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Sample records for grass pollen immunotherapy

  1. Towards evidence-based medicine in specific grass pollen immunotherapy.

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    Calderon, M; Mösges, R; Hellmich, M; Demoly, P

    2010-04-01

    When initiating grass pollen immunotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, specialist physicians in many European countries must choose between modalities of differing pharmaceutical and regulatory status. We applied an evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to commercially available subcutaneous and sublingual Gramineae grass pollen immunotherapies (SCIT and SLIT) by evaluating study design, populations, pollen seasons, treatment doses and durations, efficacy, quality of life, safety and compliance. After searching MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library up until January 2009, we identified 33 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (including seven paediatric trials) with a total of 440 specific immunotherapy (SIT)-treated subjects in seven trials (0 paediatric) for SCIT with natural pollen extracts, 168 in three trials (0 paediatric) for SCIT with allergoids, 906 in 16 trials (five paediatric) for natural extract SLIT drops, 41 in two trials (one paediatric) for allergoid SLIT tablets and 1605 in five trials (two paediatric) for natural extract SLIT tablets. Trial design and quality varied significantly within and between SIT modalities. The multinational, rigorous trials of natural extract SLIT tablets correspond to a high level of evidence in adult and paediatric populations. The limited amount of published data on allergoids prevented us from judging the level of evidence for this modality.

  2. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  3. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces highly cross-reactive IgG antibodies to group V allergen from different grass species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Brewczyński, P. Z.; Tan, K. Y.; Mulder-Willems, H. J.; Widjaja, P.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kroon, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on IgG reactivity with group V allergen from six different grass species. One group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. Only Lolium perenne, Dactylis

  4. Adverse Events During Immunotherapy Against Grass Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Dalhoff, Kim Peder; Backer, Vibeke

    2015-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis (AR) triggered by grass pollen is a common disease, affecting millions of people worldwide. Treatment consists of symptom-alleviating drugs, such as topical corticosteroids or antihistamines. Another option is potentially curative immunotherapy, currently available as sublingual...... and subcutaneous treatment. We investigated the potential differences in the prevalence and severity of adverse events related to subcutaneous and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) against grass pollen-induced AR. A thorough literature search was performed with PubMed and EMBASE. The findings were compared...

  5. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in pediatric allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahn, Ulrich; Tabar, Ana; Kuna, Piotr

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The efficacy and safety of the 300-index of reactivity (IR) dose of 5-grass-pollen sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets (Stallergènes, Antony, France) have been demonstrated for the treatment of hay fever in adults. OBJECTIVE: We sought to assess the efficacy and safety of this tab...

  6. Double-blind, placebo-controlled immunotherapy with mixed grass-pollen allergoids. I. Rush immunotherapy with allergoids and standardized orchard grass-pollen extract.

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    Bousquet, J; Hejjaoui, A; Skassa-Brociek, W; Guérin, B; Maasch, H J; Dhivert, H; Michel, F B

    1987-10-01

    Forty-five grass pollen-allergic patients were randomly assigned to three groups according to their skin test and RAST sensitivities and the severity of seasonal rhinitis. Eleven patients were treated with placebo (group 1), 19 patients (group 2) were treated with a six-mixed grass-pollen allergoid prepared by mild formalinization with a two-step procedure, and 15 other patients were treated with a standardized orchard grass-pollen extract (group 3). Because of a different immunotherapy schedule, only patients placed in groups 1 and 2 received the extracts in a double-blind fashion. Rush immunotherapy was performed in 3 to 6 days, and the maintenance dose was subsequently administered weekly for 4 weeks and every 2 weeks until the end of the grass-pollen season. During the season, a coseasonal treatment was administered. Systemic reactions occurred during the rush protocol in 36.8% of patients treated with allergoid and 20% of patients who received the standardized extract. Only patients treated with allergoid had systemic reactions during maintenance dose. The reactions observed with the standardized extract were more severe. Total doses of allergoid ranged from 2350 to 13,500 protein nitrogen units. Symptoms and medication scores during the peak of the season were analyzed. Patients treated with the standardized allergen had a significant reduction of the number of days of symptoms during the month of June (9.5 +/- 6.7 days; p less than 0.005) and of medication scores (1.3 +/- 1.4; p less than 0.01) compared to patients receiving placebo (19.4 +/- 8.1 days; medication score, 2.8 +/- 2.1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Specific IgE response to different grass pollen allergen components in children undergoing sublingual immunotherapy

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    Marcucci Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass pollen is a major cause of respiratory allergy worldwide and contain a number of allergens, some of theme (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, Phl p 5, and Phl 6 from Phleum pratense, and their homologous in other grasses are known as major allergens. The administration of grass pollen extracts by immunotherapy generally induces an initial rise in specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE production followed by a progressive decline during the treatment. Some studies reported that immunotherapy is able to induce a de novo sensitisation to allergen component previously unrecognized. Methods We investigated in 30 children (19 males and 11 females, mean age 11.3 years, 19 treated with sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT by a 5-grass extract and 11 untreated, the sIgE and sIgG4 response to the different allergen components. Results Significant increases (p  Conclusions These findings confirm that the initial phase of SLIT with a grass pollen extract enhances the sIgE synthesis and show that the sIgE response concerns the same allergen components which induce IgE reactivity during natural exposure.

  8. Demonstration of carbohydrate-specific immunoglobulin G4 antibodies in sera of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    From a group of 92 patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, and selected on grounds of high IgG4 titers against Lol p I, sera were tested for IgG4 antibodies against the glycosylated grass pollen allergen Lol p XI. In 72 of 92 cases IgG4 antibodies were demonstrated. The N-glycan of Lol p XI

  9. Budget impact analysis of two immunotherapy products for treatment of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

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    Rønborg SM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Steen M Rønborg,1 Ulrik G Svendsen,2 Jesper S Micheelsen,3 Lars Ytte,4 Jakob N Andreasen,5 Lars Ehlers61The Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Private ENT practice, Aalborg, 4General Practice Aalborg, 5ALK, Hørsholm, 6Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkBackground: Grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis constitutes a large burden for society. Up to 20% of European and United States (US populations suffer from respiratory allergies, including grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients are treated with symptomatic medications; however, a large proportion remains uncontrolled despite use of such treatments. Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment documented to target the underlying cause of the disease, leading to a sustained effect after completion of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the economic consequences of treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with either a grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT or subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT.Methods: A budget impact analysis was applied comparing SQ-standardized grass AIT (Grazax®; Phleum pratense, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU; ALK, Denmark with SCIT (Alutard®; P. pratense, 100,000 SQ-U/mL; ALK, Denmark. Budget impact analysis included health care utilization measured in physical units based on systematic literature reviews, guidelines, and expert opinions, as well as valuation in unit costs based on drug tariffs, physician fees, and wage statistics. Budget impact analysis was conducted from a Danish health care perspective.Results: Treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with grass AIT instead of grass SCIT resulted in a total reduction in treatment costs of €1291 per patient during a treatment course. This cost saving implies that approximately 40% more patients could be treated with grass AIT per year without influencing the cost of

  10. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...... compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. METHODS: A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial......, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. RESULTS: There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet...

  11. Results from the 5-year SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet asthma prevention (GAP) trial in children with grass pollen allergy.

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    Valovirta, Erkka; Petersen, Thomas H; Piotrowska, Teresa; Laursen, Mette K; Andersen, Jens S; Sørensen, Helle F; Klink, Rabih

    2018-02-01

    Allergy immunotherapy targets the immunological cause of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and allergic asthma and has the potential to alter the natural course of allergic disease. The primary objective was to investigate the effect of the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet compared with placebo on the risk of developing asthma. A total of 812 children (5-12 years), with a clinically relevant history of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis and no medical history or signs of asthma, were included in the randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, comprising 3 years of treatment and 2 years of follow-up. There was no difference in time to onset of asthma, defined by prespecified asthma criteria relying on documented reversible impairment of lung function (primary endpoint). Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet significantly reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms or using asthma medication at the end of trial (odds ratio = 0.66, P year posttreatment follow-up, and during the entire 5-year trial period. Also, grass allergic rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms were 22% to 30% reduced (P years). At the end of the trial, the use of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis pharmacotherapy was significantly less (27% relative difference to placebo, P < .001). Total IgE, grass pollen-specific IgE, and skin prick test reactivity to grass pollen were all reduced compared to placebo. Treatment with the SQ grass sublingual immunotherapy tablet reduced the risk of experiencing asthma symptoms and using asthma medication, and had a positive, long-term clinical effect on rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms and medication use but did not show an effect on the time to onset of asthma. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in patients with different clinical profiles of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Montagut, A; Melac, M

    2009-01-01

    pollen sublingual tablets of 100 IR (index of reactivity), 300 IR or 500 IR, or placebo starting 4 months before the pollen season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this complementary analysis was to determine whether 300 IR 5-grass pollen SLIT-tablets is effective in different subtypes of patients who are allergic......BACKGROUND: The optimal dose of grass pollen tablets for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients was previously established in a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 628 adults. Patients were randomized to receive once-daily 5-grass...... to grass pollen. METHODS: Different subgroups could be identified regarding comorbidities (with or without asthma during the grass-pollen season), sensitization (mono/polysensitization) and symptom severity. An additional exploratory analysis was performed within four subgroups based on pre...

  13. Medication persistence with long-term, specific grass pollen immunotherapy measured by prescription renewal rates.

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    Sieber, J; De Geest, S; Shah-Hosseini, K; Mösges, R

    2011-04-01

    We assessed medication persistence using prescription renewal rates for grass pollen specific immunotherapy (SIT) in a representative population of patients in Germany to evaluate whether the perception of superior persistence for the subcutaneous route compared to the sublingual route could be confirmed in clinical practice. Individual prescriptions for allergen immunotherapy were extracted from a national prescription database (INSIGHT Health) and followed over 3 years on a per-patient basis. However, patients' medical history and treatment schedules were not available for analysis. Products were identified by the national drug code (PZN number) and grouped to either subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) with natural extract injections, SCIT with modified allergens (allergoids) or sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with natural pollen extract solutions. Persistence was defined as at least one prescription of the individual drug in the respective years. A total of 1409 patients started SIT in 2005 (112, 695, and 602 for natural extract SLIT, natural extract SCIT, and allergoid SCIT, respectively). In 2006, 71%, 55%, and 59% of those patients had at least one renewal prescription of natural extract SLIT, natural extract SCIT, and allergoid SCIT, respectively, as well as 51%, 34%, and 39% in 2007. In both years, persistence with natural extract SLIT was significantly higher than with natural extract SCIT (p = 0.0015 for 2006, p = 0.0003 for 2007) and allergoid SCIT (p = 0.0152 for 2006, p = 0.0111 for 2007). There were no significant differences between the two SCIT groups. Medication persistence with grass pollen SIT in a representative sample of patients in Germany was similar to published medication persistence in asthma and COPD patients. The sublingual application route shows significantly better persistency than the subcutaneous route with native allergens or allergoids.

  14. Mutants of the major ryegrass pollen allergen, Lol p 5, with reduced IgE-binding capacity: candidates for grass pollen-specific immunotherapy.

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    Swoboda, Ines; De Weerd, Nicole; Bhalla, Prem L; Niederberger, Verena; Sperr, W R; Valent, Peter; Kahlert, Helga; Fiebig, Helmut; Verdino, Petra; Keller, Walter; Ebner, Christof; Spitzauer, Susanne; Valenta, Rudolf; Singh, Mohan B

    2002-01-01

    More than 400 million individuals are sensitized to grass pollen allergens. Group 5 allergens represent the most potent grass pollen allergens recognized by more than 80 % of grass pollen allergic patients. The aim of our study was to reduce the allergenic activity of group 5 allergens for specific immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy. Based on B- and T-cell epitope mapping studies and on sequence comparison of group 5 allergens from different grasses, point mutations were introduced by site-directed mutagenesis in highly conserved sequence domains of Lol p 5, the group 5 allergen from ryegrass. We obtained Lol p 5 mutants with low IgE-binding capacity and reduced allergenic activity as determined by basophil histamine release and by skin prick testing in allergic patients. Circular dichroism analysis showed that these mutants exhibited an overall structural fold similar to the recombinant Lol p 5 wild-type allergen. In addition, Lol p 5 mutants retained the ability to induce proliferation of group 5 allergen-specific T cell lines and clones. Our results demonstrate that a few point mutations in the Lol p 5 sequence yield mutants with reduced allergenic activity that represent potential vaccine candidates for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy.

  15. Cost effectiveness analysis of immunotherapy in patients with grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in Germany.

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    Westerhout, K Y; Verheggen, B G; Schreder, C H; Augustin, M

    2012-01-01

    An economic evaluation was conducted to assess the outcomes and costs as well as cost-effectiveness of the following grass-pollen immunotherapies: OA (Oralair; Stallergenes S.A., Antony, France) vs GRZ (Grazax; ALK-Abelló, Hørsholm, Denmark), and ALD (Alk Depot SQ; ALK-Abelló) (immunotherapy agents alongside symptomatic medication) and symptomatic treatment alone for grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The costs and outcomes of 3-year treatment were assessed for a period of 9 years using a Markov model. Treatment efficacy was estimated using an indirect comparison of available clinical trials with placebo as a common comparator. Estimates for immunotherapy discontinuation, occurrence of asthma, health state utilities, drug costs, resource use, and healthcare costs were derived from published sources. The analysis was conducted from the insurant's perspective including public and private health insurance payments and co-payments by insurants. Outcomes were reported as quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) and symptom-free days. The uncertainty around incremental model results was tested by means of extensive deterministic univariate and probabilistic multivariate sensitivity analyses. In the base case analysis the model predicted a cost-utility ratio of OA vs symptomatic treatment of €14,728 per QALY; incremental costs were €1356 (95%CI: €1230; €1484) and incremental QALYs 0.092 (95%CI: 0.052; 0.140). OA was the dominant strategy compared to GRZ and ALD, with estimated incremental costs of -€1142 (95%CI: -€1255; -€1038) and -€54 (95%CI: -€188; €85) and incremental QALYs of 0.015 (95%CI: -0.025; 0.056) and 0.027 (95%CI: -0.022; 0.075), respectively. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of €20,000, the probability of OA being the most cost-effective treatment was predicted to be 79%. Univariate sensitivity analyses show that incremental outcomes were moderately sensitive to changes in efficacy estimates. The main study limitation was the

  16. Satisfaction and quality of life of allergic patients following sublingual five-grass pollen tablet immunotherapy in Spain

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    Antolín-Amerigo, Darío; Tabar, Isabel A; del Mar Fernández-Nieto, Maria; Callejo-Melgosa, Anna M; Muñoz-Bellido, Francisco J; Martínez-Alonso, José C; Méndez-Alcalde, Jorge D; Reche, Marta; Rodríguez-Trabado, Ana; Rosado-Ingelmo, Ana; Alonso-Gómez, Alicia; Blanco-González, Rosa; Alvarez-Fernandez, José A; Botella, Isabel; Valls, Ana; Cimarra, Mercedes; Blanco, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Background Five-grass pollen tablet is an effective and well-tolerated therapy for patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). This trial sought to determine the satisfaction and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) of patients undergoing this treatment. Methods This was a cross-sectional, multicentre, observational, naturalistic study, following a discontinuous pre- and co-seasonal five-grass pollen regimen over two seasons in Spain (2012, 2013). The HRQoL of the patients was measured with the specific Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (RQLQ) for adults, adolescent (AdolRQLQ), or paediatric (PRQLQ) patients. Treatment satisfaction was assessed by the Satisfaction Scale for Patients Receiving Allergen Immunotherapy (ESPIA) questionnaire. Patients/investigators were surveyed on beliefs and attitudes towards the five-grass pollen tablet. ARC evolution according to allergic rhinitis and its impact on asthma (ARIA) criteria and treatment adherence were evaluated. Results Among the 591 ARC patients included, the mean (SD) HRQoL scores were 1.40 (1.1) in adults, 1.33 (1.1) in adolescents, and 1.15 (1.1) in children, indicating low levels of impairment (scale 0–6). ESPIA answers showed high levels of satisfaction, with an average score of 69.2 (scale 0–100). According to ARIA criteria, 88.2% of patients reported improvement of ARC. Moreover, this was accompanied by a reduced use of symptomatic medication. Adherence to treatment was estimated at 96.8%. In general, both patients and specialists exhibited a positive attitude towards five-grass pollen tablet treatment. Conclusion ARC patients treated with five-grass pollen tablet showed favourable levels of HRQoL and treatment satisfaction, with concomitant improvements in ARC and symptomatic medication use, which translated into high levels of treatment adherence and a positive attitude towards five-grass pollen tablet. PMID:29225657

  17. Double-blind, placebo-controlled immunotherapy with mixed grass-pollen allergoids. II. Comparison between parameters assessing the efficacy of immunotherapy.

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    Bousquet, J; Maasch, H; Martinot, B; Hejjaoui, A; Wahl, R; Michel, F B

    1988-09-01

    Specific immunotherapy is effective in alleviating symptoms in grass pollen-induced rhinitis, but there are no clear data demonstrating a correlation between symptom-medication scores and objective parameters. Twenty-five patients taking part in a double-blind, placebo-controlled immunotherapy with mixed grass pollen-formalinized allergoids were studied. All patients had the same investigations. Symptom-medication scores were significantly (p less than 0.005, Mann-Whitney U test) reduced in the treated group by comparison to the placebo-treated patients. Nasal challenges performed with threefold increasing numbers of orchard grass-pollen grains demonstrated that patients treated with allergoid tolerated a significantly (p less than 0.005, Wilcoxon W test) greater number of grains after treatment, whereas there was no mean difference in the placebo-treated patients. There was a significant (p less than 0.005, Spearman rank-correlation) correlation between nasal challenges and symptom scores during the season. The skin prick test end point was significantly (p less than 0.001, Wilcoxon W test) reduced after treatment in the allergoid-treated group and remained unchanged in the placebo-treated group. There was a significant (p less than 0.001) correlation between the skin prick test end point and symptom scores during the season. Serum grass-pollen IgG titrated by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay with Staphylococcus A protein was significantly (p less than 0.01, Wilcoxon W test) increased after treatment with allergoid, but there was no significant correlation between IgG titer and symptom scores during the season. Serum grass-pollen IgE increased (p less than 0.04, Wilcoxon W test) in the treated group but there was no correlation with symptom scores.

  18. Measurement of IgE antibodies against purified grass pollen allergens (Lol p 1, 2, 3 and 5) during immunotherapy.

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    Van Ree, R; Van Leeuwen, W A; Dieges, P H; Van Wijk, R G; De Jong, N; Brewczyski, P Z; Kroon, A M; Schilte, P P; Tan, K Y; Simon-Licht, I F; Roberts, A M; Stapel, S O; Aalberse, R C

    1997-01-01

    IgE titres tend to rise early after the start of immunotherapy, followed by a decline to pre-immunotherapy levels or lower. We were interested to know whether the early increase in IgE antibodies includes new specificities of IgE, and whether these responses persist. Sera of 64 patients undergoing grass pollen immunotherapy were tested for IgE against four purified grass pollen allergens: Lol p 1, 2, 3, and 5. At least two serum samples were taken, one before the start of therapy and one between 5 and 18 months after the first immunization (mean: 10 months). The mean IgE responses to Lol p 1, 2 and 3 showed a moderate but not significant increase. In contrast, the mean IgE response to Lol p 5 showed a significant decrease of > 30%. IgE against total Lohum perenne pollen extract moderately increased (> 20%), showing that a RAST for total pollen is not always indicative for the development of IgE against its major allergens. For > 40% of the patients it was found that IgE against one or more of the four allergens increased, while IgE against the remaining allergen(s) decreased. For 10 sera the ratio of IgE titres against at least two allergens changed by at least a factor of 5. The changes in specific IgE also included conversions from negative (< 0.1 RU) to positive (0.6 to 5.0 RU) for five patients. For two patients, the induction of these 'new' IgE antibodies against major allergens was shown to result in a response that was persistent over several years. Although active induction of new IgE specificities by immunotherapy was not really proven, the observations in this study indicate that monitoring of IgE against purified (major) allergens is necessary to evaluate changes in specific IgE in a reliable way.

  19. Sublingual Immunotherapy with a Five-Grass Pollen Tablet in Adult Patients with Allergic Rhinitis: An Open, Prospective, Noninterventional, Multicenter Study

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    Oliver Pfaar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although the safety and efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT with a five-grass pollen tablet have been demonstrated in randomized clinical trials (RCTs, these outcomes must always be evaluated in real-life medical practice. Methods. In a prospective, open-label, noninterventional, “real-life” study in Germany, we evaluated the safety, tolerability, and effectiveness of SLIT with a five-grass pollen tablet in adults with grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Results. 808 adults were enrolled between September 2008 and December 2009. 35.3% of the participants experienced at least one adverse drug reaction (ADR, the most common of which were mild-to-moderate gastrointestinal and respiratory disorders. Serious ADRs considered causally related to SLIT treatment occurred in four patients. Overall, the five-grass pollen tablet was considered to have good or very good tolerability by most investigators and patients. Treatment was associated with the relief of nasal, ocular, and bronchial symptoms and decreased symptomatic medication use. However, interpretation of clinical improvements was limited by lower atmospheric grass pollen levels during the study season (relative to the preceding season. Conclusions. In a large population of patients treated in real-life medical practice, SLIT with a five-grass pollen tablet was safe and well tolerated. The patient-reported symptom relief suggests that SLIT was associated with clinical benefits.

  20. Evaluation of two grass pollen extracts for immunotherapy by serum determinations of specific IgE and IgG4 antibodies towards purified Timothy grass pollen allergens (Phl p 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 11, 12 in patients undergoing hyposensitization treatment

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    Renato Enzo Rossi

    2002-01-01

    Conclusions: These results indicate that grass pollen immunotherapy elicits an array of antibody specificities that reflect the allergen content and the potency of allergen extracts; this could be of pivotal importance to define optimal allergen extract doses.

  1. Allergenicity, immunogenicity and dose-relationship of three intact allergen vaccines and four allergoid vaccines for subcutaneous grass pollen immunotherapy.

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    Henmar, H; Lund, G; Lund, L; Petersen, A; Würtzen, P A

    2008-09-01

    Different vaccines containing intact allergens or chemically modified allergoids as active ingredients are commercially available for specific immunotherapy. Allergoids are claimed to have decreased allergenicity without loss of immunogenicity and this is stated to allow administration of high allergoid doses. We compared the allergenicity and immunogenicity of four commercially available chemically modified grass pollen allergoid products with three commercially available intact grass pollen allergen vaccines. The allergenicity was investigated with immunoglobulin (Ig)E-inhibition and basophil activation assays. Human T cell proliferation and specific IgG-titres following mouse immunizations were used to address immunogenicity. Furthermore, intact allergen vaccines with different contents of active ingredients were selected to study the influence of the allergen dose. In general, a lower allergenicity for allergen vaccines was clearly linked to a reduced immunogenicity. Compared with the vaccine with the highest amount of intact allergen, the allergoids caused reduced basophil activation as well as diminished immunogenicity demonstrated by reduced T cell activation and/or reduced induction of murine grass-specific IgG antibodies. Interestingly, intact allergen vaccines with lower content of active ingredient exhibited similarly reduced allergenicity, while immunogenicity was still higher or equal to that of allergoids. The low allergenicity observed for some allergoids was inherently linked to a significantly lower immunogenic response questioning the rationale behind the chemical modification into allergoids. In addition, the linkage between allergenicity, immunogenicity and dose found for intact allergen vaccines and the immunogen as well as allergenic immune responses observed for allergoids suggest that the modified allergen vaccines do not contain high doses of immunologically active ingredients.

  2. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy.

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    Roberts, A M; Van Ree, R; Cardy, S M; Bevan, L J; Walker, M R

    1992-07-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial nucleotide sequencing and inferred amino acid sequence showed greater than 90% homology with the group II allergen from Lolium perenne (Lol II) indicating they encode the group II equivalent, Dac g II. Western blot immunoprobing of recombinant lysates with rabbit polyclonal, mouse monoclonal and human polyclonal antisera demonstrates immunological identity between recombinant Dac g II, Lol p I and Lol p II. Similar cross-identity is observed with pollen extracts from three other grass species: Festuca rubra, Phleum pratense and Anthoxanthum odoratum. Recombinant Dac g II was recognized by species- and group-cross-reactive human IgE antibodies in 33% (4/12) of sera randomly selected from grass-sensitive individuals and in 67% (14/21) of sera from patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy, whilst 0/4 sera from patients receiving venom immunotherapy alone contained Dac g II cross-reactive IgE. Cross-reactive IgG4 antibodies were detectable in 95% of sera from grass pollen immunotherapy patients. These preliminary data suggest that conventional grass pollen allergoid desensitization immunotherapy may induce IgE responses to a cross-reactive epitope(s) co-expressed by grass pollen groups I and II (and possibly group III) allergens.

  3. Pretreatment IgE sensitization patterns determine the molecular profile of the IgG4 response during updosing of subcutaneous immunotherapy with timothy grass pollen extract

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Würtzen, Peter Adler; Dahl, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergen immunotherapy is an effective treatment of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Clinical efficacy is associated with improvement of basophil sensitivity and an increase in allergen-specific immunoglobulin concentration. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether changes in allergen...... component-specific serum IgE and IgG4 levels during the updosing phase of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) are biomarkers of the immunologic changes that can lead to treatment efficacy. METHODS: Twenty-four subjects with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were randomized 3:1 to receive SCIT...... (Alutard SQ) or to an open control group. IgE and IgG4 concentrations were determined for the major allergens Phl p 1 or Phl p 5 by using ImmunoCAP and for 8 grass pollen molecules by using Immuno Solid-phase Allergy Chip (ISAC) before treatment and after updosing. RESULTS: Levels of specific IgE against...

  4. Mechanisms, safety and efficacy of a B cell epitope-based vaccine for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy

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    Petra Zieglmayer

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The B cell epitope-based recombinant grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32 is well tolerated and few doses are sufficient to suppress immediate allergic reactions as well as allergen-specific T cell responses via a selective induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01445002.

  5. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...

  6. Measurement of IgE antibodies against purified grass pollen allergens (Lol p 1, 2, 3 and 5) during immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Dieges, P. H.; van Wijk, R. G.; de Jong, N.; Brewczyski, P. Z.; Kroon, A. M.; Schilte, P. P.; Tan, K. Y.; Simon-Licht, I. F.; Roberts, A. M.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1997-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE titres tend to rise early after the start of immunotherapy, followed by a decline to pre-immunotherapy levels or lower. OBJECTIVES: We were interested to know whether the early increase in IgE antibodies includes new specificities of IgE, and whether these responses persist. METHODS:

  7. Quality of life improvement after a three-year course of sublingual immunotherapy in patients with house dust mite and grass pollen induced allergic rhinitis: results from real-life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novakova, Silviya Mihaylova; Staevska, Maria Toncheva; Novakova, Plamena Ivanova; Yoncheva, Manuela Dimitrova; Bratoycheva, Maria Stoykova; Musurlieva, Nina Mihaylova; Tzekov, Valeri Dimitrov; Nicolov, Dimitar Georgiev

    2017-09-29

    Along with its high prevalence, the burden of allergic rhinitis rests upon the serious impact on quality of life of patients. Allergic rhinitis is associated with impairments in daily activities, work and school performance, and practical problems. Patients suffer from sleep disorders and emotional problems. Тhe advantages of sublingual immunotherapy on quality of life have only recently begun to emerge. The objective of this prospective real-life study was to evaluate the effect of a three-year course of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite (HDM) and grass pollen extracts on quality of life in adults with allergic rhinitis. A total number of 191 adult patients [105 (54,979%) men; mean age 27.3 years (SD-6.14)] with moderate to severe allergic rhinitis and clinically relevant sensitization to house dust mites or grass pollen were prospectively evaluated in the course of management of their disease. Health-related quality of life was assessed by Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire at baseline and after three-year course of sublingual immunotherapy. The mean overall Qol score assessed at baseline and at the end of the third year of treatment decreased significantly in patients treated with HDM extract (from 2.95 to 0.76) as well as with Grass pollen extract (from 2.83 to 1.22) (р life provided evidence that a three-year course of SLIT with HDM extract as well as with grass pollen extract significantly increased QoL in patients with allergic rhinitis.

  8. Double-blind, placebo-controlled immunotherapy with mixed grass-pollen allergoids. IV. Comparison of the safety and efficacy of two dosages of a high-molecular-weight allergoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Hejjaoui, A; Soussana, M; Michel, F B

    1990-02-01

    Specific immunotherapy is still widely used in grass-pollen allergy, but its side effects may limit its use. We tested the safety and efficacy of a formalinized high-molecular-weight allergoid prepared from a mixed grass-pollen extract with two injection schedules in a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Eighteen patients received placebo, 19 received the low-dose schedule (maximal dose: 2000 PNU) and 20 received the high-dose schedule (maximal dose: 10,000 PNU). Only one patient presented a systemic reaction of moderate severity for a dose of 1200 PNU. Before the onset of the pollen season, patients had a nasal challenge with orchard grass-pollen grains, a skin test titration, and the titration of serum-specific IgG. Both groups of patients presented a significant reduction in nasal and skin sensitivities and a significant increase in IgG compared to placebo. Symptoms and medications for rhinitis and asthma were studied during the season, and both groups receiving allergoids had a significant reduction of symptom-medication scores for nasal and bronchial symptoms. There was a highly significant correlation between nasal symptom-medication scores during the season and the results of nasal challenges. High-molecular-weight allergoids are safe and effective.

  9. Double-blind, placebo-controlled immunotherapy with mixed grass-pollen allergoids. III. Efficacy and safety of unfractionated and high-molecular-weight preparations in rhinoconjunctivitis and asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, J; Maasch, H J; Hejjaoui, A; Skassa-Brociek, W; Wahl, R; Dhivert, H; Michel, F B

    1989-10-01

    Specific immunotherapy with unmodified formalinized allergoids is effective in grass-pollen allergy, but systemic reactions have been observed. A high-molecular-weight formalinized allergoid (HMW-GOID) was fractionated by gel filtration, retaining molecules of greater than 85,000 daltons in the expectation of improving safety without sacrificing efficacy. HMW-GOID and unfractionated allergoid (GOID) had a similar allergenic activity assessed by RAST inhibition, but the HMW-GOID preparation was 65 times less reactive when it was tested by skin prick test than the GOID preparation. A double-blind, placebo-controlled study was carried out in grass pollen-allergic patients with placebo (14 patients), GOID (15 patients), and HMW-GOID (13 patients). An additional group of 18 patients was treated by a rush schedule with a standardized orchard grass-pollen extract. A similar mean cumulative dose was administered with both allergoids. The fractionated allergoid only elicited minor systemic reactions similar to reactions elicited by placebo, whereas 20% of patients treated by GOID and 5.5% of patients receiving the standardized extract had a severe systemic reaction. For rhinitis, conjunctivitis, and asthma, the HMW-GOID and the standardized extract had a similar efficacy, significantly greater than placebo. GOID was less effective than the other two active treatments but was significantly more effective than placebo treatment for asthma and conjunctivitis.

  10. Long-term clinical efficacy in grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis after treatment with SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Durham, Stephen R.; Emminger, Waltraud; Kapp, Alexander; Colombo, Giselda; de Monchy, Jan G. R.; Rak, Sabina; Scadding, Glenis K.; Andersen, Jens S.; Riis, Bente; Dahl, Ronald

    Background: Sustained and disease-modifying effects of sublingual immunotherapy have never before been confirmed in a large-scale randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Objective: We sought to investigate sustained efficacy I year after a 3-year period of daily treatment with the

  11. Carbamylated monomeric allergoids as a therapeutic option for sublingual immunotherapy of dust mite- and grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis: a systematic review of published trials with a meta-analysis of treatment using Lais® tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösges, R; Ritter, B; Kayoko, G; Allekotte, S

    2010-10-01

    Lais® allergoid tablets contain allergens that are modified by carbamylation. Due to their modified chemical structure, they are suitable for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) (13, 16, 17, 24). Based on their small molecule size of 12 to 40 kDa, they can be easily absorbed via the oral mucosa (1). In this review, we studied the efficacy of SLIT with carbamylated monomeric allergoid tablets in the treatment of grass pollen- and dust mite-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis on the basis of symptom and medication score improvements. Following a selective internet and databank search, six trials-some placebo-controlled-regarding the treatment of grass pollen- (n = 266) and dust mite-induced (n = 241) allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were used to draw conclusions regarding the clinical efficacy of allergoid tablets. The primary endpoints in these trials were decreases in the need for allergy medications and/or reductions in the occurrence of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms. Data was recorded from patient diaries regarding their symptoms and medications used and conclusions were then drawn about the effectiveness and tolerabieity of Lais® tablets. The average improvement in symptom score in three trials of grass pollen allergy treatment was 34% in comparison to the placebo group. The treatment of dust mite-induced rhinoconjunctivitis produced an average symptom score improvement of 22% compared to the placebo or control groups. The intake of symptomatic rescue medication during allergoid tablet therapy declined. Treatment of grass pollen allergies and dust mite-induced rhinoconjunctivitis showed an average medication score improvement of 49% and 24%, respectively. Few side effects were documented in the trials and predominantly local effects were observed. Severe systemic side effects did not occur. On the basis of the trial results summarized in this review, we suggest that SLIT using Lais® sublingual tablets is an effective and well-tolerated form of treatment.

  12. Immunological comparison of allergen immunotherapy tablet treatment and subcutaneous immunotherapy against grass allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, K; Backer, V; Lund, G

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: IgE-mediated allergic rhinitis to grass pollen can successfully be treated with either allergen immunotherapy tablets (SLIT tablet) or SQ-standardized subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). The efficacy of these two treatment modalities for grass allergy is comparable, but the immunological...... mechanisms may differ. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT01889875. OBJECTIVES: To compare the immunological changes induced by SQ-standardized SCIT and SLIT tablet. METHODS: We randomized 40 individuals with grass pollen rhinitis into groups receiving SCIT, SLIT tablet, or neither and followed them for 15 months...... differed significantly in both SCIT and SLIT-tablet treatment groups when compared to the control group. Both SCIT and SLIT-tablet groups were significantly different from the control group after 1–3 months of treatment. In general, the changes induced by SCIT reached twice that of SLIT tablet...

  13. Dose-response relationship of a new Timothy grass pollen allergoid in comparison with a 6-grass pollen allergoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Hohlfeld, J M; Al-Kadah, B; Hauswald, B; Homey, B; Hunzelmann, N; Schliemann, S; Velling, P; Worm, M; Klimek, L

    2017-11-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with grass pollen allergoids has been proven to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Based on the extensive cross-reactivity among Pooideae species, it has been suggested that grass pollen extracts could be prepared from a single species, rather than from a multiple species mixture. To find the optimal dose of a Phleum pratense (P. pratense) allergoid preparation and compare its efficacy and safety to a 6-grass pollen allergoid preparation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study (EudraCT: 2011-000674-58), three doses of P. pratense allergoid (1800 therapeutic units (TU), standard-dose 6000 TU and 18 000 TU) were compared with placebo and the marketed 6-grass pollen allergoid (6000 TU). In a pre-seasonal dosing regimen, 102 patients were randomized to five treatment groups and received nine subcutaneous injections. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in weal size (late-phase reaction [LPR]) in response to the intracutaneous testing (ICT) before and after treatment, comparing the active allergoids to placebo. Secondary outcomes were the change in Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) assessed in the allergen exposure chamber (AEC), the changes in P. pratense-serum-specific IgG 4 and the incidence of adverse events (AEs). All three doses of the P. pratense and the 6-grass pollen allergoid preparations were significantly superior to placebo for the primary outcome, whereas there were no significant differences in the change in TNSS. Compared to the standard-dose, the high-dose of P. pratense did not produce any additional significant benefit, but showed a slight increase in AEs. Yet this increase in AEs was lower than for the 6-grass pollen preparation. The standard-dose of the new P. pratense allergoid was comparable to the marketed 6-grass pollen preparation at equal dose for the parameters measured. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John

  14. Next generation immunotherapy for tree pollen allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yan; Romeu-Bonilla, Eliezer; Heiland, Teri

    2017-10-03

    Tree pollen induced allergies are one of the major medical and public health burdens in the industrialized world. Allergen-Specific Immunotherapy (AIT) through subcutaneous injection or sublingual delivery is the only approved therapy with curative potential to pollen induced allergies. AIT often is associated with severe side effects and requires long-term treatment. Safer, more effective and convenient allergen specific immunotherapies remain an unmet need. In this review article, we discuss the current progress in applying protein and peptide-based approaches and DNA vaccines to the clinical challenges posed by tree pollen allergies through the lens of preclinical animal models and clinical trials, with an emphasis on the birch and Japanese red cedar pollen induced allergies.

  15. Five-grass pollen 300IR SLIT tablets: efficacy and safety in children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Agertoft, Lone; Seidenberg, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of five-grass pollen 300IR sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets (Stallergènes SA, France) have previously been demonstrated in paediatric patients. This report presents additional data concerning efficacy at pollen peak, efficacy and safety according to age, nasal and o...

  16. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  17. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203 ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  18. 156 Economic Evaluation of Grass Tablets for Immunotherapy (oralair) Compared to Placebo in Adults and Children in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cicchetti, Amerigo; Ruggeri, Matteo; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Bonini, Sergio; Puccinelli, Paola; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Frati, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Background Specific immunotherapy is based on the regular administration over time of a maintenance dose of allergen extracts to allergic patients in order to modify the immune response, thus achieving a decrease in symptoms/drug intake and an improvement in quality of life, possibly on the long-term. Grass pollen tablet, Oralair (Stallergenes, Antony Cedex, France), were developed and registered for rhinoconjunctivitis allergy induced by grass pollen. There is sufficient evidence for the cli...

  19. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  20. Seasonal variation in diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas

    2014-01-01

    the time of day when peak concentrations are most likely to occur using seasonally averaged diurnal profiles. Atmospheric pollen loads are highly dependent upon emissions, and different species of grass are known to flower and emit pollen at different times of the day and during different periods......In this study, the diurnal atmospheric grass pollen concentration profile within the Danish city of Aarhus was shown to change in a systematic manner as the pollen season progressed. Although diurnal grass pollen profiles can differ greatly from day-to-day, it is common practice to establish...... of the pollen season. Pollen concentrations are also influenced by meteorological factors - directly through those parameters that govern pollen dispersion and transport, and indirectly through the weather-driven flowering process. We found that three different profiles dominated the grass pollen season...

  1. Ultra-short-course booster is effective in recurrent grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Lang, S; Pieper-Fürst, U; Astvatsatourov, A; Gerich, F; Klimek, L; Kramer, M F; Reydelet, Y; Shah-Hosseini, K; Mösges, R

    2018-01-01

    A relevant proportion of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC) patients experience recurrent symptoms after successfully completing allergen immunotherapy (AIT). This prospective, controlled, noninterventional study used internationally standardized instruments to determine the clinical effects of a preseasonal, ultra-short-course booster AIT on clinical outcome parameters. This two-arm study included patients aged ≥12 years with recurrent grass pollen-induced seasonal AR who had completed a successful course of any grass pollen AIT at least 5 years before enrolment. Overall, 56 patients received one preseasonal short-course booster AIT using tyrosine-absorbed grass pollen allergoids containing the adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL ® ); 51 control patients received symptomatic medication. The combined symptom and medication score (CSMS) was recorded in the (peak) grass pollen season. Furthermore, concomitant (antiallergic) medication use, the patients' state of health, Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire (MiniRQLQ) results and safety/tolerability of the treatment were assessed. The CSMS in the peak grass pollen season was significantly lower in the booster AIT group (Δ=38.4%, Pallergoids containing the adjuvant MPL ® effectively prevents re-occurrence of symptoms in patients with grass pollen-induced ARC. © 2017 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Grass immunotherapy induces inhibition of allergen-specific human peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, S; Hamilton, R G; Norman, P S; Ansari, A A

    1997-02-01

    The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from humans allergic to grass pollens (GR+ subjects) show strong in vitro proliferative responses to purified allergens from Lolium perenne pollen Lol p 1, and to a lesser extent to Lol p 2 and Lol p 3. By contrast, PBMC from grass allergic patients undergoing immunotherapy (GR + IT subjects) exhibit a very poor Lol p-specific proliferative response, similar to that observed in nongrass allergic subjects (GR-subjects). Unlike GR-subjects, both GR+ and GR + IT subjects have high levels of antigen-specific serum IgG and IgE antibodies to Lol p 1, Lol p 2 and Lol p 3. While GR+ subjects exhibit a significant correlation between antigen-specific serum antibody and PBMC responses, GR + IT subjects do not show a correlation between the two responses. The possible mechanisms by which immunotherapy may modulate allergen-specific T cell proliferative response are discussed.

  3. Post-treatment efficacy of discontinuous treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet in adults with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, A; Malling, H-J; Worm, Marcel

    2013-01-01

    Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.......Sustained efficacy over three pollen seasons of pre- and co-seasonal treatment with 300IR 5-grass pollen sublingual tablet has been demonstrated in adults with moderate-severe grass pollen-associated allergic rhinoconjunctivitis....

  4. Recombinant pollen allergens from Dactylis glomerata: preliminary evidence that human IgE cross-reactivity between Dac g II and Lol p I/II is increased following grass pollen immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, A. M.; van Ree, R.; Cardy, S. M.; Bevan, L. J.; Walker, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    We previously described the isolation of three identical complementary DNA (cDNA) clones, constructed from Orchard/Cocksfoot grass (Dactylis glomerata) anther messenger RNA (mRNA), expressing a 140,000 MW beta-galactosidase fusion protein recognized by IgE antibodies in atopic sera. Partial

  5. Food allergy to apple and specific immunotherapy with birch pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, K.S.; Khinchi, M.S.; Skov, P.S.

    2004-01-01

    Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen-allergic......Conflicting results concerning the effect of specific pollen immunotherapy (SIT) on allergy to plant foods have been reported. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of SIT using a birch pollen extract on food allergy with focus on allergy to apple. Seventy-four birch pollen......-allergic patients were included in a double-blind, double-dummy, and placebo-controlled comparison of sublingual-swallow (SLIT) and subcutaneous (SCIT) administration of a birch pollen extract. Sixty-nine percent of these patients reported allergy to apple. The clinical reactivity to apple was evaluated by open...... oral challenges with fresh apple and a questionnaire. The immunoglobulin E (IgE)-reactivity was assessed by skin prick test (SPT), specific IgE, and leukocyte histamine release (HR). Forty patients were included in the final evaluation of the effect of SIT. The challenges were positive in 9 (SCIT), 6...

  6. Do urban canyons influence street level grass pollen concentrations?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Kennedy, Roy; Smith, Matt

    2014-01-01

    In epidemiological studies, outdoor exposure to pollen is typically estimated using rooftop monitoring station data, whilst exposure overwhelmingly occurs at street level. In this study the relationship between street level and roof level grass pollen concentrations was investigated for city cent...

  7. Tolerance induction after specific immunotherapy with pollen allergoids adjuvanted by monophosphoryl lipid A in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosewich, M; Schulze, J; Eickmeier, O; Telles, T; Rose, M A; Schubert, R; Zielen, S

    2010-06-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is a well-established and clinically effective treatment for allergic diseases. A pollen allergoid formulated with the T helper type 1 (Th1)-inducing adjuvant monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) facilitates short-term SIT. Little is known about mechanisms of tolerance induction in this setting. In a prospective study, 34 patients allergic to grass pollen (25 male, nine female, median age 10.2 years) received a total of 44 SIT courses (20 in the first, 24 in the second) with MPL-adjuvanted pollen allergoids. Immunogenicity was measured by levels of specific immunoglobulin G (IgG(grass)) and IgG4(grass) by antibody blocking properties on basophil activation, and by induction of CD4(+), CD25(+) and forkhead box P3 (FoxP3(+)) regulatory T cells (T(reg)). Specific IgG and IgG4 levels increased only slightly in the first year of SIT. In the second year these changes reached significance (P allergoids formulated with the Th1-inducing adjuvant MPL needs at least two courses to establish tolerance.

  8. The Prevalence of Grass Pollen-Related Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis in Elite Amateur Irish Athletes

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Grace, M

    2016-09-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (AR\\/C), has been shown to impact upon athletic performance. The championships of the unique, amateur Irish sports of hurling and Gaelic football (collectively known as GAA) take place during the prime pollen months of summer. Elite GAA players must perform optimally when most exposed to pollen. Elite GAA subjects (n=254) underwent skin prick testing to 6 aeroallergens and completed a validated questionnaire (AQUA), producing a score indicating likelihood of having allergy. The prevalence of allergy (positive to at least one aeroallergen on SPT and positive AQUA score) was 27.1% (n=69). Sixteen and a half percent (n=42) of the subjects tested had grass pollen AR\\/C while 22% (n=54) had house dust mite AR\\/C, though none were on standard medical therapies or had used allergen-specific immunotherapy. Grass pollen AR\\/C prevalence appears as common in elite Irish athletes as it is in other countries. It appears to be mild rather than well controlled in these subjects.

  9. IgE-binding capacity of recombinant timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffer, S.; Vrtala, S.; Duchêne, M.; van Ree, R.; Kraft, D.; Scheiner, O.; Valenta, R.

    1994-01-01

    A panel of 60 cDNA clones coding for IgE-binding proteins from timothy grass pollen was immunocharacterized with sera from 30 patients allergic to grass pollen and antibodies raised against natural grass pollen allergens. In the cases of five representative patients in whom the IgE reactivity

  10. Molecular basis of IgE-recognition of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Blaher, B; Rolland, J M; McCluskey, J; Schäppi, G; Kenrick, J; Singh, M B; Knox, R B

    1998-04-01

    Grass pollen, especially of rye-grass (Lolium perenne). represents an important cause of type I allergy. Identification of IgE-binding (allergenic) epitopes of major grass pollen allergens is essential for understanding the molecular basis of interaction between allergens and human IgE antibodies and therefore facilitates the devising of safer and more effective diagnostic and immunotherapy reagents. The aim of this study was to identify the allergenic epitopes of Lol p 5, a major allergen of rye-grass pollen, immunodissect these epitopes further so that the amino acid residues critical for antibody binding can be determined and investigate the conservation and nature of these epitopes within the context of the natural grass pollen allergens. Peptides, 12-13 amino acid residues long and overlapping each other by 4 amino acid residues, based on the entire deduced amino acid sequence of the coding region of Lol p 5, were synthesised and assayed for IgE-binding. Two strong IgE-binding epitopes (Lol p 5 (49-60) and (265-276), referred to as peptides 7 and 34, respectively) were identified. These epitopes were further resolved by truncated peptides and amino acid replacement studies and the amino acid residues critical for IgE-binding determined (Lol p 5 (49-60) residue Lys57 and (265-276) residue Lys275). Sequences of these epitopes were conserved in related allergens and may form the conserved allergenic domains responsible for the cross-reactivity observed between pollen allergens of taxonomically related grasses. Furthermore, due to its strong IgE-reactivity, synthetic peptide Lol p 5 (265-276) was used to affinity-purify specific IgE antibodies which recognised proteins of other clinically important grass pollens. further indicating presence of allergenic cross-reactivity at the level of allergenic epitope. Moreover, Lol p 5 (265 276) demonstrated a strong capacity to inhibit IgE-binding to natural rye-grass pollen proteins highlighting the antibody accessibility

  11. Unique and cross-reactive T cell epitope peptides of the major Bahia grass pollen allergen, Pas n 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etto, Tamara; de Boer, Carmela; Prickett, Sara; Gardner, Leanne M; Voskamp, Astrid; Davies, Janet M; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Rolland, Jennifer M

    2012-01-01

    Bahia grass pollen (BaGP) is a major cause of allergic rhinitis. Subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy is effective for grass pollen allergy, but is unsuitable for patients with moderate to severe asthma due to the risk of anaphylaxis. T cell-reactive but IgE nonreactive peptides provide a safer treatment option. This study aimed to identify and characterize dominant CD4(+) T cell epitope peptides of the major BaGP allergen, Pas n 1. Pas n 1-specific T cell lines generated from the peripheral blood of BaGP-allergic subjects were tested for proliferative and cytokine response to overlapping 20-mer Pas n 1 peptides. Cross-reactivity to homologous peptides from Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1 of Ryegrass and Bermuda grass pollen, respectively, was assessed using Pas n 1 peptide-specific T cell clones. MHC class II restriction of Pas n 1 peptide T cell recognition was determined by HLA blocking assays and peptide IgE reactivity tested by dot blotting. Three Pas n 1 peptides showed dominant T cell reactivity; 15 of 18 (83%) patients responded to one or more of these peptides. T cell clones specific for dominant Pas n 1 peptides showed evidence of species-specific T cell reactivity as well as cross-reactivity with other group 1 grass pollen allergens. The dominant Pas n 1 T cell epitope peptides showed HLA binding diversity and were non-IgE reactive. The immunodominant T cell-reactive Pas n 1 peptides are candidates for safe immunotherapy for individuals, including those with asthma, who are allergic to Bahia and possibly other grass pollens. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  12. Safety of sublingual immunotherapy Timothy grass tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with or without conjunctivitis and history of asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maloney, J; Durham, S; Skoner, D

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with asthma may be more susceptible to adverse events (AEs) with sublingual immunotherapy tablet (SLIT-tablet) treatment, such as severe systemic reactions and asthma-related events. Using data from eight trials of grass SLIT-tablet in subjects with allergic rhinitis with....../without conjunctivitis (AR/C), AE frequencies were determined in adults and children with and without reported asthma. METHODS: Data from randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials of Timothy grass SLIT-tablet MK-7243 (2800 BAU/75 000 SQ-T, Merck/ALK-Abelló) were pooled for post hoc analyses. Subjects...... with asthma treated with grass SLIT-tablet versus subjects without asthma in or outside of pollen season. There were 6/120 asthma-related TRAEs assessed as severe with grass SLIT-tablet and 2/60 with placebo, without a consistent trend among subjects with and without asthma (5 and 3 events, respectively...

