p r meters nd estim tion of sensi le nd l tent he t fluxes y the snerti lEhissip tion99 te hnique over south f y of feng lF he d t were olle ted on. y g r u ny during fyfwi E ilot ruise during the period PQrd y to er IWWV to IPth xovem er. IWWV over south f y of feng lF he fluxes re estim ...

  18. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  19. w—rine ˜ound—ry l—yer simul—tion —nd verifi™—tion during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    omp—red with the o˜serv—tion—l. —n—lysis using ˜oth the s™hemesF „he profiles of temE per—ture —nd humidity —s o˜t—ined from ƒ—g—r u—ny—. ueywordsF w—rine ˜ound—ry l—yerY p—r—meteris—tionY fyfwiˆY nonElo™—l ™losureY ...

  20. Desa.lina.tion - A Supply Source of Wa.ter

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of water you can retain is very small. We in Israel, I ..... per day at an acceptable price under oexita1in condi- tions. Another .... as to create sufficient penetration of the sun rays. This device ... customer with a steady quantity and quality of water.

  1. VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial: baseline characteristics in context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Velazquez, Eric J; Pfeffer, Marc A; McMurray, John V

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial compared outcomes with: (1) angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) with the reference agent captopril; (2) angiotensin-receptor blockade (ARB) with valsartan; or (3) both in patients with heart failure (HF) and...

  2. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas Serensits; Matthew Cutulle; Jeffrey F. Derr

    2011-01-01

    Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual) ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass di...

  3. Postharvest residues from grass seed crops for bioenergy

    OpenAIRE

    Simić, Aleksandar; Čolić, Vladislava; Vučković, Savo; Dželetović, Željko; Bijelić, Zorica; Mandić, Violeta

    2016-01-01

    During grass seed production, a large amount of low forage quality biomass has been produced. Tall growing perennial grasses such as tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea L.) and Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam.) can be used as an alternative source for bioenergy production as they can be grown in less cultivated areas, their residues in seed production could be valuable energy source and can be potentially used as a dual purpose crop (bioenergy and forage). In this research, potentials o...

  4. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  5. Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) for the production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chughtai, F.A.; Shah, M.H.

    1993-01-01

    Acid hydrolysis of kallar grass (leptochloa fusca) was carried of with various concentrations of sulphuric acid, ortho phosphoric acid and hydrochloric acid to produce furfural. The study revealed that activity of various hydrolysing acids to produce furfural from kallar grass was of the following order H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ > H/sub 3/PO/sub 4/ > HCl. Optimum yield (4.78%) of the produce was obtained when the material was digested with 19% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ for a period of 20 minutes. (author)

  6. xumeri l simul tion of the m rine ound ry l yer hr teristi s over the fy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    se surf e temper ture nd surf e rel tive humidity th t re olle ted on o rd y g r u ny F he tive onve tion se @from QIst y to er EE. Pnd xovem erA here fter referred s g seEI nd the suppressed onve tion se @Qrd EE Sth xovem erA referred s g seEPF por g seEID the model initi l ondiE tions re prep red using the verti l profiles ...

  7. Cosmogenic Be-7 in grass of Maamora site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-khoukhi, T.; Fidah, M.; Oublaid, B.

    1994-01-01

    Be-7 is one of the radionuclides produced by the nuclear reactions of protons and alpha particulates of galactic and solar cosmic rays as well as the secondary neutrons produced during those reactions. it is submitted, as soon as it is produced, to the physical and chemical laws of the environment, such as air motions or the fixing to the atmospheric aerosols. In the framework of environmental radioactivity monitoring programme of Maamora site (Morocco), samples of grass were collected, prepared and analyzed using gamma spectrometry. The preparation consists of drying and ashing the grass. The detector used is coaxial Ge HP with 20% efficiency. Samples were counted for more than 50000 s. The activity of Be-7 calculated for samples collected in 10 km around Maamora site varies between 4 and 20 Bq/g of ashed grass. 3 refs. (author)

  8. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Kellogg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180o, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear front and back; this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.

  9. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    E-mail addresses: 1 mike.ajieh@gmail.com, 2 dracigboanugo@yahoo.com, ... machine design was considered for processing biomass of grass origin. The machine operations include pulverization, compaction and extrusion of the briquettes.

  10. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  11. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  12. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    OpenAIRE

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-01-01

    Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India) level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG) 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green ...

  13. Biotechnological application of sustainable biogas production through dry anaerobic digestion of Napier grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussadee, Natthawud; Ramaraj, Rameshprabu; Cheunbarn, Tapana

    2017-05-01

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum), represents an interesting substrate for biogas production. The research project evaluated biogas potential production from dry anaerobic digestion of Napier grass using batch experiment. To enhance the biogas production from ensiled Napier grass, thermal and alkaline pre-treatments were performed in batch mode. Alkali hydrolysis of Napier grass was performed prior to batch dry anaerobic digestion at three different mild concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH). The study results confirmed that NaOH pretreated sample produced high yield of biogas than untreated (raw) and hot water pretreated samples. Napier grass was used as the mono-substrate. The biogas composition of carbon dioxide (30.10%), methane (63.50%) and 5 ppm of H 2 S was estimated from the biogas. Therefore, fast-growing, high-yielding and organic matter-enriched of Napier grass was promising energy crop for biogas production.

  14. Dose-response relationship of a new Timothy grass pollen allergoid in comparison with a 6-grass pollen allergoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Hohlfeld, J M; Al-Kadah, B; Hauswald, B; Homey, B; Hunzelmann, N; Schliemann, S; Velling, P; Worm, M; Klimek, L

    2017-11-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with grass pollen allergoids has been proven to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Based on the extensive cross-reactivity among Pooideae species, it has been suggested that grass pollen extracts could be prepared from a single species, rather than from a multiple species mixture. To find the optimal dose of a Phleum pratense (P. pratense) allergoid preparation and compare its efficacy and safety to a 6-grass pollen allergoid preparation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study (EudraCT: 2011-000674-58), three doses of P. pratense allergoid (1800 therapeutic units (TU), standard-dose 6000 TU and 18 000 TU) were compared with placebo and the marketed 6-grass pollen allergoid (6000 TU). In a pre-seasonal dosing regimen, 102 patients were randomized to five treatment groups and received nine subcutaneous injections. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in weal size (late-phase reaction [LPR]) in response to the intracutaneous testing (ICT) before and after treatment, comparing the active allergoids to placebo. Secondary outcomes were the change in Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) assessed in the allergen exposure chamber (AEC), the changes in P. pratense-serum-specific IgG 4 and the incidence of adverse events (AEs). All three doses of the P. pratense and the 6-grass pollen allergoid preparations were significantly superior to placebo for the primary outcome, whereas there were no significant differences in the change in TNSS. Compared to the standard-dose, the high-dose of P. pratense did not produce any additional significant benefit, but showed a slight increase in AEs. Yet this increase in AEs was lower than for the 6-grass pollen preparation. The standard-dose of the new P. pratense allergoid was comparable to the marketed 6-grass pollen preparation at equal dose for the parameters measured. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John

  15. Designing hybrid grass genomes to control runoff generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, C.; Binley, A.; Humphreys, M.; King, I. P.; O'Donovan, S.; Papadopoulos, A.; Turner, L. B.; Watts, C.; Whalley, W. R.; Haygarth, P.

    2010-12-01

    Sustainable management of water in landscapes requires balancing demands of agricultural production whilst moderating downstream effects like flooding. Pasture comprises 69% of global agricultural areas and is essential for producing food and fibre alongside environmental goods and services. Thus there is a need to breed forage grasses that deliver multiple benefits through increased levels of productivity whilst moderating fluxes of water. Here we show that a novel grass hybrid that combines the entire genomes of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne - the grass of choice for Europe’s forage agriculture) and meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) has a significant role in flood prevention. Field plot experiments established differences in runoff generation with the hybrid cultivar reducing runoff by 50% compared to perennial ryegrass cultivar, and by 35% compared to a meadow fescue cultivar (34 events over two years, replicated randomized-block design, statistically significant differences). This important research outcome was the result of a project that combined plant genetics, soil physics and plot scale hydrology to identify novel grass genotypes that can reduce runoff from grassland systems. Through a coordinated series of experiments examining effects from the gene to plot scale, we have identified that the rapid growth and then turnover of roots in the L. perenne x F. pratensis hybrid is likely to be a key mechanism in reducing runoff generation. More broadly this is an exciting first step to realizing the potential to design grass genomes to achieve both food production, and to deliver flood control, a key ecosystem service.

  16. Grass-cellulose as energy source for biological sulphate removal from acid mine effluents

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Greben, HA

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The biological sulphate removal technology requires carbon and energy sources to reduce sulphate to sulphide. Plant biomass, e.g. grass, is a sustainable source of energy when cellulose is utilised during anaerobic degradation, producing volatile...

  17. Bioenergy production from roadside grass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show...

  18. Relating N2O emissions from energy crops to the avoided fossil fuel-derived CO2 – a study on bioethanol and biogas produced from organically managed maize, rye, vetch and grass-clover

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carter, Mette Sustmann; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Thomsen, Sune Tjalfe

    2010-01-01

    ‐derived CO2, where the N2O emission has been subtracted. This value does not account for farm machinery CO2 emissions and fuel consumption during biofuel production. We obtained the greatest net reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by co‐production of bioethanol and biogas or by biogas alone produced from...... fuel‐derived CO2, which is obtained when energy crops are used for biofuel production. The analysis includes five organically managed crops (viz. maize, rye, rye‐vetch, vetch and grass‐clover) and three scenarios for conversion of biomass to biofuel. The scenarios are 1) bioethanol production, 2......) biogas production and 3) co‐production of bioethanol and biogas, where the energy crops are first used for bioethanol fermentation and subsequently the residues from this process are utilized for biogas production. The net reduction in greenhouse gas missions is calculated as the avoided fossil fuel...

  19. PRACTISE – Photo Rectification And ClassificaTIon SoftwarE (V.1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Härer

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial photography is a cost-effective and easy-to-use method for measuring and monitoring spatially distributed land surface variables. It can be used to continuously investigate remote and often inaccessible terrain. We focus on the observation of snow cover patterns in high mountainous areas. The high temporal and spatial resolution of the photographs have various applications, for example validating spatially distributed snow hydrological models. However, the analysis of a photograph requires a preceding georectification of the digital camera image. To accelerate and simplify the analysis, we have developed the "Photo Rectification And ClassificaTIon SoftwarE" (PRACTISE that is available as a Matlab code. The routine requires a digital camera image, the camera location and its orientation, as well as a digital elevation model (DEM as input. If the viewing orientation and position of the camera are not precisely known, an optional optimisation routine using ground control points (GCPs helps to identify the missing parameters. PRACTISE also calculates a viewshed using the DEM and the camera position. The visible DEM pixels are utilised to georeference the photograph which is subsequently classified. The resulting georeferenced and classified image can be directly compared to other georeferenced data and can be used within any geoinformation system. The Matlab routine was tested using observations of the north-eastern slope of the Schneefernerkopf, Zugspitze, Germany. The results obtained show that PRACTISE is a fast and user-friendly tool, able to derive the microscale variability of snow cover extent in high alpine terrain, but can also easily be adapted to other land surface applications.

  20. Ensiling as biological pretreatment of grass (Festulolium Hykor): The effect of composition, dry matter, and inocula on cellulose convertibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Grass biomass is a prospective type of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy and fuel production, but the low dry matter in grass at harvest calls for new pretreatment strategies for cellulosic conversion. In this study, ensiling was tested as a biological pretreatment method of the high yielding...... grass variety Festulolium Hykor. The biomass was harvested in four cuts over a growing season. Three important factors of ensiling: biomass composition, dry matter (DM) at ensiling, and inoculation of lactic acid bacteria, were assessed in relation to subsequent enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis....... The organic acid profile after ensiling was dependant on the composition of the grass and the DM, rather than on the inocula. High levels of organic acids, notably lactic acid, produced during ensiling improved enzymatic cellulose convertibility in the grass biomass. Ensiling of less mature grass gave higher...

  1. Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Gengyun; Liu, Xin; Quan, Zhiwu

    2012-01-01

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae grass family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions and has potential for use as a C(4) biofuel. It is a model system for other biofuel grasses, including switchgrass and pearl millet. We produced a draft genome (∼423 Mb) an...

  2. Factors that influence in the technology adoption in the production system: Potato - grasses - milk in the east of Antioquia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loaiza Cardenas, A.; Jaramillo Pelaez, J.A.; Quiroz Davila, J.E.; Arevalo Arteaga, M.B.; Rios Carmona, E.A.

    1997-01-01

    With the purpose of knowing the factors that influence in the technology adoption in the system of production potato-grass-milk in the east of Antioquia, it was carried out a study with producing of this system. The study is exploratory, of descriptive type. As study population they took 4.119 producers, of which a sample of 249 producers was selected, using sampling for conglomerates. By means of visits to properties, they were applied a questionnaire, which contained information related with the main variable that is production potato-grass-milk and their different components. Statistical analysis was used as tests of Z for averages and percentages. In accordance with the obtained results, it could settle down that the producers manage 2 very defined systems of production of milk: potato-grass-milk with 45 percent of the producers; alone potato, they exploit it 1 percent of the producers. The producers were changed to the system potato-grass-milk, in the study area for more profitability and with the purpose of improving the herdsmen; on the contrary, those that left the system and they spent to the system grass-milk, they made it for the high costs of potato production and the manpower shortage required for the handling of the system; also, the search of more revenues. The readiness of the manpower is lower for those who manage the system grass-milk that for those of the system potato-grass-milk

  3. Effects of conventional and grass-feeding systems on the nutrient composition of beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leheska, J M; Thompson, L D; Howe, J C; Hentges, E; Boyce, J; Brooks, J C; Shriver, B; Hoover, L; Miller, M F

    2008-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the nutrient composition of grass-fed beef in the United States for inclusion in the USDA National Nutrient Database for Standard Reference, and to compare the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed (control) beef. Ground beef (GB) and strip steaks (SS) were collected on 3 separate occasions from 15 grass-fed beef producers that represented 13 different states, whereas control beef samples were collected from 3 regions (Ohio, South Dakota, and Texas) of the United States on 3 separate occasions. Concentrations of minerals, choline, vitamin B(12), and thiamine were determined for grass-fed beef samples. Grass-fed GB samples had less Mg, P, and K (P < 0.05), and more Na, Zn, and vitamin B(12) (P < 0.05) than SS samples. Fat color, marbling, and pH were assessed for grass-fed and control SS. Subjective evaluation of the SS indicated that grass-fed beef had fat that was more yellow in color than control beef. Percentages of total fat, total cholesterol, and fatty acids along with trans fatty acids and CLA were determined for grass-fed and control SS and GB. Grass-fed SS had less total fat than control SS (P = 0.001), but both grass-fed and control SS were considered lean, because their total fat content was 4.3% or less. For both GB and SS, grass-fed beef had significantly less (P = 0.001 and P = 0.023, respectively) content of MUFA and a greater content of SFA, n-3 fatty acids, CLA, and trans-vaccenic acid than did the control samples. Concentrations of PUFA, trans fatty acids, n-6 fatty acids, and cholesterol did not differ between grass-fed and control ground beef. Trans-vaccenic acid (trans-11 18:1) made up the greatest concentration of the total trans fats in grass-fed beef, whereas CLA accounted for approximately 15% of the total trans fats. Although the fatty acid composition of grass-fed and conventionally fed beef was different, conclusions on the possible effects of these differences on human

  4. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses in mixed-grass prairie.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Jacqueline P; Hartnett, David C

    2015-09-01

    Tiller recruitment from the belowground bud bank of caespitose grasses influences their ability to monopolize local resources and, hence, their genet fitness. Differences in bud production and outgrowth among tiller types within a genet and among species may explain co-occurrence of caespitose grasses. This study aimed to characterize genet bud-bank and tiller production and dynamics in two co-occurring species and compare their vegetative reproductive strategies. Bud-bank and tiller dynamics of Hesperostipa comata and Nassella viridula, dominant C3 caespitose grasses in the northern mixed-grass prairie of North America, were assessed throughout an annual cycle. The two species showed similar strategies, maintaining polycyclic tillers and thus creating mixed-age genet bud banks comprising multiple bud cohorts produced in different years. Vegetative tillers produced the majority of buds, whereas flowering tillers contributed little to the bud bank. Buds lived for at least 2 yr and were maintained in multiple developmental stages throughout the year. Because bud longevity rarely exceeded tiller longevity, tiller longevity drove turnover within the bud bank. Tiller population dynamics, more than bud production per tiller, determined the differential contribution of tiller types to the bud bank. Nassella viridula had higher bud production per tiller, a consistent annual tiller recruitment density, and greater longevity of buds on senesced and flowering tillers than H. comata. Co-occurring C3 caespitose grasses had similar bud-bank and tiller dynamics contributing to genet persistence but differed in bud characteristics that could affect genet longevity and species coexistence. © 2015 Botanical Society of America.

  5. Growth and nutritional evaluation of napier grass hybrids as forage for ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Turano

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Napier grass is a perennial, tropical C-4 grass that can produce large amounts of forage. However, low temperatures and drought stress limit its productivity and nutritive value as a forage. To overcome these limitations, pearl millet × napier grass hybrids (PMN were developed. It was hypothesized that PMN hybrids were more drought-tolerant, produced higher yields, and had higher nutritive value than napier grass varieties. The yield and nutritive value of 4 napier grass varieties (Bana grass, Mott, MB4 and N51 and 4 PMN hybrids (PMN2, PMN3, 5344 and 4604 were determined with or without irrigation in a strip plot design in Hawaii. Hybrid PMN3 outperformed napier grass varieties and the other hybrids for yield, while 5344 showed higher nutritional content and digestibility than most other grasses. Dry matter yields during the 110-day study period ranged from 10.3 to 32.1 t/ha without irrigation and 19.6 to 55.8 t/ha with irrigation, indicating that moisture stress was limiting performance in raingrown pastures. Only hybrids PMN3 and PMN2 and variety MB4 showed significant growth responses to irrigation. Further work is needed to evaluate the hybrids in a range of environments over much longer periods to determine if these preliminary results can be reproduced over the long term. Similarly, feeding studies with animals are needed to determine if the in vitro data for digestibility are reflected in superior performance for the promising hybrids.Keywords: Biomass, cattle, in vitro digestion, nutrient content, Pennisetum, tropical grasses.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(4168-178

  6. Primary and secondary metabolites production in signal grass around the year under nitrogen fertilizer

    OpenAIRE

    Syeda Maryam Hussain

    2016-01-01

    Plants produce a number of substances and products and primary and secondary metabolites (SM) are amongst them with many benefits but limitation as well. Usually, the fodder are not considered toxic to animals or as a source having higher SM. The Brachiaria decumbens has a considerable nutritional value, but it is considered as a toxic grass for causing photosensitization in animals, if the grass is not harvested for more than 30 days or solely. The absence of detailed information in the lite...

  7. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  8. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  9. The potential of C4 grasses for cellulosic biofuel production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim eWeijde

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available With the advent of biorefinery technologies enabling plant biomass to be processed into biofuel, many researchers set out to study and improve candidate biomass crops. Many of these candidates are C4 grasses, characterized by a high productivity and resource use efficiency. In this review the potential of five C4 grasses as lignocellulose feedstock for biofuel production is discussed. These include three important field crops - maize, sugarcane and sorghum - and two undomesticated perennial energy grasses - miscanthus and switchgrass. Although all these grasses are high yielding, they produce different products. While miscanthus and switchgrass are exploited exclusively for lignocellulosic biomass, maize, sorghum and sugarcane are dual-purpose crops. It is unlikely that all the prerequisites for the sustainable and economic production of biomass for a global cellulosic biofuel industry will be fulfilled by a single crop. High and stable yields of lignocellulose are required in diverse environments worldwide, to sustain a year-round production of biofuel. A high resource use efficiency is indispensable to allow cultivation with minimal inputs of nutrients and water and the exploitation of marginal soils for biomass production. Finally, the lignocellulose composition of the feedstock should be optimized to allow its efficient conversion into biofuel and other by-products. Breeding for these objectives should encompass diverse crops, to meet the demands of local biorefineries and provide adaptability to different environments. Collectively, these C4 grasses are likely to play a central role in the supply of lignocellulose for the cellulosic ethanol industry. Moreover, as these species are evolutionary closely related, advances in each of these crops will expedite improvements in the other crops. This review aims to provide an overview of their potential, prospects and research needs as lignocellulose feedstocks for the commercial production of

  10. Differentiation of plant age in grasses using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, Nichola M.; Skidmore, Andrew K.; van der Werff, Harald M. A.; Groen, Thomas A.; de Boer, Willem F.; Prins, Herbert H. T.; Kohi, Edward; Peel, Mike

    2013-10-01

    Phenological or plant age classification across a landscape allows for examination of micro-topographical effects on plant growth, improvement in the accuracy of species discrimination, and will improve our understanding of the spatial variation in plant growth. In this paper six vegetation indices used in phenological studies (including the newly proposed PhIX index) were analysed for their ability to statistically differentiate grasses of different ages in the sequence of their development. Spectra of grasses of different ages were collected from a greenhouse study. These were used to determine if NDVI, NDWI, CAI, EVI, EVI2 and the newly proposed PhIX index could sequentially discriminate grasses of different ages, and subsequently classify grasses into their respective age category. The PhIX index was defined as: (AVNIRn+log(ASWIR2n))/(AVNIRn-log(ASWIR2n)), where AVNIRn and ASWIR2n are the respective normalised areas under the continuum removed reflectance curve within the VNIR (500-800 nm) and SWIR2 (2000-2210 nm) regions. The PhIX index was found to produce the highest phenological classification accuracy (Overall Accuracy: 79%, and Kappa Accuracy: 75%) and similar to the NDVI, EVI and EVI2 indices it statistically sequentially separates out the developmental age classes. Discrimination between seedling and dormant age classes and the adult and flowering classes was problematic for most of the tested indices. Combining information from the visible near infrared (VNIR) and shortwave infrared region (SWIR) region into a single phenological index captures the phenological changes associated with plant pigments and the ligno-cellulose absorption feature, providing a robust method to discriminate the age classes of grasses. This work provides a valuable contribution into mapping spatial variation and monitoring plant growth across savanna and grassland ecosystems.

  11. Induced mutations in highly heterozygous vegetatively propagated grasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.B.

    1976-01-01

    Experience with mutation induction of turf and forage grasses indicates that much progress can be achieved by this method. More than 300 mutations have been produced in our laboratory in the cultivars Tifgreen and Tifdwarf bermudagrass (Cynodon sp.). In the Tifway and Tifcote bermudagrasses we have demonstrated similar mutation responses. The first three clones are triploids and Tifcote is a probable tetraploid. No seeds are set on these clones. Two clones of bermudagrass, Coastal and Coastcross-1, occupy millions of hectares in the USA. Both are mutable and are known to be hybrids with 36 chromosomes. Biotypes of dallisgrass (Paspalum dilatatum Poir.) exist with 40 and 50 chromosomes and reproduce as sexual and obligate apomictic forms. Gamma-ray and thermal-neutron treatment of seed of these biotypes produced mutants that maintained the maternal characteristics in subsequent generations. Bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Fluegge) also has sexual and apomictic biotypes. Some success was indicated for increased seed set by mutagen treatment. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.) is a facultative apomict with varying numbers of chromosomes in different cultivars. Gamma-ray mutagen treatment of rhizomes produced numerous mutations for plant type and disease reaction. Most mutations perpetuate themselves through the seed. The characteristic in common with all these grasses is their heterozygosity, which is maintained by the vegetative propagation or apomictic mode of reproduction. The experience in using ionizing radiation to induce heritable changes in these vegetatively propagated grasses is one of considerable success. Mutation rates in some of these irradiated grasses exceeded 65% and aberrant plants with characteristics previously never observed were found. Numerous hemizygous and heterozygous loci seem to be a sensitive target for mutagens. (author)

  12. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  13. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  14. Thermogravimetric analysis of forest understory grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; John S. Kush; Sharon M. Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Forest understory grasses are of significance in the initiation, establishment and maintenance of fire, whether used as a management tool or when occurring as wildfire. The fundamental thermal properties of such grasses are critical to their behavior in fire situations and have been investigated in the current work by the application of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA...

  15. Relevance of Allergenic Sensitization to Cynodon dactylon and Phragmites communis: Cross-reactivity With Pooideae Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Matas, M A; Moya, R; Cardona, V; Valero, A; Gaig, P; Malet, A; Viñas, M; García-Moral, A; Labrador, M; Alcoceba, E; Ibero, M; Carnés, J

    The homologous group of sweet grasses belongs to the Pooideae subfamily, but grass pollen species from other subfamilies can also cause allergy, such as Cynodon dactylon (Chloridoideae) and Phragmites communis (Arundinoideae). C dactylon and P communis have not been included in the sweet grasses homologous group because of their low cross-reactivity with other grasses. The aims of this study were to investigate the profile of sensitization to C dactylon and P communis in patients sensitized to grasses and to analyze cross-reactivity between these 2 species and temperate grasses. Patients were skin prick tested with a grass mixture (GM). Specific IgE to GM, C dactylon, P communis, Cyn d 1, and Phl p 1 was measured by ImmunoCAP. A pool of sera was used for the immunoblot assays. Cross-reactivity was studied by ELISA and immunoblot inhibition. Thirty patients had sIgE to GM. Twenty-four (80%) had positive results for C dactylon, 27 (90%) for P communis, 22 (73.3%) for nCyn d 1, and 92.9% for rPhl p 1. Bands were detected in the 3 extracts by immunoblot. Inhibition of GM was not observed with C dactylon or P communis by immunoblot or ELISA inhibition. When C dactylon or P communis were used in the solid phase, GM produced almost complete inhibition. Eighty percent of patients sensitized to grasses were also sensitized to C dactylon and 90% were sensitized to P communis. Sensitization to these species seems to be induced by allergens different to those in sweet grasses.

  16. Feeding Dairy Cows to Increase Performance on Rhodes Grass Ley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irungu, K.R.G.; Mbugua, P.N.

    1999-01-01

    Majority of dairy farmers in Kenya produce milk from cows fed on roughage. The cow performance follows seasonal variability in quality and quantity of roughage. The objective of the current study was to increase cow performance and maintain productivity of a rhodes grass (chloris gayana) ley. Twenty-four Freisian cows in their second to third lactation were strip grazed on fertilized irrigated Rhodes grass at a stocking rate of 0.034 ha per cow. Four dietary groups of six cows were allocated to one of our diets. one group got no dairy meal while the other three groups were supplemented at a 1kg of dairy meal per 10, 5 and 2.5 kg of 4% fat corrected milk dairy. this amount to 0, 386, 750 and 1542 kg dairy meal (89.4%, DM, 93.7 OM, 16.8, CP and CF) during the lactation. during the 43 - week lactation, records on pasture nutrient yield, nutrient intake, milk yield, liveweight, reproduction and subsequent calf birth weight were collected. The Rhodes grass ley produced 20.7 (ranging from 16.7 to 28.7) t of dry matter (DM) per hectare and cows harvested 16.0 (12.0 to 24.0) t during the 43 weeks.The Rhodes grass contained 32.1, 87.7, 10.8, and 32.3% DM, organic matter (OM), crude protein (CP) and crude fiber (CF) respectively. Mean stubble of 4.7 (3.9 to 6.0) t DM per hectare was left at pasture. Feeding dairy meals significantly increased (P 0.05) affect batter fat content (3.78 to 3.96%). It maintained (P > 0.05) cow liveweight and increased (P < 0.05) calf birth weight from 32.7 to 37.2 kg. Feeding dairy meal did not affect oestrus cycling. Extreme supplementation, 1542 kg dairy meal, decreased (P < 0.05) fertility. Insemination per conception and calving interval increased (P < 0.05) from 1.5 to 3.5 and 522 days. The findings in the current study show that pasture yield can be increased by over 590% dry matter from 3.5 t obtained from natural pasture containing Kikuyu and Star grasses. The Rhodes grass yield can be increased to 232% of national average yield of 1300

  17. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  18. Common parasitic infec tions in the HIV-infec ted patient

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-06-11

    Jun 11, 2009 ... is often severe and debilitating, causing dehydration, severe weight loss, and malabsorption. .... reduce cerebral oedema around the mass .... type of fat produces a hormone that helps the brain cement short-term memories into ... Immediately after the training period they injected some of the rats with ...

  19. Grass as a C booster for manure-biogas in Estonia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pehme, Sirli; Hamelin, Lorie; Veromann, Eve

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the environmental consequences of using grass (from both unused and cultivated boreal grasslands) as a co-substrate to dairy cow manure for biogas production. Environmental impact categories assessed were global warming, acidification and nutrient enrichment...... (distinguishing between N and P). Scenarios studied were: traditional management of dairy cow manure, monodigestion of manure, manure co-digestion with reed canary grass and manure co-digestion with residual grass from semi-natural grasslands. The latter scenario showed the best environmental performance...... for the global warming category, for other categories it did not show clear benefits. Using reed canary grass specially produced for biogas purpose resulted in a climate change impact just as big as the reference manure management, mainly as a result of indirect land use changes. Increased impacts also occurred...

  20. GeMprospector--online design of cross-species genetic marker candidates in legumes and grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredslund, Jakob; Madsen, Lene H; Hougaard, Birgit K; Sandal, Niels; Stougaard, Jens; Bertioli, David; Schauser, Leif

    2006-07-01

    The web program GeMprospector (URL: http://cgi-www.daimi.au.dk/cgi-chili/GeMprospector/main) allows users to automatically design large sets of cross-species genetic marker candidates targeting either legumes or grasses. The user uploads a collection of ESTs from one or more legume or grass species, and they are compared with a database of clusters of homologous EST and genomic sequences from other legumes or grasses, respectively. Multiple sequence alignments between submitted ESTs and their homologues in the appropriate database form the basis of automated PCR primer design in conserved exons such that each primer set amplifies an intron. The only user input is a collection of ESTs, not necessarily from more than one species, and GeMprospector can boost the potential of such an EST collection by combining it with a large database to produce cross-species genetic marker candidates for legumes or grasses.

  1. Management Characteristics of Grass-finished Beef Operations in the Northeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    An online survey of self-identified grass-finished beef producers was conducted throughout the Northeast region along with several farm visits. Seventy acceptable records from producers in Delaware, Maine, Massachusetts, Maryland, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, Vermont, and West ...

  2. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  4. Phenology largely explains taller grass at successful nests in greater sage-grouse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joseph T; Tack, Jason D; Doherty, Kevin E; Allred, Brady W; Maestas, Jeremy D; Berkeley, Lorelle I; Dettenmaier, Seth J; Messmer, Terry A; Naugle, David E

    2018-01-01

    Much interest lies in the identification of manageable habitat variables that affect key vital rates for species of concern. For ground-nesting birds, vegetation surrounding the nest may play an important role in mediating nest success by providing concealment from predators. Height of grasses surrounding the nest is thought to be a driver of nest survival in greater sage-grouse ( Centrocercus urophasianus ; sage-grouse), a species that has experienced widespread population declines throughout their range. However, a growing body of the literature has found that widely used field methods can produce misleading inference on the relationship between grass height and nest success. Specifically, it has been demonstrated that measuring concealment following nest fate (failure or hatch) introduces a temporal bias whereby successful nests are measured later in the season, on average, than failed nests. This sampling bias can produce inference suggesting a positive effect of grass height on nest survival, though the relationship arises due to the confounding effect of plant phenology, not an effect on predation risk. To test the generality of this finding for sage-grouse, we reanalyzed existing datasets comprising >800 sage-grouse nests from three independent studies across the range where there was a positive relationship found between grass height and nest survival, including two using methods now known to be biased. Correcting for phenology produced equivocal relationships between grass height and sage-grouse nest survival. Viewed in total, evidence for a ubiquitous biological effect of grass height on sage-grouse nest success across time and space is lacking. In light of these findings, a reevaluation of land management guidelines emphasizing specific grass height targets to promote nest success may be merited.

  5. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  6. Pretreatment of grass waste using combined ionizing radiation-acid treatment for enhancing fermentative hydrogen production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang; Wang, Jianlong

    2018-05-01

    In this study, the combined ionizing radiation-acid pretreatment process was firstly applied to enhance hydrogen fermentation of grass waste. Results showed that the combined pretreatment synergistically enhanced hydrogen fermentation of grass waste. The SCOD and soluble polysaccharide contents of grass waste increased by 1.6 and 2.91 times after the combined pretreatment, respectively. SEM observation and crystallinity test showed the combined pretreatment effectively disrupted the grass structure. Owing to the more favorable substrate conditions, the hydrogen yield achieved 68 mL/g-dry grass added after the combined pretreatment, which was 161.5%, 112.5% and 28.3% higher than those from raw, ionizing radiation pretreated and acid pretreated grass waste, respectively. The VS removal also increased from 13.9% to 25.6% by the combined pretreatment. Microbial community analysis showed that the abundance of dominant hydrogen producing genus Clostridium sensu stricto 1 increased from 37.9% to 69.4% after the combined pretreatment, which contributed to more efficient hydrogen fermentation. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  8. Invasive Andropogon gayanus (gamba grass) is an ecosystem transformer of nitrogen relations in Australian savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossiter-Rachor, N A; Setterfield, S A; Douglas, M M; Hutley, L B; Cook, G D; Schmidt, S

    2009-09-01

    Invasion by the African grass Andropogon gayanus is drastically altering the understory structure of oligotrophic savannas in tropical Australia. We compared nitrogen (N) relations and phenology of A. gayanus and native grasses to examine the impact of invasion on N cycling and to determine possible reasons for invasiveness of A. gayanus. Andropogon gayanus produced up to 10 and four times more shoot phytomass and root biomass, with up to seven and 2.5 times greater shoot and root N pools than native grass understory. These pronounced differences in phytomass and N pools between A. gayanus and native grasses were associated with an altered N cycle. Most growth occurs in the wet season when, compared with native grasses, dominance of A. gayanus was associated with significantly lower total soil N pools, lower nitrification rates, up to three times lower soil nitrate availability, and up to three times higher soil ammonium availability. Uptake kinetics for different N sources were studied with excised roots of three grass species ex situ. Excised roots of A. gayanus had an over six times higher-uptake rate of ammonium than roots of native grasses, while native grass Eriachne triseta had a three times higher uptake rate of nitrate than A. gayanus. We hypothesize that A. gayanus stimulates ammonification but inhibits nitrification, as was shown to occur in its native range in Africa, and that this modification of the soil N cycle is linked to the species' preference for ammonium as an N source. This mechanism could result in altered soil N relations and could enhance the competitive superiority and persistence of A. gayanus in Australian savannas.

  9. A molecular identification system for grasses: a novel technology for forensic botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J; Peakall, R; Gilmore, S R; Robertson, J

    2005-09-10

    Our present inability to rapidly, accurately and cost-effectively identify trace botanical evidence remains the major impediment to the routine application of forensic botany. Grasses are amongst the most likely plant species encountered as forensic trace evidence and have the potential to provide links between crime scenes and individuals or other vital crime scene information. We are designing a molecular DNA-based identification system for grasses consisting of several PCR assays that, like a traditional morphological taxonomic key, provide criteria that progressively identify an unknown grass sample to a given taxonomic rank. In a prior study of DNA sequences across 20 phylogenetically representative grass species, we identified a series of potentially informative indels in the grass mitochondrial genome. In this study we designed and tested five PCR assays spanning these indels and assessed the feasibility of these assays to aid identification of unknown grass samples. We confirmed that for our control set of 20 samples, on which the design of the PCR assays was based, the five primer combinations produced the expected results. Using these PCR assays in a 'blind test', we were able to identify 25 unknown grass samples with some restrictions. Species belonging to genera represented in our control set were all correctly identified to genus with one exception. Similarly, genera belonging to tribes in the control set were correctly identified to the tribal level. Finally, for those samples for which neither the tribal or genus specific PCR assays were designed, we could confidently exclude these samples from belonging to certain tribes and genera. The results confirmed the utility of the PCR assays and the feasibility of developing a robust full-scale usable grass identification system for forensic purposes.

  10. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  11. Tree-grass interactions in savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Savannas occur where trees and grasses interact to create a biome that is neither grassland nor forest. Woody and gramineous plants interact by many mechanisms, some negative (competition) and some positive (facilitation). The strength and sign...

  12. POTENTIALS OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND GRASSES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    Potentials of some agricultural waste and grasses were investigated. ... to education, printing, publishing and ... technical form, paper is an aqueous deposit ..... Period of. Soaking. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight.

  13. Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

  14. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantification

    The potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for

  15. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  16. Indirect effects of an invasive annual grass on seed fates of two native perennial grass species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Susan E; Merrill, Katherine T; Allen, Phil S; Beckstead, Julie; Norte, Anna S

    2014-04-01

    Invasive plants exhibit both direct and indirect negative effects on recruitment of natives following invasion. We examined indirect effects of the invader Bromus tectorum (cheatgrass) on seed fates of two native grass species, Elymus elymoides and Pseudoroegneria spicata, by removing B. tectorum and by adding inoculum of the shared seed pathogen Pyrenophora semeniperda in factorial experiments at xeric and mesic field sites. We also included a supplemental watering treatment to increase emergence and also the potential for pathogen escape. We recorded emergence and survival of native seedlings and also determined the fate of unemerged seeds. At the xeric site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was high (34%), and effects of other pathogens and failed emergence of germinants were smaller. Cheatgrass removal negatively affected both emergence (35 vs. 25%) and spring survival (69 vs. 42%). Pyrenophora-caused seed mortality increased with inoculum augmentation for both species (22 vs. 47% overall), but emergence was negatively impacted only for P. spicata (20 vs. 34%). At the mesic site, Pyrenophora-caused mortality was low (6%). Cheatgrass removal doubled emergence (26 vs. 14%). Seed mortality increased significantly with inoculum augmentation for P. spicata (12 vs. 5%) but not E. elymoides, while emergence was not significantly affected in either species. A large fraction of seeds produced germinants that failed to emerge (37%), while another large fraction (35%) was killed by other pathogens. We conclude that facilitation by cheatgrass at the xeric site but interference at the mesic site was probably mediated through litter effects that could be ameliorative or suppressive. Apparent competition between cheatgrass and native grasses could occur through Pyrenophora, especially in a xeric environment, but effects were weak or absent at emergence. This was probably because Pyrenophora attacks the same slow-germinating fraction that is subject to pre-emergence mortality from

  17. Investigating the impact of consumer values and advocacy behavior on buying decision satisfac-tion: A study through gender lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raja Ahmed Jamil

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Consumer’s values, Cultural values, Emotional Values and Word of mouth expressiveness, are good predictors for their buying decision satisfaction. In current study sample of 500 was taken to assess the consumer’s buying decision satisfaction in relation to the importance of their values associated with those decisions. This study also reveals how gender influences buying decision satisfaction. Consumer values have a positive and significant impact on buying decision satisfac-tion. While evaluation on the basis of gender and females have more emotional and word of mouth linkages than males, on the contrary to this, males are more concerned with cultural val-ues, and are less expressive and have a tendency to suppress their emotions while making buy-ing decisions.

  18. Effects of grass-clover management and cover crops on nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emissions in a stockless organic crop rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brozyna, Michal Adam; Petersen, Søren O; Chirinda, Ngoni

    2013-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) supply in stockless organic farming may be improved through use of grass-clover for anaerobic digestion, producing biogas and digested manure for use as fertilizer in the crop rotation. We studied the effects of grass-clover management on N cycling, nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions...... in the rotation (spring barley, potato and winter wheat); actual digestion of grass-clover cuttings was not possible, instead digested pig manure was used as substitute for digested grass-clover. Nitrous oxide fluxes were monitored between April 2008 and May 2009. In general, application of digested manure had...

  19. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  20. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  1. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Anne-Maria; Demetrowitsch, Tobias J.; Schwarz, Karin; Ober, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid. PMID:29250094

  2. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maria Wesseling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid.

  3. Screening of Balansia epichloe-infected grass species for in situ ergot alkaloids using laser ablation electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Balansia are clavicipitaceous symbiotic species associated with various species of tropical grasses. Laboratory culture procedures established that the Balansia species are often conspecific with grasses in tall fescue pastures that produced ergot alkaloids. However, any effects of hosts on the...

  4. Nutritive value of Tanzania grass for dairy cows under rotational grazing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Magno Fernandes

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available A nutritional analysis of Tanzania grass (Megathyrsus maximus Jacquin cv. Tanzânia was conducted. Pasture was managed in a rotational grazing system with a 30-day resting period, three days of paddock occupation and two grazing cycles. Ten Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows were kept within a 2-ha area divided into 11 paddocks ha-1. Cows were fed 2 kg of corn meal daily and performance was evaluated by weighing the animals every 14 days and by recording milk production twice a day. Nutritional composition of the Tanzania grass was determined from forage (extrusa samples collected by esophageal fistulae from two animals. The nutritive value of Tanzania grass was estimated according to a modification of the CNCPS evaluation model. Tanzania grass supplemented with 2 kg of corn meal supplied 33.2% more net energy for lactation than required by the animals to produce 13.7 kg of milk day-1. Nevertheless, the amount of metabolizable protein met the daily protein requirement of the animals. Although the model used in the study requires adjustments, Tanzania grass has the potential to produce milk in a rotational grazing system.

  5. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and digestibility coefficients were obtained for the protein, fibre, ash and fat contents of both ... Cabbage is a superior feed compared to grass for raising grass carp and a suitable low-cost alternative ... Materials and Methods ... from jumping out and was fitted with an air lift under- .... In: Aquatic weeds in South East Asia.

  6. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Crisp Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.

  7. Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Soliman, I.A.; Visser, de H.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and

  8. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil

  9. Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein

  10. Addic tion treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-29

    Jan 29, 2009 ... it does leave the profitability and viability of the more orthodox treatment centres at risk, and they now often seek improved income streams by sourcing patients from abroad. This effectively subsidises local patients whose treatment intervention is remunerated by discounted medical aid rates. South Africa is ...

  11. tions and enlarged

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Iymphadenopathy were noted. The right-sided pleural effusion with relaxation atelectasis was also con- firmed (Fig. 4). The diagnosis of pos- sible amoebic liver abscess complicat- ed by rupture to the gallbladder was made at that stage. Ultrasound-guided abscess drainage was done and approximately 300 ml of pus was.

  12. Addic tion treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2009-01-29

    Jan 29, 2009 ... to make any inroads in addressing this important public health problem: • Why does ... health insurance industry is delighted, as competition between various facilities .... the selection of a treatment programme for a particular ...

  13. Important Considerations When Choosing Forage Grasses - Research Developments on Quality and Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seasonal changes in forage productivity and nutritive value will influence pasture management and ration balancing decisions by the producer. We determined seasonal yield and quality changes in the leaf and stem fraction of 10 temperate perennial grasses at two Wisconsin locations. After reaching ...

  14. Review of the integrated process for the production of grass biomethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizami, Abdul-Sattar; Korres, Nicholas E; Murphy, Jerry D

    2009-11-15

    Production of grass biomethane is an integrated process which involves numerous stages with numerous permutations. The grass grown can be of numerous species, and it can involve numerous cuts. The lignocellulosic content of grass increases with maturity of grass; the first cut offers more methane potential than the later cuts. Water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) are higher (and as such methane potential is higher) for grass cut in the afternoon as opposed to that cut in the morning. The method of ensiling has a significant effect on the dry solids content of the grass silage. Pit or clamp silage in southern Germany and Austria has a solids content of about 40%; warm dry summers allow wilting of the grass before ensiling. In temperate oceanic climates like Ireland, pit silage has a solids content of about 21% while bale silage has a solids content of 32%. Biogas production is related to mass of volatile solids rather than mass of silage; typically one ton of volatile solid produces 300 m(3) of methane. The dry solids content of the silage has a significant impact on the biodigester configuration. Silage with a high solids content would lend itself to a two-stage process; a leach bed where volatile solids are converted to a leachate high in chemical oxygen demand (COD), followed by an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket where the COD can be converted efficiently to CH(4). Alternative configurations include wet continuous processes such as the ubiquitous continuously stirred tank reactor; this necessitates significant dilution of the feedstock to effect a solids content of 12%. Various pretreatment methods may be employed especially if the hydrolytic step is separated from the methanogenic step. Size reduction, thermal, and enzymatic methodologies are used. Good digester design is to seek to emulate the cow, thus rumen fluid offers great potential for hydrolysis.