  13. Identifying urban sources as cause of elevated grass pollen concentrations using GIS and remote sensing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjøth, Carsten Ambelas; Ørby, Pia Viuf; Becker, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    available remote sensing data combined with management information for local grass areas. The inventory has identified a number of grass pollen source areas present within the city domain. The comparison of the measured pollen concentrations with the inventory shows that the atmospheric concentrations......We examine here the hypothesis that during flowering, the grass pollen concentrations at a specific site reflect the distribution of grass pollen sources within a few kilometres of this site. We perform this analysis on data from a measurement campaign in the city of Aarhus (Denmark) using three...

  14. How far can we simplify in vitro diagnostics for grass pollen allergy?: A study with 17 whole pollen extracts and purified natural and recombinant major allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Current diagnostics for grass pollen allergy are composed of mixtures of pollen of different grass species. Their complex composition hampers accurate standardization. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate whether mixtures of grass pollen extracts can be replaced by a single

  15. The value of pre- and co-seasonal sublingual immunotherapy in pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Demoly, Pascal; Calderon, Moises A; Casale, Thomas B

    2015-01-01

    Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a guidelines-approved, disease-modifying treatment option for respiratory allergies, including allergic rhinitis (AR) induced by pollen. The various AIT regimens employed to date in pollen-induced AR can be classified as continuous (i.e. year-round) or discontinuou...

  16. Grass pollen symptoms interfere with the recollection of birch pollen symptoms - a prospective study of suspected, asymptomatic skin sensitization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Assing, K; Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K

    2007-01-01

    of seasonal allergic symptoms and prospective seasonal symptom registration among subjects with AS. METHODS: On the basis of a population survey, autumn 2002, including skin prick tests (positive if > or =3 mm) and a screening questionnaire, 87 subjects with AS to birch and/or grass pollen, birch and/or grass...... days. RESULTS: Eleven AS subjects (birch: n = 10) subsequently developed allergic symptoms, yet nine admitted, at follow up, to have had symptoms before inclusion, or even denied pollen-related symptoms despite a significant diary. Compared with AS subjects sensitized to grass pollen, AS subjects...

  17. Functional immunoglobulin E cross-reactivity between Pas n 1 of Bahia grass pollen and other group 1 grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J M; Dang, T D; Voskamp, A; Drew, A C; Biondo, M; Phung, M; Upham, J W; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    2011-02-01

    Grass pollens are major triggers of allergic rhinitis and asthma, but the immunological relationships between pollen allergens of the subtropical Bahia grass, Paspalum notatum, and temperate grasses are unresolved. To assess serum IgE cross-reactivity between subtropical P. notatum and temperate Lolium perenne (Ryegrass) pollen allergens. Serum IgE reactivities of grass pollen-allergic patients with P. notatum, L. perenne and Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen extracts and their respective purified group 1 allergens, Pas n 1, Lol p 1 and Cyn d 1, were compared by immunoblotting, ELISA and basophil activation. In a cohort of 51 patients from a temperate region, a high frequency of IgE reactivity with each grass pollen was detected, but reactivity with L. perenne pollen was substantially greater than with P. notatum and C. dactylon pollen. Similarly, serum IgE reactivity with Lol p 1 was greater than with Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. For seven of eight sera studied in detail, asymmetric serum IgE cross-reactivity was observed; L. perenne pollen inhibited IgE reactivity with P. notatum pollen but not the converse, and IgE reactivity with Pas n 1 was inhibited by Lol p 1 but IgE reactivity with Lol p 1 was not inhibited by Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. Importantly, P. notatum pollen and Pas n 1 activated basophils in grass pollen-allergic patients from a temperate region, although stimulation was greater by pollen of L. perenne than P. notatum or C. dactylon, and by Lol p 1 than Pas n 1 or Cyn d 1. In contrast, a cohort of 47 patients from a subtropical region showed similar IgE reactivity with P. notatum and L. perenne pollen, and reciprocal cross-inhibition of IgE reactivity between L. perenne and P. notatum. Pollen allergens of the subtropical P. notatum, including Pas n 1, show clinically relevant IgE cross-reactivity with pollen allergens of L. perenne but also species-specific IgE reactivity. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  18. Efficacy and tolerability of short-term specific immunotherapy with pollen allergoids adjuvanted by monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL) for children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachenberg, K J; Heinzkill, M; Urban, E; Woroniecki, S R

    2003-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) with pollen allergoids formulated with the Th1-inducing adjuvant 3-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL adjuvant, Corixa) has shown good efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of pollen allergies in adults. The aim of this study was to evaluate this treatment in children and adolescents aged 6-17 years old who were sensitive to grass/rye or tree pollens. An open, multicenter study was performed using 90 children and adolescents. The patients received four subcutaneous injections of grass/rye (n = 64) or tree pollen allergoids (n = 26) adsorbed to L-tyrosine and containing MPL adjuvant. Efficacy was measured by symptom and medication scoring, skin prick test reactivity and IgG/IgE antibody responses. Tolerability was monitored by recording adverse events. Both grass/rye and tree pollen treatment groups showed significant reductions in symptom scores and anti-allergic medication use compared with the previous pollen seasons (p allergoids adsorbed to L-tyrosine and with MPL adjuvant was shown to be effective with good tolerability. The treatment compared favorably with previous studies in adults.

  19. Health economic comparison of SLIT allergen and SCIT allergoid immunotherapy in patients with seasonal grass-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verheggen, Bram G; Westerhout, Kirsten Y; Schreder, Carl H; Augustin, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Allergoids are chemically modified allergen extracts administered to reduce allergenicity and to maintain immunogenicity. Oralair® (the 5-grass tablet) is a sublingual native grass allergen tablet for pre- and co-seasonal treatment. Based on a literature review, meta-analysis, and cost-effectiveness analysis the relative effects and costs of the 5-grass tablet versus a mix of subcutaneous allergoid compounds for grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis were assessed. A Markov model with a time horizon of nine years was used to assess the costs and effects of three-year immunotherapy treatment. Relative efficacy expressed as standardized mean differences was estimated using an indirect comparison on symptom scores extracted from available clinical trials. The Rhinitis Symptom Utility Index (RSUI) was applied as a proxy to estimate utility values for symptom scores. Drug acquisition and other medical costs were derived from published sources as well as estimates for resource use, immunotherapy persistence, and occurrence of asthma. The analysis was executed from the German payer's perspective, which includes payments of the Statutory Health Insurance (SHI) and additional payments by insurants. Comprehensive deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses and different scenarios were performed to test the uncertainty concerning the incremental model outcomes. The applied model predicted a cost-utility ratio of the 5-grass tablet versus a market mix of injectable allergoid products of € 12,593 per QALY in the base case analysis. Predicted incremental costs and QALYs were € 458 (95% confidence interval, CI: € 220; € 739) and 0.036 (95% CI: 0.002; 0.078), respectively. Compared to the allergoid mix the probability of the 5-grass tablet being the most cost-effective treatment option was predicted to be 76% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of € 20,000. The results were most sensitive to changes in efficacy estimates, duration of the pollen season, and

  20. Evaluation of a compliance device in a subgroup of adult patients receiving specific immunotherapy with grass allergen tablets (GRAZAX) in a randomized, open-label, controlled study: an a priori subgroup analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, A.P.H.; Andersen, K.F.; Bruning, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This a priori subgroup analysis was conducted to assess patients' experience with a compliance device for the administration of sublingual specific immunotherapy for grass pollen-induced rhinoconjunctivitis. METHODS: The present paper reports the results of a subgroup analysis of a

  1. Associations between grass and weed pollen and emergency department visits for asthma among children in Montreal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héguy, Léa; Garneau, Michelle; Goldberg, Mark S; Raphoz, Marie; Guay, Frédéric; Valois, Marie-France

    2008-02-01

    Asthma among children is a major public health problem worldwide. There are increasing number of studies suggesting a possible association between allergenic pollen and exacerbations of asthma. In the context of global climate change, a number of future climate and air pollution scenarios predict increases in concentrations of pollen, an extension of the pollen season, and an increase in the allergenicity of pollen. The goal of the present study is to evaluate the short-term effects of exposure to grass and weed pollen on emergency department visits and readmissions for asthma among children aged 0-9 years living in Montreal between April and October, 1994-2004. Time-series analyses were carried out using parametric log-linear overdispersed Poisson models that were adjusted for temporal variations, daily weather conditions (temperature, atmospheric pressure), and gaseous air pollutants (ozone and nitrogen dioxide). We have found positive associations between emergency department visits and concentrations of grass pollen 3 days after exposure. The effect of grass pollen was higher on emergency department readmissions as compared to initial visits. Weak negative associations were found between weed pollen (including ragweed pollen) and emergency department visits 2 days after exposure. The data indicate that among children, emergency department visits increased with increasing concentrations of grass pollen.

  2. Satellite Phenology Observations Inform Peak Season of Allergenic Grass Pollen Aerobiology across Two Continents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huete, A. R.; Devadas, R.; Davies, J.

    2015-12-01

    Pollen exposure and prevalence of allergenic diseases have increased in many parts of the world during the last 30 years, with exposure to aeroallergen grass pollen expected to intensify with climate change, raising increased concerns for allergic diseases. The primary contributing factors to higher allergenic plant species presence are thought to be climate change, land conversion, and biotic mixing of species. Conventional methods for monitoring airborne pollen are hampered by a lack of sampling sites and heavily rely on meteorology with less attention to land cover updates and monitoring of key allergenic species phenology stages. Satellite remote sensing offers an alternative method to overcome the restrictive coverage afforded by in situ pollen networks by virtue of its synoptic coverage and repeatability of measurements that enable timely updates of land cover and land use information and monitoring landscape dynamics and interactions with human activity and climate. In this study, we assessed the potential of satellite observations of urban/peri-urban environments to directly inform landscape conditions conducive to pollen emissions. We found satellite measurements of grass cover phenological evolution to be highly correlated with in situ aerobiological grass pollen concentrations in five urban centres located across two hemispheres (Australia and France). Satellite greenness data from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were found to be strongly synchronous with grass pollen aerobiology in both temperate grass dominated sites (France and Melbourne), as well as in Sydney, where multiple pollen peaks coincided with the presence of subtropical grasses. Employing general additive models (GAM), the satellite phenology data provided strong predictive capabilities to inform airborne pollen levels and forecast periods of grass pollen emissions at all five sites. Satellite phenology offer promising opportunities of improving public health risk

  3. Immunochemical studies of Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Kihara, T K; Marsh, D G

    1987-12-15

    It was reported earlier that human immune responses to three perennial rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergens, Lol p I, II, and III, are associated with histocompatibility leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR3. Rye-allergic people are often concordantly sensitive to all three of these allergens. Since earlier studies suggested that these antigens are non-cross-reactive, their immunologic relatedness by double antibody radioimmunoassay (DARIA) was studied in order to understand further the immunochemical basis for the concordant recognition of the three allergens. Direct binding DARIA studies were performed with human sera from 189 allergic subjects. Inhibition DARIA studies were carried out with 17 human sera from grass-allergic patients who were on grass immunotherapy, one goat anti-serum, and six rabbit antisera. None of the sera detected any significant degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p I and II, or between Lol p I and III. However, the degree of two-way cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III exhibited by individual human and animal antisera varied between undetectable and 100%. In general, the degree of cross-reactivity between Lol p II and III was higher among human sera than among animal sera. Taken together with earlier findings that antibody responses to Lol p I, II and III are associated with HLA-HDR3, and that most Lol p II and III responders are also Lol p I responders, but not vice versa, our present results suggest the following: the HLA-DR3-encoded Ia molecule recognizes a similar immunodominant Ia recognition site (agretope) shared between Lol p I and Lol p II and/or III; in addition, Lol p I appears to contain unique Ia recognition site(s) not present in Lol p II and III. However, further epitope analyses are required to investigate these possibilities.

  4. Evaluation of molecular basis of cross reactivity between rye and Bermuda grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Ruby; Bhalla, Prem L; Singh, Mohan B

    2009-12-01

    Allergenic cross reactivity between the members of the Pooids (Lolium perenne, Phleum pratense, and Poa pratensis) and Chloridoids (Cynodon dactylon and Paspalum notatum) is well established. Studies using crude extracts in the past have demonstrated limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and the Chloridoids suggesting separate diagnosis and therapy. However, little is known regarding the molecular basis for the limited cross reactivity observed between the 2 groups of grasses. The present study was undertaken to gain insights into the molecular basis of cross allergenicity between the major allergens from rye and Bermuda grass pollens. Immunoblot inhibition tests were carried out to determine the specificity of the proteins involved in cross reactivity. Crude pollen extract and bacterially expressed and purified recombinant Lol p 1and Lol p 5 from rye grass were subjected to cross inhibition experiments with crude and purified recombinant Cyn d 1 from Bermuda grass using sera from patients allergic to rye grass pollen. The immunoblot inhibition studies revealed a high degree of cross inhibition between the group 1 allergens. In contrast, a complete lack of inhibition was observed between Bermuda grass group 1 allergen rCyn d 1, and rye grass group 5 allergen rLol p 5. Crude rye grass extract strongly inhibited IgE reactivity to Bermuda grass, whereas crude Bermuda grass pollen extract showed a weaker inhibition. Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  5. Monoclonal antibodies to the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen Lol p I (Rye I).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahn, C R; Marsh, D G

    1986-12-01

    Thirteen monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) were produced against Lol p I (Rye I), the major Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen. Spleen cells from A/J and SJL mice immunized with highly purified Lol p I (Lol I) were allowed to fuse with cells from the non-secreting Sp2/0-Ag14 myeloma cell line. Each MAb was analyzed for antigenic specificity by radioimmunoassay (RIA) using 125I-Lol I. The epitope specificities of seven of the MAbs were examined by competitive binding against a labelled standard MAb for the Lol I antigen (Ag). The dissociation constant, Kd, of one MAb (No. 3.2) that was studied most extensively was determined by double Ab RIA to be 3.5 X 10(-6) L/M. This MAb recognized the related 27,000-30,000 Group I glycoproteins found in the pollens of nine other species of grass pollens tested, including weak binding to Bermuda grass Group I (Cyn d I), which by conventional analysis using polyclonal anti-Lol I serum shows no detectable binding. Monoclonal antibody No. 3.2 was coupled covalently to Sepharose 4B and used to prepare highly purified Lol I from a partially purified rye pollen extract. Finally, an RIA was developed which permitted the analysis of the Group I components in rye grass and nine other grass pollen species. The latter assay is likely to prove useful in the standardization of grass pollen extracts according to their Group I contents.

  6. Monoid sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palma-Carlos, A G; Santos, A S; Branco-Ferreira, M; Pregal, A L; Palma-Carlos, M L

    2006-03-01

    Sublingual monoid immunotherapy with monomeric allergoids has been largely used in Europe in the last few years. An open trial of allergoid in tablets has been done in rhinitic patients allergic to house dust mites, grass pollens and Parietaria with clear improvement in clinics and drug consumption scores. In a second phase a double blind placebo controlled trial of grass pollens allergoids have been done in hay fever patients with significant decrease on the scores of rhinorrea, sneezing and conjunctivitis nasal steroid consumption and clinical score after serial nasal challenges. Monomeric allergoids are an efficace and safe immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis.

  7. Evaluation of Molecular Basis of Cross Reactivity between Rye and Bermuda Grass Pollen Allergens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruby Tiwari

    2009-01-01

    Conclusions: Our data suggests that a possible explanation for the limited cross reactivity between the Pooids and Chloridoids may, in part, be due to the absence of group 5 allergen from Chloridoid grasses. This approach of using purified proteins may be applied to better characterize the cross allergenicity patterns between different grass pollen allergens.

  8. Grass-specific CD4+ T-cells exhibit varying degrees of cross-reactivity, implications for allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archila, LD; DeLong, JH; Wambre, E; James, EA; Robinson, DM; Kwok, WW

    2014-01-01

    Background Conceptually, allergic responses may involve cross-reactivity by antibodies or T-cells. While IgE cross-reactivity amongst grass pollen allergens has been observed, cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific T-cell level has been less documented. Identification of the patterns of cross-reactivity may improve our understanding, allowing optimization of better immunotherapy strategies. Objectives We use Phleum pratense as model for the studying of cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific CD4+ T cell level amongst DR04:01 restricted Pooideae grass pollen T-cell epitopes. Methods After In vitro culture of blood mononucleated cells from Grass-pollen allergic subjects with specific Pooideae antigenic epitopes, dual tetramer staining with APC-labeled DR04:01/Phleum pratense tetramers and PE-labeled DR04:01/Pooideae grass homolog tetramers was assessed to identify cross-reactivity amongst allergen-specific DR04:01-restricted T-cells in 6 subjects. Direct ex vivo staining enabled the comparison of frequency and phenotype of different Pooideae grass pollen reactive T-cells. Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays were also used to examine phenotypes of these T-cells. Results T-cells with various degree of cross reactive profiles could be detected. Poa p 1 97-116, Lol p 1 221-240, Lol p 5a 199-218, and Poa p 5a 199-218 were identified as minimally-cross-reactive T-cell epitopes that do not show cross reactivity to Phl p 1 and Phl p 5a epitopes. Ex vivo tetramer staining assays demonstrated T-cells that recognized these minimally-cross reactive T-cell epitopes are present in Grass-pollen allergic subjects. Conclusions Our results suggest that not all Pooideae grass epitopes with sequence homology are cross-reactive. Non-cross reactive T-cells with comparable frequency, phenotype and functionality to Phl p-specific T-cells, suggest that a multiple allergen system should be considered for immunotherapy instead of a mono allergen system. PMID:24708411

  9. Grass-specific CD4(+) T-cells exhibit varying degrees of cross-reactivity, implications for allergen-specific immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archila, L D; DeLong, J H; Wambre, E; James, E A; Robinson, D M; Kwok, W W

    2014-07-01

    Conceptually, allergic responses may involve cross-reactivity by antibodies or T-cells. While IgE cross-reactivity among grass-pollen allergens has been observed, cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific T-cell level has been less documented. Identification of the patterns of cross-reactivity may improve our understanding, allowing optimization of better immunotherapy strategies. We use Phleum pratense as model for the studying of cross-reactivity at the allergen-specific CD4(+) T cell level among DR04:01 restricted Pooideae grass-pollen T-cell epitopes. After in vitro culture of blood mono-nucleated cells from grass-pollen-allergic subjects with specific Pooideae antigenic epitopes, dual tetramer staining with APC-labelled DR04:01/Phleum pratense tetramers and PE-labelled DR04:01/Pooideae grass homolog tetramers was assessed to identify cross-reactivity among allergen-specific DR04:01-restricted T-cells in six subjects. Direct ex vivo staining enabled the comparison of frequency and phenotype of different Pooideae grass-pollen reactive T-cells. Intracellular cytokine staining (ICS) assays were also used to examine phenotypes of these T-cells. T-cells with various degrees of cross-reactive profiles could be detected. Poa p 1 97-116 , Lol p 1 221-240 , Lol p 5a 199-218 , and Poa p 5a 199-218 were identified as minimally cross-reactive T-cell epitopes that do not show cross-reactivity to Phl p 1 and Phl p 5a epitopes. Ex vivo tetramer staining assays demonstrated T-cells that recognized these minimally cross-reactive T-cell epitopes are present in Grass-pollen-allergic subjects. Our results suggest that not all Pooideae grass epitopes with sequence homology are cross-reactive. Non-cross-reactive T-cells with comparable frequency, phenotype and functionality to Phl p-specific T-cells suggest that a multiple allergen system should be considered for immunotherapy instead of a mono-allergen system. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Classification of grass pollen through the quantitative analysis of surface ornamentation and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke; Li, Mao; Mio, Washington; Fowlkes, Charless C; Punyasena, Surangi W

    2013-11-07

    Taxonomic identification of pollen and spores uses inherently qualitative descriptions of morphology. Consequently, identifications are restricted to categories that can be reliably classified by multiple analysts, resulting in the coarse taxonomic resolution of the pollen and spore record. Grass pollen represents an archetypal example; it is not routinely identified below family level. To address this issue, we developed quantitative morphometric methods to characterize surface ornamentation and classify grass pollen grains. This produces a means of quantifying morphological features that are traditionally described qualitatively. We used scanning electron microscopy to image 240 specimens of pollen from 12 species within the grass family (Poaceae). We classified these species by developing algorithmic features that quantify the size and density of sculptural elements on the pollen surface, and measure the complexity of the ornamentation they form. These features yielded a classification accuracy of 77.5%. In comparison, a texture descriptor based on modelling the statistical distribution of brightness values in image patches yielded a classification accuracy of 85.8%, and seven human subjects achieved accuracies between 68.33 and 81.67%. The algorithmic features we developed directly relate to biologically meaningful features of grass pollen morphology, and could facilitate direct interpretation of unsupervised classification results from fossil material.

  11. Mass spectrometric analysis of electrophoretically separated allergens and proteases in grass pollen diffusates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geczy Carolyn L

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pollens are important triggers for allergic asthma and seasonal rhinitis, and proteases released by major allergenic pollens can injure airway epithelial cells in vitro. Disruption of mucosal epithelial integrity by proteases released by inhaled pollens could promote allergic sensitisation. Methods Pollen diffusates from Kentucky blue grass (Poa pratensis, rye grass (Lolium perenne and Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon were assessed for peptidase activity using a fluorogenic substrate, as well as by gelatin zymography. Following one- or two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, Coomassie-stained individual bands/spots were excised, subjected to tryptic digestion and analysed by mass spectrometry, either MALDI reflectron TOF or microcapillary liquid chromatography MS-MS. Database searches were used to identify allergens and other plant proteins in pollen diffusates. Results All pollen diffusates tested exhibited peptidase activity. Gelatin zymography revealed high Mr proteolytic activity at ~ 95,000 in all diffusates and additional proteolytic bands in rye and Bermuda grass diffusates, which appeared to be serine proteases on the basis of inhibition studies. A proteolytic band at Mr ~ 35,000 in Bermuda grass diffusate, which corresponded to an intense band detected by Western blotting using a monoclonal antibody to the timothy grass (Phleum pratense group 1 allergen Phl p 1, was identified by mass spectrometric analysis as the group 1 allergen Cyn d 1. Two-dimensional analysis similarly demonstrated proteolytic activity corresponding to protein spots identified as Cyn d 1. Conclusion One- and two-dimensional electrophoretic separation, combined with analysis by mass spectrometry, is useful for rapid determination of the identities of pollen proteins. A component of the proteolytic activity in Bermuda grass diffusate is likely to be related to the allergen Cyn d 1.

  12. Measurement of basophil-activating capacity of grass pollen allergens, allergoids and hypoallergenic recombinant derivatives by flow cytometry using anti-CD203c.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlert, H; Cromwell, O; Fiebig, H

    2003-09-01

    The assessment of the basophil-activating potential is an important aspect in the development of improved preparations for specific immunotherapy. The aim of the study was to evaluate the suitability of CD203c expression as a measure of basophil activation to compare allergoids with original allergen extracts, and recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives with recombinant wild-type and natural allergens. Heparinized whole blood samples from grass pollen allergic subjects were stimulated with grass pollen allergens and allergen derivatives followed by labelling of the basophils with PE-conjugated anti-CD203c. After lysis of the erythrocytes and fixation, the basophils were detected by flow cytometry. In some experiments, histamine release was determined simultaneously. Grass pollen allergoids revealed a 10-10 000-fold reduction of basophil-activating capacity measured by CD203c expression. The deletion mutant DM4 of rPhl p 5b showed stronger hypoallergenic characteristics in a range of 50-10 000-fold reduction, whereas a combination mutant of rPhl p 5b and Phl p 6 revealed less hypoallergenic features. Histamine release experiments led to a similar outcome as CD203c measurement. The measurement of CD203c expression on basophils by flow cytometry provides a rapid and sensitive method for the estimation of the allergic or hypoallergenic features of allergen preparations. The results demonstrated the hypoallergenicity of grass pollen allergoids and of the rPhl p 5b variant DM4, which may be a candidate in future preparations for specific immunotherapy.

  13. ASSESSING HUMAN EXPOSURE TO GRASS POLLEN IN DENMARK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Herbert, Rob

    Objectives: Exposure to pollen is typically assessed using data collected at fixed roof-top monitoring stations, which give a general picture of airborne pollen concentrations over a wide region. Actual exposure levels can be obtained through personal exposure monitoring. This is typically done u...

  14. An immunoblotting analysis of cross-reactivity between melon, and plantago and grass pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Ortiz, J C; Ventas, P; Cosmes, P; López-Asunsolo, A

    1996-01-01

    It is known that most patients with type I allergy to pollens also suffer intolerance to fruits. Recently, an epidemiological and CAP-inhibition study has shown a new clustering of allergy between melon and Plantago and grass pollens. The aim of the present study was to confirm these results by immunoblotting analysis and inhibition of immunoblotting. Sera from 3 patients with confirmed allergy to melon, and Dactylis glomerata and Plantago lanceolata pollens were used for the in vitro studies. SDS-PAGE and immunoblotting analysis with a pool of sera revealed that several distinct protein bands were shared by the three extracts at 14, 31, and a spectrum between 40 and 70 kDa, approximately. Immunoblotting inhibition experiments, performed with extracts of melon, Plantago and Dactylis, showed that all allergens of melon blotting were almost completely inhibited by grass and Plantago pollen extracts. Inversely, the melon extract was capable of inhibiting IgE-binding to various allergens of Dactylis at high mol mass and partially to the band at 14 kDa. Moreover, the melon almost totally inhibited the IgE-binding capacity to the proteins of Plantago extract. Taken together, the results support the presence of structurally similar allergens in melon, Plantago and grass pollens, and that all allergenic epitopes of the melon are present in these pollens.

  15. Currant allergy and the Rosaceae-grass pollen allergy syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Ezquerra, Patricia Rojas; de la Gaspar, Maria Vazquez Torre; de Fernández, Manuel Barrio; Flores, Vanesa Tovar; Alvarez-Santullano, Ana Villanueva; de Ocáriz, Maria Luisa Baeza Ochoa

    2007-05-01

    Despite the increasing use of currants in culinary recipes, currant allergy has rarely been reported. To study a case of currant allergy and to explore cross-reactivity between grass pollen and Rosaceae family fruit allergens. Skin prick tests to pollen and skin prick-to-prick tests with currants and peach were performed. Specific IgE levels were determined using the CAP method. We prepared a protein extract of 0.1 mg/mL in phosphate-buffered saline using red currant in the presence of protease inhibitors. Immunoblot inhibition studies were performed to explore cross-reactivity between grass pollen and currant allergens. Skin prick test results were positive to Dactylis, arizonic, and olive pollens. Results of skin prick-to-prick tests with fresh red and black currants were negative and positive, respectively, to peach. The specific IgE level was 5.7 KU/L to red currant and 2.92 KU/L to peach (CAP). Western blot analysis with red currant extract revealed specific IgE protein bands of 37 and 26 kDa. Preincubation of sera with extracts from red currant and peach inhibited both IgE bands, and preincubation with Dactylis pollen inhibited the 37-kDa band only. We report a case of allergy to grass pollen with an oral allergy syndrome involving several fruits from 2 different families of the Rosidae subclass confirmed by in vitro tests. Inhibition studies demonstrated cross-reactivity between different fruits (currant and raspberry) from the Rosidae subclass and were incomplete with grass pollen allergens.

  16. Timothy grass pollen extract-induced gene expression and signalling pathways in airway epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röschmann, K. I. L.; Luiten, S.; Jonker, M. J.; Breit, T. M.; Fokkens, W. J.; Petersen, A.; van Drunen, C. M.

    2011-01-01

    Grass pollen allergy is one of the most common allergies worldwide and airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are the first to encounter and respond to aeroallergens and are therefore interesting targets for the development of new therapeutics.

  17. Timothy grass pollen extract-induced gene expression and signalling pathways in airway epithelial cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Röschmann, K.I.L.; Luiten, S.; Jonker, M.J.; Breit, T.M.; Fokkens, W.J.; Petersen, A.; van Drunen, C.M.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Grass pollen allergy is one of the most common allergies worldwide and airborne allergens are the major cause of allergic rhinitis. Airway epithelial cells (AECs) are the first to encounter and respond to aeroallergens and are therefore interesting targets for the development of new

  18. Grass pollen (Poaceae in the air of Sosnowiec (Poland, 1997 - 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazimiera Chłopek

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the analysis results of the grass pollen seasons from 1997 to 2006 in Sosnowiec. The research was carried out by means of the volumetric method with the use of a Burkard device. The duration of the pollen seasons was determined by means of the 98% method. The influence of meteorological conditions on the starting date and duration of the grass pollen seasons has been estimated in the article. The beginning of the pollen seasons was recorded between 23 April and 23 May. It has been demonstrated that the average duration of the pollen season amounted to 138 days. The period of maximum concentrations was recorded in June and the first half of July. The highest daily concentration was found in 2000 (495 grains in m3 and the highest annual sums in 2002 and 2000. The daily concentration distribution curve has shown three peaks. The highest values were recorded from 7 am until 11 am, from 13 pm until 17 pm and from 19 pm until 21 pm. It has been found that there is a significant influence of weather conditions (temperature, precipitation and relative humidity on the beginning and duration of the pollen seasons and the period of maximum concentrations.

  19. Effectiveness of allergen-specific immunotherapy with pollen allergens in children from the viewpoint of molecular allergology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Nedelska

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Allergen-specific immunotherapy as elimination procedures is the only method of treatment and prevention of allergic disorders formation and exacerbation of clinical symptoms. One of the approaches to molecular diagnosis is choice of allergen for allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT. The purpose of our study was to identify possible reasons of failure of ASIT with pollen allergens (predominantly weeds in children with seasonal allergic rhinitis (hay fever and/or bronchial asthma based on studying hypersensitivity to the allergens, analysis of anamnestic data. Materials and methods. Allergy skin prick tests were conducted to 192 children (middle age 9.8 ± 2.7 years with the seasonal symptoms of rhinitis and/or bronchial asthma according to standard methodology with pollen allergens of Immunolog Ltd (Vinnytsia. We evaluated positive results as 5 mm and higher diameter of papula/hyperemia. The anamnestic survey was carried out in 52 patients by means of the questionnaire that contained questions about cross allergy (pollen-food, oral allergy syndrome, concomitant pathology of upper respiratory tract and effectiveness of АSІТ, which is elaborated by us. Results. The skin prick tests show that in 192 patients, who have hay fever, ragweed, sunflower sensibilization predominates (56 and 58 %, correspondingly. About 10–20 % of children are sensitive to cereals (ryegrass, fescue. To the allergens of poplar, acacia, couch-grass, oak, mint, nettle, walnut, the positive reactions of prick tests were observed in 3–7 children, that is 1.5–3.6 %. According to our results, 23 % of patients had sensibilization to 5 and more pollen allergens. 52 % of children had concomitant food allergy, 15 % of patients have reactions of the lips, oral cavity when using certain products, mostly tomatoes, nuts, seeds (they were diagnosed oral allergy syndrome. Also, one third of children have varying degrees of adenoid hypertrophy, tonsils hypertrophy

  20. Comparative and Evolutionary Analysis of Grass Pollen Allergens Using Brachypodium distachyon as a Model System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akanksha Sharma

    Full Text Available Comparative genomics have facilitated the mining of biological information from a genome sequence, through the detection of similarities and differences with genomes of closely or more distantly related species. By using such comparative approaches, knowledge can be transferred from the model to non-model organisms and insights can be gained in the structural and evolutionary patterns of specific genes. In the absence of sequenced genomes for allergenic grasses, this study was aimed at understanding the structure, organisation and expression profiles of grass pollen allergens using the genomic data from Brachypodium distachyon as it is phylogenetically related to the allergenic grasses. Combining genomic data with the anther RNA-Seq dataset revealed 24 pollen allergen genes belonging to eight allergen groups mapping on the five chromosomes in B. distachyon. High levels of anther-specific expression profiles were observed for the 24 identified putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium. The genomic evidence suggests that gene encoding the group 5 allergen, the most potent trigger of hay fever and allergic asthma originated as a pollen specific orphan gene in a common grass ancestor of Brachypodium and Triticiae clades. Gene structure analysis showed that the putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium either lack or contain reduced number of introns. Promoter analysis of the identified Brachypodium genes revealed the presence of specific cis-regulatory sequences likely responsible for high anther/pollen-specific expression. With the identification of putative allergen-encoding genes in Brachypodium, this study has also described some important plant gene families (e.g. expansin superfamily, EF-Hand family, profilins etc for the first time in the model plant Brachypodium. Altogether, the present study provides new insights into structural characterization and evolution of pollen allergens and will further serve as a base for their

  1. Grass pollen seasons in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Myszkowska

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper refers to the estimation of Poaceae pollen seasons in Poland in selected areas. The aim of the study was to present the long-term variability of the start, end and duration of grass pollen seasons and the seasonal pollen index (SPI in Poland against a background of the meteorological conditions over pollen seasons. The study was performed in eight Polish cities in 1992–2014 (the common seasons were 2003–2012. Pollen season start was relatively stable in the studied period, the seasons began about the 10th of May, a bit earlier in the south part of Poland. Pollen season ends were more changeable in comparison to the season start and fluctuated from the middle of July to the middle of September. SPI clearly depended on temperature and precipitation in April–August. Daily maximum pollen concentrations were achieved between the end of May and the first decade of July and no evident relationship between this day and weather conditions was found, apart from 2004.

  2. Accuracy and Consistency of Grass Pollen Identification by Human Analysts Using Electron Micrographs of Surface Ornamentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke Mander

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Humans frequently identify pollen grains at a taxonomic rank above species. Grass pollen is a classic case of this situation, which has led to the development of computational methods for identifying grass pollen species. This paper aims to provide context for these computational methods by quantifying the accuracy and consistency of human identification. Methods: We measured the ability of nine human analysts to identify 12 species of grass pollen using scanning electron microscopy images. These are the same images that were used in computational identifications. We have measured the coverage, accuracy, and consistency of each analyst, and investigated their ability to recognize duplicate images. Results: Coverage ranged from 87.5% to 100%. Mean identification accuracy ranged from 46.67% to 87.5%. The identification consistency of each analyst ranged from 32.5% to 87.5%, and each of the nine analysts produced considerably different identification schemes. The proportion of duplicate image pairs that were missed ranged from 6.25% to 58.33%. Discussion: The identification errors made by each analyst, which result in a decline in accuracy and consistency, are likely related to psychological factors such as the limited capacity of human memory, fatigue and boredom, recency effects, and positivity bias.

  3. Airborne grass (Poaceae) pollen in southern Spain. Results of a 10-year study (1987-96).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González Minero, F J; Candau, P; Tomás, C; Morales, J

    1998-03-01

    This work reports an exhaustive study of the aerobiology of the Gramineae in Seville, Spain, which is typical of coastal Mediterranean areas. Sampling was done with a Cour trap installed on the roof terrace of the School of Pharmacy, Seville, from 1987 to 1996, both inclusive. The climatic pattern of that period was characterized by two exceptionally wet years (1989 and 1996), between which were 5 consecutive years of drought (1990-5). This typically Mediterranean climate affects grass aerobiology. The annual amounts of total grass pollen are low, never exceeding 2500 grains/m3. The start, length, and intensity of the pollen season are significantly correlated with preseasonal meteorologic factors (precipitation and temperature), but intraseasonal meteorologic conditions have no effect on the three variables. The relationships are stated by three equations that, while further years of observations are anticipated, can be considered models to forecast the characteristics of the pollen season: the starting date depends on the mean temperatures of January and February, and the length and intensity of the season depend on the rainfall between the beginning of January and the starting date of the season. For the study period, the weekly concentrations (pollen curves) throughout the year showed no typical pattern of variation over the years, so that it was impossible to make mid- and long-term forecasts of the variation in weekly concentration. The most noteworthy aspects of grass pollen curves are a long pollen season, which starts in February or March and lasts until September or October; peaks of higher concentration (> 100 grains/m3) in May and June, associated with increases in temperature and absence of precipitation; and other peaks in the summer months that may be as high as the spring peaks.

  4. Single-course specific immunotherapy with mixed pollen allergoids: results of a multi-centre study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachenberg, K J; Pröll, S; Urban, E; Woroniecki, S R

    2003-01-01

    A short-term immunotherapy vaccine for the treatment of pollen allergy has been developed utilising L-tyrosine adsorbed allergoids. The reduced number of injections could provide advantages over long-term therapy schedules. This would improve compliance and support application of specific immunotherapy (SIT) to a greater extent. We report a multicenter study to evaluate the efficacy and safety of this treatment in a clinical practice setting. Patients (n = 1808) with a diagnosis of sensitivities to various pollens and symptoms of allergic asthma and/or allergic rhinitis and/or allergic conjunctivitis were selected. The vaccine formulation was made up according to individual sensitivities and contained L-tyrosine adsorbed allergoids. The patients were treated with a 3-injection initial course followed by a 3-injection maintenance course. Efficacy was measured by consumption of symptomatic anti-allergic medication compared with that in the previous season and by physician assessment using a 5-point scale. All adverse events were recorded. Efficacy was demonstrated by a considerable decrease in regular and frequent use of medication compared with that in the previous season (p allergoid/L-tyrosine vaccine in a clinical practice setting provided a high level of efficacy with a low incidence of mainly mild adverse events.

  5. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, A C; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, P A; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O3 are known to be involved in the current

  6. Traffic-related air pollutants induce the release of allergen-containing cytoplasmic granules from grass pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Motta, AC; Marliere, M; Peltre, G; Sterenberg, PA; Lacroix, G

    2006-01-01

    Background/Aim: Pollen cytoplasmic granules (PCG) are loaded with allergens. They are released from grass pollen grains following contact with water and can form a respirable allergenic aerosol. On the other hand, the traffic-related air pollutants NO2 and O-3 are known to be involved in the current

  7. Characterization of the human T cell response to rye grass pollen allergens Lol p 1 and Lol p 5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, M D; Papalia, L; Eusebius, N P; O'Hehir, R E; Rolland, J M

    2002-12-01

    Knowledge of dominant T cell epitopes of major allergens recognized by allergic individuals is required to improve efficacy and safety of allergen immunotherapy. Rye grass pollen (RGP) is the most important source of seasonal aeroallergens in temperate climates and Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 are the two major IgE-reactive allergens. This study aimed to characterize the T cell response to these allergens using a large panel of RGP-sensitive individuals. Short-term RGP-specific T cell lines (TCL) were generated from 38 RGP-sensitive subjects and stimulated with Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5 allergens and synthetic 20-mer peptides. Proliferative responses were determined by 3H-thymidine uptake and IL-5 and IFN-gamma in culture supernatants analysed by ELISA. Of 17 subjects tested for reactivity to both allergens 16 (94%) responded to Lol p 1 and/or Lol p 5, establishing these as major T cell-reactive allergens. Sites of T cell reactivity were spread throughout the allergen molecules but regions of high reactivity were found. For Lol p 1 these spanned residues 19-38, 109-128, 154-173, 190-209, and for Lol p 5 37-56, 100-119, 145-164, 154-173, 190-209, 217-236 and 226-245. IL-5 and IFN-gamma were produced by T cells cultured with proliferation-inducing peptides. T cell responses to RGP major allergens have been extensively characterized, providing fundamental information for developing T cell-targeted immunotherapy for RGP allergy.

  8. Major grass pollen allergen Lol p 1 binds to diesel exhaust particles: implications for asthma and air pollution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knox, R B; Suphioglu, C; Taylor, P; Desai, R; Watson, H C; Peng, J L; Bursill, L A

    1997-03-01

    Grass pollen allergens are known to be present in the atmosphere in a range of particle sizes from whole pollen grains (approx. 20 to 55 microns in diameter) to smaller size fractions Lol p 1, immunogold labelling with specific monoclonal antibodies and a high voltage transmission electron-microscopic imaging technique. DECP are visualized as small carbon spheres, each 30-60 nm in diameter, forming fractal aggregates about 1-2 microns in diameter. Here we test our hypothesis and show by in vitro experiments that the major grass pollen allergen, Lol p 1, binds to one defined class of fine particles, DECP. DECP are in the respirable size range, can bind to the major grass pollen allergen Lol p 1 under in vitro conditions and represent a possible mechanism by which allergens can become concentrated in polluted air and thus trigger attacks of asthma.

  9. Spatiotemporal Variation in the Environmental Controls of C4-Grass Origin and Ecology: Insights from Grass-Pollen δ13C Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, D. M.; Urban, M.; Hu, F.

    2014-12-01

    Understanding the environmental factors controlling the origin and shifting abundance of C4 grasses in Earth's history is useful for projecting the response of C4-grass dominated grasslands to future environmental change. Unfortunately, grass pollen is typically morphologically indistinct, making palynological analysis a blunt tool for studying C4-grasses in the paleorecord. δ13C of individual grass-pollen grains using a spooling wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope ratio mass spectrometer (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis, SPIRAL) overcomes this challenge and the potential biases of δ13C data from other substrates (e.g. leaf waxes). To assess the presence and relative abundance of C3- and C4-grass pollen in samples of unknown composition, we developed a hierarchical Bayesian model, trained with ~1,900 δ13C values from pollen grains of 31 grass species. Surface-sediment data from Africa, Australia, and North America demonstrate the reliability of this technique for quantifying C4-grass abundance on the landscape. To investigate the timing and control of the origin of C4-grasses we analyzed samples from the Oligocene-Miocene from Europe and from the Eocene from North America. Results indicate that C4 grasses appeared on the landscape of southwest Europe no later than the early Oligocene, implying that low atmospheric pCO2 may not have been the main driver and/or precondition for the development of C4 photosynthesis in the grass family. In contrast, we found no evidence for C4 grasses in the southeast United States before pCO2 fell. In application of SPIRAL to the late Quaternary, we found that shifts in pCO2 and moisture balance exerted key controls on the relative abundance of C3 and C4 grasses in Africa and Australia. Overall, our results imply that as in the past, future changes in the C3/C4 composition of grass-dominated ecosystems will likely exhibit striking spatiotemporal variability as a result of differing combinations of

  10. The effect of geographical and climatic properties on grass pollen and Phl p 5 allergen release

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alan, Şenol; Şahin, Aydan Acar; Sarışahin, Tuğba; Şahin, Serap; Kaplan, Ayşe; Pınar, Nur Münevver

    2018-04-01

    The Poaceae family, including grasses, comprises several cosmopolitan and allergenic species. The aim of this study was to determine the correlations between Poaceae pollen and Phl p 5 allergen concentrations in two cities with different geographical and climatic properties in Turkey. Pollen were collected from Burkard traps in Ankara and Zonguldak. Phl p 5 sampling was carried out between March and October in both 2015 and 2016 using a BGI900 Cascade High Volume Air Sampler (900 L/min.). The concentrations of Phl p 5 were measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. The annual sum of Poaceae pollen (pollen index) during 2015-2016 was 5454 in Ankara and 4142 in Zonguldak. The total Phl p 5 concentration was 1309 pg/m3 in Zonguldak, whereas it was 8181 pg/m3 in Ankara over 2 years. About 90% of the allergen was found in the fraction with particulate matter (PM) > 10 μm in both cities. It was found that the main meteorological parameter which affected pollen and Phl p 5 was temperature in both stations. Rainfall was also found to be important for Zonguldak, due to its climatic and geographic properties. Lastly, we suggest that the primary wind direction, which is from the south of Zonguldak, could have a `drift effect' for allergens because of the airborne pollen concentrations and the dates on which the allergen is released into the atmosphere. The wind direction may be an important factor in the distribution of allergen and pollen grains in stations, especially those with a hilly topography.

  11. An accelerated dose escalation with a grass pollen allergoid is safe and well-tolerated: a randomized open label phase II trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaker, A M; Al-Kadah, B; Luther, U; Neumann, U; Wagenmann, M

    2015-01-01

    The number of injections in the dose escalation of subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) is small for some currently used hypoallergenic allergoids, but can still be inconvenient to patients and can impair compliance. The aim of this trial was to compare safety and tolerability of an accelerated to the conventional dose escalation scheme of a grass pollen allergoid. In an open label phase II trial, 122 patients were 1:1 randomized for SCIT using a grass pollen allergoid with an accelerated dose escalation comprising only 4 weekly injections (Group I) or a conventional dose escalation including 7 weekly injections (Group II). Safety determination included the occurrence of local and systemic adverse events. Tolerability was assessed by patients and physicians. Treatment-related adverse events were observed in 22 (36.1 %) patients in Group I and 15 (24.6 %) in Group II. Local reactions were reported by 18 patients in Group I and 11 in Group II. Five Grade 1 systemic reactions (WAO classification) were observed in Group I and 2 in Group II. Grade 2 reactions occurred 3 times in Group I and 2 times in Group II. Tolerability was rated as "good" or "very good" by 53 (86.9 %) patients in Group I and 59 (100 %) in Group II by investigators. Forty-eight patients in Group I (80.0 %) and 54 in Group II (91.5 %) rated tolerability as "good" or "very good". The dose escalation of a grass pollen allergoid can be accelerated with safety and tolerability profiles comparable to the conventional dose escalation.

  12. Using SPIRAL (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis) to estimate C 3- and C 4-grass abundance in the paleorecord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David M.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Scholes, Daniel R.; Joshi, Neeraj; Pearson, Ann

    2008-05-01

    C 3 and C 4 grasses differ greatly in their responses to environmental controls and influences on biogeochemical processes (e.g. water, carbon, and nutrient cycling). Difficulties in distinguishing between these two functional groups of grasses have hindered paleoecological studies of grass-dominated ecosystems. Stable carbon isotopic analysis of individual grains of grass pollen using a spooling-wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer holds promise for improving C 3 and C 4 grass reconstructions. This technique, SPIRAL (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis), has only been evaluated using pollen of known C 3 and C 4 grasses. To test the ability of SPIRAL to reproduce the abundance of C 3 and C 4 grasses on the landscape, we measured δ13C values of > 1500 individual grains of grass pollen isolated from the surface sediments of ten lakes in areas that span a large gradient of C 3- and C 4-grass abundance, as determined from vegetation surveys. Results indicate a strong positive correlation between the δ13C-based estimates of % C 4-grass pollen and the abundance of C 4 grasses on the landscape. The % C 4-grass pollen slightly underestimates the actual abundance of C 4 grasses at sites with high proportions of C 4 grasses, which can be corrected using regression analysis. Comparison of the % C 4-grass pollen with C/N and δ13C measurements of bulk organic matter illustrates the distinct advantages of grass-pollen δ13C as a proxy for distinguishing C 3 and C 4 shifts within the grass family. Thus SPIRAL promises to advance our understanding of grassland ecology and evolution.

  13. Responsiveness to timothy grass pollen in individuals without known natural exposure in an allergen challenge chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Andrews, Charles P; Rather, Cynthia G; Jacobs, Robert L

    2015-03-01

    The responsiveness to a nonendemic grass species is unknown and cannot be research without an allergen challenge chamber. To determine the clinical responsiveness to timothy grass pollen (TGP) in participants without known natural exposure in an allergen challenge chamber (ACC). Of the 26 screened participants, 22 met screening criteria and completed the 2 chamber exposures. The study consisted of an initial screening visit that included a blood draw for serum specific IgE (ssIGE) to Bermuda grass pollen and TGP followed by a 4½-day run-in phase and two 3-hour ACC exposure visits. This study was performed early in the first week of December 2013, when no seasonal pollens were detected in San Antonio, Texas. Symptom scores were recorded at baseline and every 30 minutes. Of the 26 screened participants, 22 met the screening criteria and completed the 2 chamber exposures. Thirteen participants had always lived in South Texas without natural exposure, and 9 had previously lived in areas with TGP exposure. All participants tested positive to TGP and Bermuda grass pollen. Twelve and 13 of 22 had positive ssIgE test results to Timothy and Bermuda allergens, respectively, with 11 having positive results for both allergens. There were strong correlations among skin prick test size, a positive ssIgE test result, and high symptoms from TGP exposure. There was little difference in symptoms between those who had lived their entire lives in South Texas and those who had lived elsewhere. In Texas, where exposure to TGP is minimal, strongly positive SPT and ssIgE test results were predictors of high symptoms to TGP exposure. Never exposed participants in South Texas reacted to TGP similar to those who had previous natural exposure, suggesting that in vivo cross-reactivity may be higher than predicted by prior in vitro data and may allow the use in clinical trials of allergens not endemic to the locale of an ACC. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  14. Characterization of cogon grass (Imperata cylindrica) pollen extract and preliminary analysis of grass group 1, 4 and 5 homologues using monoclonal antibodies to Phleum pratense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, L; Sridhara, S; Singh, B P; Gangal, S V

    1998-11-01

    Previous studies have established the role of Imperata cylindrica (Ic) pollen in type I allergic disorders. However, no systematic information is available on the allergen composition of Ic pollen extract. To characterize the IgE-binding proteins of Ic pollen extract and to detect the presence of grass group 1, 4 and 5 allergen homologues, if any. Pollen extract of Ic was analyzed by in vivo and in vitro procedures such as intradermal tests (ID), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), ELISA-inhibition, thin-layer isoelectric focusing (TLIEF), sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblotting. Dot blot assay was carried out to check the presence of well-known group 1, 4, and 5 allergen homologues in Ic pollen extract. Out of 303 respiratory allergies patients skin-tested, 27 showed sensitivity to Ic pollen extract. Specific IgE levels were elevated in all 15 serum samples tested. The extract prepared for this study was found to be highly potent since it required only 400 ng of homologous proteins for 50% inhibition of binding in ELISA inhibition assays. TLIEF of Ic pollen extract showed 44 silver-stained bands (pI 3.5-7.0) while SDS-PAGE resolved it into 24 Coomassie-Brilliant-Blue-stained bands (MW 100-10 kD). Immunoblotting with individual patient sera recognized 7 major IgE-binding bands (MW 85, 62, 57, 43, 40, 28 and 16 kD) in Ic pollen extract. A panel of monoclonal antibodies, specific to group 1, 4 and 5 allergens from Phleum pratense pollen extract identified group 5 and group 4 homologues in Ic pollen extract. Ic pollen extract was characterized for the protein profile by TLIEF and SDS-PAGE. IgE reactivity was determined by ELISA and immunoblot. Monoclonal antibodies to group 5 and group 4 allergens reacted weakly showing that this pollen contains group 5 and group 4 homologous allergens.

  15. The safety and efficacy of subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy - a one-year, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bødtger, Uffe; Poulsen, L K; Jacobi, H H

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: There is only very limited documentation of the efficacy and safety of high-dose subcutaneous birch pollen immunotherapy (IT) in double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC) studies. Birch pollen is a major cause of allergic morbidity in northern Europe and in eastern parts of North Americ...