  15. [Influence of paddy rice-upland crop rotation of cold-waterlogged paddy field on crops produc- tion and soil characteristics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Li, Qing-hua; Lin, Cheng; He, Chun-mei; Zhong, Shao-jie; Li, Yu; Lin, Xin-jian; Huang, Jian-cheng

    2015-05-01

    Two consecutive years (4-crop) experiments were conducted to study the influence of different paddy rice-upland crop rotation in cold-waterlogged paddy field on the growth of crops and soil characteristics. The result showed that compared with the rice-winter fallow (CK) pattern, the two-year average yield of paddy rice under four rotation modes, including rape-rice (R-R), spring corn-rice (C-R), Chinese milk vetch-rice (M-R) and bean-rice (B-R), were increased by 5.3%-26.7%, with significant difference observed in C-R and R-R patterns. Except for M-R pattern, the annual average total economic benefits were improved by 79.0%-392.4% in all rotation pattern compared with the CK, and the ration of output/input was enhanced by 0.06-0.72 unit, with the most significant effect found in the C-R pattern. Likewise, compared with the CK, the contents of chlorophyll and carotenoid, and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) of rice plant were all increased during the full-tillering stage of rice in all rotation patterns. The rusty lines and rusty spots of soils were more obvious compared with the CK during the rice harvest, particularly in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns. The ratio of water-stable soil macro aggregates of plough layer of soil (> 2 mm) decreased at different levels in all rotation patterns while the ratios of middle aggregate (0.25-2 mm, expect for M-R) and micro aggregate of soil (< 0.25 mm) were opposite. There was a decreasing trend for soil active reducing agents in all rotation patterns, whereas the available nutrient increased. The amounts of soil bacteria in C-R and B-R patterns, fungi in B-R rotation pattern, cellulose bacteria in R-R, C-R and B-R patterns and N-fixing bacteria in B-R pattern were improved by 285.7%-403.0%, 221.7%, 64.6-92.2% and 162.2%, respectively. Moreover, the differences in all microorganisms were significant. Thus, based on the experimental results of cold-waterlogged paddy field, it was concluded that changing from single cropping rice system to C-R, R-R and B-R rotation patterns had good effect in terms of improving total yield and economic benefits, and soil physical and chemical properties were improved.

  16. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  17. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species...... that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants responded to flaming. Regrowth of the grasses was measured by harvesting aboveground biomass 2 wk after......, as they did not increase the reduction of aboveground biomass compared with the 7-d treatment interval. Knowledge on the regrowth of grass weeds after flaming treatments provided by this study can help improve recommendations given to road keepers and park managers for management on these weeds. Nomenclature...

  18. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  19. Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

  20. Endophytic Epichloë species and their grass hosts: from evolution to applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikkonen, Kari; Young, Carolyn A; Helander, Marjo; Schardl, Christopher L

    2016-04-01

    The closely linked fitness of the Epichloë symbiont and the host grass is presumed to align the coevolution of the species towards specialization and mutually beneficial cooperation. Ecological observations demonstrating that Epichloë-grass symbioses can modulate grassland ecosystems via both above- and belowground ecosystem processes support this. In many cases the detected ecological importance of Epichloë species is directly or indirectly linked to defensive mutualism attributable to alkaloids of fungal-origin. Now, modern genetic and molecular techniques enable the precise studies on evolutionary origin of endophytic Epichloë species, their coevolution with host grasses and identification the genetic variation that explains phenotypic diversity in ecologically relevant characteristics of Epichloë-grass associations. Here we briefly review the most recent findings in these areas of research using the present knowledge of the genetic variation that explains the biosynthetic pathways driving the diversity of alkaloids produced by the endophyte. These findings underscore the importance of genetic interplay between the fungus and the host in shaping their coevolution and ecological role in both natural grass ecosystems, and in the agricultural arena.

  1. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  2. Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and geographical variation. ... Seven species are important pasture grasses throughout the western Transvaal, Orange Free State, northern Cape and Natal. ... Language: English.

  3. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume sward in ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture ...

  4. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  5. Newly diagnosed and previously known diabetes mellitus and 1-year outcomes of acute myocardial infarction: the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguilar, David; Solomon, Scott D; Køber, Lars

    2004-01-01

    cardiovascular events associated with previously known and newly diagnosed diabetes by studying 14,703 patients with acute MI enrolled in the VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion (VALIANT) trial. Patients were grouped by diabetic status: previously known diabetes (insulin use or diagnosis of diabetes before...

  6. 'Bio-energy Schaffhausen': biogas, proteins and fibres, all three from grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Widmer, F.; Mueller, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    Bioenergie Schaffhausen Ltd., Switzerland, has commissioned the first industrial bio-refinery for processing grass. This unique grass refinery process provides a new industrial utilisation of grass. The products are green power and technical fibres for heat and sound insulation. The green electricity and green gas are made and sold by Etawatt Ltd. and Schaffhausen City Works, the green heat is used internally as process heat. All plant components are utilised for generation of value-added products, which makes the plant economically profitable even at a relatively small scale. The fully continuous and automated plant includes raw material reception, pre-treatment, fractionation, separation, and drying of fibres; separation of protein; juice treatment and conversion to biogas in a so-called UASB reactor; gas cleaning and conversion to electricity and process heat in a combined heat and power plant. The design capacity of the plant is 20,000 t fresh grass or 5,000 t dry substance input per year in two shifts. The plant supplier is '2B Biorefineries' (www.2bio.ch). The start up was in October 2001. Over 500 tons of grass have been processed. The grass refinery has produced so far 78,000 m 3 biogas, 150,000 kWh green electricity and 250,000 kWh green heat. Further, 80 tons of insulation fibres have been produced and sold in the market under the brand name '2B Gratec'. Over 30 buildings have been insulated. The washer and drier have not reached production capacity. The drying is a critical process for fibre quality. The drier is being modified and a new washer is being installed. It is planned to run at design capacity from May 2003. (author)

  7. Biogas production from anaerobic codigestion of cowdung and elephant grass (Pennisetum Purpureum) using batch digester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, Agus; Hasanudin, Udin; Afrian, Chandra; Zulkarnaen, Iskandar

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed at determining biogas production from codigestion of Elephant grass and cowdung using batch digester. Fresh grass was manually chopped with a maximum length of 3 cm. Chopped grass (25 kg) was perfectly mixed with fresh cowdung (25 kg). The mixture was introduced into a 220-liter batch drum digester. The substrate was diluted with water at different rates (P1 = 50 L, P2 = 75 L, and P3 = 100 L) and was stirred thoroughly. Six digesters were prepared as duplicate for each treatment. Two other digesters containing only 25 kg cowdung diluted with 25 L water were also provided as control treatment (P0). The digesters were air tightly sealed for 70 days. Observation was conducted on daily temperature, substrate pH (initial and final), TS and VS content, biogas yield and biogas composition. Results showed that final pH of grass containing substrate was in the acidic range, namely 4.50, 4.62, 6.82, whereas that of control (P0) was normal with pH of 7.30. Digester with substrate composition 25:25:100 (cowdung:grass:water) produced the highest biogas total (524.3 L). Biogas yield of codigestion, however, was much lower as compared to that of control, namely 7.35, 16.75, and 111.72 L/kg VS r respectively for treatment P1, P2, P3. with dilution rate of 50, 75, and 100 L. Biogas produced from control digester had methane content of 53.88%. In contrast, biogas resulted from all treatments contained low methane (the highest was 31.37%). Methane yield of 39.3 L/kg TS removal was achieved from digester with dilution 100 L (P3). Mechanical pretreatment is suggested to break Elephant grass down into smaller particles prior to introducing it into the digestion process.

  8. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  9. Notes on the nomenclature of some grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1941-01-01

    In a former article 1) many new combinations and critical observations were published on various grasses all over the world. New investigations in critical genera together with the study of the existing literature made it necessary to accept various other arrangements in this important family. The

  10. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203 ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  11. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental conditions.

  12. Convex relationships in ecosystems containing mixtures of trees and grass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between grass production and the quantity of trees in mixed tree-grass ecosystems (savannas) is convex for all or most of its range. In other words, the grass production declines more steeply per unit increase in tree quantity...

  13. Names of Southern African grasses: Name changes and additional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main reasons for changes in botanical names are briefly reviewed, with examples from the lists. At this time, about 1040 grass species and subspecific taxa are recognized in the subcontinent. Keywords: botanical research; botanical research institute; botany; grass; grasses; identification; name change; nomenclature; ...

  14. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  15. Persistence of Overseeded Cool-Season Grasses in Bermudagrass Turf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Serensits

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cool-season grass species are commonly overseeded into bermudagrass turf for winter color. When the overseeded grass persists beyond the spring; however, it becomes a weed. The ability of perennial ryegrass, Italian (annual ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and hybrid bluegrass to persist in bermudagrass one year after seeding was determined. Perennial ryegrass, intermediate ryegrass, and Italian ryegrass produced acceptable ground cover in the spring after fall seeding. Hybrid bluegrass did not establish well, resulting in unacceptable cover. Perennial ryegrass generally persisted the most one year after seeding, either because of summer survival of plants or because of new germination the following fall. Plant counts one year after seeding were greater in the higher seeding rate treatment compared to the lower seeding treatment rate of perennial ryegrass, suggesting new germination had occurred. Plant counts one year after seeding plots with intermediate ryegrass or Italian ryegrass were attributed primarily to latent germination and not summer survival. Applications of foramsulfuron generally did not prevent overseeded species stand one year after seeding, supporting the conclusion of new germination. Although quality is less with intermediate ryegrass compared to perennial ryegrass, it transitions out easier than perennial ryegrass, resulting in fewer surviving plants one year later.

  16. Mutation breeding of vegetatively propagated turf and forage Bermuda grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, G.W.; Hanna, W.W.

    1982-01-01

    Tifgreen, Tifway and Tifdwarf, sterile triploid (2n = 27)F 1 hybrids between Cynodon dactylon and C. transvaalensis, are widely used turf grasses bred at Tifton, Georgia. They cannot be improved by conventional breeding methods. Attempts to improve them by treating short dormant rhizome sections with EMS failed but exposing them to 7-9 kR of gamma radiation produced 158 mutants. These have been evaluated at Tifton, and Beltsville, Maryland, and nine that appear to be better than the parents in one or more characteristics were planted in 8 x 10 m plots in triplicate in 1977. Test results to date suggest that one or more of these will be good enough to warrant a name and release to the public. Coastcross-1 is an outstanding sterile F 1 hybrid Bermuda grass that gives 35% more beef per acre but lacks winter hardiness. Since 1971, several million sprigs of Coastcross-1 have been exposed to 7 kR and have been planted and screened for winter survival at the Georgia Mountain Experiment Station. Chlorophyll-deficient mutants have appeared and one mutant slightly, but significantly, more winter hardy than Coastcross-1 has been obtained. Sprigs of this mutant named Coastcross 1-M3 are being irradiated and screened in an attempt to increase its winter hardiness. (author)

  17. TIME REDUCTION FOR SURINAM GRASS SEED GERMINATION TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila de Aquino Tomaz

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe period for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds established by the Rules for Seeds Testing is 28 days, considered too lengthy by producers, venders, and seed analysis laboratories. So, the objective of this research was to evaluate the possibility of reducing the time for the germination test of Surinam grass seeds and to establish a method for dormancy breaking and the ideal temperature. Ten seed lots were submitted to the following treatments to overcome seed dormancy: control; substrate moistening with 0.2% KNO3; and scarification with sulfuric acid (98% 36 N for 15 minutes. After the treatments, the lots were submitted to seed water content, germination and tetrazolium tests. During the germination test, conducted with four replicates of 100 seeds per treatment for 28 days, two conditions of alternating temperatures (20-35 °C and 15-35 °C with 8 hours of light were tested. Attempting to determine the test end date, daily counts of the number of normal seedlings were made and for each lot, treatment, and temperature, a growth curve for the evaluation of germination was adjusted. The segmented regression model parameter estimations were calculated for each treatment. The germination test of Braquiaria decumbensseeds may be evaluated in 12 days after sowing using alternating temperatures of 20-35 °C and without any treatment to overcome dormancy.

  18. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces highly cross-reactive IgG antibodies to group V allergen from different grass species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Brewczyński, P. Z.; Tan, K. Y.; Mulder-Willems, H. J.; Widjaja, P.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kroon, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on IgG reactivity with group V allergen from six different grass species. One group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. Only Lolium perenne, Dactylis

  19. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  20. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. Third quarterly report, December 1, 1979-February 29, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A G; Allison, W; Garcia, M; Ramirez, G; Chu, T L; Velez-Santiago, J; Smith, L

    1980-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Both complete and incomplete data from the first three quarters of year 3 were reviewed. Candidate screening (for short-rotation grasses) was expanded to include six sorghum x Sudan grass hybrids developed by the Dekalb Company. Incomplete data indicate that two of the new grasses might be comparable to the NK hybrids in total biomass production and drought tolerance. Sugarcane and napier grass yield trends in year 3 includes: (a) Increased yields with delay of harvest frequency; (b) lxck of response to close spacing; (c) a superiority of napier grass over sugarcane when harvested at intervals of six months or less; and (d), a general superiority of the sugarcane variety NCo 310 over varieties PR 980 and PR 64-1791. Delayed tasseling of a wild, early-flowering S. spontaneous hybrid enabled three crosses to be made in December using commercial hybrids as female parents. Approximately 1000 seedlings were produced.

  1. Comparative genomics analysis of rice and pineapple contributes to understand the chromosome number reduction and genomic changes in grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinpeng Wang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Rice is one of the most researched model plant, and has a genome structure most resembling that of the grass common ancestor after a grass common tetraploidization ~100 million years ago. There has been a standing controversy whether there had been 5 or 7 basic chromosomes, before the tetraploidization, which were tackled but could not be well solved for the lacking of a sequenced and assembled outgroup plant to have a conservative genome structure. Recently, the availability of pineapple genome, which has not been subjected to the grass-common tetraploidization, provides a precious opportunity to solve the above controversy and to research into genome changes of rice and other grasses. Here, we performed a comparative genomics analysis of pineapple and rice, and found solid evidence that grass-common ancestor had 2n =2x =14 basic chromosomes before the tetraploidization and duplicated to 2n = 4x = 28 after the event. Moreover, we proposed that enormous gene missing from duplicated regions in rice should be explained by an allotetraploid produced by prominently divergent parental lines, rather than gene losses after their divergence. This means that genome fractionation might have occurred before the formation of the allotetraploid grass ancestor.

  2. Study of Feasibility Integrated Agroindustry Development Unit Black Grass Jelly Powder (Mesona palustris in Province of East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Adhin Cholilie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential of black grass jelly plant in Indonesia is very prospective. These plants grow in areas such as Malang East Java, Pacitan, Magetan and Ponorogo. In 2010 the production of dried black grass jelly of 568 tons with a total productivity of 8.6 tons / year.  Location selection of the plant with a score weighting method produces the highest value of 4,16 for the city of Surabaya, so the establishment of the plant will be held in Surabaya. Therefore, it is necessary the application of a suitable drying models for this factory that is tunnel dryer based on the results of research and with the highest value is 4,281. To ensure the availability of black grass jelly dried leaves as raw materials of black grass jelly powder it is necessary to establish a partnership between farmers and companies. The partnership pattern that works best for black grass jelly powder factory is a partnership “inti plasma”. It is based on research with the results of the assessment and weighting by using pairwise comparison and rating scale, the value of the highest weight in the “inti plasma” partnership with a value of 4,893. By implementing this partnership will allow the factory to obtain raw materials easily and is more economical and can always be available throughout the year for partnering with farmers.    Keywords: black grass jelly powder, drying method, financial feasibility analysis, partnership patterns

  3. Lead-210 and polonium-210 in grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C R

    1960-07-16

    It appears that an important contribution to the observed ..cap alpha..-activity of grass may be provided by a process of natural fall-out in which lead-210 resulting from decay of atmospheric radon, together with a fraction of the equilibrium amount of its descendant polonium-210 are deposited by rainfall directly on to foliage. Metabolic uptake of part of this activity by sheep is indicated by the presence in the kidney of polonium-210. 6 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  4. Influence of grass pellet production on pyrrolizidine alkaloids occurring in Senecio aquaticus-infested grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottschalk, Christoph; Ostertag, Johannes; Meyer, Karsten; Gehring, Klaus; Thyssen, Stefan; Gareis, Manfred

    2018-04-01

    1,2-Dehydro-pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PA) and their N-oxides (PANO) exhibit acute and chronic toxic effects on the liver and other organs and therefore are a hazard for animal and human health. In certain regions of Germany, an increasing spread of Senecio spp. (ragwort) on grassland and farmland areas has been observed during the last years leading to a PA/PANO-contamination of feed and food of animal and plant origin. This project was carried out to elucidate whether the process of grass pellet production applying hot air drying influences the content of PA and PANO. Samples of hay (n = 22) and grass pellets (n = 28) originated from naturally infested grassland (around 10% and 30% dominance of Senecio aquaticus) and from a trial plot with around 50% dominance. Grass pellets were prepared from grass originating from exactly the same plots as the hay samples. The samples were analysed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry for PA/PANO typically produced by this weed. The results of the study revealed that PA/PANO levels (predominantly sum of senecionine, seneciphylline, erucifoline and their N-oxides) in hay ranged between 2.1 and 12.6 mg kg -1 dry matter in samples with 10% and 30% dominance of S. aquaticus, respectively. Samples from the trial plot (50% dominance) had levels of up to 52.9 mg kg -1 . Notably, the hot air drying process during the production of grass pellets did not lead to a reduction of PA/PANO levels. Instead, the levels in grass pellets with 10% and 30% S. aquaticus ranged from 3.1 to 55.1 mg kg -1 . Grass pellets from the trial plot contained up to 96.8 mg kg -1 . In conclusion, hot air drying and grass pellet production did not affect PA/PANO contents in plant material and therefore, heat-dried products cannot be regarded as safe in view of the toxic potential of 1,2-dehydro-pyrrolizidine alkaloids.

  5. Natural lactic acid bacteria population of tropical grasses and their fermentation factor analysis of silage prepared with cellulase and inoculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khota, Waroon; Pholsen, Suradej; Higgs, David; Cai, Yimin

    2016-12-01

    Natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in tropical grasses and their fermentation characteristics on silage prepared with cellulase enzyme and LAB inoculants were studied. A commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), a local selected strain Lactobacillus casei TH14 (TH14), and 2 cellulases, Acremonium cellulase (AC) and Maicelase (MC; Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), were used as additives to silage preparation with fresh and wilted (6 h) Guinea grass and Napier grass. Silage was prepared using a laboratory-scale fermentation system. Treatments were CH, TH14, AC at 0.01% fresh matter, AC 0.1%, MC 0.01%, MC 0.1%, CH+AC 0.01%, CH+AC 0.1%, CH+MC 0.01%, CH+MC 0.1%, TH14+AC 0.1%, TH14+AC 0.01%, TH14+MC 0.1%, and TH14+MC 0.01%. Microorganism counts of Guinea grass and Napier grass before ensiling were 10 2 LAB and 10 6 aerobic bacteria; these increased during wilting. Based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, natural strains from both grasses were identified as L. plantarum, L. casei, Lactobacillus acidipiscis, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc garlicum, Weissella confusa, and Lactococcus lactis. Lactobacillus plantarum and L. casei are the dominant species and could grow at lower pH and produce more lactic acid than the other isolates. Crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were 5.8 and 83.7% of dry matter (DM) for Guinea grass, and 7.5 and 77.1% of DM for Napier grass. Guinea grass had a low level of water-soluble carbohydrates (0.39% of DM). Guinea grass silage treated with cellulase had a lower pH and higher lactic acid content than control and LAB treatments. The 0.1% AC and MC treatments had the best result for fermentation quality. All high water-soluble carbohydrate (2.38% DM) Napier grass silages showed good fermentation quality. Compared with control and LAB-inoculated silage, the cellulase-treated silages had significantly higher crude protein content and

  6. Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-11-07

    Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material.

  7. Co-Digestion of Napier Grass and Its Silage with Cow Dung for Methane Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wipa Prapinagsorn

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Methane production from co-digestion of grass with cow dung and silage with cow dung was conducted by a bioaugmentation technique. For self-fermentation, maximum methane yield (MY of 176.66 and 184.94 mL CH4/g-VSadded were achieved at a ratio of grass to cow dung and silage to cow dung of 1:1, respectively. A higher maximum MY of 179.59 and 208.11 mL CH4/g-VSadded was obtained from co-digestion of grass with cow dung and silage with cow dung bioaugmented with anaerobic sludge at a ratio of 3:1. The solid residue left over after co-digestion at a ratio of 3:1 was pretreated by alkaline plus enzyme before used to produce methane and a maximum MY of 333.63 and 301.38 mL CH4/g-VSadded, respectively, was achieved. Overall power generated from co-digestion of grass with cow dung plus pretreated solid residues and co-digestion of silage with cow dung plus pretreated solid residues were 0.0397 and 0.007 watt, respectively.

  8. Effects of processing phases on the quality of massai grass seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilian Faria de Melo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Massai grass is an important tropical forage grass. The harvested seeds upon being received by the company, are found to be contaminated with impurities which are removable by processing machines. This procedure is necessary to produce seeds of a quality level within standards established for commercialization and sowing purposes. The objective of this project was to evaluate the effects of processing phases on the physical and physiological quality of massai grass (Panicum maximum x P. infestum, cv. Massai seeds for commercialization purposes. Seeds were sampled before processing and after leaving the air and screen machine (upper and intermediary screens and bottom; first gravity table (drift, upper and intermediate spouts; treating machine; and second gravity table (upper, intermediate, and lower spouts. Seeds were evaluated as to water content, physical (purity and 1,000 seeds weight and physiological quality (germination, first count of germination, seedling vigor classification, accelerated aging, seedling emergence in the field, speed of emergence index, and primary root length, shoot length. Massai grass seeds had their physical and physiological qualities improved when they were processed by an air and screen machine and a gravity table. Seeds from the intermediate discharge spout of the first gravity table, after going through the air and screen machine, are those of with highest physiological potential. The seeds of this species do not need to be processed to fit the germination and purity standards when the national market is the goal.

  9. Comparison of arsenic uptake ability of barnyard grass and rice species for arsenic phytoremediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Razia; Kobayashi, Katsuichiro; Kim, Ki-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In this research, the relative performance in arsenic (As) remediation was evaluated among some barnyard grass and rice species under hydroponic conditions. To this end, four barnyard grass varieties and two rice species were selected and tested for their remediation potential of arsenic. The plants were grown for 2 weeks in As-rich solutions up to 10 mg As L(-1) to measure their tolerance to As and their uptake capabilities. Among the varieties of plants tested in all treatment types, BR-29 rice absorbed the highest amount of As in the root, while Nipponbare translocated the maximum amount of As in the shoot. Himetainubie barnyard grass produced the highest biomass, irrespective of the quantity of As in the solution. In all As-treated solutions, the maximum uptake of As was found in BR-29 followed by Choto shama and Himetainubie. In contrast, while the bioaccumulation factor was found to be the highest in Nipponbare followed by BR-29 and Himetainubie. The results suggest that both Choto shama and Himetainubie barnyard grass varieties should exhibit a great potential for As removal, while BR-29 and Nipponbare rice species are the best option for arsenic phytoremediation.

  10. Production of ethanol from lepthochloa fusca L. (kallar grass) and panicum maximum using cellulases from trichoderma SSP and cultures of saccharomyces carlsbergensis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajoka, M.I.; Malik, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    Saline sodic soils have been used for production of biomass using salt tolerant grass, kallar grass followed by lesser tolerant plants, namely, sasbania aculeata or Panicum maximum or to provide biomass throughout the year for it utilization for microbial conversion. These substrates have been utilized to produce single cell protein and cellases or hemicellulases. The enzyme titer obtained after growth of cellulomonas biazotea on kallar grass could saccharify wheat straw ad bagasse for subsequent conversion to ethanol but kallar grass itself was saccharified to lesser extent, however, enzyme titres from different fungi could saccherify the biomass produced on saline lands to monomeric sugars. In these studies, the enzyme titre from Trichoderma spp. were used for saccharification purpose. (author)

  11. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  12. Evaluating grasses as a long-term energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, D.G.; Riche, A.B.

    2001-07-01

    The work reported here is part of an ongoing project that aims to evaluate the yields of three perennial rhizomatous grasses and determine their suitability as bio-energy crops. The work began in 1993, and the grasses have been monitored continuously since that time. This report covers the period 1999/2000, and includes: the performance of plots of the energy grasses Miscanthus grass, switchgrass and reed canary grass seven years after they were planted; assessment of the yield of 15 genotypes of Miscanthus planted in 1997; monitoring all the species throughout the growing period for the presence of pests, weeds and diseases; measurement of the amount of nitrate leached from below Miscanthus grass; investigating the occurrence of lodging in switchgrass. (Author)

  13. Determining the regional potential for a grass biomethane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, Beatrice M.; Smyth, Henry; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. → Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. → The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. → The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr -1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.

  14. Production of N2O in grass-clover pastures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.S.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N 2 O), and in soil N 2 O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N 2 ) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N 2 lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N 2 O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N 2 O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N 2 as a source of N 2 O. 2: examining the link between N 2 O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N 2 O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 ± 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N 2 was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N 2 O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m -2 was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised nitrification rate, which appeared to be the most important factor

  15. Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Roex, E.; Mommer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is

  16. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  17. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  18. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  19. Grass-on-grass competition along a catenal gradient in mesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three aboveground treatments (full light competition, no light competition and clipping to simulate grazing), and two belowground treatments (full belowground competition and belowground competition excluded by a root tube), were used. On all soil depths the three grass species differed in mean mass, with E. racemosa ...

  20. Marandu palisade grass intercropped with densely spaced teak in silvopastoral system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Avelino Cabral

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to evaluate two systems of production: integration between teak and forage (silvopastoral system and forage only (monoculture. The forage species used was Marandu palisade grass (Urochloa brizantha cv. Marandu. In January 2009, part of the pasture was desiccated and the teak (Tectona grandis was implemented in a 3 × 4 m spacing arrangement, and at every five rows, a space between rows of 6 m was established, providing a population of 750 trees per hectare. Alongside the development of the trees, the Marandu palisade grass pasture was reestablished. In February 2015, the animals were removed from the experimental area and, in March, the pasture degradation, the density and the mass of tillers was assessed. The following variables were evaluated: sward height; forage mass, percentage of leaf blade, stem+sheath and senescent material; leaf blade:stem+sheath ratio; and live:dead material ratio. The experimental design was completely randomized, with 12 replicates. Treatments consisted of two systems (silvopastoral and monoculture. The total forage accumulation was higher in the monoculture system. The sward height and the percentage of stem+sheath were higher in the integrated system, while the percentage of leaf blade and the leaf blade:stem+sheath ratio were higher in the system exclusively with forage. In conclusion, Marandu palisade grass tolerates shading in a high density spacing silvopastoral system, but the degradation process is more intense compared to grass in monoculture, and the use of Marandu palisade grass in silvopastoral systems changes the forage mass and the structure of the produced forage.

  1. Intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and leguminous plants: productivity, quality and composition of silages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Monteiro Costa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out with the objective to evaluate the productive and qualitative characteristics of forages produced in systems of intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and different leguminous plants. Productivity, bromatological composition and the fermentative profile of the silages from the following treatments were evaluated: corn in exclusive cultivation (CEC; intercropping of corn with brachiaria grass (CB; intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Calopogonium mucunoides (CBCal; intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Macrotyloma axillare (CBMac; and intercropping of corn, brachiaria grass and Stylozanthes capitata (CBSty. The experimental design utilized was completely randomized. For each type of cultivation, five plots or replications of three linear meters were harvested, and the material was separated. The variables assessed were: dry matter productivity per area; dry matter productivity of corn per area; crude protein production per area and productivity of total digestible nutrients per area. The material originated from the cultures was ensiled, with dry matter between 28 and 32%. After, the material was placed and compacted appropriately in bucket silos. A sample was collected from each replication for determination of the contents of DM, crude protein (CP, ether extract (EE, lignin, neutral and acid detergent fibers (NDF and ADF and TDN. A fraction of the sample of silages from each treatment was compressed for extraction of the juice and determination of the silage quality. There was difference between the forms of cultivation for the dry matter production per hectare. The CEC with production of 11920.1 kg DM/ha did not differ from CB (8997.41 kg DM/ha or CBCal (10452.10 kg DM/ha; however, it was superior to CBMac (8429.75 kg DM/ha and to CBSty (8164.83 kg DM/ha. The contents of DM, CP, NDF, ADF, lignin and TDN did not differ between the silages from the different treatments. All the silages presented

  2. Long term effects of ash fertilization of reed canary grass; Laangtidseffekter av askgoedsling vid roerflensodling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmborg, Cecilia; Lindvall, Eva

    2011-03-15

    Reed canary grass (RCG) is a bio-energy crop with large potential. It is a 1.5 . 2.5 m tall grass that is harvested in spring when it is grown as a fuel. At spring harvest it yields 3 . 10 ton field dried material per ha and year. One disadvantage when reed canary grass is used as a fuel is the high ash content, 5-10 %. This means that large quantities of ash have to be deposited which is expensive, about 1000 SEK/ton. However, since reed canary grass ash contains reasonable amounts of plant nutrients like phosphorous (P), potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) it could be recycled as fertilizer in agriculture. The ash can be used without any pretreatment since, in agriculture, plant availability is desirable. The aim of this project, was to evaluate a field experiment, where ash was used as a fertilizer in reed canary grass. The experiment was established at the SLU research station in Umea, Sweden in the spring 2002. Three different fertilizer treatments were applied: Treatment A was fertilized with an ash produced by combustion of RCG together with municipal wastes (paper, plastic, leather), treatment B, an ash from combustion of RCG, and for treatment C commercial fertilizers were used. In total, 100 kg ha-1 of nitrogen (N), 15 kg ha-1 of phosphorous (P) and 80 kg ha-1 of potassium (K), were applied each year in all treatments. The amount of ash in treatment A and B was calculated from the chemical analysis of the ashes to be equal to the required amount of P, while K and N were supplied also by commercial fertilizers. [Table 1. Composition of the ashes] Literature study: There is a lack of knowledge about fertilization with reed canary grass ash, since few experiments have been conducted. The composition of reed canary grass is dependent of harvest date and the soil substrate. The amount of ash and the amount of harmful substances such as potassium and chloride generally decreases over winter, giving an increased fuel quality from spring harvest compared to autumn

  3. Preferential production and transport of grass-derived pyrogenic carbon in NE-Australian savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz, Gustavo; Goodrick, Iain; Wurster, Christopher; Nelson, Paul N.; Wynn, Jonathan; Bird, Michael

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the main factors driving fire regimes in grasslands and savannas is critical to better manage their biodiversity and functions. Moreover, improving our knowledge on pyrogenic carbon (PyC) dynamics, including formation, transport and deposition, is fundamental to better understand a significant slow-cycling component of the global carbon cycle, particularly as these ecosystems account for a substantial proportion of the area globally burnt. However, a thorough assessment of past fire regimes in grass-dominated ecosystems is problematic due to challenges in interpreting the charcoal record of sediments. It is therefore critical to adopt appropriate sampling and analytical methods to allow the acquisition of reliable data and information on savanna fire dynamics. This study uses hydrogen pyrolysis (HyPy) to quantify PyC abundance and stable isotope composition (δ13C) in recent sediments across 38 micro-catchments covering a wide range of mixed C3/C4 vegetation in north Queensland, Australia. We exploited the contrasting δ13C values of grasses (i.e. C4; δ13C >-15‰) and woody vegetation (i.e. C3; δ13C <-24‰) to assess the preferential production and transport of grass-derived PyC in savanna ecosystems. Analyses were conducted on bulk and size-fractionated samples to determine the fractions into which PyC preferentially accumulates. Our data show that the δ13C value of PyC in the sediments is decoupled from the δ13C value of total organic carbon, which suggests that a significant component of PyC may be derived from incomplete grass combustion, even when the proportion of C4 grass biomass in the catchment was relatively small. Furthermore, we conducted 16 experimental burns that indicate that there is a comminution of PyC produced in-situ to smaller particles, which facilitates the transport of this material, potentially affecting its preservation potential. Savanna fires preferentially burn the grass understory rather than large trees, leading to

  4. From pasture grass to cattle milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131 I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131 I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131 I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131 I in milk were also presented. (author)

  5. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  6. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  7. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  8. ‚esponse of —n o™e—n gener—l ™ir™ul—tion model to wind —nd ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    exe™utionF ƒome of these —dv—nt—ges m—ke this. —ppro—™h prefer—˜le over other —ppro—™hesF. „he wind field used for these simul—tion experiE ments —re derived from igw‡p ews€ —r™hivesF „he experiment w—s performed ˜y spinning up the model from — st—te of rest with pres™ri˜ed thermodyn—mi™.

  9. Perennial Grass Bioenergy Cropping on Wet Marginal Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Srabani; Teuffer, Karin; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Walter, Michael F.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Richards, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    The control of soil moisture, vegetation type, and prior land use on soil health parameters of perennial grass cropping systems on marginal lands is not well known. A fallow wetness-prone marginal site in New York (USA) was converted to perennial grass bioenergy feedstock production. Quadruplicate

  10. No positive feedback between fire and a nonnative perennial grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erika L. Geiger; Guy R. McPherson

    2005-01-01

    Semi-desert grasslands flank the “Sky Island” mountains in southern Arizona and Northern Mexico. Many of these grasslands are dominated by nonnative grasses, which potentially alter native biotic communities. One specific concern is the potential for a predicted feedback between nonnative grasses and fire. In a large-scale experiment in southern Arizona we investigated...

  11. Analysis of Fusarium causing dermal toxicosis in marram grass planters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snijders, CHA; Samson, RA; Hoekstra, ES; Ouellet, T; Miller, JD; deRooijvanderGoes, PCEM; Baar, AJM; Dubois, AEJ; Kauffman, HF

    1996-01-01

    In the European coastal dunes, marram grass (Ammophila arenaria) is planted in order to control sand erosion. In the years 1986 to 1991, workers on the Wadden islands in the Netherlands planting marram grass showed lesions of skin and mucous membranes, suggesting a toxic reaction. Fusarium culmorum

  12. Conceptual model for reinforced grass on inner dike slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; ComCoast

    2005-01-01

    A desk study has been carried out in order to develop a conceptual model for the erosion of inner dike slopes with reinforced grass cover. Based on the results the following can be concluded: The presence of a geosynthetic in a grass slope can be taken into account in the EPM method by increasing

  13. Grass defoliation affecting survival and growth of seedlings of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two experiments were conducted, one in the field and the other in the greenhouse, to investigate the effects of the intensity and frequency of grass defoliation on the survival and growth of Acacia karroo seedlings. In the greenhouse, seedlings growing with heavily clipped grasses had higher biomass production than those ...

  14. Defoliation effects of perennial grasses – continuing confusion | DL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Although an adequate knowledge of growth patterns and defoliation effects in perennial grasses is a prerequisite for the rational use of veld and pastures for animal production, our knowledge of this subject is far from adequate. The results of various physiological and clipping studies on tropical and sub-tropical grasses are ...

  15. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  16. EBIPM | Finding the Tools to Manage Invasive Annual Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    management decisions for a given landscape based on ecological principles. Take a look at our video " Grass Management How much could prevention save you? Guidelines to Implement EBIPM Weed Prevention Areas Grass Facts/ID The EBIPM Model Crooked River Weed Management Area Guide Tools for Educators EBIPM High

  17. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Cure

    2013-01-01

    Developing a method of agricultural field reclamation to native grasses in the Lower San Pedro Watershed could prove to be a valuable tool for educational and practical purposes. Agricultural field reclamation utilizing native grass crop production will address water table depletion, soil degradation and the economic viability of the communities within the watershed....

  18. Effect of grass species on NDF ruminal degradability and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uzivatel

    Abstract. The objective of this study was to compare the ruminal degradability of neutral detergent fibre (NDF) .... Felina were evaluated in the present study. The grass was harvested from the primary growth of monocultured grasses on 19 and 26 May of 2004 and 27 May and 10 ...... Nutritional Ecology of the Ruminant.

  19. Soil nitrogen mineralization not affected by grass species traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged Ikram Nosshi; Jack Butler; M. J. Trlica

    2007-01-01

    Species N use traits was evaluated as a mechanism whereby Bromus inermis (Bromus), an established invasive, might alter soil N supply in a Northern mixed-grass prairie. We compared soils under stands of Bromus with those from three representative native grasses of different litter C/N: Andropogon...

  20. Seed production and establishment of western Oregon native grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale C. Darris

    2005-01-01

    It is well understood that native grasses are ecologically important and provide numerous benefits. However, unfavorable economics, low seed yields for some species, genetic issues, and a lack of experience behind the production and establishment of most western Oregon native grasses remain significant impediments for their expanded use. By necessity, adaptation of...

  1. Analysis of Some Heavy Metals in Grass ( Paspalum Orbiculare ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The increased deposition of trace metals from vehicle exhausts on plants has raised concerns about the risks of the quality of food consumed by humans since the heavy metals emitted through the exhaust by vehicles can enter food chain through deposition on grass grazed by animals. Grass (Paspalum Orbiculare) and ...

  2. Identification of grazed grasses using epidermal characters | R ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of anatomical features of the abaxial epidermis of grasses is discussed for the identification of fragments of epidermis present in samples of rumen. The reliability of this technique, and the variation of the epidermal characters in two widely distributed species of grass, is given. A "Key" to identity certain genera of ...

  3. Invasive grasses change landscape structure and fire behavior in Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Alexander P. Dale; Tomoaki Miura

    2014-01-01

    How does potential fire behavior differ in grass-invaded non-native forests vs open grasslands? How has land cover changed from 1950–2011 along two grassland/forest ecotones in Hawaii with repeated fires? A study on non-native forest with invasive grass understory and invasive grassland (Megathyrsus maximus) ecosystems on Oahu, Hawaii, USA was...

  4. Autopolyploids in fodder grass breeding: induction and field performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dabkevičienė, G.; Kemešytė, V.; Statkevičiūtė, G.; Lemežienė, N.; Brazauskas, G.

    2017-07-01

    Doubling of chromosome set directly affects plant performance through increase of organ size, higher feeding value and increased resistance to adverse environmental factors. Therefore efficient methods of polyploid induction are needed in order to develop new varieties of naturally diploid fodder grass species. The efficiency of antimitotic agents as colchicine, amiprophos-methyl, trifluralin and oryzalin was compared in a series of tetraploid induction experiments in Lolium multiflorum, L. perenne and Festuca pratensis, while newly developed tetraploid plants were compared to standard tetraploid varieties in the field trials. Colchicine treatment proved to be the most efficient method for in vitro cultured embryos in comparison with the other agents. Induced tetraploids of F. pratensis produced higher dry matter and seed yield and could be used for the development of new varieties. Induced tetraploid plants of Lolium spp. were equal to the standard varieties in field trials, therefore they could be used as parental genotypes in crosses. Induced tetraploids of F. pratensis produced higher dry matter and seed yield and could be used for development of new variety.

  5. Native Grass Community Management Plan for the Oak Ridge Reservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryon, Michael G [ORNL; Parr, Patricia Dreyer [ORNL; Cohen, Kari [ORNL

    2007-06-01

    Land managers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory in East Tennessee are restoring native warm-season grasses and wildflowers to various sites across the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR). Some of the numerous benefits to planting native grasses and forbs include improved habitat quality for wildlife, improved aesthetic values, lower long-term maintenance costs, and compliance with Executive Order 13112 (Clinton 1999). Challenges to restoring native plants on the ORR include the need to gain experience in establishing and maintaining these communities and the potentially greater up-front costs of getting native grasses established. The goals of the native grass program are generally outlined on a fiscal-year basis. An overview of some of the issues associated with the successful and cost-effective establishment and maintenance of native grass and wildflower stands on the ORR is presented in this report.

  6. Efficacy of Biosolids in Assisted Phytostabilization of Metalliferous Acidic Sandy Soils with Five Grass Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kacprzak, Malgorzata; Grobelak, Anna; Grosser, Anna; Prasad, M. N. V.

    2013-01-01

    The role of sewage sludge as an immobilising agent in the phytostabilization of metal-contaminated soil was evaluated using five grass species viz., Dactylis glomerata L., Festuca arundinacea Schreb., F. rubra L., Lolium perenne L., L. westerwoldicum L. The function of metal immobilization was investigated by monitoring pH, Eh and Cd, Pb, and Zn levels in column experiment over a period of 5-months. Grasses grown on sewage sludge-amendments produced high biomass in comparison to controls. A significant reduction in metal uptake by plants was also observed as a result of sewage sludge application, which was attributed to decreased bioavailability through soil stabilisation. We have observed that the sludge amendment decreased metal bioavailability and concentrations in soil at a depth of 25 cm, in contrast to untreated columns, where metal concentrations in the soil solution were very high. PMID:24912245

  7. Genome sequence of foxtail millet (Setaria italica) provides insights into grass evolution and biofuel potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Gengyun; Liu, Xin; Quan, Zhiwu; Cheng, Shifeng; Xu, Xun; Pan, Shengkai; Xie, Min; Zeng, Peng; Yue, Zhen; Wang, Wenliang; Tao, Ye; Bian, Chao; Han, Changlei; Xia, Qiuju; Peng, Xiaohua; Cao, Rui; Yang, Xinhua; Zhan, Dongliang; Hu, Jingchu; Zhang, Yinxin; Li, Henan; Li, Hua; Li, Ning; Wang, Junyi; Wang, Chanchan; Wang, Renyi; Guo, Tao; Cai, Yanjie; Liu, Chengzhang; Xiang, Haitao; Shi, Qiuxiang; Huang, Ping; Chen, Qingchun; Li, Yingrui; Wang, Jun; Zhao, Zhihai; Wang, Jian

    2012-05-13

    Foxtail millet (Setaria italica), a member of the Poaceae grass family, is an important food and fodder crop in arid regions and has potential for use as a C(4) biofuel. It is a model system for other biofuel grasses, including switchgrass and pearl millet. We produced a draft genome (∼423 Mb) anchored onto nine chromosomes and annotated 38,801 genes. Key chromosome reshuffling events were detected through collinearity identification between foxtail millet, rice and sorghum including two reshuffling events fusing rice chromosomes 7 and 9, 3 and 10 to foxtail millet chromosomes 2 and 9, respectively, that occurred after the divergence of foxtail millet and rice, and a single reshuffling event fusing rice chromosome 5 and 12 to foxtail millet chromosome 3 that occurred after the divergence of millet and sorghum. Rearrangements in the C(4) photosynthesis pathway were also identified.

  8. The T Cell Response to Major Grass Allergens Is Regulated and Includes IL-10 Production in Atopic but Not in Non-Atopic Subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domdey, A.; Liu, A.; Millner, A.

    2010-01-01

    in allergen-specific responses. The aim was to determine whether major grass allergens induce production of suppressive cytokines in allergic and healthy subjects and to examine the inhibitory effect of these cytokines on allergic responses. Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated...... from healthy and grass-allergic donors and stimulated with the major grass allergens Phl p 1 or Phl p 5. The effects of endogenous IL-10 and/or TGF-beta on proliferation and cytokine production were determined by use of blocking antibodies. In addition, the number of CD4(+)CD25(+) T cells...... in PBMCs in the two groups, but fewer cells from atopic donors were CD4(+)CD25(+)CCR4(+) and more cells were CD4(+)CD25(+)CLA(+) compared to healthy donors. Conclusion: Allergen-specific responses of grass allergic patients but not in non-atopic subjects are influenced by regulatory cytokines produced...

  9. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B. [Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States). Dept. of Forestry

    1998-12-31

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat.

  10. Establishing native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, T.G.; Larkin, J.L.; Arnett, M.B.

    1998-01-01

    The authors evaluated various methods of establishing native warm season grasses on two reclaimed Eastern Kentucky mines from 1994--1997. Most current reclamation practices incorporate the use of tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) and other cool-season grasses/legumes that provide little wildlife habitats. The use of native warm season grasses will likely improve wildlife habitat on reclaimed strip mines. Objectives of this study were to compare the feasibility of establishing these grasses during fall, winter, or spring using a native rangeland seeder or hydroseeding; a fertilizer application at planting; or cold-moist stratification prior to hydroseeding. Vegetative cover, bare ground, species richness, and biomass samples were collected at the end of each growing season. Native warm season grass plantings had higher plant species richness compared to cool-season reclamation mixtures. There was no difference in establishment of native warm season grasses as a result of fertilization or seeding technique. Winter native warm season grass plantings were failures and cold-moist stratification did not increase plant establishment during any season. As a result of a drought during 1997, both cool-season and warm season plantings were failures. Cool-season reclamation mixtures had significantly more vegetative cover and biomass compared to native warm season grass mixtures and the native warm season grass plantings did not meet vegetative cover requirements for bond release. Forbs and legumes that established well included pale purple coneflower (Echinacea pallida), lance-leaf coreopsis (Coreopsis lanceolata), round-headed lespedeza (Lespedeza capitata), partridge pea (Cassia fasiculata), black-eyed susan (Rudbeckia hirta), butterfly milkweed (Asclepias tuberosa), and bergamot (Monarda fistulosa). Results from two demonstration plots next to research plots indicate it is possible to establish native warm season grasses on Eastern Kentucky strip mines for wildlife habitat

  11. Rumen escape protein in grass and grass silage deterimened with a nylon bag and an enzymatic technique

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Rumen escape protein (REP) was determined for six grasses and 16 grass silages using a nylon bag technique and an in vitro technique using a proteolytic enzyme preparation of Streptomyces griseus. In vitro, the samples were incubated for 0, 1, 6 and 24 h. The highest correlation observed between

  12. EroGRASS : Failure of grass cover layers at seaward and shoreward dike slopes. design, construction and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Verheij, H.J.; Cao, T.M.; Dassanayake, D.; Roelvink, D.; Piontkowitz, T.

    2009-01-01

    A large number of the dikes in the North Sea and Baltic Sea regions are covered with grass that is exposed to hydraulic loading from waves and currents during storm surges. During previous storm surges the grass cover layers often showed large strength and remained undamaged. A clear physical

  13. Established native perennial grasses out-compete an invasive annual grass regardless of soil water and nutrient availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher M. McGlone; Carolyn Hull Sieg; Thomas E. Kolb; Ty Nietupsky

    2012-01-01

    Competition and resource availability influence invasions into native perennial grasslands by nonnative annual grasses such as Bromus tectorum. In two greenhouse experiments we examined the influence of competition, water availability, and elevated nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) availability on growth and reproduction of the invasive annual grass B. tectorum and two...

  14. Perrenial Grasses for Sustainable European Protein Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Uffe; Lærke, Poul Erik

    2016-01-01

    reduction goals for agriculture. Denmark has an especially vulnerable aquatic environment due to sandy soils, a long coast line, and high precipitation. Thus, fulfilling the WFD means some areas must halve their nitrate leaching, and radical changes are required to reduce losses while maintaining profitable...... crop production. National scenarios show that up to ten million tonnes of additional biomass can be sourced in Denmark without reducing food production or increasing the area under cultivation if a biorefinery industry is established. In one of the scenarios optimized for additional environmental...... in the “environment” scenario. This scenario was achieved by converting approx. 9 % of agricultural land from annual crops into perennial grass. New experimental results support the anticipated increase in total biomass yield and reduction in nitrate leaching, when converting land currently used for grain crop...

  15. Preparation and characterization of activated carbon from reedy grass leaves by chemical activation with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jianzhong, E-mail: xjz8112@sina.com [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei (China); Chen, Lingzhi [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei (China); Department of Applied Chemistry, Hengshui University, Hengshui 053000, Hebei (China); Qu, Hongqiang; Jiao, Yunhong; Xie, Jixing [College of Chemistry and Environmental Science, Hebei University, Baoding 071002, Hebei (China); Xing, Guangen [Department of Applied Chemistry, Hengshui University, Hengshui 053000, Hebei (China)

    2014-11-30

    Highlights: • Activated carbons were produced from reedy grass leaves by activation with phosphoric acid. • The activated carbons have a large number of oxygen- and phosphorus-containing surface groups. • The structure of activated carbons was bight fibers features on the surface and the external surface of the activated carbons was slightly corrugated and abundant pores. - Abstract: Activated carbons were produced from reedy grass leaves by chemical activation with H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} in N{sub 2} atmosphere and their characteristics were investigated. The effects of activation temperature and time were examined. Adsorption capacity was demonstrated with BET and iodine number. Micropore volume and pore size distribution of activated carbons were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption isotherms. The surface area and iodine number of the activated carbons produced at 500 °C for 2 h were 1474 m{sup 2}/g and 1128 mg/g, respectively. Thermal decomposition of pure reedy grass leaves and H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-impregnated reedy grass leaves have been investigated with thermogravimetric/mass spectroscopy (TG–MS) technique. It was found that the temperature and intensity of maximum evolution of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}-impregnated reedy grass leaves were lower than that of pure reedy grass leaves. This implies that H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} as an activating reagent changed the thermal degradation of the reedy grass leaves, stabilized the cellulose structure, leading to a subsequent change in the evolution of porosity. The results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and Fourier-infrared spectroscopy analysis indicate that the produced activated carbons have rich functional groups on surface.

  16. Environmental performance assessment of Napier grass for bioenergy production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nimmanterdwong, Prathana; Chalermsinsuwan, Benjapon; Østergård, Hanne

    2017-01-01

    equivalence. This idea provides the quantitative indicators involving the resource use and the percent renewability of the systems. For the proposed biorefinery model, Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) grown in Thailand was used as lignocellulosic feedstock. An emergy assessment was performed in two parts...... cultivation and biorefinery stages. For Napier grass cultivation, most of the emergy support came from local resources in term of evapotranspiration of Napier grass (33%) and the diesel consumption during the cultivation process (21%). The emergy sustainability indicator of the cultivation was 0...

  17. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semere, T; Slater, F

    2005-07-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI.

  18. The effects of energy grass plantations on biodiversity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semere, T.; Slater, F.

    2005-01-01

    The ecological impact on local wildlife of biomass plantations of three different species of grasses has been monitored in the years 2002 to 2004 inclusive at farms in Herefordshire UK. Two of the grasses were not native to Britain. Wildlife monitored included ground flora, beetles, insects, birds, small mammals, butterflies, bees and hoverflies. The results provide a baseline of biodiversity data from biomass farms in England, although due to poor crop growth, the data from the switch-grass plantation was incomplete. The surveys were carried out by Cardiff University supported financially by the DTI

  19. Building supertrees: an empirical assessment using the grass family (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamin, Nicolas; Hodkinson, Trevor R; Savolainen, Vincent

    2002-02-01

    Large and comprehensive phylogenetic trees are desirable for studying macroevolutionary processes and for classification purposes. Such trees can be obtained in two different ways. Either the widest possible range of taxa can be sampled and used in a phylogenetic analysis to produce a "big tree," or preexisting topologies can be used to create a supertree. Although large multigene analyses are often favored, combinable data are not always available, and supertrees offer a suitable solution. The most commonly used method of supertree reconstruction, matrix representation with parsimony (MRP), is presented here. We used a combined data set for the Poaceae to (1) assess the differences between an approach that uses combined data and one that uses different MRP modifications based on the character partitions and (2) investigate the advantages and disadvantages of these modifications. Baum and Ragan and Purvis modifications gave similar results. Incorporating bootstrap support associated with pre-existing topologies improved Baum and Ragan modification and its similarity with a combined analysis. Finally, we used the supertree reconstruction approach on 55 published phylogenies to build one of most comprehensive phylogenetic trees published for the grass family including 403 taxa and discuss its strengths and weaknesses in relation to other published hypotheses.

  20. An integral projection model with YY-males and application to evaluating grass carp control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Richard A.; Eager, Eric A.; Brey, Marybeth; Hansen, Michael J.; Kocovsky, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Invasive fish species disrupt ecosystems and cause economic damage. Several methods have been discussed to control populations of invasive fish including the release of YY-males. YY-males are fish that have 2 male chromosomes compared to a XY-male. When YY-males mate, they only produce male (XY) offspring. This decreases the female proportion of the population and can, in theory, eradicate local populations by biasing the sex-ratio. YY-males have been used as a population control tool for brook trout in montane streams and lakes in Idaho, USA. The YY-male control method has been discussed for grass carp in Lake Erie, North America. We developed and presented an integral projection model for grass carp to model the use of YY-males as a control method for populations in this lake. Using only the YY-male control method, we found that high levels of YY-males would need to be release annually to control the species. Specifically, these levels were the same order of magnitude as the baseline adult population (e.g., 1000 YY-males needed to be released annual for 20 years to control a baseline adult population of 2500 grass carp). These levels may not be reasonable or obtainable for fisheries managers given the impacts of YY-males on aquatic vegetation and other constraints of natural resource management.

  1. Accuracy and Consistency of Grass Pollen Identification by Human Analysts Using Electron Micrographs of Surface Ornamentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Mander

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. Methods: We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. Results: Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. Discussion: The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias.

  2. Perennial pastures for marginal farming country in southern Queensland. 2. Potential new grass cultivar evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard G. Silcock

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Trials in the Condamine-Balonne basin, Australia, compared 11 promising perennial pasture grass accessions (4 Bothriochloa, 2 Cenchrus, 2 Urochloa and 1 each of Digitaria, Eragrostis and Panicum species against the best similar commercial cultivars on the basis of ease of establishment from seed, persistence once established, forage yield and ease of seed production.  Accessions sown at a site were determined by prior experience with them on a range of soils.  High quality seed was relatively easy to produce for both Urochloa species and for Eragrostis curvula CPI 30374 but problematic for the Bothriochloa spp.  Once established, all accessions persisted for 3–5 years and most were well grazed, but adequate establishment was sometimes a problem with Panicum stapfianum and Bothriochloa ewartiana.  The dry matter yield ratings of the non-commercial lines were similar to those of the commercial equivalents of the same species.  While agronomically valuable, none of the promising new grasses was considered worthy of commercialization at this point because their strengths did not warrant the setting up of a seed-production business in competition with current commercial enterprises.  Long-standing cultivars such as Gayndah buffel and Nixon sabi grass continued to exhibit their superior pasture qualities.Keywords: Herbicide tolerance, persistence, forage yield, establishment ease, commercialization, seed production.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(315-26

  3. Effects of ultrasonic pretreatments on quality, energy consumption and sterilization of barley grass in freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2018-01-01

    Barley grass is a plant resource for rehabilitation therapy. Its processing requires retaining nutrition well for rehabilitation cure of consumers. To meet the aim as well as low energy consumption and microbiological safety of products, ultrasonic treatments (UT) were applied to bathing materials at different power levels (10, 30, 45, 60W/L) for 10mins. After treatments, the bathed barley grass (100g) was freeze-dried under vacuum -0.09MPa with fixed power of 2W/g. Parameters of color, microbial colony, energy consumption, glass transition temperature, moisture content, water activity, taste substances, contents of flavonoid and chlorophyll were determined after drying. In contrast with no treatment case, UT (45W/L) decreased drying time by 14% and decreased energy consumption by 19%; UT (60W/L) decreased total microbial colonies by 33%. Also, UT (30W/L) yielded contents of flavonoid (9.2/kg) and chlorophyll (10.5g/kg) of dried sample; UT power (10W/L) yielded the highest L ∗ (51.5) and the lowest a ∗ (-9.3) value. Simultaneously, UT leads to a higher glass transition temperature (Tg), lower water activity and produces less sourness and bitterness of dried products. Ultra-sonication is an alternative to improve quality, flavor and energy consumption of barley grass in freeze drying. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Using Grass Cuttings from Sports Fields for Anaerobic Digestion and Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Nitsche

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Sports fields provide a recreation space for citizens, but also generate grass biomass, which is cut weekly during the main seasons and therefore could be used in energy generation (combustion or anaerobic digestion. To evaluate the technical suitability of the grass cuttings, silage was produced from four sports fields during one vegetation period and investigated for relevant properties. Potential methane yield was determined with batch tests. Mean methane yield was 291.86 lN·kg−1 VSadded (VS, volatile solid. Neutral detergent fiber concentration was low (44.47% DM, dry matter, yet mineral concentration was high in comparison to grass types cut at a lower frequency. Concentrations of Cl, N, and S, which may lead to unfavorable emissions, fouling, and corrosion during combustion, were too high for an unproblematic combustion process. This was still the case even after applying a mineral-reducing pretreatment, which generates a fiber-rich press cake and a press fluid rich in easy soluble substances. Digestion of the press fluid led to methane yields of 340.10 lN·kg−1 VSadded and the press cake had a higher heating value of 19.61 MJ·kg−1 DM, which is close to that of coniferous wood. It can be concluded that biomass from sports fields could be a suitable co-substrate in bio-energy generation.

  5. Forage production in mixed grazing systems of elephant grass with arrowleaf clover or forage peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiane Cristine Seibt

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Most dairy production systems are pasture-based, usually consisting of sole grass species. This system facilitates pasture management, but results in high production costs, mainly because of nitrogen fertilizers. An alternative to making forage systems more sustainable is to introduce legumes into the pasture. Mixed pastures allow better forage distribution over time and reduce fertilization costs. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate, throughout the year, three forage systems (FS: FS1 (control - elephant grass (EG, ryegrass (RG, and spontaneous species (SS; FS2 - EG + RG + SS + arrowleaf clover; and FS3 - EG + RG + SS + forage peanut. Elephant grass was planted in rows spaced 4 m apart. Ryegrass was sown between the EG lines, in the winter. Arrowleaf clover was sown according to the respective treatments and forage peanut was preserved. Evaluation was carried out using Holstein cows. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design, with three treatments (FS, and three repetitions (paddocks with repeated measurements (grazing cycles. Forage mass achieved 3.46, 3.80, and 3.91 t ha-1 for the treatments FS1, FS2 and FS3, respectively. The forage systems intercropped with legumes produced the best results.

  6. High uptake of 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene by vetiver grass - Potential for phytoremediation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makris, Konstantinos C.; Shakya, Kabindra M.; Datta, Rupali; Sarkar, Dibyendu; Pachanoor, Devanand

    2007-01-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is a potent mutagen, and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. Vast areas that have been previously used as ranges, munition burning, and open detonation sites are heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remediation activities in such sites are expensive and damaging to the ecosystem. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective, environment-friendly solution, utilizing plants to extract TNT from contaminated soil. We investigated the potential use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides) to effectively remove TNT from contaminated solutions. Vetiver grass plants were grown in hydroponic systems containing 40 mg TNT L -1 for 8 d. Aqueous concentrations of TNT reached the method detection limit (∼1 μg L -1 ) within the 8-d period, demonstrating high affinity of vetiver for TNT, without any visible toxic effects. Results from this preliminary hydroponic study are encouraging, but in need of verification using TNT-contaminated soils. - Vetiver grass demonstrates ability to absorb TNT in aqueous media

  7. Transfer coefficient study of Sr-90 in the soil-grass-milk chain for Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zerquera, J. T.; Sarria P, R.

    1996-01-01

    One of the most important problems in modern radioecology is the lack of able information about the features of radionuclide migration in tropical and subtropical environment. The development of nuclear energy and the enhancing in the applications of nuclear techniques in those latitudes indicate that studies in this area are necessary. Cuba is carrying out studies on radioecological characterization of the principal food chains in the country. One of the objectives of these studies is to define the values of the transfer coefficients to be used in the evaluation programs for the assessment of the radiological impact of practices which involve ionizing radiation. This paper shows the results obtained in the determination of Sr-90 transfer coefficients in soil-grass-milk food chain in 'La Quebrada', a place near the Havana City where an important part of the milk that the citizens consume is produced. Transfer coefficients for Sr-90 were calculated on the basis of data collected during 5 years in the region. Soil-grass transfer coefficients are in the range 0.18-5 while grass-milk coefficients are in the range of 1.2x10 -4 - 6x10 -3 day/L. These values are in accordance with values reported by other authors in the literature. (authors). 4 refs., 2 tabs

  8. Prognostic implications of left ventricular mass and geometry following myocardial infarction: the VALIANT (VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion) Echocardiographic Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verma, Anil; Meris, Alessandra; Skali, Hicham

    2008-01-01

    associated with RWT was independent of LVMi. CONCLUSIONS: Increased baseline LV mass and abnormal LV geometry portend an increased risk for morbidity and mortality following high-risk myocardial infarction. Concentric LV hypertrophy carries the greatest risk of adverse cardiovascular events including death...... cardiovascular events. METHODS: Quantitative echocardiographic analyses were performed at baseline in 603 patients from the VALIANT (VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion) echocardiographic study. The left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Patients were...... classified into 4 mutually exclusive groups based on RWT and LVMi as follows: normal geometry (normal LVMi and normal RWT), concentric remodeling (normal LVMi and increased RWT), eccentric hypertrophy (increased LVMi and normal RWT), and concentric hypertrophy (increased LVMi and increased RWT). Cox...

  9. Energy evaluation of fresh grass in the diets of lactating dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinenberg, M.H.; Zom, R.L.G.; Valk, H.

    2002-01-01

    The discrepancy between the estimated feeding value of fresh grass and the output per kg grass in terms of milk and maintenance was studied by evaluating 12 experiments with grass-fed dairy cows. The percentage grass in the diets varied between 40 and 90. Intake and milk production were recorded

  10. Some observation on the root growth of young apple trees and their uptake of nutrients when grown in herbicided strips in grassed orchards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, D.

    1977-01-01

    Root laboratory observations of the root growth of 4-year-old trees of Cox/M.26 planted in a herbicided strip in grass indicated that during the year 70% of the new growth occurred in the strip. Growth appeared to begin earlier during the year under bare soil than under grass. Nitrogen absorption from the strip and the grassed alley was assessed by measuring 15 N uptake; at 10 cm depth uptake was almost entirely from the strip. An experiment using 2-year-old trees of Cox/M.106 and 15 N placements at 7.5 and 15 cm depths in the strip and 15 cm in the grassed alley gave similar results. With 32 P as a tracer and similar trees a small amount of uptake from 25 cm depth under grass was detected. The experiments indicate that young trees produce most of their new roots in the herbicide strips where most of their nutrient uptake occurs and little or none from the grassed alleys. The absorption of nitrogen into the leaves was greater in early summer than autumn

  11. Heavy metal concentration in forage grasses and extractability from some acid mine spoils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W. (Alabama A and M University, Normal (United States). Department of Plant and Soil Science)

    1993-06-01

    Laboratory and greenhouse studies were conducted on several forage grasses, bermudagrass ([ital Cynodon dactylon]), creeping red fescue ([ital Festuca rubra]), Kentucky 31-tall fescue ([ital Festuca arundinacea]), oat ([ital Avena sativa]), orchardgrass ([ital Dactylis glomerata]), perennial ryegrass ([ital Lolium perenne]), sorghum ([ital Sorghum bicolor]), triticale (X. [ital triticosecale Wittmack]), and winter wheat ([ital Triticum aestivum]) grown on three Alabama acid mine spoils to study heavy metal accumulation, dry matter yield and spoil metal extractability by three chemical extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl). Heavy metals removed by these extractants were correlated with their accumulation by several forage grasses. Among the forages tested, creeping red fescue did not survive the stressful conditions of any of the spoils, while orchard grass and Kentucky 31-tall fescue did not grow in Mulberry spoil. Sorghum followed by bermudagrass generally produced the highest dry matter yield. However, the high yielding bermudagrass was most effective in accumulating high tissue levels of Mn and Zn from all spoils (compared to the other grasses) but did not remove Ni. On the average, higher levels of metals were extracted from spoils in the order of 0.1 M HCl[gt] Mehlich 1[gt] DTPA. However, DTPA extracted all the metals from spoils while Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract detectable levels of Ni. All of the extractants were quite effective in determining plant available Zn from the spoils. For the other metals, the effective determination of plant availability depended on the crop, the extractant, and the metal in concert. 20 refs., 6 tabs.

  12. Brassinosteroid Mediated Cell Wall Remodeling in Grasses under Abiotic Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolan Rao

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Unlike animals, plants, being sessile, cannot escape from exposure to severe abiotic stresses such as extreme temperature and water deficit. The dynamic structure of plant cell wall enables them to undergo compensatory changes, as well as maintain physical strength, with changing environments. Plant hormones known as brassinosteroids (BRs play a key role in determining cell wall expansion during stress responses. Cell wall deposition differs between grasses (Poaceae and dicots. Grass species include many important food, fiber, and biofuel crops. In this article, we focus on recent advances in BR-regulated cell wall biosynthesis and remodeling in response to stresses, comparing our understanding of the mechanisms in grass species with those in the more studied dicots. A more comprehensive understanding of BR-mediated changes in cell wall integrity in grass species will benefit the development of genetic tools to improve crop productivity, fiber quality and plant biomass recalcitrance.

  13. Effect of machinery wheel load on grass yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Kristensen, Kristian

    2010-01-01

    Effect of machinery wheel load on grass   Ole Green1, Rasmus N. Jørgensen2, Kristian Kristensen3, René Gislum3, Dionysis Bochtis1, & Claus G. Sørensen1   1University of Aarhus, Dept. of Agricultural Engineering 2University of Southern Denmark, Inst. of Chemical Eng., Biotechnology and Environmental...... 3University of Aarhus, Dept. of Genetics and Biotechnology   Corresponding author: Ole Green Address & e-mail: Research Centre Foulum, Blichers Allé 20, 8830 Tjele. Ole.Green@agrsci.dk     Abstract   Different traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass...... and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffic intensities with 35 replicates and 1 traffic free treatment with 245 replicates, totalling 17...

  14. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods......In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  15. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qiulan; Zhu Suijiang; Cheng Yaodong; Chen Gang

    2010-01-01

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. In this paper we first give a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  16. Designing a New Raster Sub-System for GRASS-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Hruby

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with a design of a new raster sub-system intended for modern GIS systems open for client and server operation, database connection and strong application interface (API. Motivation for such a design comes from the current state of API working in GRASS 6. If found attractive, the here presented design and its implementation (referred as RG7 may be integrated to the future new generation of the GRASS Geographical Information System version 7-8. The paper describes in details the concept of raster tiling, computer storage of rasters and basic raster access procedures. Finally, the paper gives a simple benchmarking experiment of random read access to raster files imported from the Spearfish dataset. The experiment compares the early implementation of RG7 with the current implementation of rasters in GRASS 6. As the result, the experiment shows the RG7 to be significantly faster than GRASS in random read access to large raster files.

  17. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses are members of the plant family Poaceae, and are primar- ily known for their ... Madagascar Conservation & Development is the journal of. Indian Ocean .... cording to the classification by Kellogg (2015). With 64 ..... Flowering plants.

  18. Sonoran Desert ecosystem transformation by a C4 grass without the grass/fire cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Aaryn D.; Betancourt, Julio; McClaran, Mitchel P.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim Biological invasions facilitate ecosystem transformation by altering the structure and function, diversity, dominance and disturbance regimes. A classic case is the grass–fire cycle in which grass invasion increases the frequency, scale and/or intensity of wildfires and promotes the continued invasion of invasive grasses. Despite wide acceptance of the grass–fire cycle, questions linger about the relative roles that interspecific plant competition and fire play in ecosystem transformations. Location Sonoran Desert Arizona Upland of the Santa Catalina Mountains, Arizona, USA. Methods We measured species cover, density and saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea) size structure along gradients of Pennisetum ciliare invasion at 10 unburned/ungrazed P. ciliare patches. Regression models quantified differences in diversity, cover and density with respect to P. ciliare cover, and residence time and a Fisher's exact test detected demographic changes in saguaro populations. Because P. ciliare may have initially invaded locations that were both more invasible and less diverse, we ran analyses with and without the plots in which initial infestations were located. Results Richness and diversity decreased with P. ciliare cover as did cover and density of most dominant species. Richness and diversity declined with increasing time since invasion, suggesting an ongoing transformation. The proportion of old-to-young Carnegiea gigantea was significantly lower in plots with dominant P. ciliare cover. Main conclusions Rich desert scrub (15–25 species per plot) was transformed into depauperate grassland (2–5 species per plot) within 20 years following P. ciliare invasion without changes to the fire regime. While the onset of a grass–fire cycle may drive ecosystem change in the later stages and larger scales of grass invasions of arid lands, competition by P. ciliare can drive small-scale transformations earlier in the invasion. Linking competition-induced transformation rates with

  19. BUFFEL GRASS MORPHOAGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION FROM Cenchrus GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO, LEILA REGINA GOMES PASSOS; ANTONIO, RAFAELA PRISCILA; ASSIS, JOSÉ GERALDO DE AQUINO; MOREIRA, JOSÉ NILTON; LIRA, IRLANE CRISTINE DE SOUZA ANDRADE

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT This study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi-Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty-five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each cut. Characterizatio...

  20. Buffel grass morphoagronomic characterization from cenchrus germplasm active bank.

    OpenAIRE

    BRUNO, L. R. G. P.; ANTONIO, R. P.; ASSIS, J. G. de A.; MOREIRA, J. N.; LIRA, I. C. de S. A.

    2017-01-01

    his study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB) from Embrapa Semi - Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty - five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each ...

  1. The Potential of Cellulosic Ethanol Production from Grasses in Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinaporn Wongwatanapaiboon

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The grasses in Thailand were analyzed for the potentiality as the alternative energy crops for cellulosic ethanol production by biological process. The average percentage composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, and lignin in the samples of 18 types of grasses from various provinces was determined as 31.85–38.51, 31.13–42.61, and 3.10–5.64, respectively. The samples were initially pretreated with alkaline peroxide followed by enzymatic hydrolysis to investigate the enzymatic saccharification. The total reducing sugars in most grasses ranging from 500–600 mg/g grasses (70–80% yield were obtained. Subsequently, 11 types of grasses were selected as feedstocks for the ethanol production by simultaneous saccharification and cofermentation (SSCF. The enzymes, cellulase and xylanase, were utilized for hydrolysis and the yeasts, Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Pichia stipitis, were applied for cofermentation at 35°C for 7 days. From the results, the highest yield of ethanol, 1.14 g/L or 0.14 g/g substrate equivalent to 32.72% of the theoretical values was obtained from Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass. When the yields of dry matter were included in the calculations, Sri Lanka ecotype vetiver grass gave the yield of ethanol at 1,091.84 L/ha/year, whereas the leaves of dwarf napier grass showed the maximum yield of 2,720.55 L/ha/year (0.98 g/L or 0.12 g/g substrate equivalent to 30.60% of the theoretical values.

  2. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: An annotated bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    This bibliography and associated literature synthesis (Melcher and Skagen, 2005) was developed for the Playa Lakes Joint Venture (PLJV). The PLJV sought compilation and annotation of the literature on grass buffers for protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants. In addition, PLJV sought information regarding the extent to which buffers may attenuate the precipitation runoff needed to fill playas, and avian use of buffers. We emphasize grass buffers, but we also provide information on other buffer types.

  3. Turbulent transfer characteristics of radioiodine effluents from air to grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markee, E. H. [ARFRO, Environmental Science Services Administration, Idaho Falls, Idaho (United States)

    1967-07-01

    A total of 20 controlled field releases of radioiodine have been performed at the National Reactor Testing Station in Idaho as a portion of a program to study the transmission of gaseous radioiodine through the air-vegetation-cow-milk-human chain. Most of the releases were conducted over typical pasture grasses during different wind and stability conditions. Radioiodine adherence to grass and carbon plates was measured during most of the tests. Vertical air concentration profiles and turbulence parameters were measured to determine flux characteristics. Analysis of the data reveals the complex interdisciplinary nature of transfer of radioiodine from air to a natural surface. The data are in reasonable agreement with the deposition models of Sheppard and Chamberlain when corrections for the physical and biological receptiveness of the grass and grass density are made. The average ratios of momentum to mass flux were found to be 0.9 in stable conditions and 1.4 in unstable conditions. These ratios demonstrate the effect on mass flux in the lowest 4m by a surface that acts as a partial sink for gaseous effluents. This series of releases indicates the need for further research on the biological receptiveness of grass and turbulent transfer within a grass canopy. (author)

  4. Estimating grass-clover ratio variations caused by traffic intensities using image analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Grøn; Green, Ole

    Grass and especially clover have a negative yield response as a function of  traffic intensity.  Conventional grass-clover production for silage have high traffic intensity due to fertilizing with slurry, cutting the grass, rolling the grass into swaths, and collecting and chopping the grass...... to fulfill the aim [1]http://www.ruralni.gov.uk/index/publications/press_articles/dairy-2/role-of-clover.htm...

  5. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J; Worm, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.......Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis....

  6. Gene Clusters for Insecticidal Loline Alkaloids in the Grass-Endophytic Fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum

    OpenAIRE

    Spiering, Martin J.; Moon, Christina D.; Wilkinson, Heather H.; Schardl, Christopher L.

    2005-01-01

    Loline alkaloids are produced by mutualistic fungi symbiotic with grasses, and they protect the host plants from insects. Here we identify in the fungal symbiont, Neotyphodium uncinatum, two homologous gene clusters (LOL-1 and LOL-2) associated with loline-alkaloid production. Nine genes were identified in a 25-kb region of LOL-1 and designated (in order) lolF-1, lolC-1, lolD-1, lolO-1, lolA-1, lolU-1, lolP-1, lolT-1, and lolE-1. LOL-2 contained the homologs lolC-2 through lolE-2 in the same ...

  7. Spreaders, igniters, and burning shrubs: plant flammability explains novel fire dynamics in grass-invaded deserts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Ramirez, Andres; Veldman, Joseph W; Holzapfel, Claus; Moloney, Kirk A

    2016-10-01

    Novel fire regimes are an important cause and consequence of global environmental change that involve interactions among biotic, climatic, and human components of ecosystems. Plant flammability is key to these interactions, yet few studies directly measure flammability or consider how multiple species with different flammabilities interact to produce novel fire regimes. Deserts of the southwestern United States are an ideal system for exploring how novel fire regimes can emerge when fire-promoting species invade ecosystems comprised of species that did not evolve with fire. In these deserts, exotic annual grasses provide fuel continuity across landscapes that did not historically burn. These fires often ignite a keystone desert shrub, the fire-intolerant creosote bush, Larrea tridentata (DC.) Coville. Ignition of Larrea is likely catalyzed by fuels produced by native plants that grow beneath the shrubs. We hypothesize that invasive and native species exhibit distinct flammability characteristics that in combination determine spatial patterns of fire spread and intensity. We measured flammability metrics of Larrea, two invasive grasses, Schismus arabicus and Bromus madritensis, and two native plants, the sub-shrub Ambrosia dumosa and the annual herb Amsinckia menziesii. Results of laboratory experiments show that the grasses carry fire quickly (1.32 cm/s), but burn for short duration (0.5 min) at low temperatures. In contrast, native plants spread fire slowly (0.12 cm/s), but burn up to eight times longer (4 min) and produced hotter fires. Additional experiments on the ignition requirements of Larrea suggest that native plants burn with sufficient temperature and duration to ignite dead Larrea branches (time to ignition, 2 min; temperature at ignition 692°C). Once burning, these dead branches ignite living branches in the upper portions of the shrub. Our study provides support for a conceptual model in which exotic grasses are "spreaders" of fire and native

  8. Physiological Ecology of Clostridium glycolicum RD-1, an Aerotolerant Acetogen Isolated from Sea Grass Roots

    OpenAIRE

    Küsel, Kirsten; Karnholz, Arno; Trinkwalter, Tanja; Devereux, Richard; Acker, Georg; Drake, Harold L.

    2001-01-01

    An anaerobic, H2-utilizing bacterium, strain RD-1, was isolated from the highest growth-positive dilution series of a root homogenate prepared from the sea grass Halodule wrightii. Cells of RD-1 were gram-positive, spore-forming, motile rods that were linked by connecting filaments. Acetate was produced in stoichiometries indicative of an acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) pathway-dependent metabolism when RD-1 utilized H2-CO2, formate, lactate, or pyruvate. Growth on sugars or ethylene glycol yi...

  9. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  10. Comparative Advantage of Maize- and Grass-Silage Based Feedstock for Biogas Production with Respect to Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Meyer-Aurich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the comparative advantage of using silage maize or grass as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to biogas from a greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation point of view, taking into account site-specific yield potentials, management options, and land-use change effects. GHG emissions due to the production of biogas were calculated using a life-cycle assessment approach for three different site conditions with specific yield potentials and adjusted management options. While for the use of silage maize, GHG emissions per energy unit were the same for different yield potentials, and the emissions varied substantially for different grassland systems. Without land-use change effects, silage maize-based biogas had lower GHG emissions per energy unit compared to grass-based biogas. Taking land-use change into account, results in a comparative advantage of biogas production from grass-based feedstock produced on arable land compared to silage maize-based feedstock. However, under current frame conditions, it is quite unrealistic that grass production systems would be established on arable land at larger scale.

  11. Quantification in mass units of group 1 grass allergens by a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arilla, M C; Ibarrola, I; Eraso, E; Aguirre, M; Martínez, A; Asturias, J A

    2001-08-01

    Grass pollen extracts currently used for allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy are a complex mixture of proteins of which only a few have allergenic activity. Lol p 1 is one of the most important allergens in grass pollen extracts. To develop a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of Lol p 1 and other group 1 allergens from grass species, and to assess its suitability for quantifying this group of allergens. Balb/c mice immunized with recombinant Lol p 1 were used for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Screening of hybridomas was performed by direct ELISA, and selected monoclonal antibodies were immobilized on ELISA plates and incubated with samples containing group 1 allergens. Bound allergens were detected by a combination of biotinylated Lol p 1-specific monoclonal antibody and peroxidase-streptavidin conjugate. The assay is based on three Lol p 1-specific monoclonal antibodies with different epitope specificities. The optimized ELISA measured Lol p 1 concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000 ng/mL and could quantify group 1 allergen from grass species belonging to the Pooidea subfamily. The assay does not depend on anti-sera production or availability of human sera and thus reactives can be produced in unlimited amounts. This sensitive and specific Lol p 1 assay will be helpful both for quantifying the group 1 allergen content of Pooideae pollen extracts intended for clinical use and for studying cross-reactivities among pollen extracts.

  12. Assessment of in situ and ex situ phytorestoration with grass mixtures in soils polluted with nickel, copper, and arsenic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías Salinas, Montserrat; Beltrán Villavicencio, Margarita; Bustillos, Luis Gilberto Torres; González Aragón, Abelardo

    This work shows a study of in situ and ex situ phytoextraction as a polishing step in the treatment of an industrial urban soil polluted with nickel, arsenic and copper. The soil was previously washed, and phytoextraction was performed by application of a mixture of grass (Festuca rubra, Cynodon dactylon, Lolium multiforum, Pennisetum). The soil had initial heavy metals concentrations of 131 ppm for Ni, 717 for As and 2734 for Cu (mg of metal/kg of dry soil). After seeding and emerging of grass, vegetal and soil samples were taken monthly during 4 months. Biomass generation, and concentration of Ni, As and Cu in vegetal tissue and soil were determined for every sample. Plants biomass growth in ex situ process was inhibited by 37% when compared with blank soil. Grass showed remarkable phytoextraction capability in situ, it produced 38 g of biomass every 15 days (wet weight) during a period of 3 months, but then declined in the fourth month. Concentrations of metals in grass biomass were up to 83 mg Ni/kg, 649 mg As/kg and 305 mg Cu/kg dry weight. Metal reduction of 49% for Ni, and 35% for Cu and As was observed at rhizospheric soil.

  13. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V P

    1996-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  14. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  15. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management

  16. How much gas can we get from grass?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nizami, A.S.; Orozco, A.; Groom, E.; Dieterich, B.; Murphy, J.D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. ► The results indicated that methane potential varied from 350 to 493 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. ► We compare two distinct digestion systems using the same grass. ► A two stage wet system achieved 451 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. ► A two phase system achieved 341 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added at a 30 day retention time. -- Abstract: Grass biomethane has been shown to be a sustainable gaseous transport biofuel, with a good energy balance, and significant potential for economic viability. Of issue for the designer is the variation in characteristics of the grass depending on location of source, time of cut and species. Further confusion arises from the biomethane potential tests (BMP) which have a tendency to give varying results. This paper has dual ambitions. One of these is to highlight the various results for biomethane potential that may be obtained from the same grass silage. The results indicated that methane potential from the same grass silage varied from 350 to 493 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added for three different BMP procedures. The second ambition is to attempt to compare two distinct digestion systems again using the same grass: a two stage continuously stirred tank reactor (CSTR); and a sequentially fed leach bed reactor connected to an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (SLBR–UASB). The two engineered systems were designed, fabricated, commissioned and operated at small pilot scale until stable optimal operating conditions were reached. The CSTR system achieved 451 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added over a 50 day retention period. The SLBR–UASB achieved 341 L CH 4 kg −1 VS added at a 30 day retention time.

  17. Presence of Trifolium repens promotes complementarity of water use and N facilitation in diverse grass mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline eHernandez

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-month mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency and deep root growth were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs tall and deep. Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures

  18. Presence of Trifolium repens Promotes Complementarity of Water Use and N Facilitation in Diverse Grass Mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Pauline; Picon-Cochard, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Legume species promote productivity and increase the digestibility of herbage in grasslands. Considerable experimental data also indicate that communities with legumes produce more above-ground biomass than is expected from monocultures. While it has been attributed to N facilitation, evidence to identify the mechanisms involved is still lacking and the role of complementarity in soil water acquisition by vertical root differentiation remains unclear. We used a 20-months mesocosm experiment to investigate the effects of species richness (single species, two- and five-species mixtures) and functional diversity (presence of the legume Trifolium repens) on a set of traits related to light, N and water use and measured at community level. We found a positive effect of Trifolium presence and abundance on biomass production and complementarity effects in the two-species mixtures from the second year. In addition the community traits related to water and N acquisition and use (leaf area, N, water-use efficiency, and deep root growth) were higher in the presence of Trifolium. With a multiple regression approach, we showed that the traits related to water acquisition and use were with N the main determinants of biomass production and complementarity effects in diverse mixtures. At shallow soil layers, lower root mass of Trifolium and higher soil moisture should increase soil water availability for the associated grass species. Conversely at deep soil layer, higher root growth and lower soil moisture mirror soil resource use increase of mixtures. Altogether, these results highlight N facilitation but almost soil vertical differentiation and thus complementarity for water acquisition and use in mixtures with Trifolium. Contrary to grass-Trifolium mixtures, no significant over-yielding was measured for grass mixtures even those having complementary traits (short and shallow vs. tall and deep). Thus, vertical complementarity for soil resources uptake in mixtures was not only

  19. N eu trino ()scilla tion

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    worked out the theory for the beta decay christened this particle neutrino. Neutrinos are ..... behaviour in the spectrum of the neutrinos as a function of distance L and energy .... The two experiments planned with accelerators,. CERN and Fermi ...

  20. Bacterial infec tions in travellers

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    namely bacterial causes of travellers' diarrhoea and skin infections, as well as .... Vaccination: protective efficacy against typhoid may be overcome by ingesting a high bacterial load. Vaccine ..... preparation such as cream sauce. Only after ...

  1. VAM populations in relation to grass invasion associated with forest decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vosatka, M; Cudlin, P; Mejstrik, V

    1991-01-01

    Spruce stands in Northern Bohemia forests, damaged to various degrees by industrial pollution, have shown establishment of grass cover following tree defoliation. Populations of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal (VAM) fungi were studied under this grass cover in four permanent plots with spruce under different levels of pollution stress. Soil and root samples were collected in April and June within each plot as follows: (1) sites without grass, (2) sites with initial stages of grass invasion, and (3) sites with fully developed grass cover. In all plots, the highest number of propagules were recovered from samples taken from sites having full grass cover. Mycorrhizal infection of grass was highest in the plot with the severest pollution damage and lowest in the least damaged plot. The development of grass cover and VAM infection of grass increased with tree defoliation caused by air pollution.

  2. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa; Laursen, Mette K; Andersen, Jens S; Sørensen, Helle F; Klink, Rabih

    2018-02-01

    Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet significantly reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms or using asthma medication at the end of trial (odds ratio = 0.66, P year posttreatment follow-up, and during the entire 5-year trial period. Also, grass allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were 22% to 30% reduced (P years). At the end of the trial, the use of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis pharmacotherapy was significantly less (27% relative difference to placebo, P < .001). Total IgE, grass pollen-specific IgE, and skin prick test reactivity to grass pollen were all reduced compared to placebo. Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms and using asthma medication, and had a positive, long-term clinical effect on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use but did not show an effect on the time to onset of asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A novel method to characterize silica bodies in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabney, Clemon; Ostergaard, Jason; Watkins, Eric; Chen, Changbin

    2016-01-01

    The deposition of silicon into epidermal cells of grass species is thought to be an important mechanism that plants use as a defense against pests and environmental stresses. There are a number of techniques available to study the size, density and distribution pattern of silica bodies in grass leaves. However, none of those techniques can provide a high-throughput analysis, especially for a great number of samples. We developed a method utilizing the autofluorescence of silica bodies to investigate their size and distribution, along with the number of carbon inclusions within the silica bodies of perennial grass species Koeleria macrantha. Fluorescence images were analyzed by image software Adobe Photoshop CS5 or ImageJ that remarkably facilitated the quantification of silica bodies in the dry ash. We observed three types of silica bodies or silica body related mineral structures. Silica bodies were detected on both abaxial and adaxial epidermis of K. macrantha leaves, although their sizes, density, and distribution patterns were different. No auto-fluorescence was detected from carbon inclusions. The combination of fluorescence microscopy and image processing software displayed efficient utilization in the identification and quantification of silica bodies in K. macrantha leaf tissues, which should applicable to biological, ecological and geological studies of grasses including forage, turf grasses and cereal crops.

  4. A capillary pumping device utilizing super-hydrophobic silicon grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, Chun-Fei; Chang, Chien-Cheng; Chu, Chin-Chou

    2011-01-01

    In this study, we show that a compact silicon grass surface can be generated by utilizing the induced coupled plasma method with suitably chosen fabrication parameters. This super-hydrophobic structure suspends deionized water on top of the grass and keeps the contact angle at around 153°. The silicon grass is used to improve the driving efficiency of a capillary pumping micro-duct (without sidewalls), which is completely defined by a bottom hydrophilic stripe (adjacent to a Teflon substrate) and a fully top-covered hydrophobic Teflon surface which is coated on a glass substrate. The channel has a height of 3 µm and a width of 100 µm. In this work, the Teflon substrate is replaced with the silicon grass surface. When the fluid is flowing through the micro-duct on the stripe, the interface between the silicon grass and the hydrophilic stripe forms a stable air cushion barrier to the fluid, thus effectively reducing the frictional force. By changing only the interface with this replacement, we demonstrate that the average measured velocities of the new design show improvements of 21% and 17% in the driving efficiency over the original design for transporting deionized water and human blood, respectively. It is also shown that the measured data of the present design are closer to the values predicted by a theoretical analysis which relates the flow velocity to the contact angles, surface tension and fluid viscosity

  5. Genetic engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Rakesh; Gallagher, Joe A; Gomez, Leonardo D; Bosch, Maurice

    2017-09-01

    Grasses represent an abundant and widespread source of lignocellulosic biomass, which has yet to fulfil its potential as a feedstock for biorefining into renewable and sustainable biofuels and commodity chemicals. The inherent recalcitrance of lignocellulosic materials to deconstruction is the most crucial limitation for the commercial viability and economic feasibility of biomass biorefining. Over the last decade, the targeted genetic engineering of grasses has become more proficient, enabling rational approaches to modify lignocellulose with the aim of making it more amenable to bioconversion. In this review, we provide an overview of transgenic strategies and targets to tailor grass cell wall polysaccharides for biorefining applications. The bioengineering efforts and opportunities summarized here rely primarily on (A) reprogramming gene regulatory networks responsible for the biosynthesis of lignocellulose, (B) remodelling the chemical structure and substitution patterns of cell wall polysaccharides and (C) expressing lignocellulose degrading and/or modifying enzymes in planta. It is anticipated that outputs from the rational engineering of grass cell wall polysaccharides by such strategies could help in realizing an economically sustainable, grass-derived lignocellulose processing industry. © 2017 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Enhanced precipitation variability decreases grass- and increases shrub-productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherardi, Laureano A.; Sala, Osvaldo E.