  16. Human Leukocyte Antigen-G and Regulatory T Cells during Specific Immunotherapy for Pollen Allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Anja Elaine; Johnsen, Claus R; Dalgaard, Louise Torp

    2013-01-01

    of the cytokine profile towards a TH1-polarized immune response. We investigated the effects of SIT on T cells, on immunomodulation of human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-G, which has been associated with allergy, on regulatory cytokine expression, and on serum allergen-specific antibody subclasses (IgE and IgG4......). Methods: Eleven birch and/or grass pollen-allergic patients and 10 healthy nonatopic controls were studied before and during SIT. Tregs, chemokine receptors, soluble HLA-G (sHLA-G), Ig-like transcript (ILT) 2, specific IgE, and IgG4 were studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated...... with pollen extract in vitro and immune factors were evaluated. Results: During SIT, the main changes in the peripheral blood were an increase in CXCR3+CD4+CD25+CD127low/- Tregs and a decrease in CCR4+CD4+CD25+CD127low/- Tregs, an increase in allergen-specific IgG4, and a decrease in sHLA-G during the first...

  17. Increase of lymphocytes with Fc receptors for IgE in patients with allergic rhinitis during the grass pollen season.

    OpenAIRE

    Spiegelberg, H L; Simon, R A

    1981-01-01

    Peripheral blood lymphocytes from 10 nonallergic donors and 7 patients suffering from seasonal allergic rhinitis and receiving desensitization therapy were analyzed by rosette assays for Fc receptors for IgE (Fc epsilon R) and IgG (Fc gamma R) before, during and after the grass pollen season. Six of seven patients had moderately elevated IgE levels (330 +/- 268 IU/ml), all had high titers of skin sensitizing antibodies to grass pollens and serum IgE antibodies as measured by radio-allergosorb...

  18. Clinical efficacy of sublingual and subcutaneous birch pollen allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khinchi, M S; Poulsen, Lars K.; Carat, F

    2004-01-01

    Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed.......Both sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy (SLIT) and subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) have a documented clinical efficacy, but only few comparative studies have been performed....

  19. Prolonged efficacy of the 300IR 5-grass pollen tablet up to 2 years after treatment cessation, as measured by a recommended daily combined score

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didier, Alain; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Worm, Margitta

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The 300IR (index of reactivity) 5-grass pollen tablet has favorable short-term and sustained clinical efficacy in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Here, we report maintenance of efficacy and safety over 2 years following treatment discontinuation....... METHODS: Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group, multicenter Phase 3 trial in patients aged 18-50 years with ARC. During study years 1-3, patients received a daily sublingual tablet containing either 300IR 5-grass pollen extract or placebo, according to a discontinuous pre...... medication score (DRMS). RESULTS: 633 patients with ARC were randomized to placebo (n = 219) or 300IR 5-grass pollen tablet, beginning 4 months (4 M, n = 207) or 2 months (2 M, n = 207) prior to the estimated start of the grass pollen season and continuing until season's end. During the first post...

  20. Allergy immunotherapy with a hypoallergenic recombinant birch pollen allergen rBet v 1-FV in a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, Ludger; Bachert, Claus; Lukat, Karl-Friedrich; Pfaar, Oliver; Meyer, Hanns; Narkus, Annemie

    2015-01-01

    Pollen extracts and chemically modified allergoids are used successfully in allergen immunotherapy (AIT). Recombinant extracts offer potential advantages with respect to pharmaceutical quality, standardization and dosing. A hypoallergenic recombinant folding variant of the major birch pollen allergen (rBet v 1-FV) was compared with an established native birch preparation. A pre-seasonal, randomized, actively controlled phase II study was performed in birch pollen allergic rhino-conjunctivitis with or without asthma, GINA I/ II. 51 patients (24 rBet v 1-FV, 27 native extract) started therapy with subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT). Primary end-point was a combined symptom medication score (SMS), changes in nasal provocation test, visual rating score and specific antibody responses secondary end-points. After one pre-seasonal treatment course the combined SMS was 5.86 (median; IQR: 14.02) for the rBet v 1-FV group versus 12.40 (median; IQR: 9.32) for the comparator during the three weeks pollen season (p = 0.330). After treatment in the second year, scores were 3.00 (median; IQR: 6.50) and 2.93 (4.86) respectively. Allergen tolerance in a nasal provocation test improved to a comparable extent in both groups. Significant increases in birch pollen-specific IgG1 and IgG4 were observed in both treatment groups following the first treatment phase and remained significantly raised until the end of the study. In this first in man, proof of concept phase II trial no statistical difference between rBet v 1-FV and an established natural pollen extract could be observed. rBet v 1-FV could be administered in higher doses than the native protein with no increase in adverse effects. The study was registered in clinicalTrials.gov (NCT00266526).

  1. Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More Immunotherapy Immunotherapy Print Glossary Immunotherapy, also called biological therapy, utilizes your own immune system to fight cancer. ... she regularly tests your blood between and after treatment is completed to look ... of breath, a drop in blood pressure, an irregular heartbeat, chest pain ...

  2. Molecular diagnosis and immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Joaquín; Sastre-Ibañez, Marina

    2016-12-01

    To describe recent insights into how molecular diagnosis can improve indication and selection of suitable allergens for specific immunotherapy and increase the safety of this therapy. As specific allergen immunotherapy targets specific allergens, identification of the disease-eliciting allergen is a prerequisite for accurate prescription of treatment. In areas of complex sensitization to aeroallergens or in cases of hymenoptera venom allergy, the use of molecular diagnosis has demonstrated that it may lead to a change in indication and selection of allergens for immunotherapy in a large proportion of patients when compared with diagnosis based on skin prick testing and/or specific IgE determination with commercial extracts. These changes in immunotherapy prescription aided by molecular diagnosis have been demonstrated to be cost-effective in some scenarios. Certain patterns of sensitization to grass or olive pollen and bee allergens may identify patients with higher risk of adverse reaction during immunotherapy. Molecular diagnosis, when used with other tools and patients' clinical records, can help clinicians better to select the most appropriate patients and allergens for specific immunotherapy and, in some cases, predict the risk of adverse reactions. The pattern of sensitization to allergens could potentially predict the efficacy of allergen immunotherapy provided that these immunotherapy products contain a sufficient amount of these allergens. Nevertheless, multiplex assay remains a third-level approach, not to be used as screening method in current practice.

  3. Peripheral erythrocytes decrease upon specific respiratory challenge with grass pollen allergen in sensitized mice and in human subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galateja Jordakieva

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Specific hyper-responsiveness towards an allergen and non-specific airway hyperreactivity both impair quality of life in patients with respiratory allergic diseases. We aimed to investigate cellular responses following specific and non-specific airway challenges locally and systemically in i sensitized BALB/c mice challenged with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5, and in ii grass pollen sensitized allergic rhinitis subjects undergoing specific airway challenge in the Vienna Challenge Chamber (VCC. METHODS AND RESULTS: BALB/c mice (n = 20 were intraperitoneally immunized with grass pollen allergen Phl p 5 and afterwards aerosol challenged with either the specific allergen Phl p 5 (n = 10 or the non-specific antigen ovalbumin (OVA (n = 10. A protocol for inducing allergic asthma as well as allergic rhinitis, according to the united airway concept, was used. Both groups of exposed mice showed significantly reduced physical activity after airway challenge. Specific airway challenge further resulted in goblet cell hyperplasia, enhanced mucous secretion, intrapulmonary leukocyte infiltration and lymphoid follicle formation, associated with significant expression of IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in splenocytes and also partially in lung tissue. Concerning circulating blood cell dynamics, we observed a significant drop of erythrocyte counts, hemoglobin and hematocrit levels in both mouse groups, challenged with allergen or OVA. A significant decrease in circulating erythrocytes and hematocrit levels after airway challenges with grass pollen allergen was also found in grass pollen sensitized human rhinitis subjects (n = 42 at the VCC. The effects on peripheral leukocyte counts in mice and humans however were opposed, possibly due to the different primary inflammation sites. CONCLUSION: Our data revealed that, besides significant leukocyte dynamics, particularly erythrocytes are involved in acute hypersensitivity reactions to respiratory allergens

  4. Molecular cloning, expression and immunological characterisation of Lol p 5C, a novel allergen isoform of rye grass pollen demonstrating high IgE reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suphioglu, C; Mawdsley, D; Schäppi, G; Gruehn, S; de Leon, M; Rolland, J M; O'Hehir, R E

    1999-12-03

    A novel isoform of a major rye grass pollen allergen Lol p 5 was isolated from a cDNA expression library. The new isoform, Lol p 5C, shares 95% amino acid sequence identity with Lol p 5A. Both isoforms demonstrated shared antigenic activity but different allergenic activities. Recombinant Lol p 5C demonstrated 100% IgE reactivity in 22 rye grass pollen sensitive patients. In comparison, recombinant Lol p 5A showed IgE reactivity in less than 64% of the patients. Therefore, Lol p 5C represents a novel and highly IgE-reactive isoform allergen of rye grass pollen.

  5. Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that pollen can also be transported indoors on people and pets. Dry your clothes in an automatic dryer rather ... that pollen can also be transported indoors on people and pets. Dry your clothes in an automatic dryer rather ...

  6. Cloning and sequencing of Lol pI, the major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, I J; Smith, P M; Pollock, J; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Hough, T; Singh, M B; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D

    1991-02-25

    We have isolated a full length cDNA clone encoding the major glycoprotein allergen Lol pI. The clone was selected using a combination of immunological screening of a cDNA expression library and PCR amplification of Lol pI-specific transcripts. Lol pI expressed in bacteria as a fusion protein shows recognition by specific IgE antibodies present in sera of grass pollen-allergic subjects. Northern analysis has shown that the Lol pI transcripts are expressed only in pollen of rye-grass. Molecular cloning of Lol pI provides a molecular genetic approach to study the structure-function relationship of allergens.

  7. Hyposensitization therapy with whole pollen extract or purified allergens monitored by immunoblotting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jarolim, E; Matthiesen, F; Skov, P S

    1990-01-01

    . Inhibition experiments using allergenic components isolated by preparative sodium dodecyl sulphate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis indicated that all antigenic components of timothy grass pollen detected in immunoblot dispose of private and cross-reactive determinants for binding of human IgE. The worse......Patients allergic to grass pollen were hyposensitized with two major allergenic components or whole extract of timothy grass pollen. Specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG4 formed during immunotherapy were analyzed by immunoblotting. Similar antibody-binding patterns were observed in both patient groups...

  8. Immunogold electron microscopic localization of timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen major allergens Phl p I and Phl p V after anhydrous fixation in acrolein vapor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grote, M.; Dolecek, C.; van Ree, R.; Valenta, R.

    1994-01-01

    We used the vapor phase of acrolein as an anhydrous fixative for timothy grass pollen in an immunogold double-labeling localization study of two different major allergens, Phl p I and Phl p V. More than 48 hr of fixation were needed for the subcellular pollen structures to be satisfactorily

  9. Measurement of IgG antibodies to house dust mite and grass pollen by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delespesse, G; Debisschop, M J; Flament, J [Hopital Saint Pierre, Louvain (Belgium). Lab. de Recherches de la Clinique Medicale

    1979-09-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was used to measure specific IgG antibodies to either Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DPT) or grass pollens. Radiolabelled protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) was used to determine the IgG antibodies attached to the microtubes. The binding of IgG from either normal or allergic sera to DPT-coated tubes was antigen specific and mediated by the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. IgG antibodies from non-allergic serum competed with IgE antibodies to DPT. IgE antibodies did not significantly interfere with the assay. Indeed heating a reaginic serum resulted in a striking reduction of the (/sup 125/I) anti- IgE binding to allergen-coated tubes without modifying the (/sup 125/I)-SpA binding. Furthermore, filtration of a reaginic serum through Sephacryl S-200 separated a peak of IgE antibodies. The solid phase method was more sensitive than a double-antibody technique employing the same DPT extract as labelled antigen. Non-allergic subjects had less IgG antibodies to DPT or grass pollens than allergic patients. In untreated patients, there was a good correlation between levels of IgG and IgE antibodies to grass pollens but not to DPT. Patients hyposensitized to house dust mite had on the average three times more specific IgG antibodies than untreated cases. (author).

  10. Measurement of IgG antibodies to house dust mite and grass pollen by a solid-phase radioimmunoassay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delespesse, G.; Debisschop, M.J.; Flament, J.

    1979-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay was used to measure specific IgG antibodies to either Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus (DPT) or grass pollens. Radiolabelled protein A from Staphylococcus aureus (SpA) was used to determine the IgG antibodies attached to the microtubes. The binding of IgG from either normal or allergic sera to DPT-coated tubes was antigen specific and mediated by the Fab fragment of the immunoglobulin. IgG antibodies from non-allergic serum competed with IgE antibodies to DPT. IgE antibodies did not significantly interfere with the assay. Indeed heating a reaginic serum resulted in a striking reduction of the ( 125 I) anti- IgE binding to allergen-coated tubes without modifying the ( 125 I)-SpA binding. Furthermore, filtration of a reaginic serum through Sephacryl S-200 separated a peak of IgE antibodies. The solid phase method was more sensitive than a double-antibody technique employing the same DPT extract as labelled antigen. Non-allergic subjects had less IgG antibodies to DPT or grass pollens than allergic patients. In untreated patients, there was a good correlation between levels of IgG and IgE antibodies to grass pollens but not to DPT. Patients hyposensitized to house dust mite had on the average three times more specific IgG antibodies than untreated cases. (author)

  11. Complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-07-05

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p II was determined by automated Edman degradation of the protein and selected fragments. Cleavage of the protein by enzymatic and chemical techniques established an unambiguous sequence for the protein. Lol p II contains 97 amino acid residues, with a calculated molecular weight of 10,882. The protein lacks cysteine and glutamine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. Theoretical predictions by Fraga's (Fraga, S. (1982) Can. J. Chem. 60, 2606-2610) and Hopp and Woods' (Hopp, T. P., and Woods, K. R. (1981) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 78, 3824-3828) methods indicate the presence of four hydrophilic regions, which may contribute to sequential or parts of conformational B-cell epitopes. Analysis of amphipathic regions by Berzofsky's method indicates the presence of a highly amphipathic region, which may contain, or contribute to, an Ia/T-cell epitope. This latter segment of Lol p II was found to be highly homologous with an antibody-binding segment of the major rye allergen Lol p I and may explain why immune responsiveness to both the allergens is associated with HLA-DR3.

  12. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martens, Maria; Schnoor, Heidi J; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT) and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE) tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without...

  13. Sequential Treatment Initiation with Timothy Grass and Ragweed Sublingual Immunotherapy Tablets Followed by Simultaneous Treatment Is Well Tolerated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maloney, Jennifer; Berman, Gary; Gagnon, Remi; Bernstein, David I; Nelson, Harold S; Kleine-Tebbe, Jörg; Kaur, Amarjot; Li, Qing; Nolte, Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Dual treatment with grass and ragweed sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablets has not been studied. To characterize the safety and tolerability of dual grass and ragweed SLIT-tablet administration. This open-label, multicenter trial (NCT02256553) enrolled North American adults (N = 102) allergic to grass and ragweed. The trial had 3 periods, each of 2 weeks duration. In period 1, subjects received once-daily timothy grass SLIT tablet (2800 bioequivalent allergen unit; Merck, Inc, Kenilworth, NJ/ALK, Hørsholm, Denmark). In period 2, subjects received a short ragweed SLIT tablet (12 Ambrosia artemisiifolia 1-U; Merck/ALK) every morning and a grass SLIT tablet every evening. In period 3, subjects received once-daily grass and ragweed SLIT tablets within 5 minutes (simultaneous intake). The primary end point was the proportion of subjects with 1 or more local swelling events in each period. Secondary end points were the proportion of subjects with 1 or more local adverse events (AEs), that discontinued the treatment because of AEs, and subjects with 1 or more local AEs requiring treatment. No severe swellings, systemic allergic reactions, asthma attacks, or reactions requiring epinephrine were reported. Most (99%) AEs were graded mild to moderate. The proportions of subjects with 1 or more local swelling events were 14%, 22%, and 15% for periods 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For periods 1, 2, and 3, the proportions of subjects with 1 or more local AEs were 71%, 69%, and 56%, respectively; the proportions discontinuing the treatment because of treatment-related AEs were 5%, 1%, and 2%, and the proportions with 1 or more local AEs requiring treatment were 4%, 4%, and 1%. In this trial, a 4-week sequential SLIT-tablet dosing schedule followed by simultaneous intake of timothy grass and ragweed tablets was well tolerated. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Lol p XI, a new major grass pollen allergen, is a member of a family of soybean trypsin inhibitor-related proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Hoffman, D R; van Dijk, W; Brodard, V; Mahieu, K; Koeleman, C A; Grande, M; van Leeuwen, W A; Aalberse, R C

    1995-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against an unknown allergen from Lolium perenne grass pollen. The allergen had an apparent molecular mass of 18 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Earlier immunoblotting studies had shown that carbohydrate-specific IgG antibodies recognize an antigen of similar size. We sought to characterize the allergen biochemically and immunologically. The amino acid sequence of the allergen was determined by automated Edman degradation, and its monosaccharide composition was determined by gas chromatographic analysis. A panel of 270 grass pollen-positive sera was assessed in a RAST with the purified allergen. Protease digestion (proteinase K) and chemical deglycosylation (trifluoromethane sulfonic acid) were used to distinguish between carbohydrate and peptide epitopes for IgE antibodies. The allergen was shown to be a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 16 kd, of which 8% is carbohydrate. Its amino acid sequence shares 32% homology with soybean trypsin inhibitor (Kunitz) but lacks its active site. No homology was found with known grass pollen allergens, hence it was designated Lol p XI. A high degree of homology (44%) was found with a tree pollen allergen, Ole e I, the major allergen of olive pollen. More than 65% of grass pollen-positive sera had IgE against Lol p XI. IgE reactivity was demonstrated both with the carbohydrate moiety and the peptide backbone. Lol p XI is a new major grass pollen allergen carrying an IgE-binding carbohydrate determinant. Lol p XI is structurally related to the major allergen from olive pollen.

  15. Pollen

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Records of past vegetation and climate derived from pollen found in lake and ocean sediments. Parameter keywords describe what was measured in this data set....

  16. Using maize as a model to study pollen tube growth and guidance, cross-incompatibility and sperm delivery in grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresselhaus, Thomas; Lausser, Andreas; Márton, Mihaela L

    2011-09-01

    In contrast to animals and lower plants such as mosses and ferns, sperm cells of flowering plants (angiosperms) are immobile and require transportation to the female gametes via the vegetative pollen tube cell to achieve double fertilization. The path of the pollen tube towards the female gametophyte (embryo sac) has been intensively studied in many intra- and interspecific crossing experiments with the aim of increasing the gene pool of crop plants for greater yield, improved biotic and abiotic stress resistance, and for introducing new agronomic traits. Many attempts to hybridize different species or genotypes failed due to the difficulty for the pollen tubes in reaching the female gametophyte. Detailed studies showed that these processes are controlled by various self-incompatible (intraspecific) and cross-incompatible (interspecific) hybridization mechanisms. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of crossing barriers is therefore of great interest in plant reproduction, evolution and breeding research. In particular, pre-zygotic hybridization barriers related to pollen tube germination, growth, guidance and sperm delivery, which are considered the major hybridization controls in nature and thus also contribute to species isolation and speciation, have been intensively investigated. Despite this general interest, surprisingly little is known about these processes in the most important agronomic plant family, the Gramineae, Poaceae or grasses. Small polymorphic proteins and their receptors, degradation of sterility locus proteins and general compounds such as calcium, γ-aminobutyric acid or nitric oxide have been shown to be involved in progamic pollen germination, adhesion, tube growth and guidance, as well as sperm release. Most advances have been made in the Brassicaceae, Papaveraceae, Linderniaceae and Solanaceae families including their well-understood self-incompatibility (SI) systems. Grass species evolved similar mechanisms to control the penetration

  17. Personal exposure to grass pollen: relating inhaled dose to background concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peel, Robert George; Hertel, Ole; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Background: Very few studies on human exposure to allergenic pollen have been conducted using direct methods, with background concentrations measured at city center monitoring stations typically taken as a proxy for exposure despite the inhomogeneous nature of atmospheric pollen concentrations. A...

  18. Comparison of allergenicity and immunogenicity of an intact allergen vaccine and commercially available allergoid products for birch pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, L; Henmar, H; Würtzen, P A; Lund, G; Hjortskov, N; Larsen, J N

    2007-04-01

    Specific immunotherapy with intact allergen vaccine is a well-documented treatment for allergic diseases. Different vaccine formulations are currently commercially available, the active ingredient either being intact allergens or chemically modified allergoids. The rationale behind allergoids is to decrease allergenicity while maintaining immunogenicity. However, data from the German health authorities based on reporting of adverse events over a 10-year period did not indicate increased safety of allergoids over intact allergens. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of chemical modification on allergenicity and immunogenicity comparing four commercial allergoid products for birch pollen immunotherapy with an intact allergen vaccine. Solid-phase IgE inhibition and histamine release assays were selected as model systems for allergenicity, and a combination of human T cell proliferation and IgG titres following mouse immunizations were used to address the immunogenicity of the intact allergen vaccine and the four allergoids. In all assays, the products were normalized with respect to the manufacturer's recommended maintenance dose. IgE inhibition experiments showed a change in epitope composition comparing intact allergen vaccine with allergoid. One allergoid product induced enhanced histamine release compared to the intact allergens, while the other three allergoids showed reduced release. Standard T cell stimulation assays using lines from allergic patients showed a reduced response for all allergoids compared with the intact allergen vaccine regardless of the cell type used for antigen presentation. All allergoids showed reduced capacity to induce allergen-specific IgG responses in mice. While some allergoids were associated with reduced allergenicity, a clear reduction in immunogenicity was observed for all allergoid products compared with the intact allergen vaccine, and the commercial allergoids tested therefore do not fulfil the allergoid

  19. Lol p XI, a new major grass pollen allergen, is a member of a family of soybean trypsin inhibitor-related proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Hoffman, D. R.; van Dijk, W.; Brodard, V.; Mahieu, K.; Koeleman, C. A.; Grande, M.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Monoclonal antibodies were obtained against an unknown allergen from Lolium perenne grass pollen. The allergen had an apparent molecular mass of 18 kd on sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Earlier immunoblotting studies had shown that carbohydrate-specific IgG

  20. A microtitre plate radioimmunoassay for the detection and semiquantitation of housedust mite, rye grass pollen and cow's milk specific IgA antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahoney, G.N.; Hartley, W.A.; Taylor, B.

    1980-01-01

    A microtitre plate based radioimmunoassay (RIA) to measure semiquantitatively allergen specific IgA antibodies is described, with optimal coupling conditions for 3 allergens, house dust mite (Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus), rye grass pollen and cow's milk, and the optimal serum and [ 125 I]anti-IgA incubation conditions. (Auth.)

  1. Chromosome number, microsporogenesis, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability in the Brazilian native grass Mesosetum chaseae (Poaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, L A C; Pagliarini, M S; Santos, S A; Silva, N; Souza, V F

    2012-11-28

    The genus Mesosetum is a primarily South American genus with 42 species. Mesosetum chaseae, regionally known as 'grama-do-cerrado', is abundant in the Pantanal Matogrossense (Brazil); it is a valuable resource for livestock and for environmental conservation. We collected specimens from the Nhecolandia sub-region of the Brazilian Pantanal, located in Corumbá, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. We examined chromosome number, ploidy level, meiotic behavior, microgametogenesis, and pollen viability of 10 accessions. All the accessions were diploid, derived from x = 8, presenting 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes. Chromosomes paired as bivalents showing, predominantly, two terminal chiasmata. Interstitial chiasmata were rare. Meiosis was quite normal producing only a few abnormal tetrads in some accessions. Microgametogenesis, after two mitotic divisions, produced three-celled pollen grains. Pollen viability was variable among plant and accessions and was not correlated with meiotic abnormalities.

  2. Sensitization to cereals and peanut evidenced by skin prick test and specific IgE in food-tolerant, grass pollen allergic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martens Maria

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The botanical relation between grass and cereal grains may be relevant when diagnosing food allergy to cereals. The aim was to investigate the diagnostic specificity of skin prick test (SPT and specific immunoglobulin E (sIgE tests to cereals and peanut in grass pollen allergic subjects without history of, and clinically reactions to foods botanically related to grass. Methods 70 subjects (41 females; mean age 32 years and 20 healthy controls (13 females; mean age 24 years were tested by open food challenge (OFC with cereals and peanut. SPT and sIgE both with Immulite® (Siemens and ImmunoCAP® (Phadia to grass and birch pollen, cereals, peanut and bromelain were performed. Results Of the 65 OFC-negative subjects 29-46% (SPT, depending on cut-off, 20% (Immulite and 38% (ImmunoCAP had positive results to one or more of the foods tested. Controls were negative in all tests. Cross-reactive carbohydrate determinants (CCD as evidenced by reaction to bromelain could explain only a minority of the measured IgE-sensitizations. Conclusion Grass pollen allergic patients with documented food tolerance to cereals and peanut may express significant sensitization. False-positive cereal or peanut allergy diagnoses may be a quantitatively important problem both in routine clinical work and epidemiological studies.

  3. Efficacy of oral immunotherapy with a rice-based edible vaccine containing hypoallergenic Japanese cedar pollen allergens for treatment of established allergic conjunctivitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Ken; Ishida, Waka; Harada, Yosuke; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takagi, Hidenori; Takaiwa, Fumio; Fukushima, Atsuki

    2018-01-01

    We have previously shown that prophylactic oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic modified antigens suppressed the development of allergic conjunctivitis induced by Japanese cedar pollen. We have now investigated the efficacy of oral immunotherapy with such transgenic rice for established allergic conjunctivitis in mice. BALB/c mice were sensitized with two intraperitoneal injections of Japanese cedar pollen in alum, challenged with pollen in eyedrops, and then fed for 16 days with transgenic rice seeds expressing modified Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 or with nontransgenic rice seeds as a control. They were then challenged twice with pollen in eyedrops, with clinical signs being evaluated at 15 min after the first challenge and the eyes, blood, spleen, and lymph nodes being isolated at 24 h after the second challenge. The number of eosinophils in the conjunctiva and the clinical score for conjunctivitis were both significantly lower in mice fed the transgenic rice than in those fed nontransgenic rice. Oral vaccination with transgenic rice seeds also resulted in a significant increase in the production of IFN-γ by splenocytes, whereas it had no effect on the number of CD4 + CD25 + Foxp3 + regulatory T cells in the spleen or submandibular or mesenteric lymph nodes. Oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic allergens ameliorated allergic conjunctivitis in the established setting. Such a rice-based edible vaccine is potentially both safe and effective for oral immunotherapy in individuals with allergic conjunctivitis. Copyright © 2017 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Molecular features of grass allergens and development of biotechnological approaches for allergy prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devis, Deborah L; Davies, Janet M; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-09-01

    Allergic diseases are characterized by elevated allergen-specific IgE and excessive inflammatory cell responses. Among the reported plant allergens, grass pollen and grain allergens, derived from agriculturally important members of the Poaceae family such as rice, wheat and barley, are the most dominant and difficult to prevent. Although many allergen homologs have been predicted from species such as wheat and timothy grass, fundamental aspects such as the evolution and function of plant pollen allergens remain largely unclear. With the development of genetic engineering and genomics, more primary sequences, functions and structures of plant allergens have been uncovered, and molecular component-based allergen-specific immunotherapies are being developed. In this review, we aim to provide an update on (i) the distribution and importance of pollen and grain allergens of the Poaceae family, (ii) the origin and evolution, and functional aspects of plant pollen allergens, (iii) developments of allergen-specific immunotherapy for pollen allergy using biotechnology and (iv) development of less allergenic plants using gene engineering techniques. We also discuss future trends in revealing fundamental aspects of grass pollen allergens and possible biotechnological approaches to reduce the amount of pollen allergens in grasses. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Determination of allergen specificity by heavy chains in grass pollen allergen-specific IgE antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadermaier, Elisabeth; Flicker, Sabine; Lupinek, Christian; Steinberger, Peter; Valenta, Rudolf

    2013-04-01

    Affinity and clonality of allergen-specific IgE antibodies are important determinants for the magnitude of IgE-mediated allergic inflammation. We sought to analyze the contribution of heavy and light chains of human allergen-specific IgE antibodies for allergen specificity and to test whether promiscuous pairing of heavy and light chains with different allergen specificity allows binding and might affect affinity. Ten IgE Fabs specific for 3 non-cross-reactive major timothy grass pollen allergens (Phl p 1, Phl p 2, and Phl p 5) obtained by means of combinatorial cloning from patients with grass pollen allergy were used to construct stable recombinant single chain variable fragments (ScFvs) representing the original Fabs and shuffled ScFvs in which heavy chains were recombined with light chains from IgE Fabs with specificity for other allergens by using the pCANTAB 5 E expression system. Possible ancestor genes for the heavy chain and light chain variable region-encoding genes were determined by using sequence comparison with the ImMunoGeneTics database, and their chromosomal locations were determined. Recombinant ScFvs were tested for allergen specificity and epitope recognition by means of direct and sandwich ELISA, and affinity by using surface plasmon resonance experiments. The shuffling experiments demonstrate that promiscuous pairing of heavy and light chains is possible and maintains allergen specificity, which is mainly determined by the heavy chains. ScFvs consisting of different heavy and light chains exhibited different affinities and even epitope specificity for the corresponding allergen. Our results indicate that allergen specificity of allergen-specific IgE is mainly determined by the heavy chains. Different heavy and light chain pairings in allergen-specific IgE antibodies affect affinity and epitope specificity and thus might influence clinical reactivity to allergens. Copyright © 2012 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by

  6. Analysis of liquid extracts from tree and grass pollens by capillary electromigration methods

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sázelová, Petra; Kašička, Václav; Koval, Dušan; Peltre, G.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 808, č. 1 (2004), s. 117-123 ISSN 0378-4347 R&D Projects: GA MŠk OK 382 Grant - others:INCO-Copernicus(XE) ERB IC15 CT98 0322 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4055905 Keywords : Betula verrucosa * Dactylis glomerata * pollen allergens Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.176, year: 2004

  7. Monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to quantify the major allergen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen, Cyn d 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffort, O; Calabozo, B; González, R; Carpizo, J A; Barber, D; Polo, F

    2004-12-01

    Pollen of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is an important cause of pollinosis in many areas of the world. Most patients show sensitivity to the major allergen Cyn d 1, a glycoprotein composed of a number of isoforms with a molecular mass of 31-32 kDa. The aim of this work was to develop a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based ELISA to quantify Cyn d 1, and to assess the correlation of the allergen content with the biological activity of C. dactylon pollen extracts. After fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from a BALB/c mouse immunized with C. dactylon pollen extract, Cyn d 1-specific mAbs secreting hybridomas were selected, and the antibodies characterized. One of them (4.4.1) was used as the capture antibody in an ELISA method for Cyn d 1 quantitation. An anti-Cyn d 1 rabbit serum was used as the second antibody. Cyn d 1 was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with mAb 4.4.1, characterized, and used as the standard in the assay. The identity, purity and isoallergen composition of affinity-purified Cyn d 1 was confirmed by N-terminal amino acid sequencing, SDS-PAGE, Western blot and 2D electrophoresis. The Cyn d 1 ELISA is highly specific and sensitive, with a detection limit of 0.24 ng/ml and a linear range of 1.1-9.2 ng/ml. An excellent correlation was found when the content of Cyn d 1, measured in 16 different extracts, was compared with the allergenic activity of the same extracts determined by RAST inhibition. The results prove the usefulness of the Cyn d 1 ELISA for the standardization of C. dactylon-allergen products on the basis of major allergen content. 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. The number of FceRI receptors on basophils decreases during subcutaneous immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, J. M.; Dahl, R.; Hoffmann, H. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only disease modifying treatment of allergic diseases. It induces complex cellular and humoral changes leading to an inhibition of type-1 allergic reactions. Method: Twenty four young grass pollen allergic adults suffering from seasonal rhino......-conjunctivitis were randomized to receive standard subcutaneous immunotherapy (n = 18) or to an open control group (n = 6). The number of FceRI receptors on basophils was measured by quantitative analysis of indirect immunofluorescence by flow cytometry. Grass binding to basophils was measured by staining with grass......)/basophil in the treatment group (n = 0.016), while it remained constant in the control group (pre: 102424; post: 103753). We found only minor changes in maximal grass binding on the basophils. The allergen concentration leading to halfmaximum grass binding decreased slightly during SCIT, whereas the EC50...

  9. A well-tolerated grass pollen-specific allergy vaccine containing a novel adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A, reduces allergic symptoms after only four preseasonal injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drachenberg, K J; Wheeler, A W; Stuebner, P; Horak, F

    2001-06-01

    We present data showing that a Th1-inducing adjuvant can reduce the number of injections required for allergy vaccination. Allergy vaccination is the only treatment for type 1 hypersensitivity that can alter the underlying disease process. A switch of specific T-cell activity from Th2 >Th1 to Th1 >Th2 is believed to be an important change seen after long-term vaccination therapy. An immunologic adjuvant that enhances such a switch could be used to reduce the number of injections required. This would improve compliance with the treatment and provide pharmacoeconomic advantages. Such an adjuvant is 3-deacylated monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL adjuvant, Corixa). A multicentre, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind clinical study was performed with a new standardized allergy vaccine comprising a tyrosine-adsorbed glutaraldehyde-modified grass pollen extract containing MPL adjuvant. Four subcutaneous injections of the active product were given preseasonally to 81 grass pollen-sensitive subjects, and 60 received placebo injections (tyrosine alone). Diary cards were used to record symptoms and medication taken during approximately 30 days of the grass pollen season. There was a statistical advantage in favour of the active treatment for nasal (P = 0.016) and ocular (P = 0.003) symptoms and combined symptom and medication scores (P=0.013). Titrated skin prick testing revealed a significant reduction of skin sensitivity in the active group compared to placebo (P = 0.04). Grass-pollen-specific IgG antibody was raised by active treatment (P vaccine, incorporating a Th1-inducing adjuvant, MPL, was efficacious and after only four preseasonal injections produced antibody changes normally associated with long injection schedules. This may encourage wider application of allergy vaccination. The vaccine is now available in a number of countries as Pollinex Quattro.

  10. A rapid and efficient two-step gel electrophoresis method for the purification of major rye grass pollen allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, D; Davies, J; O'Hehir, R; Suphioglu, C

    2001-06-01

    Purified proteins are mandatory for molecular, immunological and cellular studies. However, purification of proteins from complex mixtures requires specialised chromatography methods (i.e., gel filtration, ion exchange, etc.) using fast protein liquid chromatography (FPLC) or high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) systems. Such systems are expensive and certain proteins require two or more different steps for sufficient purity and generally result in low recovery. The aim of this study was to develop a rapid, inexpensive and efficient gel-electrophoresis-based protein purification method using basic and readily available laboratory equipment. We have used crude rye grass pollen extract to purify the major allergens Lol p 1 and Lol p 5 as the model protein candidates. Total proteins were resolved on large primary gel and Coomassie Brilliant Blue (CBB)-stained Lol p 1/5 allergens were excised and purified on a secondary "mini"-gel. Purified proteins were extracted from unstained separating gels and subjected to sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and immunoblot analyses. Silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels resolved pure proteins (i.e., 875 microg of Lol p 1 recovered from a 8 mg crude starting material) while immunoblot analysis confirmed immunological reactivity of the purified proteins. Such a purification method is rapid, inexpensive, and efficient in generating proteins of sufficient purity for use in monoclonal antibody (mAb) production, protein sequencing and general molecular, immunological, and cellular studies.

  11. Isolation of cDNA encoding a newly identified major allergenic protein of rye-grass pollen: intracellular targeting to the amyloplast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M B; Hough, T; Theerakulpisut, P; Avjioglu, A; Davies, S; Smith, P M; Taylor, P; Simpson, R J; Ward, L D; McCluskey, J

    1991-01-01

    We have identified a major allergenic protein from rye-grass pollen, tentatively designated Lol pIb of 31kDa and with pI 9.0. A cDNA clone encoding Lol pIb has been isolated, sequenced, and characterized. Lol pIb is located mainly in the starch granules. This is a distinct allergen from Lol pI, which is located in the cytosol. Lol pIb is synthesized in pollen as a pre-allergen with a transit peptide targeting the allergen to amyloplasts. Epitope mapping of the fusion protein localized the IgE binding determinant in the C-terminal domain. Images PMID:1671715

  12. Is immunotherapy-induced birch-pollen-specific IgG4 a marker for decreased allergen-specific sensitivity?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bodtger, U; Ejrnaes, A M; Hummelshoj, L

    2005-01-01

    The role of IgG4 during allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is still controversial. The available studies present paramount differences in in vitro techniques, allergens, and clinical outcome parameters. By implementing a sensitive method, and pivotal clinical outcome parameters, we wanted to a...

  13. Effect of Local Nasal Immunotherapy on Nasal Blockage in Pollen-Induced Allergic Rhinitis of Guinea Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Nabe

    2008-01-01

    Conclusions: Local nasal immunotherapy may be clinically useful for allergic nasal blockage associated with nasal hyperresponsiveness. The mechanisms responsible for this effectiveness might not be related to IgE production. Additionally, the effectiveness for nasal tissue was dissociated from that seen for the ocular tissue.

  14. Sublingual immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Mauro, Marina; Ridolo, Erminia

    2015-01-01

    Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) was introduced in the 1980s as a safer option to subcutaneous immunotherapy and in the latest decade achieved significant advances. Its efficacy in allergic rhinitis is supported by a number of meta-analyses. The development of SLIT preparations in tablets to fulfill the requirements of regulatory agencies for quality of allergen extracts made available optimal products for grass-pollen-induced allergic rhinitis. Preparations of other allergens based on the same production methods are currently in progress. A notable outcome of SLIT, that is shared with subcutaneous immunotherapy, is the evident cost-effectiveness, showing significant cost savings as early as 3 months from starting the treatment, that become as high as 80% compared with drug treatment in the ensuing years.

  15. IN SUBJECTS ALLERGIC TO GRASS POLLEN, BASOPHIL SENSITIVITY DECREASES DURING SUBCUTANEOUS IMMUNOTHERAPY DUE TO BOTH HUMORAL FACTORS AND CELLULAR DESENSITIZATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    2011-01-01

    Johannes Martin Schmid, Ronald Dahl, and Hans Juergen Hoffmann Department of Respiratory Medicine, Aarhus, Denmark Background: The major effect of SCIT is a change in allergen specific immunoglobulin. We measure the contribution of competing immunoglobulin to the effect of SCIT in patients...... with allergic rhino-conjunctivitis with basophil activation tests (BAT). Methods: We have randomized 24 patients to a treatment (18) and an open control group (6). Repeated BAT were performed at baseline and througout treatment. Heparinized blood was centrifuged, plasma was removed, the cells washed twice...... basophils. The LC50 was calculated as the log of the allergen concentration leading to half maximum basophil activation. Specific IgE and IgG4 was measured using ISAC panel. Results: We found a 15-fold reduction in basophil sensitivity in the treated group during updosing, compared to their baseline...

  16. IgE profiles of Bermuda grass pollen sensitised patients evaluated by Phleum pratense allergens Phl P 1, 2, 4, 5, 6 , 7, 11, 12.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Renato E; Monasterolo, Giorgio; Prina, Paolo; Coco, Giuseppe; Operti, Daniela; Rossi, Lucilla

    2008-06-01

    Despite the difference in geographical dominance of certain grasses, a high degree of allergenic similarity or cross-reactivity between Bermuda grass pollen (BGP) and timothy grass pollen (TGP) has been previously demonstrated. The aim of the present study was to ascertain the sensitisation to TGP in 411 patients known for their reactivity to BGP extracts by analysing their reactivity to crude timothy pollen extract and timothy pollen purified allergens, establishing their specific IgE-profiles. Using the immunoenzymatic CAP method we evaluated IgE-specific antibodies for BGP- and TGP- extracts and the timothy recombinant (r) and natural (n) allergens rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, nPhl p 4, rPhl p 5, rPhl p 6, rPhl p 7, rPhl p 11, and rPhl p 12. BGP-IgE positive patients (median = 8.0 kUA/l, 2.8-22.2 kUA/l 25th-75th percentile) simultaneously had IgE positive results for TGP (100% of subjects)(median = 48.9 kUA/l, 19.8- > 100 kUA/l 25th-75th percentile) and high prevalence of sensitization to 6/8 Phleum pratense allergens (Phl p 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 11, markers of genuine sensitisation to TGP) other than profilin and calcium binding protein. More than 72% of BGP allergic patients were co-sensitised to rPhl p 1, rPhl p 2, nPhl p 4, rPhl p 5, rPhl p 6. A decrease of total and specific IgE with patients' age was observed. Our data show that all BGP-allergic patients simultaneously exhibit higher IgE antibody levels to recombinant and natural P. pratense allergens as well as to crude TGP extract. This suggests that when choosing an immunotherapeutic regimen for BGP-sensitised patients (after establishing their IgE profile via purified TGP-allergens), subcutaneous or sublingual TGP-extract vaccines in appropriate doses, in order to influence T epitope specificity, might be beneficial. Though extremely uncommon, in cases where a patient is exclusively BGP allergen-sensitised, BGP-extract therapy is the appropriate therapeutic response.

  17. Rabbit IgG directed to a synthetic C-terminal peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I inhibits human basophil histamine release induced by natural Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ree, R; Aalberse, R C

    1995-03-01

    The potential role of allergen-specific IgG antibodies as 'blocking' antibodies in allergen-induced human basophil histamine release was investigated. This was studied in a model with the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I and polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against this allergen and against a synthetic peptide of its C terminus. When allergen and antibodies were allowed to preincubate, Lol p I induced histamine release was inhibited up to 85% by the antiserum against Lol p I. By omitting preincubation, and thereby more closely mimicking an in vivo situation, up to 55% inhibition was realized. This indicates that allergen-specific IgG can act as 'blocking' antibody without preincubation. Immunization of rabbits with a synthetic C-terminal peptide of Lol p I resulted in antibodies reactive with natural Lol p I. Despite their 100-fold lower avidity for Lol p I (as compared with antinatural Lol p I), these antibodies had the capacity to inhibit Lol p I induced histamine release for > 90% (up to 50% without preincubation). This indicates that it is possible to block histamine release induced by a major allergen with low-avidity IgG antibodies directed against a minor proportion of the allergen (25 amino acids). IgE antibodies from the donors studied were unreactive with this synthetic peptide, indicating that for blocking activity identical epitope specificity of IgE and IgG is not essential. This opens interesting perspectives for application of synthetic peptides in immunotherapy, distinct from their effects on T cell reactivity.

  18. Concentrated protein body product derived from rice endosperm as an oral tolerogen for allergen-specific immunotherapy--a new mucosal vaccine formulation against Japanese cedar pollen allergy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhya Wakasa

    Full Text Available The endoplasmic reticulum-derived type-I protein body (PB-I from rice endosperm cells is an ideal candidate formulation for the oral delivery of bioencapsulated peptides as tolerogens for allergen-specific immunotherapy. In the present study, PBs containing the deconstructed Japanese cedar pollen allergens Cryptomeria japonica 1 (Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were concentrated by treatment with thermostable α-amylase at 90°C to remove the starch from milled rice powder, which resulted in a 12.5-fold reduction of dry weight compared to the starting material. The modified Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 antigens in this concentrated PB product were more resistant to enzymatic digestion than those in the milled seed powder despite the absence of intact cell wall and starch, and remained stable for at least 10 months at room temperature without detectable loss or degradation. The high resistance of these allergens could be attributed to changes in protein physicochemical properties induced by the high temperature concentration process, as suggested by the decreased solubility of the antigens and seed proteins in PBs in step-wise-extraction experiments. Confocal microscopy showed that the morphology of antigen-containing PB-Is was preserved in the concentrated PB product. The concentrated PB product induced specific immune tolerance against Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 in mice when orally administered, supporting its potential use as a novel oral tolerogen formulation.

  19. Rabbit IgG directed to a synthetic C-terminal peptide of the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I inhibits human basophil histamine release induced by natural Lol p I

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1995-01-01

    The potential role of allergen-specific IgG antibodies as 'blocking' antibodies in allergen-induced human basophil histamine release was investigated. This was studied in a model with the major grass pollen allergen Lol p I and polyclonal rabbit antisera directed against this allergen and against a

  20. Distinct modulation of allergic T cell responses by subcutaneous versus sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulten, Véronique; Tripple, Victoria; Andersen, Kristian Aasbjerg

    2016-01-01

    mechanisms involved have not been fully explored. OBJECTIVE: To compare changes in the allergen-specific T cell response induced by subcutaneous versus sublingual administration of allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT). METHODS: Grass pollen allergic patients were randomized into groups receiving either SCIT...... injections, or SLIT tablets or neither. PBMC were tested for Timothy grass (TG)-specific cytokine production by ELISPOT after in vitro expansion with TG peptide pools. Phenotypic characterization of cytokine producing cells was performed by FACS. RESULTS: In the SCIT group, decreased IL-5 production...

  1. EFFECTIVENESS OF SUBCUTANEOUS ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY WITH TREE POLLEN ALLERGEN EXTRACT ADSORBED ON CALCIUM PHOSPHATE IN CHILDREN WITH ALLERGIC RHINOCONJUNCTIVITIS: RESULTS OF A 2 YEAR-LONG OBSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Shakhova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at evaluating effectiveness and safety of subcutaneous allergen-specific immunotherapy (scASIT with tree pollen allergen extract adsorbed on calcium phosphate at allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children. Patients and methods: open-label prospective study of 50 children and adolescents (5-17 years of age with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis caused by high sensitivity to tree pollen allergens. The first group involved the patients undergoing scASIT for 2 years 6 months (n = 23, the control group – the patients (n = 27 not undergoing any specific immunotherapy. Results: scASIT was accompanied by a statistically significant (in comparison with the control group reduction in intensity of rhinoconjunctivitis symptoms (6.1 ± 3.1; 11.8 ± 4.5; p = 0.00002, reduction in the use of symptomatic drugs (1.0 ± 0.4; 1.8 ± 0.3; p = 0.000004 and improvement of quality of all spheres of children’s life – physical (p = 0.001, social (p = 0.04, emotional (p = 0.001 and role functioning (p = 0.03. Systemic side reactions were not observed in the patients. Local reactions were observed in 23% of all allergen injections. Conclusions: the authors established high effectiveness and safety of scASIT with tree pollen allergen extract adsorbed on calcium phosphate suspension at allergic rhinoconjunctivitis in children. 

  2. Modified Allergens for Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satitsuksanoa, Pattraporn; Głobińska, Anna; Jansen, Kirstin; van de Veen, Willem; Akdis, Mübeccel

    2018-02-16

    During the past few decades, modified allergens have been developed for use in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with the aim to improve efficacy and reduce adverse effects. This review aims to provide an overview of the different types of modified allergens, their mechanism of action and their potential for improving AIT. In-depth research in the field of allergen modifications as well as the advance of recombinant DNA technology have paved the way for improved diagnosis and research on human allergic diseases. A wide range of structurally modified allergens has been generated including allergen peptides, chemically altered allergoids, adjuvant-coupled allergens, and nanoparticle-based allergy vaccines. These modified allergens show promise for the development of AIT regimens with improved safety and long-term efficacy. Certain modifications ensure reduced IgE reactivity and retained T cell reactivity, which facilities induction of immune tolerance to the allergen. To date, multiple clinical trials have been performed using modified allergens. Promising results were obtained for the modified cat, grass and birch pollen, and house dust mite allergens. The use of modified allergens holds promise for improving AIT efficacy and safety. There is however a need for larger clinical studies to reliably assess the added benefit for the patient of using modified allergens for AIT.