    2015-01-01

    Although projections of precipitation change indicate increases in variability, most studies of impacts of climate change on ecosystems focused on effects of changes in amount of precipitation, overlooking precipitation variability effects, especially at the interannual scale. Here, we present results from a 6-y field experiment, where we applied sequences of wet and dry years, increasing interannual precipitation coefficient of variation while maintaining a precipitation amount constant. Increased precipitation variability significantly reduced ecosystem primary production. Dominant plant-functional types showed opposite responses: perennial-grass productivity decreased by 81%, whereas shrub productivity increased by 67%. This pattern was explained by different nonlinear responses to precipitation. Grass productivity presented a saturating response to precipitation where dry years had a larger negative effect than the positive effects of wet years. In contrast, shrubs showed an increasing response to precipitation that resulted in an increase in average productivity with increasing precipitation variability. In addition, the effects of precipitation variation increased through time. We argue that the differential responses of grasses and shrubs to precipitation variability and the amplification of this phenomenon through time result from contrasting root distributions of grasses and shrubs and competitive interactions among plant types, confirmed by structural equation analysis. Under drought conditions, grasses reduce their abundance and their ability to absorb water that then is transferred to deep soil layers that are exclusively explored by shrubs. Our work addresses an understudied dimension of climate change that might lead to widespread shrub encroachment reducing the provisioning of ecosystem services to society. PMID:26417095

  7. MERCURY INTOXICATION IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Khan, S. A. Khan, Z. I. Chaudhary, M. N. Khan,1 A. Aslam , K. Ashraf2, R. M. Ayyub and M. F. Rai.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The present project was carried out to study the effects of acute and chronic mercury intoxication in Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For acute phase experiment, 48 fish were divided into four equal groups (A, B, C and D. Groups B, C and D were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose as 0.4, 0.5 and 0.6 mg/L, respectively, while group A acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from the fish after 48 and 96 hours for pathological studies. For chronic phase, 72 fish were divided into five groups (E, F, G, H and I, containing 12 fish each except group E which contained 24 fish. Groups F, G, H and I were given HgCl2 at sublethal dose of 0.3 mg/L for 4, 8, 12 and 16 days, respectively, while group E acted as control. Skin, gills and kidneys were isolated from each group (F, G, H and I after 4, 8, 12 and 16 days respectively for pathological studies. During chronic phase in the treatment groups normal histology of epidermis was disturbed with increased number of immature cells. Overall, skin layers were atrophied and withered. Histopathology of gills showed hyperplasia of epithelial cells of gill filaments, fusion of secondary lamellae giving a club shaped appearance of filaments and contraction and sloughing of respiratory epithelium in groups F, G, H and I. Histopathological examination of kidneys also showed a wide range of toxicity lesions and destruction in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. Disintegration and disorganization of cells of both renal and haemopoitic systems including dilatation of capillaries and thickening of basal lumen were observed. Mild to sever tubular epithelial degeneration, karyolysis, dilation and shrinkage of Bowman’s capsule and glomerulus were also observed. In chronic phase experiment, fish showed clinical signs including restlessness, difficult breathing, fin flickering and jerky movements. Suppressed growth rate was also observed in treatment groups (F, G, H and I. During acute phase, after 48 hours, these

  8. Acetogenic and Sulfate-Reducing Bacteria Inhabiting the Rhizoplane and Deep Cortex Cells of the Sea Grass Halodule wrightii†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Küsel, Kirsten; Pinkart, Holly C.; Drake, Harold L.; Devereux, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Recent declines in sea grass distribution underscore the importance of understanding microbial community structure-function relationships in sea grass rhizospheres that might affect the viability of these plants. Phospholipid fatty acid analyses showed that sulfate-reducing bacteria and clostridia were enriched in sediments colonized by the sea grasses Halodule wrightii and Thalassia testudinum compared to an adjacent unvegetated sediment. Most-probable-number analyses found that in contrast to butyrate-producing clostridia, acetogens and acetate-utilizing sulfate reducers were enriched by an order of magnitude in rhizosphere sediments. Although sea grass roots are oxygenated in the daytime, colorimetric root incubation studies demonstrated that acetogenic O-demethylation and sulfidogenic iron precipitation activities were tightly associated with washed, sediment-free H. wrightii roots. This suggests that the associated anaerobes are able to tolerate exposure to oxygen. To localize and quantify the anaerobic microbial colonization, root thin sections were hybridized with newly developed 33P-labeled probes that targeted (i) low-G+C-content gram-positive bacteria, (ii) cluster I species of clostridia, (iii) species of Acetobacterium, and (iv) species of Desulfovibrio. Microautoradiography revealed intercellular colonization of the roots by Acetobacterium and Desulfovibrio species. Acetogenic bacteria occurred mostly in the rhizoplane and outermost cortex cell layers, and high numbers of sulfate reducers were detected on all epidermal cells and inward, colonizing some 60% of the deepest cortex cells. Approximately 30% of epidermal cells were colonized by bacteria that hybridized with an archaeal probe, strongly suggesting the presence of methanogens. Obligate anaerobes within the roots might contribute to the vitality of sea grasses and other aquatic plants and to the biogeochemistry of the surrounding sediment. PMID:10543830

  9. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  10. Genes and quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling trace element concentrations in perennial grasses grown on phytotoxic soil contaminated with heavy metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses cover diverse soils throughout the world, including sites contaminated with heavy metals, producing forages that must be safe for livestock and wildlife. Chromosome regions known as quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling forage mineral concentrations were mapped in a populatio...

  11. Preferential Production and Transport of Grass-Derived Pyrogenic Carbon in NE-Australian Savanna Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Saiz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Understanding the main factors driving fire regimes in grasslands and savannas is critical to better manage their biodiversity and functions. Moreover, improving our knowledge on pyrogenic carbon (PyC dynamics, including formation, transport and deposition, is fundamental to better understand a significant slow-cycling component of the global carbon cycle, particularly as these ecosystems account for a substantial proportion of the area globally burnt. However, a thorough assessment of past fire regimes in grass-dominated ecosystems is problematic due to challenges in interpreting the charcoal record of sediments. It is therefore critical to adopt appropriate sampling and analytical methods to allow the acquisition of reliable data and information on savanna fire dynamics. This study uses hydrogen pyrolysis (HyPy to quantify PyC abundance and stable isotope composition (δ13C in recent sediments across 38 micro-catchments covering a wide range of mixed C3/C4 vegetation in north Queensland, Australia. We exploited the contrasting δ13C values of grasses (i.e., C4; δ13C > −15‰ and woody vegetation (i.e., C3; δ13C < −24‰ to assess the preferential production and transport of grass-derived PyC in savanna ecosystems. Analyses were conducted on bulk and size-fractionated samples to determine the fractions into which PyC preferentially accumulates. Our data show that the δ13C value of PyC in the sediments is decoupled from the δ13C value of total organic carbon, which suggests that a significant component of PyC may be derived from incomplete grass combustion, even when the proportion of C4 grass biomass in the catchment was relatively small. Furthermore, we conducted 16 experimental burns that indicate that there is a comminution of PyC produced in-situ to smaller particles, which facilitates the transport of this material, potentially affecting its preservation potential. Savanna fires preferentially burn the grass understory rather than

  12. Contrasting patterns of groundwater evapotranspiration in grass and tree dominated riparian zones of a temperate agricultural catchment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satchithanantham, Sanjayan; Wilson, Henry F.; Glenn, Aaron J.

    2017-06-01

    Consumptive use of shallow groundwater by phreatophytic vegetation is a significant part of the water budget in many regions, particularly in riparian areas. The influence of vegetation type on groundwater level fluctuations and evapotranspiration has rarely been quantified for contrasting plant communities concurrently although it has implications for downstream water yield and quality. Hourly groundwater evapotranspiration (ETG) rates were estimated for grass and tree riparian vegetation in southwestern Manitoba, Canada using two modified White methods. Groundwater table depth was monitored in four 21 m transects of five 3 m deep monitoring wells in the riparian zone of a stream reach including tree (Acer negundo; boxelder) and grass (Bromus inermis; smooth brome) dominated segments. The average depths to the groundwater table from the surface were 1.4 m and 1 m for the tree and grass segments, respectively, over the two-year study. During rain free periods of the growing season ETG was estimated for a total of 70 days in 2014 and 79 days in 2015 when diurnal fluctuations were present in groundwater level. Diurnal groundwater level fluctuations were observed during dry periods under both segments, however, ETG was significantly higher (p < 0.001) under trees compared to grass cover in 2014 (a wet year with 72% higher than normal growing season precipitation) and 2015 (a drier year with 15% higher than normal growing season precipitation). The two methods used to estimate ETG produced similar daily and seasonal values for the two segments. In 2014, total ETG was approximately 50% (148 mm) and 100% (282-285 mm) of reference evapotranspiration (ETref, 281 mm) for the grass and tree segments, respectively. In 2015, total ETG was approximately 40% (106-127 mm) and 120% (369-374 mm) of ETref (307 mm) for the grass and tree segments, respectively. Results from the study show the tree dominated portions of the stream reach consumed approximately 2.4 ML ha-1 yr-1 more

  13. Uptake of 2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene (TNT) by Vetiver grass (Vetiviera ziznoides L.) -- Preliminary results from a hydroponic study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, K. M.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Makris, K.; Pachanoor, D.

    2006-05-01

    2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene(TNT) is a potent mutagen and a Group C human carcinogen that has been widely used to produce munitions and explosives. As a result, vast areas that have been previously used as military ranges, munition burning and open detonation sites have been heavily contaminated with TNT. Conventional remedial activities in such contaminated sites commonly rely on methods such as incineration, land filling and soil composting. Phytoremediation offers a cost-effective solution, utilizing plants to phytoextract TNT from the contaminated soil. We propose the use of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) to remove TNT from such contaminated soils. Vetiver is a fast-growing and adaptive grass, enabling its use in TNT-contaminated sites in a wide variety of soil types and climate. We also hypothesized that TNT removal by vetiver grass will be enhanced by utilizing a chaotropic agent (urea) to alter rhizosphere/root hair chemical environment. The objectives of this preliminary hydroponic study were: i) to investigate the effectiveness of vetiver grass in removing TNT from solution, and ii) to evaluate the use of a common agrochemical (urea) in enhancing TNT removal by vetiver grass. Vetiver plants were grown in a hydroponic system with five different TNT concentrations (0, 5, 10, 25, and 50 mg TNT L-1) and three urea concentrations (0, 0.01 and 0.1%). A plant density of 10 g L-1 and three replicate vessels per treatment were used. Aliquots were collected at several time intervals up to 192 hour, and were analyzed for TNT with HPLC. Results showed that vetiver was able to remove TNT from hydroponic solutions. The overall magnitude and kinetics of TNT removal by vetiver grass was enhanced in the presence of urea. TNT removal kinetics depended on TNT and urea initial concentrations, suggestive of second-order kinetic reactions. Preliminary results are encouraging, but in need for verification using more detailed studies involving TNT-contaminated soils. Ongoing

  14. Ensiling as pretreatment of grass for lignocellulosic biomass conversion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten

    for subsequent enzymatic saccharification of cellulose and hemicellulose, by using the temperate grass Festulolium Hykor. The method was additionally combined with hydrothermal treatment, in order to decrease the required severity of an industrial applied pretreatment method. The first part of the project...... conditions providing the best possible pretreatment effect. The parameters were biomass composition, varied by ensiling of four seasonal cuts of grass, different dry matter (DM) content at ensiling, and an addition of different lactic acid bacteria species. First of all, the study confirmed that ensiling can...... act as a method of pretreatment and improve the enzymatic cellulose convertibility of grass. Furthermore, low DM ensiling was found to improve the effects of pretreatment due to a higher production of organic acids in the silage. The effect of applied lactic acid bacteria species was, however...

  15. How Do Grass Species, Season and Ensiling Influence Mycotoxin Content in Forage?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Nawrath

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungal species that have harmful effects on mammals. The aim of this study was to assess the content of mycotoxins in fresh-cut material of selected forage grass species both during and at the end of the growing season. We further assessed mycotoxin content in subsequently produced first-cutting silages with respect to the species used in this study: Lolium perenne (cv. Kentaur, Festulolium pabulare (cv. Felina, Festulolium braunii (cv. Perseus, and mixtures of these species with Festuca rubra (cv. Gondolin or Poa pratensis (Slezanka. The mycotoxins deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and T-2 toxin were mainly detected in the fresh-cut grass material, while fumonisin and aflatoxin contents were below the detection limits. July and October were the most risky periods for mycotoxins to occur. During the cold temperatures in November and December, the occurrence of mycotoxins in fresh-cut material declined. Although June was a period with low incidence of mycotoxins in green silage, contents of deoxynivalenol and zearalenone in silages from the first cutting exceeded by several times those determined in their biomass collected directly from the field. Moreover, we observed that use of preservatives or inoculants did not prevent mycotoxin production.

  16. Achieving high milk production performance at grass with minimal concentrate supplementation with spring-calving dairy cows: actual performance compared to simulated performance

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donovan, M.; Ruelle, Elodie; Coughlan, F.; Delaby, Luc

    2015-01-01

    The aim of high-profitability grazing systems is to produce milk efficiency from grazed pasture. There is very limited information available on the milk production capacity of dairy cows offered a grass-only diet for the main part of her lactation. In this study, spring-calving dairy cows were managed to achieve high milk production levels throughout the grazing season without supplementation. The calving date of the herd was 12 April; the herd had access to grass as they calved a...

  17. Simulation of biomass yield of regular and chilling tolerant Miscanthus cultivars and reed canary grass in different climates of Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Hastings, Astley; Jørgensen, Uffe

    2016-01-01

    Miscanthus and reed canary grass (RCG) are C4 and C3 perennial grasses which are popular in Europe as energy crops. Although Miscanthus is relatively chilling tolerant compared to other C4 species, its production in northern Europe is still constrained by cold temperature. A more chilling tolerant...... Miscanthus cultivar which can emerge early in the spring would utilize more solar radiation and produce higher biomass yields. In this study, using MiscanFor model, we estimated potential biomass yield of Miscanthus in current and future climates with the assumption that breeding would provide a chilling...

  18. Temporal and spatial variation in alkaloid levels in Achnatherum robustum, a native grass infected with the endophyte Neotyphodium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faeth, Stanley H; Gardner, Dale R; Hayes, Cinnamon J; Jani, Andrea; Wittlinger, Sally K; Jones, Thomas A

    2006-02-01

    The native North American perennial grass Achnatherum robustum (Vasey) Barkworth [= Stipa robusta (Vasey) Scribn.] or sleepygrass is toxic and narcotic to livestock. The causative agents are alkaloidal mycotoxins produced from infections by a systemic and asexual Neotyphodium endophyte. Recent studies suggest that toxicity is limited across the range of sleepygrass in the Southwest USA. We sampled 17 populations of sleepygrass with varying distance from one focal population known for its high toxicity levels near Cloudcroft, NM, USA. For some, we sampled individual plants twice within the same growing season and over successive years (2001-2004). We also determined infection levels in each population. In general, all populations were highly infected, but infection levels were more variable near the focal population. Only infected plants within populations near the Cloudcroft area produced alkaloids. The ergot alkaloid, ergonovine, comprised the bulk of the alkaloids, with lesser amounts of lysergic and isolysergic acid amides and ergonovinine alkaloids. Levels of all alkaloids were positively correlated among individual plants within and between growing seasons. Infected plants that produced no alkaloids in 1 yr did not produce any alkaloids within the same growing season or in other years. Levels of alkaloids in sleepygrass populations declined with distance from the Cloudcroft population, although infection levels increased. Infected plants in populations in northern New Mexico and southern Colorado produced no alkaloids at all despite 100% infectivity. Our results suggest that only specific Neotyphodium haplotypes or specific Neotyphodium-grass combinations produce ergot alkaloids in sleepygrass. The Neotyphodium haplotype or host-endophyte combination that produces toxic levels of alkaloids appears restricted to one locality across the range of sleepygrass. Because of the wide variation in alkaloid levels among populations, interactions between the endophyte

  19. Investigating C4 Grass Contributions to N-alkane Based Paleoclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doman, C. E.; Enders, S. K.; Chadwick, O.; Freeman, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Plant wax n-alkanes are long-chain, saturated hydrocarbons contained within the protective waxy cuticle on leaves. These lipids are pervasive and persistent in soils and sediments and thus are ideal biomarkers of ancient terrestrial organic matter. In ecosystems dominated by C3 plants, the relationship between the carbon isotopic value of whole leaves and lipids is fairly well documented, but this relationship has not been fully investigated for plants that use C4 photosynthesis. In both cases, it is unclear if the isotopic relationships are sensitive to environmental conditions, or reflect inherited characteristics. This study used a natural climate gradient on the Kohala peninsula of Hawaii to investigate relationships between climate and the δ13C and δ2H values of n-alkanes in C3 and C4 plants. δ13C of C3 leaves and lipids decreased 5 ‰ from the driest to the wettest sites, consistent with published data. Carbon isotope values of C4 plants showed no relationship to moisture up to 1000 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP). Above this threshold, δ 13C values were around 10‰ more depleted, likely due to a combination of canopy effects and C4 grasses growing in an uncharacteristically wet and cold environment. In C3 plants, the fractionation between leaf and lipid carbon isotopes did not vary with MAP, which allows estimations of δ13C leaf to be made from alkanes preserved in ancient sediments. Along this transect, C3 plants produce around twice the quantity of n-alkanes as C4 grasses. C4 grasses produce longer carbon chains. As a result, n-alkanes in the geologic record will be biased towards C3 plants, but the presence of alkanes C33 and C35 indicate the contributions of C4 grasses. In both C3 and C4 plants, average chain length increased with mean annual precipitation, but the taxonomic differences in chain length were greater than environmental differences. Hydrogen isotopes of n-alkanes show no trends with MAP, but do show clear differences between plant

  20. Hygrothermal Properties and Performance of Sea Grass Insulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Marlene Stenberg Hagen; Laursen, Theresa Back; Rode, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate the hygro......In the attempt to obtain knowledge of the hygrothermal properties of sea grass as thermal insulation, experiments have been carried out in the laboratory to determine the thermal conductivity, sorption properties and the water vapour permeability of the material. In order to investigate...

  1. Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily...... invaded. We used a novel, trait-based approach involving two components: identifying differences in trait composition between native and exotic components of the grass flora and evaluating contemporary trait–climate relationships across the state. The combination of trait–climate relationships and trait...

  2. Determination of 90Sr in grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Keil, R.

    1994-10-01

    A radiochemical method for the determination of 90 Sr in non-contaminated grass and soil is presented. The method is based on the leaching of 90 Sr from the mineralized samples followed by liquid-liquid extraction of 90 Y, its short lived daughter, by tributylphosphate and precipitation of Y-oxalate, which is counted in a low-level proportional counter. Based on dried samples of 30 g of soil and 100 g of grass the limit of detection is about 0.1 Bq/kg for both materials. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs

  3. Potential of Cogon Grass as an Oil Sorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Barlianti, Vera; Anggraini, Irni Fitria; Hendarsyah, Hendris

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on the potential of Cogon grass (lmperata cylindrica), a weed harmful to other plants, for use as a low-cost and biodegradable oil sorbent were carried out under various spill conditions. Flowers of Cogon grass adsorbed much larger amount of high-viscosity lubricating oil (57.9 g-oil/g-sorbent) than that adsorbed by Peat Sorb (7.7 g-oil/g-sorbent), a commercial oilsorbent based on peat. However, the flowers adsorbed only 27.9 g of low-viscosity crude oillgsorbent. In an oil-water ...

  4. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...... compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial......, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...

  5. Teores de cátions dos vinhos da Serra Gaúcha Cation content of wines from the Serra Gaúcha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Antenor Rizzon

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os cátions representam uma parte das cinzas e podem contribuir para caracterizar os vinhos de diferentes regiões vitícolas. O objetivo do presente trabalho foi determinar a concentração dos principais cátions de vinhos da Serra Gaúcha, RS, visando a sua caracterização. Foram analisados 600 vinhos de mesa e 380 vinhos finos, ambos distribuídos nas categorias tinto, rosado e branco. As análises de K+, Na+, Li+ e Rb+ foram feitas por emissão de chama, enquanto que as de Ca++, Mg++, Mn++, Fe++, Cu++ e Zn++ por absorção atômica. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância, ao teste de Tukey e à Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. A análise de variância não mostrou diferenças significativas nas concentrações de Na+, Cu++ e Zn++ nos diferentes tipos de vinhos da Serra Gaúcha; os vinhos de mesa apresentaram maior concentração de Mn++ em relação aos finos; os de mesa e os rosados finos apresentaram concentração mais elevada de Fe++; enquanto que os tintos finos apresentaram concentrações mais elevadas de K+ e Rb+. A ACP permitiu diferenciar os vinhos em relação à cor - tinto, rosado e branco - e ao tipo - fino e de mesa.Cations represent an important part of the ash content and they can contribute to characterize wines from different viticultural regions. The purpose of this work was to determine the concentration of the main cations in the wines of the Serra Gaúcha region in Brazil. Six hundred table wines, primarily from American/hybrid varieties, and 380 wines elaborated with Vitis vinifera varieties, both including red, rosé and white wines, were analyzed. The analyses of K+, Na+, Li+ and Rb+ were performed by flame emission, while Ca++, Mg++, Mn++, Fe++, Cu++ and Zn++ analyses were performed by atomic absorption. Data were submitted to analysis of variance and the Tukey test and to Principal Component Analysis (PCA. Results showed that there was no significant difference in the concentration of Na

  6. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...

  7. Towards regional mapping of grass nutrients using remote sensing in Greater Kruger National Park

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Regional maps of grass nutrients are important to inform decision making regarding the management of savanna ecosystems. Grass nutrients plays a crucial role in understanding the distribution, densities and feeding patterns of both wild herbivores...

  8. Integrating environmental and in situ hyperspectral remote sensing variables for grass nitrogen estimation in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Information about the distribution of grass nitrogen (N) concentration is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. A challenge in estimating grass N concentration using remote...

  9. Hyperspectral remote sensing techniques for grass nutrient estimations in savannah ecosystems

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ramoelo, Abel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Information on the distribution of grass quality (nutrient concentration) is crucial in understanding rangeland vitality and facilitates effective management of wildlife and livestock. The spatial distribution of grass nutrient concentration occurs...

  10. Movimentação de cátions em amostras de um Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo incubadas com duas fontes de cálcio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadt Paulo Guilherme Salvada

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a movimentação de cátions alcalinos e alcalinos terrosos (CAAT em colunas de solo arranjadas com amostras de Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo, álico, coletadas a profundidade de 0 a 5cm sob dois tipos distintos de cobertura, floresta secundária e grama batatais (Paspalum notatum L., as quais foram superpostas em potes plásticos à amostras do horizonte Bw, da mesma unidade de solo. Aplicaram-se carbonato de cálcio, sulfato de cálcio ou a mistura das duas fontes de cálcio às amostras superficiais, as quais foram colocadas a incubar e depois submetidas a sete aplicações de água destilada, na taxa de 1 volume-poro por semana, durante sete semanas consecutivas. O lixiviado foi recolhido semanalmente e analisado para cálcio, magnésio, potássio e sulfato solúveis. Nos solos, fizeram-se determinações dos teores de cálcio, magnésio e potássio trocáveis, e a determinação da acidez potencial a pH 7,0. A aplicação de sulfato de cálcio favoreceu o processo de lixiviação de potássio e magnésio, enquanto que a aplicação de carbonato de cálcio minimizou a lixiviação. Concluiu-se que a utilização de sulfato de cálcio para a correção da deficiência de cálcio em subsolos ácidos deve ser acompanhada necessariamente da aplicação de carbonato.

  11. Water EducaTion for Alabama's Black Belt (WET Alabama): Facilitating Scientific Understanding of the Hydrologic Cycle in Low-Resource Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, L. W.; Lee, M.; Stone, K.

    2008-12-01

    Youth, as future citizens, play an important role in obtaining and maintaining water resources. Water EducaTion for Alabama's Black Belt (WET Alabama) provides off-campus environmental and water-education activities designed to increase the appreciation, knowledge, conservation, and protection of water resources by middle-school teachers and children from predominantly African-American families in some of Alabama's poorest counties. The project is structured around a variety of indoor and outdoor activities held at two field sites, Auburn University's E. V. Smith Center in Macon County and the Robert G. Wehle Nature Center in Bullock County located in Alabama's "Black Belt" region, a region in which the prosperity of local communities is low. The educational activities provide an engaging laboratory and field experience for children from rural schools that lack scientific facilities and equipment. Both hosting centers have easy access to surface water (ponds, wetlands, streams) and offer facilities for basic hydrologic experiments (e.g., aquifer models, permeameter, water quality). The E.V. Smith site has access to groundwater through pairs of nested wells. Educational activities are designed to help students and teachers visualize groundwater flow and its interaction with surface water in an aquifer tank model; compare the hydrologic properties (porosity and permeability) of different aquifer materials (sands, gravels, and clays); learn about groundwater purging and sampling; and assess water quality and flow direction in the field. Simple exercises demonstrate (1) the balance of recharge and discharge, (2) the effects of flooding, drought and pumping, and (3) movement of contaminants through aquifers. A set of ready-to-teach laboratory exercises and tutorials address goals specified by the State of Alabama science curriculum for grades 6 to 8. The ultimate goal of Project WET Alabama is to help students and teachers from resource-poor schools become knowledgeable

  12. Costs of elephant grass gasification for rural electric power generation; Custos da gaseificacao de graminea para eletrificacao rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandes, Marcelo Cortes; Sanchez, Caio Glauco; Angulo, Mario Barriga [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos

    2000-07-01

    Biomass gasification is an sustainable option for energy supply, which presents low pollutants emission rate and allows - through the global cycle of growing and consumption of feedstock (vegetables), a balance between consumption and production of carbonic gas, preventing an increase of the carbonic gas levels in the atmosphere. Fluidized bed gasification is a means to increase the energetic use of biomass. A gasifier was built with internal diameter of 400 mm and total height of 4600 mm . The equipment was tested for gasification of elephant-grass (Pennisetum purpureum) at a 100 kg/h rate. It was evaluated an adequate diesel-electric-generator to work at hybrid regime, using 70% biomass gas and 30% diesel. With the equipment's construction costs, could be made a first economic feasibility assessment on the pilot-plant to produce electricity by grass gasification (elephant-grass) at rural communities. The annual cost of the investment was estimated. The cost of electricity was calculated as a function of the capital cost and the diesel price. The methods and equations for economic assessment are presented. This study found values between 0,16 and 0,23 R$/kWh for the produced electricity, what points towards the feasibility of this project. (author)

  13. Microbiological and chemical profiles of elephant grass inoculated with and without Lactobacillus plantarum and Pediococcus acidilactici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Assar Ali; Xianjun, Yuan; Zhihao, Dong; Junfeng, Li; Sao, Tao

    2018-03-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the microbiological and chemical profiles of elephant grass inoculated with and without different wild strains of lactic acid bacteria. Silage was prepared of four treatments and one control with three replicates as control (EKC, adding 2 ml/kg sterilizing water), Lactobacillus plantarum (USA commercial bacteria) (EKP), Lactobacillus plantarum (EKA), Pediococcus acidilactici (EKB), and Pediococcus acidilactici (SKD) isolated from King grass. Silage were prepared using polyethylene terephthalate bottles, and incubated at room temperature for different ensiling days. The pH and acetic acid (AA) were significantly (P < 0.05) reduced and lactic acid (LA), butyric acid (BA), and ethanol were significantly increased (P < 0.05) at 3, 5, 7, and 14 days in treatment groups as compared to control. Water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC) and NH 3 -N concentration was not affected at days 3, 5, and 7, but significantly (P < 0.05) reduced at 14 days in treatment groups as compared to control. The LA, BA, and ethanol were significantly (P < 0.05) increased and AA, WSC NH 3 -N, and yeast were significantly (P < 0.05) decreased at 30 days of ensiling in treatment groups as compared to control. It is recommended that the inoculation of LAB could improve the fermentation quality of elephant grass silage and further effort is needed to evaluate these effects on silage produced on farm scale and on animal production performance.

  14. Energy sorghum--a genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullet, John; Morishige, Daryl; McCormick, Ryan; Truong, Sandra; Hilley, Josie; McKinley, Brian; Anderson, Robert; Olson, Sara N; Rooney, William

    2014-07-01

    Sorghum is emerging as an excellent genetic model for the design of C4 grass bioenergy crops. Annual energy Sorghum hybrids also serve as a source of biomass for bioenergy production. Elucidation of Sorghum's flowering time gene regulatory network, and identification of complementary alleles for photoperiod sensitivity, enabled large-scale generation of energy Sorghum hybrids for testing and commercial use. Energy Sorghum hybrids with long vegetative growth phases were found to accumulate more than twice as much biomass as grain Sorghum, owing to extended growing seasons, greater light interception, and higher radiation use efficiency. High biomass yield, efficient nitrogen recycling, and preferential accumulation of stem biomass with low nitrogen content contributed to energy Sorghum's elevated nitrogen use efficiency. Sorghum's integrated genetics-genomics-breeding platform, diverse germplasm, and the opportunity for annual testing of new genetic designs in controlled environments and in multiple field locations is aiding fundamental discovery, and accelerating the improvement of biomass yield and optimization of composition for biofuels production. Recent advances in wide hybridization between Sorghum and other C4 grasses could allow the deployment of improved genetic designs of annual energy Sorghums in the form of wide-hybrid perennial crops. The current trajectory of energy Sorghum genetic improvement indicates that it will be possible to sustainably produce biofuels from C4 grass bioenergy crops that are cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Uptake of Radium by Grass and Shrubs Grown on Mineral Heaps: A Preliminary Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laili, Z.; Omar, M.; Yusof, M.A. Wahab; Ibrahim, M.Z.

    2015-01-01

    A preliminary study of the uptake of 226 Ra and 228 Ra by grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps was carried out. Activity concentrations of 226 Ra and 228 Ra in grass and shrubs were measured using gamma spectrometry. The result showed that grass and shrubs grown on mineral heaps contained elevated levels of radium compared to grass and shrubs grown on normal soils. Thus, these plants might be used for phytoremediation of radium contaminated soil. (author)

  16. Hilly grasses and leaves: a promising unconventional feed resource for livestock.

    OpenAIRE

    Hossain M.E.; Karim M.H.; Ahmed M.I.; Sultana S.A.

    2016-01-01

    The study was undertaken to find out the chemical composition of different hilly grasses and leaves available in Bandarban areas of Bangladesh. Total 10 different hilly grasses and leaves such as Bottle gourd leaf (Lagenaria siceraria), Castor bean leaf (Ricinus communis), Cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica), Dhol kolmi (Ipomoea carnea), Giant reed leaf (Arundo donax), Hilly grass (Cynodon dactylon), Pithraj leaf (Aphanamixis polystachya), Sal leaf (Shorea robusta), Shegun leaf (Tectona grandis...

  17. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  18. Producing cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, E G

    1923-09-12

    A process and apparatus are described for producing Portland cement in which pulverized shale is successively heated in a series of inclined rotary retorts having internal stirrers and oil gas outlets, which are connected to condensers. The partially treated shale is removed from the lowermost retort by a conveyor, then fed separately or conjointly into pipes and thence into a number of vertically disposed retorts. Each of these retorts may be fitted interiorly with vertical arranged conveyors which elevate the shale and discharge it over a lip, from whence it falls to the bottom of the retorts. The lower end of each casing is furnished with an adjustable discharge door through which the spent shale is fed to a hopper, thence into separate trucks. The oil gases generated in the retorts are exhausted through pipes to condensers. The spent shale is conveyed to a bin and mixed while hot with ground limestone. The admixed materials are then ground and fed to a rotary kiln which is fired by the incondensible gases derived from the oil gases obtained in the previous retorting of the shale. The calcined materials are then delivered from the rotary kiln to rotary coolers. The waste gases from the kiln are utilized for heating the retorts in which the ground shale is heated for the purpose of extracting therefrom the contained hydrocarbon oils and gases.

  19. Practical aspects of grass forage seed production and quality with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GBENOU

    Université d'Abomey-Calavi, 03 BP 2819 Jéricho, Cotonou, Benin. 2Département de ..... size, floret per tiller (Hare and Rolston, 1990) seed per head and .... grasses and legumes cultivated as ley pastures in the ... Grassl., 35: 43-47. Clua AA ...

  20. Lemon grass ( Cymbopogon citratus ) essential oil as a potent anti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusion: Results of the present study indicate that LGEO has a noteworthy potential for the development of drugs for the treatment of fungal infections and skin inflammation that should be explored in future studies. Keywords: lemon grass; essential oil; antifungal activity; anti-inflammatory effect; citral; aromatherapy ...

  1. Short Communication: Autelogical studies on grass species in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A literature survey of autecological studies on southern African grass species was undertaken. Results revealed that there is a comparative lack of autecological versus community studies. Where autecological studies have been conducted, most of the attention was focused on 'pasture' or 'desirable' species with ...

  2. Evapotranspiration and water use efficiency of different grass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evapotranspiration (Et) and water use efficiency (WUE) were determined for each of seven grass species during the 1986/87 seasons. The highest and lowest mean daily Et of 2, 39 and 1, 66 mm were recorded respectively for Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus. Between species, the average Et for the two ...

  3. Grass-roots approach: developing qualified nuclear personnel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power plants experiencing personnel recruitment problems are trying a grass-roots approach to increase the manpower pool. The Philadelphia Electric Co. and the Toledo Edison Co. are working with local educational institutions to offer nuclear-technology training specific to the needs of nuclear plants. The utilities' investment covers much of the cost of instruction as well as continued training for employees

  4. Adaptation of a decreaser and an increaser grass species to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grasses have developed through natural selection to deter, escape and tolerate herbivory, and to escape and tolerate fire. In the semi-arid grassveld of the Eastern Cape, the species Themeda triandra and Sporobolus fimbriatus have been classified as Decreaser and Increaser II plants respectively. Both species have ...

  5. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant-beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; van Elsas, J.D.

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial

  6. Colonization of torrefied grass fibers by plant beneficial microorganisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.D.; Babini, V.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to assess the colonization of thermally treated (i.e. torrefied) grass fibers (TGFs), a new prospective ingredient of potting soil. Eleven bacterial strains and one fungus, Coniochaeta ligniaria F/TGF15, all isolated from TGF or its extract after inoculation with a soil microbial

  7. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  8. Preemergence herbicides on weed control in elephant grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Magno Brighenti

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. is an important forage crop that has been proposed as a potential feedstock for bioenergy production. However, weed interference is a major factor limiting elephant grass production. Field experiments were conducted in 2014 and 2015 to evaluate preemergence herbicides for selective weed control in an elephant grass pasture. Herbicide treatments included atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, diuron + hexazinone, sulfentrazone, imazethapyr, and atrazine at label use rates. Weedy and weed-free treatments were included. Atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine did not cause phytotoxicity on elephantgrass 35 days after treatment (DAT. However, diuron + hexazinone and imazethapyr were the most phytotoxic on elephantgrass, resulting in 81 and 70% phytotoxicity in 2014, and 7 and 6% phytotoxicity in 2015 respectively 35 DAT. All treatments provided effective weed control (>81% with the exception of ethoxysulfuron (0 and 11% in 2014 and 2015, respectively, and atrazine (59% in 2014. These results show that atrazine + S-metolachlor, atrazine + simazine, ametryn, ethoxysulfuron, S-metolachlor, sulfentrazone, and atrazine were selectives when applied in preemergence in elephant grass pasture.

  9. Survey of Domestication Process of Grass Cutter ( Thryonomys ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grass cutter (Thryonomys swinderianus) is cherished by many people but, its conservation status is at risk hence, the quest for domestication. An investigation into the domestication process of this rodent in four farms in Oyo and Osun States was carried out. Sixty structured questionnaires were administered to fifteen ...

  10. Grass species selection patterns on rotationally-grazed Dohne ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Herbaceous species preference was studied during autumn and winter periods of occupation, on rotationally-grazed Dohne Sourveld, at four different stocking rates. Reports on species selection by cattle and sheep grazing together. Illustrates with graphsLanguage: English. Keywords: Grass species; Herbage availibility; ...

  11. Carcass mass gains of steers grazing star grass, with different ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Carcass mass gains of steers grazing dryland Cynodon aethiopicus cv. No. 2 Star grass pastures during the growing season were determined for each of 16 treatments comprising four levels of nitrogen fertilisation in combination with four overlapping sets of stocking rates. The treatments were repeated over four growing ...

  12. A new grass frog from Namibia | Channing | African Zoology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A new species of grass frog of lhe genus Ptychadena is described from northern Namibia. Although superficially similar to Ptychadena schillukorum and Ptychadena mossambica, the new species differs In advertisement call, and external characters. An examination of a series of published sonagrams indicates that ...

  13. Detecting bacterial endophytes in tropical grasses of the Brachiaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Plant-growth-promoting (PGP) bacteria include a diverse group of soil bacteria thought to stimulate plant growth by various mechanisms. Brachiaria forage grasses, of African origin, are perennials that often grow under low-input conditions and are likely to harbour unique populations of PGP bacteria. Three bacterial strains ...

  14. Snakes in the Grass: Weaving Success for Everyone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ide, Janet L.

    2000-01-01

    Describes "Snakes in the Grass," a weaving project used with special needs students. Discusses the preliminary skill-building activities used, the process for creating the students' individual snakes, and the preparation and process for how the students wove the snakes. (CMK)

  15. Phytoextraction of lead from firing range soils with Vetiver grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    E. W. Wilde; R. L. Brigmon; D. L. Dunn; M. A. Heitkamp; D. C. Dagnan

    2007-01-01

    Vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanoides) along with soil amendments were evaluated for phytoextraction of lead and other metals (zinc, copper, and iron) from the soil of an active firing range at the Savannah River Site, SC. Lead-contaminated soil (300-4,500 ppm/kg) was collected, dried, placed in pots, fertilized, and used as a medium for growing...

  16. 7 CFR 201.56-5 - Grass family, Poaceae (Gramineae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT FEDERAL SEED ACT REGULATIONS Germination Tests in the Administration of the Act § 201.56-5 Grass.... During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from the endosperm and... with the endosperm. During germination the scutellum remains inside the seed to absorb nutrients from...

  17. Soil water use by Ceanothus velutinus and two grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Lopushinsky; G.O. Klock

    1990-01-01

    Seasonal trends of soil water content in plots of snowbrush (Ceanothus velutinus Dougl.), orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata L), and pinegrass (Calamagrostis rubes- cens Buckl.) and in bare plots were measured on a burned-over forest watershed in north-central Washington. A comparison of soil water contents at depths of 12, 24,...

  18. Digestion and nitrogen metabolism of grass fed dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vuuren, van A.M.

    1993-01-01

    Until recently, young, highly digestible grass was considered an ideal feed for dairy cows. However, research during the last decades has shown that the nutrient supply of grazing animals is insufficient for milk productions above c. 29 kg per day. Experiments in England and New Zealand

  19. Evaluation of concentrate, grass and legume combinations on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-10-16

    Oct 16, 2006 ... stored at –20° C in a deep freezer immediately after collection. At the end of each collection period, the samples were bulked for each animal for proximate analysis according to AOAC (1980) procedures. Compositions of the concentrates, Rhodes grass, groundnut haulms, sweet potato forage and soybean ...

  20. Identification of Radical Scavengers in Sweet Grass (Hierochloe odorata)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pukalskas, A.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, R.P.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Veldhuizen, van A.; Groot, de Æ.

    2002-01-01

    Extracts from aerial parts of sweet grass (Hierochloe odorata) were active DPPH free radical scavengers, The active compounds were detected in extract fractions using HPLC with on-line radical scavenging detection. After multistep fractionation of the extract, two new natural products possessing

  1. Performance of Sahiwal and Friesian heifers fed on napier grass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    fed on napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum) which has been adopted owing to its high dry matter. (DM) yields and palatability (Anindo ... high nutrient yields and therefore high animal output are likely to be achieved. Unfortunately, farm- ers lack specific ..... This consequently led to higher nutrient intake and weight gains.

  2. Grasses grazed by springbok and sheep | R. | African Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grazing habits were determined by analysis of rumina from slaughtered springbok and sheep where springbok grazed together with Merino sheep in False Upper Karoo and together with Dorper sheep in Kalahari Thornveld. Results show that in both veld types, grass constituted about 39 percent of the dry mass intake of ...

  3. Impact on Clover-Grass Yield from Wheel Load and Tyre Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Green, Ole; Jørgensen, Rasmus Nyholm; Sørensen, Claus Aage Grøn

    2009-01-01

    Traffic intensities have been shown to have a negative influence on the yield of grass and clover. A full scale grass-clover field trial was established to estimate the effect on clover-grass yields as a function of different wheel loads and tire pressures. The trial comprised 16 different traffi...

  4. IgE-binding capacity of recombinant timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffer, S.; Vrtala, S.; Duchêne, M.; van Ree, R.; Kraft, D.; Scheiner, O.; Valenta, R.

    1994-01-01

    A panel of 60 cDNA clones coding for IgE-binding proteins from timothy grass pollen was immunocharacterized with sera from 30 patients allergic to grass pollen and antibodies raised against natural grass pollen allergens. In the cases of five representative patients in whom the IgE reactivity

  5. Role of ammonia and biogenic amines in intake of grass silage by ruminants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Os, van M.

    1997-01-01

    In Northern- and Western-Europe, grass silage is a major component in winter feeding rations for ruminants. The intake of ensiled grass is often lower than the intake of hay or the fresh grass of similar digestibility. This intake depression is attributed to the fermentation products

  6. Tensile fracture properties of seven tropical grasses at different phenological stages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jacobs, A.A.A.; Scheper, J.A.; Benvenutti, M.A.; Gordon, I.J.; Poppi, D.P.; Elgersma, A.

    2011-01-01

    The intake of forage grasses by grazing ruminants is closely related to the mechanical fracture properties of grasses. The relationship between the tensile fracture properties of grasses and foraging behaviour is of particular importance in tropical reproductive swards composed of both stems and

  7. Aggressiveness of loose kernel smut isolate from Johnson grass on sorghum line BTx643

    Science.gov (United States)

    An isolate of loose kernel smut obtained from Johnson grass was inoculated unto six BTx643 sorghum plants in the greenhouse to determine its aggressiveness. All the BTx643 sorghum plants inoculated with the Johnson grass isolate were infected. Mean size of the teliospores from the Johnson grass, i...

  8. Herbicidal potential of ophiobolins produced by Drechslera gigantea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evidente, Antonio; Andolfi, Anna; Cimmino, Alessio; Vurro, Maurizio; Fracchiolla, Mariano; Charudattan, Raghavan

    2006-03-08

    Drechslera gigantea, a potential mycoherbicide of grass weeds, was isolated in Florida from naturally infected large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis); it produces phytotoxic metabolites in liquid culture. The main metabolite was identified by spectroscopic methods and optical properties as ophiobolin A (1), a well-known phytotoxic sesterterpene produced by several phytopathogenic fungi of important crops and already extensively studied for its interesting biological activities. The other three minor metabolites proved to be related to ophiobolin A and were identified using the same techniques as 6-epi-ophiobolin A and 3-anhydro-6-epi-ophiobolin A (2 and 3) and ophiobolin I (4). Assayed on punctured detached leaves of several grass and dicotyledon weeds, ophiobolin A proved to be on average more phytotoxic as compared to the other related compounds. Some structural features appear to be important for the phytoxicity, such as the hydroxy group at C-3, the stereochemistry at C-6, and the aldehyde group at C-7. Furthermore, grass weeds usually proved to be more sensitive to the phytotoxins than dicotyledons, on which ophiobolin A caused the appearance of large necrosis even at the lowest concentration assayed. This is the first report about the production of ophiobolins from D. gigantea and of the proposed use as potential natural herbicides against grass weeds.