  3. Efficacy and safety of 4 months of sublingual immunotherapy with recombinant Mal d 1 and Bet v 1 in patients with birch pollen-related apple allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaciyan, Tamar; Nagl, Birgit; Faustmann, Sandra; Frommlet, Florian; Kopp, Stephan; Wolkersdorfer, Martin; Wöhrl, Stefan; Bastl, Katharina; Huber, Hans; Berger, Uwe; Bohle, Barbara

    2018-03-01

    Birch pollen-related apple allergy is among the most prevalent food allergies in adolescent/adult subjects and mainly results from sensitization to the major birch pollen allergen Bet v 1 and subsequent cross-reaction with the apple protein Mal d 1. However, specific immunotherapy with birch pollen has inconsistent effects on apple allergy. We sought to compare the safety and efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) with 2 formulations containing either rMal d 1 or rBet v 1 on birch pollen-related apple allergy. Sixty participants with birch pollen-related apple allergy were randomized to daily sublingual application of placebo (n = 20) or 25 μg of rMal d 1 (n = 20) or rBet v 1 (n = 20) for 16 weeks. Adverse events were regularly recorded. Sublingual challenges with standardized doses of rMal d 1, skin prick tests with recombinant allergens, and measurements of allergen-specific IgE and IgG 4 antibodies were performed before and after treatment. Both formulations caused comparable, mainly local adverse events. No systemic reactions occurred. Compared with the placebo and rBet v 1-treated groups, SLIT with rMal d 1 reduced rMal d 1-induced oral symptoms (P = .001 and P = .038) accompanied by longitudinally reduced rMal d 1-specific cutaneous reactions (P = .022) and enhanced IgG 4 /IgE ratios (P = .012). SLIT with rBet v 1 neither improved the clinical reactivity to rMal d 1 nor enhanced rMal d 1-specific IgG 4 /IgE ratios. Participants receiving placebo showed no allergen-specific changes. Sublingual treatment with a recombinant food allergen was safe and clinically effective, as determined by using standardized challenges. We present a promising approach for the effective treatment of birch pollen-related apple allergy. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. IgE and allergen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 recognize similar epitopes of Bet v 1, the major allergen of birch pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groh, N; von Loetzen, C S; Subbarayal, B; Möbs, C; Vogel, L; Hoffmann, A; Fötisch, K; Koutsouridou, A; Randow, S; Völker, E; Seutter von Loetzen, A; Rösch, P; Vieths, S; Pfützner, W; Bohle, B; Schiller, D

    2017-05-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen generates Bet v 1-specific immunoglobulin (Ig)G 4 which blocks IgE-mediated hypersensitivity mechanisms. Whether IgG 4 specific for Bet v 1a competes with IgE for identical epitopes or whether novel epitope specificities of IgG 4 antibodies are developed is under debate. We sought to analyze the epitope specificities of IgE and IgG 4 antibodies from sera of patients who received AIT. 15 sera of patients (13/15 received AIT) with Bet v 1a-specific IgE and IgG 4 were analyzed. The structural arrangements of recombinant (r)Bet v 1a and rBet v 1a _11x , modified in five potential epitopes, were analyzed by circular dichroism and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. IgE binding to Bet v 1 was assessed by ELISA and mediator release assays. Competitive binding of monoclonal antibodies specific for Bet v 1a and serum IgE/IgG 4 to rBet v 1a and serum antibody binding to a non-allergenic Bet v 1-type model protein presenting an individual epitope for IgE was analyzed in ELISA and western blot. rBet v 1a _11x had a Bet v 1a - similar secondary and tertiary structure. Monomeric dispersion of rBet v 1a _11x was concentration and buffer-dependent. Up to 1500-fold increase in the EC 50 for IgE-mediated mediator release induced by rBet v 1a _11x was determined. The reduction of IgE and IgG 4 binding to rBet v 1a _11x was comparable in 67% (10/15) of sera. Bet v 1a-specific monoclonal antibodies inhibited binding of serum IgE and IgG 4 to 66.1% and 64.9%, respectively. Serum IgE and IgG 4 bound specifically to an individual epitope presented by our model protein in 33% (5/15) of sera. Patients receiving AIT develop Bet v 1a-specific IgG 4 which competes with IgE for partly identical or largely overlapping epitopes. The similarities of epitopes for IgE and IgG 4 might stimulate the development of epitope-specific diagnostics and therapeutics. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT – indications, mechanism, and efficacy Position paper prepared by the Section of Immunotherapy, Polish Society of Allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Jutel

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available SLIT ( sublingual immunotherapy induces allergen-specific immune tolerance by sublingual administration of a gradually increasing dose of an allergen. The mechanism of SLIT is comparable to those during SCIT (subcutaneous immunotherapy, with the exception of local oral dendritic cells, pre-programmed to elicit tolerance. In the SLIT dose, to achieve the same efficacy as in SCIT, it should be 50–100 times higher with better safety profile. The highest quality evidence supporting the efficacy of SLIT lasting 1 – 3 years has been provided by the large scale double-blind, placebo-controlled (DBPC trials for grass pollen extracts, both in children and adults with allergic rhinitis. Current indications for SLIT are allergic rhinitis (and conjunctivitis in both children and adults sensitized to pollen allergens (trees, grass, Parietaria , house dust mites ( Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae , cat fur, as well as mild to moderate controlled atopic asthma in children sensitized to house dust mites. There are positive findings for both asthma and new sensitization prevention. Severe adverse events, including anaphylaxis, are very rare, and no fatalities have been reported. Local adverse reactions develop in up to 70 – 80% of patients. Risk factors for SLIT adverse events have not been clearly identified. Risk factors of non-adherence to treatment might be dependent on the patient, disease treatment, physician-patient relationship, and variables in the health care system organization.

  6. New visions in specific immunotherapy in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Lau, Susanne; Valovirta, Erkka

    2008-01-01

    of the effect, as well as the dose, the treatment regimen and duration has not been sufficiently elaborated. It is demonstrated that SCIT has the potential for preventing the development of asthma in children with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Also one randomized study indicates a preventive effect of SLIT...... in children on the development of asthma. At present, there are no studies who clearly demonstrates either a long-term effect or a preventive effect on the development of asthma of SLIT in children. The areas with lack of evidence should be addressed in well performed prospective, randomized long-term studies...... immunotherapy (SLIT) has also been investigated in children. SCIT, especially with grass and birch pollens but also house dust mites, is an effective treatment in children with allergic rhinitis and asthma when a significant part of their symptoms are caused by these allergens. A long-term effect up to 12 yr...

  7. Complete primary structure of a Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III: comparison with known Lol p I and II sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Shenbagamurthi, P; Marsh, D G

    1989-10-17

    The complete amino acid sequence of a Lolium perenne (rye grass) pollen allergen, Lol p III, determined by the automated Edman degradation of the protein and its selected fragments, is reported in this paper. Cleavage by enzymatic and chemical techniques established unambiguously the sequence for this 97-residue protein (Mr = 10,909), which lacks cysteine and shows no evidence of glycosylation. The sequence of Lol p III is very similar to that of another L. perenne allergen, Lol p II, which was sequenced recently; of the 97 positions in the two proteins, 57 are occupied by identical amino acids (59% identity). In addition, both allergens share a similar structure with an antibody-binding fragment of a third L. perenne allergen, Lol p I. Since human antibody responsiveness to all these three allergens is associated with HLA-DR3, and since the structure common to the three molecules shows high degrees of amphipathicity in Lol p II and III, we speculate that this common segment in the three molecules might contain or contribute to the respectively Ia/T-cell sites.

  8. The European Survey on Adverse Systemic Reactions in Allergen Immunotherapy (EASSI): A paediatric assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez Del Río, Pablo; Vidal, Carmen; Just, Jocelyne; Tabar, Ana I; Sanchez-Machin, Inmaculada; Eberle, Peter; Borja, Jesus; Bubel, Petra; Pfaar, Oliver; Demoly, Pascal; Calderón, Moises A

    2017-02-01

    Safety data on 'real-life' allergen immunotherapy (AIT) in children and adolescents is usually extrapolated from studies in adults. Patients aged 18 or under initiating aeroallergen AIT were evaluated in a prospective European survey. Patient profiles and systemic reactions (SRs) were recorded. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify risk factors for SRs. A total of 1563 patients (mean ± SD age: 11.7 ± 3.9 years; rhinitis: 93.7%; asthma: 61.5%; polysensitization: 62.5%) and 1578 courses of AIT were assessed. Single-allergen AIT was administered in 89.5% of cases (n = 1412; mites: 49%; grass pollen: 25.8%; tree pollen: 8.7%; Alternaria: 4.6%; dander: 0.8%; weed pollen: 0.6%). Subcutaneous AIT (SCIT) was used in 71.4% (n = 1127) of the treatments, including 574 (50.9%) with natural extracts. Sublingual AIT (SLIT) was used for the remaining 451 treatments (drops: 73.8%; tablets: 26.2%). The mean ± SD follow-up period was 12.9 ± 3.3 months. The estimated total number of doses was 19,669 for SCIT and 131,550 for SLIT. Twenty-four patients (1.53%) experienced 29 SRs. Respiratory (55.7%) and skin symptoms (37.9%) were most frequent. Anaphylaxis was diagnosed in 3 SRs (10.3%), and adrenaline was administered in 2 of these cases. In a univariate analysis, the risk of SRs was lower in mite-sensitized patients and higher in cases of pollen polysensitization (>3), grass pollen extracts and the use of natural extracts (vs. allergoids). In a real-life paediatric setting, AIT is safe. SRs are infrequent and generally not severe. Pollen polysensitization, grass pollen extracts and natural extracts (vs. allergoids) were risk factors for AIT-associated SRs. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Specific immunotherapy modifies allergen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in an epitope-dependent manner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wambre, Erik; DeLong, Jonathan H.; James, Eddie A.; Torres-Chinn, Nadia; Pfützner, Wolfgang; Möbs, Christian; Durham, Stephen R.; Till, Stephen J.; Robinson, David; Kwok, William W.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding the mechanisms by which the immune system induces and controls allergic inflammation at the T cell epitope level is critical for the design of new allergy vaccine strategies. Objective To characterize allergen-specific T cell responses linked with allergy or peripheral tolerance and to determine how CD4+ T cell responses to individual allergen-derived epitopes change over allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT). Methods Timothy grass pollen (TGP) allergy was used as a model for studying grass pollen allergies. The breadth, magnitude, epitope hierarchy and phenotype of the DR04:01-restricted TGP-specific T cell responses in ten grass pollen allergic, five non-atopic and six allergy vaccine-treated individuals was determined using an ex vivo pMHCII-tetramer approach. Results CD4+ T cells in allergic individuals are directed to a broad range of TGP epitopes characterized by defined immunodominance hierarchy patterns and with distinct functional profiles that depend on the epitope recognized. Epitopes that are restricted specifically to either TH2 or TH1/TR1 responses were identified. ASIT was associated with preferential deletion of allergen-specific TH2 cells and without significant change in frequency of TH1/TR1 cells. Conclusions Preferential allergen-specific TH2-cells deletion after repeated high doses antigen stimulation can be another independent mechanism to restore tolerance to allergen during immunotherapy. PMID:24373351

  10. Seasonal versus perennial immunotherapy: evaluation after three years of treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz Lejarazu, D; Bernaola, G; Fernández, E; Audícana, M; Ventas, P; Martín, S; Fernández de Corres, L

    1993-01-01

    We have performed a comparative study to evaluate seasonal and perennial schedules after 3 years of immunotherapy. Sixty patients suffering from rhinitis and/or asthma due to grass pollen sensitization were randomly allocated to receive a semi-depot extract of Phleum pratense according to a perennial or seasonal schedule. The last year of the study, 14 patients were recruited as a control group without immunotherapy. The cumulative dose was 602 BU in the perennial group and 372 BU in the seasonal group. The frequency and severity of side-effects were similar and very low in both treated groups. The IgE level was significantly lower after perennial immunotherapy at the end of the first 2 years. A seasonal decrease in specific IgG levels was observed in patients who interrupted immunotherapy, while this was not observed in patients under the perennial schedule. Symptoms and medication scores did not show differences between groups. Nevertheless, we found a significant difference between treated patients and the control group.

  11. Efficacy of oral immunotherapy with a rice-based edible vaccine containing hypoallergenic Japanese cedar pollen allergens for treatment of established allergic conjunctivitis in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Fukuda

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Oral administration of transgenic rice seeds expressing hypoallergenic allergens ameliorated allergic conjunctivitis in the established setting. Such a rice-based edible vaccine is potentially both safe and effective for oral immunotherapy in individuals with allergic conjunctivitis.

  12. The efficacy of E.P.D., a new immunotherapy, in the treatment of allergic diseases in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caramia, G; Franceschini, F; Cimarelli, Z A; Ciucchi, M S; Gagliardini, R; Ruffini, E

    1996-11-01

    A double blind study was made on a group of 35 children, 8 of whom were allergic to Grass and 27 allergic to Pteronyssinus and Farinae Dermatophagoides. We verified the efficacy and tolerability of a new immunotherapy called E.P.D. (Enzyme Potentiated Desensitization). This particular immunotherapy consists in an intradermal injection of a mix made up of an allergic solution at extremely low doses and an enzyme, beta-glucuronidase. The vaccine is administered once a year, two weeks before pollen peaks for children with seasonal allergies and two times a year, in February and November, for children with non-seasonal allergies (Dermatophagoides). The results, statistically analyzed on the basis of a symptoms score, showed good clinical efficacy in patients affected by both seasonal and non-seasonal allergies. Due to the clinical effectiveness, easy administration and excellent tolerability of the immunotherapy, E.P.D. is particularly suited for treating or reducing allergic symptoms in allergic children.

  13. Quantification in mass units of group 1 grass allergens by a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arilla, M C; Ibarrola, I; Eraso, E; Aguirre, M; Martínez, A; Asturias, J A

    2001-08-01

    Grass pollen extracts currently used for allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy are a complex mixture of proteins of which only a few have allergenic activity. Lol p 1 is one of the most important allergens in grass pollen extracts. To develop a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of Lol p 1 and other group 1 allergens from grass species, and to assess its suitability for quantifying this group of allergens. Balb/c mice immunized with recombinant Lol p 1 were used for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Screening of hybridomas was performed by direct ELISA, and selected monoclonal antibodies were immobilized on ELISA plates and incubated with samples containing group 1 allergens. Bound allergens were detected by a combination of biotinylated Lol p 1-specific monoclonal antibody and peroxidase-streptavidin conjugate. The assay is based on three Lol p 1-specific monoclonal antibodies with different epitope specificities. The optimized ELISA measured Lol p 1 concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000 ng/mL and could quantify group 1 allergen from grass species belonging to the Pooidea subfamily. The assay does not depend on anti-sera production or availability of human sera and thus reactives can be produced in unlimited amounts. This sensitive and specific Lol p 1 assay will be helpful both for quantifying the group 1 allergen content of Pooideae pollen extracts intended for clinical use and for studying cross-reactivities among pollen extracts.

  14. A proteomic style approach to characterize a grass mix product reveals potential immunotherapeutic benefit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bullimore, Alan; Swan, Nicola; Alawode, Wemimo; Skinner, Murray

    2011-09-01

    Grass allergy immunotherapies often consist of a mix of different grass extracts, each containing several proteins of different physiochemical properties; however, the subtle contributions of each protein are difficult to elucidate. This study aimed to identify and characterize the group 1 and 5 allergens in a 13 grass extract and to standardize the extraction method. The grass pollens were extracted in isolation and pooled and also in combination and analyzed using a variety of techniques including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, liquid chromatog-raphy-mass spectrometry, and sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylam-ide gel electrophoresis. Gold-staining and IgE immunoblotting revealed a high degree of homology of protein bands between the 13 species and the presence of a densely stained doublet at 25-35 kD along with protein bands at approximately 12.5, 17, and 50 kD. The doublet from each grass species demonstrated a high level of group 1 and 5 interspecies homology. However, there were a number of bands unique to specific grasses consistent with evolutionary change and indicative that a grass mix immunotherapeutic could be considered broad spectrum. Sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electro-phoresis and IgE immunoblotting showed all 13 grasses share a high degree of homology, particularly in terms of group 1 and 5 allergens. IgE and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay potencies were shown to be independent of extraction method.

  15. Chemotaxonomy as a tool for interpreting the cryptic diversity of Poaceae pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Julier, A.C.M.; Jardine, P.E.; Coe, A.L.; Gosling, W.D.; Lomax, B.H.; Fraser, W.T.

    2016-01-01

    The uniform morphology of different species of Poaceae (grass) pollen means that identification to below family level using light microscopy is extremely challenging. Poor taxonomic resolution reduces recoverable information from the grass pollen record, for example, species diversity and

  16. Allergenic pollen pollinosis in Madrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subiza, J; Jerez, M; Jiménez, J A; Narganes, M J; Cabrera, M; Varela, S; Subiza, E

    1995-07-01

    A 15-year pollen count was performed in the atmosphere of Madrid, Spain, to determine the months in which the highest concentrations of allergenic pollens occur. Pollen counts were done with a Burkard spore trap (Burkard Manufacturing, Rickmansworth, Herst., U.K.). The results were subsequently compared with results of skin tests in patients with pollinosis born and living in and around Madrid. The highest airborne presence (percent of total yearly pollen counts, mean of counts from 1979 to 1993) was for Quercus spp. (17%); followed by Platanus spp. (15%), Poaceae (15%), Cupressaceae (11%), Olea spp. (9%), Pinus spp. (7%), Populus spp. (4%), and Plantago spp. (4%). The most predominant pollens from January to April are tree pollens (Cupressaceae, Alnus, Fraxinus, Ulmus, Populus, Platanus, and Morus), although these are also abudant in May and June (Quercus, Olea, and Pinus spp.). The grass pollination period shows a double curve: the first peak occurs from February to April (8% of yearly grasses), and the second peak occurs from May to July (90% of yearly grasses). Among allergenically significant weeds, the most notable is Plantago; in contrast, Rumex, Urticaceae, Cheno-Amaranthaceae, and Artemisia spp. have very low concentrations (arizonica (20%). The population of Madrid is exposed to high concentrations of allergenic pollen from February to July, although the most intense period is from May to June. Grass pollens are the most important cause of pollinosis in this area.

  17. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turkalj M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Mirjana Turkalj,1,2 Ivana Banic,1 Srdjan Ante Anzic1 1Children’s Hospital Srebrnjak, Zagreb, 2Faculty of Medicine, JJ Strossmayer University of Osijek, Osijek, Croatia Abstract: Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients’ and their family’s quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic, and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success. Keywords: allergic rhinitis, allergy, ragweed, allergen-specific immunotherapy, Ambrosia artemisiifolia

  18. A review of clinical efficacy, safety, new developments and adherence to allergen-specific immunotherapy in patients with allergic rhinitis caused by allergy to ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turkalj, Mirjana; Banic, Ivana; Anzic, Srdjan Ante

    2017-01-01

    Allergic rhinitis is a common health problem in both children and adults. The number of patients allergic to ragweed ( Ambrosia artemisiifolia ) is on the rise throughout Europe, having a significant negative impact on the patients' and their family's quality of life. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) has disease-modifying effects and can induce immune tolerance to allergens. Both subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy with ragweed extracts/preparations have clear positive clinical efficacy, especially over pharmacological treatment, even years after the treatment has ended. AIT also has very good safety profiles with extremely rare side effects, and the extracts/preparations used in AIT are commonly well tolerated by patients. However, patient adherence to treatment with AIT seems to be quite low, mostly due to the fact that treatment with AIT is relatively time-demanding and, moreover, due to patients not receiving adequate information and education about the treatment before it starts. AIT is undergoing innovations and improvements in clinical efficacy, safety and patient adherence, especially with new approaches using new adjuvants, recombinant or modified allergens, synthetic peptides, novel routes of administration (epidermal or intralymphatic), and new protocols, which might make AIT more acceptable for a wider range of patients and novel indications. Patient education and support (eg, recall systems) is one of the most important goals for AIT in the future, to further enhance treatment success.

  19. The blocking activity of birch pollen-specific immunotherapy-induced IgG4 is not qualitatively superior to that of other IgG subclasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejrnaes, Anne M; Bødtger, Uffe; Larsen, Jørgen N

    2004-01-01

    IgE were detected using 125I-labelled rBet v 1.2801, a recombinant variant of the major allergen of Betula verrucosa pollen. Results show that IgG4-depletion resulted in equivalent reductions in binding and blocking activities. In contrast, a significant but less than two-fold higher relative...... for the clinical efficacy of SIT. In this study, fractionated serum samples from 14 SIT-treated birch pollen allergic individuals enabled determination of the inhibitory capacity of IgG4 alone versus non-IgG4 IgG. Allergen-binding activities of IgG and the IgG-mediated inhibition of allergen binding to autologous...

  20. Efficacy of combination treatment with anti-IgE plus specific immunotherapy in polysensitized children and adolescents with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehr, Joachim; Brauburger, Jens; Zielen, Stefan; Schauer, Uwe; Kamin, Wolfgang; Von Berg, Andrea; Leupold, Wolfgang; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Rolinck-Werninghaus, Claudia; Gräve, Michael; Hultsch, Thomas; Wahn, Ulrich

    2002-02-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) and treatment with monoclonal anti-IgE antibody have complementary modes of action. The purpose of this study was to determine whether combined therapy could provide better efficacy than either treatment alone. We conducted a randomized, double-blinded trial to assess the efficacy and safety of subcutaneously administered anti-IgE (omalizumab) or placebo in children and adolescents with seasonal allergic rhinitis in both a birch pollen season and a grass pollen season (sequential seasons together lasting an average of 84 days). There were 4 treatment arms. Each subject was started on SIT-birch or SIT-grass, and anti-IgE or placebo was started before and maintained during the anticipated pollen seasons (a total of 24 weeks). The primary efficacy variable was symptom load, the sum of daily symptom severity score plus rescue medication use. A total of 221 subjects (intent-to-treat population) aged 6 to 17 years were analyzed for efficacy. Combination therapy reduced symptom load over the 2 pollen seasons by 48% (P <.001) over SIT alone. When analyzed separately by season, the 2 groups receiving unrelated SIT were considered placebo controls. In the grass season, symptom loads were as follows: unrelated (birch) SIT + placebo, 0.89 (reference value); unrelated (birch) SIT + anti-IgE, 0.49 (-45%); SIT-grass + placebo, 0.61 (-32%); SIT-grass + anti-IgE, 0.26 (-71%). Anti-IgE therapy conferred a protective effect independent of the type of allergen. Additional clinical benefit was demonstrated in both pollen seasons, whether there was coverage by SIT or not. This combination might prove useful for the treatment of allergic rhinitis, particularly for polysensitized patients.

  1. Five-grass pollen immunotherapy tablet: an update on the latest findings from clinical trials: an interview with Olivier de Beaumont.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Beaumont, Olivier; Wilkinson, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Interview by Jonathan Wilkinson (Managing Commissioning Editor, Future Science Group). Olivier de Beaumont became Doctor of Medicine at the University of Paris Descartes in 1993. In the same year, he also took a Master of Health Economics degree at Paris Dauphine University. He is also a Master of Business Administration, ESCP Paris, 1999. At Stallergenes, he has been serving as Vice President/Head of Corporate Clinical Development since 2005, responsible for the clinical development plan, clinical operations, biometry and pharmacovigilance. In 2011, he took the responsibility of Senior Vice President Global Medical Affairs responsible for medical information and education, medical communication and nonregistration clinical studies. In 2014 he became Senior Vice President Global Scientific and Medical Affairs. From 2002 to 2005 he led the European business development of the world's leading clinical research organization Quintiles, developing Phase I-IV clinical trial programs for pharmaceutical companies. Previous roles included: Chief Scientific Officer and cofounder of Direct Medica (2000-2002), product champion and lifecycle management at Aventis (1998-2000), medical affairs manager in oncology and respiratory diseases at corporate Rhone-Poulenc Rorer (1993-1998).

  2. Real-life compliance and persistence among users of subcutaneous and sublingual allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiel, Menno A; Röder, Esther; Gerth van Wijk, Roy; Al, Maiwenn J; Hop, Wim C J; Rutten-van Mölken, Maureen P M H

    2013-08-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual allergen immunotherapy (SLIT) are safe and effective treatments of allergic rhinitis, but high levels of compliance and persistence are crucial to achieving the desired clinical effects. Our objective was to assess levels and predictors of compliance and persistence among grass pollen, tree pollen, and house dust mite immunotherapy users in real life and to estimate the costs of premature discontinuation. We performed a retrospective analysis of a community pharmacy database from The Netherlands containing data from 6486 patients starting immunotherapy for 1 or more of the allergens of interest between 1994 and 2009. Two thousand seven hundred ninety-six patients received SCIT, and 3690 received SLIT. Time to treatment discontinuation was analyzed and included Cox proportional hazard models with time-dependent covariates, where appropriate. Overall, only 18% of users reached the minimally required duration of treatment of 3 years (SCIT, 23%; SLIT, 7%). Median durations for SCIT and SLIT users were 1.7 and 0.6 years, respectively (P < .001). Other independent predictors of premature discontinuation were prescriber, with patients of general practitioners demonstrating longer persistence than those of allergologists and other medical specialists; single-allergen immunotherapy, lower socioeconomic status; and younger age. Of the persistent patients, 56% were never late in picking up their medication from the pharmacy. Direct medication costs per nonpersistent patient discontinuing in the third year of treatment were €3800, an amount that was largely misspent. Real-life persistence is better in SCIT users than in SLIT users, although it is low overall. There is an urgent need for further identification of potential barriers and measures that will enhance persistence and compliance. Copyright © 2013 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy is a cancer treatment that helps your immune system fight cancer. It is a type of biological therapy. Biological therapy uses substances ... t yet use immunotherapy as often as other cancer treatments, such as surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. ...

  4. Allergen immunotherapy in people, dogs, cats and horses - differences, similarities and research needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, R S; Jensen-Jarolim, E; Roth-Walter, F; Marti, E; Janda, J; Seida, A A; DeBoer, D

    2018-04-19

    In human patients with seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis sensitized to grass pollen, the first successful allergen immunotherapy (AIT) was reported in 1911. Today, immunotherapy is an accepted treatment for allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis and hypersensitivities to insect venom. AIT is also used for atopic dermatitis and recently for food allergy. Subcutaneous, epicutaneous, intralymphatic, oral and sublingual protocols of AIT exist. In animals, most data are available in dogs where subcutaneous AIT is an accepted treatment for atopic dermatitis. Initiating a regulatory response and a production of "blocking" IgG antibodies with AIT are similar mechanisms in human beings and dogs with allergic diseases. Although subcutaneous immunotherapy is used for atopic dermatitis in cats, data for its efficacy is sparse. There is some evidence for successful treatment of feline asthma with AIT. In horses, most studies evaluate the effect of AIT on insect hypersensitivity with conflicting results though promising pilot studies have demonstrated the prophylaxis of insect hypersensitivity with recombinant antigens of biting midges (Culicoides spp.). Optimising AIT using allergoids, peptide immunotherapy, recombinant allergens and new adjuvants with the different administration types of allergen extracts hopefully will further improve compliance and efficacy of this proven treatment modality. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. Complementary DNA cloning of the major allergen Phl p I from timothy grass (Phleum pratense); recombinant Phl p I inhibits IgE binding to group I allergens from eight different grass species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laffer, S.; Valenta, R.; Vrtala, S.; Susani, M.; van Ree, R.; Kraft, D.; Scheiner, O.; Duchêne, M.

    1994-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Grass pollens, such as pollen from timothy grass (Phleum pratense), represent a major cause of type I allergy. OBJECTIVE: In this report we attempted to determine how cross-reactive allergenic components of grass pollens from different species can be represented by a minimum number of

  6. Safety of ultrashort-term sit with pollen allergoids adjuvanted by monophosphoryl lipid A: a prospective Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crivellaro, M; Senna, G E; Pappacoda, A; Vanzelli, R; Spacal, B; Marchi, G; Recchia, G; Makatsori, M

    2011-03-01

    A 3-year prospective post marketing survey on the safety of the recently developed ultrashort pre-seasonal subcutaneous immunotherapy (uSCIT-MPL4) with pollen allergoids adjuvanted with monophosphoryl lipid A was performed. A total of 510 patients received uSCIT-MPL4, 61% for grass, 35.7% for birch, 13.2% for parietaria and 3% for other pollens (ragweed, mugwort, and olive). A total of 3308 injections were given and the mean duration of uSCIT-MPL-4 was 2.3 years. Overall, only 7 slight systemic reactions (SR) were observed in 510 patients (1.37%) and 2.11/1000 injections suggesting that this treatment is even safer than traditional depot injection SIT.

  7. Pollen-Associated Microbiome Correlates with Pollution Parameters and the Allergenicity of Pollen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Obersteiner

    Full Text Available Pollen allergies have been rapidly increasing over the last decades. Many allergenic proteins and non-allergenic adjuvant compounds of pollen are involved in the plant defense against environmental or microbial stress. The first aim of this study was to analyze and compare the colonizing microbes on allergenic pollen. The second aim was to investigate detectable correlations between pollen microbiota and parameters of air pollution or pollen allergenicity. To reach these aims, bacterial and fungal DNA was isolated from pollen samples of timothy grass (Phleum pratense, n = 20 and birch trees (Betula pendula, n = 55. With this isolated DNA, a terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis was performed. One result was that the microbial diversity on birch tree and timothy grass pollen samples (Shannon/Simpson diversity indices was partly significantly correlated to allergenicity parameters (Bet v 1/Phl p 5, pollen-associated lipid mediators. Furthermore, the microbial diversity on birch pollen samples was correlated to on-site air pollution (nitrogen dioxide (NO2, ammonia (NH3, and ozone (O3. What is more, a significant negative correlation was observed between the microbial diversity on birch pollen and the measured NO2 concentrations on the corresponding trees. Our results showed that the microbial composition of pollen was correlated to environmental exposure parameters alongside with a differential expression of allergen and pollen-associated lipid mediators. This might translate into altered allergenicity of pollen due to environmental and microbial stress.

  8. Immunotherapy (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Immunotherapy KidsHealth / For Parents / Immunotherapy What's in this article? ... Types of Immunotherapy Side Effects Outlook Print About Immunotherapy Immunotherapy, also known as targeted therapy or biotherapy, ...

  9. Design and recruitment for the GAP trial, investigating the preventive effect on asthma development of an SQ-standardized grass allergy immunotherapy tablet in children with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valovirta, Erkka; Berstad, Aud Katrine Herland; de Blic, Jacques

    2011-01-01

    Allergic rhinoconjunctivitis is a risk factor for asthma development. Treating the underlying allergy may represent an attractive method of asthma prevention. No regulatory guidance exists in this area, and, to our knowledge, no clinical investigations meeting modern regulatory standards have bee...

  10. Bee Pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for nutrition; as an appetite stimulant; to improve stamina and athletic performance; and for premature aging, premenstrual ... use bee pollen as a general tonic, to increase urine flow, and for alcohol intoxication. Bee pollen ...

  11. Specific immunotherapy with allergoids in atopic subjects, hyporeactive to other vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargiu, G; Valcurone, G; Agostoni, A; Sacchi, G; Tassi, G C

    1986-01-01

    Allergoids comply with the therapeutic requirement to reach high doses of the injected allergen, since the modifications of the allergens cause a loss of allergenicity, though the immunogenicity is being retained. Considering that it is possible to use a starting dose 40 times higher in comparison with retard vaccines, we thought it very expedient to treat with allergoids 18 patients allergic to parietaria, and 12 patients allergic to grass pollen, who had shown no clinical improvement after immunotherapy, lasting for at least three years with retard vaccines. The therapeutic results obtained are the following: improvement in 66% of the parietaria allergic patients after the first year, and of the 72% in the second year, of the 75% of the grass pollen allergic patients after the first year and of the 83% in the second year. They can be interpreted as due to the fact that such patients are always poorly reactive to the doses of allergens commonly present in retard vaccines. On the contrary, they do react to allergoids, both due to the high amount of allergen administered, and to the fact that polymerization brings about a stronger epitopic expression matched by a higher immunogenic activity. Moreover, the data are also indicative for a good relationship between the antibody titer of antigen-specific blocking IgG and the clinical effectiveness valued by means of symptom and medication scores.

  12. Efficacy of recombinant birch pollen vaccine for the treatment of birch-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pauli, Gabrielle; Larsen, Tina H; Rak, Sabina

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter, randomi......-treated group. CONCLUSION: The rBet v 1-based vaccine was safe and effective in treating birch pollen allergy, and induced a highly specific immune response.......BACKGROUND: Recombinant DNA technology has the potential to produce allergen-specific immunotherapy vaccines with defined composition. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effectiveness of a new recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine in patients with birch pollen allergy. METHODS: A multicenter......, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was undertaken to compare the following 3 vaccines in 134 adults with birch pollen allergy: recombinant birch pollen allergen vaccine (rBet v 1a), licensed birch pollen extract, natural purified birch pollen allergen (nBet v 1), and placebo. Patients...

  13. Physicochemical and immunologic characterization of low-molecular-weight allergoids of Dactylis glomerata pollen proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirković, T D; Bukilica, M N; Gavrović, M D; Vujcić, Z M; Petrović, S; Jankov, R M

    1999-02-01

    Orchard grass (Dactylis glomerata) pollen proteins were chemically modified by means of acid anhydrides (maleic and succinic anhydride) to obtain low-molecular-weight allergoids. Chemical modification in both cases led to the replacement of one positive charge (epsilon amino group of Lys) by one negative charge, yielding proteins with changed physicochemical properties in comparison to the native orchard grass-pollen proteins. Physicochemical characterization of derivatives was done by gel chromatography, SDS-PAGE, and isoelectric focusing. To examine the IgE-binding properties of these derivatives, we carried out immunoblotting. To examine the ability of derivatives to induce IgG production, we immunized rabbits. Skin prick testing with the allergoids was performed on 15 individuals allergic to orchard grass pollens and on two healthy subjects. It was shown that the modified proteins retain their original molecular weights, but change pI to more acidic values. In the case of allergoids, a strong reduction in IgE binding was found. Immunization of rabbits with allergoids showed that the derivatives retain the ability to induce IgG production, and that the antisera obtained in such a way react to native (unmodified) extract. The ability of derivatives to induce allergic reaction was significantly reduced. The patients (86.6%) included in our study exhibited less than 50% of native extract response. Among them, 53.3% had no response to one or both allergoids. These modification procedures yield allergoids with a reduced allergenic activity and preserved immunogenic potential suitable for use in immunotherapy.

  14. Cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cairns, Linda; Aspeslagh, Sandrine; Anichini, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    This report covers the Immunotherapy sessions of the 2016 Organisation of European Cancer Institutes (OECI) Oncology Days meeting, which was held on 15th-17th June 2016 in Brussels, Belgium. Immunotherapy is a potential cancer treatment that uses an individual's immune system to fight the tumour....... In recent years significant advances have been made in this field in the treatment of several advanced cancers. Cancer immunotherapies include monoclonal antibodies that are designed to attack a very specific part of the cancer cell and immune checkpoint inhibitors which are molecules that stimulate...... or block the inhibition of the immune system. Other cancer immunotherapies include vaccines and T cell infusions. This report will summarise some of the research that is going on in this field and will give us an update on where we are at present....

  15. Anti-idiotypes to anti-Lolp I (Rye) antibodies in allergic and non-allergic individuals. Influence of immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bose, R; Marsh, D G; Delespesse, G

    1986-01-01

    Anti-idiotypes (aId) reacting with anti-Lol I (Lolp I; Rye I) antibodies were detected by their ability to bind to radioiodinated F(ab')2 anti-Lol I. Sera were tested after removal of anti-Lol I and anti-heavy and light chain activity by adsorption on Lol I-Sepharose 4B and normal human serum Sepharose 4B. The binding of aId to Id was inhibited by affinity purified anti-Lol I but not by certain unrelated immunoglobulins; in some sera this binding was also inhibited by Lol I. The levels of aId were measured in serial bleedings collected over a 1 year period from Lol I-sensitive patients, allergic donors not sensitive to Lol I and non-allergic persons. In Lol I-allergic patients the levels of aId were significantly influenced by seasonal exposure to pollen and by immunotherapy with extracts of grass pollen. Moreover, in 12 out of 16 cases, there was also a significant inverse relationship between changes in serum levels of aId and of IgG or IgE anti-Lol I. Most interestingly, aId were also detected in non-allergic individuals; in this case, the levels of aId were not influenced by the pollen season. The data suggest that Id-aId interactions may play a role in the regulation of anti-Lol I antibody production. PMID:3492316

  16. Profilin is a cross-reactive allergen in pollen and vegetable foods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Voitenko, V.; van Leeuwen, W. A.; Aalberse, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Sera with IgE antibodies against grass pollen often contain IgE against vegetable foods. We investigated the role of the ubiquitous protein profilin in this cross-reactivity. Profilin was purified from Lolium perenne grass pollen by means of affinity purification with Sepharose-coupled

  17. ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH POLLINOSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. M. Torshkhoeva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to compare clinical efficacy and safety of sublingual and parenteral allergen-specific immunotherapy in children with pollinosis. Patients and methods: 143 patients with pollinosis aged from 5 to 16 years old were included into the study. They were divided into 4 groups and received allergen-specific immunotherapy. Patients of the groups I and III were administered water-salt mixtures of extracts of tree pollen allergens. Patients from the II group received standardized adjuvant mixture of extracts of tree pollen allergens. Patients from the IV group were administered standardized extract of birch pollen allergens. Prophylaxis with water-salt solutions was performed before seasons of increased allergy risk during 3 years in autumns and winters. Prophylaxis with standardized extracts of allergens was performed uninterruptedly for 3 years. Results: allergen-specific immunotherapy prevents increase of sensitization and enlargement of allergen spectrum of elevated organism perceptibility, as well as prevents aggravation of disease course and conversion to more severe forms. It also decreases requirements of anti-allergic drugs and therefore elongates the duration of remission. Conclusions: allergen-specific immunotherapy with the use of standardized allergens is the most effective method of treatment of pollen sensitization in children. In order to increase its efficacy not less than 3 courses of immunotherapy are needed.

  18. Sarcoma Immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gouw, Launce G.; Jones, Kevin B.; Sharma, Sunil; Randall, R. Lor

    2011-01-01

    Much of our knowledge regarding cancer immunotherapy has been derived from sarcoma models. However, translation of preclinical findings to bedside success has been limited in this disease, though several intriguing clinical studies hint at the potential efficacy of this treatment modality. The rarity and heterogeneity of tumors of mesenchymal origin continues to be a challenge from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, sarcomas remain attractive targets for immunotherapy, as they can be characterized by specific epitopes, either from their mesenchymal origins or specific alterations in gene products. To date, standard vaccine trials have proven disappointing, likely due to mechanisms by which tumors equilibrate with and ultimately escape immune surveillance. More sophisticated approaches will likely require multimodal techniques, both by enhancing immunity, but also geared towards overcoming innate mechanisms of immunosuppression that favor tumorigenesis

  19. Sarcoma Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gouw, Launce G., E-mail: launce.gouw@hsc.utah.edu [Departments of Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Jones, Kevin B. [Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Sharma, Sunil [Departments of Oncology, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States); Randall, R. Lor [Departments of Orthopaedic Surgery, Huntsman Cancer Institute at the University of Utah, 2000 Circle of Hope, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2011-11-10

    Much of our knowledge regarding cancer immunotherapy has been derived from sarcoma models. However, translation of preclinical findings to bedside success has been limited in this disease, though several intriguing clinical studies hint at the potential efficacy of this treatment modality. The rarity and heterogeneity of tumors of mesenchymal origin continues to be a challenge from a therapeutic standpoint. Nonetheless, sarcomas remain attractive targets for immunotherapy, as they can be characterized by specific epitopes, either from their mesenchymal origins or specific alterations in gene products. To date, standard vaccine trials have proven disappointing, likely due to mechanisms by which tumors equilibrate with and ultimately escape immune surveillance. More sophisticated approaches will likely require multimodal techniques, both by enhancing immunity, but also geared towards overcoming innate mechanisms of immunosuppression that favor tumorigenesis.

  20. Identification of T-cell epitopes of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass (Lolium perenne) pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaher, B; Suphioglu, C; Knox, R B; Singh, M B; McCluskey, J; Rolland, J M

    1996-07-01

    T-cell recognition of Lol p 9, a major allergen of ryegrass pollen, was investigated by using a T-cell line and T-cell clones generated from the peripheral blood of an atopic donor. The T-cell line reacted with purified Lol p 9, as well as with crude ryegrass pollen extract, but failed to cross-react with Bermuda grass pollen extract. All of six T-cell clones generated from this line proliferated in response to Lol p 9. Epitope mapping was carried out with a panel of 34 overlapping synthetic peptides, which spanned the entire sequence of the Lol p 9 12R isoform. The T-cell line responded to two of the peptides, Lol p 9 (105-116) and Lol p 9 (193-204), whereas reactivity with one or other of these peptides was shown by five T-cell clones. These two peptides contained sequences consistent with motifs previously reported for major histocompatibility complex class II-restricted peptides. HLA antibody blocking studies showed that presentation of peptide Lol p 9 (105-116) to one T-cell clone was HLA-DR-restricted; this clone expressed a T helper cell phenotype (CD3+, CD4+) and the T-cell receptor alpha beta. The identification of immunodominant T-cell epitope(s) on allergens is essential for devising safer and more effective immunotherapy strategies, which can interrupt the chain of events leading to allergic disease.

  1. Allergies, asthma, and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reactive airway - pollen; Bronchial asthma - pollen; Triggers - pollen; Allergic rhinitis - pollen ... Things that make allergies or asthma worse are called triggers. It is important to know your triggers because avoiding them is your first step toward feeling better. ...

  2. Artemisia vulgaris pollen allergoids digestibility in the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract

    OpenAIRE

    RATKO M. JANKOV; NATALIJA DJ. POLOVIC; MARIJA DJ. GAVROVIC-JANKULOVIC; LIDIJA BURAZER; DANICA DJERGOVIC-PETROVIC; OLGA VUCKOVIC; OLIKA DROBNJAK; ZORICA SPORCIC; MARINA ATANASKOVIC-MARKOVIC; RATKO M. JANKOV

    2006-01-01

    Chemically modified allergens (allergoids) have found use in both traditional and novel forms of immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Novel forms of immunotherapy include local allergen delivery, via the gastrointestinal tract. This study conveys the gastrointestinal stability of three types ofmugwort pollen allergoids under simulated conditions of the gut. Allergoids of the pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, succinic and maleic anhydride. Gastro...

  3. Phleum pratense pollen starch granules induce humoral and cell-mediated immune responses in a rat model of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Motta, A; Peltre, G; Dormans, J A M A; Withagen, C E T; Lacroix, G; Bois, F; Steerenberg, P A

    2004-02-01

    Timothy grass (Phleum pratense) pollen allergens are an important cause of allergic symptoms. However, pollen grains are too large to penetrate the deeper airways. Grass pollen is known to release allergen-bearing starch granules (SG) upon contact with water. These granules can create an inhalable allergenic aerosol capable of triggering an early asthmatic response and are implicated in thunderstorm-associated asthma. We studied the humoral (IgE) and bronchial lymph node cells reactivities to SG from timothy grass pollen in pollen-sensitized rats. Brown-Norway rats were sensitized (day 0) and challenged (day 21) intratracheally with intact pollen and kept immunized by pollen intranasal instillation by 4 weeks intervals during 3 months. Blood and bronchial lymph nodes were collected 7 days after the last intranasal challenge. SG were purified from fresh timothy grass pollen using 5 microm mesh filters. To determine the humoral response (IgE) to SG, we developed an original ELISA inhibition test, based on competition between pollen allergens and purified SG. The cell-mediated response to SG in the bronchial lymph node cells was determined by measuring the uptake of [3H]thymidine in a proliferation assay. An antibody response to SG was induced, and purified SG were able to inhibit the IgE ELISA absorbance by 45%. Pollen extract and intact pollen gave inhibitions of 55% and 52%, respectively. A cell-mediated response was also found, as pollen extract, intact pollen and SG triggered proliferation of bronchial lymph node cells. It was confirmed that timothy grass pollen contains allergen-loaded SG, which are released upon contact with water. These granules were shown to be recognized by pollen-sensitized rats sera and to trigger lymph node cell proliferation in these rats. These data provide new arguments supporting the implication of grass pollen SG in allergic asthma.

  4. Can we improve pollen season definitions by using the symptom load index in addition to pollen counts?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastl, Katharina; Kmenta, Maximilian; Geller-Bernstein, Carmi; Berger, Uwe; Jäger, Siegfried

    2015-01-01

    Airborne pollen measurements are the foundation of aerobiological research and provide essential raw data for various disciplines. Pollen itself should be considered a relevant factor in air quality. Symptom data shed light on the relationship of pollen allergy and pollination. The aim of this study is to assess the spatial variation of local, regional and national symptom datasets. Ten pollen season definitions are used to calculate the symptom load index for the birch and grass pollen seasons (2013–2014) in Austria. (1) Local, (2) regional and (3) national symptom datasets are used to examine spatial variations and a consistent pattern was found. In conclusion, national datasets are suitable for first insights where no sufficient local or regional dataset is available and season definitions based on percentages provide a practical solution, as they can be applied in regions with different pollen loads and produce more constant results. - Highlights: • The definition of the pollen season has an impact on the calculated symptom load. • Pollen season definitions based on percentages of total pollen are a practical solution. • The symptom load index is a robust tool to assess the allergy burden in a population. • Local, regional and national burdens of pollen allergy sufferers are comparable. - The symptom load index is a robust tool to assess the allergy burden in a population. Local, regional and national burdens of pollen allergy sufferers are comparable

  5. Immunotherapy in multimodality treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1989-01-01

    Application of immunotherapy for treatment of oncologic patients is considered. Monoclonal antibodies (MCA) are used for immunotherapy both independently and as carriers of various toxins, chemopreparations and radioactive isotopes. It is shown that immunotherapy should be considered as one of additional methods of multimodulity treatment of patients with malignant tumors

  6. Specific IgG and its subclass antibodies after immunotherapy with gynandropsis gynandra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latha G

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : About 10 to 15 % of the Indian population is known to suffer from major allergic disorders such as Asthma, Rhinitis, Atopic Dermatitis and Urticaria. Aeroallergens play a major role in the pathogenesis of respiratory allergic diseases. Among the aeroallergens, pollens are major causative agents. The predominance of pollen allergens necessitate the need to assess the specific immunotherapy (SIT in allergic patients. Objective : To evaluate the effect of immunotherapy based on the presence of IgG and its subclass antibodies towards whole pollen antigen of Gynandropsis gynandra (G.gynandra and its fractions. Material and Methods : A study was conducted in 30 bronchial asthma patients on immunotherapy, by assessing the levels of IgG and its subclasses specific to G. gynandra pollen. Results : There was a significant increase in IgG and its subclass antibodies to whole pollen antigen and its fractions i.e.> 90kD, 46-37kD and 36-32kD after the course of IT. Conclusion : The use of peptide fractions may be more appropriate instead of the whole pollen antigen to test the effect of immunotherapy.

  7. The influence of sublingual immunotherapy on several parameters of immunological response in children suffering from atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis depending on asthma features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepiela, Olga; Zawadzka-Krajewska, Anna; Kotuła, Iwona; Demkow, Urszula

    2014-01-01

    The clinical efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) has already been proven and is known to be high. Its influence on the immunological system of patients suffering from bronchial asthma was also examined. However, it is still unclear how the polysensitisation, coexistence of other atopic disease and asthma treatment step influence the response to treatment with specific immunotherapy. Herein we evaluate the impact of one-year SLIT on selected markers of immunological response depending on different individual and clinical factors of children suffering from atopic asthma and allergic rhinitis. Twenty-five patients aged 8.1 ± 3.1 years (range 5-15 years), 21 boys and 4 girls, suffering from asthma and allergic rhinitis with polysensitisation to seasonal and non-seasonal allergens, shortlisted for SLIT, were included in the study. Th1 cell and Th2 cell percentages, Bcl-2 expression in T cells, and basophil activation after allergen challenge (house dust mite and/or grass pollen antigen in solution used for skin prick tests) in peripheral blood were measured using flow cytometry. The association between clinical features of asthma and the influence of SLIT on immunological parameters was evaluated with exact Fisher test. No association between the influence of one-year sublingual immunotherapy on immunological system and patients' age, polysensitisation, asthma treatment step, or coexistence of any other atopic diseases was observed. However, an increase of the Th1 percentage in children sensitised against more than three allergens was found more often (at the limit of statistical significance) than in the group of children sensitised against three or less allergens. Based on our results, we cannot point to any subgroup isolated in the study, in which the response of the immunological system to sublingual immunotherapy is more satisfactory than any other. Nevertheless, the increase of Th1 cells may be more specific for polysensitised children.

  8. Aerobiology and pollen allergy in Islamabad

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abbas, S [Allergy and Asthma Centre, Islamabad (Pakistan); Raza, S M [Rawalpindi Medical College, Rawalpindi (Pakistan); Khan, M A [Quaid-i-Azam University, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Plant Sciences

    2009-10-15

    , it achieved maximum counts of only 40 pollens/cu meter of air/ hr on 27th of August. Skin prick tests demonstrated that out of 702 individuals selected irrespective of age or gender, 3 38 (48%) exhibited positive results in response to Broussonetia papyrifera pollen extracts, 207 (29%) were positive to grass pollen extracts and 137 (20%)w ere positive to Cannabis sativa pollen extracts. The Broussonetia papyrifera has the highest pollen count in the spring, (February to April), and is the main cause of allergic diseases like allergic rhinitis and asthma among the residents of Islamabad while the Cannabis sativa pollen count peaks in the fall season, causing allergic symptoms from July to September. Skin prick tests confirmed the findings. Regular awareness campaigns for seasonal pollen allergy should be launched before the beginning of the seasons. (author)

  9. Aerobiology and pollen allergy in Islamabad

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abbas, S.; Raza, S.M.; Khan, M.A.

    2009-01-01

    , it achieved maximum counts of only 40 pollens/cu meter of air/ hr on 27th of August. Skin prick tests demonstrated that out of 702 individuals selected irrespective of age or gender, 3 38 (48%) exhibited positive results in response to Broussonetia papyrifera pollen extracts, 207 (29%) were positive to grass pollen extracts and 137 (20%)w ere positive to Cannabis sativa pollen extracts. The Broussonetia papyrifera has the highest pollen count in the spring, (February to April), and is the main cause of allergic diseases like allergic rhinitis and asthma among the residents of Islamabad while the Cannabis sativa pollen count peaks in the fall season, causing allergic symptoms from July to September. Skin prick tests confirmed the findings. Regular awareness campaigns for seasonal pollen allergy should be launched before the beginning of the seasons. (author)

  10. Urtica dioica pollen allergy: Clinical, biological, and allergomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiotiu, Angelica; Brazdova, Andrea; Longé, Cyril; Gallet, Patrice; Morisset, Martine; Leduc, Virginie; Hilger, Christiane; Broussard, Cédric; Couderc, Rémy; Sutra, Jean-Pierre; Sénéchal, Hélène; Poncet, Pascal

    2016-11-01

    The most emblematic members of Urticaceae at allergic risk level are wall pellitories (Parietaria), whereas nettle (Urtica) pollen is considered as poorly allergenic. No allergen from nettle pollen has yet been characterized, whereas 4 are listed for Parietaria pollen by the International Union of Immunological Societies. Clinical and biological profiles of 2 adult men who developed symptoms against nettle pollen and/or leaves were studied. To characterize the allergic reaction and identify the potential nettle pollen sensitizing allergens. IgE-mediated reaction to nettle pollen extract was evaluated by skin prick test, immunoassay, nasal provocation, and basophil activation test. To characterize specific nettle pollen allergens, an allergomic (IgE immunoproteomic) analysis was performed combining 1- and 2-dimensional electrophoresis, IgE immunoblots of nettle pollen extract, identification of allergens by mass spectrometry, and database queries. The results of biological and immunochemical analyses revealed that the allergic rhinitis was due to Urtica dioica pollen in both patients. The allergomic analysis of nettle pollen extract allowed the characterization of 4 basic protein allergens: a thaumatin-like protein (osmotin) with a relative molecular mass of 27 to 29 kDa, a pectinesterase (relative molecular mass, 40 kDa), and 2 other basic proteins with relative molecular masses of 14 to 16 kDa and 43 kDa. There is no or only very weak allergen associations between pellitory and nettle pollen. Exposure to nettle pollen can be responsible of allergic symptoms, and several allergens were characterized. Unravelling the allergens of this underestimated allergy might help to improve diagnosis and care for patients, to predict cross-reactivities and design adapted specific immunotherapy. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Immunotherapy: what lies beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casale, Thomas B; Stokes, Jeffrey R

    2014-03-01

    Allergen immunotherapy has been used to treat allergic diseases, such as asthma, allergic rhinitis, and venom allergy, since first described over a century ago. The current standard of care in the United States involves subcutaneous administration of clinically relevant allergens for several months, building up to eventual monthly injections for typically 3 to 5 years. Recent advances have improved the safety and efficacy of immunotherapy. The addition of omalizumab or Toll-like receptor agonists to standard subcutaneous immunotherapy has proved beneficial. Altering the extract itself, either through chemical manipulation producing allergoids or directly producing recombinant proteins or significant peptides, has been evaluated with promising results. The use of different administration techniques, such as sublingual immunotherapy, is common in Europe and is on the immediate horizon in the United States. Other methods of administering allergen immunotherapy have been studied, including epicutaneous, intralymphatic, intranasal, and oral immunotherapy. In this review we focus on new types and routes of immunotherapy, exploring recent human clinical trial data. The promise of better immunotherapies appears closer than ever before, but much work is still needed to develop novel immunotherapies that induce immunologic tolerance and enhanced clinical efficacy and safety over that noted for subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Debates in allergy medicine: specific immunotherapy efficiency in children with atopic dermatitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana A. Slavyanakaya

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen specific immunotherapy (AIT has been the only pathogenetically relevant treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases (ADs for many years. The use of AIT for atopic dermatitis (AD treatment is dubious and has both followers and opponents. The improvement of subcutaneous AIT (SCIT and introduction of Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT gives prospects of their application both for adults and children suffering from AD. This review presents results of scientific research, system and meta-analyses that confirm the clinical efficacy of AIT for children with AD who has the sensitization to allergens of house dust mite, grass and plant pollen suffering from co-occurring respiratory ADs and with moderate and severe course of allergic AD. There have been analyzed the most advanced achievements in AIT studies as well as there have been specified the unmet needs in AD. The preliminary diagnostics of IgE-mediated AD and pathophysiological disorders, including immune ones, will allow a doctor to develop appropriate comprehensive treatment algorithm for children’s AD aimed at its correction. The including of AIT to the children’s comprehensive therapy program is reasonable only if AD has the allergic form. It is necessary better to design the randomized research studies and to acquire extended clinical practice in children with AD. Use of the successes of molecular-based allergy diagnostics will help to optimize and personalize the process of selecting the necessary allergens to determine the most appropriate vaccines for children considering the results of the allergen component diagnostics. The strategy of treatment of children with AD in future will be based on individual target therapy.

  13. Poaceae pollen as the leading aeroallergen worldwide: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mozo, H

    2017-12-01

    The Poaceae family comprises over 12 000 wind-pollinated species, which release large amounts of pollen into the atmosphere. Poaceae pollen is currently regarded as the leading airborne biological pollutant and the chief cause of pollen allergy worldwide. Sensitization rates vary by country, and those variations are reviewed here. Grass pollen allergens are grouped according to their protein structure and function. In Poaceae, although species belonging to different subfamilies are characterized by distinct allergen subsets, there is a considerable degree of cross-reactivity between many species. Cross-reactivity between grass pollen protein and fresh fruit pan-allergens is associated with the appearance of food allergies. The additional influence of urban pollution may prompt a more severe immunological response. The timing and the intensity of the pollen season are governed by species genetics, but plant phenology is also influenced by climate; as a result, climate changes may affect airborne pollen concentrations. This article reviews the findings of worldwide research which has highlighted the major impact of climate change on plant phenology and also on the prevalence and severity of allergic disease. © 2017 EAACI and John Wiley and Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd.

  14. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juhua Zhou; Yin Zhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy,radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future.

  15. Breast Cancer Immunotherapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JuhuaZhou; YinZhong

    2004-01-01

    Breast cancer is a leading cause of cancer-related deaths in women worldwide. Although tumorectomy, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and hormone replacement therapy have been used for the treatment of breast cancer, there is no effective therapy for patients with invasive and metastatic breast cancer. Immunotherapy may be proved effective in treating patients with advanced breast cancer. Breast cancer immunotherapy includes antibody based immunotherapy, cancer vaccine immunotherapy, adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy and T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Antibody based immunotherapy such as the monoclonal antibody against HER-2/neu (trastuzumab) is successfully used in the treatment of breast cancer patients with over-expressed HER-2/neu, however, HER-2/neu is over-expressed only in 25-30% of breast cancer patients. Cancer vaccine immunotherapy is a promising method to treat cancer patients. Cancer vaccines can be used to induce specific anti-tumor immunity in breast cancer patients, but cannot induce objective tumor regression. Adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy is an effective method in the treatment of melanoma patients. Recent advances in anti-tumor T cell generation ex vivo and limited clinical trial data have made the feasibility of adoptive T cell transfer immunotherapy in the treatment of breast cancer patients. T cell receptor gene transfer can redirect the specificity of T cells. Chimeric receptor, scFv(anti-HER-2/neu)/zeta receptor, was successfully used to redirect cytotoxic T lymphocyte hybridoma cells to obtain anti-HER-2/neu positive tumor cells, suggesting the feasibility of treatment of breast cancer patients with T cell receptor gene transfer immunotherapy. Clinical trials will approve that immunotherapy is an effective method to cure breast cancer disease in the near future. Cellular & Molecular Immunology.

  16. Grass genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    1998-01-01

    For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...

  17. Pollen reference collection digitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ercan, F.E.Z.; Donders, T.H.; Bijl, P.K.; Wagner, F.

    2016-01-01

    The extensive Utrecht University pollen reference collection holds thousands of pollen samples of many species and genera from all over the world and has been a basis for the widely-used North West European Pollen Flora. These samples are fixed on glass slides for microscopy use, but the aging

  18. Pollen exposure and hospitalization due to asthma exacerbations: daily time series in a European city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osborne, Nicholas J.; Alcock, Ian; Wheeler, Benedict W.; Hajat, Shakoor; Sarran, Christophe; Clewlow, Yolanda; McInnes, Rachel N.; Hemming, Deborah; White, Mathew; Vardoulakis, Sotiris; Fleming, Lora E.

    2017-10-01

    Exposure to pollen can contribute to increased hospital admissions for asthma exacerbation. This study applied an ecological time series analysis to examine associations between atmospheric concentrations of different pollen types and the risk of hospitalization for asthma in London from 2005 to 2011. The analysis examined short-term associations between daily pollen counts and hospital admissions in the presence of seasonal and long-term patterns, and allowed for time lags between exposure and admission. Models were adjusted for temperature, precipitation, humidity, day of week, and air pollutants. Analyses revealed an association between daily counts (continuous) of grass pollen and adult hospital admissions for asthma in London, with a 4-5-day lag. When grass pollen concentrations were categorized into Met Office pollen `alert' levels, `very high' days (vs. `low') were associated with increased admissions 2-5 days later, peaking at an incidence rate ratio of 1.46 (95%, CI 1.20-1.78) at 3 days. Increased admissions were also associated with `high' versus `low' pollen days at a 3-day lag. Results from tree pollen models were inconclusive and likely to have been affected by the shorter pollen seasons and consequent limited number of observation days with higher tree pollen concentrations. Future reductions in asthma hospitalizations may be achieved by better understanding of environmental risks, informing improved alert systems and supporting patients to take preventive measures.

  19. The importance of pollen counts in the air: an example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco José González Minero

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Bay of Cádiz in general and Sanlúcar de Barrameda in particular were pioneering places for aerobiological analysis in Spain. This study presents unpublished pollen data collected with a Hirst spore trap during a year. Results are structured in pollen calendar form which is easy to interpret by health professionals. This article also intends to pay tribute to those medical pioneers who began their studies in Sanlúcar de Barrameda. On this subject, we discuss the data obtained in 1941 and we relate them with data collected in 2009. The Mediterranean climate and the geographical location of Sanlúcar de Barrameda bring about an archetypical pollen calendar of the towns of the Iberian Peninsula’s southern coast. A total of 21 pollen types are quanti ed, Olea europaea L. (25.1%, Quercus (17.5%, Pinaceae (12.3%, Poaceae (10.2% and Cupressaceae (8.1% being the more abundant types . The months of highest pollen concentration are April and May. The maximum daily concentration was reached on May 13 with 825 grains/m3 of Olea europaea L. pollen. Daily concentrations of grass pollen and other herbaceous plants are not exceptionally high, but they do have a continued presence throughout the year, so the risk of pollen allergies cannot be con ned to spring.

  20. Tracking maize pollen development by the Leaf Collar Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begcy, Kevin; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2017-12-01

    An easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method named the Leaf Collar Method is described to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. In plants, many cellular events such as meiosis, asymmetric cell division, cell cycle regulation, cell fate determination, nucleus movement, vacuole formation, chromatin condensation and epigenetic modifications take place during pollen development. In maize, pollen development occurs in tassels that are confined within the internal stalk of the plant. Hence, identification of the different pollen developmental stages as a tool to investigate above biological processes is impossible without dissecting the entire plant. Therefore, an efficient and reproducible method is necessary to isolate homogeneous cell populations at individual stages throughout pollen development without destroying the plant. Here, we describe a method to identify the various stages of pollen development in maize. Using the Leaf Collar Method in the maize inbreed line B73, we have determined the duration of each stage from pollen mother cells before meiosis to mature tricellular pollen. Anther and tassel size as well as percentage of pollen stages were correlated with vegetative stages, which are easily recognized. The identification of stage-specific genes indicates the reproducibility of the method. In summary, we present an easy and highly reproducible nondestructive method to identify and characterize the different stages of pollen development in maize. This method now opens the way for many subsequent physiological, morphological and molecular analyses to study, for instance, transcriptomics, metabolomics, DNA methylation and chromatin patterns during normal and stressful conditions throughout pollen development in one of the economically most important grass species.

  1. Human immune responsiveness to Lolium perenne pollen allergen Lol p III (rye III) is associated with HLA-DR3 and DR5.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, A A; Freidhoff, L R; Meyers, D A; Bias, W B; Marsh, D G

    1989-05-01

    A well-characterized allergen of Lolium perenne (perennial rye grass) pollen, Lol p III, has been used as a model antigen to study the genetic control of the human immune response. Associations between HLA type and IgE or IgG antibody (Ab) responsiveness to Lol p III were studied in two groups of skin-test-positive Caucasoid adults (N = 135 and 67). We found by nonparametric and parametric analyses that immune responsiveness to Lol p III was significantly associated with HLA-DR3 and DR5. No association was found between any DQ type and immune responsiveness to Lol p III. Geometric mean IgE or IgG Ab levels to Lol p III were not different between B8+, DR3+ subjects and B8-, DR3+ subjects, showing that HLA-B8 had no influence on the association. Lol p III IgG Ab data obtained on subjects after grass antigen immunotherapy showed that 100% of DR3 subjects and 100% of DR5 subjects were Ab+. A comparison of all the available protein sequences of DRB gene products showed that the first hypervariable region of DR3 and DR5 (and DRw6), and no other region, contains the sequence Glu9-Tyr-Ser-Thr-Ser13. Our observations are consistent with the possibility that immune responsiveness to the allergen Lol p III is associated with this amino acid sequence in the first hypervariable region of the DR beta 1 polypeptide chain.

  2. Dose-finding study of carbamylated monomeric allergoid tablets in grass-allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösges, Ralph; Rohdenburg, Christina; Eichel, Andrea; Zadoyan, Gregor; Kasche, Elena-Manja; Shah-Hosseini, Kija; Lehmacher, Walter; Schmalz, Petra; Compalati, Enrico

    2017-11-01

    To determine the optimal effective and safe dose of sublingual immunotherapy tablets containing carbamylated monomeric allergoids in patients with grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. In this prospective, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, multicenter, Phase II study, four different daily doses were applied preseasonally for 12 weeks. Of 158 randomized adults, 155 subjects (safety population) received 300 units of allergy (UA)/day (n = 36), 600 UA/day (n = 43), 1000 UA/day (n = 39), or 2000 UA/day (n = 37). After treatment, 54.3, 47.6, 59.0 and 51.4% of patients, respectively, ceased to react to the highest allergen concentration in a conjunctival provocation test. Furthermore, the response threshold improved in 70.4, 62.9, 76.7 and 66.7% of patients, respectively. No serious adverse events occurred. This study found 1000 UA/day to be the optimal effective and safe dose.

  3. Veterinary Oncology Immunotherapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergman, Philip J

    2018-03-01

    The ideal cancer immunotherapy agent should be able to discriminate between cancer and normal cells, be potent enough to kill small or large numbers of tumor cells, and be able to prevent recurrence of the tumor. Tumor immunology and immunotherapy are among the most exciting and rapidly expanding fields; cancer immunotherapy is now recognized as a pillar of treatment alongside traditional modalities. This article highlights approaches that seem to hold particular promise in human clinical trials and many that have been tested in veterinary medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Allergoid-specific T-cell reaction as a measure of the immunological response to specific immunotherapy (SIT) with a Th1-adjuvanted allergy vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Baehr, V; Hermes, A; von Baehr, R; Scherf, H P; Volk, H D; Fischer von Weikersthal-Drachenberg, K J; Woroniecki, S

    2005-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy (SIT) is believed to modulate CD4+ T-helper cells. In order to improve safety, SIT vaccines are often formulated with allergoids (chemically modified allergens). Interaction between T-cells and allergoids is necessary to influence cellular cytokine expression. There have been few reports on identification the early cellular effects of SIT. Patients allergic to grass and/or mugwort pollen (n= 21) were treated with a 4-shot allergy vaccine (Pollinex Quattro) containing appropriate allergoids (grass/rye and/or mugwort) adsorbed to L-tyrosine plus a Th1 adjuvant, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPL). Fourteen grass-allergic patients served as untreated controls. Using the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of these patients, an optimized lymphocyte transformation test (LTT) was employed to monitor the in vitro proliferative response of T-cells to an allergoid challenge (solubilised Pollinex Quattro) before the first and last injection and then 2 and 20 weeks after the final injection. Control challenges utilised preparations of a similar pollen vaccine without the adjuvant MPL and a tree pollen vaccine with and without MPL. The LTT showed increased LTT stimulation indices (SI) in 17/20 SIT patients when the solublised vaccine preparation was used as a challenge before the last injection and 2 weeks after, in comparison to pre-treatment levels. Twenty weeks after therapy, the SI decreased to baseline level. A vaccine challenge without MPL gave lower SI levels. A challenge of a clinically inappropriate tree allergoid vaccine gave no response, and a nontreated group also showed no response. Following a short-course SIT adjuvated with MPL, challenges of allergoids were shown to activate allergen-specific T cells in vitro. There was an additional stimulating effect when the challenge was in combination with MPL. There were no non-specific effects of MPL, shown by the tree allergoid/MPL control. The timing of the response was closely correlated to the

  5. Airborne pollen in Funchal city, (Madeira Island, Portugal) - First pollinic calendar and allergic risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camacho, Irene Câmara

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, pollen calendars are useful tools for clinical guidance intended for allergy sufferers, because they can be used to prevent and manage allergic respiratory diseases, thus improving the quality of life. An aeropalinological study was performed in the city of Funchal with the purpose of establishing a pollen calendar and determining allergic risk, based on a seven year study (2003-2009). The airborne pollen monitoring was carried out with a Hirst type volumetric spore trap, following well-established guidelines. The mean annual pollen index was 1,635.09 and comprised 42 different pollen types. Airborne pollen levels were higher between March - June, accounting for 57.9% of the annual counts. Arboreal pollen grains (52.72%) prevailed in the atmosphere together with herbs and grasses (44.64%), while fern spores (2.29%) and unidentified pollen (0.35%) were scarce. The main pollen types were Urticaceae (20.64%), Poaceae (16.02%), Cupressaceae (13.61%), Pinaceae (9.07%), Myrtaceae (5.93%) and Ericaceae (5.02%). The pollen calendar comprised a total of 14 taxa and is similar to Mediterranean regions, with the exception of Olea europaea, Quercus sp., Betula sp. and Alnus sp. pollen types which are rare or absent. The main pollen season of major pollen taxa is significantly longer in Funchal (on average 239 days) than other European sites, especially for Urticaceae and Poaceae, but the pollen peaks were substantially lower. The pollen calendar for Funchal is the first ever created for Madeira region. Taking into account the low pollen index and number of allergy-risk days recorded (39 days in 7 years), the air quality of Funchal can be considered good.

  6. Atmospheric pollen season in Zagreb (Croatia) and its relationship with temperature and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peternel, Renata; Srnec, Lidija; Čulig, Josip; Zaninović, Ksenija; Mitić, Božena; Vukušić, Ivan

    . The number of individuals allergic to plant pollen has recently been on a constant increase, especially in large cities and industrial areas. Therefore, monitoring of airborne pollen types and concentrations during the pollen season is of the utmost medical importance. The research reported in this paper aims to determine the beginning, course and end of the pollen season for the plants in the City of Zagreb, to identify allergenic plants, and to assess the variation in airborne pollen concentration as a function of temperature and precipitation changes for the year 2002. A volumetric Hirst sampler was used for airborne pollen sampling. Qualitative and quantitative pollen analysis was performed under a light microscope (magnification ×400). In the Zagreb area, 12 groups of highly allergenic plants (alder, hazel, cypress, birch, ash, hornbeam, grasses, elder, nettles, sweet chestnut, artemisia and ambrosia) were identified. Birch pollen predominated in spring, the highest concentrations being recorded in February and March. Grass pollen prevailed in May and June, and pollen of herbaceous plants of the genus Urtica (nettle) and of ambrosia in July, August and September. Air temperature was mostly higher or considerably higher than the annual average in those months, which resulted in a many days with high and very high airborne pollen concentrations. The exception was April, when these concentrations were lower because of high levels of precipitation. This also held for the first half of August and the second half of September. Pollen-sensitive individuals were at high risk from February till October because of the high airborne pollen concentrations, which only showed a transient decrease when the temperature fell or there was precipitation.

  7. Immunoscintigraphy and immunotherapy 1988

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Perkins, A.C.

    1988-01-01

    This review reports some of the main presentations from some of the major centres in Europe currently working in the field of immunoscintigraphy and immunotherapy. The meeting was organised into 5 sessions. (orig./TRV)

  8. Immunotherapy for infectious diseases

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jacobson, Jeffrey M

    2002-01-01

    .... The review of the current state of anti-HIV immunotherapy covers HIV-specific passive and active immunization strategies, gene therapy, and host cell-targeted approaches for treating HIV infection...

  9. Immunotherapy for cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2017. Accessed February 15, 2018. Pardoll D. Cancer immunology. In: Niederhuber JE, Armitage JO, Doroshow JH, Kastan ... D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cancer Immunotherapy Browse the Encyclopedia A.D.A. ...

  10. Cancer immunotherapy in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    More often than not, cancer immunotherapies that work in adults are used in modified ways in children. Seldom are new therapies developed just for children, primarily because of the small number of pediatric patients relative to the adult cancer patient

  11. Immunotherapy for Cervical Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    In an early phase NCI clinical trial, two patients with metastatic cervical cancer had a complete disappearance of their tumors after receiving treatment with a form of immunotherapy called adoptive cell transfer.

  12. Specific allergen immunotherapy for the treatment of atopic eczema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Herman; Calderon, Moises A; Manikam, Logan; Nankervis, Helen; García Núñez, Ignacio; Williams, Hywel C; Durham, Stephen; Boyle, Robert J

    2016-02-12

    Specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT) is a treatment that may improve disease severity in people with atopic eczema (AE) by inducing immune tolerance to the relevant allergen. A high quality systematic review has not previously assessed the efficacy and safety of this treatment. To assess the effects of specific allergen immunotherapy (SIT), including subcutaneous, sublingual, intradermal, and oral routes, compared with placebo or a standard treatment in people with atopic eczema. We searched the following databases up to July 2015: the Cochrane Skin Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL in the Cochrane Library (Issue 7, 2015), MEDLINE (from 1946), EMBASE (from 1974), LILACS (from 1982), Web of Science™ (from 2005), the Global Resource of EczemA Trials (GREAT database), and five trials databases. We searched abstracts from recent European and North American allergy meetings and checked the references of included studies and review articles for further references to relevant trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) of specific allergen immunotherapy that used standardised allergen extracts in people with AE. Two authors independently undertook study selection, data extraction (including adverse effects), assessment of risk of bias, and analyses. We used standard methodological procedures expected by Cochrane. We identified 12 RCTs for inclusion in this review; the total number of participants was 733. The interventions included SIT in children and adults allergic to either house dust mite (10 trials), grass pollen, or other inhalant allergens (two trials). They were administered subcutaneously (six trials), sublingually (four trials), orally, or intradermally (two trials). Overall, the risk of bias was moderate, with high loss to follow up and lack of blinding as the main methodological concern.Our primary outcomes were 'Participant- or parent-reported global assessment of disease severity at the end of treatment'; 'Participant- or parent-reported specific

  13. Nanoparticle based-immunotherapy against allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamazo, Carlos; Gastaminza, Gabriel; Ferrer, Marta; Sanz, María L; Irache, Juan M

    2014-01-01

    Allergic diseases are one of the most prevalent diseases, reaching epidemic proportions in developed countries. An allergic reaction occurs after contact with an environmental protein, such as inhalants allergens (pollen, animal dander, house dust mites), or food proteins. This response is known as part of the type 2 immunity that is counterbalanced by Type 1 immunity and Tregs. Widely used allergen-specific immunotherapy (IT) is a long term treatment to induce such switch from Th2 to Th1 response. However, conventional IT requires multiple allergen injections over a long period of time and is not free of risk of producing allergic reactions. As a consequence, new safer and faster immunotherapeutic methods are required. This review deals with allergen IT using nanoparticles as allergen delivery system that will allow a different way of administration, reduce dose and diminish allergen exposure to IgE bound to mast cells or basophils.

  14. Can Immunotherapy Succeed in Glioblastoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers are hopeful that, for the deadly brain cancer glioblastoma, immunotherapy might succeed where other therapies have not. As this Cancer Currents post reports, different immunotherapy approaches are being tested in clinical trials.

  15. Storage of strawberry pollen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafet Aslantaş

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine storage ability of strawberry pollen at different temperatures for three different strawberry cultivars 'Aliso', 'Brio', and 'Cruz'. Strawberry pollen was stored at room temperature (22 ±2°C, +4°C, -4°C and -18°C in stabile humidity conditions. Strawberry poIlen was germinated using the hanging drop method in a 20% sucrose solution. Pollen germination rate increased because of low temperature storage. Pollen stored at room temperature and +4°C, -4°C, and -18°C was kept for 8 months, about one year, and 20 months, respectively. Pollen germination rates decreased as the length of storage period increased. The reaction of all cultivars tested on the duration and temperature of storage was similar.

  16. Immunotherapy for Gastroesophageal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily F. Goode

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Survival for patients with advanced oesophageal and stomach cancer is poor; together these cancers are responsible for more than a million deaths per year globally. As chemotherapy and targeted therapies such as trastuzumab and ramucirumab result in modest improvements in survival but not long-term cure for such patients, development of alternative treatment approaches is warranted. Novel immunotherapy drugs such as checkpoint inhibitors have been paradigm changing in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and urothelial cancers. In this review, we assess the early evidence for efficacy of immunotherapy in patients with gastroesophageal cancer in addition to considering biomarkers associated with response to these treatments. Early results of Anti- Programmed Cell Death Protein-1 (anti-PD-1, anti-PD-L1 and anti-Cytotoxic T-lymphocyte assosciated protein-4 (anti-CTLA4 trials are examined, and we conclude with a discussion on the future direction for immunotherapy for gastroesophageal cancer patients.

  17. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection fo IgG antibodies to gramineae pollen (Dactylis glomerata) and to acarida (dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilloux, L.; Ville, G.

    1985-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay using SVI-protein A onto polystyrene microplates, was applied successfully for the detection of IgG antibodies to acarida and to grass pollen in allergic patients and in patients undergoing desensitization therapy.

  18. How honey bees carry pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matherne, Marguerite E.; Anyanwu, Gabriel; Leavey, Jennifer K.; Hu, David L.

    2017-11-01

    Honey bees are the tanker of the skies, carrying thirty percent of their weight in pollen per foraging trip using specialized orifices on their body. How do they manage to hang onto those pesky pollen grains? In this experimental study, we investigate the adhesion force of pollen to the honeybee. To affix pollen to themselves, honey bees form a suspension of pollen in nectar, creating a putty-like pollen basket that is skewered by leg hairs. We use tensile tests to show that the viscous force of the pollen basket is more than ten times the honeybee's flight force. This work may provide inspiration for the design of robotic flying pollinators.

  19. Analysis of IgE binding proteins of mesquite (Prosopis juliflora) pollen and cross-reactivity with predominant tree pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhyani, Anamika; Arora, Naveen; Gaur, Shailendra N; Jain, Vikram K; Sridhara, Susheela; Singh, Bhanu P

    2006-01-01

    Pollen from the mesquite tree, Prosopis juliflora, is an important source of respiratory allergy in tropical countries. Our aim was to partially characterize the IgE binding proteins of P. juliflora pollen extract and study cross-reactivity with prevalent tree pollen allergens. Intradermal tests with P. juliflora and five other tree pollen extracts were performed on respiratory allergy patients from Bikaner (arid) and Delhi (semi arid). Prosopis extract elicited positive skin reactions in 71/220 of the patients. Sera were collected from 38 of these 71 patients and all demonstrated elevated specific IgE to P. juliflora. Immunoblotting with pooled patients' sera demonstrated 16 IgE binding components, with components of 24, 26, 29, 31, 35, 52, 58, 66 and 95 kDa recognized by more than 80% of individual patients' sera. P. juliflora extract is allergenically potent requiring 73 ng of self-protein for 50% inhibition of IgE binding in ELISA inhibition. Cross-inhibition assays showed close relationship among P. juliflora, Ailanthus excelsa, Cassia siamea and Salvadora persica. IgE binding components of 14, 41, 52 and 66 kDa were shared allergens whereas 26 and 29 kDa were specific to P. juliflora. The findings suggest that purification of cross-reactive allergens will be helpful for diagnosis and immunotherapy of tree pollen allergic patients.

  20. Citrus allergy from pollen to clinical symptoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna Iorio

    Full Text Available Allergy to citrus fruits is often associated with pollinosis and sensitization to other plants due to a phenomenon of cross-reactivity. The aims of the present study were to highlight the cross-reactivity among citrus and the major allergenic pollens/fruits, throughout clinical and molecular investigations, and to evaluate the sensitization frequency to citrus fruits in a population of children and adults with pollinosis. We found a relevant percentage of sensitisation (39% to citrus fruits in the patients recruited and in all of them the IgE-mediated mechanism has been confirmed by the positive response to the prick-to-prick test. RT-PCR experiments showed the expression of Cit s 1, Cit s 3 and a profilin isoform, already described in apple, also in Citrus clementine pollen. Data of multiple sequence alignments demonstrated that Citrus allergens shared high percentage identity values with other clinically relevant species (i.e. Triticum aestivum, Malus domestica, confirming the possible cross-allergenicity citrus/grasses and citrus/apple. Finally, a novelty of the present work has been the expression of two phospholipaseA2 isoforms (PLA2 α and β in Citrus as well as in Triticum pollens; being PLA2 able to generate pro-inflammatory factors, this enzyme could participate in the activation of the allergenic inflammatory cascade.

  1. A prognostic pollen emissions model for climate models (PECM1.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. C. Wozniak

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We develop a prognostic model called Pollen Emissions for Climate Models (PECM for use within regional and global climate models to simulate pollen counts over the seasonal cycle based on geography, vegetation type, and meteorological parameters. Using modern surface pollen count data, empirical relationships between prior-year annual average temperature and pollen season start dates and end dates are developed for deciduous broadleaf trees (Acer, Alnus, Betula, Fraxinus, Morus, Platanus, Populus, Quercus, Ulmus, evergreen needleleaf trees (Cupressaceae, Pinaceae, grasses (Poaceae; C3, C4, and ragweed (Ambrosia. This regression model explains as much as 57 % of the variance in pollen phenological dates, and it is used to create a climate-flexible phenology that can be used to study the response of wind-driven pollen emissions to climate change. The emissions model is evaluated in the Regional Climate Model version 4 (RegCM4 over the continental United States by prescribing an emission potential from PECM and transporting pollen as aerosol tracers. We evaluate two different pollen emissions scenarios in the model using (1 a taxa-specific land cover database, phenology, and emission potential, and (2 a plant functional type (PFT land cover, phenology, and emission potential. The simulated surface pollen concentrations for both simulations are evaluated against observed surface pollen counts in five climatic subregions. Given prescribed pollen emissions, the RegCM4 simulates observed concentrations within an order of magnitude, although the performance of the simulations in any subregion is strongly related to the land cover representation and the number of observation sites used to create the empirical phenological relationship. The taxa-based model provides a better representation of the phenology of tree-based pollen counts than the PFT-based model; however, we note that the PFT-based version provides a useful and climate-flexible emissions

  2. New routes of allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricigil, Mitat; Muluk, Nuray Bayar; Sakarya, Engin Umut; Sakalar, Emine Güven; Senturk, Mehmet; Reisacher, William R; Cingi, Cemal

    2016-11-01

    Allergen immunotherapy is the only cure for immunoglobulin E mediated type I respiratory allergies. Subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) and sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) are the most common treatments. In this article, we reviewed new routes of allergen immunotherapy. Data on alternative routes to allow intralymphatic immunotherapy (ILIT), epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT), local nasal immunotherapy (LNIT), oral immunotherapy (OIT), and oral mucosal immunotherapy (OMIT) were gathered from the literature and were discussed. ILIT features direct injection of allergens into lymph nodes. ILIT may be clinically effective after only a few injections and induces allergen-specific immunoglobulin G, similarly to SCIT. A limitation of ILIT is that intralymphatic injections are required. EPIT features allergen administration by using patches mounted on the skin. EPIT seeks to target epidermal antigen-presenting Langerhans cells rather than mast cells or the vasculature; this should reduce both local and systemic adverse effects. LNIT involves the spraying of allergen extracts into the nasal cavity. Natural or chemically modified allergens (the latter, termed allergoids, lack immunoglobulin E reactivity) are prepared in a soluble form. OIT involves the regular administration of small amounts of a food allergen by mouth and commences with low oral doses, which are then increased as tolerance develops. OMIT seeks to deliver allergenic proteins to an expanded population of Langerhans cells in the mucosa of the oral cavity. ILIT, EPIT, LNIT, OIT, and OMIT are new routes for allergen immunotherapy. They are safe and effective.

  3. Analysis of protein profile and pollen morphology of guaiacum officinale linn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zeb, S.

    2017-01-01

    Asthma and allergic rhinitis is triggered by the pollen of trees, grasses and weeds. Guaiacum officinale L. tree is widely cultivated along with the road side. This species was selected to check its allergenic role.Pollen morphology of Guaiacum officinale was examined by Light microsco4pe (LM) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). Pollen grains of Guaiacum officinale were prolate shape, having tricolpate aperture, and rugulate tectum. Pollen protein concentration of G. officinale was determined by Bradford's assay and qualitative protein analysis of pollen was done by SDS-PAGE(Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis).Total protein content in the pollen extract was 24.28mg/g of pollen. The SDS-PAGE pollen grains protein analysis showed 07 different protein bands. The molecular weight of separated proteins ranged from 25 to 65kDa. Biochemical analysis of G. officinale pollen grains revealed the presence of low molecular weight proteins therefore it is strongly suggested that this species must be considered as a potent allergy causing species. This research would help for the proper diagnosis and treatment of the bronchial allergy suffering patients. (author)

  4. Differences in Reporting the Ragweed Pollen Season Using Google Trends across 15 Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bousquet, Jean; Agache, Ioana; Berger, Uwe; Bergmann, Karl-Christian; Besancenot, Jean-Pierre; Bousquet, Philippe J; Casale, Tom; d'Amato, Gennaro; Kaidashev, Igor; Khaitov, Musa; Mösges, Ralph; Nekam, Kristof; Onorato, Gabrielle L; Plavec, Davor; Sheikh, Aziz; Thibaudon, Michel; Vautard, Robert; Zidarn, Mihaela

    2018-05-09

    Google Trends (GT) searches trends of specific queries in Google, which potentially reflect the real-life epidemiology of allergic rhinitis. We compared GT terms related to ragweed pollen allergy in American and European Union countries with a known ragweed pollen season. Our aim was to assess seasonality and the terms needed to perform the GT searches and to compare these during the spring and summer pollen seasons. We examined GT queries from January 1, 2011, to January 4, 2017. We included 15 countries with a known ragweed pollen season and used the standard 5-year GT graphs. We used the GT translation for all countries and the untranslated native terms for each country. The results of "pollen," "ragweed," and "allergy" searches differed between countries, but "ragweed" was clearly identified in 12 of the 15 countries. There was considerable heterogeneity of findings when the GT translation was used. For Croatia, Hungary, Romania, Serbia, and Slovenia, the GT translation was inappropriate. The country patterns of "pollen," "hay fever," and "allergy" differed in 8 of the 11 countries with identified "ragweed" queries during the spring and the summer, indicating that the perception of tree and grass pollen allergy differs from that of ragweed pollen. To investigate ragweed pollen allergy using GT, the term "ragweed" as a plant is required and the translation of "ragweed" in the native language needed. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Radioprotective effect of the pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang Ying; Zhu Gengbo; Huang Meiying; Yin Zhiwei; Fang Jixi; Fan Xiudi

    1990-10-01

    The radioprotective injury effect of pollen in animals was studied. Research came to the conclusion that: (1) the acute death rate of animals is decreased by the pollen; (2) the peripheral leukocytes and spleen-B-lymph cells of animals are increased by the pollen; (3) the activity of superoxide dimutase (SOD) in the erythrocytes of animals is increased by the pollen; (4) the pollen has the function of protecting the structure of the organs of thymus and testes and so on; (5) the plasma hydroxyproline of animals is remarkably decreased by the pollen

  6. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Calderón, M A; Simons, F E R; Malling, Hans-Jørgen

    2012-01-01

    To cite this article: Calderón MA, Simons FER, Malling H-J, Lockey RF, Moingeon P, Demoly P. Sublingual allergen immunotherapy: mode of action and its relationship with the safety profile. Allergy 2012; 67: 302-311. ABSTRACT: Allergen immunotherapy reorients inappropriate immune responses......-presenting cells (mostly Langerhans and myeloid dendritic cells) exhibit a tolerogenic phenotype, despite constant exposure to danger signals from food and microbes. This reduces the induction of pro-inflammatory immune responses leading to systemic allergic reactions. Oral tissues contain relatively few mast...... cells and eosinophils (mostly located in submucosal areas) and, in comparison with subcutaneous tissue, are less likely to give rise to anaphylactic reactions. SLIT-associated immune responses include the induction of circulating, allergen-specific Th1 and regulatory CD4+ T cells, leading to clinical...

  7. Immunotherapy for tularemia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skyberg, Jerod A.

    2013-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a gram-negative bacterium that causes the zoonotic disease tularemia. Francisella is highly infectious via the respiratory route (~10 CFUs) and pulmonary infections due to type A strains of F. tularensis are highly lethal in untreated patients (>30%). In addition, no vaccines are licensed to prevent tularemia in humans. Due to the high infectivity and mortality of pulmonary tularemia, F. tularensis has been weaponized, including via the introduction of antibiotic resistance, by several countries. Because of the lack of efficacious vaccines, and concerns about F. tularensis acquiring resistance to antibiotics via natural or illicit means, augmentation of host immunity, and humoral immunotherapy have been investigated as countermeasures against tularemia. This manuscript will review advances made and challenges in the field of immunotherapy against tularemia. PMID:23959031

  8. Immunotherapy With Magentorheologic Fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    anti-tumor effects are weakened by removal of the tumor antigen pool (i.e. surgery) or use of cytoreductive and immunosuppressive therapies (i.e...particles were injected as magneto -rheological fluid (MRF) into an orthotopic primary breast cancer and followed by application of a magnetic field to...SUBJECT TERMS MRF: Magneto -rehological fluid iron particles, IT: immunotherapy, necrotic death, DCs: dendritic cells, cytokines, chemokines

  9. Immunotherapy in genitourinary malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathan Mehta

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Treatment of cancer patients involves a multidisciplinary approach including surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy. Traditionally, patients with metastatic disease are treated with combination chemotherapies or targeted agents. These cytotoxic agents have good response rates and achieve palliation; however, complete responses are rarely seen. The field of cancer immunology has made rapid advances in the past 20 years. Recently, a number of agents and vaccines, which modulate the immune system to allow it to detect and target cancer cells, are being developed. The benefit of these agents is twofold, it enhances the ability the body’s own immune system to fight cancer, thus has a lower incidence of side effects compared to conventional cytotoxic chemotherapy. Secondly, a small but substantial number of patients with metastatic disease are cured by immunotherapy or achieve durable responses lasting for a number of years. In this article, we review the FDA-approved immunotherapy agents in the field of genitourinary malignancies. We also summarize new immunotherapy agents being evaluated in clinical studies either as single agents or as a combination.

  10. Allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moote William

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergen-specific immunotherapy is a potentially disease-modifying therapy that is effective for the treatment of allergic rhinitis/conjunctivitis, allergic asthma and stinging insect hypersensitivity. However, despite its proven efficacy in these conditions, it is frequently underutilized in Canada. The decision to proceed with allergen-specific immunotherapy should be made on a case-by-case basis, taking into account individual patient factors such as the degree to which symptoms can be reduced by avoidance measures and pharmacological therapy, the amount and type of medication required to control symptoms, the adverse effects of pharmacological treatment, and patient preferences. Since this form of therapy carries the risk of anaphylactic reactions, it should only be prescribed by physicians who are adequately trained in the treatment of allergy. Furthermore, injections must be given under medical supervision in clinics that are equipped to manage anaphylaxis. In this article, the authors review the indications and contraindications, patient selection criteria, and the administration, safety and efficacy of allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  11. Symptoms to pollen and fruits early in life and allergic disease at 4 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mai, X-M; Neuman, A; Ostblom, E; Pershagen, G; Nordvall, L; Almqvist, C; van Hage, M; Wickman, M

    2008-11-01

    The predictive value of reported early symptoms to pollen or fruits on later allergic disease is unclear. Our aim is to evaluate if symptoms to pollen and/or to fruits early in life are associated with allergic disease and sensitization to pollen at 4 years. The study included 3619 children from the Barn (Children), Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiology project (BAMSE) birth cohort. Reported symptoms of wheeze, sneeze or rash to birch, grass or weed, symptoms (vomiting, diarrhea, rash, facial edema, sneeze, or wheeze) to fruits including tree-nuts at 1 or 2 years of age, and definitions of asthma, rhinitis and eczema at 4 years were derived from questionnaire data. Sensitization to pollen allergens was defined as allergen-specific IgE-antibodies to any pollen (birch/timothy/mugwort) > or =0.35 kU(A)/l. At 1 or 2 years of age, 6% of the children were reported to have pollen-related symptoms, 6% had symptoms to fruits, and 1.4% to both pollen and fruits. Children with symptoms to both pollen and fruits at 1 or 2 years of age had an increased risk for sensitization to any pollen allergen at age 4 (OR(adj) = 4.4, 95% CI = 2.1-9.2). This group of children also had a substantially elevated risk for developing any allergic disease (asthma, rhinitis, or eczema) at 4 years irrespective of sensitization to pollen (OR(adj) = 8.6, 95% CI = 4.5-16.4). The prevalence of reported symptoms to pollen and fruits is very low in early childhood. However, children with early symptoms to both pollen and fruits appear to have a markedly elevated risk for allergic disease.

  12. CHANGES OF IMMUNE INDEXES DURING SUBLINGUAL ALLERGEN-SPECIFIC IMMUNOTHERAPY IN CHILDREN WITH HAY FEVER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. M. Gaiduk

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims of study: evaluation of immunological parameters in course of sublingual allergen-specific immunotherapy with tree pollen mixture in children with hay fever.Materials and methods: the study included one-hundred patients 5 to 18 years of age with hay fever (pollen rhinitis, rhinoconjunctivitis and/or asthma. Allergen-specific immunotherapy was administered pre-seasonally for three consecutive years. Cytokinechanges were studied in blood serum and in lavages from nasal cavity. Samples assessed before treatment and after 2nd and 3rd courses SLIT completion.Results: increased serum concentrations of IL-10, IFNγ, and decreased IL-4 contents were revealed in the course of treatment. No significant changes in cytokineconcentrations were detectable in nasal lavages.Conclusions: the changes revealed correspond to a shift of T cell response profile towards Th1 pathway, thus confirming pathogenetic effects of sublingual allergen-specific

  13. Germination and storage of pollen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, T.

    1955-01-01

    Germination of pear pollen markedly improved when boric acid was added to the medium. The pollen was more sensitive to boron in water than in 10 % sugar solution. Supplying weak solutions of boron to pear branches before flowering resulted in a good germination of the pollen in sugar solution

  14. Hybridizing pines with diluted pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Z. Callaham

    1967-01-01

    Diluted pollens would have many uses by the tree breeder. Dilutions would be particularly advantageous in making many controlled pollinations with a limited amount of pollen. They also would be useful in artificial mass pollinations of orchards or single trees. Diluted pollens might help overcome troublesome genetic barriers to crossing. Feasibility o,f using diluted...

  15. EAACI Guidelines on allergen immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pajno, G B; Fernandez-Rivas, M; Arasi, S

    2018-01-01

    . This Guideline, prepared by the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) Task Force on Allergen Immunotherapy for IgE-mediated Food Allergy, aims to provide evidence-based recommendations for active treatment of IgE-mediated food allergy with FA-AIT. Immunotherapy relies on the delivery...

  16. Orphan immunotherapies for allergic diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ridolo, Erminia; Montagni, Marcello; Incorvaia, Cristoforo; Senna, Gianenrico; Passalacqua, Giovanni

    2016-03-01

    As confirmed by systematic reviews and meta-analyses, allergen immunotherapy is clinically effective in the treatment of allergic diseases. In particular, subcutaneous immunotherapy is a pivotal treatment in patients with severe reactions to Hymenoptera venom, whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy and sublingual immunotherapy are indicated in the treatment of allergic rhinitis and asthma by inhalant allergens. Other allergies related to animal dander (other than cat, which is the most studied), such as dog, molds, occupational allergens, and insects, have also been recognized. For these allergens, immunotherapy is poorly studied and often unavailable. Thus, use of the term orphan immunotherapies is appropriate. We used MEDLINE to search the medical literature for English-language articles. Randomized, controlled, masked studies for orphan immunotherapies were selected. In the remaining cases, the available reports were described. The literature on food desensitization is abundant, but for other orphan allergens, such as mosquito, Argas reflexus, dog, or occupational allergens, there are only a few studies, and most are small studies or case reports. Orphan immunotherapy is associated with insufficient evidence of efficacy from controlled trials, an erroneous belief of the limited importance of some allergen sources, and the unlikelihood for producers to have a profit in making commercially available extracts (with an expensive process for registration) to be used in few patients. It should be taken into consideration that adequate preparations should be available also for orphan allergens. Copyright © 2016 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. CCL21 Cancer Immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Yuan, E-mail: yuanlin@mednet.ucla.edu [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Head and Neck Cancer Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 37-131 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Sharma, Sherven [Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Medicine, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 37-131 CHS, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Veterans’ Affairs Greater Los Angeles Healthcare System, Los Angeles, CA 90073 (United States); John, Maie St. [Department of Head and Neck Surgery, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); UCLA Head and Neck Cancer Program, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Clinical and Translational Science Institute, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, 10833 Le Conte Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2014-05-07

    Cancer, a major health problem, affects 12 million people worldwide every year. With surgery and chemo-radiation the long term survival rate for the majority of cancer patients is dismal. Thus novel treatments are urgently needed. Immunotherapy, the harnessing of the immune system to destroy cancer cells is an attractive option with potential for long term anti-tumor benefit. Cytokines are biological response modifiers that stimulate anti-tumor immune responses. In this review, we discuss the anti-tumor efficacy of the chemotactic cytokine CCL21 and its pre-clinical and clinical application in cancer.

  18. Immunotherapy of Genitourinary Malignancies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teruo Inamoto

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Most cancer patients are treated with some combination of surgery, radiation, and chemotherapy. Despite recent advances in local therapy with curative intent, chemotherapeutic treatments for metastatic disease often remain unsatisfying due to severe side effects and incomplete long-term remission. Therefore, the evaluation of novel therapeutic options is of great interest. Conventional, along with newer treatment strategies target the immune system that suppresses genitourinary (GU malignancies. Metastatic renal cell carcinoma and non-muscle-invasive bladder caner represent the most immune-responsive types of all human cancer. This review examines the rationale and emerging evidence supporting the anticancer activity of immunotherapy, against GU malignancies.

  19. Immunotherapy of Cryptococcus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antachopoulos, C; Walsh, T J

    2012-02-01

    Despite appropriate antifungal treatment, the management of cryptococcal disease remains challenging, especially in immunocompromised patients, such as human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals and solid organ transplant recipients. During the past two decades, our knowledge of host immune responses against Cryptococcus spp. has been greatly advanced, and the role of immunomodulation in augmenting the response to infection has been investigated. In particular, the role of 'protective' Th1 (tumour necrosis factor-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-12, and IL-18) and Th17 (IL-23 and IL-17) and 'non-protective' Th2 (IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13) cytokines has been extensively studied in vitro and in animal models of cryptococcal infection. Immunomodulation with monoclonal antibodies against the capsular polysaccharide glucuronoxylomannan, glucosylceramides, melanin and β-glucan and, lately, with radioimmunotherapy has also yielded promising results in animal models. As a balance between sufficiently protective Th1 responses and excessive inflammation is important for optimal outcome, the effect of immunotherapy may range from beneficial to deleterious, depending on factors related to the host, the infecting organism, and the immunomodulatory regimen. Clinical evidence supporting immunomodulation in patients with cryptococcal infection remains too limited to allow firm recommendations. Limited human data suggest a role for IFN-γ. Identification of surrogate markers characterizing patients' immunological status could possibly suggest candidate patients for immunotherapy and the type of immunomodulation to be administered. © 2011 The Authors. Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2011 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  20. Allergy to foods in patients monosensitized to Artemisia pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia Ortiz, J C; Cosmes, P M; Lopez-Asunsolo, A

    1996-12-01

    It is known that patients with pollinosis may display clinical characteristics caused by allergy to certain fruits and vegetables, but subjects allergic to Artemisia seem to show particularly peculiar characteristics. The clinical features of 84 patients with rhinitis, asthma, urticaria, and/or anaphylaxis whose inhalant allergy was exclusively to Artemisia vulgaris were studied and compared with a control group of 50 patients monosensitized to grass pollen. The mean age for the beginning of symptoms was 30.2 years, and this was higher than in the control group (P history of atopia, lower than in the control group (P lettuce (two), pollen (two), beer (two), almond (one), peanut (one), other nuts (one), carrot (one), and apple (one). None of the patients monosensitized to grass had food allergy. CAP inhibition experiments were carried out on a single patient. Results showed the existence of common antigenic epitopes in pistachio and Artemisia pollen for this patient. We concluded that mugwort hay fever can be associated with the Compositae family of foods, but that it is not normally associated with other foods.

  1. Development of a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework for investigating the impact of climate change on allergic airway disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R.; Duhl, T.; Salam, M. T.; House, J. M.; Flagan, R. C.; Avol, E. L.; Gilliland, F. D.; Guenther, A.; Chung, S. H.; Lamb, B. K.; VanReken, T. M.

    2014-03-01

    Exposure to bioaerosol allergens such as pollen can cause exacerbations of allergenic airway disease (AAD) in sensitive populations, and thus cause serious public health problems. Assessing these health impacts by linking the airborne pollen levels, concentrations of respirable allergenic material, and human allergenic response under current and future climate conditions is a key step toward developing preventive and adaptive actions. To that end, a regional-scale pollen emission and transport modeling framework was developed that treats allergenic pollens as non-reactive tracers within the coupled Weather Research and Forecasting Community Multiscale Air Quality (WRF/CMAQ) modeling system. The Simulator of the Timing and Magnitude of Pollen Season (STaMPS) model was used to generate a daily pollen pool that can then be emitted into the atmosphere by wind. The STaMPS is driven by species-specific meteorological (temperature and/or precipitation) threshold conditions and is designed to be flexible with respect to its representation of vegetation species and plant functional types (PFTs). The hourly pollen emission flux was parameterized by considering the pollen pool, friction velocity, and wind threshold values. The dry deposition velocity of each species of pollen was estimated based on pollen grain size and density. An evaluation of the pollen modeling framework was conducted for southern California (USA) for the period from March to June 2010. This period coincided with observations by the University of Southern California's Children's Health Study (CHS), which included O3, PM2.5, and pollen count, as well as measurements of exhaled nitric oxide in study participants. Two nesting domains with horizontal resolutions of 12 and 4 km were constructed, and six representative allergenic pollen genera were included: birch tree, walnut tree, mulberry tree, olive tree, oak tree, and brome grasses. Under the current parameterization scheme, the modeling framework tends to

  2. Conference Scene: novelties in immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsias, Dimitris I; Kalogiros, Lampros A; Papadopoulos, Nikolaos G

    2013-10-01

    The only method aiming to permanently cure allergic disorders is allergen immunotherapy. Over the last 20 years there has been great progress in understanding the mechanisms that govern allergen immunotherapy in order to meet three basic prerequisites: safety, effectiveness and compliance. In the present summary report from the European Academy of Allergology and Clinical Immunology-World Allergy Organization Congress held last June in Milan, we review key points concerning the main axes as diagnosis, novel modalities, routes and protocols, as well as two important immunotherapy fields: food and insect venom allergy.

  3. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturm, Gunter J; Varga, Eva-Maria; Roberts, Graham

    2018-01-01

    and adults to prevent further moderate to severe systemic sting reactions. Venom immunotherapy is also recommended in adults with only generalized skin reactions as it results in significant improvements in quality of life compared to carrying an adrenaline auto-injector. This guideline aims to give...... practical advice on performing venom immunotherapy. Key sections cover general considerations before initiating venom immunotherapy, evidence-based clinical recommendations, risk factors for adverse events and for relapse of systemic sting reaction, and a summary of gaps in the evidence. This article...