  9. Grasses as invasive plants in South Africa revisited: Patterns, pathways and management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vernon Visser

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: In many countries around the world, the most damaging invasive plant species are grasses. However, the status of grass invasions in South Africa has not been documented recently. Objectives: To update Sue Milton’s 2004 review of grasses as invasive alien plants in South Africa, provide the first detailed species level inventory of alien grasses in South Africa and assess the invasion dynamics and management of the group. Method: We compiled the most comprehensive inventory of alien grasses in South Africa to date using recorded occurrences of alien grasses in the country from various literature and database sources. Using historical literature, we reviewed past efforts to introduce alien grasses into South Africa. We sourced information on the origins, uses, distributions and minimum residence times to investigate pathways and patterns of spatial extent. We identified alien grasses in South Africa that are having environmental and economic impacts and determined whether management options have been identified, and legislation created, for these species. Results: There are at least 256 alien grass species in the country, 37 of which have become invasive. Alien grass species richness increased most dramatically from the late 1800s to about 1940. Alien grass species that are not naturalised or invasive have much shorter residence times than those that have naturalised or become invasive. Most grasses were probably introduced for forage purposes, and a large number of alien grass species were trialled at pasture research stations. A large number of alien grass species in South Africa are of Eurasian origin, although more recent introductions include species from elsewhere in Africa and from Australasia. Alien grasses are most prevalent in the south-west of the country, and the Fynbos Biome has the most alien grasses and the most widespread species. We identified 11 species that have recorded environmental and economic impacts in the

  10. The Prevalence of Grass Pollen-Related Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis in Elite Amateur Irish Athletes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grace, M

    2016-09-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR\\/C), has been shown to impact upon athletic performance. The championships of the unique, amateur Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football (collectively known as GAA) take place during the prime pollen months of summer. Elite GAA players must perform optimally when most exposed to pollen. Elite GAA subjects (n=254) underwent skin prick testing to 6 aeroallergens and completed a validated questionnaire (AQUA), producing a score indicating likelihood of having allergy. The prevalence of allergy (positive to at least one aeroallergen on SPT and positive AQUA score) was 27.1% (n=69). Sixteen and a half percent (n=42) of the subjects tested had grass pollen AR\\/C while 22% (n=54) had house dust mite AR\\/C, though none were on standard medical therapies or had used allergen-specific immunotherapy. Grass pollen AR\\/C prevalence appears as common in elite Irish athletes as it is in other countries. It appears to be mild rather than well controlled in these subjects.

  11. Cytotoxic effects and apoptosis induction of enrofloxacin in hepatic cell line of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; Cui, Yanting; Brown, Paul B; Ge, Xianping; Xie, Jun; Xu, Pao

    2015-12-01

    We determined the effect of enrofloxacin on the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, reactive oxygen species (ROS), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), malondialdehyde (MDA), mitochondria membrane potential (ΔΨm) and apoptosis in the hepatic cell line of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus). Cultured cells were treated with different concentrations of enrofloxacin (12.5-200 ug/mL) for 24 h. We found that the cytotoxic effect of enrofloxacin was mediated by apoptosis, and that this apoptosis occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The doses of 50,100 and 200 μg/mL enrofloxacin increased the LDH release and MDA concentration, induced cell apoptosis and reduced the ΔΨm compared to the control. The highest dose of 200 ug/mL enrofloxacin also significantly induced apoptosis accompanied by ΔΨm disruption and ROS generation and significantly reduced T-AOC and increased MDA concentration compared to the control. Our results suggest that the dose of 200 ug/mL enrofloxacin exerts its cytotoxic effect and produced ROS via apoptosis by affecting the mitochondria of the hepatic cells of grass carp. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Integrated production of warm season grasses and agroforestry for biomass production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samson, R.; Omielan, J. [Resource Efficient Agricultural Production-Canada, Ste, Anne de Bellevue, Quebec (Canada); Girouard, P.; Henning, J. [McGill Univ., Ste. Anne de Bellevue, Quebec (Canada)

    1993-12-31

    Increased research on C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} perennial biomass crops is generating a significant amount of information on the potential of these crops to produce large quantities of low cost biomass. In many parts of North America it appears that both C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} species are limited by water availability particularly on marginal soils. In much of North America, rainfall is exceeded by evaporation. High transpiration rates by fast growing trees and rainfall interception by the canopy appear to indicate that this can further exacerbate the problem of water availability. C{sub 4} perennial grasses appear to have distinct advantages over C{sub 3} species planted in monoculture systems particularly on marginal soils. C{sub 4} grasses historically predominated over much of the land that is now available for biomass production because of their adaptation to low humidity environments and periods of low soil moisture. The planting of short rotation forestry (SRF) species in an energy agroforestry system is proposed as an alternative production strategy which could potentially alleviate many of the problems associated with SRF monocultures. Energy agroforestry would be complementary to both production of conventional farm crops and C{sub 4} perennial biomass crops because of beneficial microclimatic effects.

  13. FmMDb: a versatile database of foxtail millet markers for millets and bioenergy grasses research.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkata Suresh B

    Full Text Available The prominent attributes of foxtail millet (Setaria italica L. including its small genome size, short life cycle, inbreeding nature, and phylogenetic proximity to various biofuel crops have made this crop an excellent model system to investigate various aspects of architectural, evolutionary and physiological significances in Panicoid bioenergy grasses. After release of its whole genome sequence, large-scale genomic resources in terms of molecular markers were generated for the improvement of both foxtail millet and its related species. Hence it is now essential to congregate, curate and make available these genomic resources for the benefit of researchers and breeders working towards crop improvement. In view of this, we have constructed the Foxtail millet Marker Database (FmMDb; http://www.nipgr.res.in/foxtail.html, a comprehensive online database for information retrieval, visualization and management of large-scale marker datasets with unrestricted public access. FmMDb is the first database which provides complete marker information to the plant science community attempting to produce elite cultivars of millet and bioenergy grass species, thus addressing global food insecurity.

  14. Increased saccharification of kallar grass using ultrafiltrated enzyme from sporrotrichum thermophile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latif, F.; Rajoka, M.I.; Malik, K.A.

    1991-01-01

    The local wild type strain of sporotrichum thermophile when grown on untreated lingo cellulose was found to produce a greater level of B-glucosidase component along with other cellulase/xylanase components than most of the reported wild type potent strains. Culture filtrate obtained, when grown on 4% leptochloa fusca (kallar grass) was used as such and after concentration by ultrafiltration technique for saccharification purpose. Concentrated enzymes titre was increased to 1.2 and 4.0 U/ml for Fp-ase and B-glucosidase, respectively. There were losses in the enzyme titre obtained through ultrafiltration possibly due to adsorption on to the ultrafiltration membrane. Enzyme preparations used, saccharifide 5% kallar grass to 70, 55, 75 and 60% (theoretical basis) from cellulases of S. thermophile concentrate, dilute, T. reesei alone and in supplementation with B-glucosidase from A. niger, respectively. Analysis by HPLC revealed slightly higher glucose yield from S. thermophile enzyme preparations, whereas higher level of xylose was attained from T. reesei preparations. Rest of the sugars pooled as Oligo-sugars were found in almost similar concentrations. (author)

  15. Responses of C4 grasses to atmospheric CO2 enrichment : I. Effect of irradiance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sionit, Nasser; Patterson, David T

    1984-12-01

    The growth and photosynethetic responses to atmospheric CO 2 enrichment of 4 species of C 4 grasses grown at two levels of irradiance were studied. We sought to determine whether CO 2 enrichment would yield proportionally greater growth enhancement in the C 4 grasses when they were grown at low irradiance than when grown at high irradiance. The species studied were Echinochloa crusgalli, Digitaria sanguinalis, Eleusine indica, and Setaria faberi. Plants were grown in controlled environment chambers at 350, 675 and 1,000 μl 1 -1 CO 2 and 1,000 or 150 μmol m -2 s -1 photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD). An increase in CO 2 concentration and PPFD significantly affected net photosynthesis and total biomass production of all plants. Plants grown at low PPFD had significantly lower rates of photosynthesis, produced less biomass, and had reduced responses to increases in CO 2 . Plants grown in CO 2 -enriched atmosphere had lower photosynthetic capacity relative to the low CO 2 grown plants when exposed to lower CO 2 concentration at the time of measurement, but had greater rate of photosynthesis when exposed to increasing PPFD. The light level under which the plants were growing did not influence the CO 2 compensation point for photosynthesis.

  16. Perennial Grass and Native Wildflowers: A Synergistic Approach to Habitat Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shereen S. Xavier

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Marginal agricultural land provides opportunities to diversify landscapes by producing biomass for biofuel, and through floral provisioning that enhances arthropod-mediated ecosystem service delivery. We examined the effects of local spatial context (adjacent to woodland or agriculture and irrigation (irrigation or no irrigation on wildflower bloom and visitation by arthropods in a biofeedstocks-wildflower habitat buffer design. Twenty habitat buffer plots were established containing a subplot of Napier grass (Pennisetum perpureum Schumach for biofeedstock, three commercial wildflower mix subplots, and a control subplot containing spontaneous weeds. Arthropods and flowers were visually observed in quadrats throughout the season. At the end of the season we measured soil nutrients and harvested Napier biomass. We found irrespective of buffer location or irrigation, pollinators were observed more frequently early in the season and on experimental plots with wildflowers than on weeds in the control plots. Natural enemies showed a tendency for being more common on plots adjacent to a wooded border, and were also more commonly observed early in the season. Herbivore visits were infrequent and not significantly influenced by experimental treatments. Napier grass yields were high and typical of first-year yields reported regionally, and were not affected by location context or irrigation. Our results suggest habitat management designs integrating bioenergy crop and floral resources provide marketable biomass and habitat for beneficial arthropods.

  17. Using expansive grasses for monitoring heavy metal pollution in the vicinity of roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vachová, Pavla; Vach, Marek; Najnarová, Eva

    2017-10-01

    We propose a method for monitoring heavy metal deposition in the vicinity of roads using the leaf surfaces of two expansive grass species which are greatly abundant. A principle of the proposed procedure is to minimize the number of operations in collecting and preparing samples for analysis. The monitored elements are extracted from the leaf surfaces using dilute nitric acid directly in the sample-collection bottle. The ensuing steps, then, are only to filter the extraction solution and the elemental analysis itself. The verification results indicate that the selected grasses Calamagrostis epigejos and Arrhenatherum elatius are well suited to the proposed procedure. Selected heavy metals (Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni, Cr, and Cd) in concentrations appropriate for direct determination using methods of elemental analysis can be extracted from the surface of leaves of these species collected in the vicinity of roads with medium traffic loads. Comparing the two species showed that each had a different relationship between the amounts of deposited heavy metals and distance from the road. This disparity can be explained by specific morphological properties of the two species' leaf surfaces. Due to the abundant occurrence of the two species and the method's general simplicity and ready availability, we regard the proposed approach to constitute a broadly usable and repeatable one for producing reproducible results. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Prognostic implications of left ventricular mass and geometry following myocardial infarction: the VALIANT (VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion) Echocardiographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Anil; Meris, Alessandra; Skali, Hicham; Ghali, Jalal K; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Bourgoun, Mikhail; Velazquez, Eric J; McMurray, John J V; Kober, Lars; Pfeffer, Marc A; Califf, Robert M; Solomon, Scott D

    2008-09-01

    This study sought to understand prognostic implications of increased baseline left ventricular (LV) mass and geometric patterns in a high risk acute myocardial infarction. The LV hypertrophy and alterations in LV geometry are associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events. Quantitative echocardiographic analyses were performed at baseline in 603 patients from the VALIANT (VALsartan In Acute myocardial iNfarcTion) echocardiographic study. The left ventricular mass index (LVMi) and relative wall thickness (RWT) were calculated. Patients were classified into 4 mutually exclusive groups based on RWT and LVMi as follows: normal geometry (normal LVMi and normal RWT), concentric remodeling (normal LVMi and increased RWT), eccentric hypertrophy (increased LVMi and normal RWT), and concentric hypertrophy (increased LVMi and increased RWT). Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the relationships among LVMi, RWT, LV geometry, and clinical outcomes. Mean LVMi and RWT were 98.8 +/- 28.4 g/m(2) and 0.38 +/- 0.08. The risk of death or the composite end point of death from cardiovascular causes, reinfarction, heart failure, stroke, or resuscitation after cardiac arrest was lowest for patients with normal geometry, and increased with concentric remodeling (hazard ratio [HR]: 3.0; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.9 to 4.9), eccentric hypertrophy (HR: 3.1; 95% CI: 1.9 to 4.8), and concentric hypertrophy (HR: 5.4; 95% CI: 3.4 to 8.5), after adjusting for baseline covariates. Also, baseline LVMi and RWT were associated with increased mortality and nonfatal cardiovascular outcomes (HR: 1.22 per 10 g/m(2) increase in LVMi; 95% CI: 1.20 to 1.30; p independent of LVMi. Increased baseline LV mass and abnormal LV geometry portend an increased risk for morbidity and mortality following high-risk myocardial infarction. Concentric LV hypertrophy carries the greatest risk of adverse cardiovascular events including death. Higher RWT was associated with an

  19. Semantically optiMize the dAta seRvice operaTion (SMART) system for better data discovery and access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, C.; Huang, T.; Armstrong, E. M.; Moroni, D. F.; Liu, K.; Gui, Z.

    2013-12-01

    Abstract: We present a Semantically optiMize the dAta seRvice operaTion (SMART) system for better data discovery and access across the NASA data systems, Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) Clearinghouse and Data.gov to facilitate scientists to select Earth observation data that fit better their needs in four aspects: 1. Integrating and interfacing the SMART system to include the functionality of a) semantic reasoning based on Jena, an open source semantic reasoning engine, b) semantic similarity calculation, c) recommendation based on spatiotemporal, semantic, and user workflow patterns, and d) ranking results based on similarity between search terms and data ontology. 2. Collaborating with data user communities to a) capture science data ontology and record relevant ontology triple stores, b) analyze and mine user search and download patterns, c) integrate SMART into metadata-centric discovery system for community-wide usage and feedback, and d) customizing data discovery, search and access user interface to include the ranked results, recommendation components, and semantic based navigations. 3. Laying the groundwork to interface the SMART system with other data search and discovery systems as an open source data search and discovery solution. The SMART systems leverages NASA, GEO, FGDC data discovery, search and access for the Earth science community by enabling scientists to readily discover and access data appropriate to their endeavors, increasing the efficiency of data exploration and decreasing the time that scientists must spend on searching, downloading, and processing the datasets most applicable to their research. By incorporating the SMART system, it is a likely aim that the time being devoted to discovering the most applicable dataset will be substantially reduced, thereby reducing the number of user inquiries and likewise reducing the time and resources expended by a data center in addressing user inquiries. Keywords: EarthCube; ECHO

  20. EFFECT OF MULCH AND MIXED CROPPING GRASS - LEGUME AT SALINE SOIL ON GROWTH, FORAGE YIELD AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF GUINEA GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted to evaluate the effect of mulch and mixed cropping grass – legume atsaline soil on growth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Saline soil used in thisresearch was classified into strongly saline soil with low soil fertility. The research was arrranged inrandomized complete block design with 3 blocks. The treatments were : M1 = guinea grassmonoculture, without mulch; M2 = guinea grass monoculture, 3 ton/ha mulch; M3 = guinea grassmonoculture, 6 ton/ha mulch, M4 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, without mulch;M5 = mixed cropping grass with Sesbania grandiflora, 3 ton/ha mulch; M6 = mixed cropping grass withSesbania grandiflora, 6 ton/ha mulch. Data were analyzed using analysis of variance, then followed byDuncan's Multiple Range Test. The highest soil moisture content was achieved at mixed cropping grasslegumewith 6 ton/ha of mulch. The effect of mulch at saline soil significantly increased plant growth,forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Application of 3 ton/ha mulch increased plantgrowth, forage yield and nutritional quality of guinea grass. Plant growth, forage yield and nutritionalquality of guinea grass were not affected by monoculture or mixed cropping with Sesbania at saline soil.

  1. Diet Affects Muscle Quality and Growth Traits of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus): A Comparison Between Grass and Artificial Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Honghao; Xia, Jianguo; Zhang, Xi; He, Xugang; Li, Li; Tang, Rong; Chi, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2018-01-01

    Fish muscle, the main edible parts with high protein level and low fat level, is consumed worldwide. Diet contributes greatly to fish growth performance and muscle quality. In order to elucidate the correlation between diet and muscle quality, the same batch of juvenile grass carp ( Ctenopharyngodon idellus ) were divided into two groups and fed with either grass ( Lolium perenne, Euphrasia pectinata and Sorghum sudanense ) or artificial feed, respectively. However, the different two diets didn't result in significant differences in all the detected water quality parameters (e.g., Tm, pH, DO, NH 3 /[Formula: see text]-N, [Formula: see text]-N, [Formula: see text], TN, TP, and TOC) between the two experimental groups. After a 4-month culture period, various indexes and expression of myogenic regulatory factor (MRFs) and their related genes were tested. The weight gain of the fish fed with artificial feed (AFG) was nearly 40% higher than the fish fed with grass (GFG). Significantly higher alkaline phosphatase, total cholestrol, high density cholestrol and total protein were detected in GFG as compared to AFG. GFG also showed increased hardness, resilience and shear force in texture profile analysis, with significantly bigger and compact muscle fibers in histologic slices. The fat accumulation was most serious in the abdomen muscle of AFG. Additionally, the expression levels of MyoG, MyoD, IGF - 1 , and MSTNs were higher, whereas Myf - 5, MRF4 , and IGF -2 were lower in most positional muscles of GFG as compared to AFG. Overall, these results suggested that feeding grass could promote muscle growth and development by stimulating muscle fiber hypertrophy, as well as significantly enhance the expression of CoL1A s. Feeding C. idellus with grass could also improve flesh quality by improving muscle characteristics, enhancing the production of collagen, meanthile, reducing fat accumulation and moisture in muscle, but at the cost of a slower growth.

  2. Diet Affects Muscle Quality and Growth Traits of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus: A Comparison Between Grass and Artificial Feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Honghao Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fish muscle, the main edible parts with high protein level and low fat level, is consumed worldwide. Diet contributes greatly to fish growth performance and muscle quality. In order to elucidate the correlation between diet and muscle quality, the same batch of juvenile grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus were divided into two groups and fed with either grass (Lolium perenne, Euphrasia pectinata and Sorghum sudanense or artificial feed, respectively. However, the different two diets didn't result in significant differences in all the detected water quality parameters (e.g., Tm, pH, DO, NH3/NH4+-N, NO3--N, NO2-, TN, TP, and TOC between the two experimental groups. After a 4-month culture period, various indexes and expression of myogenic regulatory factor (MRFs and their related genes were tested. The weight gain of the fish fed with artificial feed (AFG was nearly 40% higher than the fish fed with grass (GFG. Significantly higher alkaline phosphatase, total cholestrol, high density cholestrol and total protein were detected in GFG as compared to AFG. GFG also showed increased hardness, resilience and shear force in texture profile analysis, with significantly bigger and compact muscle fibers in histologic slices. The fat accumulation was most serious in the abdomen muscle of AFG. Additionally, the expression levels of MyoG, MyoD, IGF-1, and MSTNs were higher, whereas Myf-5, MRF4, and IGF-2 were lower in most positional muscles of GFG as compared to AFG. Overall, these results suggested that feeding grass could promote muscle growth and development by stimulating muscle fiber hypertrophy, as well as significantly enhance the expression of CoL1As. Feeding C. idellus with grass could also improve flesh quality by improving muscle characteristics, enhancing the production of collagen, meanthile, reducing fat accumulation and moisture in muscle, but at the cost of a slower growth.

  3. Nutritional Value And Yield of Kallar Grass (Leptochloa Fusca Linn) Hay and Its Effect on Reproductive Performance of Awassi Ewes Using Progesterone Radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M R..; Zarkawi, M.; Khalifa, K.

    2007-01-01

    Nutritional value of Kallar grass (Leptochloa fusca Linn) hay (whole plant), a salt-tolerant plant, was estimated by determinning its composition (ash, crude protein CP, crude fibre CF, ether extract EE, neutral-detergent fiber NDF, acid-detergent fiber ADF, acid-detergent lignin ADL); and the in vitro organic matter digestibility (IVOMD), metabolizable energy (ME), net energy of lactation (NEL) and gross energy (GE). Moreover, dry matter, energy and protein yields per hectar were also estimated. The effects of feeding Kallar grass hay to pregnant Awassi ewes on reproductive performance, serum progesterone changes using radioimmunoassay, and on birth and weaning weights of lambs born were also determined. Experimental ewes received daily 300 g of Kallar grass hay in addition to lentil straw and concentrates to cover their nutritional requirements. The results indicated that the nutritive components of Kallar grass were (g kg -1 dry matter): ash 96, CP 93, CF 290, EE 21, NDF 755, ADF 416 and ADL 94. IVOMD was 49.3%, and energy values (MJ kg -1 dry matter) were: GE 26.88, ME 6.41 and NEL 3.02. Dry matter and crude protein yields of Kallar grass hay were 7875 and 732 kg ha -1 , respectively, and the energy produced (MJ ha -1 ) was: GE 211680, ME 50479 and NEL 23783. Kallar grass had no effects on the reproductive performance of pregnant Awassi ewes duration, of pregnancy (150.1 ± 2.2 days), progesterone patterns, birth (4.7±1.0 kg) or on weaning weights (22.7 ± ≤ 5.5 kg) of lambs.

  4. Effects of feeding dairy cows different legume-grass silages on milk phytoestrogen concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Höjer, A; Adler, S; Purup, Stig

    2012-01-01

    interval of legume-grass silage on phytoestrogen intake and milk phytoestrogen concentrations. In one experiment, 15 Swedish Red dairy cows were fed 2- or 3-cut red clover-grass silage, or 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage. In a second experiment, 16 Norwegian Red dairy cows were fed short-term ley...... red clover-grass silage diet (1,494μg/kg of milk). Because of the metabolism of biochanin A, genistein, and prunetin, their concentrations in milk and the apparent recovery were low. Coumestrol was detected in only short-term and long-term ley silage mixtures, and its milk concentration was low....... Concentrations of secoisolariciresinol and matairesinol were higher in 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass and long-term ley silage mixtures, those with legume species other than red clover, and the highest grass proportions. The 2-cut birdsfoot trefoil-grass silage diet also resulted in higher enterolactone...

  5. Microbiological Quality of Panicum maximum Grass Silage with Addition of Lactobacillus sp. as Starter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumarsih, S.; Sulistiyanto, B.; Utama, C. S.

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the research was to evaluate microbiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp as starter. The completely randomized design was been used on this research with 4 treaments and 3 replications. The treatments were P0 ( Panicum maximum grass silage without addition Lactobacillus sp ), P1 ( Panicum maximum grass silage with 2% addition Lactobacillus sp), P2 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 4% addition Lactobacillus sp) and P3 (Panicum maximum grass silage with 6% addition Lactobacillus sp).The parameters were microbial populations of Panicum maximum grass silage (total lactic acid bacteria, total bacteria, total fungi, and Coliform bacteria. The data obtained were analyzed variance (ANOVA) and further tests performed Duncan’s Multiple Areas. The population of lactic acid bacteria was higher (PMicrobiological quality of Panicum maximum grass silage with addition Lactobacillus sp was better than no addition Lactobacillus sp.

  6. Early lactation feed intake and milk yield responses of dairy cows offered grass silages harvested at early maturity stages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randby, A T; Weisbjerg, M R; Nørgaard, P

    2012-01-01

    was available in automatic feed stations. Intake of grass silage when fed as the sole feed was 16.9 kg of DM on average for lactation wk 1 to 16. When H1 was supplemented with 4 or 8 kg of concentrates, silage DM intake did not change, but total DM intake increased to 20.6 and 23.7 kg/d, respectively. Energy......The main objective was to evaluate the potential of grass silages of very high quality to support a high milk yield with a low or moderate, or even without concentrate supplementation. Production responses to increased levels of concentrate supplementation with 3 primary growth grass silages...... differing in digestibility were studied using 66 Norwegian Red dairy cows. Roundbale silage was produced from a timothy-dominated sward at very early (H1), early (H2), and normal (H3) stages of crop maturity. Crops were rapidly wilted (h) and a formic acid-based additive was applied. All silages were...

  7. Estimating the content of clover and grass in the sward using a consumer camera and image processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Anders Krogh; Karstoft, Henrik; Søegaard, Karen

    the dry matter ratio of clover and grass in clover grass fields from sparse close up images. First, the light conditions is determined, which is used for selecting model parameters to estimate the coverage of both clover and grass. Next, the clover and grass coverage are transformed to give the dry matter...

  8. A critical review of the applicability of biodiesel and grass biomethane as biofuels to satisfy both biofuel targets and sustainability criteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thamsiriroj, Thanasit; Murphy, Jerry D. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University College Cork (UCC), Cork (Ireland); Environmental Research Institute (ERI), University College Cork, Cork (Ireland)

    2011-04-15

    There are numerous ways to assess and compare biofuels. Gross energy per hectare reflects the quantity of product produced per unit of land. Net energy per hectare reflects the parasitic demand associated with the product per hectare. Gross and net energy per hectare are far superior for grass biomethane than rape seed biodiesel. For a biofuel made from residues the descriptor MJGJ{sub fuel}{sup -1} (MJ of biofuel produced per GJ of fossil fuel displaced) is more instructive; this reflects the relative efficiency of the biofuel. Of issue in the assessment is how to deal with co-products, by-products and residues. The allocation methodology allows for a variety of answers to be generated. UCO biodiesel has a good energy balance for any allocation approach; tallow biodiesel has a poor net energy unless credit is given for the co-production of meat and bone meal as a substitute fuel. To be deemed sustainable by the EU Renewable Energy Directive a value of 60% GHG savings is required for facilities built post 2017. A further crucial consideration is: how much fuel can be produced? This study shows that indigenous biodiesel produced in Ireland and grass biomethane may be deemed sustainable but only grass biomethane may produce a significant quantity, potentially satisfying the 10% renewable energy in transport target for 2020 as opposed to only 1.23% in total from all indigenous biodiesel systems. (author)

  9. The determination of radionuclides in grass ecosystem samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LaBrecque, J.J.; Schelenz, R.; Perkins, R.W.

    1987-07-01

    The radioactive debris cloud from the Chernobyl reactor accident resulted in some deposition over essentially all of the Northern Hemisphere. Shortly after the accident invitations were sent out by the IAEA to Member States to collect grass samples according to specific instructions so that the ratio of the various radionuclides in the fallout debris could be established over a wide area of Europe. In response to this request, 20 grass samples were provided by Member States. To establish a protocol for analysis of these valuable samples and to recommend a protocol for future sample collection, a Consultants Meeting was called by the IAEA for 23-25 September 1986. This document contains the considerations and recommendations of the consultants

  10. Extraction and characterization of whiskers from Panicum grass cellulose fibers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Douglas F.; Vieira, Julia G.; Pasquini, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    In this work are presented studies of the extraction of cellulose whiskers from Panicum grass fibers (Panicum maximum) by acid hydrolysis performed with H 2 SO 4 11.22 M. The fibers used in the hydrolysis process were previously purified and the efficiency of the purification process was evaluated by determining the lignin content by Klason method, before and after purification. The hydrolysis was performed at 40 degree C for 30 minutes. The whiskers were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). It was verified a reduction in the crystallinity index and also a reduction of the degradation temperature of the whiskers in relation to the purified grass Panicum fibers. (author)

  11. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. THE PREVALENCE OF LERNAEID ECTOPARASITES IN GRASS CARP (CTENOPHARYNGODON IDELLA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. TASAWAR, S. ZAFAR, M. H. LASHARI AND C. S. HAYAT1

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of lernaeid ectoparasites in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella. For this purpose, 597 fishes (Ctenopharyngodon idella were examined for lernaeid ectoparasites at a private fish farm located in Multan, Pakistan. Four species of the genus Lernaea i.e. L. cyprinacea, L. polymorpha, L. oryzophila, and L. lophiara were recorded. It was observed that L. polymorpha had the highest (P20 cm.

  13. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  14. Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Svetlik, V.; Indruch, I.; Fojtik, A.; Bajer, K.

    1980-01-01

    Ionizing radiation induced sexuality in this apomictic grass. Sexual strains were isolated and selected individuals were crossed. Polycross and recurrent single cross methods allowed restoring apomixis. The resulting apomictic strains showed excellent traits and transgressed hereditary potentials of parental components. The method is described of breeding and the productivity of individual breeding techniques is discussed. It is shown that the number of strains should be reduced and the most productive strains should be used for the formation of synthetic cultivars. (author)

  15. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing

  16. EGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS OF SOME SUDANESE GRASSES AND GAS PRODUCTION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    A.O. Idris; C. Kijora; A.M. Salih; I. Bushara; H.A.A. Elbukhary

    2012-01-01

    Eighteen plant species, three ingredients, and six diets were studied for their degradation characteristics, using gas production techniques. The palatable grasses were selected during the rainy season from the range land of Kordofan, Sudan. The ingredients were Roselle seeds, Sorghum grain and Groundnut cake. The samples were incubated for 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h, using rumen inoculum of three of the sheep used for the nylon bag. The results showed a large variation between the differe...

  17. Change Detection with GRASS GIS – Comparison of images taken by different sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Fuchs

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Images of American military reconnaissance satellites of the Sixties (CORONA in combination with modern sensors (SPOT, QuickBird were used for detection of changes in land use. The pilot area was located about 40 km northwest of Yemen’s capital Sana’a and covered approximately 100 km2 . To produce comparable layers from images of distinctly different sources, the moving window technique was applied, using the diversity parameter. The resulting difference layers reveal plausible and interpretable change patterns, particularly in areas where urban sprawl occurs.The comparison of CORONA images with images taken by modern sensors proved to be an additional tool to visualize and quantify major changes in land use. The results should serve as additional basic data eg. in regional planning.The computation sequence was executed in GRASS GIS.

  18. Coefficients of resistance to cold-air-drainage winds on a grass-covered slope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komoda, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Mori, M.; Kaneko, T.

    2006-01-01

    The cold-air-drainage (CAD) wind is one of the most familiar local winds in Japan. It is driven by the surplus of density, or the deficit of potential temperature produced by radiative cooling in the surface air layer on a slope, and is resisted by the ground surface and the surrounding atmosphere. The coefficients of resistance of the ground surface and the surrounding atmosphere change with the CAD wind speed. The observations made on a grass-covered slope of Mt. Kuju showed that the resistance exerted by the surrounding atmosphere was much larger than that by the ground surface, and the sum of two coefficients of resistance decreased by one order of magnitude when the CAD wind speed exceeded some critical value

  19. Enhancing the Properties of Coal Briquette Using Spear Grass (Imperata Cylindrica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adaora Stellamaris OGBUAGU

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies have been carried out on utilizing agricultural wastes (spear grass to enhance the properties of coal briquette. The proximate analysis of the plant material was carried out alongside with a sample of coal (sub-bituminous coal. Briquettes of different compositions were produced by blending the plant material with the coal at various concentrations: 0%, 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, 50% and 100%, using cassava starch as a binder and calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH2 as desulfurizing agent. The properties of the briquettes were compared. It was found that the ignition, burning rate and reduction in smoke emission showed improvement with increase in biomass concentration. Compressive strength and cooking efficiency (water boiling time and specific fuel consumption showed initial improvement and rendered to decrease with briquette containing 30% biomass.

  20. A genomic approach to elucidating grass flower development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dornelas Marcelo C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane (Saccharum sp as with other species of grass, at a certain moment of its life cycle the vegetative meristem is converted into an inflorescence meristem which has at least two distinct inflorescence branching steps before the spikelet meristem terminates in the production of a flower (floret. In model dicotyledonous species such successive conversions of meristem identities and the concentric arrangement of floral organs in specific whorls have both been shown to be genetically controlled. Using data from the Sugarcane Expressed Sequence Tag (EST Project (SUCEST database, we have identified all sugarcane proteins and genes putatively involved in reproductive meristem and flower development. Sequence comparisons of known flower-related genes have uncovered conserved evolutionary pathways of flower development and flower pattern formation between dicotyledons and monocotyledons, such as some grass species. We have paid special attention to the analysis of the MADS-box multigene family of transcription factors that together with the APETALA2 (AP2 family are the key elements of the transcriptional networks controlling plant reproductive development. Considerations on the evolutionary developmental genetics of grass flowers and their relation to the ABC homeotic gene activity model of flower development are also presented.

  1. Tolerable Time-Varying Overflow on Grass-Covered Slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven A. Hughes

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Engineers require estimates of tolerable overtopping limits for grass-covered levees, dikes, and embankments that might experience steady overflow. Realistic tolerance estimates can be used for both resilient design and risk assessment. A simple framework is developed for estimating tolerable overtopping on grass-covered slopes caused by slowly-varying (in time overtopping discharge (e.g., events like storm surges or river flood waves. The framework adapts the well-known Hewlett curves of tolerable limiting velocity as a function of overflow duration. It has been hypothesized that the form of the Hewlett curves suggests that the grass erosion process is governed by the flow work on the slope above a critical threshold velocity (referred to as excess work, and the tolerable erosional limit is reached when the cumulative excess work exceeds a given value determined from the time-dependent Hewlett curves. The cumulative excess work is expressed in terms of overflow discharge above a critical discharge that slowly varies in time, similar to a discharge hydrograph. The methodology is easily applied using forecast storm surge hydrographs at specific locations where wave action is minimal. For preliminary planning purposes, when storm surge hydrographs are unavailable, hypothetical equations for the water level and overflow discharge hydrographs are proposed in terms of the values at maximum overflow and the total duration of overflow. An example application is given to illustrate use of the methodology.

  2. Responses of three grass species to creosote during phytoremediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Xiaodong; El-Alawi, Yousef; Penrose, Donna M.; Glick, Bernard R.; Greenberg, Bruce M.

    2004-01-01

    Phytoremediation of creosote-contaminated soil was monitored in the presence of Tall fescue, Kentucky blue grass, or Wild rye. For all three grass species, plant growth promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) were evaluated for plant growth promotion and protection of plants from contaminant toxicity. A number of parameters were monitored including plant tissue water content, root growth, plant chlorophyll content and the chlorophyll a/b ratio. The observed physiological data indicate that some plants mitigated the toxic effects of contaminants. In addition, in agreement with our previous experiments reported in the accompanying paper (Huang, X.-D., El-Alawi, Y., Penrose, D.M., Glick, B.R., Greenberg, B.M., 2004. A multi-process phytoremediation system for removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons from contaminated soil. Environ. Poll. doi: 10.1016/j.envpol.2003.09.031), PGPR were able to greatly enhance phytoremediation. PGPR accelerated plant growth, especially roots, in heavily contaminated soils, diminishing the toxic effects of contaminants to plants. Thus, the increased root biomass in PGPR-treated plants led to more effective remediation. - Plant growth promoting rhizobacteria enhanced growth and remediation of three grass species

  3. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A.; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-01

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a).

  4. Insects traversing grass-like vertical compliant beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chen; Fearing, Ronald; Full, Robert

    2014-03-01

    Small running animals encounter many challenging terrains. These terrains can be filled with 3D, multi-component obstacles. Here, we study cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis) moving through grass-like vertical compliant beams during escape. We created an apparatus to control and vary geometric parameters and mechanical properties of model grass including height, width, thickness, lateral and fore-aft spacings, angle, number of layers, stiffness, and damping. We observed a suite of novel locomotor behaviors not previously described on simpler 2D ground. When model grass height was >2 × body length and lateral spacing was test our hypothesis, we modified body shape by adding either a rectangular or an oval plate onto its dorsal surface, and found that P dropped by an order of magnitude and t more than doubled. Upon removal of either plate, both P and t recovered. Locomotor kinematics and geometry effectively coupled to terrain properties enables negotiation of 3D, multi-component obstacles, and provides inspiration for small robots to navigate such terrain with minimal sensing and control.

  5. Production of tropical forage grasses under different shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Eduardo Torres

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the forage production of three tropical forage grasses under different shading levels. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse at Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, University Unit of Aquidauana (UEMS/UUA, in a soil classified as Ultisol sandy loam texture. The treatments consisted of three grasses species combinations (B. brizantha cv. Marandu, B. decumbens cv. Basilisck and Panicum maximum cv. Tanzania, submitted to four shading levels (0, 30, 50 and 75%, arranged in a completely randomized blocks design in a factorial 3 x 4, with eight replications. After harvest, the plants were separated into shoot and roots for determination of shoot fresh mass (SFM, shoot dry mass (SDM and roots dry mass production. After analysis of variance, the qualitative factor was subjected to comparison of averages by Tukey’s test, and the quantitative factor to analysis of polynomial regression, being interactions appropriately unfolded. It was verified that B. decumbens, by its linearly increasing production of forage and less decrease of root formation, is the most recommended for shading conditions compared to grasses Tanzania and Marandu.

  6. Green grasses as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Vinoth; Manoharan, Subbaiah; Sharafali, A; Anandan, Sambandam; Murugan, Ramaswamy

    2015-01-25

    Chlorophylls, the major pigments presented in plants are responsible for the process of photosynthesis. The working principle of dye sensitized solar cell (DSSC) is analogous to natural photosynthesis in light-harvesting and charge separation. In a similar way, natural dyes extracted from three types of grasses viz. Hierochloe Odorata (HO), Torulinium Odoratum (TO) and Dactyloctenium Aegyptium (DA) were used as light harvesters in dye sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the dyes. The electron transport mechanism and internal resistance of the DSSCs were investigated by the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The performance of the cells fabricated with the grass extract shows comparable efficiencies with the reported natural dyes. Among the three types of grasses, the DSSC fabricated with the dye extracted from Hierochloe Odorata (HO) exhibited the maximum efficiency. LC-MS investigations indicated that the dominant pigment present in HO dye was pheophytin a (Pheo a). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Transfer of radiocaesium to barley, rye grass and pea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Gissel-Nielsen, G.

    1989-11-01

    In areas with intensive farming, as in Denmark, it is of great interest to identify possible countermeasures to be taken in order to reduce the longterm effects of radioactive contamination of arable land. The most important longer-lived radionuclides from the Chernobyl were 137 Cs and 134 Cs. The aim of the present project was to identify crops with relatively low or high root uptake of these two isotopes. Although such differences may be small, a shift in varieties might be a cost-effective way to reduce collective doses. The experiment was carried out at Risoe National Laboratory in the summer of 1988. The species used were: spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties: Golf, Apex, Anker, Sila; Perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne L.) varieties: Darbo (early) and Patoro (late); Italian rye-grass (Lolium multiflorum) variety: Prego; and pea (Pisum arvense L.) variety: Bodil. Each crop was grown in two types of soil, a clay-loam and an organic soil. 137 Cs was added to the clay-loam. The organic soil, which was contaminated with 137 Cs from the Chernobyl accident, was supplied with 134 Cs. Sila barley and Italian rye-grass were identified among the species tested as plants with a relative high uptake of radio-caesium. (author)

  8. Economic and conservation implications of converting exotic forages to native warm-season grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adrian P. Monroe

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agriculture can have negative environmental consequences such as nonpoint source pollution and the simplification of biotic communities, and land sharing posits that conservation can be enhanced by integrating agricultural productivity and biodiversity on the same land. In the Southeastern United States, native warm-season grasses (NWSG may be a land sharing alternative to exotic forages currently in production because of greater livestock gains with lower fertilizer inputs, and habitat for grassland birds. However, uncertainty regarding costs and risk poses an important barrier to incorporating NWSG in livestock operations. We evaluated the economic and conservation implications of NWSG conversion among small, operational-scale pastures (6.8–10.5 ha during 2011–2012 at the Prairie Research Unit in Monroe Co., Mississippi (USA. We used partial budgets to compare the marginal rate of return (MRRe from converting exotic grass pastures to either a NWSG monoculture of Indiangrass (Sorghastrum nutans or a NWSG mix of Indiangrass, little bluestem (Schizachyrium scoparium, and big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii. We similarly compared changes in productivity of dickcissels (Spiza americana, a grassland bird specializing in tall structure. Average daily gain (ADG of steers and revenue were consistently higher for NWSG treatments than exotic grass pasture, but ADG declined between years. Indiangrass pastures yielded consistently positive MRRe, indicating producers would receive 16–24% return on investment. Marginal rate of return was lower for mixed NWSG (−12 to 3%, driven by slightly lower livestock ADG and higher establishment costs than for Indiangrass. Sensitivity analyses indicated that MRRe also was influenced by cattle selling price. Conversely, mixed NWSG increased dickcissel productivity by a greater degree than Indiangrass per amount invested in NWSG conversion, suggesting a tradeoff between livestock and dickcissel production

  9. The combined effect of fertiliser nitrogen and phosphorus on herbage yield and change in soil nutrients of a grass/clover and grass-only sward

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Snijders, P.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    The combined effect of reduced nitrogen ( N ) and phosphorus ( P ) application on the production of grass- only and grass/ clover swards was studied in a five- year cutting experiment on a marine clay soil, established on newly sown swards. Furthermore, changes in soil N, P and carbon ( C ) were

  10. Group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) bear cross-reacting T cell epitopes with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, W D; Karamfilov, T; Bufe, A; Fahlbush, B; Wolf, I; Jäger, L

    1996-04-01

    Selected human T cell clones reactive with group 5 allergens of timothy grass (Phl p 5) were cross-stimulated in specific proliferation assays with group 1 allergens of rye grass (Lol p 1). Such interspecies cross-reactivities result obviously from structural motifs presented on defined Phl p 5 fragments as shown with recombinant Phl p 5 products.

  11. Ecophysiological responses of native and invasive grasses to simulated warming and drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravi, S.; Law, D. J.; Wiede, A.; Barron-Gafford, G. A.; Breshears, D. D.; Dontsova, K.; Huxman, T. E.

    2011-12-01

    Climate models predict that many arid regions around the world - including the North American deserts - may become affected more frequently by recurrent droughts. At the same time, these regions are experiencing rapid vegetation transformations such as invasion by exotic grasses. Thus, understanding the ecophysiological processes accompanying exotic grass invasion in the context of rising temperatures and recurrent droughts is fundamental to global change research. Under ambient and warmer (+ 4° C) conditions inside the Biosphere 2 facility, we compared the ecophysiological responses (e.g. photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, pre-dawn leaf water potential, light & CO2 response functions, biomass) of a native grass - Heteropogan contortus (Tangle head) and an invasive grass - Pennisetum ciliare (Buffel grass) growing in single and mixed communities. Further, we monitored the physiological responses and mortality of these plant communities under moisture stress conditions, simulating a global change-type-drought. The results indicate that the predicted warming scenarios may enhance the invasibility of desert landscapes by exotic grasses. In this study, buffel grass assimilated more CO2 per unit leaf area and out-competed native grasses more efficiently in a warmer environment. However, scenarios involving a combination of drought and warming proved disastrous to both the native and invasive grasses, with drought-induced grass mortality occurring at much shorter time scales under warmer conditions.