  4. Immunoglobulin E antibodies to pollens augmented in dogs by virus vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, O L; Brooks, D L

    1983-03-01

    An inbred "atopic dog colony" was established to study the effect of viruses on immunoregulation of immunoglobulin (Ig) E antibodies. Dogs were selected for high skin reactivity to grass and weed pollens. Their offspring were inoculated with pollen extracts in alum immediately after routine vaccinations (attenuated live-virus vaccines for canine distemper and infectious canine hepatitis, and a killed bacterin for Leptospira). Heat labile antipollen IgE antibodies were measured by passive cutaneous anaphylaxis. Pups vaccinated for canine distemper before being given pollen extracts had many more IgE antibodies than did their control littermates who were not vaccinated until after the last pollen extract injection. This may be a natural example of the "allergic break-through phenomenon."

  5. Allergen extracts for immunotherapy in Latin America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Cardona-Villa

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: The Latin American Society of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology (SLAAI presents a document about the use of immunotherapy (IT in Latin America, where administration patterns, indications and contraindications, effects on health, adverse events and socioeconomic impact are reviewed. Objective: To review publications analyzing the use of IT in Latin America. Methods: A literature review was carried out in order to identify works addressing IT in Latin America. This review was focused on practical scientific information available on IT in the region, and a parallel comparison was made with practices observed in the United States and European countries. Results: Of the 21 Latin American countries included, only 9 had original articles meeting the selection criteria; a total of 82 articles were selected, most of them from Brazil and Mexico. Most widely used allergenic extracts in Latin America tropical and subtropical regions were those of mites and pollen. Conclusion: Although it is true that there are huge challenges for the future of IT in Latin America, studies on subcutaneous IT and sublingual IT are increasing, but most of them are retrospective and some have design bias, and more prospective studies are therefore required, using internationally validated scales for clinical evaluation.

  6. cDNA cloning and immunological characterization of the rye grass allergen Lol p I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, M; Ishioka, G Y; Walker, L E; Chesnut, R W

    1990-09-25

    The complete amino acid sequence of two "isoallergenic" forms of Lol p I, the major rye grass (Lolium perenne) pollen allergen, was deduced from cDNA sequence analysis. cDNA clones isolated from a Lolium perenne pollen library contained an open reading frame coding for a 240-amino acid protein. Comparison of the nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequence of two of these clones revealed four changes at the amino acid level and numerous nucleotide differences. Both clones contained one possible asparagine-linked glycosylation site. Northern blot analysis shows one RNA species of 1.2 kilobases. Based on the complete amino acid sequence of Lol p I, overlapping peptides covering the entire molecule were synthesized. Utilizing these peptides we have identified a determinant within the Lol p I molecule that is recognized by human leukocyte antigen class II-restricted T cells obtained from persons allergic to rye grass pollen.

  7. Immunotherapies in CLL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jae H; Brentjens, Renier J

    2013-01-01

    Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) is the most frequently diagnosed leukemia in the Western world, yet remains essentially incurable. Although initial chemotherapy response rates are high, patients invariably relapse and subsequently develop resistance to chemotherapy. For the moment, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (allo-HSCT) remains the only potentially curative treatment for patients with CLL, but it is associated with high rates of treatment-related mortality. Immune-based treatment strategies to augment the cytotoxic potential of T cells offer exciting new treatment options for patients with CLL, and provide a unique and powerful spectrum of tools distinct from traditional chemotherapy. Among the most novel and promising of these approaches are chimeric antigen receptor (CAR)-based cell therapies that combine advances in genetic engineering and adoptive immunotherapy.

  8. Gut Bacteria Affect Immunotherapy Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Three new studies have identified intestinal bacteria that appear to influence the response to checkpoint inhibitors. This Cancer Currents blog post explains how the researchers think their findings could be used to improve patients’ responses to these immunotherapy drugs.

  9. 3D Models of Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This collaborative grant is developing 3D models of both mouse and human biology to investigate aspects of therapeutic vaccination in order to answer key questions relevant to human cancer immunotherapy.

  10. NCI's Role in Immunotherapy Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Reporting & Auditing Grant Transfer Grant Closeout Contracts & Small Business Training Cancer Training at NCI (Intramural) Resources for ... promising immunotherapies to the clinic more efficiently and cost effectively. For ... of the checkpoint inhibitor pembrolizumab in patients with ...

  11. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  12. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  13. Targeted immunotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Martin

    2015-01-01

    In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13.......In this issue of Blood, Rothe et al introduce a new principle of targeted Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) immunotherapy in their report from a phase 1 study of the bispecific anti-CD30/CD16A antibody construct AFM13....

  14. Immunotherapy of allergic contact dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spiewak, Radoslaw

    2011-08-01

    The term 'immunotherapy' refers to treating diseases by inducing, enhancing or suppressing immune responses. As allergy is an excessive, detrimental immune reaction to otherwise harmless environmental substances, immunotherapy of allergic disease is aimed at the induction of tolerance toward sensitizing antigens. This article focuses on the historical developments, present state and future outlook for immunotherapy with haptens as a therapeutic modality for allergic contact dermatitis. Inspired by the effectiveness of immunotherapy in respiratory allergies, attempts were undertaken at curing allergic contact dermatitis by means of controlled administration of the sensitizing haptens. Animal and human experiments confirmed that tolerance to haptens can be induced most effectively when the induction of tolerance precedes attempted sensitization. In real life, however, therapy is sought by people who are already sensitized and an effective reversal of hypersensitivity seems more difficult to achieve. Decades of research on Rhus hypersensitivity led to a conclusion that immunotherapy can suppress Rhus dermatitis, however, only to a limited degree, for a short period of time, and at a high risk of side effects, which makes this method therapeutically unprofitable. Methodological problems with most available studies of immunotherapy of contact allergy to nickel make any definite conclusions impossible at this stage.

  15. Grass Rooting the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  16. Pollen characteristics and in vitro pollen germination of Cedrus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2009-11-02

    Nov 2, 2009 ... This study aims to determine the germination characteristics, pollen tube developments, effects of germination media and temperature and incubation durations of the pollens obtained from the four clones (11342, 11344, 11345 and 11351) of Cedrus libani A. Rich. (Lebanon Cedrus) obtained from clonal.

  17. Zea mI, the maize homolog of the allergen-encoding Lol pI gene of rye grass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broadwater, A H; Rubinstein, A L; Chay, C H; Klapper, D G; Bedinger, P A

    1993-09-15

    Sequence analysis of a pollen-specific cDNA from maize has identified a homolog (Zea mI) of the gene (Lol pI) encoding the major allergen of rye-grass pollen. The protein encoded by the partial cDNA sequence is 59.3% identical and 72.7% similar to the comparable region of the reported amino acid sequence of Lol pIA. Southern analysis indicates that this cDNA represents a member of a small multigene family in maize. Northern analysis shows expression only in pollen, not in vegetative or female floral tissues. The timing of expression is developmentally regulated, occurring at a low level prior to the first pollen mitosis and at a high level after this postmeiotic division. Western analysis detects a protein in maize pollen lysates using polyclonal antiserum and monoclonal antibodies directed against purified Lolium perenne allergen.

  18. Development of cancer immunotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Yeon Sook; Chung, H. Y.; Yi, S. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K.; Chung, I. S.; Park, J. Y

    1999-04-01

    To increase the curative rate of cancer patients, we developed ideal biological response modifier from medicinal plants: Ginsan, KC68IId-8, KC-8Ala, KG-30. Ginsan activated natural killer cell activity of spleen cells more than 5.4 times than lentinan, 1.4 times than picibanil. Radioprotective activity of Ginsan is stronger than WR2721, glucan, and selenium. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of A20 tumor cells was also augmented by transfection with B7.1 gene. The immunosuppression of gamma-irradiation was due to the reduction of Th1 sytokine gene expression through STAT pathway. These research will devote to develop new cancer immunotherapy and to reduce side effect of cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy.

  19. Sublingual Immunotherapy: Recent Advances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Compalati

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The practice of administering sublingual immunotherapy for respiratory allergy is gaining more and more diffusion worldwide as a consequence of the robust demonstration of clinical efficacy and safety provided by recent high-powered and well-designed studies, confirming for individual seasonal allergens the results of previous metanalyses in adult and pediatric populations. Preliminary evidence derives from recent rigorous trials on perennial allergens, like house dust mites, and specifically designed studies addressed the benefits on asthma. Emerging research suggests that SLIT may have a future role in other allergic conditions such as atopic dermatitis, food, latex and venom allergy. Efforts to develop a safer and more effective SLIT for inhalant allergens have led to the development of allergoids, recombinant allergens and formulations with adjuvants and substances targeting antigens to dendritic cells that possess a crucial role in initiating immune responses. The high degree of variation in the evaluation of clinical effects and immunological changes requires further studies to identify the candidate patients to SLIT and biomarkers of short and long term efficacy. Appropriate management strategies are urgently needed to overcome the barriers to SLIT compliance.

  20. Development of cancer immunotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Yeon Sook; Chung, H. Y.; Yi, S. Y.; Kim, K. W.; Kim, B. K.; Chung, I. S.; Park, J. Y.

    1999-04-01

    To increase the curative rate of cancer patients, we developed ideal biological response modifier from medicinal plants: Ginsan, KC68IId-8, KC-8Ala, KG-30. Ginsan activated natural killer cell activity of spleen cells more than 5.4 times than lentinan, 1.4 times than picibanil. Radioprotective activity of Ginsan is stronger than WR2721, glucan, and selenium. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of MOPC tumor cells was augmented by treatment with IL-10 antisense oligonucleotide and by transfection with VEGF sense-, antisense gene. The immunogenicity of A20 tumor cells was also augmented by transfection with B7.1 gene. The immunosuppression of gamma-irradiation was due to the reduction of Th1 sytokine gene expression through STAT pathway. These research will devote to develop new cancer immunotherapy and to reduce side effect of cancer radiotherapy and chemotherapy

  1. Pollen morphology of the Alangiaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Tj.

    1970-01-01

    This paper presents a pollen-morphological study of Alangium, a genus mainly restricted to the tropics of the Old World, of which 18 of the 19 known species were studied. The pollen grains, studied with the use of a light microscope, a transmission electron microscope and a scanning electron

  2. Evidence of a common regulation of IgE and IgG-subclass antibodies in humans during immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, I; Poulsen, L K; Osterballe, O

    1992-01-01

    Based on a 3-year prospective study of 20 pollen-allergic patients, where a detailed analysis of the IgE, IgG1 and IgG4 immune response was performed, we propose that a common regulatory mechanism exists between the IgE and IgG1 synthesis and between IgE and IgG4 synthesis during immunotherapy. I...

  3. Recombinant Mal d 1 facilitates sublingual challenge tests of birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinaciyan, T; Nagl, B; Faustmann, S; Kopp, S; Wolkersdorfer, M; Bohle, B

    2016-02-01

    It is still unclear whether allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) with birch pollen improves birch pollen-related food allergy. One reason for this may be the lack of standardized tests to assess clinical reactions to birch pollen-related foods, for example apple. We tested the applicability of recombinant (r) Mal d 1, the Bet v 1-homolog in apple, for oral challenge tests. Increasing concentrations of rMal d 1 in 0.9% NaCl were sublingually administered to 72 birch pollen-allergic patients with apple allergy. The dose of 1.6 μg induced oral allergy syndromes in 26.4%, 3.2 μg in 15.3%, 6.3 μg in 27.8%, 12.5 μg in 8.3%, 25 μg in 11.1%, and 50 μg in 4.2% of the patients. No severe reactions occurred. None of the patients reacted to 0.9% NaCl alone. Sublingual administration of 50 μg of rMal d 1 induced no reactions in three nonallergic individuals. Our approach allows straight forward, dose-defined sublingual challenge tests in a high number of birch pollen-allergic patients that inter alia can be applied to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of birch pollen AIT on birch pollen-related food allergy. © 2015 The Authors. Allergy Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Dhami, Sangeeta; Arasi, Stefania

    2017-01-01

    Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence on the effective......Background: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is developing Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). To inform the development of recommendations, we sought to critically assess the systematic review evidence...... of these were judged to be of high, five moderate and three low quality. These reviews suggested that, in carefully selected patients, subcutaneous (SCIT) and sublingual (SLIT) immunotherapy resulted in significant reductions in symptom scores and medication requirements. Serious adverse outcomes were rare...

  5. Salvage immunotherapy of malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, M; Jacques, S; Freshwater, D B; Techy, G B; Shelden, C H; Helsper, J T

    1987-12-01

    We present the preliminary results of a phase I trial of adoptive immunotherapy for recurrent or residual malignant glioma. The protocol is based on surgical debulking followed by implantation into the tumor bed of autologous lymphocytes that have been stimulated with phytohemagglutinin-P and then cultured in vitro in the presence of interleukin 2. Fifty-five patients with a mean Karnofsky rating of 64 were treated between February 1985 and March 1987. No significant toxicity was associated with the immunotherapy. Fifty patients had a positive initial response to therapy, nine patients had early recurrence (two to four months after treatment), and 22 patients died. We comment on major differences between the protocol described and other immunotherapy protocols.

  6. Immunotherapy of childhood Sarcomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen S Roberts

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Pediatric sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of malignant tumors of bone and soft tissue origin. Although more than 100 different histologic subtypes have been described, the majority of pediatric cases belong to the Ewing’s family of tumors, rhabdomyosarcoma and osteosarcoma. Most patients that present with localized stage are curable with surgery and/or chemotherapy; however, those with metastatic disease at diagnosis or those who experience a relapse continue to have a very poor prognosis. New therapies for these patients are urgently needed. Immunotherapy is an established treatment modality for both liquid and solid tumors, and in pediatrics, most notably for neuroblastoma and osteosarcoma. In the past, immunomodulatory agents such as interferon, interleukin-2, and Liposomal-muramyl  tripeptide phosphatidyl-ethanolamine (L-MTP have been tried, with some activity seen in subsets of patients; additionally, various cancer vaccines have been studied with possible benefit. Monoclonal antibody therapies against tumor antigens such as disialoganglioside GD2 or immune checkpoint targets such as CTLA4 and PD-1 are being actively explored in pediatric sarcomas. Building on the success of adoptive T cell therapy for EBV-related lymphoma, strategies to redirect T cells using chimeric antigen receptors and bispecific antibodies are rapidly evolving with potential for the treatment of sarcomas. This review will focus on recent preclinical and clinical developments in targeted agents for pediatric sarcomas with emphasis on the immunobiology of immune checkpoints, immunoediting, tumor microenvironment, antibody engineering, cell engineering, and tumor vaccines. The future integration of antibody based and cell based therapies into an overall treatment strategy of sarcoma will be discussed.

  7. Pollen rain and pollen representation across a forest-páramo ecotone in northern Ecuador

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moscol Olivera, M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Hooghiemstra, H.

    2009-01-01

    Modern pollen spectra were studied in forest and páramo vegetation from the Guandera area, northern Ecuador. Pollen representation was estimated by comparing the presence of plant taxa from a recent vegetation survey with the pollen spectra in moss polsters and pollen traps. In total, 73 pollen taxa

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE MAIZE POLLEN TRANSCRIPTOME

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollen is a primary vehicle for transgene flow from engineered plants to their non-transgenic, native or weedy relatives. Hence, gene flow will be affected by pollen fitness (e.g., how well a particular pollen grain can outcompete other pollen present on the stigma and complete ...

  9. Quality requirements for allergen extracts and allergoids for allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmer, J; Bonertz, A; Vieths, S

    2017-12-01

    All allergen products for allergen immunotherapy currently marketed in the European Union are pharmaceutical preparations derived from allergen-containing source materials like pollens, mites and moulds. Especially this natural origin results in particular demands for the regulatory requirements governing allergen products. Furthermore, the development of regulatory requirements is complicated by the so far missing universal link between certain quality parameters, in particular biological potency, on the one hand and clinical efficacy on the other hand. As a consequence, each allergen product for specific immunotherapy has to be assessed individually for its quality, safety and efficacy. At the same time, biological potency of allergen products is most commonly determined using IgE inhibition assays based on human sera relative to product-specific in house references, ruling out full comparability of products from different manufacturers. This review article aims to summarize the current quality requirements for allergen products including the special requirements implemented for control of chemically modified allergen extracts (allergoids). Copyright © 2017 SEICAP. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  10. Immunotherapy of distant metastatic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schadendorf, D; Algarra, S M; Bastholt, L

    2009-01-01

    Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma consists of various approaches leading to specific or non-specific immunomodulation. The use of FDA-approved interleukin (IL)-2 alone, in combination with interferon alpha, and/or with various chemotherapeutic agents (biochemotherapy) is associated with signif......Immunotherapy of metastatic melanoma consists of various approaches leading to specific or non-specific immunomodulation. The use of FDA-approved interleukin (IL)-2 alone, in combination with interferon alpha, and/or with various chemotherapeutic agents (biochemotherapy) is associated...

  11. Hypoallergenic molecules for subcutaneous immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jongejan, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K

    2016-01-01

    Although a large part of the population suffers from allergies, a cure is not yet available. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) offers promise for these patients. AIT has proven successful in insect and venom allergies; however, for food allergy this is still unclear. In this editorial we focus...... on the recent advances in a proof of concept study in food allergy, FAST (Food allergy specific immunotherapy), which may increase interest within the biomolecular and pharmaceutical industry to embark on similar projects of immunology driven precision medicine within the allergy field....

  12. Hypoallergenic molecules for subcutaneous immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongejan, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K

    2016-01-01

    Although a large part of the population suffers from allergies, a cure is not yet available. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) offers promise for these patients. AIT has proven successful in insect and venom allergies; however, for food allergy this is still unclear. In this editorial we focus on the recent advances in a proof of concept study in food allergy, FAST (Food allergy specific immunotherapy), which may increase interest within the biomolecular and pharmaceutical industry to embark on similar projects of immunology driven precision medicine within the allergy field.

  13. Meiosis in elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum, pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (Poaceae, Poales and their interspecific hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vânia Helena Techio

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The cultivated and sexually compatible species Pennisetum purpureum (elephant grass, 2n = 4x = 28 and Pennisetum glaucum (pearl millet, 2n = 2x = 14 can undergo hybridization which favors the amplification of their genetic background and the introgression of favorable alleles into breeding programs. The main problem with interspecific hybrids of these species is infertility due to triploidy (2n = 3x = 21. This study describes meiosis in elephant grass x pearl millet hybrids and their progenitors. Panicles were prepared according to the conventional protocol for meiotic studies and Alexander’s stain was used for assessing pollen viability. Pearl millet accessions presented regular meiosis with seven bivalents and high pollen viability. For elephant grass, 14 bivalents in diakinesis and metaphase I were observed. The BAG 63 elephant grass accession, derived from tissue culture, presented a high frequency of meiotic abnormalities. The three hybrid accessions presented a high frequency of abnormalities characterized by irregular chromosomal segregation which resulted in the formation of sterile pollen.

  14. Pollen Sterility—A Promising Approach to Gene Confinement and Breeding for Genetically Modified Bioenergy Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert P. Kausch

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Advanced genetic and biotechnology tools will be required to realize the full potential of food and bioenergy crops. Given current regulatory concerns, many transgenic traits might never be deregulated for commercial release without a robust gene confinement strategy in place. The potential for transgene flow from genetically modified (GM crops is widely known. Pollen-mediated transfer is a major component of gene flow in flowering plants and therefore a potential avenue for the escape of transgenes from GM crops. One approach for preventing and/or mitigating transgene flow is the production of trait linked pollen sterility. To evaluate the feasibility of generating pollen sterility lines for gene confinement and breeding purposes we tested the utility of a promoter (Zm13Pro from a maize pollen-specific gene (Zm13 for driving expression of the reporter gene GUS and the cytotoxic gene barnase in transgenic rice (Oryza sativa ssp. Japonica cv. Nipponbare as a monocot proxy for bioenergy grasses. This study demonstrates that the Zm13 promoter can drive pollen-specific expression in stably transformed rice and may be useful for gametophytic transgene confinement and breeding strategies by pollen sterility in food and bioenergy crops.

  15. Sensitization rates of airborne pollen and mold in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Hyun Park

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available &lt;B&gt;Purpose:&lt;/b&gt; Aeroallergens are important causative factors of allergic diseases. Previous studies on aeroallergen sensitization rates investigated patients groups that had visited pediatric allergy clinics. In contrast, we investigated sensitization rates in a general population group of elementary school to teenage students in Incheon, Jeju, and Ulsan. &lt;b&gt;Methods:&lt;/B&gt; After obtaining parental consent, skin-prick tests were performed on 5,094 students between March and June 2010. Elementary school students were tested for 18 common aeroallergens, whereas middle and high school students were tested for 25 allergens. The 25 allergens included &lt;I&gt;Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus, Dermatophagoides farinae&lt;/I&gt;, pollen (birch, alder, oak, Japanese cedar, pine, willow, elm, maple, Bermuda grass, timothy grass, rye grass, orchard grass, meadow grass, vernal grass, mugwort, Japanese hop, fat hen, ragweed, and plantain, and mold (&lt;I&gt;Penicillatum, Aspergillus, Cladosporium, and Alternaria&lt;/I&gt;. &lt;b&gt;Results:&lt;/b&gt; The sensitization rates in descending order were 25.79% (&lt;I&gt;D. pteronyssinus&lt;/I&gt; , 18.66% (&lt;I&gt;D. farinae&lt;/I&gt; , 6.20% (mugwort, and 4.07% (willow in Incheon; 33.35% (&lt;I&gt;D. pteronyssinus&lt;/I&gt; , 24.78% (&lt;I&gt;D. farinae&lt;/I&gt;, 15.36% (Japanese cedar, and 7.33% (Alternaria in Jeju; and 32.79% (D. pteronyssinus, 30.27% (D. farinae, 10.13% (alder, and 8.68% (birch in Ulsan. The dust mite allergen showed the highest sensitization rate among the 3 regions. The sensitization rate of tree pollen was the highest in Ulsan, whereas that of Alternaria was the highest in Jeju. The ragweed sensitization rates were 0.99% in Incheon, 1.07% in Jeju, and 0.81% in Ulsan. &lt;b&gt;Conclusion:&lt;/b&gt; The

  16. The prevalence of peanut sensitization and the association to pollen sensitization in a cohort of unselected adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørtz, Charlotte G; Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Bindslev-Jensen, Carsten

    2005-01-01

    In the last decade an increased occurrence of peanut hypersensitivity and severe anaphylactic reactions to peanut have been reported. However, few prevalence studies have been performed in unselected populations. This study evaluated the point prevalence of peanut hypersensitivity in Danish...... adolescents. The point prevalence of peanut allergy confirmed by oral challenge was estimated to 0.5%. The number of adolescents sensitized to peanut by specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) (CAP FEIA) and skin prick test (SPT) were higher (5.8% resp. 3.4%). In adolescents without clinically relevant peanut...... sensitization most cases were sensitized to grass pollen and the IgE class for grass was higher than for peanut. A correlation between peanut and pollen (grass) sensitization is therefore plausible. Before a positive SPT or specific IgE measurement to peanut is considered clinically relevant in a patient...

  17. High exposure to endotoxin in farming is associated with less new-onset pollen sensitisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elholm, Grethe; Schlünssen, Vivi; Doekes, Gert

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Little is known about risk factors for new onset and loss of atopic sensitisation in adulthood. The aim is to examine the longitudinal effect of quantitatively assessed endotoxin exposures on changes in specific allergen sensitisation in young adults. METHODS: The cohort consisted...... in relation to cumulative endotoxin exposure during follow-up, considering early life farm exposure. RESULTS: Endotoxin exposure during follow-up was significantly associated with less new onset of specifically grass and birch pollen sensitisation. For the highest versus lowest quartile of cumulative...... endotoxin exposure, the OR for new-onset IgE sensitisation was 0.35 (0.13-0.91) for birch and 0.14 (0.05-0.50) for grass. On the other hand, loss of pollen sensitisation showed a positive, although mostly non-significant, association with increased levels of endotoxin exposure. Endotoxin exposure...

  18. Mite allergoids coupled to nonoxidized mannan from Saccharomyces cerevisae efficiently target canine dendritic cells for novel allergy immunotherapy in veterinary medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soria, Irene; Alvarez, Javier; Manzano, Ana I; López-Relaño, Juan; Cases, Bárbara; Mas-Fontao, Ana; Cañada, F Javier; Fernández-Caldas, Enrique; Casanovas, Miguel; Jiménez-Barbero, Jesús; Palomares, Oscar; Viñals-Flórez, Luis M; Subiza, José L

    2017-08-01

    We have recently reported that grass pollen allergoids conjugated with nonoxidized mannan of Saccharomyces cerevisae using glutaraldehyde results in a novel hypoallergenic mannan-allergen complex with improved properties for allergen vaccination. Using this approach, human dendritic cells show a better allergen uptake and cytokine profile production (higher IL-10/IL-4 ratio) for therapeutic purposes. Here we aim to address whether a similar approach can be extended to dogs using canine dendritic cells. Six healthy Spanish Greyhound dogs were used as blood donors to obtain canine dendritic cells (DC) derived from peripheral blood monocytes. Allergens from Dermatophagoides farinae mite were polymerized and conjugated with nonoxidized mannan. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), immunoblotting and IgE-ELISA inhibition studies were conducted to evaluate the main characteristics of the allergoid obtained. Mannan-allergen conjugate and controls were assayed in vitro for canine DC uptake and production of IL-4 and IL-10. The results indicate that the conjugation of D. farinae allergens with nonoxidized mannan was feasible using glutaraldehyde. The resulting product was a polymerized structure showing a high molecular weight as detected by NMR and SDS-PAGE analysis. The mannan-allergen conjugate was hypoallergenic with a reduced reactivity with specific dog IgE. An increase in both allergen uptake and IL-10/IL-4 ratio was obtained when canine DCs were incubated with the mannan-allergen conjugate, as compared with the control allergen preparations (unmodified D. farinae allergens and oxidized mannan-allergen conjugate). We conclude that hypoallergenic D. farinae allergens coupled to nonoxidized mannan is a novel allergen preparation suitable for canine allergy immunotherapy targeting dendritic cells. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Responses of human birch pollen allergen-reactive T cells to chemically modified allergens (allergoids).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dormann, D; Ebner, C; Jarman, E R; Montermann, E; Kraft, D; Reske-Kunz, A B

    1998-11-01

    Allergoids are widely used in specific immunotherapy for the treatment of IgE-mediated allergic diseases. The aim of this study was to analyse whether a modification of birch pollen allergens with formaldehyde affects the availability of T-cell epitopes. Efficient modification of the allergens was verified by determining IgE and IgG binding activity using ELISA inhibition tests. T-cell responses to birch pollen allergoids were analysed in polyclonal systems, using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of five birch pollen-allergic individuals, as well as birch pollen extract-reactive T-cell lines (TCL), established from the peripheral blood of 14 birch pollen-allergic donors. To determine whether the modification of natural (n)Bet v 1 with formaldehyde or maleic anhydride results in epitope-specific changes in T-cell reactivities, 22 Bet v 1-specific T-cell clones (TCC), established from nine additional birch pollen-allergic individuals, were tested for their reactivity with these products. The majority of PBMC and TCL showed a reduced response to the birch pollen extract allergoid. Bet v 1-specific TCC could be divided into allergoid-reactive and -non-reactive TCC. No simple correlation between possible modification sites of formaldehyde in the respective T-cell epitopes and the stimulatory potential of the allergoid was observed. Mechanisms of suppression or of anergy induction were excluded as an explanation for the non-reactivity of representative TCC. All TCC could be stimulated by maleylated and unmodified nBet v 1 to a similar extent. These results demonstrate differences in the availability of T-cell epitopes between allergoids and unmodified allergens, which are most likely due to structural changes within the allergen molecule.

  20. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  1. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, Sangeeta; Nurmatov, Ulugbek; Roberts, Graham

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines for Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the Management of Allergic Rhinoconjunctivitis. We seek to critically assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety of AIT...

  2. Hypoallergenic molecules for subcutaneous immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongejan, Laurian; van Ree, Ronald; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2016-01-01

    Although a large part of the population suffers from allergies, a cure is not yet available. Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) offers promise for these patients. AIT has proven successful in insect and venom allergies; however, for food allergy this is still unclear. In this editorial we focus

  3. Marker allergens of weed pollen - basic considerations and diagnostic benefits in the clinical routine: Part 16 of the Series Molecular Allergology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stemeseder, Teresa; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Hawranek, Thomas; Gadermaier, Gabriele

    The term weed is referring to plants used as culinary herbs and medicinal plants as well as ecologically adaptive and invasive segetal plants. In Europe, pollen of ragweed, mugwort, English plantain and pellitory are the main elicitors of weed pollen allergies. Presently, 35 weed pollen allergens have been identified. The most relevant belong to the protein families of pectate lyases, defensin-like proteins, non-specific lipid transfer proteins, and Ole e 1-like proteins. The sensitization frequency depends on geographic regions and might affect more than 50 % of pollen allergic patients in distinct regions. Due to overlapping flowering seasons, similar habitats, polysensitizations and cross-reactive (pan)-allergens, it is difficult to diagnose genuine weed pollen sensitization using pollen extracts. Marker allergens for component-resolved diagnostics are available for the important weed pollen. These are Amb a 1 (ragweed), Art v 1 (mugwort), Pla l 1 (English plantain) and Par j 2 (pellitory). Molecule-based approaches can be used to identify the primary sensitizer and thus enable selection of the appropriate weed pollen extracts for allergen immunotherapy.

  4. Changes in markers associated with dendritic cells driving the differentiation of either TH2 cells or regulatory T cells correlate with clinical benefit during allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gueguen, Claire; Bouley, Julien; Moussu, Hélène; Luce, Sonia; Duchateau, Magalie; Chamot-Rooke, Julia; Pallardy, Marc; Lombardi, Vincent; Nony, Emmanuel; Baron-Bodo, Véronique; Mascarell, Laurent; Moingeon, Philippe

    2016-02-01

    Regulatory dendritic cell (DC) markers, such as C1Q, are upregulated in PBMCs of patients with grass pollen allergy exhibiting clinical benefit during allergen immunotherapy (AIT). We sought to define markers differentially expressed in human monocyte-derived DCs differentiated toward a proallergic (DCs driving the differentiation of TH2 cells [DC2s]) phenotype and investigate whether changes in such markers in the blood correlate with AIT efficacy. Transcriptomes and proteomes of monocyte-derived DCs polarized toward DCs driving the differentiation of TH1 cells (DC1s), DC2s, or DCs driving the differentiation of regulatory T cells (DCreg cells) profiles were compared by using genome-wide cDNA microarrays and label-free quantitative proteomics, respectively. Markers differentially regulated in DC2s and DCreg cells were assessed by means of quantitative PCR in PBMCs from 80 patients with grass pollen allergy before and after 2 or 4 months of sublingual AIT in parallel with rhinoconjunctivitis symptom scores. We identified 20 and 26 new genes/proteins overexpressed in DC2s and DCreg cells, respectively. At an individual patient level, DC2-associated markers, such as CD141, GATA3, OX40 ligand, and receptor-interacting serine/threonine-protein kinase 4 (RIPK4), were downregulated after a 4-month sublingual AIT course concomitantly with an upregulation of DCreg cell-associated markers, including complement C1q subcomponent subunit A (C1QA), FcγRIIIA, ferritin light chain (FTL), and solute carrier organic anion transporter family member 2B1 (SLCO2B1), in the blood of clinical responders as opposed to nonresponders. Changes in such markers were better correlated with clinical benefit than alterations of allergen-specific CD4(+) T-cell or IgG responses. A combination of 5 markers predominantly expressed by blood DCs (ie, C1Q and CD141) or shared with lymphoid cells (ie, FcγRIIIA, GATA3, and RIPK4) reflecting changes in the balance of regulatory/proallergic responses

  5. Effect of gamma rays doses on pollen germination, polysiphony and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula Schiede et Deppe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katiyar, S.R.; Chauhan, Y.S.

    1987-01-01

    The present study aimed to study the effects of gamma radiation ( 60 Co) on pollen germination and pollen tube elongation in Pinus patula. Pollen germination and pollen tube elongation are stimulated by low doses of radiation. Although higher doses of radiation inhibit the germination of pollen, pollen tube elongation remains unaffected. Thus in Pinus patula pollen tube elongation is less radiosensitive than pollen germination. Compared to control pollen, irradiated pollen produced more number of long pollen tubes. Therefore pollen tube size can be improved using low doses of radiation. (author). 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tables

  6. Epicutaneous immunotherapy on intact skin using a new delivery system in a murine model of allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondoulet, L; Dioszeghy, V; Ligouis, M; Dhelft, V; Dupont, C; Benhamou, P-H

    2010-04-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy, subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT) or oral, has been used for almost a century to redirect inappropriate immune responses in atopic patients. A new mode of administration through the intact skin [epicutaneous immunotherapy (EPIT)], using an original epicutaneous delivery system, may represent an alternative to these classical methods. Proof of concept of efficacy of EPIT on intact skin in mice sensitized to aeroallergens or food allergens. Mice were sensitized to pollen (n=18), house dust mite (HDM, n=24), ovalbumin (OVA, n=18) or peanut (n=18), and allocated to four groups: EPIT, SCIT, not treated (NT) and control. Specific Ig (sIg)E, sIgG1 and sIgG2a were monitored. After 8 weeks of treatment, plethysmography was performed after aerosol provocation with appropriate allergens. At the highest doses of methacholine, pause enhancement (Penh) values were significantly decreased in the EPIT group vs. the sensitized NT groups (7.5 vs. 12.3 - pollen, 7.6 vs. 8.9 - HDM, 11.5 vs. 14.5 - OVA, 7.6 vs. 12.8 - peanut, respectively) (P<0.05). With all the allergens tested, Penh values were similar in SCIT, EPIT and control. IgG2a for pollen, HDM, OVA and peanuts were significantly increased in the EPIT group vs. NT: 0.97 vs. 0.42 microg/mL, 2.5 vs. 0.46 microg/mL, 0.39 vs. 0.05 microg/mL and 15.0 vs. 5.5 microg/mL, respectively (P<0.05). There were no significant differences between EPIT and SCIT groups. The IgE/IgG2a ratio decreased significantly in the EPIT group for the four allergens from 70 to 58 (pollen), 175 to 26 (HDM), 5433 to 120 (OVA) and 49 to 6 (peanut), respectively (P<0.05). In mice sensitized to the four allergens tested, EPIT was as efficacious as SCIT, considered as the reference immunotherapy. These first results have to be confirmed by clinical studies.

  7. [A comparative evaluation of the biological action of allergens and allergoids prepared from plant pollen by the double radial immunodiffusion method].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrenchik, E I; Korytina, O L

    1989-09-01

    Antisera to allergens and allergoids prepared from timothy, orchard grass, birch and wormwood pollen have been obtained and used in the double radial immunodiffusion test. The preparations of the allergoid row have been found capable of inducing immune response in laboratory animals (rabbits). Both forms of pollen preparations, allergens and allergoids, have been shown to possess common antigenic determinants reacting with antibodies present in antisera to allergens and allergoids. The absence of identity in the ratio of manifestations of gel precipitation reactions for allergoid with respect to the initial forms of allergens of individual pollen preparation has been noted.

  8. Analysis of allergen immunotherapy studies shows increased clinical efficacy in highly symptomatic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howarth, P; Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Molimard, M

    2011-01-01

    them. Thus, clinical studies of AIT can neither establish baseline symptom levels nor limit the enrolment of patients to those with the most severe symptoms. Allergen immunotherapy treatment effects are therefore diluted by patients with low symptoms for a particular pollen season. The objective...... tertiles). The difference observed in the average score in each tertile in active vs placebo-treated patients was assessed. This allowed an estimation of the efficacy that could be achieved in patients from sites where symptoms were high during the pollen season. Results:  An increased treatment effect...... of this analysis was to assess the effect possible to achieve with AIT in the groups of patients presenting the most severe allergic symptoms. Methods:  Study centres were grouped into tertiles categorized according to symptom severity scores observed in the placebo patients in each centre (low, middle and high...

  9. Sweet attraction: sugarcane pollen-associated volatiles attract gravid Anopheles arabiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wondwosen, Betelehem; Birgersson, Göran; Tekie, Habte; Torto, Baldwyn; Ignell, Rickard; Hill, Sharon R

    2018-02-21

    Anopheles arabiensis is a key vector for the transmission of human malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. Over the past 10,000 years, humans have successfully cultivated grasses and altered the landscape, creating An. arabiensis favourable environments that contain excellent habitats for both larvae and adults. Sugarcane is the most expanding agricultural system in sub-Saharan Africa, and is linked to the increased threat of malaria in rural communities. The prolific production and wind dispersal of sugarcane pollen, together with standing pools of water, often provide, as a result of irrigation, a nutrient-rich environment for the offspring of gravid malaria mosquitoes. In the present study, sugarcane pollen-associated volatiles from two cultivars are shown to attract gravid An. arabiensis in a still air two-port olfactometer and stimulate egg laying in an oviposition bioassay. Through combined gas chromatography and electroantennographic detection, as well as combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometric analyses, we identified the bioactive volatiles and generated a synthetic blend that reproduced the full behavioural repertoire of gravid mosquitoes in the Y-tube assay. Two subtractive odour blends, when compared with the full blend, were significantly more attractive. These three and four-component subtractive blends share the compounds (1R)-(+)-α-pinene, nonanal and benzaldehyde, of which, (1R)-(+)-α-pinene and nonanal are found in the attractive odour blends from rice plants and maize pollen. In pairwise comparisons, the rice synthetic odour blend was more attractive to gravid mosquitoes than either of the pollen blends, whereas the pollen blends did not differ in attraction. The attraction of gravid females to sugarcane pollen volatiles demonstrated in this study, together with the previously found grass-associated volatiles, raise the potential of developing a bioactive chimeric blend to attract gravid malaria mosquitoes. This is discussed in relation to

  10. Climate change: consequences on the pollination of grasses in Perugia (Central Italy). A 33-year-long study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofia, Ghitarrini; Emma, Tedeschini; Veronica, Timorato; Giuseppe, Frenguelli

    2017-01-01

    Many works carried out in the last decades have shown that the pollen season for taxa flowering in winter and spring, in temperate regions, has tended to be earlier, probably due to the continuous rise in temperature. The mean annual temperature in Perugia, Central Italy, was about 0.5 °C higher in the last three decades compared with that registered from 1952 to 1981. The increase of temperature took place mainly in winter and spring, while no significant variation was recorded during the summer and autumn. This scenario shows variations in the timing and behavior of flowering of many spontaneous plants such as grasses, whose phenology is strongly influenced by air temperature. This work reports fluctuations in the airborne grass pollen presence in Perugia over a 33-year period (1982-2014), in order to study the influence of the warming registered in recent years on the behavior of pollen release of this taxon. The grass pollen season in Perugia typically lasts from the beginning of May to late July. The start dates showed a marked trend to an earlier beginning of the season (-0.4 day/year), as well as a strong correlation with the average temperatures of March and April. The peak is reached around 30th May, but the annual pollen index (API) is following a decreasing trend. The correlation between starting dates and spring temperatures could be interesting for the constitution of a forecasting model capable of predicting the presence of airborne grass pollen, helping to plan therapies for allergic people.

  11. Pollen Forecast and Dispersion Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantini, Monica; Di Giuseppe, Fabio; Medaglia, Carlo Maria; Travaglini, Alessandro; Tocci, Raffaella; Brighetti, M. Antonia; Petitta, Marcello

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is monitoring, mapping and forecast of pollen distribution for the city of Rome using in-situ measurements of 10 species of common allergenic pollens and measurements of PM10. The production of daily concentration maps, associated to a mobile phone app, are innovative compared to existing dedicated services to people who suffer from respiratory allergies. The dispersal pollen is one of the most well-known causes of allergic disease that is manifested by disorders of the respiratory functions. Allergies are the third leading cause of chronic disease and it is estimated that tens millions of people in Italy suffer from it. Recent works reveal that during the last few years there was a progressive increase of affected subjects, especially in urban areas. This situation may depend: on the ability to transport of pollutants, on the ability to react between pollutants and pollen and from a combination of other irritants, existing in densely populated and polluted urban areas. The methodology used to produce maps is based on in-situ measurements time series relative to 2012, obtained from networks of air quality and pollen stations in the metropolitan area of Rome. The monitoring station aerobiological of University of Rome "Tor Vergata" is located at the Department of Biology. The instrument used to pollen monitoring is a volumetric sampler type Hirst (Hirst 1952), Model 2000 VPPS Lanzoni; the data acquisition is carried out as reported in Standard UNI 11008:2004 - "Qualità dell'aria - Metodo di campionamento e conteggio dei granuli pollinici e delle spore fungine aerodisperse" - the protocol that describes the procedure for measuring of the concentration of pollen grains and fungal spores dispersed into the atmosphere, and reported in the "Manuale di gestione e qualità della R.I.M.A" (Travaglini et. al. 2009). All 10 allergenic pollen are monitored since 1996. At Tor Vergata university is also operating a meteorological station (SP2000, CAE

  12. A high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy approach to assess adaptive variation in the chemical composition of pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Boris; Bağcıoğlu, Murat; Tafinstseva, Valeria; Kohler, Achim; Ohlson, Mikael; Fjellheim, Siri

    2017-12-01

    The two factors defining male reproductive success in plants are pollen quantity and quality, but our knowledge about the importance of pollen quality is limited due to methodological constraints. Pollen quality in terms of chemical composition may be either genetically fixed for high performance independent of environmental conditions, or it may be plastic to maximize reproductive output under different environmental conditions. In this study, we validated a new approach for studying the role of chemical composition of pollen in adaptation to local climate. The approach is based on high-throughput Fourier infrared (FTIR) characterization and biochemical interpretation of pollen chemical composition in response to environmental conditions. The study covered three grass species, Poa alpina , Anthoxanthum odoratum , and Festuca ovina . For each species, plants were grown from seeds of three populations with wide geographic and climate variation. Each individual plant was divided into four genetically identical clones which were grown in different controlled environments (high and low levels of temperature and nutrients). In total, 389 samples were measured using a high-throughput FTIR spectrometer. The biochemical fingerprints of pollen were species and population specific, and plastic in response to different environmental conditions. The response was most pronounced for temperature, influencing the levels of proteins, lipids, and carbohydrates in pollen of all species. Furthermore, there is considerable variation in plasticity of the chemical composition of pollen among species and populations. The use of high-throughput FTIR spectroscopy provides fast, cheap, and simple assessment of the chemical composition of pollen. In combination with controlled-condition growth experiments and multivariate analyses, FTIR spectroscopy opens up for studies of the adaptive role of pollen that until now has been difficult with available methodology. The approach can easily be

  13. The Impacts of Maximum Temperature and Climate Change to Current and Future Pollen Distribution in Skopje, Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Kendrovski

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND. The goal of the present paper was to assess the impact of current and future burden of the ambient temperature to pollen distributions in Skopje. METHODS. In the study we have evaluated a correlation between the concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere of Skopje and maximum temperature, during the vegetation period of 1996, 2003, 2007 and 2009 as a current burden in context of climate change. For our analysis we have selected 9 representative of each phytoallergen group (trees, grasses, weeds. The concentration of pollen grains has been monitored by a Lanzoni volumetric pollen trap. The correlation between the concentration of pollen grains in the atmosphere and selected meteorological variable from weekly monitoring has been studied with the help of linear regression and correlation coefficients. RESULTS. The prevalence of the sensibilization of standard pollen allergens in Skopje during the some period shows increasing from 16,9% in 1996 to 19,8% in 2009. We detect differences in onset of flowering, maximum and end of the length of seasons for pollen. The pollen distributions and risk increases in 3 main periods: early spring, spring and summer which are the main cause of allergies during these seasons. The largest increase of air temperature due to climate change in Skopje is expected in the summer season. CONCLUSION. The impacts of climate change by increasing of the temperature in the next decades very likely will include impacts on pollen production and differences in current pollen season. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2012; 11(1.000: 35-40

  14. Comparative long-term trend analysis of daily weather conditions with daily pollen concentrations in Brussels, Belgium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; De Smedt, Tom; Delcloo, Andy; Simons, Koen; Hoebeke, Lucie; Verstraeten, Caroline; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2018-03-01

    A clear rise in seasonal and annual temperatures, a gradual increase of total radiation, and a relative trend of change in seasonal precipitation have been observed for the last four decades in Brussels (Belgium). These local modifications may have a direct and indirect public health impact by altering the timing and intensity of allergenic pollen seasons. In this study, we assessed the statistical correlations (Spearman's test) between pollen concentration and meteorological conditions by using long-term daily datasets of 11 pollen types (8 trees and 3 herbaceous plants) and 10 meteorological parameters observed in Brussels between 1982 and 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of change in the annual cycle of the same selected pollen types by the Mann-Kendall test. We revealed an overall trend of increase in daily airborne tree pollen (except for the European beech tree) and an overall trend of decrease in daily airborne pollen from herbaceous plants (except for Urticaceae). These results revealed an earlier onset of the flowering period for birch, oak, ash, plane, grasses, and Urticaceae. Finally, the rates of change in pollen annual cycles were shown to be associated with the rates of change in the annual cycles of several meteorological parameters such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall.

  15. Comparative long-term trend analysis of daily weather conditions with daily pollen concentrations in Brussels, Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruffaerts, Nicolas; De Smedt, Tom; Delcloo, Andy; Simons, Koen; Hoebeke, Lucie; Verstraeten, Caroline; Van Nieuwenhuyse, An; Packeu, Ann; Hendrickx, Marijke

    2018-03-01

    A clear rise in seasonal and annual temperatures, a gradual increase of total radiation, and a relative trend of change in seasonal precipitation have been observed for the last four decades in Brussels (Belgium). These local modifications may have a direct and indirect public health impact by altering the timing and intensity of allergenic pollen seasons. In this study, we assessed the statistical correlations (Spearman's test) between pollen concentration and meteorological conditions by using long-term daily datasets of 11 pollen types (8 trees and 3 herbaceous plants) and 10 meteorological parameters observed in Brussels between 1982 and 2015. Furthermore, we analyzed the rate of change in the annual cycle of the same selected pollen types by the Mann-Kendall test. We revealed an overall trend of increase in daily airborne tree pollen (except for the European beech tree) and an overall trend of decrease in daily airborne pollen from herbaceous plants (except for Urticaceae). These results revealed an earlier onset of the flowering period for birch, oak, ash, plane, grasses, and Urticaceae. Finally, the rates of change in pollen annual cycles were shown to be associated with the rates of change in the annual cycles of several meteorological parameters such as temperature, radiation, humidity, and rainfall.

  16. A randomized DBPC trial to determine the optimal effective and safe dose of a SLIT-birch pollen extract for the treatment of allergic rhinitis : results of a phase II study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfaar, O.; van Twuijver, E.; Boot, J. D.; Opstelten, D. J. E.; Klimek, L.; van Ree, R.; Diamant, Z.; Kuna, P.; Panzner, P.

    Background: Sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) is a potential efficacious and safe treatment option for patients with respiratory, IgE-mediated allergic diseases. A combined tolerability, dose-finding study with a sublingual liquid birch pollen preparation (SB) was conducted. Methods: Two hundred and

  17. Aerobiological study of pollen and mold in Seoul, Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Won Oh

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available In a large number of allergic individuals, inhalant allergens are important causative and triggering agents in respiratory allergies. It is essential to survey the pollen and mold around the patient’s environment for the diagnosis and treatment of airborne allergy. Rotorod samplers were installed at well-ventilated places in seven collecting stations in Seoul, the capital of Korea, which has a population of 12 million. Airborne particles carrying allergens were collected daily from each station for 2 years (1 October 1995 to 30 September 1997. After being stained with Calberla’s fuchsin, they were identified, counted and recorded. The weather in Seoul was also recorded. Pollen was found from the middle of February through to the end of December. The peak date for pollen was 12 May (peak mean daily count: 701 grains/m3/day and for mold it was 23 June (peak mean daily count: 936 spores/m3/day. Alder, birch, pine, oak, maple, elm, juniper, willow, and gingko trees were prevalent during the tree season, lasting from the middle of February to late July. Then sagebrush, ragweed, Japanese hop, and pigweed followed during the weed season, which lasts from the middle of July to the end of December. In skin prick test results, house dust mite was the most common positive allergen in Seoul, followed by cockroach. Among the pollens, mugwort was the most common positive, followed by ragweed mix, alder, birch, and grasses mix. Among the molds, there were high counts of Cladosporium and Alternaria during the year, excluding January. Ascospore of Lepto-spheria was highest during the monsoon season.

  18. Knockin' on pollen's door: live cell imaging of early polarization events in germinating Arabidopsis pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogler, Frank; Konrad, Sebastian S. A.; Sprunck, Stefanie

    2015-01-01

    Pollen tubes are an excellent system for studying the cellular dynamics and complex signaling pathways that coordinate polarized tip growth. Although several signaling mechanisms acting in the tip-growing pollen tube have been described, our knowledge on the subcellular and molecular events during pollen germination and growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane is rather scarce. To simultaneously track germinating pollen from up to 12 genetically different plants we developed an inexpensive and easy mounting technique, suitable for every standard microscope setup. We performed high magnification live-cell imaging during Arabidopsis pollen activation, germination, and the establishment of pollen tube tip growth by using fluorescent marker lines labeling either the pollen cytoplasm, vesicles, the actin cytoskeleton or the sperm cell nuclei and membranes. Our studies revealed distinctive vesicle and F-actin polarization during pollen activation and characteristic growth kinetics during pollen germination and pollen tube formation. Initially, the germinating Arabidopsis pollen tube grows slowly and forms a uniform roundish bulge, followed by a transition phase with vesicles heavily accumulating at the growth site before switching to rapid tip growth. Furthermore, we found the two sperm cells to be transported into the pollen tube after the phase of rapid tip growth has been initiated. The method presented here is suitable to quantitatively study subcellular events during Arabidopsis pollen germination and growth, and for the detailed analysis of pollen mutants with respect to pollen polarization, bulging, or growth site selection at the pollen plasma membrane. PMID:25954283

  19. Trends in prevalence of allergic rhinitis and correlation with pollen counts in Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frei, Thomas; Gassner, Ewald

    2008-11-01

    but with a slight tendency to decrease. In Locarno, most of the pollen species also show a decreasing trend, while in Zurich, the development is somewhat different as the pollen counts of most of the pollen types have been increasing. It is interesting, however, that some of the pollen counts of this station (grass, stinging nettle, mugwort and ragweed) have been decreasing in the period 1982-2007.