  12. Spatiotemporal Variation in the Environmental Controls of C4-Grass Origin and Ecology: Insights from Grass-Pollen δ13C Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. M.; Urban, M.; Hu, F.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the environmental factors controlling the origin and shifting abundance of C4 grasses in Earth's history is useful for projecting the response of C4-grass dominated grasslands to future environmental change. Unfortunately, grass pollen is typically morphologically indistinct, making palynological analysis a blunt tool for studying C4-grasses in the paleorecord. δ13C of individual grass-pollen grains using a spooling wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis, SPIRAL) overcomes this challenge and the potential biases of δ13C data from other substrates (e.g. leaf waxes). To assess the presence and relative abundance of C3- and C4-grass pollen in samples of unknown composition, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian model, trained with ~1,900 δ13C values from pollen grains of 31 grass species. Surface-sediment data from Africa, Australia, and North America demonstrate the reliability of this technique for quantifying C4-grass abundance on the landscape. To investigate the timing and control of the origin of C4-grasses we analyzed samples from the Oligocene-Miocene from Europe and from the Eocene from North America. Results indicate that C4 grasses appeared on the landscape of southwest Europe no later than the early Oligocene, implying that low atmospheric pCO2 may not have been the main driver and/or precondition for the development of C4 photosynthesis in the grass family. In contrast, we found no evidence for C4 grasses in the southeast United States before pCO2 fell. In application of SPIRAL to the late Quaternary, we found that shifts in pCO2 and moisture balance exerted key controls on the relative abundance of C3 and C4 grasses in Africa and Australia. Overall, our results imply that as in the past, future changes in the C3/C4 composition of grass-dominated ecosystems will likely exhibit striking spatiotemporal variability as a result of differing combinations of

  13. Comparative growth analysis of cool- and warm-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belesky, D.P.; Fedders, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Using both cool-season (C3) and warm-season (C4) species is a viable means of optimizing herbage productivity over varying climatic conditions in temperate environments. Despite well-documented differences in water, N, and radiation use, no consistent evidence demonstrates productivity differences among C3 and C4 perennial grass species under identical management. A field study was conducted to determine relative growth rates (RGR), nitrogen productivity (NP), and mean radiation productivity (RP) (dry matter production as a function of incident radiation) of cool- and warm-season grasses managed identically. Results were used to identify management practices thd could lead to optimal productivity in combinations or mixtures of cool- and warm-season grasses. Dry matter yields of warm-season grasses equaled or surpassed those of cool-season grasses, despite a 40% shorter growth interval. Certain cool- and warm-season grasses appear to be suitable for use in mixtures, based on distribution of herbage production; however, actual compatibility may be altered by defoliation management. Relative growth rates varied among years and were about 40% lower for canopies clipped to a 10-cm residue height each time 20-cm of growth accumulated compared with other treatments. The RGR of warm-season grasses was twice that of cool-season grasses Nitrogen productivity (g DM g-1 N d -1) and mean radiation productivity (g DM MJ-1) for warm-season grasses was also more than twice that of cool-season grasses. Radiation productivity of cool-season grasses was dependent on N, while this was not always the case for warm-season grasses. The superior production capability of certain warm-season compared with cool-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment can be sustained under a range of defoliation treatments and demonstrates suitability for use in frequently defoliated situations

  14. Bioethanol production from recovered napier grass with heavy metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Chun-Han; Yu, Fan-Chun; Chang, Fang-Chih; Yang, Bing-Yuan; Chen, Wen-Hua; Hwang, Wen-Song; Tu, Ta-Chih

    2017-12-01

    Using plants to absorb and accumulate heavy metals from polluted soil, followed by the recycling of explants containing heavy metals, can help achieve the goal of reverting contaminated soil to low heavy-metal content soil. However, the re-use of recovered explants can also be problematic. Meanwhile, bioethanol has become a popular energy source. In this study, napier grass was used for the remediation of soil contaminated with heavy metals (artificially contaminated soil). The influence of bioethanol production from napier grass after phytoremediation was also investigated. The concentration of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the contaminated soil was 1000, 100, and 250 mg/kg, respectively. After napier grass phytoremediation, the concentration (dry biomass) of Zn, Cd, and Cr in the explants was 2701.97 ± 173.49, 6.1 ± 2.3, and 74.24 ± 1.42 mg/kg, respectively. Biomass production in the unpolluted soil was 861.13 ± 4.23 g. The biomass production ratio in high Zn-polluted soil was only 3.89%, while it was 4.68% for Cd and 21.4% for Cr. The biomass obtained after napier grass phytoremediation was pretreated using the steam explosion conditions of 180 °C, for 10 min, with 1.5% H 2 SO 2 , followed by enzymatic hydrolysis. The efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis for Zn-polluted biomass was 90% of the unpolluted biomass, while it was 77% for Cd, and approximately the same for Cr. The fermentation efficiency of the heavy-metal-containing biomass was higher than the control biomass. The fermentation ethanol concentration obtained was 8.69-12.68, 13.03-15.50, and 18.48-19.31 g/L in Zn, Cd, and Cr environments, respectively. Results show that the heavy metals had a positive effect on bacteria fermentation. However, the fermentation efficiency was lower for biomass with severe heavy metal pollution. Thus, the utilization of napier grass phytoremediation for bioethanol production has a positive effect on the sustainability of environmental resources. Copyright © 2017

  15. Status of exotic grasses and grass-like vegetation and potential impacts on wildlife in New England

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeStefano, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The Northeastern section of the United States, known as New England, has seen vast changes in land cover and human population over the past 3 centuries. Much of the region is forested; grasslands and other open-land cover types are less common, but provide habitat for many species that are currently declining in abundance and distribution. New England also consists of some of the most densely populated and developed states in the country. The origin, distribution, and spread of exotic species are highly correlated with human development. As such, exotics are common throughout much of New England, including several species of graminoids (grasses and grass-like plants such as sedges and rushes). Several of the more invasive grass species can form expansive dense mats that exclude native plants, alter ecosystem structure and functions, and are perceived to provide little-to-no value as wildlife food or cover. Although little research has been conducted on direct impacts of exotic graminoids on wildlife populations in New England, several studies on the common reed (Phragmites australis) in salt marshes have shown this species to have variable effects as cover for birds and other wildlife, depending on the distribution of the plant (e.g., patches and borders of reeds are used more by wildlife than expansive densely growing stands). Direct impacts of other grasses on wildlife populations are largely unknown. However, many of the invasive graminoid species that are present in New England have the capability of outcompeting native plants and thereby potentially affecting associated fauna. Preservation, protection, and restoration of grassland and open-land cover types are complex but necessary challenges in the region to maintain biological and genetic diversity of grassland, wetland, and other open-land obligate species.

  16. Alley cropping of legumes with grasses as forages : Effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia on the growth and biomass production of forages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siti Yuhaeni

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A study to evaluate the effect of different grass species and row spacing of gliricidia (Gliricidia sepium on the growth and biomass production of forages in an alley cropping system was conducted in two different agroclimatical zones i.e. Bogor, located at 500 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 3,112 nun/year and Sukabumi located at 900 m a .s .l . with an average annual rainfall of 1,402 mm/year . Both locations have low N, P, and K content and the soil is classified as acidic. The experimental design used was a split plot design with 3 replicates . The main plots were different grass species i.e. king grass (Pennisetum purpureum x P. typhoides and elephant grass (P. purpureum. The sub plots were the row spacing of gliricidia at 2, 3, 4, 6 m (1 hedgerows and 4 m (2 hedgerows. The results indicated that the growth and biomass production of grasses were significantly affected (P<0 .05 by the treatments in Bogor. The highest biomass productions was obtained from the 2 m row spacing which gave the highest dry matter production of grasses (1 .65 kg/hill and gliricidia (0 .086 kg/tree . In Sukabumi the growth and biomass production of grasses and gliricidia were also significantly affected by the treatments . The highest dry matter production was obtained with 2 m row spacing (dry matter of grasses and gliricidia were 1 .12 kg/hill and 0 .026 kg/tree, respectively . The result further indicated that biomass production of forages increased with the increase in gliricidia population. The alley cropping system wich is suitable for Bogor was the 2 m row spacing of gliricidia intercropped with either king or elephant grass and for Sukabumi 2 and 4 m (2 rows of gliricidia row spacing intercropped with king or elephant grass .

  17. Poverty as an Abuse of Human Rights in Ghana. : A grass roots perspective on poverty and human rights.

    OpenAIRE

    Armah, Collins

    2009-01-01

    The study aimed at getting a grass root opinion on poverty and why Ghana is still poor after 50 years of independence in spite of her richness in natural resources, second largest producer of cocoa in the word and appreciable stable political environment. The opinions of the ordinary people in the Bia district and their observed living conditions was analysed in line with theoretical basis of the study and previous studies to justify the stance that poverty should be considered as an abuse of...

  18. Effect of Additives and Fuel Blending on Emissions and Ash-Related Problems from Small-Scale Combustion of Reed Canary Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Fournel

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural producers are interested in using biomass available on farms to substitute fossil fuels for heat production. However, energy crops like reed canary grass contain high nitrogen (N, sulfur (S, potassium (K and other ash-forming elements which lead to increased emissions of gases and particulate matter (PM and ash-related operational problems (e.g., melting during combustion. To address these problematic behaviors, reed canary grass was blended with wood (50 wt% and fuel additives (3 wt% such as aluminum silicates (sewage sludge, calcium (limestone and sulfur (lignosulfonate based additives. When burned in a top-feed pellet boiler (29 kW, the four blends resulted in a 17%–29% decrease of PM concentrations compared to pure reed canary grass probably because of a reduction of K release to flue gas. Nitrogen oxides (NOx and sulfur dioxide (SO2 emissions varied according to fuel N and S contents. This explains the lower NOx and SO2 levels obtained with wood based products and the higher SO2 generation with the grass/lignosulfonate blend. The proportion of clinkers found in combustion ash was greatly lessened (27%–98% with the use of additives, except for lignosulfonate. The positive effects of some additives may allow agricultural fuels to become viable alternatives.

  19. Their grass is greener but ours is sweeter - thoroughbred breeding and water management in the Upper Hunter region of New South Wales, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McManus, P. [University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School for Geoscience

    2008-05-15

    The Upper Hunter region (in New South Wales (NSW) around Scone is reputed to be the second most significant thoroughbred breeding region in the world after the Bluegrass region of Kentucky. This article identifies the importance and cultural constructions of grass, and hence water, in the thoroughbred breeding industry in this region. Thoroughbred stud managers attempt to produce environments attractive to potential horse purchasers and owners with mares to be mated. These environments are constructed from perceptions of how a thoroughbred stud should appear, and from the physical conditions of specific locations. One perception is that the grass should be green. There are differing opinions in the thoroughbred breeding industry about the nutritional value of irrigated grasses, the role of these grasses in horse development and the associated access to, cost of and efficacy of water used for this purpose. The paper concludes that effective water management in this industry is only possible if various cultures of nature are understood, where necessary challenged, and subsequently included in policy and planning.

  20. Small mammal use of native warm-season and non-native cool-season grass forage fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan L Klimstra,; Christopher E Moorman,; Converse, Sarah J.; Royle, J. Andrew; Craig A Harper,

    2015-01-01

    Recent emphasis has been put on establishing native warm-season grasses for forage production because it is thought native warm-season grasses provide higher quality wildlife habitat than do non-native cool-season grasses. However, it is not clear whether native warm-season grass fields provide better resources for small mammals than currently are available in non-native cool-season grass forage production fields. We developed a hierarchical spatially explicit capture-recapture model to compare abundance of hispid cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus), white-footed mice (Peromyscus leucopus), and house mice (Mus musculus) among 4 hayed non-native cool-season grass fields, 4 hayed native warm-season grass fields, and 4 native warm-season grass-forb ("wildlife") fields managed for wildlife during 2 summer trapping periods in 2009 and 2010 of the western piedmont of North Carolina, USA. Cotton rat abundance estimates were greater in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields and greater in native warm-season grass fields than in non-native cool-season grass fields. Abundances of white-footed mouse and house mouse populations were lower in wildlife fields than in native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields, but the abundances were not different between the native warm-season grass and non-native cool-season grass fields. Lack of cover following haying in non-native cool-season grass and native warm-season grass fields likely was the key factor limiting small mammal abundance, especially cotton rats, in forage fields. Retention of vegetation structure in managed forage production systems, either by alternately resting cool-season and warm-season grass forage fields or by leaving unharvested field borders, should provide refugia for small mammals during haying events.

  1. Ethanol production from sugars obtained during enzymatic hydrolysis of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, Schum.) pretreated by steam explosion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholl, Angélica Luisi; Menegol, Daiane; Pitarelo, Ana Paula; Fontana, Roselei Claudete; Zandoná Filho, Arion; Ramos, Luiz Pereira; Dillon, Aldo José Pinheiro; Camassola, Marli

    2015-09-01

    In this work, steam explosion was used a pretreatment method to improve the conversion of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum) to cellulosic ethanol. This way, enzymatic hydrolysis of vaccum-drained and water-washed steam-treated substrates was carried out with Penicillium echinulatum enzymes while Saccharomyces cerevisiae CAT-1 was used for fermentation. After 48 h of hydrolysis, the highest yield of reducing sugars was obtained from vaccum-drained steam-treated substrates that were produced after 10 min at 200 °C (863.42 ± 62.52 mg/g). However, the highest glucose yield was derived from water-washed steam-treated substrates that were produced after 10 min at 190 °C (248.34 ± 6.27 mg/g) and 200 °C (246.00 ± 9.60 mg/g). Nevertheless, the highest ethanol production was obtained from water-washed steam-treated substrates that were produced after 6 min at 200 °C. These data revealed that water washing is a critical step for ethanol production from steam-treated elephant grass and that pretreatment generates a great deal of water soluble inhibitory compounds for hydrolysis and fermentation, which were partly characterized as part of this study. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ensiling and hydrothermal pretreatment of grass: Consequences for enzymatic biomass conversion and total monosaccharide yields

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Ensiling may act as a pretreatment of fresh grass biomass and increase the enzymatic conversion of structural carbohydrates to fermentable sugars. However, ensiling does not provide sufficient severity to be a standalone pretreatment method. Here, ensiling of grass is combined with hydrothermal...... treatment (HTT) with the aim of improving the enzymatic biomass convertibility and decrease the required temperature of the HTT. Results: Grass silage (Festulolium Hykor) was hydrothermally treated at temperatures of 170, 180, and 190°C for 10 minutes. Relative to HTT treated dry grass, ensiling increased...... convertibility). The effect of ensiling of grass prior to HTT improved the enzymatic conversion of cellulose for HTT at 170 and 180°C, but the increased glucose release did not make up for the loss of water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) during ensiling. Overall, sugar yields (C6 + C5) were similar for HTT of grass...

  3. Evaluation of molecular basis of cross reactivity between rye and Bermuda grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ruby; Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2009-12-01

    Allergenic cross reactivity between the members of the Pooids (Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis) and Chloridoids (Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum notatum) is well established. Studies using crude extracts in the past have demonstrated limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and the Chloridoids suggesting separate diagnosis and therapy. However, little is known regarding the molecular basis for the limited cross reactivity observed between the 2 groups of grasses. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular basis of cross allergenicity between the major allergens from rye and Bermuda grass pollens. Immunoblot inhibition tests were carried out to determine the specificity of the proteins involved in cross reactivity. Crude pollen extract and bacterially expressed and purified recombinant Lol p 1and Lol p 5 from rye grass were subjected to cross inhibition experiments with crude and purified recombinant Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass using sera from patients allergic to rye grass pollen. The immunoblot inhibition studies revealed a high degree of cross inhibition between the group 1 allergens. In contrast, a complete lack of inhibition was observed between Bermuda grass group 1 allergen rCyn d 1, and rye grass group 5 allergen rLol p 5. Crude rye grass extract strongly inhibited IgE reactivity to Bermuda grass, whereas crude Bermuda grass pollen extract showed a weaker inhibition. Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  4. Sources of N2O in organic grass-clover pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2002-01-01

    Organic farming practises, and in particular dairy production systems based on grass-clover pastures are becoming increasingly abundant within Danish agriculture. Grass-clover pastures may provide a mitigation option to reduce grassland nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Velthof et al. 1998). The objectives of this work was to examine the relationship between N2O emissions and transformations of inorganic N in organically managed grass-clover pastures of different ages. Results from the projec...

  5. Diversity of alkane hydroxylase genes on the rhizoplane of grasses planted in petroleum-contaminated soils

    OpenAIRE

    Tsuboi, Shun; Yamamura, Shigeki; Nakajima-Kambe, Toshiaki; Iwasaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated the diversity and genotypic features of alkane hydroxylase genes on rhizoplanes of grasses planted in artificial petroleum-contaminated soils to acquire new insights into the bacterial communities responsible for petroleum degradation in phytoremediation. Four types of grass (Cynodon dactylon, two phenotypes of Zoysia japonica, and Z. matrella) were used. The concentrations of total petroleum hydrocarbon effectively decreased in the grass-planted systems compared with t...

  6. Production of N{sub 2}O in grass-clover pastures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carter, M.S.

    2005-09-01

    Agricultural soils are known to be a considerable source of the strong greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), and in soil N{sub 2}O is mainly produced by nitrifying and denitrifying bacteria. In Denmark, grass-clover pastures are an important component of the cropping system in organic as well as conventional dairy farming, and on a European scale grass-clover mixtures represent a large part of the grazed grasslands. Biological dinitrogen (N{sub 2}) fixation in clover provides a major N input to these systems, but knowledge is sparse regarding the amount of fixed N{sub 2} lost from the grasslands as N2O. Furthermore, urine patches deposited by grazing cattle are known to be hot-spots of N{sub 2}O emission, but the mechanisms involved in the N{sub 2}O production in urine-affected soil are very complex and not well understood. The aim of this Ph.D. project was to increase the knowledge of the biological and physical-chemical mechanisms, which control the production of N2O in grazed grass-clover pastures. Three experimental studies were conducted with the objectives of: 1: assessing the contribution of recently fixed N{sub 2} as a source of N{sub 2}O. 2: examining the link between N{sub 2}O emission and carbon mineralization in urine patches. 3: investigating the effect of urine on the rates and N{sub 2}O loss ratios of nitrification and denitrification, and evaluating the impact of the chemical conditions that arise in urine affected soil. The results revealed that only 3.2 {+-} 0.5 ppm of the recently fixed N{sub 2} was emitted as N2O on a daily basis. Thus, recently fixed N released via easily degradable clover residues appears to be a minor source of N2O. Furthermore, increased N{sub 2}O emission following urine application at rates up to 5.5 g N m{sup -2} was not caused by enhanced denitrification stimulated by labile compounds released from scorched plant roots. Finally, the increase of soil pH and ammonium following urine application led to raised

  7. Effets du conditionnement en jours longs à la fin du cycle reproducteur sur la période d'ovulation et sur les sécrétions gonadotropes chez l'omble chevalier (Salvelinus alpinus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GILLET C.

    1998-07-01

    Full Text Available Les ombles chevaliers originaires du Léman se reproduisent à la fin de l'automne. En élevage, il est intéressant de retarder de quelques mois la période des ovulations car ce poisson a besoin d'une température inférieure à 6°C pendant l'ovulation. Il est plus facile de fournir une eau à cette température aux géniteurs retardés qui ovulent en hiver qu'à ceux qui ovulent naturellement en automne. Le conditionnement des ombles chevaliers en jours longs (17L-7N pendant l'automne permet de retarder de plusieurs mois la période des ovulations. Cette méthode a l'inconvénient de provoquer un étalement des ovulations sur plus de 3 mois. Le reconditionnement des géniteurs en jours courts en décembre supprime ce problème. L'efficacité du traitement en jours longs ne semble pas dépendre de la durée de son application pourvu que celle-ci dépasse 1,5 mois. Chez les femelles conditionnées en jours longs en automne et en hiver, les concentrations en gonadotropine plasmatique (GTH II sont très faibles. Le niveau de la GTH II plasmatique augmente trois semaines après un transfert en jours courts en janvier. Les concentrations de la GTH II plasmatique au cours de l'ovulation sont significativement plus faibles chez les femelles conditionnées en jours longs en janvier que chez les animaux reconditionnés en jours courts. A ce stade du cycle reproducteur, la GTH I plasmatique reste toujours à un niveau très faible, quel que soit le régime photopériodique. La pose d'implant de mélatonine chez les poissons ne modifie pas les sécrétions gonadotropes en jours longs comme en jours courts. La réceptivité hypophysaire des femelles à une stimulation de la sécrétion gonadotrope par une injection de GnRH n'est pas modifiée par le conditionnement des poissons en jours longs. Aucun effet du pimozide sur la sécrétion de la GTH II n'a pu être mis en évidence chez les géniteurs conditionnés en jours longs. Ces résultats permettent

  8. Grass fields as reservoirs for polyphagous predators (Arthropoda) of aphids (Homopt., Aphididae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gravesen, Eigil Vestergaard; Toft, Søren

    1987-01-01

    In a 4 ha grass field in Denmark three separate plots of 15 times 25 m were cultivated with barley. In each plot a central area of 5 times 5 m were fenced off by a plastic barrier. Thus, each plot consisted of an unfenced area, accessible for predators immigrating from the grass field, and an una......In a 4 ha grass field in Denmark three separate plots of 15 times 25 m were cultivated with barley. In each plot a central area of 5 times 5 m were fenced off by a plastic barrier. Thus, each plot consisted of an unfenced area, accessible for predators immigrating from the grass field...

  9. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    Although intensive agriculture is necessary to sustain the world's growing population, accelerated soil erosion contributes to a decrease in the environmental health of ecosystems at local, regional and global scales. Reversing the process of land degradation using vegetative measures is of utmost importance in such ecosystems. The present study critically analyzes the effect of grasses in reversing the process of land degradation using a systematic review. The collected information was segregated under three different land use and land management situations. Meta-analysis was applied to test the hypothesis that the use of grasses reduces runoff and soil erosion. The effect of grasses was deduced for grass strip and in combination with physical structures. Similarly, the effects of grasses were analyzed in degraded pasture lands. The overall result of the meta-analysis showed that infiltration capacity increased approximately 2-fold after planting grasses across the slopes in agricultural fields. Grazing land management through a cut-and-carry system increased conservation efficiencies by 42 and 63 % with respect to reduction in runoff and erosion, respectively. Considering the comprehensive performance index (CPI), it has been observed that hybrid Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and sambuta (Saccharum munja) grass seem to posses the most desirable attributes as an effective grass barrier for the western Himalayas and Eastern Ghats, while natural grass (Dichanthium annulatum) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) are found to be most promising grass species for the Konkan region of the Western Ghats and the northeastern Himalayan region, respectively. In addition to these benefits, it was also observed that soil carbon loss can be reduced by 83 % with the use of grasses. Overall, efficacy for erosion control of various grasses was more than 60 %; hence, their selection should be based on the production potential of these grasses under given edaphic and agro

  10. Anaerobic co-digestion of sewage sludge with shredded grass from public green spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidaka, Taira; Arai, Sayuri; Okamoto, Seiichiro; Uchida, Tsutomu

    2013-02-01

    Adding greenery from public spaces to the co-digestion process with sewage sludge was evaluated by shredding experiments and laboratory-scale batch and continuous mesophilic anaerobic fermentation experiments. The ratio of the shredded grass with 20mm or less in length by a commercially available shredder was 93%. The methane production was around 0.2NL/gVS-grass in the batch experiment. The continuous experiment fed with sewage sludge and shredded grass was stably operated for 81days. The average methane production was 0.09NL/gVS-grass when the TS ratio of the sewage sludge and the grass was 10:1. This value was smaller than those of other reports using grass silage, but the grass species in this study were not managed, and the collected grass was just shredded and not ensiled before feeding to the reactor for simple operation. The addition of grass to a digester can improve the carbon/nitrogen ratio, methane production and dewaterability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  12. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Becker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations......We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres of this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark) using three...

  13. Using the Model Perennial Grass Brachypodium sylvaticum to Engineer Resistance to Multiple Abiotic Stresses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, Sean; Reguera, Maria; Sade, Nir; Cartwright, Amy; Tobias, Christian; Thilmony, Roger; Blumwald, Eduardo; Vogel, John

    2015-03-20

    We are using the perennial model grass Brachypodium sylvaticum to identify combinations of transgenes that enhance tolerance to multiple, simultaneous abiotic stresses. The most successful transgene combinations will ultimately be used to create improved switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) cultivars. To further develop B. sylvaticum as a perennial model grass, and facilitate our planned transcriptional profiling, we are sequencing and annotating the genome. We have generated ~40x genome coverage using PacBio sequencing of the largest possible size selected libraries (18, 22, 25 kb). Our initial assembly using only long-read sequence contained 320 Mb of sequence with an N50 contig length of 315 kb and an N95 contig length of 40 kb. This assembly consists of 2,430 contigs, the largest of which was 1.6 Mb. The estimated genome size based on c-values is 340 Mb indicating that about 20 Mb of presumably repetitive DNA remains yet unassembled. Significantly, this assembly is far superior to an assembly created from paired-end short-read sequence, ~100x genome coverage. The short-read-only assembly contained only 226 Mb of sequence in 19k contigs. To aid the assembly of the scaffolds into chromosome-scale assemblies we produced an F2 mapping population and have genotyped 480 individuals using a genotype by sequence approach. One of the reasons for using B. sylvaticum as a model system is to determine if the transgenes adversely affect perenniality and winter hardiness. Toward this goal, we examined the freezing tolerance of wild type B. sylvaticum lines to determine the optimal conditions for testing the freezing tolerance of the transgenics. A survey of seven accessions noted significant natural variation in freezing tolerance. Seedling or adult Ain-1 plants, the line used for transformation, survived an 8 hour challenge down to -6 oC and 50% survived a challenge down to -9 oC. Thus, we will be able to easily determine if the transgenes compromise freezing tolerance. In the

  14. Linking phenology and biomass productivity in South Dakota mixed-grass prairie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigge, Matthew; Smart, Alexander; Wylie, Bruce; Gilmanov, Tagir; Johnson, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    Assessing the health of rangeland ecosystems based solely on annual biomass production does not fully describe plant community condition; the phenology of production can provide inferences on species composition, successional stage, and grazing impacts. We evaluate the productivity and phenology of western South Dakota mixed-grass prairie using 2000 to 2008 Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite imagery at 250 m spatial resolution. Growing season NDVI images were integrated weekly to produce time-integrated NDVI (TIN), a proxy of total annual biomass production, and integrated seasonally to represent annual production by cool (C3) and warm (C4) season species. Additionally, a variety of phenological indicators including cool season percentage of TIN were derived from the seasonal profiles of NDVI. Cool season percentage and TIN were combined to generate vegetation classes, which served as proxies of plant community condition. TIN decreased with precipitation from east to west across the study area. Alternatively, cool season percentage increased from east to west, following patterns related to the reliability (interannual coefficient of variation [CV]) and quantity of mid-summer precipitation. Cool season TIN averaged 76.8% of total. Seasonal accumulation of TIN corresponded closely (R2 > 0.90) to that of gross photosynthesis data from a carbon flux tower. Field-collected biomass and community composition data were strongly related to the TIN and cool season percentage products. The patterns of vegetation classes were responsive to topographic, edaphic, and land management influences on plant communities. Accurate maps of biomass production, cool/warm season composition, and vegetation classes can improve the efficiency of land management by adjusting stocking rates and season of use to maximize rangeland productivity and achieve conservation objectives. Further, our results clarify the spatial and

  15. Algal biochar enhances the re-vegetation of stockpiled mine soils with native grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, David A; Cole, Andrew J; Paul, Nicholas A; de Nys, Rocky

    2015-09-15

    In most countries the mining industry is required to rehabilitate disturbed land with native vegetation. A typical approach is to stockpile soils during mining and then use this soil to recreate landforms after mining. Soil that has been stockpiled for an extended period typically contains little or no organic matter and nutrient, making soil rehabilitation a slow and difficult process. Here, we take freshwater macroalgae (Oedogonium) cultivated in waste water at a coal-fired power station and use it as a feedstock for the production of biochar, then use this biochar to enhance the rehabilitation of two types of stockpiled soil - a ferrosol and a sodosol - from the adjacent coal mine. While the biomass had relatively high concentrations of some metals, due to its cultivation in waste water, the resulting biochar did not leach metals into the pore water of soil-biochar mixtures. The biochar did, however, contribute essential trace elements (particularly K) to soil pore water. The biochar had very strong positive effects on the establishment and growth of a native plant (Kangaroo grass, Themeda australis) in both of the soils. The addition of the algal biochar to both soils at 10 t ha(-1) reduced the time to germination by the grass and increased the growth and production of plant biomass. Somewhat surprisingly, there was no beneficial effect of a higher application rate (25 t ha(-1)) of the biochar in the ferrosol, which highlights the importance of matching biochar application rates to the requirements of different types of soil. Nevertheless, we demonstrate that algal biochar can be produced from biomass cultivated in waste water and used at low application rates to improve the rehabilitation of a variety of soils typical of coal mines. This novel process links biomass production in waste water to end use of the biomass in land rehabilitation, simultaneously addressing two environmental issues associated with coal-mining and processing. Copyright © 2015

  16. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Mauro-Herrera

    Full Text Available The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail. In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  17. Development and Genetic Control of Plant Architecture and Biomass in the Panicoid Grass, Setaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauro-Herrera, Margarita; Doust, Andrew N

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of a plant affects its ability to compete for light and to respond to environmental stresses, thus affecting overall fitness and productivity. Two components of architecture, branching and height, were studied in 182 F7 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) at the vegetative, flowering and mature developmental stages in the panicoid C4 model grass system, Setaria. The RIL population was derived from a cross between domesticated S. italica (foxtail millet) and its wild relative S. viridis (green foxtail). In both field and greenhouse trials the wild parent was taller initially, started branching earlier, and flowered earlier, while the domesticated parent was shorter initially, but flowered later, producing a robust tall plant architecture with more nodes and leaves on the main culm and few or no branches. Biomass was highly correlated with height of the plant and number of nodes on the main culm, and generally showed a negative relationship with branch number. However, several of the RILs with the highest biomass in both trials were significantly more branched than the domesticated parent of the cross. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses indicate that both height and branching are controlled by multiple genetic regions, often with QTL for both traits colocalizing in the same genomic regions. Genomic positions of several QTL colocalize with QTL in syntenic regions in other species and contain genes known to control branching and height in sorghum, maize, and switchgrass. Included in these is the ortholog of the rice SD-1 semi-dwarfing gene, which underlies one of the major Setaria height QTL. Understanding the relationships between height and branching patterns in Setaria, and their genetic control, is an important step to gaining a comprehensive knowledge of the development and genetic regulation of panicoid grass architecture.

  18. Use of ionizing radiation in grass breeding. I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indruch, I.; Svetlik, V.; Ligocki, J.

    1980-01-01

    Two subspecies of F. rubra occurring in natural localities of north-east Moravia (CSSR) in the Beskydy Mts. were used. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. genuina grandiflora (Hack.) 2n=8x=56, F. rubra represented a model species used for testing the effects of both acute and chronic gamma irradiation. In Festuca rubra L. ssp. vulgaris (Gaud.) Hay 2n=6x=42, new breeding was realized with success. The effects on important features of grasses were identical in both cases. The extension of combining abilities is especially important because it allows the production of forms less frequent in natural populations. (author)

  19. Molecular Physiology of Root System Architecture in Model Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, K.; Ahkami, A. H.; Anderton, C.; Veličković, D.; Myers, G. L.; Chrisler, W.; Lindenmaier, R.; Fang, Y.; Yabusaki, S.; Rosnow, J. J.; Farris, Y.; Khan, N. E.; Bernstein, H. C.; Jansson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Unraveling the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in responses of Root System Architecture (RSA) to abiotic stresses and shifts in microbiome structure is critical to understand and engineer plant-microbe-soil interactions in the rhizosphere. In this study, accessions of Brachypodium distachyon Bd21 (C3 model grass) and Setaria viridis A10.1 (C4 model grass) were grown in phytotron chambers under current and elevated CO2 levels. Detailed growth stage-based phenotypic analysis revealed different above- and below-ground morphological and physiological responses in C3 and C4 grasses to enhanced CO2 levels. Based on our preliminary results and by screening values of total biomass, water use efficiency, root to shoot ratio, RSA parameters and net assimilation rates, we postulated a three-phase physiological mechanism, i.e. RootPlus, BiomassPlus and YieldPlus phases, for grass growth under elevated CO2 conditions. Moreover, this comprehensive set of morphological and process-based observations are currently in use to develop, test, and calibrate biophysical whole-plant models and in particular to simulate leaf-level photosynthesis at various developmental stages of C3 and C4 using the model BioCro. To further link the observed phenotypic traits at the organismal level to tissue and molecular levels, and to spatially resolve the origin and fate of key metabolites involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism in different root sections, we complement root phenotypic observations with spatial metabolomics data using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods. Focusing on plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, six bacterial strains with plant growth promoting features are currently in use in both gel-based and soil systems to screen root growth and development in Brachypodium. Using confocal microscopy, GFP-tagged bacterial systems are utilized to study the initiation of different root types of RSA, including primary root (PR), coleoptile node axile root (CNR

  20. Estimating the energy requirements and CO{sub 2} emissions from production of the perennial grasses miscanthus, switchgrass and reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, M.; Metcalfe, P.

    2001-07-01

    The perennial grasses miscanthus, reed canary and swithchgrass have attractions as energy crops in the United Kingdom: all have low demand for fertilizer and pesticide, and are harvested annually. Research on energy ratios and carbon ratios of the grasses is reported. A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed (from an ADAS database) and the input calculations and assumptions are explained. The study demonstrated the attractions of theses grasses as a source of fuel. The results agreed with those from a model developed for the SRC.

  1. Seasonal and inter-annual variation of Beryllium-7 deposition in birch-tree leaves and grass in the northeast upland area of the Czech Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poeschl, Michael, E-mail: poschl@mendelu.c [Department of Molecular Biology and Radiobiology, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture in Brno, Zemedelska 1, 61300 Brno (Czech Republic); Brunclik, Tomas, E-mail: brunclik@georadis.co [Georadis s.r.o., Hudcova 56b, 621 00 Brno (Czech Republic); Hanak, Jaromir, E-mail: jaromir.hanak@geology.c [Czech Geological Survey, Department of Environmental Geology and Geophysics, Leitnerova 22, 658 69 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2010-09-15

    The activity concentrations of Beryllium-7 ({sup 7}Be), a naturally occurring radioisotope produced in the atmosphere, were measured in leaves of birch-trees, above-ground parts of grass, soil and rainwater in the mountain massive Kralicky Sneznik (the northeast of the Czech Republic, altitude about 750 m) in the years of 2005, 2006 and 2007. Dried and ground samples of the plants and soils, and water samples from wet deposition were used to determine the {sup 7}Be content using a semiconductor gamma spectrometer. The {sup 7}Be values ranged from 147.0 to 279.6 Bq kg{sup -1}, from 48.7 to 740.8 Bq kg{sup -1}, from 2.1 to 8.7 Bq kg{sup -1}, and from 0.6 to 1.9 Bq kg{sup -1} in birch-tree leaves, grass samples, soils, and rainwater, respectively. Insignificant inter-annual variations but significant increase in the {sup 7}Be activity concentrations during the spring and summer months were observed in birch-tree leaves and grass samples. The seasonal variation of the {sup 7}Be concentrations in grass samples correlated (R{sup 2} = 0.4663 and 0.6489) with precipitation. No similar correlation was found for {sup 7}Be in birch-tree leaves. Beryllium-7 content in birch-tree leaves and in aerial parts of grass was mainly caused by direct transport of {sup 7}Be from wet deposition into aerial parts of the observed plants.

  2. Pyrolysis of blended animal manures to produce combustible gas and value-added charcoal adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blended swine solids, chicken litter, and rye grass were pyrolyzed using a skid-mounted sytem. Produced gas composition was analyzed for major hydrocarbons and S-containing compounds. Charcoal was analyzed for its surface functional groups, contact angles, HHV, and total element contents. Some of th...

  3. Resuspension of particulate matter from grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1979-05-01

    Measurements of resuspension of particulate matter from grassland and bare soil in Britain at controlled wind speeds are described in this report. The measurements were performed in an outdoor wind tunnel. Resuspension factors for a sub-micron powder deposited from the air on to 10m 2 of grass and soil and for a suspension of silt, sprayed on to a similar grass area, were similar. The resuspension factor declined as the reciprocal of time of wind exposure and increased as the square or cube of wind speed. An appreciable fraction of the resuspended tracer was in the respirable size range. A large fraction of the total material suspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within three metres. The strong dependence of deposition rates on particle size and the rapid deposition close to the source questions the extrapolation of small scale resuspension measurements to practical situations, suggesting that analysis of the concentrations of widely distributed tracers may usefully supplement resuspension measurements. Atmospheric concentrations of trace elements and the distribution of weapons fallout were used to deduce an upper limit for the resuspension factor for a fifteen year old deposit of 7 x 10 -11 m -1 . The fraction of deposited fallout resuspended during such a period cannot much exceed 10 per cent. (author)

  4. Resuspension of particulate material from grass. Experimental programme 1979 - 1980

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garland, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Further wind tunnel experiments on resuspension are presented. In one, the effect of natural weathering was investigated. The grass was exposed to natural wind and rain between measurement periods. Results showed that natural weathering reduced the concentration of the tungstic oxide (WO 3 ) tracer found in the air in subsequent resuspension measurements at least as rapidly as exposure to high winds alone. Another experiment showed that 60% of the WO 3 resuspended from a small contaminated area deposited again within 4 m. Finally, resuspension from grass of 2 μm and 5 μm iron oxide particles and of ferric chloride applied in solution are reported and compared with tungstic oxide and silt. After the first few hours, the resuspension rate increased in the order: submicron WO 3 powder, silt, ferric chloride, 2 μm particles, 5 μm particles, with a ratio of about a hundred between the highest and lowest. The problem of extrapolating from small-scale experiments to contamination on a larger scale is discussed. Resuspension factors for grassland in N W Europe appear to be comparable with those observed in more arid conditions in the USA, but resuspension formulae previously proposed by American workers are probably conservative by about an order of magnitude if applied in Europe. (author)

  5. BUFFEL GRASS MORPHOAGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION FROM Cenchrus GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA REGINA GOMES PASSOS BRUNO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available his study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB from Embrapa Semi - Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty - five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each cut. Characterization was based on 15 quantitative and qualitative morphoagronomic descriptors. Quantitative descriptors were subjected to individual and joint univariate analysis of variance, followed by the Scott - Knott’s test at 5% significance. Yet qualitative descriptors were submitted to descriptive analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative descriptors were grouped based on the Gower algorithm for divergence analysis. A dendrogram and calculations of the characters relative importance for divergence were established. Genotype and cutting effects were significant for almost all descriptors in the joint analysis. This result indicates a genetic variability between genotypes and, regarding the cut, it indicates mainly differences in growth rate of each genotype in each cutting season. Genotypes were separated into three groups, which showed good genotype variation. The number of tillers per clump, followed by number of inflorescence and color of seeds, were the most relevant characters in genotype separation.

  6. The Sorghum bicolor genome and the diversification of grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paterson, Andrew H.; Bowers, John E.; Bruggmann, Remy; dubchak, Inna; Grimwood, Jane; Gundlach, Heidrun; Haberer, Georg; Hellsten, Uffe; Mitros, Therese; Poliakov, Alexander; Schmutz, Jeremy; Spannagl, Manuel; Tang, Haibo; Wang, Xiyin; Wicker, Thomas; Bharti, Arvind K.; Chapman, Jarrod; Feltus, F. Alex; Gowik, Udo; Grigoriev, Igor V.; Lyons, Eric; Maher, Christopher A.; Martis, Mihaela; Marechania, Apurva; Otillar, Robert P.; Penning, Bryan W.; Salamov, Asaf. A.; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Lifang; Carpita, Nicholas C.; Freeling, Michael; Gingle, Alan R.; hash, C. Thomas; Keller, Beat; Klein, Patricia; Kresovich, Stephen; McCann, Maureen C.; Ming, Ray; Peterson, Daniel G.; ur-Rahman, Mehboob-; Ware, Doreen; Westhoff, Peter; Mayer, Klaus F. X.; Messing, Joachim; Rokhsar, Daniel S.

    2008-08-20

    Sorghum, an African grass related to sugar cane and maize, is grown for food, feed, fibre and fuel. We present an initial analysis of the approx730-megabase Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench genome, placing approx98percent of genes in their chromosomal context using whole-genome shotgun sequence validated by genetic, physical and syntenic information. Genetic recombination is largely confined to about one-third of the sorghum genome with gene order and density similar to those of rice. Retrotransposon accumulation in recombinationally recalcitrant heterochromatin explains the approx75percent larger genome size of sorghum compared with rice. Although gene and repetitive DNA distributions have been preserved since palaeopolyploidization approx70 million years ago, most duplicated gene sets lost one member before the sorghum rice divergence. Concerted evolution makes one duplicated chromosomal segment appear to be only a few million years old. About 24percent of genes are grass-specific and 7percent are sorghum-specific. Recent gene and microRNA duplications may contribute to sorghum's drought tolerance.

  7. Towards evidence-based medicine in specific grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, M; Mösges, R; Hellmich, M; Demoly, P

    2010-04-01

    When initiating grass pollen immunotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, specialist physicians in many European countries must choose between modalities of differing pharmaceutical and regulatory status. We applied an evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to commercially available subcutaneous and sublingual Gramineae grass pollen immunotherapies (SCIT and SLIT) by evaluating study design, populations, pollen seasons, treatment doses and durations, efficacy, quality of life, safety and compliance. After searching MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library up until January 2009, we identified 33 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (including seven paediatric trials) with a total of 440 specific immunotherapy (SIT)-treated subjects in seven trials (0 paediatric) for SCIT with natural pollen extracts, 168 in three trials (0 paediatric) for SCIT with allergoids, 906 in 16 trials (five paediatric) for natural extract SLIT drops, 41 in two trials (one paediatric) for allergoid SLIT tablets and 1605 in five trials (two paediatric) for natural extract SLIT tablets. Trial design and quality varied significantly within and between SIT modalities. The multinational, rigorous trials of natural extract SLIT tablets correspond to a high level of evidence in adult and paediatric populations. The limited amount of published data on allergoids prevented us from judging the level of evidence for this modality.

  8. GERMINATION OF GRASSES DUE TO INOCULATION DIAZOTROPHIC BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. D. A. Moreira

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The germination of forage grasses suffers from numbness and a natural tendency to low quality. The use of microorganisms inoculated in seeds with the purpose of increasing and meet the demand of some nutrient has been shown to be efficient, but the role of the microorganism in germination and rate of force is still unknown. Therefore the goal as study was to evaluate the germination rate of seeds of three cultivars of Brachiaria brizantha CV. Marandu, b., b. brizantha CV. Xaraés and b. humidícola cv Tupi and a cultivar of millet, P. hybrid cv Massai depending on the bacterium Azospirillum brasilense diazotrofic inoculation (nitrogen-fixing. Germination test was used in seed dispersal to assess the effect of first count (VPC in the treatments with and without inoculation. It was done also conducted further tests of electrical conductivity, weight of thousand seeds and water content. The delineation used was randomized entirely (DIC and the statistical analysis carried out through the analysis of variance and comparison of means using the Tukey test, the 5% probability. Massai grass seeds have the highest rate of force of first count in both treatments. Inoculation of bacterium Azospirillum brasilense did not affect the values of force of first count on seeds of the cultivars Marandu, Xaraés, Tupi and Massai. The seeds of the massai have higher germination speed relative the other cultivars evaluated when inoculated.

  9. Morphogenesis in guinea grass pastures under rotational grazing strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Baptaglin Montagner

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted in order to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics of guinea grass cv. Mombasa under three post-grazing heights (intense - 30 cm, lenient - 50 cm and variable - 50 in spring-summer and 30 cm in autumn-winter when sward light interception reached 95% during regrowth. Post-grazing heights were allocated to experimental units (0.25 ha in a completely randomized block design with three replications. Post-grazing heights affected only leaf elongation rate and the number of live leaves. Pastures managed with variable post-grazing height showed higher leaf elongation rate in the summer of 2007. This management strategy also resulted in a higher number of live leaves. During the spring of 2006, plants showed lower leaf elongation rate, leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves, and greater phyllochron and leaf lifespan. In contrast, during the summer of 2007, the leaf appearance rate, leaf elongation rate, number of live leaves, and final leaf length were greater while phyllochron, stem elongation rate, and leaf senescence rate were lower. The management of the guinea grass cv. Mombasa with intense or variable post-grazing height throughout the year seems to represent an interesting management target, in terms of leaf appearance rate and number of live leaves.

  10. Common mycelial networks impact competition in an invasive grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workman, Rachael E; Cruzan, Mitchell B

    2016-06-01

    Mycorrhizal hyphal complexes can connect multiple host plants to form common mycelial networks (CMNs) that may affect plant competitive outcomes and community composition through differential resource allocation. The impacts of CMN interactions on invasive plants are not well understood and could be crucial to the understanding of invasive plant establishment and success. We grew the invasive grass Brachypodium sylvaticum in intra- and interspecific pairings with native grass Bromus vulgaris in a greenhouse and controlled for the effects of CMN and root interactions by manipulating the belowground separation between competitors. Comparison of plant growth in pots that allowed CMN interactions and excluded root competition and vice versa, or both, allowed us to delineate the effects of network formation and root competition on invasive plant establishment and performance. Brachypodium sylvaticum grown in pots allowing for only hyphal interactions, but no root competition, displayed superior growth compared with conspecifics in other treatments. Invasive performance was poorest when pairs were not separated by a barrier. Shoot nitrogen content in B. sylvaticum was higher in mycorrhizal plants only when connections were allowed between competitors. Our results indicate that the presence of CMN networks can have positive effects on B. sylvaticum establishment and nutrient status, which may affect plant competition and invasion success. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  11. Report on the grass ecosystem project: results for 1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.W.; Baron, Y.; Bernard, J.

    1989-01-01

    Shortly after the Chernobyl accident, some 20 grass samples were collected over a wide area of Europe by a carefully prescribed protocol. The samples were dried, homogenized, and distributed by the IAEA to Member States who had expressed an interest in participating in their analysis. Thirteen radionuclides were measured in these samples, and the range in activity ratios for some radionuclides was over a hundredfold. This variability appears to be associated with particulate versus vaporized radionuclide releases from the reactor core, and/or the physicochemical nature of the radionuclide source term at the time of the release. The radionuclide concentrations observed by the various laboratories generally indicated good analytical consistency, and the few cases where consistency does not seem to hold may possibly be attributed to inhomogeneity of aliquots (hot particles) of the grass samples. The wide geographic coverage of this sampling programme, together with multiple laboratory analyses, provides a data resource which should be valuable for comparing and understanding the nature of Chernobyl fallout which was deposited at selected sites throughout Europe. (author). Figs and tabs

  12. Disaggregating tree and grass phenology in tropical savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang

    Savannas are mixed tree-grass systems and as one of the world's largest biomes represent an important component of the Earth system affecting water and energy balances, carbon sequestration and biodiversity as well as supporting large human populations. Savanna vegetation structure and its distribution, however, may change because of major anthropogenic disturbances from climate change, wildfire, agriculture, and livestock production. The overstory and understory may have different water use strategies, different nutrient requirements and have different responses to fire and climate variation. The accurate measurement of the spatial distribution and structure of the overstory and understory are essential for understanding the savanna ecosystem. This project developed a workflow for separating the dynamics of the overstory and understory fractional cover in savannas at the continental scale (Australia, South America, and Africa). Previous studies have successfully separated the phenology of Australian savanna vegetation into persistent and seasonal greenness using time series decomposition, and into fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (BS) using linear unmixing. This study combined these methods to separate the understory and overstory signal in both the green and senescent phenological stages using remotely sensed imagery from the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. The methods and parameters were adjusted based on the vegetation variation. The workflow was first tested at the Australian site. Here the PV estimates for overstory and understory showed best performance, however NPV estimates exhibited spatial variation in validation relationships. At the South American site (Cerrado), an additional method based on frequency unmixing was developed to separate green vegetation components with similar phenology. When the decomposition and frequency methods were compared, the frequency

  13. New uses of clover-grass mixtures in the structure of fodder crops on arable land

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Sláma

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of clover-grasses in the structure of fodder crops grown on arable soil, especially those with intergeneric hybrids as the main component part, could avert the negative current trend, i.e. further decreasing the area of perennial fodder plants or fodder crops as a whole on arable soil. They have an irreplaceable role in crop sequences and in preserving the cultural character of the countryside, above all due to the fact that they improve soil fertility and microbial life in the soil and that they have an excellent pre-produce value, and, at the same time, they are applied in various farming systems (both conventional and ecological and in various climatic conditions, and agricultural businesses are well equipped for growing, harvesting and storing them. In the Czech Republic, the area of fodder crops grown on arable soil was decreased from 1,019.9 thousand hectares to mere 396.7 thousand hectares between 1980 and 2009, which is 15.6 % of the total area of arable soil whereas perennial fodder plants only take up 8.5 %. Fodder from clover crops and clover-grass growths on arable soil are one of the main resources of voluminous fodder for dairy cows. Most of this fodder is preserved through a fermentation process (silages, hay storage; a smaller part is fed as fresh fodder, or serves for production of hay. Silages made with perennial fodder plants are the most important source of both proteins and other nutrients for ruminants, especially for high-yielding milch cows. The basis of fodder production systems are the conservative elements of the landscape area (geomorphology in combination with the progressive elements (weather conditions, plants and human labour and relict ones, the representative of which is the soil. The fodder production systems in Europe are divided into five main fodder production zones. From this point of view, the areas where short-term clover-grass mixtures are grown on arable soil could be classed with Zone 4, i

  14. Influence of stage of maturity of grass silages on digestion processes in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, M.W.

    1991-01-01

    Because of the introduction of a milk quota system in 1984 and the subsequent decrease of the number of dairy cows with some 25%, an increasing number of farms in the Netherlands has a surplus of grass and grass silage, which makes it interesting to increase the roughage proportion in the

  15. Taxonomic studies of grasses and their indigenous uses in the salt ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-01-19

    Jan 19, 2009 ... countries like United States, the principal sources of meat ... Many species of native and introduced grasses are utilized in improved ... turning northwest to cross the river Indus near Kalabagh. (Ahmad and ... Key to the identification of grasses of Salt Range of Pakistan. S. No ...... Under shade of trees.

  16. Spatial and temporal variability of guinea grass (Megathyrsus maximus) fuel loads and moisture on Oahu, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisa M. Ellsworth; Creighton M. Litton; Andrew D. Taylor; J. Boone Kauffman

    2013-01-01

    Frequent wildfires in tropical landscapes dominated by non-native invasive grasses threaten surrounding ecosystems and developed areas. To better manage fire, accurate estimates of the spatial and temporal variability in fuels are urgently needed. We quantified the spatial variability in live and dead fine fuel loads and moistures at four guinea grass (...

  17. Downy brome control and impacts on perennial grass abundance: a systematic review spanning 64 years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Given the high cost of restoration and the underlying assumption that reducing annual grass abundance is a necessary precursor to rangeland restoration in the Intermountain West, USA, we sought to identify limitations and strengths of annual grass and woody plant reduction methods and refine future ...

  18. Optimal prescribed burn frequency to manage foundation California perennial grass species and enhance native flora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasslands can be diverse assemblages of grasses and forbs but not much is known how perennial grass species management affects native plant diversity except for in a few instances. We studied the use of late spring prescribed burns over a span of eleven years on experimental plots in which the pere...

  19. Explaining grass-nutrient patterns in a savanna rangeland of southern Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mutanga, O.; Prins, H.H.T.; Skidmore, A.K.; Wieren, van S.E.; Huizing, H.; Grant, R.; Peel, M.J.S.; Biggs, H.

    2004-01-01

    Aim The search for possible factors influencing the spatial variation of grass quality is an important step towards understanding the distribution of herbivores, as well as a step towards identifying crucial areas for conservation and restoration. A number of studies have shown that grass quality at

  20. Improving the energy balance of grass-based anaerobic digestion through combined harvesting and pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Egelund, H.

    2017-01-01

    on meadow and cultivated grass silages. The results showed that relatively high methane production can be achieved from meadow and cultivated grass harvested in different seasons. The findings indicated that the bioenergy production can be improved based on the selection of the appropriate harvesting...

  1. Synthesis of field experiments concerning the grass layer in the savanna regions of southern Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    O'Connor, TG

    1985-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this synthesis of long term experiments was to develop an account of how the principal determinants (rainfall, soil type, woody/grass ratio, herbivory, fire) influence the dynamics of the grass layer of southern African savannas...

  2. Selective logging and fire as drivers of alien grass invasion in a Bolivian tropical dry forest

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldman, J.W.; Mostacedo, B.; Peña-Claros, M.; Putz, F.E.

    2009-01-01

    Logging is an integral component of most conceptual models that relate human land-use and climate change to tropical deforestation via positive-feedbacks involving fire. Given that grass invasions can substantially alter fire regimes, we studied grass distributions in a tropical dry forest 1-5 yr

  3. Improved quality of beneath-canopy grass in South African savannas: Local and seasonal variation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Treydte, A.C.; Looringh van Beeck, F.A.; Ludwig, F.; Heitkonig, I.M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Questions: Do large trees improve the nutrient content and the structure of the grass layer in savannas? Does the magnitude of this improvement differ with locality ( soil nutrients) and season ( water availability)? Are grass structure and species composition beneath tree canopies influenced by

  4. Characterization of an alkali-treated grass fiber by thermogravimetric and X-ray crystallographic analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De, D.; De, Debapriya

    2008-01-01

    The thermal behavior of grass fiber was characterized by means of thermogravimetric analysis and differential scanning calorimetry analysis. The results proved that the removal of water-soluble matter improved the thermal behavior of grass fiber over that of unleached fiber, and this was further

  5. Interaction between Vetiver Grass Roots and Completely Decomposed Volcanic Tuff under Rainfall Infiltration Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Xu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The important role of vetiver grass roots in preventing water erosion and mass movement has been well recognized, though the detailed influence of the grass roots on soil has not been addressed. Through planting vetiver grass at the Kadoorie Farm in Hong Kong and leaving it to grow without artificial maintenance, the paper studies the influence of vetiver grass roots on soil properties and slope stability. Under the natural conditions of Hong Kong, growth of the vetiver grass roots can reach 1.1 m depth after one and a half year from planting. The percentage of grain size which is less than 0.075 mm in rooted soil is more than that of the nonrooted soil. Vetiver grass roots can reduce soil erosion by locking the finer grain. The rooted soil of high finer grain content has a relatively small permeability. As a result, the increase in water content is therefore smaller than that of nonrooted soil in the same rainfall conditions. Shear box test reveals that the vetiver grass roots significantly increased the peak cohesion of the soil from 9.3 kPa to 18.9 kPa. The combined effects of grass roots on hydrological responses and shearing strength significantly stabilize the slope in local rainfall condition.

  6. Effect of microwave freeze drying on quality and energy supply in drying of barley grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Xiaohuang; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Zhong, Qifeng; Wang, Zhushang

    2018-03-01

    Young barley grass leaves are well-known for containing the antioxidant substances flavonoid and chlorophyll. However, low product quality and energy efficiency exist with respect to the dehydration of barley grass leaves. To improve energy supply and the quality of barley grass, microwave heating instead of contact heat was applied for the freeze drying of barley grass at a pilot scale at 1, 1.5 and 2 W g -1 , respectively; After drying, energy supply and quality parameters of color, moisture content, chlorophyll, flavonoids, odors of dried barley grass were determined to evaluate the feasibility of the study. Microwave freeze drying (MFD) allowed a low energy supply and high contents of chlorophyll and flavonoids. A lightness value of 60.0, a green value of -11.5 and an energy supply of 0.61 kW h -1  g -1 were observed in 1.5 W g -1 MFD; whereas drying time (7 h) decreased by 42% compared to contact heating. Maximum content of flavonoid and chlorophyll was 11.7 and 12.8 g kg -1 barley grass. Microwave heating leads to an odor change larger than that for contact heating observed for the freeze drying of barley grass. MFD retains chlorophyll and flavonoids, as well as colors and odors of samples, and also decreases energy consumption in the freeze drying of barley grass. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The Grass Snake and the Basilisk: From Pre-Christian Protective House God to the Antichrist

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lenders, H.J.R.; Janssen, I.A.W.

    2014-01-01

    The grass snake owes its far northern distribution in Europe to the production and hoarding of dung from stock breeding. Dung heaps appear to be perfect breeding sites that surpass ‘natural’ reproduction sites in quality. Here we point out that the grass snake's dependency on manure goes back to

  8. Effect of high-sugar grasses on methane emissions simulated using a dynamic model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    St-Pierre, J.L.; Dijkstra, J.; France, J.; Parsons, A.J.; Edwards, G.R.; Rasmussen, S.; Kebreab, E.; Bannink, A.

    2012-01-01

    High-sugar grass varieties have received considerable attention for their potential ability to decrease N excretion in cattle. However, feeding high-sugar grasses alters the pattern of rumen fermentation, and no in vivo studies to date have examined this strategy with respect to another

  9. Evaluation of three ancillary treatments in the management of equine grass sickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fintl, C; McGorum, B C

    2002-09-28

    Brotizolam, acetylcysteine and aloe vera gel were evaluated as ancillary treatments for 29 cases of equine grass sickness. None of the treatments had any significant beneficial effect on the survival of the horses. However, 11 of 13 horses with mild chronic grass sickness survived solely with intensive nursing care.

  10. A proteomic style approach to characterize a grass mix product reveals potential immunotherapeutic benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Alan; Swan, Nicola; Alawode, Wemimo; Skinner, Murray

    2011-09-01

    Grass allergy immunotherapies often consist of a mix of different grass extracts, each containing several proteins of different physiochemical properties; however, the subtle contributions of each protein are difficult to elucidate. This study aimed to identify and characterize the group 1 and 5 allergens in a 13 grass extract and to standardize the extraction method. The grass pollens were extracted in isolation and pooled and also in combination and analyzed using a variety of techniques including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, liquid chromatog-raphy-mass spectrometry, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylam-ide gel electrophoresis. Gold-staining and IgE immunoblotting revealed a high degree of homology of protein bands between the 13 species and the presence of a densely stained doublet at 25-35 kD along with protein bands at approximately 12.5, 17, and 50 kD. The doublet from each grass species demonstrated a high level of group 1 and 5 interspecies homology. However, there were a number of bands unique to specific grasses consistent with evolutionary change and indicative that a grass mix immunotherapeutic could be considered broad spectrum. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis and IgE immunoblotting showed all 13 grasses share a high degree of homology, particularly in terms of group 1 and 5 allergens. IgE and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay potencies were shown to be independent of extraction method.

  11. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...

  12. Effect of short-duration overnight cattle kraaling on grass production ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... grass species, such as Urochloa mosambicensis and Panicum maximum, were more abundant in abandoned kraal sites than the surrounding vegetation. We conclude that shortduration overnight cattle kraaling improves grass quality and biomass. Keywords: biomass, crude protein, diversity, fibre, nutrient hotspots ...

  13. Evaluation of Molecular Basis of Cross Reactivity between Rye and Bermuda Grass Pollen Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  14. Headwater fish population responses to planting grass filter strips adjacent to channelized agricultural headwater streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grass filter strips are a widely used conservation practice in the Midwestern United States for reducing nutrient, pesticide, and sediment inputs into agricultural streams. Only a limited amount of information is available on the ecological effects of planting grass filter strips adjacent to channe...

  15. Lignin and etherified ferulates impact digestibility and structural composition of three temperate perennial grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeding grasses for increased digestibility increases their value and profitability in ruminant livestock production systems. Digestibility can be improved in grasses by either increasing the concentration of soluble and readily fermentable carbohydrates or by altering the plant cell wall to create...

  16. Productivity and nutritive value of three grass-legume mixtures in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Productivity and nutritive value of three grass-legume mixtures in the Sudan savannah zone Kano state, Nigeria. ... Results of the study indicated that Sorghum almum-Lablab purpureus mixture recorded numerically higher dry matter yield (7806 kg dm/hectare) compared to other mixtures, similarly leaf area for grass (46.4) ...

  17. Evaluating poverty grass (Danthonia spicata) for golf courses in the Midwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadia E. Navarrete-Tindall; J.W. Van Sambeek

    2010-01-01

    Poverty grass (Danthonia spicata (L.) P. beauv. Ex Roem & Schult. ) results presented here are part of ongoing studies to evaluate its adaptation for golf courses as part of low maintenance natural communities at Lincoln University of Missouri. Because its natural adaptation to shade and poor soils, poverty grass could be established in golf...

  18. Thermally treated grass fibers as colonizable substrate for beneficial bacterial inoculum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trifonova, R.D.; Postma, J.; Ketelaars, J.J.M.H.; Elsas, van J.D.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigates how thermally treated (i.e., torrefied) grass, a new prospective ingredient of potting soils, is colonized by microorganisms. Torrefied grass fibers (TGF) represent a specific colonizable niche, which is potentially useful to establish a beneficial microbial community that

  19. On the number of genes controlling the grass stage in longleaf pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. Dana Nelson; C. Weng; Thomas L. Kubisiak; M. Stine; C.L. Brown

    2003-01-01

    The grass stage is an inherent and distinctive developmental trait of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris), in which height growth in the first few years after germination is suppressed. In operational forestry practice the grass stage extends for nvo to several years and often plays a role in planting failures and decisions to plant alternative species....

  20. FUEL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH NATIVE AND EXOTIC GRASSES IN A SUBTROPICAL DRY FOREST IN PUERTO RICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrod M. Thaxton; Skip J. Van Bloem; Stefanie Whitmire

    2012-01-01

    Exotic grasses capable of increasing frequency and intensity of anthropogenic fire have invaded subtropical and tropical dry forests worldwide. Since many dry forest trees are susceptible to fire, this can result in decline of native species and loss of forest cover. While the contribution of exotic grasses to altered fire regimes has been well documented, the role of...

  1. Optimization of Pretreatment and Enzymatic Saccharification of Cogon Grass Prior Ethanol Production

    OpenAIRE

    Jhalique Jane R. Fojas; Ernesto J. Del Rosario

    2013-01-01

    The dilute acid pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification of lignocellulosic substrate, cogon grass (Imperata cylindrical, L.) was optimized prior ethanol fermentation using simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) method. The optimum pretreatment conditions, temperature, sulfuric acid concentration, and reaction time were evaluated by determining the maximum sugar yield at constant enzyme loading. Cogon grass, at 10% w/v substrate loading, has optimum pretr...

  2. Status and use of important native grasses adapted to sagebrush communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas A. Jones; Steven R. Larson

    2005-01-01

    Due to the emphasis on restoration, native cool-season grass species are increasing in importance in the commercial seed trade in the Western U.S. Cultivated seed production of these native grasses has often been hampered by seed dormancy, seed shattering, and pernicious awns that are advantageous outside of cultivation. Relatively low seed yields and poor seedling...

  3. Rumen fermentation profile and intestinal digestibility of maize and grass silages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, M.

    2013-01-01

    Maize and grass silages are commonly used as major feed materials for dairy cows in Europe and are becoming common parts of dairy cow rations in other parts of the world. Thenutritive value of maize and grass silages varies greatly due to variation in chemical composition. A combination of

  4. Exploring the Boundaries of N2-Fixation in Cereals and Grasses: A Hypothetical and Experimental Framework

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giller, K.E.; Merckx, R.

    2003-01-01

    Despite more than 40 years of research on free-living and endophytic bacteria associated with cereals and grasses, conclusive examples of impacts of non-symbiotic N2-fixation in agriculture are lacking. All available methods for measurement of N2-fixation associated with cereals and grasses have

  5. [Mechanisms of grass in slope erosion control in Loess sandy soil region of Northwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chun-Hong; Gao, Jian-En; Xu, Zhen

    2013-01-01

    By adopting the method of simulated precipitation and from the viewpoint of slope hydrodynamics, in combining with the analysis of soil resistance to erosion, a quantitative study was made on the mechanisms of grass in controlling the slope erosion in the cross area of wind-water erosion in Loess Plateau of Northwest China under different combinations of rainfall intensity and slope gradient, aimed to provide basis to reveal the mechanisms of vegetation in controlling soil erosion and to select appropriate vegetation for the soil and water conservation in Loess Plateau. The grass Astragalus adsurgens with the coverage about 40% could effectively control the slope erosion. This grass had an efficiency of more than 70% in reducing sediment, and the grass root had a greater effect than grass canopy. On bare slope and on the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect, there existed a functional relation between the flow velocity on the slopes and the rainfall intensity and slope gradient (V = DJ(0.33 i 0.5), where V is flow velocity, D is the comprehensive coefficient which varies with different underlying surfaces, i is rainfall intensity, and J is slope gradient). Both the grass root and the grass canopy could markedly decrease the flow velocity on the slopes, and increase the slope resistance, but the effect of grass root in decreasing flow velocity was greater while the effect in increasing resistance was smaller than that of grass canopy. The effect of grass root in increasing slope resistance was mainly achieved by increasing the sediment grain resistance, while the effect of canopy was mainly achieved by increasing the slope form resistance and wave resistance. The evaluation of the soil resistance to erosion by using a conceptual model of sediment generation by overland flow indicated that the critical shear stress value of bare slope and of the slopes with the grass plant or only the grass root playing effect was 0.533, 1.672 and 0

  6. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.

  7. Management techniques for the control of Melinis minutiflora P. Beauv. (molasses grass: ten years of research on an invasive grass species in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Romero Martins

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The invasion of exotic species is considered to be a major threat to the preservation of biodiversity. In the Parque Nacional de Brasília (National Park of Brasília, the invasive Melinis minutiflora (molasses grass occupies more than 10 % of the area of the park. The present, long-term, study compared two treatments of exposure to molasses grass: 1 fire and 2 integrated management (fire + herbicide sprays + manual removal. The aerial biomass of molasses grass in the experimental area initially represented ca. 55 % of the total aerial biomass, a percentage that apparently did not influence native plant species richness at this site. Fire alone was not sufficient to control molasses grass, which attained its pre-treatment biomass values after two years. Integrated management reduced, and maintained, biomass to less than 1 % of its original value after ten years, and maintained this level throughout the study, demonstrating that it is a promising strategy for the recovery of areas invaded by molasses grass in the Cerrado. However, because of the recolonization by molasses grass, long-term monitoring efforts are targeting outbreaks, which would require immediate intervention in order to maintain the native biological diversity of the region.

  8. Biodiesel from lemon and lemon grass oil and its effect on engine performance and exhaust emission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhivagar, R.; Sundararaj, S.; Vignesh, V. R.

    2018-03-01

    In the present scenario many developing countries are depending on oil producing nations for their fuel resources. Due to demand and scarcity of the fuel, there has been a huge increase in fuel prices. The vehicular population is also continuously increasing and becoming a great menace to peoples. This paper aims to provide an alternate solution for petroleum based fuels. It suggests that biodiesel produced from lemon and lemon grass oil can be used as an alternative fuel. This work investigates the thermal performance of four stroke diesel engine using blends of biodiesel and diesel as a fuel. Performance parameters like brake thermal efficiency, mechanical efficiency and specific fuel consumption were measured at different loads for diesel and various combination of biofuel (L10, L20, and L30). The maximum brake thermal efficiency obtained is about 26.12%for L20 which is slightly higher than that of diesel (24.91%). Engine experimental results showed that exhaust emissions including CO2 and HC were reduced by 6% and 5% for L20 mixture of biodiesel whereas CO emission was as same as diesel. However, there was increase in NOxby 26% to the diesel fuel.

  9. Whole rice bran for beef heifers raised on alexander grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. R. Salvador

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the development of beef heifers exclusively fed alexander grass (Urochloa plantaginea (Link Hitch or alexander grass and whole rice meal as supplement offered from Monday to Friday. The experimental design was completely randomized, with repeated measures over time, and consisted of two treatments and three replications of area. Heifers receiving whole rice meal exhibited higher average daily gain after day 42 of pasture use and a 21% higher body weight at the end of the grazing period. The stocking rate, weight gain per area, hip height, weight-height ratio, and body condition score were similar for heifers exclusively fed alexander grass and alexander grass plus rice bran. Beef heifers raised exclusively on alexander grass from 15 to 18 months of age reached adequate body development, reproductive tract score (4.22 points and pelvic area (206.3 cm² to be bred at 18-20 months of age.

  10. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Alias Mohamad; Jagir Singh, Jasbir Kaur

    1987-09-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding.

  11. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alias Mohamad Yusof; Jasbir Kaur Jagir Singh

    1987-01-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding. (author)

  12. The study of size and stability of n-butylcyanoacrylate nanocapsule suspensions encapsulating green grass fragrance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, G. Y.; Lin, C. T.; Chen, J. M.; Lei, D. M.; Zhu, G. X.

    2018-01-01

    Green grass fragrance has been widely used in many fields. However, fragrances are volatile compounds that do not last long. In order to prolong its odor, nanocapsules encapsulated green grass fragrance were prepared. The paper deals with the preparation of green grass fragrance nanocapsules by emulsion polymerization. N-butylcyanoacrylate (BCA) with excellent biocompatibility and biodegradability was used as encapsulant. The nanocapsule suspension systems were characterized and its stability was investigated. The physicochemical properties of polymeric nanocapsules (average diameter and polydispersity) were evaluated as a function of time to assess the system stability. The result showed that the system (containing 0.8% of green grass fragrance, with a polydispersity index (PDI) near 0.1 and an average diameter in the range of 20-30 nm) was an ideal state and relatively stable. Besides, the distinction of stability of three nanocapsule suspensions with different green grass fragrance content was also obvious from scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  13. Phytostabilisation potential of lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Stend) Wats) on iron ore tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohanty, M; Dhal, N K; Patra, P; Das, B; Reddy, P S R

    2012-01-01

    The present pot culture study was carried out for the potential phytostabilisation of iron ore tailings using lemon grass (Cymbopogon flexuosus) a drought tolerant, perennial, aromatic grass. Experiments have been conducted by varying the composition of garden soil (control) with iron ore tailings. The various parameters, viz. growth of plants, number of tillers, biomass and oil content of lemon grass are evaluated. The studies have indicated that growth parameters of lemon grass in 1:1 composition of garden soil and iron ore tailings are significantly more (-5% increase) compared to plants grown in control soil. However, the oil content of lemon grass in both the cases more or less remained same. The results also infer that at higher proportion of tailings the yield of biomass decreases. The studies indicate that lemongrass with its fibrous root system is proved to be an efficient soil binder by preventing soil erosion.

  14. Effects of soil microorganisms on uptake of 89Sr by ryegrass and bahia grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Weiliang; Liu Kexing

    2006-01-01

    In present study, 60 Co γ-rays was used to irradiate soil with doses of 3.0 kGy and 25.0 kGy, respectively, to discriminate between arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi and other soil microorganisms, while soil without irradiation was used as control to study the effects of soil microorganisms on uptake of 89 Sr by ryegrass and bahia grass. The results showed that the AM infection rates in ryegrass and bahia grass were 48.0% and 28.0% in the control soil, respectively which indicated that both grass species were prone to forming AM symbiosis with AM fungi. Although AM fungi and other soil microorganisms had no significant effect on above ground biomass in ryegrass and bahia grass, both AM fungi and other soil microorganisms decreased the uptake of 89 Sr in the two grass species, though to a more or less extant. (authors)

  15. Failure of Grass Covered Flood Defences with Roads on Top Due to Wave Overtopping: A Probabilistic Assessment Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P. Aguilar-López

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Hard structures, i.e., roads, are commonly found over flood defences, such as dikes, in order to ensure access and connectivity between flood protected areas. Several climate change future scenario studies have concluded that flood defences will be required to withstand more severe storms than the ones used for their original design. Therefore, this paper presents a probabilistic methodology to assess the effect of a road on top of a dike: it gives the failure probability of the grass cover due to wave overtopping over a wide range of design storms. The methodology was developed by building two different dike configurations in computational fluid dynamics Navier–Stokes solution software; one with a road on top and one without a road. Both models were validated with experimental data collected from field-scale experiments. Later, both models were used to produce data sets for training simpler and faster emulators. These emulators were coupled to a simplified erosion model which allowed testing storm scenarios which resulted in local scouring conditioned statistical failure probabilities. From these results it was estimated that the dike with a road has higher probabilities (5 × 10−5 > Pf >1 × 10−4 of failure than a dike without a road (Pf < 1 × 10−6 if realistic grass quality spatial distributions were assumed. The coupled emulator-erosion model was able to yield realistic probabilities, given all the uncertainties in the modelling process and it seems to be a promising tool for quantifying grass cover erosion failure.

  16. Production of sugarcane and tropical grasses as a renewable energy source. Third quarterly report, December 1, 1980-February 28, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alexander, A.G.

    1981-01-01

    Research continued on tropical grasses from Saccharum and related genera as sources of intensively-propagated fiber and fermentable solids. Greenhouse-level screening for short- and intermediate-rotation grasses included further trials with legume species as potential nitrogen sources for the tropical grasses. Yields from four indigenous legumes were appreciably higher when planted in spring (May) than when planted in autumn (November). Initial data were recorded from second generation energy cane studies established during 1980. Controlled variables include varieties, harvest interval, and nitrogen input. Yield data at 6 months indicate high but essentially equal growth rates among all varieties and N-variables. This is attributed to the use of a land rotavator during seedbed preparation - the first such application of this implement on Lajas Valley soils. Total green weights were in the order of 50 to 60 tons/acre, and millable stem weights ranged from 33 to 37 tons/acre, at the 6-months harvest. Dry matter yields ranged from 8 to 11 tons/acre. Juice quality values indicated a minimal sugar content at this stage of maturity. Fiber values ranged from 7 to 14%. Field-scale studies were continued at the Hatillo demonstration site on the humid north coast and in the semi-arid Lajas Valley. For the 6-months harvest at Hatillo, total green weights for all treatments averaged 38.4 tons/acre. Variety US 67-22-2 produced 50.2 tons/acre. Millable cane yields averaged 25.3 tons/acre for all treatments and 34.7 tons/acre for variety US 67-22.2.

  17. Productivity and carbon footprint of perennial grass-forage legume intercropping strategies with high or low nitrogen fertilizer input.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Lachouani, Petra; Knudsen, Marie Trydeman; Ambus, Per; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2016-01-15

    A three-season field experiment was established and repeated twice with spring barley used as cover crop for different perennial grass-legume intercrops followed by a full year pasture cropping and winter wheat after sward incorporation. Two fertilization regimes were applied with plots fertilized with either a high or a low rate of mineral nitrogen (N) fertilizer. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was used to evaluate the carbon footprint (global warming potential) of the grassland management including measured nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions after sward incorporation. Without applying any mineral N fertilizer, the forage legume pure stand, especially red clover, was able to produce about 15 t above ground dry matter ha(-1) year(-1) saving around 325 kg mineral Nfertilizer ha(-1) compared to the cocksfoot and tall fescue grass treatments. The pure stand ryegrass yielded around 3t DM more than red clover in the high fertilizer treatment. Nitrous oxide emissions were highest in the treatments containing legumes. The LCA showed that the low input N systems had markedly lower carbon footprint values than crops from the high N input system with the pure stand legumes without N fertilization having the lowest carbon footprint. Thus, a reduction in N fertilizer application rates in the low input systems offsets increased N2O emissions after forage legume treatments compared to grass plots due to the N fertilizer production-related emissions. When including the subsequent wheat yield in the total aboveground production across the three-season rotation, the pure stand red clover without N application and pure stand ryegrass treatments with the highest N input equalled. The present study illustrate how leguminous biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) represents an important low impact renewable N source without reducing crop yields and thereby farmers earnings. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Complementary DNA cloning of the major allergen Phl p I from timothy grass (Phleum pratense); recombinant Phl p I inhibits IgE binding to group I allergens from eight different grass species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffer, S.; Valenta, R.; Vrtala, S.; Susani, M.; van Ree, R.; Kraft, D.; Scheiner, O.; Duchêne, M.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Grass pollens, such as pollen from timothy grass (Phleum pratense), represent a major cause of type I allergy. OBJECTIVE: In this report we attempted to determine how cross-reactive allergenic components of grass pollens from different species can be represented by a minimum number of

  19. Seedbed preparation influence on morphometric characteristics of perennial grasses of a semi-arid rangeland in Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Opiyo, Francis EO; Ekaya, Wellington N; Nyariki, Dickson M; Mureithi, Stephen Mwangi

    2011-01-01

    Semi-arid rangelands in Kenya are an important source of forage for both domestic and wild animals. However, indigenous perennial grasses notably Cenchrus ciliaris (African foxtail grass), Eragrostis superba (Maasai love grass) and Enteropogon macrostachyus (Bush rye grass) are disappearing at an alarming rate. Efforts to re-introduce them through restoration programs have often yielded little success. This can partly be attributed to failure of topsoil to capture and store scarce water to me...

  20. Botanical Composition, Grass Production, and Carrying Capacity of Pasture in Timor Tengah Selatan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Se’u

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the botanical composition, grass production, carrying capacity, and potential production of nutrients in pasture located in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency. The experiment was conducted from February to July 2013, using field survey method. The botanical composition, grass production and carrying capacity on real condition were analyzed descriptively, while the grass production and carrying capacity based of cutting arrangement were analyzed by using randomized block factorial design with 3 altitude locations (Sub District of Mollo Utara with altitude of 1007 m above sea level; Sub District of Noebeba, 500 m ASL, and Sub District of Amanuban Selatan, 65 m ASL x 2 cutting intervals (1 and 2 month and 5 replications. The results showed that the grass type dominated the pasture in the Sub District of Mollo Utara, while legum type was more dominant in the pasture in the Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. The potential production of dry matter grass in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency based on real condition was 150 to 390 kg/ha/yr, this could accommodate 0.24 to 0.63 AU/ha/yr. The arrangement of cutting interval by 1 month in Mollo Utara and 2 months in Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan could increase (P<0.05 grass production and carrying capacity. The potential productions of grass nutrients were higher in Sub District of Mollo Utara, while potential production of grass dry matter was higher in Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. It was concluded that grass dry matter potential production and carrying capacity in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency were low. The arrangement of cutting interval could increase grass dry matter potential production, carrying capacity, nutrition production, and quality of nutrition.

  1. Chemical composition and methane yield of reed canary grass as influenced by harvesting time and harvest frequency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kandel, Tanka Prasad; Sutaryo, Sutaryo; Møller, Henrik Bjarne

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of harvest time on biomass yield, dry matter partitioning, biochemical composition and biological methane potential of reed canary grass harvested twice a month in one-cut (OC) management. The regrowth of biomass harvested in summer was also harvested in autumn...... as a two-cut management with (TC-F) or without (TC-U) fertilization after summer harvest. The specific methane yields decreased significantly with crop maturity that ranged from 384 to 315 and from 412 to 283 NL (normal litre) (kg VS)-1 for leaf and stem, respectively. Approximately 45% more methane...... was produced by the TC-F management (5430 Nm3 ha-1) as by the OC management (3735 Nm3 ha-1). Specific methane yield was moderately correlated with the concentrations of fibre components in the biomass. Larger quantity of biogas produced at the beginning of the biogas assay from early harvested biomass...

  2. Comparative study of transgenic Brachypodium distachyon expressing sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferases from wheat and timothy grass with different enzymatic properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Ken-Ichi; Sanada, Yasuharu; Tase, Kazuhiro; Kawakami, Akira; Yoshida, Midori; Yamada, Toshihiko

    2014-04-01

    Fructans can act as cryoprotectants and contribute to freezing tolerance in plant species, such as in members of the grass subfamily Pooideae that includes Triticeae species and forage grasses. To elucidate the relationship of freezing tolerance, carbohydrate composition and degree of polymerization (DP) of fructans, we generated transgenic plants in the model grass species Brachypodium distachyon that expressed cDNAs for sucrose:fructan 6-fructosyltransferases (6-SFTs) with different enzymatic properties: one cDNA encoded PpFT1 from timothy grass (Phleum pratense), an enzyme that produces high-DP levans; a second cDNA encoded wft1 from wheat (Triticum aestivum), an enzyme that produces low-DP levans. Transgenic lines expressing PpFT1 and wft1 showed retarded growth; this effect was particularly notable in the PpFT1 transgenic lines. When grown at 22 °C, both types of transgenic line showed little or no accumulation of fructans. However, after a cold treatment, wft1 transgenic plants accumulated fructans with DP = 3-40, whereas PpFT1 transgenic plants accumulated fructans with higher DPs (20 to the separation limit). The different compositions of the accumulated fructans in the two types of transgenic line were correlated with the differences in the enzymatic properties of the overexpressed 6-SFTs. Transgenic lines expressing PpFT1 accumulated greater amounts of mono- and disaccharides than wild type and wft1 expressing lines. Examination of leaf blades showed that after cold acclimation, PpFT1 overexpression increased tolerance to freezing; by contrast, the freezing tolerance of the wft1 expressing lines was the same as that of wild type plants. These results provide new insights into the relationship of the composition of water-soluble carbohydrates and the DP of fructans to freezing tolerance in plants.

  3. Tree-grass interactions on an East African savanna : the effects of facilitation, competition, and hydraulic lift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ludwig, F.

    2001-01-01

    Keywords: Rangelands, Semi-arid areas, stable isotopes, Acacia, C 4- grasses, plant nutrients, soil nutrients, soil water, plant water relations

    Savanna trees can either increase or decrease the productivity of understorey grasses. Trees reduce grass

  4. Analyzing rasters, vectors and time series using new Python interfaces in GRASS GIS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Chemin, Yann; Zambelli, Pietro; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS 7 is a free and open source GIS software developed and used by many scientists (Neteler et al., 2012). While some users of GRASS GIS prefer its graphical user interface, significant part of the scientific community takes advantage of various scripting and programing interfaces offered by GRASS GIS to develop new models and algorithms. Here we will present different interfaces added to GRASS GIS 7 and available in Python, a popular programming language and environment in geosciences. These Python interfaces are designed to satisfy the needs of scientists and programmers under various circumstances. PyGRASS (Zambelli et al., 2013) is a new object-oriented interface to GRASS GIS modules and libraries. The GRASS GIS libraries are implemented in C to ensure maximum performance and the PyGRASS interface provides an intuitive, pythonic access to their functionality. GRASS GIS Python scripting library is another way of accessing GRASS GIS modules. It combines the simplicity of Bash and the efficiency of the Python syntax. When full access to all low-level and advanced functions and structures from GRASS GIS library is required, Python programmers can use an interface based on the Python ctypes package. Ctypes interface provides complete, direct access to all functionality as it would be available to C programmers. GRASS GIS provides specialized Python library for managing and analyzing spatio-temporal data (Gebbert and Pebesma, 2014). The temporal library introduces space time datasets representing time series of raster, 3D raster or vector maps and allows users to combine various spatio-temporal operations including queries, aggregation, sampling or the analysis of spatio-temporal topology. We will also discuss the advantages of implementing scientific algorithm as a GRASS GIS module and we will show how to write such module in Python. To facilitate the development of the module, GRASS GIS provides a Python library for testing (Petras and Gebbert, 2014) which

  5. MINERAL HORIZONS, ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS AND CIRCULAR SHAPES IN THE GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentino Straser

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The occasional appearance of circular shapes in meadows and farmland located on slopes usually affected by gravitational phenomena, offered an occasion for verifying the possible relation between the position of the circles in the grass, the gravitational movement of the slope affecting its mineral horizons and the variations of electric and static magnetic fields close to the circular shapes and in the surrounding area. The stress caused by the “creeping” movement in the uderlying ground turned out to be in direct relation with the variation in the electric and magnetic fields caused by piezoelectric and piezomagnetic minerals such as quartz. The onset of the electromagnetic process involves the conversion of electric energy on the surface into an area of spherical shape which is linked with a different growth of herbaceous species compared to the surrounding vegetation.

  6. Grass buffers for playas in agricultural landscapes: A literature synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, Cynthia P.; Skagen, Susan K.

    2005-01-01

    We summarize current knowledge about grass buffers for protecting small, isolated wetlands in agricultural contexts, including information relevant to protecting playas from runoff containing sediments, nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants, and information on how buffers may affect densities and productivity of grassland birds. Land-uses surrounding the approximately 60,000 playas within the Playa Lakes Region (PLR), including intensive agriculture, feedlots, and oil extraction, can contribute to severe degradation of playas. Farming and grazing can lead to significant sedimentation in nearby playas, eliminating their ability to hold water, support the region’s biodiversity, or adequately recharge aquifers. Contaminants further degrade habitats and threaten the water quality of underlying aquifers, including the Ogallala Aquifer.

  7. Radiation and temperature influence on forage grasses yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vadell, J.; Medrano, H.

    1986-01-01

    Biomass production has been studied in forage plants, as well as the temperature and radiation effects on plant growth. Four cultivars of grasses: Lolium multiflorum var westerwoldicum cv Promenade, Lolium perenne cvs Combi and Compas and Bromus inermis were growing as microswards in a growth chamber with constant temperature and outdoors. A field assay was done also with the same cultivars. L. multiflorum was the highest productive genotype anywhere showing also more active growth at low temperatures. Total production showed significant differences among genotypes. It was also a clear correspondence among microswards and field productions. Highest efficiency values (in % of PAR accumulated as dry matter) was obtained in 6th cut (April) achieving to 5.18 % in L. multiflorum. Biomass production variations through the growth period show a low correlation with <> and very high correlation with total irradiation received by the sward between consecutive cuts [es

  8. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0 improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the pretreated samples was similar and higher than that of the raw sample which was attributed to faster rate of decomposition due removal of hetromaterials (ash, extractives and some hemicellulose in the pretreatment stage. Finally, this pretreatment method has demonstrated effectiveness for the removal of pyrolysis retardants and will improve the quantity and quality of bio-oil yield.

  9. Development of functional beverage from wheat grass juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia SALANTA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The juice from wheat grass is called "green blood" and is an excellent detoxifying, facilitating the elimination of toxins and fats from body. In the form of fresh juice, it has high concentrations of chlorophyll, active enzymes, vitamins and other nutrients. The aim of this work was the development and characterization of a functional beverage from green wheat juice by adding apple and limes. The antioxidant capacity, vitamin C, polyphenols and flavonoids content were quantified by using spectrophotometry. The final product was pasteurized and evaluated by the content of bioactive compounds during storage at intervals of 7 and 14 days. During storage there were found slight decreases of the contents of bioactive compounds. The juice obtained has a sweet-sour taste, a unique flavor and a very pleasant smell. This product targets all categories of consumers and represents an ideal morning snack for those who are concerned about a healthy lifestyle.

  10. Combining ability of elephant grass based on nutritional characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of general combining ability (CGC of the parents and specific combining ability (CEC in the elephant grass hybrids by diallel analysis adapted to partial diallel crosses based on nutritional characters. Sixteen hybrids and eight parents in a randomized block design with three replications were evaluated. The study considered percentage of dry matter (%DM, ash (%ASH, crude protein (%CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. There were significant differences among genotypes for the traits evaluated, with a predominance of dominance gene effect. Based on CGC, the best parents were Taiwan A-144, Vruckwona Africana e Taiwan A-146. The best intersections based on CEC were Taiwan A-144 x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Mercker S.E.A., Vruckwona Africana x Napier nº2 e Pusa Napier nº2 x Mercker Santa Rita.

  11. Warm season grass establishment (in one year without the weeds)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Downing, D.

    1998-01-01

    Native warm season grasses, big bluestem and indian, were established by the broadcast method on a relatively large area (130 acres) of reclaimed coal surface-mined land in Perry County, Illinois. Existing vegetation was controlled using two quarts of Round-Up and 12 ounces of Plateau per acre the first week of May. Five pounds of pure live seed of both species were applied by airflow using 100 pounds per acre of 0-46-0 and 100 pounds per acre of 0-0-60, primarily to carry the seed. The surface was cultipacked to insure good seed to soil contact. Planting was initiated and completed the last week of June. An estimated 95% to 100% ground cover was evident by mid to late August. By mid September, numerous big blue stem flower/seed stalks were noticeable

  12. Potential of grass seed production for new lawns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josiane Vargas de Oliveira Maximino

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Paspalum and Axonopus genera are among the main warm season grasses used for lawns. The seed propagation contributes to the decrease of the cost of establishment, besides maintaining the exact characteristics of the mother plant genotype, because they are apomictic species. The objective of this work was to evaluate the seed production potential of seventeen grass accesses of the species Paspalum notatum, P. lepton, P. lividum and Axonopus parodii. The experiment was conducted at Capão do Leão, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, in a randomized block design, with four replications. The evaluated variables were: number of inflorescences per area, number of florets per inflorescence and seed production potential (SPP. In order to measure the seed production potential of the accesses, the equation proposed is: SPP = number of florets per inflorescence x number of inflorescences per m2 . There were year, access and interaction between years and accesses effect for the traits number of inflorescences per area and seed production potential. For the number of florets per inflorescence, there was no year effect. Potential production for the 2013/2014 harvest, ranged from 19,152.00 to 135,062.70 seeds m- ², with PN 09 of the P. notatum species standing out. In the 2014/2015 harvest, the seed production potential ranged from 9,973.75 to 81,536.75 seeds m- ², highlighting the access PN 11 of the species P. notatum. The accesses PN 11, PN 09, PN 10 and AP 01 were in the top third of the seed production potential ranking in the two harvests, and “grama-batatais” was in the lower third. There is genotype-environment interaction for all characteristics evaluated. However, there are accesses that show seed production potential consistently superior to the “grama-batatais” control, and have a greater potential for exploitation in the establishment of lawns by seeds.

  13. PROCESSING UAV AND LIDAR POINT CLOUDS IN GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Petras

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Today’s methods of acquiring Earth surface data, namely lidar and unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV imagery, non-selectively collect or generate large amounts of points. Point clouds from different sources vary in their properties such as number of returns, density, or quality. We present a set of tools with applications for different types of points clouds obtained by a lidar scanner, structure from motion technique (SfM, and a low-cost 3D scanner. To take advantage of the vertical structure of multiple return lidar point clouds, we demonstrate tools to process them using 3D raster techniques which allow, for example, the development of custom vegetation classification methods. Dense point clouds obtained from UAV imagery, often containing redundant points, can be decimated using various techniques before further processing. We implemented and compared several decimation techniques in regard to their performance and the final digital surface model (DSM. Finally, we will describe the processing of a point cloud from a low-cost 3D scanner, namely Microsoft Kinect, and its application for interaction with physical models. All the presented tools are open source and integrated in GRASS GIS, a multi-purpose open source GIS with remote sensing capabilities. The tools integrate with other open source projects, specifically Point Data Abstraction Library (PDAL, Point Cloud Library (PCL, and OpenKinect libfreenect2 library to benefit from the open source point cloud ecosystem. The implementation in GRASS GIS ensures long term maintenance and reproducibility by the scientific community but also by the original authors themselves.