  20. Coconut (Cocos nucifera l.) pollen cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karun, A; Sjini, K K; Niral, V; Amarnth, C H; Remya, P; Rajesh, M K; Samsudeen, K; Jerard, B A; Engelmann, F

    2014-01-01

    Coconut genetic resources are threatened by pests and pathogens, natural hazards and human activities. Cryopreservation is the only method allowing the safe and cost-effective long-term conservation of recalcitrant seed species such as coconut. The objective of this work was to test the effect of cryopreservation and of cryostorage duration on coconut pollen germination and fertility. Pollen of two coconut varieties (West Coast Tall WWCTW and Chowghat Orange Dwarf CODC) was collected in March-May over three successive years, desiccated to 7.5 % moisture content (FW) and cryopreserved by direct immersion in liquid nitrogen. Germination and pollen tube length (PTL) of desiccated and cryopreserved pollen were not significantly different for both WCT and COD over the three harvest months of the three consecutive years of study. Pollen germination ranged from 24 to 32 % in desiccated pollen whereas it was between 26 and 29 % in cryopreserved COD pollen. In the case of WCT, germination ranged from 30 to 31 % in desiccated pollen, while it was between 28 and 32 % in cryopreserved pollen. PTL of cryopreserved pollen ranged between 224-390 nm and 226-396 mm for COD and WCT, respectively. Germination of COD pollen varied between 29.0 and 44.1 % after 4 years and 1.0/1.5 years cryostorage, respectively. Germination of WCT pollen did not change significantly between 0 and 6 years cryostorage, being comprised between 32 (24 h) and 40 % (1.5 years). Germination and vigour of cryopreserved pollen were generally higher compared to that of pollen dried in oven and non-cryopreserved. Normal seed set was observed in COD and WCT palms using pollen cryostored for 6 months and 4 years. Cryopreserved pollen of five Tall and five Dwarf accessions displayed 24-31 % and 25-49 % germination, respectively. These results show that it is now possible to establish pollen cryobanks to contribute to coconut germplasm long-term conservation.

  1. [Specific immunotherapy with depigmented allergoids].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimek, L; Thorn, C; Pfaar, O

    2010-01-01

    Specific immunotherapy is the only available causative treatment for IgE-mediated allergic conditions. The state of the art is treatment via the subcutaneous route with crude extracts in a water solution, with physically linked (semidepot) extracts or chemically modified semidepot extracts (allergoids). A relatively new purification method combines depigmentation followed by polymerization with glutaraldehyde. This modification results in increased tolerance with a reduction in both local and systemic adverse effects. As controlled clinical trials have shown, the effectiveness is comparable to that of specific immunotherapy with crude allergen extracts. Recent data suggest that the modified polymerized allergoids allow a safe rush titration in a few days or even in 1 day (ultra-rush titration).

  2. Lentiviral vectors in cancer immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Robyn Aa; Berinstein, Elliot M; Medin, Jeffrey A

    2015-01-01

    Basic science advances in cancer immunotherapy have resulted in various treatments that have recently shown success in the clinic. Many of these therapies require the insertion of genes into cells to directly kill them or to redirect the host's cells to induce potent immune responses. Other analogous therapies work by modifying effector cells for improved targeting and enhanced killing of tumor cells. Initial studies done using γ-retroviruses were promising, but safety concerns centered on the potential for insertional mutagenesis have highlighted the desire to develop other options for gene delivery. Lentiviral vectors (LVs) have been identified as potentially more effective and safer alternative delivery vehicles. LVs are now in use in clinical trials for many different types of inherited and acquired disorders, including cancer. This review will discuss current knowledge of LVs and the applications of this viral vector-based delivery vehicle to cancer immunotherapy.

  3. Specific immunotherapy ameliorates ulcerative colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Min; Zeng, Lu; Li, Lin-Jing; Mo, Li-Hua; Xie, Rui-Di; Feng, Bai-Sui; Zheng, Peng-Yuan; Liu, Zhi-Gang; Liu, Zhan-Ju; Yang, Ping-Chang

    2016-01-01

    Hypersensitivity reaction to certain allergens plays a role in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aims to observe the effect of specific immunotherapy in a group of IBD patients. Patients with both ulcerative colitis (UC) and food allergy were recruited into this study. Food allergy was diagnosed by skin prick test and serum specific IgE. The patients were treated with specific immunotherapy (SIT) and Clostridium butyricum (CB) capsules. After treating with SIT and CB, the clinical symptoms of UC were markedly suppressed as shown by reduced truncated Mayo scores and medication scores. The serum levels of specific IgE, interleukin (IL)-4 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were also suppressed. Treating with SIT alone or CB alone did not show appreciable improvement of the clinical symptoms of UC. UC with food allergy can be ameliorated by administration with SIT and butyrate-production probiotics.

  4. Immunotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellebaek, Eva; Andersen, Mads Hald; Svane, Inge Marie

    2012-01-01

    Although no immunotherapeutic treatment is approved for colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, promising results from clinical trials suggest that several immunotherapeutic strategies may prove efficacious and applicable to this group of patients. This review describes the immunogenicity of CRC...... and presents the most interesting strategies investigated so far: cancer vaccination including antigen-defined vaccination and dendritic cell vaccination, chemo-immunotherapy, and adoptive cell transfer. Future treatment options as well as the possibility of combining existing therapies will be discussed along...

  5. EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, Susanne; Larenas-Linnemann, Desiree; Roberts, Graham

    2017-01-01

    Allergic diseases are common and frequently coexist. Allergen immunotherapy (AIT) is a disease-modifying treatment for IgE-mediated allergic disease with effects beyond cessation of AIT that may include important preventive effects. The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) ...... of allergic co-morbidities in those with other allergic conditions. Evidence for the preventive potential of AIT as disease modifying treatment exists but there is an urgent need for more high-quality clinical trials....

  6. Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-01

    TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Integrated Immunotherapy for Breast Cancer 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-12-1-0366 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT...communications 215, 566 (Oct 13, 1995). 87. S. J. Reshkin, R. A. Cardone , S. Harguindey, Na+-H+ exchanger, pH regulation and cancer. Recent patents on anti-cancer drug discovery 8, 85 (Jan 1, 2013).

  7. Immunotherapy Targets in Pediatric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Lee, Daniel W.; Mackall, Crystal, E-mail: rimas.orentas@nih.gov, E-mail: mackallc@mail.nih.gov [Pediatric Oncology Branch, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)

    2012-01-30

    Immunotherapy for cancer has shown increasing success and there is ample evidence to expect that progress gleaned in immune targeting of adult cancers can be translated to pediatric oncology. This manuscript reviews principles that guide selection of targets for immunotherapy of cancer, emphasizing the similarities and distinctions between oncogene-inhibition targets and immune targets. It follows with a detailed review of molecules expressed by pediatric tumors that are already under study as immune targets or are good candidates for future studies of immune targeting. Distinctions are made between cell surface antigens that can be targeted in an MHC independent manner using antibodies, antibody derivatives, or chimeric antigen receptors versus intracellular antigens which must be targeted with MHC restricted T cell therapies. Among the most advanced immune targets for childhood cancer are CD19 and CD22 on hematologic malignancies, GD2 on solid tumors, and NY-ESO-1 expressed by a majority of synovial sarcomas, but several other molecules reviewed here also have properties which suggest that they too could serve as effective targets for immunotherapy of childhood cancer.

  8. Immunotherapy Targets in Pediatric Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orentas, Rimas J.; Lee, Daniel W.; Mackall, Crystal

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy for cancer has shown increasing success and there is ample evidence to expect that progress gleaned in immune targeting of adult cancers can be translated to pediatric oncology. This manuscript reviews principles that guide selection of targets for immunotherapy of cancer, emphasizing the similarities and distinctions between oncogene-inhibition targets and immune targets. It follows with a detailed review of molecules expressed by pediatric tumors that are already under study as immune targets or are good candidates for future studies of immune targeting. Distinctions are made between cell surface antigens that can be targeted in an MHC independent manner using antibodies, antibody derivatives, or chimeric antigen receptors versus intracellular antigens which must be targeted with MHC restricted T cell therapies. Among the most advanced immune targets for childhood cancer are CD19 and CD22 on hematologic malignancies, GD2 on solid tumors, and NY-ESO-1 expressed by a majority of synovial sarcomas, but several other molecules reviewed here also have properties which suggest that they too could serve as effective targets for immunotherapy of childhood cancer.

  9. Gibberellin regulates pollen viability and pollen tube growth in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhun, Tory; Aya, Koichiro; Asano, Kenji; Yamamoto, Eiji; Morinaka, Yoichi; Watanabe, Masao; Kitano, Hidemi; Ashikari, Motoyuki; Matsuoka, Makoto; Ueguchi-Tanaka, Miyako

    2007-12-01

    Gibberellins (GAs) play many biological roles in higher plants. We collected and performed genetic analysis on rice (Oryza sativa) GA-related mutants, including GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants. Genetic analysis of the mutants revealed that rice GA-deficient mutations are not transmitted as Mendelian traits to the next generation following self-pollination of F1 heterozygous plants, although GA-insensitive mutations are transmitted normally. To understand these differences in transmission, we examined the effect of GA on microsporogenesis and pollen tube elongation in rice using new GA-deficient and GA-insensitive mutants that produce semifertile flowers. Phenotypic analysis revealed that the GA-deficient mutant reduced pollen elongation1 is defective in pollen tube elongation, resulting in a low fertilization frequency, whereas the GA-insensitive semidominant mutant Slr1-d3 is mainly defective in viable pollen production. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that GA biosynthesis genes tested whose mutations are transmitted to the next generation at a lower frequency are preferentially expressed after meiosis during pollen development, but expression is absent or very low before the meiosis stage, whereas GA signal-related genes are actively expressed before meiosis. Based on these observations, we predict that the transmission of GA-signaling genes occurs in a sporophytic manner, since the protein products and/or mRNA transcripts of these genes may be introduced into pollen-carrying mutant alleles, whereas GA synthesis genes are transmitted in a gametophytic manner, since these genes are preferentially expressed after meiosis.

  10. Parasites and immunotherapy: with or against?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousofi Darani, Hossein; Yousefi, Morteza; Safari, Marzieh; Jafari, Rasool

    2016-06-01

    Immunotherapy is a sort of therapy in which antibody or antigen administrates to the patient in order to treat or reduce the severity of complications of disease. This kind of treatment practiced in a wide variety of diseases including infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, cancers and allergy. Successful and unsuccessful immunotherapeutic strategies have been practiced in variety of parasitic infections. On the other hand parasites or parasite antigens have also been considered for immunotherapy against other diseases such as cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis. In this paper immunotherapy against common parasitic infections, and also immunotherapy of cancer, asthma and multiple sclerosis with parasites or parasite antigens have been reviewed.

  11. Does stronger pollen competition improve offspring fitness when pollen load does not vary?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pélabon, Christophe; Hennet, Lauriane; Bolstad, Geir H; Albertsen, Elena; Opedal, Øystein H; Ekrem, Runa K; Armbruster, W Scott

    2016-03-01

    Competition among pollen grains from a single donor is expected to increase the quality of the offspring produced because of the recessive deleterious alleles expressed during pollen-tube growth. However, evidence for such an effect is inconclusive; a large number of studies suffer from confounding variation in pollen competition with variation in pollen load. In this study, we tested the effect of pollen competition on offspring performance independently of pollen-load variation. We compared seed mass and early seedling performance in Dalechampia scandens (Euphorbiaceae) between crosses in which variation in pollen competition was achieved, without variation in pollen load, by manipulating the dispersion of pollen grains on the stigmas. Despite a large sample size (211 crosses on 20 maternal plants), we failed to find an effect of pollen competition on seed characteristics or early seedling performance. Paternal effects were always limited, and pollen competition never reduced the within-father (residual) variance. These results suggest that limited within-donor variation in genetic quality of pollen grains reduces the potential benefits of pollen competition in the study population. The lack of paternal effects on early sporophyte performance further suggests that benefits of pollen competition among pollen from multiple donors should be limited as well, and it raises questions about the significance of pollen competition as a mechanism of sexual selection. © 2016 Botanical Society of America.

  12. National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search AAAAI National Allergy Bureau Pollen and Mold Report Date: May 19, 2018 Location: San Antonio (2), ... 18/2018 ( click here to view ). Our Allergen Report Email Service can automatically email you daily pollen ...

  13. Stigma-pollen recognition: a new look

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Dumas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last two decades, there have been several conceptual developments in our understanding of pollen-stigma recognition and molecular mechanisms involved. The main models proposed are compared. Based on additional data a hypothesis to complete these models especially for pollen hydration and adhesion is proposed. After attachment of the pollen to the stigma surface a close interaction exists involving lipoproteic membrane-like compounds (pollenkitt and stigma pellicle and pollen agglutinating ability.

  14. Vaccination for birch pollen allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, C G; Bodtger, U; Poulsen, Lars K.

    2005-01-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) is associated with increased levels of allergen-specific IgG in serum. However, it is not clear to what extent qualitative changes in the allergen binding capacity of IgG may be induced as well....

  15. Pollen evidence for late pleistocene bering land bridge environments from Norton Sound, Northeastern Bering Sea, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ager, T.A.; Phillips, R.L.

    2008-01-01

    After more than half a century of paleoenvironmental investigations, disagreements persist as to the nature of vegetation type and climate of the Bering land bridge (BLB) during the late Wisconsin (Sartan) glacial interval. Few data exist from sites on the former land bridge, now submerged under the Bering and Chukchi Seas. Two hypotheses have emerged during the past decade. The first, based on pollen data from Bering Sea islands and adjacent mainlands of western Alaska and Northeast Siberia, represents the likely predominant vegetation on the Bering land bridge during full-glacial conditions: graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation associated with cold, dry winters and cool, dry summer climate. The second hypothesis suggests that dwarf birch-shrub-herb tundra formed a broad belt across the BLB, and that mesic vegetation was associated with cold, snowier winters and moist, cool summers. As a step towards resolving this controversy, a sediment core from Norton Sound, northeastern Bering Sea was radiocarbon dated and analyzed for pollen content. Two pollen zones were identified. The older, bracketed by radiocarbon ages of 29,500 and 11,515 14C yr BP, contains pollen assemblages composed of grass, sedge, wormwood, willow, and a variety of herb (forb) taxa. These assemblages are interpreted to represent graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation that developed under an arid, cool climate regime. The younger pollen zone sediments were deposited about 11,515 14C yr BP, when rising sea level had begun to flood the BLB. This younger pollen zone contains pollen of birch, willow, heaths, aquatic plants, and spores of sphagnum moss. This is interpreted to represent a Lateglacial dwarf birch-heath-willow-herb tundra vegetation, likely associated with a wetter climate with deeper winter snows, and moist, cool summers. This record supports the first hypothesis, that graminoid-herb-willow tundra vegetation extended into the lowlands of the BLB during full glacial conditions of the

  16. Solid-phase radioimmunoassay for the detection fo IgG antibodies to gramineae pollen (Dactylis glomerata) and to acarida (dermatophagoides Pteronyssinus)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilloux, L.; Ville, G.

    1985-01-01

    A solid-phase radioimmunoassay using 125 I-protein A onto polystyrene microplates, was applied successfully for the detection of IgG antibodies to acarida and to grass pollen in allergic patients and in patients undergoing desensitization therapy [fr

  17. Effects of fluorides and sulphur dioxide on pollen germination and growth of the pollen tube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon Mejnartowicz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The action of fluorides and sulphur dioxides from emissions from a phosphate fertilizer factory significantly reduced the germination of Scots pine pollen grains. The pollen tube length indicated that its growth is uninhibited even though the pollen was collected under conditions of air-pollution. There are statistically significant differences showing longer tubes in the sensitive trees pollen grains. l he ageing of pollen from the sensitive trees occurs probably more rapidly than in the tolerant trees.

  18. A new 'bio-comfort' perspective for Melbourne based on heat stress, air pollution and pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephanie J; Pezza, Alexandre B; Barras, Vaughan; Bye, John

    2014-03-01

    Humans are at risk from exposure to extremes in their environment, yet there is no consistent way to fully quantify and understand the risk when considering more than just meteorological variables. An outdoor 'bio-comfort' threshold is defined for Melbourne, Australia using a combination of heat stress, air particulate concentration and grass pollen count, where comfortable conditions imply an ideal range of temperature, humidity and wind speed, acceptable levels of air particulates and a low pollen count. This is a new approach to defining the comfort of human populations. While other works have looked into the separate impacts of different variables, this is the first time that a unified bio-comfort threshold is suggested. Composite maps of surface pressure are used to illustrate the genesis and evolution of the atmospheric structures conducive to an uncomfortable day. When there is an uncomfortable day due to heat stress conditions in Melbourne, there is a high pressure anomaly to the east bringing warm air from the northern interior of Australia. This anomaly is part of a slow moving blocking high originating over the Indian Ocean. Uncomfortable days due to high particulate levels have an approaching cold front. However, for air particulate cases during the cold season there are stable atmospheric conditions enhanced by a blocking high emanating from Australia and linking with the Antarctic continent. Finally, when grass pollen levels are high, there are northerly winds carrying the pollen from rural grass lands to Melbourne, due to a stationary trough of low pressure inland. Analysis into days with multiple types of stress revealed that the atmospheric signals associated with each type of discomfort are present regardless of whether the day is uncomfortable due to one or multiple variables. Therefore, these bio-comfort results are significant because they offer a degree of predictability for future uncomfortable days in Melbourne.

  19. A new `bio-comfort' perspective for Melbourne based on heat stress, air pollution and pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Stephanie J.; Pezza, Alexandre B.; Barras, Vaughan; Bye, John

    2014-03-01

    Humans are at risk from exposure to extremes in their environment, yet there is no consistent way to fully quantify and understand the risk when considering more than just meteorological variables. An outdoor `bio-comfort' threshold is defined for Melbourne, Australia using a combination of heat stress, air particulate concentration and grass pollen count, where comfortable conditions imply an ideal range of temperature, humidity and wind speed, acceptable levels of air particulates and a low pollen count. This is a new approach to defining the comfort of human populations. While other works have looked into the separate impacts of different variables, this is the first time that a unified bio-comfort threshold is suggested. Composite maps of surface pressure are used to illustrate the genesis and evolution of the atmospheric structures conducive to an uncomfortable day. When there is an uncomfortable day due to heat stress conditions in Melbourne, there is a high pressure anomaly to the east bringing warm air from the northern interior of Australia. This anomaly is part of a slow moving blocking high originating over the Indian Ocean. Uncomfortable days due to high particulate levels have an approaching cold front. However, for air particulate cases during the cold season there are stable atmospheric conditions enhanced by a blocking high emanating from Australia and linking with the Antarctic continent. Finally, when grass pollen levels are high, there are northerly winds carrying the pollen from rural grass lands to Melbourne, due to a stationary trough of low pressure inland. Analysis into days with multiple types of stress revealed that the atmospheric signals associated with each type of discomfort are present regardless of whether the day is uncomfortable due to one or multiple variables. Therefore, these bio-comfort results are significant because they offer a degree of predictability for future uncomfortable days in Melbourne.

  20. A recombinant Sal k 1 isoform as an alternative to the polymorphic allergen from Salsola kali pollen for allergy diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Salvador; Boissy, Patrice; Monsalve, Rafael I; Cuesta-Herranz, Javier; Díaz-Perales, Araceli; Fernández, Javier; Colás, Carlos; Rodríguez, Rosalía; Barderas, Rodrigo; Villalba, Mayte

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of Amaranthaceae pollen allergy has increased due to the desertification occurring in many countries. In some regions of Spain, Salsola kali is the main cause of pollinosis, at almost the same level as olive and grass pollen. Sal k 1 - the sensitization marker of S. kali pollinosis - is used in clinical diagnosis, but is purified at a low yield from pollen. We aimed to produce a recombinant (r)Sal k 1 able to span the structural and immunological properties of the natural isoforms from pollen, and validate its potential use for diagnosis. Specific cDNA was amplified by PCR, cloned into the pET41b vector and used to transform BL21 (DE3) Escherichia coli cells. Immunoblotting, ELISA, basophil activation and skin-prick tests were used to validate the recombinant protein against Sal k 1 isolated from pollen. Sera and blood cells from S. kali pollen-sensitized patients and specific monoclonal and polyclonal antisera were used. rSal k 1 was produced in bacteria with a yield of 7.5 mg/l of cell culture. The protein was purified to homogeneity and structural and immunologically validated against the natural form. rSal k 1 exhibited a higher IgE cross-reactivity with plant-derived food extracts such as peanut, almond or tomato than with pollen sources such as Platanus acerifolia and Oleaceae members. rSal k 1 expressed in bacteria retains intact structural and immunological properties in comparison to the pollen-derived allergen. It spans the immunological properties of most of the isoforms found in pollen, and it might substitute natural Sal k 1 in clinical diagnosis. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Birch pollen influence the severity of atopic eczema – prospective clinical cohort pilot study and ex vivo penetration study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fölster-Holst R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Regina Fölster-Holst,1 Jagoda Galecka,1 Sigo Weißmantel,1 Ute Dickschat,2 Frank Rippke,3 Kerstin Bohnsack,3 Thomas Werfel,4 Katja Wichmann,4 Matthias Buchner,1 Thomas Schwarz,1 Annika Vogt,5 Jürgen Lademann,5 Martina C Meinke5 1Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, University of Kiel, 2Wörth, 3Beiersdorf AG, Hamburg, 4Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergy, Division of Immunodermatology and Allergy Research, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, 5Department of Dermatology, Venerology and Allergology, Charité – Universitätsmedizin Berlin, Berlin, Germany Abstract: There is little clinical evidence for a correlation between the severity of atopic eczema (AE and pollen exposition. To obtain more data, we performed a clinical cohort pilot study about the influence of pollen on AE between sensitized and nonsensitized subjects and an experimental study addressing the cutaneous penetration of pollen into the skin. Fifty-five patients were monitored during birch pollen season. To study the cutaneous penetration, grass pollen allergens were applied on excised skin and the uptake in CD1c-expressing dendritic cells was investigated. The correlation between environmental pollen load and severity of the Scoring Atopic Dermatitis (SCORAD score and pruritus was observed, regardless of the status of sensitization. The sensitized group recovered significantly worse after the birch pollen season. Remarkably higher amounts of pollen allergens taken up by CD1c cells were detected in epidermal cells derived from skin explants with a disturbed epidermal barrier. These findings suggest an exacerbating role of pollen in AE utilizing the epidermal route. Keywords: aeroallergens, atopic eczema, seasonality, skin antigen-presenting cells, skin barrier penetration

  2. Short-term effects of airborne pollens on asthma attacks as seen by general practitioners in the Greater Paris area, 2003-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynh, Bich Tram; Tual, Séverine; Turbelin, Clément; Pelat, Camille; Cecchi, Lorenzo; D'Amato, Gennaro; Blanchon, Thierry; Annesi-Maesano, Isabella

    2010-09-01

    To investigate for the first time the short-term effects of airborne pollen counts on general practitioner (GP) consultations for asthma attacks in the Greater Paris area between 2003-2007. Counts were available for common pollens (Betula, Cupressa, Fraxinus and Poaceae). Weekly data on GP visits for asthma attacks were obtained from the French GP Sentinel Network. A quasi-Poisson regression with generalised additive models was implemented. Short-term effects of pollen counts were assessed using single and multi-pollen models after adjustment for air pollution and influenza. A mean weekly incidence rate of 25.4 cases of asthma attacks per 100,000 inhabitants was estimated during the study period. The strongest significant association between asthma attacks and pollen counts was registered for grass (Poaceae) in the same week of asthma attacks, with a slight reduction of the effect observed in the multi-pollen model. Adjusted relative risk for Poaceae was 1.54 (95% CI: 1.33-1.79) with an inter-quartile range increase of 17.6 grains/m3 during the pollen season. For the first time, a significant short-term association was observed between Poaceae pollen counts and consultations for asthma attacks as seen by GPs. These findings need to be confirmed by more consistent time-series and investigations on a daily basis.

  3. Advances in immunotherapy for bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jiyu; Chen Lijun

    2009-01-01

    The conventional treatments for bladder cancer, including surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, are highly invasive and bring about lots of side effects. Immunotherapy has become a promising strategy for the treatment of malignant tumors. This review presents the research advances in immunotherapy of bladder cancer. (authors)

  4. Polymeric particulate systems for immunotherapy of cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimian, S.

    2015-01-01

    Immunotherapy has been established as a groundbreaking approach to treat cancer. It involves modulation of the host’s immune response to fight cancer. This is achieved by either enhancing tumor-specific T cell responses or inhibition of the tumor-induced immune suppression. Immunotherapy, however

  5. A study on compatibilities on transgenic herbicide-resistant rice with wild relatives by using autoradiography of 32P labeled pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Linli; Qiang Sheng; Song Xiaoling

    2004-01-01

    To evaluate the possibility of gene flow through observation of the sexual compatibilities of transgenic herbicide-resistant rice with wild relative by using isotope tracer to label pollen grains, the experiments on radioactivity, tracer mode, autoradiography film and time were conducted. Better procedure was to label pollen grains of transgenic herbicide-resistant rice by culturing the rice in a 1.48 x 10 7 Bq/L 32 P nutrient liquid, to pollinate the labelled pollen grains on the stigmas of barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli var. mitis), Oryza officinalis and weedy rice (Oryza sativa) respectively, and then 3 hour later, to fix these pistils on a piece of glass plate and cover the film of Luck 400 on it for autoradiography. The autoradiographs show that the tube of the transgenic rice's pollens cannot penetrate the stigma of barnyard grass and arrive at embryo sacs to fertilize, so that the possibility of gene flow between them is the lowest; the tube of the labelled pollens can penetrate the stigma of O officinalis and enter the style but can not arrive at embryo sacs to fertilize, so the possibility of gene flow between them is relatively low; and the pollen tube can arrive at the embryo sacs of the weedy rice, so that the possibility of gene flow is relatively high from transgenic herbicide-resistant rice to weedy rice. (authors)

  6. Relevance of Allergenic Sensitization to Cynodon dactylon and Phragmites communis: Cross-reactivity With Pooideae Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Matas, M A; Moya, R; Cardona, V; Valero, A; Gaig, P; Malet, A; Viñas, M; García-Moral, A; Labrador, M; Alcoceba, E; Ibero, M; Carnés, J

    The homologous group of sweet grasses belongs to the Pooideae subfamily, but grass pollen species from other subfamilies can also cause allergy, such as Cynodon dactylon (Chloridoideae) and Phragmites communis (Arundinoideae). C dactylon and P communis have not been included in the sweet grasses homologous group because of their low cross-reactivity with other grasses. The aims of this study were to investigate the profile of sensitization to C dactylon and P communis in patients sensitized to grasses and to analyze cross-reactivity between these 2 species and temperate grasses. Patients were skin prick tested with a grass mixture (GM). Specific IgE to GM, C dactylon, P communis, Cyn d 1, and Phl p 1 was measured by ImmunoCAP. A pool of sera was used for the immunoblot assays. Cross-reactivity was studied by ELISA and immunoblot inhibition. Thirty patients had sIgE to GM. Twenty-four (80%) had positive results for C dactylon, 27 (90%) for P communis, 22 (73.3%) for nCyn d 1, and 92.9% for rPhl p 1. Bands were detected in the 3 extracts by immunoblot. Inhibition of GM was not observed with C dactylon or P communis by immunoblot or ELISA inhibition. When C dactylon or P communis were used in the solid phase, GM produced almost complete inhibition. Eighty percent of patients sensitized to grasses were also sensitized to C dactylon and 90% were sensitized to P communis. Sensitization to these species seems to be induced by allergens different to those in sweet grasses.

  7. A Simple, Inexpensive Pollen Trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. E. Hoekstra

    1965-01-01

    Pollen plays a role of vital importance in the sexual reproduction of all plants but it is especially important in forestry. With few exceptions, sexual reproduction is the only link between succeeding generations in the forest. To be sure, vegetative reproduction is important for special purposes, but it will probably not be used on a mass scale in timber...

  8. New Horizons in Allergen Immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Backer, Vibeke

    2016-01-01

    . The authors concluded that among adultswithHDMallergy–related asthma not well controlled by ICS, the addition of HDM SLIT deliveredas a once-daily tablet significantly prolongedthetime to the first asthma exacerbation during ICS reduction. Aswith any clinical trial, the critical question is howmeaningful...... the active therapycomparedwith placebowhendifferent criteriawere used todefine asthma exacerbations, aswell as in immunologic changes consistentwith desensitization.However, therewerenosignificantdifferences inpatients’ responses toquestionnairesregardingeitherasthmacontrolorqualityoflife. The authors...... treatmentwith ICS. The authors’ choice of a primary end point based on exacerbations during ICS reduction is also unique to immunotherapy trials,with previous trials ofHDMimmunotherapy focusing onmedication requirements, symptomsscores, or lung function as primary end points. Furthermore, the inclusion...

  9. Autoimmunity and Immunotherapy in Narcolepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Jae Seong

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Narcolepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by excessive daytime sleepiness, cataplexy, hypnagogic hallucination, and sleep paralysis. Narcolepsy is caused by damage of hypocretin producing neurons in the lateral hypothalamus. The association of narcolepsy with HLA DQB1*0602 and high incidence following H1N1 pandemic in china, vaccination with pandemrix and an adjuvanted H1N1 vaccine suggests that pathophysiology of narcolepsy is involved in the immune system. This review focused on immunological associations and immunotherapy in narcolepsy.

  10. [The use of Russian allergoids for the specific immunotherapy of pollinosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradkin, V A; Roshal', N I; Goriachkina, L A; Nikonorova, M V; Astaf'eva, N G; Luss, L V; Raĭkis, V N

    1993-01-01

    For three years 128 pollinosis patients received specific immunotherapy with cereals, weed and tree pollen allergens manufactured by the Scientific and Industrial Amalgamation "Allergen" (Stavropol). For comparison, a group of 42 patients was treated with the corresponding allergens according to the commonly used treatment scheme. Patients who had earlier undergone treatment with water-saline extracts of allergens, that proved to be ineffective, formed a special group. In sensitive patients reaction to the skin test with allergoids was by half less pronounced than reaction to the skin test with allergens. In allergometric titration on the nasal mucosa, reaction to the introduction of allergoids could be registered when they were used at a 10- to 100-fold higher concentration than allergens. The course of specific immunotherapy with allergoids was found to lead to a decrease in the level of allergen-specific IgE antibodies (p > 0.05) and total IgE (p allergoids was more effective than that with water-saline extracts of allergens. The use of allergoids made it possible to prescribe specific immunotherapy to a wider circle of patients.

  11. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  12. A study of the human immune response to Lolium perenne (rye) pollen and its components, Lol p I and Lol p II (Rye I and Rye II). II. Longitudinal variation of antibody levels in relation to symptomatology and pollen exposure and correction of seasonally elevated antibody levels to basal values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freidhoff, L R; Ehrlich-Kautzky, E; Meyers, D A; Marsh, D G

    1987-11-01

    This study used a standardized, dialyzed, Lolium perenne (ryegrass) pollen extract and two of its well-characterized components, Lol p I (Rye I) and Lol p II (Rye II), to characterize the longitudinal variation of both IgE and IgG antibody (Ab) levels, as well as total serum IgE levels, in 20 grass-allergic subjects followed for 13 months. Ab levels declined toward a basal level just before, and increased just after, the grass-pollination season, returning to the same basal level just before the next grass-pollination season. The least complex allergen, Lol II, demonstrated the most uniform pattern of variation in both IgE and IgG Ab levels. Total serum IgE levels demonstrated the least regular pattern of variation. Grass-pollen counts were strongly correlated with symptom-medication scores for these subjects (rs = 0.87). Initial values were correlated with the rise in total IgE and IgE Ab to Lol II across the grass-pollen season. Skin test results were correlated with initial IgE Ab levels for L. perenne pollen extract and Lol II. Finally, a procedure for correcting IgE Ab levels to basal values was proposed and tested. The correction procedure, for each IgE Ab, was based on the average rise during the grass-pollination season (or average decline after the grass-pollination season) observed for all subjects with that IgE Ab.

  13. Cancer immunotherapy and immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Kenji; Tsukahara, Tomohide; Torigoe, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Human immunological memory is the key distinguishing hallmark of the adaptive immune system and plays an important role in the prevention of morbidity and the severity of infection. The differentiation system of T cell memory has been clarified using mouse models. However, the human T cell memory system has great diversity induced by natural antigens derived from many pathogens and tumor cells throughout life, and profoundly differs from the mouse memory system constructed using artificial antigens and transgenic T cells. We believe that only human studies can elucidate the human immune system. The importance of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy has been pointed out, and the trafficking properties and long-lasting anti-tumor capacity of memory T cells play a crucial role in the control of malignant tumors. Adoptive cell transfer of less differentiated T cells has consistently demonstrated superior anti-tumor capacity relative to more differentiated T cells. Therefore, a human T cell population with the characteristics of stem cell memory is thought to be attractive for peptide vaccination and adoptive cell transfer. A novel human memory T cell population that we have identified is closer to the naive state than previous memory T cells in the T cell differentiation lineage, and has the characteristics of stem-like chemoresistance. Here we introduce this novel population and describe the fundamentals of immunological memory in cancer immunotherapy.

  14. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  15. Novel Approaches to Pediatric Cancer: Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payal A. Shah

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available From the early 20th century, immunotherapy has been studied as a treatment modality for cancers, including in children. Since then, developments in monoclonal antibodies and vaccine therapies have helped to usher in a new era of cancer immunotherapeutics. However, efficacy of these types of therapies has been limited, mostly in part due to low tumor immunogenicity, cancer escape pathways, and toxicities. As researchers investigate the cellular and molecular components of immunotherapies, mechanisms to improve tumor specificity and overcome immune escape have been identified. The goal of immunotherapy now has been to modulate tumor escape pathways while amplifying the immune response by combining innate and adaptive arms of the immune system. Although several limiting factors have been identified, these recent advances in immunotherapy remain at the forefront of pediatric oncologic therapeutic trials. Immunotherapy is now coming to the forefront of precision treatment for a variety of cancers, with evidence that agents targeting immunosuppressive mechanisms for cancer progression can be effective therapy [1-3]. In this review, we review various types of immunotherapy, including the cellular biology, limitations, recent novel therapeutics, and the application of immunotherapy to pediatric oncology.

  16. Improved Endpoints for Cancer Immunotherapy Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggermont, Alexander M. M.; Janetzki, Sylvia; Hodi, F. Stephen; Ibrahim, Ramy; Anderson, Aparna; Humphrey, Rachel; Blumenstein, Brent; Wolchok, Jedd

    2010-01-01

    Unlike chemotherapy, which acts directly on the tumor, cancer immunotherapies exert their effects on the immune system and demonstrate new kinetics that involve building a cellular immune response, followed by changes in tumor burden or patient survival. Thus, adequate design and evaluation of some immunotherapy clinical trials require a new development paradigm that includes reconsideration of established endpoints. Between 2004 and 2009, several initiatives facilitated by the Cancer Immunotherapy Consortium of the Cancer Research Institute and partner organizations systematically evaluated an immunotherapy-focused clinical development paradigm and created the principles for redefining trial endpoints. On this basis, a body of clinical and laboratory data was generated that supports three novel endpoint recommendations. First, cellular immune response assays generate highly variable results. Assay harmonization in multicenter trials may minimize variability and help to establish cellular immune response as a reproducible biomarker, thus allowing investigation of its relationship with clinical outcomes. Second, immunotherapy may induce novel patterns of antitumor response not captured by Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors or World Health Organization criteria. New immune-related response criteria were defined to more comprehensively capture all response patterns. Third, delayed separation of Kaplan–Meier curves in randomized immunotherapy trials can affect results. Altered statistical models describing hazard ratios as a function of time and recognizing differences before and after separation of curves may allow improved planning of phase III trials. These recommendations may improve our tools for cancer immunotherapy trials and may offer a more realistic and useful model for clinical investigation. PMID:20826737

  17. Potentiality of immunotherapy against hepatocellular carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Nobuhiro; Sawada, Yu; Endo, Itaru; Uemura, Yasushi; Nakatsura, Tetsuya

    2015-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the predominant form of primary liver cancer, is the fifth most common cancer worldwide and the second leading cause of cancer-related death. Despite the high incidence, treatment options remain limited for advanced HCC, and as a result prognosis continues to be poor. Current therapeutic options, surgery, chemotherapy and radiotherapy, have only modest efficacy. New treatment modalities to prolong survival and to minimize the risk of adverse response are desperately needed for patients with advanced HCC. Tumor immunotherapy is a promising, novel treatment strategy that may lead to improvements in both treatment-associated toxicity and outcome. The strategies have developed in part through genomic studies that have yielded candidate target molecules and in part through basic biology studies that have defined the pathways and cell types regulating immune response. Here, we summarize the various types of HCC immunotherapy and argue that the newfound field of HCC immunotherapy might provide critical advantages in the effort to improve prognosis of patients with advanced HCC. Already several immunotherapies, such as tumor-associated antigen therapy, immune checkpoint inhibitors and cell transfer immunotherapy, have demonstrated safety and feasibility in HCC patients. Unfortunately, immunotherapy currently has low efficacy in advanced stage HCC patients; overcoming this challenge will place immunotherapy at the forefront of HCC treatment, possibly in the near future. PMID:26420958

  18. Spectrum of allergenic pollen in Karachi and their characterization using conventional and electron microscopy: Potential candidates for allergy vaccines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parveen, A.; Noori, M.Y.; Qureshi, M.A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To study the distribution of naturally growing plants with possible allergenic potential and study their pollen morphology in Karachi, Pakistan. Methodology: We performed field surveys of naturally growing plants with possible allergenic potential and studied their pollen morphology using conventional (light) as well as scanning electron microscopy. Results: About 80 allergenic pollen producing species were identified which are distributed in 45 genera and 9 angiospermic families. Grasses belonging to Graminae are most abundant followed by plants from family Fabaceae (Leguminosae). Highly allergenic weeds were also found widely growing in the city areas belonging to Amaranthaceae/Chenopodiaceae family. Conclusion: Our study provides an updated information about the allergenic plants growing in Karachi city. All desensitization efforts should be designed in accordance to the available information regarding the prevalent allergens in the environment so that appropriate therapy can be given to the affected population. (author)

  19. Identification of Cha o 3 homolog Cry j 4 from Cryptomeria japonica (Japanese cedar) pollen: Limitation of the present Japanese cedar-specific ASIT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Toshihiro; Tanaka, Yuki; Yamada, Akira; Sasaki, Eiji; Utsugi, Teruhiro

    2018-03-07

    About one-third of the Japanese population suffers from Japanese cedar pollinosis, which is frequently accompanied by Japanese cypress pollinosis. Recently, a novel major Japanese cypress pollen allergen, Cha o 3, was discovered. However, whether a Cha o 3 homolog is present in Japanese cedar pollen remains to be determined. Western blot analysis was performed using Cha o 3-specific antiserum. In addition, cloning of the gene encoding Cry j 4 was conducted using total cDNA from the male flower of Japanese cedar trees. Allergen potency and cross-reactivity were investigated using a T-cell proliferation assay, basophil activation test, and ImmunoCAP inhibition assay. A low amount of Cha o 3 homolog protein was detected in Japanese cedar pollen extract. The deduced amino acid sequence of Cry j 4 showed 84% identity to that of Cha o 3. Cross-reactivity between Cry j 4 and Cha o 3 was observed at the T cell and IgE levels. Cry j 4 was discovered as a counterpart allergen of Cha o 3 in Japanese cedar pollen, with a relationship similar to that between Cry j 1-Cha o 1 and Cry j 2-Cha o 2. Our findings also suggest that allergen-specific immunotherapy (ASIT) using Japanese cedar pollen extract does not induce adequate immune tolerance to Cha o 3 due to the low amount of Cry j 4 in Japanese cedar pollen. Therefore, ASIT using Cha o 3 or cypress pollen extract coupled with Japanese cedar pollen extract is required in order to optimally control allergy symptoms during Japanese cypress pollen season. Copyright © 2018 Japanese Society of Allergology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. In children allergic to ragweed pollen, nasal inflammation is not influenced by monosensitization or polysensitization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gelardi M

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Matteo Gelardi,1 Mariangela Bosoni,2 Marco Morelli,2 Silvia Beretta,2 Cristoforo Incorvaia,3 Serena Buttafava,4 Massimo Landi,5 Simonetta Masieri,6 Franco Frati,4 Nicola Quaranta,1 Gian Vincenzo Zuccotti21Otolaryngology Section, Department of Neuroscience and Sensory Organs, University of Bari, 2Department of Pediatrics, Luigi Sacco Hospital, University of Milan, 3Allergy/Pulmonary Rehabilitation Unit, ICP Hospital, 4Medical and Scientific Department, Stallergenes Italy, Milan, 5Department of Pediatrics, ASL TO1, Turin, 6Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, ItalyBackground: In patients polysensitized to pollen allergens, the priming effect, by which the sensitivity of the nasal mucosa to an allergen is increased by the previous exposure to another allergen, is a known phenomenon. This study was aimed at evaluating the degree of nasal inflammation, assessed by nasal cytology, in children with allergic rhinitis (AR from ragweed pollen according to being monosensitized or polysensitized.Methods: The study included 47 children. Of them, 24 suffered from AR caused by sensitization to grass pollen and ragweed pollen (group A and 23 were sensitized only to ragweed pollen (group B. In all patients, the severity of AR was assessed according to the Allergic Rhinitis and Its Impact on Asthma guidelines, and comorbidities were also evaluated.Results: In group A, 16.7% of children had a mild intermittent AR, 4.2% a moderate-to-severe intermittent, 33.3% a mild persistent, and 45.8% a moderate-to-severe persistent; in group B, 26.1% of children had a mild intermittent AR, 0% a moderate-to-severe intermittent, 52.2% a mild persistent, and 21.7% a moderate-to-severe persistent. No significant difference was detected in the number of the considered comorbidities between the two groups. The cell counts of neutrophils, eosinophils, lymphocytes/plasma cells, and mast cells were high but not significantly different in the two groups

  1. Quantitative expression of osteopontin in nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis: effects of pollen exposure and nasal glucocorticoid treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O'Neil Serena E

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopontin (OPN is a multifunctional cytokine that has been primarily investigated in Th1 diseases. Recently, it has also been implicated in Th2-mediated allergic diseases, such as asthma. The expression of OPN in allergic rhinitis (AR is currently unknown, as is the effect of intranasal glucocorticosteroids (GCs on that expression. Methods Subjects with AR were randomised to receive treatment with fluticasone propionate (FP (n = 12 or a placebo (n = 16 over the grass pollen season and nasal biopsies were taken prior to, and during the season. OPN expression in the nasal mucosa was examined with immunohistochemistry. Healthy non-AR controls (n = 5 were used as a comparator. Results OPN expression was detected in epithelial cells, subepithelial infiltrating/inflammatory cells and cells lining the vessels and glands of all subjects. Comparison of the pre- and peak-pollen season biopsy sections in placebo treated patients revealed no increase in OPN expression during the grass pollen season (5.7% vs 6.4%. Treatment with a local glucocorticosteroid did not alter the expression of OPN during pollen exposure (6.2% vs 6.7%. Conclusion OPN has been increasingly associated with the pathogenesis of various Th2-mediated diseases. However, our finding that the OPN expression in the nasal mucosa of AR patients is not significantly affected by allergen exposure and is comparable to that of the healthy controls, suggests that intracellular OPN is not directly involved in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis.

  2. How to design and evaluate randomized controlled trials in immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis: an ARIA-GA(2) LEN statement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, J; Schünemann, H J; Bousquet, P J

    2011-01-01

    and pharmacotherapy should be considered separately for several reasons, as developed in this study. These include the severity and persistence of allergic rhinitis in the patients enrolled in the study, the problem of the placebo, allergen exposure (in particular pollen and mite), the analysis and reporting...... of RCTs in sublingual immunotherapy. It is not possible to directly extrapolate the rules or parameters used in medication RCTs to SIT. It also provides some suggestions for the research that will be needed. Interestingly, some of the research questions can be approached with the available data obtained...

  3. Artemisia vulgaris pollen allergoids digestibility in the simulated conditions of the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RATKO M. JANKOV

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Chemically modified allergens (allergoids have found use in both traditional and novel forms of immunotherapy of allergic disorders. Novel forms of immunotherapy include local allergen delivery, via the gastrointestinal tract. This study conveys the gastrointestinal stability of three types ofmugwort pollen allergoids under simulated conditions of the gut. Allergoids of the pollen extract of Artemisia vulgaris were obtained by means of potassium cyanate, succinic and maleic anhydride. Gastrointestinal tract conditions (saliva, and gastric fluid were simulated in accordance with the EU Pharmacopoeia. The biochemical and immunochemical properties of the derivatives following exposure to different conditions were monitored by determining the number of residual amino groups with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, SDS PAGE, immunoblotting and inhibition of mugwort-specific IgE. Exposure to saliva fluid for 2 min did not influence the biochemical and immunochemical properties of the derivatives. In the very acidic conditions of the simulated gastric fluid, the degree of demaleylation and desuccinylation, even after 4 h exposure, was low, ranging from 10 to 30 %. The digestion patterns with pepsin proceeded rapidly in both the unmodified and modified samples. In all four cases, a highly resistant IgE-binding protein theMwof which was about 28 – 35 kD, was present. Within the physiological conditions, no new IgE binding epitopes were revealed, as demonstrated by immunoblot and CAP inhibition of the mugwort specific IgE binding. An important conclusion of this study is the stability of the modified derivatives in the gastrointestinal tract of patients, within physiological conditions. The means that they are suitable for use inmuch higher concentrations in local forms of immunotherapy than unmodified ones.

  4. IMUNODIAGNOSTIC AND IMMUNOTHERAPY OF AUTISM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir TRAJKOVSKI

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Infantile autism is one of the most disabling illnesses of neurological, emotional and intellectual development. The cause of autism remains unknown. However, recent investigations suggest that this disorder shares several features of established autoimmune disorders.The aim of this article is to describe the news of imunodiagnostic and immunotherapy in autism. Interpretation of data is made by conceptual and methodological differences between studies. The autoimmune response is most likely directed against the brain myelin, perhaps secondary to a viral infection. The idea that autism is an autoimmune disorder is further strengthened by the fact that autistic patients respond well to treatment with immune modulating drugs. Immune interventions can produce immune modulation-state of suppression or stimulation. Immune therapy should always be done in consultation with physicians.

  5. Current insights in allergen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, Giovanni; Bagnasco, Diego; Ferrando, Matteo; Heffler, Enrico; Puggioni, Francesca; Canonica, Giorgio Walter

    2018-02-01

    Allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT) in its subcutaneous and sublingual forms is currently a well-established and experimentally supported treatment for respiratory allergy and hymenoptera venom allergy. There have been advances in its use linked strictly to the advancement in the knowledge of the molecular mechanisms of allergy, the production of well-characterized extracts, and diagnostic techniques. The use of AIT in asthma and the application of new approaches are expanding. We briefly review the advances and concerns in the use of AIT. PubMed and Scopus. The most recent and clinically relevant literature was selected and reviewed. The introduction of high-quality products supported by large dose-finding trials has yielded better defined indications, contraindications, and modalities of use. Some specific products in tablet form have recently been approved in the United States. Sublingual immunotherapy has been found to be effective in asthma, which until recently had been a matter of debate. Another promising therapy is oral and sublingual desensitization for food allergy, for which encouraging results have recently been reported. In the near future, other options will be available, including new routes of administration (intralymphatic and epicutaneous), allergoids, engineered allergens, and peptides. The use of component-resolved diagnosis techniques will further refine and target AIT prescriptions. This condensed and updated review shows that AIT remains a viable treatment option, especially after the introduction of standardized tablets for some allergens. Food allergy and new administration routes represent a promising expansion. Copyright © 2017 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. [Aβ immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Kenji; Yamada, Masahito

    2013-04-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the neurodegenerative diseases characterized by the deposition of amyloid-β-protein (Aβ) as senile plaques in the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau accumulation as neurofibrillary tangles in the neurons. Although details of the disease pathomechanisms remain unclear, Aβ likely acts as a key protein for AD initiation and progression, followed by abnormal tau phosphorylation and neuronal death (amyloid-cascade hypothesis). According to this hypothesis, Aβ immunization therapies are created to eliminate Aβ from the brain, and to prevent the neurons from damage by these pathogenic proteins. There are two methods for Aβ immunotherapies: active and passive immunization. Previous studies have shown Aβ removal and improved cognitive function in animal models of AD. Clinical trials on various drugs, including AN1792, bapineuzumab, and solanezumab, have been carried out; however, all trials have failed to demonstrate apparent clinical benefits. On the contrary, side effects emerged, such as meningoencephalitis, vasogenic edema, which are currently called amyloid related imaging abnormalities (ARIA)-E and microhemorrhage (ARIA-H). In neuropathological studies of immunized cases, Aβ was removed from the brain parenchyma and phosphorylated-tau was reduced in the neuronal processes. Moreover, deterioration of the cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) and an increase of microhemorrhages and microinfarcts were described. Aβ is cleared from the brain mainly via the lymphatic drainage pathway. ARIA could stem from severe CAA due to dysfunction of the drainage pathway after immunotherapy. Aβ immunization has a potential of cure for AD patients, although the above-described problems must be overcome before applying this therapy in clinical treatment.

  7. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Bernard A; Schendel, Dolores J; Butterfield, Lisa H

    2011-01-01

    of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical...... immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation...... companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed...

  8. Allergen immunotherapy for allergic respiratory diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappella, Antonio; Durham, Stephen R.