  14. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-01-01

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy's Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO 2 emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels

  15. Evaluating environmental consequences of producing herbaceous crops for bioenergy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, S.B.

    1995-12-31

    The environmental costs and benefits of producing bioenergy crops can be measured both in kterms of the relative effects on soil, water, and wildlife habitat quality of replacing alternate cropping systems with the designated bioenergy system, and in terms of the quality and amount of energy that is produced per unit of energy expended. While many forms of herbaceous and woody energy crops will likely contribute to future biofuels systems, The Dept. of Energy`s Biofuels Feedstock Development Program (BFDP), has chosen to focus its primary herbaceous crops research emphasis on a perennial grass species, switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), as a bioenergy candidate. This choice was based on its high yields, high nutrient use efficiency, and wide geographic distribution, and also on its poistive environmental attributes. The latter include its positive effects on soil quality and stabiity, its cover value for wildlife, and the lower inputs of enerty, water, and agrochemicals required per unit of energy produced. A comparison of the energy budgets for corn, which is the primary current source of bioethanol, and switchgrass reveals that the efficiency of energy production for a perennial grass system can exceed that for an energy intensive annual row crop by as much as 15 times. In additions reductions in CO{sub 2} emission, tied to the energetic efficiency of producing transportation fuels, are very efficient with grasses. Calculated carbon sequestration rates may exceed those of annual crops by as much as 20--30 times, due in part to carbon storage in the soil. These differences have major implications for both the rate and efficiency with which fossil energy sources can be replaced with cleaner burning biofuels.

  16. Microbial protein synthesis, digestion and lactation responses of cows to grass or grass-red clover silage diet supplemented with barley or oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. VANHATALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate effects of silage type (grass-red clover vs. pure grass and grain supplement (oats vs. barley on rumen fermentation, post-ruminal nutrient flows, diet digestion and milk production. Four primiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fitted with cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with four 28-d experimental periods and 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments. Using red clover-containing (40% silage rather than pure grass silage had minor effects on rumen fermentation or diet digestion but increased non-ammonia nitrogen (N flow in terms of increased flows of microbial and dietary N entering to the small intestine. This was reflected as a reduced ruminal N degradability on grass-red clover diets. Furthermore, grass-red clover diets in comparison to grass silage diets increased milk lactose concentration and yields of milk, protein and lactose. Feeding oats in replacement for barley had minor effects on rumen fermentation or post-ruminal non-ammonia N flows but reduced digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre in the diet. Using oats rather than barley increased yields of milk and lactose but reduced milk protein concentration. Oats also increased proportions of C18:0 and C18:1 in milk fat and reduced those of C10:0 to C16:0. It is concluded that inclusion of red clover and replacement of barley with oats in grass silage based diets have beneficial effects in dairy cow production.;

  17. De novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provides First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seema Meena

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavour, fragrance, cosmetic and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step towards understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases (TPS, pyrophosphatases (PPase, alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH, aldo-keto reductases (AKR, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases (CCD, alcohol acetyltransferases (AAT and aldehyde dehydrogenases (ALDH, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified enzymes in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats (SSRs were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.

  18. The Prospect of Market-Driven Improvements in Animal Welfare: Lessons from the Case of Grass Milk in Denmark

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Sandøe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Citizens in many European countries urge that the welfare of farm animals should be improved. Policy-makers propose that this could, at least to some extent, be achieved through increased consumption of animal products produced under labeling schemes guaranteeing higher standards of animal welfare. Yet considerable uncertainties exist about the ability of the market to promote animal welfare. So far the consumption of most welfare-friendly products has been limited, and the impact of driving and limiting factors is poorly understood. Reviewing market studies, we identify the factors that have shaped the relatively successful market for grass milk in Denmark. We conclude that the positive drivers such as an appealing animal welfare attribute and animal welfare being bundled with other qualities are essentially the same as those operating in connection with less successful animal welfare-friendly products. It is therefore to be expected that other animal welfare-friendly food products marketed via “natural behaviors” in the farm animals will catch the interest of consumers. However, grass milk consumption has been supported by proper labeling, ready availability and low price premiums as well as multifaceted public support. This suggests that successful cases require the joint presence of a number of positive drivers as well as low consumption barriers.

  19. Genomic and metabolic characterisation of alkaloid biosynthesis by asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes of tall fescue pasture grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekanayake, Piyumi N; Kaur, Jatinder; Tian, Pei; Rochfort, Simone J; Guthridge, Kathryn M; Sawbridge, Timothy I; Spangenberg, German C; Forster, John W

    2017-06-01

    Symbiotic associations between tall fescue grasses and asexual Epichloë fungal endophytes exhibit biosynthesis of alkaloid compounds causing both beneficial and detrimental effects. Candidate novel endophytes with favourable chemotypic profiles have been identified in germplasm collections by screening for genetic diversity, followed by metabolite profile analysis in endogenous genetic backgrounds. A subset of candidates was subjected to genome survey sequencing to detect the presence or absence and structural status of known genes for biosynthesis of the major alkaloid classes. The capacity to produce specific metabolites was directly predictable from metabolic data. In addition, study of duplicated gene structure in heteroploid genomic constitutions provided further evidence for the origin of such endophytes. Selected strains were inoculated into meristem-derived callus cultures from specific tall fescue genotypes to perform isogenic comparisons of alkaloid profile in different host backgrounds, revealing evidence for host-specific quantitative control of metabolite production, consistent with previous studies. Certain strains were capable of both inoculation and formation of longer-term associations with a nonhost species, perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.). Discovery and primary characterisation of novel endophytes by DNA analysis, followed by confirmatory metabolic studies, offers improvements of speed and efficiency and hence accelerated deployment in pasture grass improvement programs.

  20. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R; Venkata Rao, D K; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H B; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K; Nagegowda, Dinesh A

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition.

  1. Life cycle analysis of multi-crop lignocellulosic material (perennial grasses) for bioethanol production in western Canada : a review.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tripathy, A. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Bioproducts and Bioprocessing; Panigrahi, S. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Dept. of Agricultural and Bioresource Engineering; Mupondwa, E.K. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Saskatoon Research Centre, Saskatoon, SK (Canada). Bioproducts and Bioprocessing

    2009-07-01

    This paper presented a life cycle assessment of multi-crop lignocellulosic biomass to determine the environmental performance of a bioethanol biorefinery in western Canada. The study investigated the economic aspects of the ethanol fuel system such as biorefinery operating costs and possible improvements in biorefinery economics resulting from pretreatment, hydrolysis, and fermentation processes. The eco-efficiency was determined by comparing economic parameters with selected environmental parameters. The study also compared the efficiency of the lignoce lulosic biorefinery with grain-based dry milling ethanol plants that produce ethanol as well as dried grains and solubles used as animal feed. The study showed that the choice of feedstock and location of the biorefinery is very important. The location should be carefully chosen where there is no water shortage. Various low valued lignocellulosic energy crops such as switch grass, alfalfa, and other perennial grasses can grow in marginal or pasture land and can decrease production costs considerably, thus improving the economic viability of biorefineries. The use of co-products can also add value to the process and can decrease the cost of ethanol production. tabs., figs.

  2. De Novo Sequencing and Analysis of Lemongrass Transcriptome Provide First Insights into the Essential Oil Biosynthesis of Aromatic Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meena, Seema; Kumar, Sarma R.; Venkata Rao, D. K.; Dwivedi, Varun; Shilpashree, H. B.; Rastogi, Shubhra; Shasany, Ajit K.; Nagegowda, Dinesh A.

    2016-01-01

    Aromatic grasses of the genus Cymbopogon (Poaceae family) represent unique group of plants that produce diverse composition of monoterpene rich essential oils, which have great value in flavor, fragrance, cosmetic, and aromatherapy industries. Despite the commercial importance of these natural aromatic oils, their biosynthesis at the molecular level remains unexplored. As the first step toward understanding the essential oil biosynthesis, we performed de novo transcriptome assembly and analysis of C. flexuosus (lemongrass) by employing Illumina sequencing. Mining of transcriptome data and subsequent phylogenetic analysis led to identification of terpene synthases, pyrophosphatases, alcohol dehydrogenases, aldo-keto reductases, carotenoid cleavage dioxygenases, alcohol acetyltransferases, and aldehyde dehydrogenases, which are potentially involved in essential oil biosynthesis. Comparative essential oil profiling and mRNA expression analysis in three Cymbopogon species (C. flexuosus, aldehyde type; C. martinii, alcohol type; and C. winterianus, intermediate type) with varying essential oil composition indicated the involvement of identified candidate genes in the formation of alcohols, aldehydes, and acetates. Molecular modeling and docking further supported the role of identified protein sequences in aroma formation in Cymbopogon. Also, simple sequence repeats were found in the transcriptome with many linked to terpene pathway genes including the genes potentially involved in aroma biosynthesis. This work provides the first insights into the essential oil biosynthesis of aromatic grasses, and the identified candidate genes and markers can be a great resource for biotechnological and molecular breeding approaches to modulate the essential oil composition. PMID:27516768

  3. Harvesting Effects on Species Composition and Distribution of Cover Attributes in Mixed Native Warm-Season Grass Stands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitalis W. Temu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Managing grasslands for forage and ground-nesting bird habitat requires appropriate defoliation strategies. Subsequent early-summer species composition in mixed stands of native warm-season grasses (Indiangrass (IG, Sorghastrum nutans, big bluestem (BB, Andropogon gerardii and little bluestem (LB, Schizachyrium scoparium responding to harvest intervals (treatments, 30, 40, 60, 90 or 120 d and durations (years in production was assessed. Over three years, phased May harvestings were initiated on sets of randomized plots, ≥90 cm apart, in five replications (blocks to produce one-, two- and three-year-old stands. Two weeks after harvest, the frequencies of occurrence of plant species, litter and bare ground, diagonally across each plot (line intercept, were compared. Harvest intervals did not influence proportions of dominant plant species, occurrence of major plant types or litter, but increased that of bare ground patches. Harvest duration increased the occurrence of herbaceous forbs and bare ground patches, decreased that of tall-growing forbs and litter, but without affecting that of perennial grasses, following a year with more September rainfall. Data suggest that one- or two-year full-season forage harvesting may not compromise subsequent breeding habitat for bobwhites and other ground-nesting birds in similar stands. It may take longer than a year’s rest for similar stands to recover from such changes in species composition.

  4. Performance of Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides for Phytoremediation of Contaminated Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hasan Sharifah Nur Munirah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In tolerance towards metal uptake, there is a need to evaluate the performance of vetiver grass for metal removal to reduce water impurity. This study was aimed to evaluate contaminant removal by vetiver grass at varying root length and plant density and determine the metal uptake in vetiver plant biomass. Pollutant uptake of vetiver grass was conducted in laboratory experiment and heavy metal analysis was done using acid digestion and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Findings indicated that the removal of heavy metal was decreased in seven days of the experiment where iron shows the highest percentage (96%; 0.42 ppm of removal due to iron is highly required for growth of vetiver grass. Removal rate of heavy metals in water by vetiver grass is ranked in the order of Fe>Zn>Pb>Mn>Cu. Results also demonstrated greater removal of heavy metals (Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Zn at greater root length and higher density of vetiver grass because it increased the surface area for metal absorption by plant root into vetiver plant from contaminated water. However, findings indicated that accumulation of heavy metals in plant biomass was higher in vetiver shoot than in root due to metal translocation from root to the shoot. Therefore, the findings have shown effective performance of vetiver grass for metal removal in the phytoremediation of contaminated water.

  5. Estimation of grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for emergency situations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ujwal, P.; Karunakara, N.; Yashodhara, I.; Rao, Chetan; Kumara, Sudeep; Dileep, B.N.; Ravi, P.M.

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have been reported on soil to grass equilibrium transfer factors and grass to cow's milk transfer coefficients for 137 Cs for the environs of different nuclear power plants of both India and other parts of the world. In such studies, the activity concentration of 137 Cs is measured in grass collected from different places. Cow's milk samples are collected from nearby localities or from milk dairies and analyzed for 137 Cs and the grass to cow's milk transfer coefficient is estimated. In situation where 137 Cs is not present in measurable activity concentrations, its stable counterpart (Cs) is measured for the estimation of transfer coefficients. These transfer coefficient values are generally used in theoretical models to estimate the dose to the population for hypothetical situation of emergency. It should be noted that the transfer coefficients obtained for equilibrium conditions may not be totally applicable for emergency situation. However, studies aimed at evaluating transfer coefficients for emergency situations are sparse because nuclear power plants do not release 137 Cs during normal operating situations and therefore simulating situation of emergency release is not possible. Hence, the only method to estimate the grass to milk transfer coefficient for emergency situation is to spike the grass with small quantity of stable Cs. This paper reports the results of grass to milk transfer coefficients for stable isotope of Cesium (Cs) for emergency situation

  6. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  7. Genome-Wide Analysis of Syntenic Gene Deletion in the Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnable, James C.; Freeling, Michael; Lyons, Eric

    2012-01-01

    The grasses, Poaceae, are one of the largest and most successful angiosperm families. Like many radiations of flowering plants, the divergence of the major grass lineages was preceded by a whole-genome duplication (WGD), although these events are not rare for flowering plants. By combining identification of syntenic gene blocks with measures of gene pair divergence and different frequencies of ancient gene loss, we have separated the two subgenomes present in modern grasses. Reciprocal loss of duplicated genes or genomic regions has been hypothesized to reproductively isolate populations and, thus, speciation. However, in contrast to previous studies in yeast and teleost fishes, we found very little evidence of reciprocal loss of homeologous genes between the grasses, suggesting that post-WGD gene loss may not be the cause of the grass radiation. The sets of homeologous and orthologous genes and predicted locations of deleted genes identified in this study, as well as links to the CoGe comparative genomics web platform for analyzing pan-grass syntenic regions, are provided along with this paper as a resource for the grass genetics community. PMID:22275519

  8. Factors affecting palatability of four submerged macrophytes for grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jian; Wang, Long; Ma, Lin; Min, Fenli; Huang, Tao; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Zhenbin; He, Feng

    2017-12-01

    Grass carp can weaken the growth and reproductive capacity of submerged macrophytes by consuming valuable tissues, but factors affecting palatability of submerged macrophytes for grass carp rarely are considered. In this study, relative consumption rate of grass carp with regard to submerged macrophytes was in the following order: Hydrilla verticillata > Vallisneria natans > Ceratophyllum demersum > Myriophyllum spicatum. Firmness of macrophytes was in the following order: M. spicatum > C. demersum > H. verticillata = V. natans, whereas shear force was M. spicatum > C. demersum > H. verticillata > V. natans. After crude extracts of M. spicatum were combined with H. verticillata, grass carp fed on fewer macrophyte pellets that contained more plant secondary metabolites (PSMs). This indicated that structure and PSMs affected palatability of macrophytes.PSMs do not contribute to reduction in palatability through inhibition of intestinal proteinases activity, but they can cause a decrease in the abundance of Exiguobacterium, Acinetobacter-yielding proteases, lipases, and cellulose activity, which in turn can weaken the metabolic capacity of grass carp and adversely affect their growth. Thus, the disadvantages to the growth and development of grass carp caused by PSMs may drive grass carp to feed on palatable submerged macrophytes with lower PSMs.

  9. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  10. Identification of brome grass infestations in southwest Oklahoma using multi-temporal Landsat imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, D.; de Beurs, K.

    2013-12-01

    The extensive infestation of brome grasses (Cheatgrass, Rye brome and Japanese brome) in southwest Oklahoma imposes negative impacts on local economy and ecosystem in terms of decreasing crop and forage production and increasing fire risk. Previously proposed methodologies on brome grass detection are found ill-suitable for southwest Oklahoma as a result of similar responses of background vegetation to inter-annual variability of rainfall. In this study, we aim to identify brome grass infestations by detecting senescent brome grasses using the 2011 Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets and the difference Normalized Difference Infrared Index (NDII) derived from multi-temporal Landsat imagery. Landsat imageries acquired on May 18th and June 10th 2013 by Operational Land Imager and Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus were used. The imagery acquisition dates correspond to the peak growth and senescent time of brome grasses, respectively. The difference NDII was calculated by subtracting the NDII image acquired in May from the June NDII image. Our hypotheses is that senescent brome grasses and crop/pasture fields harvested between the two image acquisition dates can be distinguished from background land cover classes because of their increases in NDII due to decreased water absorption by senescent vegetation in the shortwave infrared region. The Cultivated Land Cover Data Sets were used to further separate senescent brome grass patches from newly harvested crop/pasture fields. Ground truth data collected during field trips in June, July and August of 2013 were used to validate the detection results.

  11. Urban Rights-of-Way as Reservoirs for Tall-Grass Prairie Plants and Butterflies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leston, Lionel; Koper, Nicola

    2016-03-01

    Urban rights-of-way may be potential reservoirs of tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies. To determine if this is true, in 2007-2008, we conducted vegetation surveys of species richness and cover, and butterfly surveys of species richness and abundance, along 52 transmission lines and four remnant prairies in Winnipeg, Manitoba. We detected many prairie plants and butterflies within transmission lines. Some unmowed and infrequently managed transmission lines had native plant species richness and total percent cover of native plants comparable to that of similar-sized remnant tall-grass prairies in the region. Although we did not find significant differences in overall native butterfly numbers or species richness between rights-of-way and remnant prairies, we found lower numbers of some prairie butterflies along frequently mowed rights-of-way than within remnant tall-grass prairies. We also observed higher butterfly species richness along sites with more native plant species. By reducing mowing and spraying and reintroducing tall-grass prairie plants, urban rights-of-way could serve as extensive reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and butterflies in urban landscapes. Eventually, managing urban rights-of-way as reservoirs for tall-grass prairie plants and animals could contribute to the restoration of tall-grass prairie in the North American Midwest.

  12. Transfer of K-40 from soil to grass and grass to milk: Samples of Brazilian rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabra, Karina B.M.; Peres, Sueli S.

    2017-01-01

    The knowledge of natural radionuclides concentration levels and their distribution in the environment allow to assessing the human exposure. Among of primordial radionuclides found in the earth's crust, 40 K is the largest contributor to the dose received by humans. In this paper, is presented a study carried out to estimate the activity concentration and to evaluate the transfer of 40 K along environmental compartments and exposure pathways. This study was performed in two rural sites of São Paulo, Brazil. In both locations, soil, grass, animal feed and cow milk samples were collected, conditioned, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations obtained were similar for both sites, showing, in this case, that the difference in the animal diet probably does not have a significant influence on the transfer of 40 K to cow's milk. (author)

  13. Transfer of K-40 from soil to grass and grass to milk: Samples of Brazilian rural areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seabra, Karina B.M.; Peres, Sueli S., E-mail: karina.uerj@ymail.com, E-mail: suelip@ird.gov.br [Instituto de Radioproteção e Dosimetria (IRD/CNEN--RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The knowledge of natural radionuclides concentration levels and their distribution in the environment allow to assessing the human exposure. Among of primordial radionuclides found in the earth's crust, {sup 40}K is the largest contributor to the dose received by humans. In this paper, is presented a study carried out to estimate the activity concentration and to evaluate the transfer of {sup 40}K along environmental compartments and exposure pathways. This study was performed in two rural sites of São Paulo, Brazil. In both locations, soil, grass, animal feed and cow milk samples were collected, conditioned, and analyzed by gamma spectrometry. The activity concentrations obtained were similar for both sites, showing, in this case, that the difference in the animal diet probably does not have a significant influence on the transfer of {sup 40}K to cow's milk. (author)

  14. Effects of rye grass coverage on soil loss from loess slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuequn Dong

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Vegetative coverage is commonly used to reduce urban slope soil erosion. Laboratory experimental study on soil erosion under grass covered slopes is conventionally time and space consuming. In this study, a new method is suggested to study the influences of vegetation coverage on soil erosion from a sloped loess surface under three slope gradients of 5°, 15°, and 25°; four rye grass coverages of 0%, 25%, 50%, and 75%; and three rainfall intensities of 60, 90, and 120 mm/h with a silt-loamy loess soil. Rye grasses were planted in the field with the studied soil before being transplanted into a laboratory flume. Grass was allowed to resume growth for a period before the rain simulation experiment. Results showed that the grass cover reduced soil erosion by 63.90% to 92.75% and sediment transport rate by 80.59% to 96.17% under different slope gradients and rainfall intensities. The sediment concentration/sediment transport rate from bare slope was significantly higher than from a grass-covered slope. The sediment concentration/transport rate from grass-covered slopes decreased linearly with grass coverage and increased with rainfall intensity. The sediment concentration/transport rate from the bare slope increased as a power function of slope and reached the maximum value at the gradient of about 25°, whereas that from grass-covered slope increased linearly and at much lower levels. The results of this study can be used to estimate the effect of vegetation on soil erosion from loess slopes.

  15. Swine wastewater treatment using vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland planted with Napier grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pantip Klomjek

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the pollutant removal efficiencies in swine wastewater using a vertical subsurface flow constructed wetland (VSF CW planted with two species of Napier grass. The grass productivities were also cultivated and compared in order to provide information for species selection. Twelve treatment units were set up with the VSF CWs planted with Giant Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. King grass and Dwarf Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Mott. with 2 and 5 cm d−1 of hydraulic loading rates (HLR. Comparisons of removal efficiency and grass productivity were analyzed using Duncan's Multiple Range Test and t-test at the significant level 0.05. Both species of Napier grass performed more than 70% of removal efficiency of BOD and TKN. The VSF CW planted with Giant Napier grass at 5 cm d−1 HLR performed the highest BOD removal efficiency of 94 ± 1%, while the 2 cm d−1 HLR removed COD with efficiency of 64 ± 6%. The results also showed the effluent from all treatment units contained averages of BOD, COD, TSS, TKN and pH that followed Thailand's swine wastewater quality standard. Average fresh yields and dry yields were between 4.6 ± 0.4 to 15.2 ± 1.2 and 0.5 ± 0.1 to 2.2 ± 0.1 kg m−2, respectively. The dry yields obtained from four cutting cycles in five months of CW system operation were higher than the ones planted with a traditional method, but declined continuously after each cutting cycle. Both species of Napier grass indicated their suitability to be used in the VSF CW for swine wastewater treatment.

  16. Comparative assessment of the phytomeliorative efficiency of perennial grasses on chernozems in the transural part of Bashkortostan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasanova, R. F.; Suyundukov, Ya. T.; Suyundukova, M. B.

    2010-01-01

    The phytomeliorative efficiency of different groups of perennial herbs was studied. The agrophysical properties of soils under natural grasses (the feather grasses Stipa pennata, S. zalesskii, and S. Lessingiana; the fescue grass Festuca pseudovina; and quack grass), sawn herbs (awnless brome, crested wheat grass, purple alfalfa, the holy clover Onobrychis sibirica, the galega Galega orientalis, and yellow sweet clover), and cereal crops (winter rye and spring wheat) were compared. The formation of the aboveground and underground phytomass and the influence of phytomeliorative herbs on the aggregate state of leached, ordinary, and southern chernozems in the Transural part of Bashkortostan were analyzed.

  17. Feed intake and milk production in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species: a meta-analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis was to compare feed intake, milk production, milk composition and organic matter (OM) digestibility in dairy cows fed different grass and legume species. Data from the literature was collected and different data sets were made to compare families (grasses v. legumes...... tannins in birdsfoot trefoil. None of the included grass species differed in DMI, milk production, milk composition or OM digestibility, indicating that different grass species have the same value for milk production, if OM digestibility is comparable. However, the comparison of different grass species...

  18. Tracking the evolution of a cold stress associated gene family in cold tolerant grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandve, Simen R; Rudi, Heidi; Asp, Torben

    2008-01-01

    to the repeat motifs of the IRI-domain in cold tolerant grasses. Finally we show that the LRR-domain of carrot and grass IRI proteins both share homology to an Arabidopsis thaliana LRR-trans membrane protein kinase (LRR-TPK). Conclusion The diverse IRI-like genes identified in this study tell a tale...... of a complex evolutionary history including birth of an ice binding domain, a burst of gene duplication events after cold tolerant grasses radiated from rice, protein domain structure differentiation between paralogs, and sub- and/or neofunctionalisation of IRI-like proteins. From our sequence analysis we...

  19. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  20. Dynamic model for the transfer of CS-137 through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A dynamic radioecological model for the transfer of radiocaesium through the soil-grass-lamb foodchain was constructed on the basis of field data collected in 1990–1993 from the Nordic countries: Denmark, Faroe Islands, Finland, Iceland, Norway and Sweden. The model assumes an initial soil...... contamination of one kilobecquerel of 137Cs per square metre and simulates the transfer to grass through root uptake in addition to direct contamination from resuspended activity. The model covers two different soil types: clay-loam and organic, with significantly different transfers of radiocaesium to grass...

  1. Development of herbicide resistance in black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides in Bavaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehring, Klaus

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides is one of the most important grass weeds in Bavaria. Chemical weed control with high efficacy is very important in crops like winter cereals, oilseed rape and maize. Crop rotations with more winter cereals, reduced soil cultivation and e.g. contract harvesting enhanced distribution of blackgrass in arable farming regions. Effects of herbicide resistance were observed since the last 20 years. The blackgrass herbicide resistance is well observed by the official plant protection service of Bavaria. A wide experience of resistance tests shows the development of resistant black-grass and provides an opportunity for future prospects in resistance dynamics.

  2. Nutritional composition and in vitro digestibility of grass and legume winter (cover) crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, A N; Ferreira, G; Teets, C L; Thomason, W E; Teutsch, C D

    2018-03-01

    In dairy farming systems, growing winter crops for forage is frequently limited to annual grasses grown in monoculture. The objectives of this study were to determine how cropping grasses alone or in mixtures with legumes affects the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of fresh and ensiled winter crops and the yield, nutritional composition, and in vitro digestibility of the subsequent summer crops. Experimental plots were planted with 15 different winter crops at 3 locations in Virginia. At each site, 4 plots of each treatment were planted in a randomized complete block design. The 15 treatments included 5 winter annual grasses [barley (BA), ryegrass (RG), rye (RY), triticale (TR), and wheat (WT)] in monoculture [i.e., no legumes (NO)] or with 1 of 2 winter annual legumes [crimson clover (CC) and hairy vetch (HV)]. After harvesting the winter crops, corn and forage sorghum were planted within the same plots perpendicular to the winter crop plantings. The nutritional composition and the in vitro digestibility of winter and summer crops were determined for fresh and ensiled samples. Growing grasses in mixtures with CC increased forage dry matter (DM) yield (2.84 Mg/ha), but the yield of mixtures with HV (2.47 Mg/ha) was similar to that of grasses grown in monoculture (2.40 Mg/ha). Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes increased the crude protein concentration of the fresh forage from 13.0% to 15.5% for CC and to 17.3% for HV. For neutral detergent fiber (NDF) concentrations, the interaction between grasses and legumes was significant for both fresh and ensiled forages. Growing BA, RY, and TR in mixtures with legumes decreased NDF concentrations, whereas growing RG and WT with legumes did not affect the NDF concentrations of either the fresh or the ensiled forages. Growing grasses in mixtures with legumes decreased the concentration of sugars of fresh forages relative to grasses grown in monoculture. Primarily, this decrease can be

  3. Ecological review of black-grass (Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. propagation abilities in relationship with herbicide resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maréchal, PY.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Alopecurus myosuroides Huds. (black-grass has always been a major concern for cereal growers, and the development of herbicide resistance does not improve the situation. This review article summarizes the different traits involved in the dispersal pattern of herbicide resistant black-grass individuals within a susceptible field population. Therefore, the whole life cycle of black-grass is depicted from the seed to the seed. From the early vegetative development to the seed falling, every stage is described, taking into account how herbicide resistance can influence or exert a different impact compared to susceptible plants.

  4. Rooting depth varies differentially in trees and grasses as a function of mean annual rainfall in an African savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holdo, Ricardo M; Nippert, Jesse B; Mack, Michelle C

    2018-01-01

    A significant fraction of the terrestrial biosphere comprises biomes containing tree-grass mixtures. Forecasting vegetation dynamics in these environments requires a thorough understanding of how trees and grasses use and compete for key belowground resources. There is disagreement about the extent to which tree-grass vertical root separation occurs in these ecosystems, how this overlap varies across large-scale environmental gradients, and what these rooting differences imply for water resource availability and tree-grass competition and coexistence. To assess the extent of tree-grass rooting overlap and how tree and grass rooting patterns vary across resource gradients, we examined landscape-level patterns of tree and grass functional rooting depth along a mean annual precipitation (MAP) gradient extending from ~ 450 to ~ 750 mm year -1 in Kruger National Park, South Africa. We used stable isotopes from soil and stem water to make inferences about relative differences in rooting depth between these two functional groups. We found clear differences in rooting depth between grasses and trees across the MAP gradient, with grasses generally exhibiting shallower rooting profiles than trees. We also found that trees tended to become more shallow-rooted as a function of MAP, to the point that trees and grasses largely overlapped in terms of rooting depth at the wettest sites. Our results reconcile previously conflicting evidence for rooting overlap in this system, and have important implications for understanding tree-grass dynamics under altered precipitation scenarios.

  5. Optimisation of logistics processes of energy grass collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bányai, Tamás.

    2010-05-01

    The collection of energy grass is a logistics-intensive process [1]. The optimal design and control of transportation and collection subprocesses is a critical point of the supply chain. To avoid irresponsible decisions by right of experience and intuition, the optimisation and analysis of collection processes based on mathematical models and methods is the scientific suggestible way. Within the frame of this work, the author focuses on the optimisation possibilities of the collection processes, especially from the point of view transportation and related warehousing operations. However the developed optimisation methods in the literature [2] take into account the harvesting processes, county-specific yields, transportation distances, erosion constraints, machinery specifications, and other key variables, but the possibility of more collection points and the multi-level collection were not taken into consideration. The possible areas of using energy grass is very wide (energetically use, biogas and bio alcohol production, paper and textile industry, industrial fibre material, foddering purposes, biological soil protection [3], etc.), so not only a single level but also a multi-level collection system with more collection and production facilities has to be taken into consideration. The input parameters of the optimisation problem are the followings: total amount of energy grass to be harvested in each region; specific facility costs of collection, warehousing and production units; specific costs of transportation resources; pre-scheduling of harvesting process; specific transportation and warehousing costs; pre-scheduling of processing of energy grass at each facility (exclusive warehousing). The model take into consideration the following assumptions: (1) cooperative relation among processing and production facilties, (2) capacity constraints are not ignored, (3) the cost function of transportation is non-linear, (4) the drivers conditions are ignored. The

  6. Growing C4 perennial grass for bioenergy using a new Agro-BGC ecosystem model

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Vittorio, A. V.; Anderson, R. S.; Miller, N. L.; Running, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    Accurate, spatially gridded estimates of bioenergy crop yields require 1) biophysically accurate crop growth models and 2) careful parameterization of unavailable inputs to these models. To meet the first requirement we have added the capacity to simulate C4 perennial grass as a bioenergy crop to the Biome-BGC ecosystem model. This new model, hereafter referred to as Agro-BGC, includes enzyme driven C4 photosynthesis, individual live and dead leaf, stem, and root carbon/nitrogen pools, separate senescence and litter fall processes, fruit growth, optional annual seeding, flood irrigation, a growing degree day phenology with a killing frost option, and a disturbance handler that effectively simulates fertilization, harvest, fire, and incremental irrigation. There are four Agro-BGC vegetation parameters that are unavailable for Panicum virgatum (switchgrass), and to meet the second requirement we have optimized the model across multiple calibration sites to obtain representative values for these parameters. We have verified simulated switchgrass yields against observations at three non-calibration sites in IL. Agro-BGC simulates switchgrass growth and yield at harvest very well at a single site. Our results suggest that a multi-site optimization scheme would be adequate for producing regional-scale estimates of bioenergy crop yields on high spatial resolution grids.

  7. Comparative responses of the Savanna grasses Cenchrus ciliaris and Themeda triandra to defoliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkinson, K C; Ludlow, M M; Mott, J J; Baruch, Z

    1989-04-01

    Two perennial tussock grasses of savannas were compared in a glasshouse study to determine why they differed in their ability to withstand frequent, heavy grazing; Cenchrus ciliaris is tolerant and Themeda triandra is intolerant of heavy grazing. Frequent defoliation at weekly intervals for six weeks reduced shoot biomass production over a subsequent 42 day regrowth period compared with previously undefoliated plants (infrequent) in T. triandra, but not in C. ciliaris. Leaf area of T. triandra expanded rapidly following defoliation but high initial relative growth rates of shoots were not sustained after 14 days of regrowth because of reducing light utilising efficiency of leaves. Frequently defoliated plants were slower in rate of leaf area expansion and this was associated with reduced photosynthetic capacity of newly formed leaves, lower allocation of photosynthate to leaves but not lower tiller numbers. T. triandra appears well adapted to a regime where defoliation is sufficiently infrequent to allow carbon to be fixed to replace that used in initial leaf area expansion. In contrast, C. ciliaris is better adapted to frequent defoliation than is T. triandra, because horizontally orientated nodal tillers are produced below the defoliation level. This morphological adaptation resulted in a 10-fold higher leaf area remaining after defoliation compared with similarly defoliated T. triandra, which together with the maintenance of moderate levels of light utilising efficiency, contributed to the higher leaf area and shoot weight throughout the regrowth period.

  8. Development Policy in Thailand: From Top-down to Grass Roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Matthew; Yutthaphonphinit, Phattaraphon; Seubsman, Sam-Ang; Sleigh, Adrian

    2012-11-01

    Top-down industrial development strategies initially dominated the developing world after the second World War but were eventually found to produce inequitable economic growth. For a decade or more, governments and international development agencies have embraced the idea of participatory grass roots development as a potential solution. Here we review Thailand's experience with development strategies and we examine the current focus on participatory approaches. Thai government planning agencies have adopted "people centred development" and a "sufficiency economy", particularly emphasised since the disruptions caused by the 1997 Asian financial crisis. They aim to address the inequitable sharing of the benefits of decades of rapid growth that was particularly unfair for the rural poor. Thai policies aim to decentralise power to the local level, allowing civil society and Non-Governmental Organisations (NGOs) more of a voice in national decision making and promoting sustainable farming practices aimed at enriching rural communities. An example of this change in Thai government policy is the Community Worker Accreditation Scheme which is aiming to develop human resources at the local level by training community based leaders and supporting networks of community organisations. This enables autonomous local development projects led by trained and accredited individuals and groups. The political tensions notable in Thailand at present are part of this modern transition driven by conflicting models of top-down (industrial) development and the bottom-up (participatory) development ideals described above. Once resolved, Thailand will have few obstacles to moving to a new economic level.

  9. Gene clusters for insecticidal loline alkaloids in the grass-endophytic fungus Neotyphodium uncinatum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiering, Martin J; Moon, Christina D; Wilkinson, Heather H; Schardl, Christopher L

    2005-03-01

    Loline alkaloids are produced by mutualistic fungi symbiotic with grasses, and they protect the host plants from insects. Here we identify in the fungal symbiont, Neotyphodium uncinatum, two homologous gene clusters (LOL-1 and LOL-2) associated with loline-alkaloid production. Nine genes were identified in a 25-kb region of LOL-1 and designated (in order) lolF-1, lolC-1, lolD-1, lolO-1, lolA-1, lolU-1, lolP-1, lolT-1, and lolE-1. LOL-2 contained the homologs lolC-2 through lolE-2 in the same order and orientation. Also identified was lolF-2, but its possible linkage with either cluster was undetermined. Most lol genes were regulated in N. uncinatum and N. coenophialum, and all were expressed concomitantly with loline-alkaloid biosynthesis. A lolC-2 RNA-interference (RNAi) construct was introduced into N. uncinatum, and in two independent transformants, RNAi significantly decreased lolC expression (P lol-gene products indicate that the pathway has evolved from various different primary and secondary biosynthesis pathways.

  10. Bio-economic efficiency of supplementation for steers in Marandu Grass pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Marino Guedes de Carvalho

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate the effect of mineral salt (MS, multiple (MS, energy (ES and protein supplements (PS on performance, behavior and production cost of the cattle in Marandu grass pasture. The experiment lasted 84 days, conducted in the experimental area consists of four paddocks of 1.45 ha. Twenty steers were used with age and initial body weight of 172 kg and 10 months, respectively. It used a completely randomized design with four treatments and five replicate. The energy, multiple and protein supplements was supplied on 1.0 kg day-1. The animals were weighed at the beginning and end of the experiment, to determine the average daily gain (ADG. The weight gain of animals was 0.380, 0.600, 0.750 and 0.730 kg/day, respectively, for treatments MS, ES, MS and PS, have been verified statistical difference between supplemented animals and animals than received only mineral salt. The multiple supplement produced ADG 49.33% and 20.00% higher than the mineral salt. The multiple and protein supplements permitted average performance 18.92% higher than the energy supplement. There was no difference in behavior of grazing (P> 0.05. Animals receiving the mineral mixture had time to 8.40 hours of grazing animal day-1. The multiple supplement provided better economic performance considering the sale of animals to 350 kg body weight.

  11. The use of an in vitro microneutralization assay to evaluate the potential of recombinant VP5 protein as an antigen for vaccinating against Grass carp reovirus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Dan

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp reovirus (GCRV is the causative pathogen of grass carp hemorrhagic disease, one of the major diseases damaging grass carp Ctenopharyngon idellus breeding industry in China. Prevention and control of the disease is impeded largely due to the lack of research in economic subunit vaccine development. This study aimed to evaluate the potential of viral outer shell protein VP5 as subunit vaccine. Methods The vp5 gene was isolated from the viral genome through RT-PCR and genetically engineered to express the recombinant VP5 protein in E coli. The viral origin of the recombinant protein was confirmed by Western blot analysis with a monoclonal antibody against viral VP5 protein. Polyclonal antibody against the recombinant VP5 protein was prepared from mice. A microneutralization assay was developed to test its neutralizing ability against GCRV infection in cell culture. Results The GST-VP5 fusion protein (rVP5 was produced from E. Coli with expected molecular weight of 90 kDa. The protein was purified and employed to prepare anti-VP5 polyclonal antibody from mice. The anti-VP5 antibody was found to neutralize GCRV through in vitro microneutralization assay and viral progeny quantification analysis. Conclusions The present study showed that the viral VP5 protein was involved in viral infection and bacterially-expressed VP5 could be suitable for developing subunit vaccine for the control of GCRV infection.

  12. A well-tolerated grass pollen-specific allergy vaccine containing a novel adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A, reduces allergic symptoms after only four preseasonal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachenberg, K J; Wheeler, A W; Stuebner, P; Horak, F

    2001-06-01

    We present data showing that a Th1-inducing adjuvant can reduce the number of injections required for allergy vaccination. Allergy vaccination is the only treatment for type 1 hypersensitivity that can alter the underlying disease process. A switch of specific T-cell activity from Th2 >Th1 to Th1 >Th2 is believed to be an important change seen after long-term vaccination therapy. An immunologic adjuvant that enhances such a switch could be used to reduce the number of injections required. This would improve compliance with the treatment and provide pharmacoeconomic advantages. Such an adjuvant is 3-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL adjuvant, Corixa). A multicentre, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical study was performed with a new standardized allergy vaccine comprising a tyrosine-adsorbed glutaraldehyde-modified grass pollen extract containing MPL adjuvant. Four subcutaneous injections of the active product were given preseasonally to 81 grass pollen-sensitive subjects, and 60 received placebo injections (tyrosine alone). Diary cards were used to record symptoms and medication taken during approximately 30 days of the grass pollen season. There was a statistical advantage in favour of the active treatment for nasal (P = 0.016) and ocular (P = 0.003) symptoms and combined symptom and medication scores (P=0.013). Titrated skin prick testing revealed a significant reduction of skin sensitivity in the active group compared to placebo (P = 0.04). Grass-pollen-specific IgG antibody was raised by active treatment (P vaccine, incorporating a Th1-inducing adjuvant, MPL, was efficacious and after only four preseasonal injections produced antibody changes normally associated with long injection schedules. This may encourage wider application of allergy vaccination. The vaccine is now available in a number of countries as Pollinex Quattro.

  13. Predicting Dry Matter Composition of Clover Grass Leys Using Data Simulation and Camera-based Segmentation of Field Canopies into White Clover, Red Clover, Grass and Weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Søren; Dyrmann, Mads; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    species in the biomass. In our setup, we exploit the top-down canopy view of the clover grass ley to estimate the volumetric composition of the yield, and predict the composition of the dry matter of the forage. Using a deep learning approach, the canopy image is automatically pixel-wise segmented....... The biggest hindrance to training a fully convolutional deep neural network is the requirement of labeled data. Due to the complexity, the high number of leaves and high levels of occlusions in clover grass canopies, hand labeling the data requires roughly 20 hours of manual labor per image. The need...... for hundreds or thousands labeled training images renders this approach unfeasible. We have shown that implementation of image simulation of distinct clover grass fields can reduce the labeling task significantly. Investing less than 20 hours of labor, thousands of simulated images and corresponding labels can...

  14. Additions to the grasses (Poaceae of Telangana from Kawal Tiger Reserve, Adilabad District, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alok Chorghe

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Three species of grasses viz., Dimeria orissae, Iseilema holei and Spodiopogon rhizophorus are being reported for the first time as new distributional records to Telangana from the Kawal Tiger Reserve. Detailed description and illustrations are provided here.

  15. Ionomics: Genes and QTLs controlling heavy metal uptake in perennial grasses grown on phytoxic soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perennial grasses occupy diverse soils throughout the world, including many sites contaminated with heavy metals. Uncovering the genetic architecture of QTLs controlling mineral homoeostasis is critical for understanding the biochemical pathways that determine the elemental profiles of perennial pl...

  16. Relationship between nitrogen cycling and nitrous oxide emission in grass-clover pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2005-01-01

    The paper reports on a work assessing the relationship between gross N transformations in grass-clover soils and emissions of nitrous oxide. By this manner, the source strength of the biogenic processes responsible for nitrous oxide production is evaluated.

  17. Improving the energy balance of grass-based anaerobic digestion through harvesting optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Egelund, H.

    with a number of coarse barbs) to simultaneously mow and mechanically pretreat two different lignocellulosic substrates. Thus, ensiled meadow grass was initially examined at the first experimental set up. Regarding the second field test, an area sowed with regularly cultivated grass was harvested. In order......) protocol. The findings showed that methane production can efficiently be enhanced by mechanical pretreatment applied at the harvesting step. More specifically, the most effective treatment yielded more than 10% increase in the bioenergy production from both examined grass silages. Our study demonstrates...... that the appropriate harvester can improve the energy output by approximately 2.4 GJ/ha under optimal conditions and subsequently, the overall sustainability of grass-based AD....

  18. Transforming Past Lessons to Mold the Future: A Case Study on Operation NICKEL GRASS

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Riney, Thomas J

    2003-01-01

    ...?" In this case, the specific lessons from the 1973 airlift operation supporting Israel, Operation NICKEL GRASS, were analyzed and generalized using the Tenets of Operations described in U.S. Army field manuals...

  19. Exotic Annual Grasses in Western Rangelands: Predicting Resistance and Resilience of Native Ecosystems to Invasion (Draft)

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Belnap, Jayne; Evans, R. D; Phillips, Susan L; Reheis, Merith; Reynolds, Rich; Sanford, Robert; Webb, Bruce

    2004-01-01

    Bromus tectorum (hereafter referred to as Bromus) is a non-native annual grass from the Mediterranean region that arrived in the United States in the late 19th century and soon spread throughout the western states...

  20. NPDES Permit for Town of Lodge Grass Wastewater Treatment Facility in Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Under National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System permit number MT0021890, the Town of Lodge Grass is authorized to discharge from from its wastewater treatment facility in Big Horn County to an unnamed slough to the Little Bighorn River.