    2012-01-01

    Allergen specific immunotherapy involves the repeated administration of allergen products in order to induce clinical and immunologic tolerance to the offending allergen. Immunotherapy is the only etiology-based treatment that has the potential for disease modification, as reflected by longterm remission following its discontinuation and possibly prevention of disease progression and onset of new allergic sensitizations. Whereas subcutaneous immunotherapy is of proven value in allergic rhinitis and asthma there is a risk of untoward side effects including rarely anaphylaxis. Recently the sublingual route has emerged as an effective and safer alternative. Whereas the efficacy of SLIT in seasonal allergy is now well-documented in adults and children, the available data for perennial allergies and asthma is less reliable and particularly lacking in children. This review evaluates the efficacy, safety and longterm benefits of SCIT and SLIT and highlights new findings regarding mechanisms, potential biomarkers and recent novel approaches for allergen immunotherapy. PMID:23095870

  9. Who Will Benefit from Cancer Immunotherapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Researchers have identified a “genetic signature” in the tumors of patients with advanced melanoma who responded to a form of immunotherapy called checkpoint blockade. The results could be the basis for a test that identifies likely responders.

  10. Combining Immunotherapy with Standard Glioblastoma Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    This clinical trial is testing standard therapy (surgery, radiation and temozolomide) plus immunotherapy with pembrolizumab with or without a cancer treatment vaccine for patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma, a common and deadly type of brain tumor.

  11. Immunotherapy Combination Approved for Advanced Kidney Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    FDA has approved the combination of the immunotherapy drugs nivolumab (Opdivo) and ipilimumab (Yervoy) as an initial treatment for some patients with advanced kidney cancer. The approval is expected to immediately affect patient care, as this Cancer Currents post explains.

  12. PROSTVAC® targeted immunotherapy candidate for prostate cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, Neal D

    2014-01-01

    Targeted immunotherapies represent a valid strategy for the treatment of metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer. A randomized, double-blind, Phase II clinical trial of PROSTVAC® demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in overall survival and a large, global, Phase III trial with overall survival as the primary end point is ongoing. PROSTVAC immunotherapy contains the transgenes for prostate-specific antigen and three costimulatory molecules (designated TRICOM). Research suggests that PROSTVAC not only targets prostate-specific antigen, but also other tumor antigens via antigen cascade. PROSTVAC is well tolerated and has been safely combined with other cancer therapies, including hormonal therapy, radiotherapy, another immunotherapy and chemotherapy. Even greater benefits of PROSTVAC may be recognized in earlier-stage disease and low-disease burden settings where immunotherapy can trigger a long-lasting immune response.

  13. Mechanisms of Intrinsic Tumor Resistance to Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Rieth

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available An increased understanding of the interactions between the immune system and tumors has opened the door to immunotherapy for cancer patients. Despite some success with checkpoint inhibitors including ipilimumab, pembrolizumab, and nivolumab, most cancer patients remain unresponsive to such immunotherapy, likely due to intrinsic tumor resistance. The mechanisms most likely involve reducing the quantity and/or quality of antitumor lymphocytes, which ultimately are driven by any number of developments: tumor mutations and adaptations, reduced neoantigen generation or expression, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO overexpression, loss of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN expression, and overexpression of the Wnt–β-catenin pathway. Current work in immunotherapy continues to identify various tumor resistance mechanisms; future work is needed to develop adjuvant treatments that target those mechanisms, in order to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy and to expand its scope.

  14. Bioinformatics for cancer immunotherapy target discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Lars Rønn; Campos, Benito; Barnkob, Mike Stein

    2014-01-01

    therapy target discovery in a bioinformatics analysis pipeline. We describe specialized bioinformatics tools and databases for three main bottlenecks in immunotherapy target discovery: the cataloging of potentially antigenic proteins, the identification of potential HLA binders, and the selection epitopes...

  15. In Vitro Pollen Viability and Pollen Germination in Cherry Laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melekber Sulusoglu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.. Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride and IKI (iodine potassium iodide, were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r2 = 0.0614 and r2 = 0.0015, resp.. Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  16. In vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulusoglu, Melekber; Cavusoglu, Aysun

    2014-01-01

    Pollen quality is important for growers and breeders. This study was carried out to determine in vitro pollen viability and pollen germination in seven genotypes of cherry laurel (Prunus laurocerasus L.). Two pollen viability tests, TTC (2,3,5-triphenyl tetrazolium chloride) and IKI (iodine potassium iodide), were used. Pollen traits of genotypes were studied using an in vitro medium containing 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, and 20% sucrose to determine the best sucrose concentrations for germination. In the second step, the germinated pollen was counted 1, 4, 6, 10, 12, 24, and 48 hours later until there was no further germination. The viability rates were different according to genotypes and tests used. The IKI and TTC staining tests and pollen germination had low correlation (r(2) = 0.0614 and r(2) = 0.0015, resp.). Painted pollen rate was higher and pollen was well-stained with IKI test and pollen viability estimated with TTC staining test was better than that estimated with the IKI staining test. 15% sucrose gave the best germination rates in most of the genotypes. Pollen germination rates were recorded periodically from one hour to 48 hours in 15% sucrose and the results showed that pollen germination rates increased after 6 hours of being placed in culture media.

  17. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    E-mail addresses: 1 mike.ajieh@gmail.com, 2 dracigboanugo@yahoo.com, ... machine design was considered for processing biomass of grass origin. The machine operations include pulverization, compaction and extrusion of the briquettes.

  18. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  19. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  20. Pollen Contents Of Commercial Honeys Of Opi, Nsukka, Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen Contents Of Commercial Honeys Of Opi, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria. ... Abstract. Pollen analyses of seven honey samples from Opi-Nsukka Mini market were evaluated for their pollen composition. The results ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  1. Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen diversity, viability and floral structure of some Musa genotypes. ... This experiment was designed to study the floral structure, pollen morphology and the potential pollen viability of five Musa genotypes obtained ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  2. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC), convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer. PMID:22168571

  3. Defining the critical hurdles in cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fox Bernard A

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Scientific discoveries that provide strong evidence of antitumor effects in preclinical models often encounter significant delays before being tested in patients with cancer. While some of these delays have a scientific basis, others do not. We need to do better. Innovative strategies need to move into early stage clinical trials as quickly as it is safe, and if successful, these therapies should efficiently obtain regulatory approval and widespread clinical application. In late 2009 and 2010 the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC, convened an "Immunotherapy Summit" with representatives from immunotherapy organizations representing Europe, Japan, China and North America to discuss collaborations to improve development and delivery of cancer immunotherapy. One of the concepts raised by SITC and defined as critical by all parties was the need to identify hurdles that impede effective translation of cancer immunotherapy. With consensus on these hurdles, international working groups could be developed to make recommendations vetted by the participating organizations. These recommendations could then be considered by regulatory bodies, governmental and private funding agencies, pharmaceutical companies and academic institutions to facilitate changes necessary to accelerate clinical translation of novel immune-based cancer therapies. The critical hurdles identified by representatives of the collaborating organizations, now organized as the World Immunotherapy Council, are presented and discussed in this report. Some of the identified hurdles impede all investigators; others hinder investigators only in certain regions or institutions or are more relevant to specific types of immunotherapy or first-in-humans studies. Each of these hurdles can significantly delay clinical translation of promising advances in immunotherapy yet if overcome, have the potential to improve outcomes of patients with cancer.

  4. A Stratigraphic Pollen Record from a Late Pleistocene Cypress Forest, Northern Gulf of Mexico Continental Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reese, A.; Harley, G. L.; DeLong, K. L.; Bentley, S. J.; Xu, K.; Gonzalez Rodriguez, S. M.; Truong, J. T.; Obelcz, J.; Caporaso, A.

    2017-12-01

    Stratigraphic pollen analysis was performed on a layer of preserved peat found near the bottom of a 4.75m vibracore taken in 18m of water off the coast of Orange Beach, Alabama. The core was taken from a site where the remains of a previously buried bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) forest was discovered after wave action, likely from Hurricane Ivan in 2004, scoured and removed the overlying Holocene/late Pleistocene sand sheet. Many of the cypress stumps found at the site are still in growth position, and rooted in the preserved terrestrial soils below. Radiocarbon dating of the peat recovered in core DF1 suggests that the sediment is likely Marine Isotope Stage 3 (MIS 3), or earlier. We hypothesize that the site was quickly buried and preserved by floodplain aggradation associated with sea-level rise that occurred near the end of MIS 3. This rare find provides an opportunity to study in situ fossil pollen from a glacial refugium in the Northern Gulf of Mexico. Pollen results from the lowermost sections within the peat layer show an assemblage consistent with a bald cypress/tupelo gum (Nyssa aquatica) backwater. This is eventually replaced by a more open, possibly brackish, environment, dominated by grasses (Poaceae) and sedges (Cyperaceae). During this change however, there is a brief but very interesting period where the pollen assemblage is likely analogous to the modern day Atlantic Coastal Plain Blackwater Levee/Bar Forests of North and South Carolina. In this modern assemblage, as well as the core samples, birch (Betula), oak (Quercus) and bald cypress are the dominant taxa, along with a strong presence of alder (Alnus), grasses and sedges. We hypothesize that these bar forests formed on areas of higher ground, which resulted from floodplain aggradation that accompanied sea level rise at the end of MIS 3.

  5. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    OpenAIRE

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-01-01

    Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India) level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG) 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green ...

  6. 8000 yr of vegetation reconstruction from the Great Basin (Nevada, USA): the contribution of Non-Pollen Palynomorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunno, I.; Mensing, S. A.

    2017-12-01

    Multiproxy records from the Great Basin showed that a severe drought occurred in the area between 3000-1850 BP (Mensing et al., 2013). The pollen analysis on a 7m sediment core from Stonehouse Meadow revealed that during this period arboreal pollen dropped abruptly, reaching the lowest percentage ( 10%) around 2500 BP. At the same time, grass and herbs increased significantly ( 60%) together with the total carbonate percentage (TC%). To better understand this dramatic event, the analysis of Non-Pollen Palynomorphs (NPPs) was conducted. NPPs are microfossils that survive the chemical treatment during pollen extraction and appear in pollen slides. They are valuable indicators of climate- and human-induced changes, and due to their different origin, NPPs can be integrated with pollen analysis to corroborate and improve the information provided by pollen records. To obtain more reliable information, fossil NPPs from the sediment core were compared to modern NPPs and the pollen records. Modern samples, represented by mineral soil and sediment specimens, were collected around the meadow in 2015. Fossil NPPs were counted from the same sediment core subsamples previously analyzed for pollen records. A total of 64 different NPPs were identified from both modern and fossil samples, 33 of which were identified as unknowns and given an identification code. While several of the known NPPs were consistent with the data provided by pollen record, the most crucial information was provided by some of the unknown NPPs, such as PLN-01, PLN-20 and PLN-11. The presence of PLN-01 and PLN-20 on the edge of the meadow in the modern samples and right before and after the driest period in the core, supports the evidence of a drought, when the meadow was likely shrinking during the transition from a wetter to a drier period and expanding once again after the drought. PLN-11 appears to be related to the drought as well, occurring exclusively during the driest period. However, this NPP was not

  7. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Sénéchal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed.

  8. A Review of the Effects of Major Atmospheric Pollutants on Pollen Grains, Pollen Content, and Allergenicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sénéchal, Hélène; Visez, Nicolas; Charpin, Denis; Shahali, Youcef; Peltre, Gabriel; Biolley, Jean-Philippe; Lhuissier, Franck; Couderc, Rémy; Yamada, Ohri; Malrat-Domenge, Audrey; Pham-Thi, Nhân; Poncet, Pascal; Sutra, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    This review summarizes the available data related to the effects of air pollution on pollen grains from different plant species. Several studies carried out either on in situ harvested pollen or on pollen exposed in different places more or less polluted are presented and discussed. The different experimental procedures used to monitor the impact of pollution on pollen grains and on various produced external or internal subparticles are listed. Physicochemical and biological effects of artificial pollution (gaseous and particulate) on pollen from different plants, in different laboratory conditions, are considered. The effects of polluted pollen grains, subparticles, and derived aeroallergens in animal models, in in vitro cell culture, on healthy human and allergic patients are described. Combined effects of atmospheric pollutants and pollen grains-derived biological material on allergic population are specifically discussed. Within the notion of “polluen,” some methodological biases are underlined and research tracks in this field are proposed. PMID:26819967

  9. Pollen and spores of terrestrial plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernhardt, Christopher E.; Willard, Debra A.; Shennan, Ian; Long, Antony J.; Horton, Benjamin P.

    2015-01-01

    Pollen and spores are valuable tools in reconstructing past sea level and climate because of their ubiquity, abundance, and durability as well as their reciprocity with source vegetation to environmental change (Cronin, 1999; Traverse, 2007; Willard and Bernhardt, 2011). Pollan is found in many sedimentary environments, from freshwater to saltwater, terrestrial to marine. It can be abundant in a minimal amount of sample material, for example half a gram, as concentrations can be as high as four million grains per gram (Traverse, 2007). The abundance of pollen in a sample lends it to robust statistical analysis for the quantitative reconstruction of environments. The outer cell wall is resistant to decay in sediments and allows palynomorphs (pollen and spores) to record changes in plant communities and sea level over millions of years. These characteristics make pollen and spores a powerful tool to use in sea-level research.This chapter describes the biology of pollen and spores and how they are transported and preserved in sediments. We present a methodology for isolating pollen from sediments and a general language and framework to identify pollen as well as light micrographs of a selection of common pollen grains, We then discuss their utility in sea-level research.

  10. Vacuum storage of yellow-poplar pollen

    Science.gov (United States)

    James R. Wilcox

    1966-01-01

    Vacuum-drying, followed by storage in vacuo or in an inert gas, is effective for storing pollen of many species. It permits storage at room environments without rigid controls of either temperature or humidity, an advantage that becomes paramount during long-distance transfers of pollen when critical storage conditions are impossible to maintain. In...

  11. A combinatorial approach to angiosperm pollen morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mander, Luke

    2016-11-30

    Angiosperms (flowering plants) are strikingly diverse. This is clearly expressed in the morphology of their pollen grains, which are characterized by enormous variety in their shape and patterning. In this paper, I approach angiosperm pollen morphology from the perspective of enumerative combinatorics. This involves generating angiosperm pollen morphotypes by algorithmically combining character states and enumerating the results of these combinations. I use this approach to generate 3 643 200 pollen morphotypes, which I visualize using a parallel-coordinates plot. This represents a raw morphospace. To compare real-world and theoretical morphologies, I map the pollen of 1008 species of Neotropical angiosperms growing on Barro Colorado Island (BCI), Panama, onto this raw morphospace. This highlights that, in addition to their well-documented taxonomic diversity, Neotropical rainforests also represent an enormous reservoir of morphological diversity. Angiosperm pollen morphospace at BCI has been filled mostly by pollen morphotypes that are unique to single plant species. Repetition of pollen morphotypes among higher taxa at BCI reflects both constraint and convergence. This combinatorial approach to morphology addresses the complexity that results from large numbers of discrete character combinations and could be employed in any situation where organismal form can be captured by discrete morphological characters. © 2016 The Author(s).

  12. Pollen viability and membrane lipid composition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilsen, van D.G.J.L.

    1993-01-01

    In this thesis membrane lipid composition is studied in relation to pollen viability during storage. Chapter 1 reviews pollen viability, membranes in the dry state and membrane changes associated with cellular aging. This chapter is followed by a study of age-related changes in phospholipid

  13. Molecular fingerprinting of complex grass allergoids: size assessments reveal new insights in epitope repertoires and functional capacities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starchenka, S; Bell, A J; Mwange, J; Skinner, M A; Heath, M D

    2017-01-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy (SCIT) is a well-documented treatment for allergic disease which involves injections of native allergen or modified (allergoid) extracts. The use of allergoid vaccines is a growing sector of the allergy immunotherapy market, associated with shorter-course therapy. The aim of this study was the structural and immunological characterisation of group 1 (Lol p 1) IgG-binding epitopes within a complex mix grass allergoid formulation containing rye grass. HP-SEC was used to resolve a mix grass allergoid preparation of high molecular weight into several distinct fractions with defined molecular weight and elution profiles. Allergen verification of the HP-SEC allergoid fractions was confirmed by mass spectrometry analysis. IgE and IgG immunoreactivity of the allergoid preparations was explored and Lol p 1 specific IgG-binding epitopes mapped by SPOT synthesis technology (PepSpot™) with structural analysis based on a Lol p 1 homology model. Grass specific IgE reactivity of the mix grass modified extract (allergoid) was diminished in comparison with the mix grass native extract. A difference in IgG profiles was observed between an intact mix grass allergoid preparation and HP-SEC allergoid fractions, which indicated enhancement of accessible reactive IgG epitopes across size distribution profiles of the mix grass allergoid formulation. Detailed analysis of the epitope specificity showed retention of six Lol p 1 IgG-binding epitopes in the mix grass modified extract. The structural and immunological changes which take place following the grass allergen modification process was further unravelled revealing distinct IgG immunological profiles. All epitopes were mapped on the solvent exposed area of Lol p 1 homology model accessible for IgG binding. One of the epitopes was identified as an 'immunodominant' Lol p 1 IgG-binding epitope (62-IFKDGRGCGSCFEIK-76) and classified as a novel epitope. The results from this study support the concept

  14. MICROBIAL QUALITY OF HONEY MIXTURE WITH POLLEN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ján Mareček

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The aim of this study was evaluation of microbial quality in raw materials (honey, pollen and evaluation of microbial quality in honey mixture with pollen (2.91 % and 3.85 % and also dynamics of microbial groups in honey mixtures with pollen after 14 days storage at the room temperature (approximately 25 °C and in cold store (8 °C. We used dilution plating method for testing of samples. Detections of total plate microbial count (aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms, sporulating bacteria, coliform bacteria, Bifidobacterium sp., Lactobacillus sp. and microscopic fungi were performed. In general, counts of microorganisms decreased in honey mixture with pollen compared to raw pollen and these counts increased compared to natural honey. Total plate count was 5.37 log KTJ.g-1 in pollen; 1.36 log KTJ.g-1 in honey; 2.97 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen and 2.04 log KTJ.g-1 in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen. Coliform bacteria were detected in pollen (1.77 log KTJ.g-1. Then, we found coliform bacteria in one sample of honey mixtures with pollen (2.91 % - 1.00 log KTJ.g-1.Bifidobacterium species were detected only in raw pollen. We did not findLactobacillus sp. in any of the samples. Microscopic fungi were detected on two cultivating media. Yeasts were present in pollen sample (average 5.39 log KTJ.g-1, honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 2.51 log KTJ.g-1 and honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (average 1.58 log KTJ.g-1. Filamentous microscopic fungi were detectable in pollen (average 3.38 log KTJ.g-1, in honey (only on one medium: 1.00 log KTJ.g-1, in honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen (average 1.15 log KTJ.g-1 and in honey mixture with 3.85 % pollen (1.71 %. Raw pollen contained microscopic fungi as Absidiasp., Mucor sp., Alternaria sp. andEmericella nidulans. Honey mixture with 2.91 % pollen after storage (14 days contained lower microbial counts when compared with the sample

  15. Particle platforms for cancer immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serda RE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Rita Elena Serda Department of Nanomedicine, The Methodist Hospital Research Institute, Houston, TX, USA Abstract: Elevated understanding and respect for the relevance of the immune system in cancer development and therapy has led to increased development of immunotherapeutic regimens that target existing cancer cells and provide long-term immune surveillance and protection from cancer recurrence. This review discusses using particles as immune adjuvants to create vaccines and to augment the anticancer effects of conventional chemotherapeutics. Several particle prototypes are presented, including liposomes, polymer nanoparticles, and porous silicon microparticles, the latter existing as either single- or multiparticle platforms. The benefits of using particles include immune-cell targeting, codelivery of antigens and immunomodulatory agents, and sustained release of the therapeutic payload. Nanotherapeutic-based activation of the immune system is dependent on both intrinsic particle characteristics and on the immunomodulatory cargo, which may include danger signals known as pathogen-associated molecular patterns and cytokines for effector-cell activation. Keywords: adjuvant, particle, immunotherapy, dendritic cell, cancer, vaccine

  16. Dendritic cell-based immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osada, Takuya; Clay, Timothy M; Woo, Christopher Y; Morse, Michael A; Lyerly, H Kim

    2006-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) play a crucial role in the induction of antigen-specific T-cell responses, and therefore their use for the active immunotherapy of malignancies has been studied with considerable interest. More than a decade has passed since the publication of the first clinical data of DC-based vaccines, and through this and subsequent studies, a number of important developmental insights have been gleaned. These include the ideal source and type of DCs, the discovery of novel antigens and methods of loading DCs, the role of DC maturation, and the most efficient route of immunization. The generation of immune responses against tumor antigens after DC immunization has been demonstrated, and favorable clinical responses have been reported in some patients; however, it is difficult to pool the results as a whole, and thus the body of data remains inconclusive, in part because of varying DC preparation and vaccination protocols, the use of different forms of antigens, and, most importantly, a lack of rigorous criteria for defining clinical responses. As such, the standardization of clinical and immunologic criteria utilized, as well as DC preparations employed, will allow for the comparison of results across multiple clinical studies and is required in order for future trials to measure the true value and role of this treatment modality. In addition, issues regarding the optimal dose and clinical setting for the application of DC vaccines remain to be resolved, and recent clinical studies have been designed to begin to address these questions.

  17. [Specific immunotherapy. Hyposensitization with allergens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wedi, B; Kapp, A

    2004-04-01

    Successful allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) induces complex immunologic chan-ges resulting in reduced allergic inflammatory reactions. SIT has long-term effects in mild forms of inhalant allergies and is effective even when standard pharmacotherapy fails. Moreover, the risk to develop additional allergic sensitizations and the development of asthma is significantly reduced in children with allergic rhinitis. SIT is the treatment of choice in patients with systemic reactions to hymenoptera venoms. Although the exact effector mechanisms of SIT still have to be clarified, the most probable effect is a modulation of regulatory T cells associated with a switch of allergen-specific B-cells towards IgG4 production. The critical point to insure efficacy and safety is the selection of patients and allergens, task best performed by a specialist trained in allergology. Further details are available in the position papers of the German allergy societies - DGAI(Deutsche Gesellschaft fiir Allergologie und Klinische Immunologie) and ADA (Arzte-verband Deutscher Allergologen) - which can be found at www.dgaki.de.

  18. Development of Artificial Antigen Presenting Cells for Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Schneck, Jonathan P; Oelke, Mathias

    2007-01-01

    While adoptive immunotherapy holds promise as a treatment for cancer, development of adoptive immunotherapy has been impeded by the lack of a reproducible and economically viable method for generating...

  19. Spectrum of allergens for Japanese cedar pollinosis and impact of component-resolved diagnosis on allergen-specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Fujimura

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The high prevalence of Japanese cedar pollinosis in Japan is associated with a negative impact on the quality of life of patients, as well as significant loss of productivity among the workforce in early spring, thus representing a serious social problem. Furthermore, the prevalence is increasing, and has risen by more than 10% in this decade. Cry j 1 and Cry j 2 were identified as the major allergens in Japanese cedar pollen (JCP, and in 2004, the existence of other major and minor allergens were revealed by a combination of two-dimensional electrophoresis and immunoblotting analysis. Allergenome analysis identified a chitinase, a lipid transfer protein, a serine protease, and an aspartic protease as novel IgE-reactive allergens in patients with JCP allergy. Thaumatin-like protein (Cry j 3 was shown to be homologous to Jun a 3, a major allergen from mountain cedar pollen. Isoflavone reductase-like protein was also characterized in a study of a JCP cDNA library. The characterization of component allergens is required to clarify the sensitizer or cross-reactive elicitor allergens for component-resolved diagnosis (CRD. Increasing evidence from numerous clinical trials indicates that CRD can be used to design effective allergen-specific immunotherapy. In this review, we summarize the eight characterized JCP allergens and discuss the impact of CRD and characterization of novel allergens on allergen-specific immunotherapy.

  20. Immune mediated neuropathy following checkpoint immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Yufan; Menzies, Alexander M; Long, Georgina V; Fernando, S L; Herkes, G

    2017-11-01

    Checkpoint immunotherapy has revolutionised cancer therapy and is now standard treatment for many malignancies including metastatic melanoma. Acute inflammatory neuropathies, often labelled as Guillain-Barre syndrome, are an uncommon but potentially severe complication of checkpoint immunotherapy with individual cases described but never characterised as a group. We describe a case of acute sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy following a single dose of combination ipilimumab and nivolumab for metastatic melanoma. A literature search was performed, identifying 14 other cases of acute neuropathy following checkpoint immunotherapy, with the clinical, electrophysiological and laboratory features summarised. Most cases described an acute sensorimotor neuropathy (92%) with hyporeflexia (92%) that could occur from induction up till many weeks after the final dose of therapy. In contrast to Guillain-Barre syndrome, the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis often shows a lymphocytic picture (50%) and the electrophysiology showed an axonal pattern (55%). Treatment was variable and often in combination. 11 cases received steroid therapy with only 1 death within this group, whereas of the 4 patients who did not receive steroid therapy there were 3 deaths. In conclusion checkpoint immunotherapy - induced acute neuropathies are distinct from and progress differently to Guillain-Barre syndrome. As with other immunotherapy related adverse events corticosteroid therapy should be initiated in addition to usual therapy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dual Function of Novel Pollen Coat (Surface) Proteins: IgE-binding Capacity and Proteolytic Activity Disrupting the Airway Epithelial Barrier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashir, Mohamed Elfatih H.; Ward, Jason M.; Cummings, Matthew; Karrar, Eltayeb E.; Root, Michael; Mohamed, Abu Bekr A.; Naclerio, Robert M.; Preuss, Daphne

    2013-01-01

    Background The pollen coat is the first structure of the pollen to encounter the mucosal immune system upon inhalation. Prior characterizations of pollen allergens have focused on water-soluble, cytoplasmic proteins, but have overlooked much of the extracellular pollen coat. Due to washing with organic solvents when prepared, these pollen coat proteins are typically absent from commercial standardized allergenic extracts (i.e., “de-fatted”), and, as a result, their involvement in allergy has not been explored. Methodology/Principal Findings Using a unique approach to search for pollen allergenic proteins residing in the pollen coat, we employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM) to assess the impact of organic solvents on the structural integrity of the pollen coat. TEM results indicated that de-fatting of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen (BGP) by use of organic solvents altered the structural integrity of the pollen coat. The novel IgE-binding proteins of the BGP coat include a cysteine protease (CP) and endoxylanase (EXY). The full-length cDNA that encodes the novel IgE-reactive CP was cloned from floral RNA. The EXY and CP were purified to homogeneity and tested for IgE reactivity. The CP from the BGP coat increased the permeability of human airway epithelial cells, caused a clear concentration-dependent detachment of cells, and damaged their barrier integrity. Conclusions/Significance Using an immunoproteomics approach, novel allergenic proteins of the BGP coat were identified. These proteins represent a class of novel dual-function proteins residing on the coat of the pollen grain that have IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity, which disrupts the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier. The identification of pollen coat allergens might explain the IgE-negative response to available skin-prick-testing proteins in patients who have positive symptoms. Further study of the role of these pollen coat proteins in allergic responses is

  2. Dual function of novel pollen coat (surface proteins: IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity disrupting the airway epithelial barrier.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The pollen coat is the first structure of the pollen to encounter the mucosal immune system upon inhalation. Prior characterizations of pollen allergens have focused on water-soluble, cytoplasmic proteins, but have overlooked much of the extracellular pollen coat. Due to washing with organic solvents when prepared, these pollen coat proteins are typically absent from commercial standardized allergenic extracts (i.e., "de-fatted", and, as a result, their involvement in allergy has not been explored. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Using a unique approach to search for pollen allergenic proteins residing in the pollen coat, we employed transmission electron microscopy (TEM to assess the impact of organic solvents on the structural integrity of the pollen coat. TEM results indicated that de-fatting of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass pollen (BGP by use of organic solvents altered the structural integrity of the pollen coat. The novel IgE-binding proteins of the BGP coat include a cysteine protease (CP and endoxylanase (EXY. The full-length cDNA that encodes the novel IgE-reactive CP was cloned from floral RNA. The EXY and CP were purified to homogeneity and tested for IgE reactivity. The CP from the BGP coat increased the permeability of human airway epithelial cells, caused a clear concentration-dependent detachment of cells, and damaged their barrier integrity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Using an immunoproteomics approach, novel allergenic proteins of the BGP coat were identified. These proteins represent a class of novel dual-function proteins residing on the coat of the pollen grain that have IgE-binding capacity and proteolytic activity, which disrupts the integrity of the airway epithelial barrier. The identification of pollen coat allergens might explain the IgE-negative response to available skin-prick-testing proteins in patients who have positive symptoms. Further study of the role of these pollen coat proteins in allergic

  3. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

    2011-01-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O 3 ) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O 3 fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O 3 fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O 3 , determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O 3 can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. - Highlights: → O 3 reduces the viability of ragweed pollen. → ROS and allergens of ragweed pollen were not affected by O 3 exposure. → O 3 enhances the activity of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. → O 3 increases ragweed pollen allergenicity through NAD(P)H-oxidase stimulation. - This study focuses on the effects of the atmospheric pollutant ozone on ROS content and NAD(P)H oxidase activity of ragweed pollen grains.

  4. Rational combinations of immunotherapy for pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blair, Alex B; Zheng, Lei

    2017-06-01

    The complex interaction between the immune system, the tumor and the microenvironment in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) leads to the resistance of PDA to immunotherapy. To overcome this resistance, combination immunotherapy is being proposed. However, rational combinations that target multiple aspects of the complex anti-tumor immune response are warranted. Novel clinical trials will investigate and optimize the combination immunotherapy for PDA.

  5. In vitro pollen quantity, viability and germination tests in quince ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.) cvs. Ekmek, Esme, Limon, Ege 2, Ege 22, Ege 25 and Quince-A rootstock pollens were collected in April from the unopened pink balloon-stage flowers on mature trees. The pollen amount was between 20063 pollen/flower ('Ege 25') and 11906 pollen/flower ('Limon') with hemacytometer.

  6. Immunotherapy in prostate cancer: challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Masanori; Koga, Noriko; Moriya, Fukuko; Itoh, Kyogo

    2016-01-01

    Although treatment options for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have increased over the last decade, there remains a need for strategies that can provide durable disease control and long-term benefit. Recently, immunotherapy has emerged as a viable and attractive strategy for the treatment of CRPC. To date, there are multiple strategies to target the immune system, and several approaches including therapeutic cancer vaccines and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been most successful in clinical trials. With regard to this, we report the results of the most recent clinical trials investigating immunotherapy in CRPC and discuss the future development of immunotherapy for CRPC, as well as the potential importance of biomarkers in the future progress of this field.

  7. Development of Novel Immunotherapies for Multiple Myeloma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ensaf M. Al-Hujaily

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Multiple myeloma (MM is a disorder of terminally differentiated plasma cells characterized by clonal expansion in the bone marrow (BM. It is the second-most common hematologic malignancy. Despite significant advances in therapeutic strategies, MM remains a predominantly incurable disease emphasizing the need for the development of new treatment regimens. Immunotherapy is a promising treatment modality to circumvent challenges in the management of MM. Many novel immunotherapy strategies, such as adoptive cell therapy and monoclonal antibodies, are currently under investigation in clinical trials, with some already demonstrating a positive impact on patient survival. In this review, we will summarize the current standards of care and discuss major new approaches in immunotherapy for MM.

  8. Anti-CD40-mediated cancer immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Sufia Butt; Sørensen, Jesper Freddie; Olsen, Barbara Nicola

    2014-01-01

    activation and thus enhancement of immune responses. Treatment with anti-CD40 monoclonal antibodies has been exploited in several cancer immunotherapy studies in mice and led to the development of anti-CD40 antibodies for clinical use. Here, Dacetuzumab and Lucatumumab are in the most advanced stage...... with other cancer immunotherapies, in particular interleukin (IL)-2. An in-depth analysis of this immunotherapy is provided elsewhere. In the present review, we provide an update of the most recent clinical trials with anti-CD40 antibodies. We present and discuss recent and ongoing clinical trials...... in this field, including clinical studies which combine anti-CD40 treatment with other cancer-treatments, such as Rituximab and Tremelimumab....

  9. PollenCALC: Software for estimation of pollen compatibility of self-incompatible allo- and autotetraploid species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea A; Wollenweber, Bernd; Frei, Ursula K

    2012-01-01

    available for predicting pollen haplotype frequencies and pollen compatibility in tetraploid species. Results PollenCALC is a software tool written in C++ programming language that can predict pollen compatibility percentages for polyploid species with a two-locus (S, Z) self-incompatibility system...

  10. Immunotherapy in allergy and cellular tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirumbolo, Salvatore

    2014-01-01

    The basophil activation test (BAT) is an in vitro assay where the activation of basophils upon exposure to various IgE-challenging molecules is measured by flow cytometry. It is a cellular test able to investigate basophil behavior during allergy and allergy immunotherapy. A panoply of critical issues and suggestive advances have rendered this assay a promising yet puzzling tool to endeavor a full comprehension of innate immunity of allergy desensitization and manage allergen or monoclonal anti-IgE therapy. In this review a brief state of art of BAT in immunotherapy is described focusing onto the analytical issue pertaining BAT performance in allergy specific therapy. PMID:24717453

  11. Immunotherapy for advanced melanoma: future directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valpione, Sara; Campana, Luca G

    2016-02-01

    As calculated by the meta-analysis of Korn et al., the prognosis of metastatic melanoma in the pretarget and immunological therapy era was poor, with a median survival of 6.2 and a 1-year life expectancy of 25.5%. Nowadays, significant advances in melanoma treatment have been gained, and immunotherapy is one of the promising approaches to get to durable responses and survival improvement. The aim of the present review is to highlight the recent innovations in melanoma immunotherapy and to propose a critical perspective of the future directions of this enthralling oncology subspecialty.

  12. Antigen Presentation Keeps Trending in Immunotherapy Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalbasi, Anusha; Ribas, Antoni

    2018-04-19

    Through a gain-of-function kinome screen, MEX3B was identified as a mediator of resistance to T-cell immunotherapy not previously identified using CRISPR-based screens. MEX3B is a posttranscriptional regulator of HLA-A, validating the critical role of tumor-intrinsic antigen presentation in T-cell immunotherapy and indicating a new putative molecular target. Clin Cancer Res; 24(14); 1-3. ©2018 AACR. See related article by Huang et al., p. xxxx . ©2018 American Association for Cancer Research.

  13. Tinnitus after administration of sublingual immunotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel, Jacob

    2017-01-01

    , for example, itching, swelling, irritation, ulceration of the oropharynx and nausea, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and vomiting. More severe side effects are dominated by systemic and respiratory tract manifestations. RESULTS: In this clinical case, the author reports a right-sided transient tinnitus lasting...... for 48 h after administration of sublingual immunotherapy for house dust mite in allergic rhinitis. CONCLUSIONS: This case provide important insights for clinical practice, as tinnitus has not been previously reported as a side effect of sublingual immunotherapy with house dust mite allergens....

  14. Bee Pollen: Chemical Composition and Therapeutic Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Komosinska-Vassev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee pollen is a valuable apitherapeutic product greatly appreciated by the natural medicine because of its potential medical and nutritional applications. It demonstrates a series of actions such as antifungal, antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, hepatoprotective, anticancer immunostimulating, and local analgesic. Its radical scavenging potential has also been reported. Beneficial properties of bee pollen and the validity for their therapeutic use in various pathological condition have been discussed in this study and with the currently known mechanisms, by which bee pollen modulates burn wound healing process.

  15. Pollen Flora of Pakistan-LXV, berberidaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, A.

    2010-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 12 species representing 2 genera of the family Berberidaceae from Pakistan has been examined by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains usually radially symmetrical, iso polar or apolar, spheroidal or sub-prolate, spiroaperturate rarely colpate (3- more), sexine thicker than nexine. Tectal surface mostly foveolate-fossulate or sub-psilate, often rugulate - reticulate. On the basis of apertutal types and exine ornamentation four distinct pollen types are recognized, viz., Berberis calliobotrys-type, Berberis jaeschkeana-type, Berberis kunawurensis-type and Epimedium elatum-type. (author)

  16. Ultrarush schedule of subcutaneous immunotherapy with modified allergen extracts is safe in paediatric age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morais-Almeida, Mário; Arêde, Cristina; Sampaio, Graça; Borrego, Luis Miguel

    2016-01-01

    Traditional subcutaneous immunotherapy up dosing with allergenic extracts has been shown to be associated with frequent adverse reactions. In recent studies it has been demonstrated that using modified extracts, namely allergoids, it is a safe and effective procedure particularly on accelerated schedules. However data assessing its safety in paediatric age is scarce. To evaluate the safety profile in paediatric population of using modified allergen extracts, in an ultrarush schedule, to reach the maintenance dose in the first day. We included children undergoing treatment with subcutaneous immunotherapy during a five-year period, using modified aeroallergen extracts, depigmented, polymerized with glutaraldehyde and adsorbed on aluminium hydroxide using an ultrarush induction phase. The type of adverse reactions during the ultrarush protocol was recorded. We studied 100 paediatric patients (57 males) with a mean age of 11.6 years (5 to 18 years; standard deviation, 3.3), all with moderate to severe persistent rhinitis, with or without allergic conjunctivitis, asthma and atopic eczema, sensitized to mites and/or pollens. All reached the maintenance dose of 0.5 mL in the first day, except 1 child. During the ultrarush protocol the total number of injections was 199. There were 21 local adverse reactions in 11 patients, 11 immediate and 10 delayed; from those, had clinical relevance 1 immediate and 4 delayed. Systemic reactions were recorded in 2 cases, both immediate and mild. The ultrarush protocol, without premedication, was a safe alternative to be used in paediatric age during the induction phase of subcutaneous immunotherapy using allergoid depigmented extracts.

  17. Bioenergy production from roadside grass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show...

  18. Novel immunotherapy and treatment modality for severe food allergies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagakura, Ken-Ichi; Sato, Sakura; Yanagida, Noriyuki; Ebisawa, Motohiro

    2017-06-01

    In recent years, many studies on oral immunotherapy (OIT) have been conducted; however, few have focused on severe food allergies. The purpose of this review was to assess the efficacy and safety of oral immunotherapies for patients with severe food allergy. We reviewed multiple immunotherapy reports published within a few years or reports focusing on severe food allergies. We also investigated recent studies on OIT and novel food allergy management. Immunotherapies targeting low-dose antigen exposure and oral food challenges using low-dose target volumes may be safer than conventional OIT. It is necessary to consider which immunotherapy regimen is appropriate based on allergy severity of the patient.

  19. A pollen-specific RALF from tomato that regulates pollen tube elongation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covey, Paul A; Subbaiah, Chalivendra C; Parsons, Ronald L; Pearce, Gregory; Lay, Fung T; Anderson, Marilyn A; Ryan, Clarence A; Bedinger, Patricia A

    2010-06-01

    Rapid Alkalinization Factors (RALFs) are plant peptides that rapidly increase the pH of plant suspension cell culture medium and inhibit root growth. A pollen-specific tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) RALF (SlPRALF) has been identified. The SlPRALF gene encodes a preproprotein that appears to be processed and released from the pollen tube as an active peptide. A synthetic SlPRALF peptide based on the putative active peptide did not affect pollen hydration or viability but inhibited the elongation of normal pollen tubes in an in vitro growth system. Inhibitory effects of SlPRALF were detectable at concentrations as low as 10 nm, and complete inhibition was observed at 1 mum peptide. At least 10-fold higher levels of alkSlPRALF, which lacks disulfide bonds, were required to see similar effects. A greater effect of peptide was observed in low-pH-buffered medium. Inhibition of pollen tube elongation was reversible if peptide was removed within 15 min of exposure. Addition of 100 nm SlPRALF to actively growing pollen tubes inhibited further elongation until tubes were 40 to 60 mum in length, after which pollen tubes became resistant to the peptide. The onset of resistance correlated with the timing of the exit of the male germ unit from the pollen grain into the tube. Thus, exogenous SlPRALF acts as a negative regulator of pollen tube elongation within a specific developmental window.

  20. Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rini, Brian I; McDermott, David F; Hammers, Hans; Bro, William; Bukowski, Ronald M; Faba, Bernard; Faba, Jo; Figlin, Robert A; Hutson, Thomas; Jonasch, Eric; Joseph, Richard W; Leibovich, Bradley C; Olencki, Thomas; Pantuck, Allan J; Quinn, David I; Seery, Virginia; Voss, Martin H; Wood, Christopher G; Wood, Laura S; Atkins, Michael B

    2016-01-01

    Immunotherapy has produced durable clinical benefit in patients with metastatic renal cell cancer (RCC). In the past, patients treated with interferon-alpha (IFN) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) have achieved complete responses, many of which have lasted for multiple decades. More recently, a large number of new agents have been approved for RCC, several of which attack tumor angiogenesis by inhibiting vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF) and VEGF receptors (VEGFR), as well as tumor metabolism, inhibiting the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). Additionally, a new class of immunotherapy agents, immune checkpoint inhibitors, is emerging and will play a significant role in the treatment of patients with RCC. Therefore, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a Task Force, which met to consider the current role of approved immunotherapy agents in RCC, to provide guidance to practicing clinicians by developing consensus recommendations and to set the stage for future immunotherapeutic developments in RCC.

  1. Pollen flora of pakistan-lxxi. rosaceae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perveen, A.; Qaiser, M.

    2014-01-01

    Pollen morphology of 50 species representing 17 genera of the family Rosaceae i.e., Alchemilla, Argimonia, Cotoneaster, Crataegus, Duchesnea, Fragaria, Eriybotyra, Filipandula, Geum, Malus, Prunus, Potentilla, Pyrus , Rosa, Sibbaldia, Sorbaria and Sorbus has been studied from Pakistan by light and scanning electron microscope. Pollen grains are usually free, radially symmetrical, isopolar, prolate-spheroidal to subprolate or oblate-spheroidal rarely perprolate, tricolporate rarely tricolpate. Tectum mostly coarsely-finely striate, rarely striate-rugulate, scabrate or spinulose often reticulate. Rosaceae is more or less eurypalynous family. Significant variation is found in P/E ratio, shape and exine ornamentation and on the basis of these characters family has been divided into seven pollen types viz., Agrimonia eupatoria-type, Alchemilla ypsilotoma-type, Cotoneaster affinis-type, Fragaria nubicola-type, Geum roylei-type, Malus pumila-type, Potentilla pamirica-type. Pollen data is useful at specific and generic level. (author)

  2. Pollen-projektiga Rootsis / Lembit Jakobson

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Jakobson, Lembit

    2009-01-01

    Avastusõppe projektist "Pollen" Eesti (2006-2009) mille eesmärk on kõiki lapsi kaasav uurimisõpe. Kevadisel koolivaheajal tutvus kümmekond Eesti õpetajat uurimisõppega Stockholmi kahes algkoolis

  3. Pollen as indicator of radionuclide pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirkham, M.B.; Corey, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    To assess hazards of radioactivity in the environment, agricultural scientists must identify plant and animal species which can be used as biological indicators of radionuclide contamination. In this experiments, the pollen-bee-honey system was chosen to study movement of radioactive elements in the plant-animal-man food chain. Pollen, bees, and honey were collected from different locations at a nuclear facility in South Carolina. They were analyzed for nine radionuclides and 22 stable elements. The results showed that pollen is a more sensitive indicator of pollution than bees or honey. If pollen-monitoring shows that an area has become polluted, hives and other sources of human and animal food should not be placed in the region until it is no longer contaminated. (author)

  4. Immunotherapy for glioblastoma: playing chess, not checkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Christopher M; Lim, Michael

    2018-04-24

    Patients with glioblastoma (GBM) exhibit a complex state of immune dysfunction involving multiple mechanisms of local, regional, and systemic immune suppression and tolerance. These pathways are now being identified and their relative contributions explored. Delineating how these pathways are interrelated is paramount to effectively implementing immunotherapy for GBM. Copyright ©2018, American Association for Cancer Research.

  5. Biomarkers and correlative endpoints for immunotherapy trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Michael A; Osada, Takuya; Hobeika, Amy; Patel, Sandip; Lyerly, H Kim

    2013-01-01

    Immunotherapies for lung cancer are reaching phase III clinical trial, but the ultimate success likely will depend on developing biomarkers to guide development and choosing patient populations most likely to benefit. Because the immune response to cancer involves multiple cell types and cytokines, some spatially and temporally separated, it is likely that multiple biomarkers will be required to fully characterize efficacy of the vaccine and predict eventual benefit. Peripheral blood markers of response, such as the ELISPOT assay and cytokine flow cytometry analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells following immunotherapy, remain the standard approach, but it is increasingly important to obtain tissue to study the immune response at the site of the tumor. Earlier clinical endpoints such as response rate and progression-free survival do not correlate with overall survival demonstrated for some immunotherapies, suggesting the need to develop other intermediary clinical endpoints. Insofar as all these biomarkers and surrogate endpoints are relevant in multiple malignancies, it may be possible to extrapolate findings to immunotherapy of lung cancer.

  6. Targeting nanoparticles to dendritic cells for immunotherapy.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cruz, L.J.; Tacken, P.J.; Rueda, F.; Domingo, J.C.; Albericio, F.; Figdor, C.G.

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are key players in the initiation of adaptive immune responses and are currently exploited in immunotherapy for treatment of cancer and infectious diseases. Development of targeted nanodelivery systems carrying vaccine components, including antigens and adjuvants, to DCs in

  7. Synthetic immune niches for cancer immunotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weiden, J.; Tel, J.; Figdor, C.G.

    2018-01-01

    Cancer immunotherapy can successfully promote long-term anticancer immune responses, although there is still only a limited number of patients who benefit from such treatment, and it can sometimes have severe treatment-associated adverse events. Compared with systemic immunomodulation, local

  8. Novel immunotherapy approaches to food allergy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hayen, Simone M; Kostadinova, Atanaska I; Garssen, Johan; Otten, Henny G; Willemsen, Linette E M

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Despite reaching high percentages of desensitization using allergen-specific immunotherapy (SIT) in patients with food allergy, recent studies suggest only a low number of patients to reach persistent clinical tolerance. This review describes current developments in strategies to

  9. Cancer immunotherapy : insights from transgenic animal models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLaughlin, PMJ; Kroesen, BJ; Harmsen, MC; de Leij, LFMH

    2001-01-01

    A wide range of strategies in cancer immunotherapy has been developed in the last decade, some of which are currently being used in clinical settings. The development of these immunotherapeutical strategies has been facilitated by the generation of relevant transgenic animal models. Since the

  10. Steroids vs immunotherapy for allergic rhinitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasbjerg, Kristian; Backer, Vibeke

    2014-01-01

    Treatment for seasonal allergic rhinitis induced by airborne allergens can be divided into two major groups: symptom-dampening drugs, such as antihistamines and corticosteroids, and disease-modifying drugs in the form of immunotherapy. It has been speculated that depot-injection corticosteroids g...

  11. Proceedings of the 2016 China Cancer Immunotherapy Workshop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Xue

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Table of contents A1 Proceedings of 2016 China Cancer Immunotherapy Workshop, Beijing, China Bin Xue, Jiaqi Xu, Wenru Song, Zhimin Yang, Ke Liu, Zihai Li A2 Set the stage: fundamental immunology in forty minutes Zihai Li A3 What have we learnt from the anti-PD-1/PD-L1 therapy of advanced human cancer? Lieping Chen A4 Immune checkpoint inhibitors in lung cancer Edward B. Garon A5 Mechanisms of response and resistance to checkpoint inhibitors in melanoma Siwen Hu-Lieskovan A6 Checkpoint inhibitor immunotherapy in lymphoid malignancies Wei Ding A7 Translational research to improve the efficacy of immunotherapy in genitourinary malignancies Chong-Xian Pan A8 Immune checkpoint inhibitors in gastrointestinal malignancies Weijing Sun A9 What’s next beyond PD-1/PDL1? Yong-Jun Liu A10 Cancer vaccines: new insights into the oldest immunotherapy strategy Lei Zheng A11 Bispecific antibodies for cancer immunotherapy Delong Liu A12 Updates on CAR-T immunotherapy Michel Sadelain A13 Adoptive T cell therapy: personalizing cancer treatment Cassian Yee A14 Immune targets and neoantigens for cancer immunotherapy Rongfu Wang A15 Phase I/IIa trial of chimeric antigen receptor modified T cells against CD133 in patients with advanced and metastatic solid tumors Meixia Chen, Yao Wang, Zhiqiang Wu, Hanren Dai, Can Luo, Yang Liu, Chuan Tong, Yelei Guo, Qingming Yang, Weidong Han A16 Cancer immunotherapy biomarkers: progress and issues Lisa H. Butterfield A17 Shaping of immunotherapy response by cancer genomes Timothy A. Chan A18 Unique development consideration for cancer immunotherapy Wenru Song A19 Immunotherapy combination Ruirong Yuan A20 Immunotherapy combination with radiotherapy Bo Lu A21 Cancer immunotherapy: past, present and future Ke Liu A22 Breakthrough therapy designation drug development and approval Max Ning A23 Current European regulation of innovative oncology medicines: opportunities for immunotherapy Harald Enzmann, Heinz Zwierzina

  12. Juniper Pollen Hotspots in the Southwest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunderson, L. D.; VandeWater, P.; Luvall, J.; Levetin, E.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale: Juniperus pollen is a major allergen in Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico. While the bulk of pollen may be released in rural areas, large amounts of pollen can be transported to urban areas. Major juniper species in the region include: Juniperus ashei, J. virginiana, J. pinchotii, and J. monosperma. Pollen release is virtually continuous beginning in late September with J. pinchotii and ending in May with J. monosperma. Urban areas in the region were evaluated for the potential of overlapping seasons in order to inform sensitive individuals. Methods: Burkard volumetric pollen traps were established for two consecutive spring seasons at 6 sites in northern New Mexico and 6 sites for two consecutive winter and fall seasons in Texas and Oklahoma Standard methods were used in the preparation and analysis of slides. Results: The Dallas-Fort Worth Metroplex is home to over 6 million people. It is adjacent to populations of J. pinchotii, J. virginiana, and J. ashei. Peak concentration near Dallas for J. ashei in 2011 was 5891 pollen grains/m3 in January 7th. The peak date for J. pinchotii at an upwind sampling location in San Marcos, TX was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was November 1, 2010 and peak for J. virginiana at a nearby station in Tulsa, OK was February 20, 2011. Amarillo, TX is adjacent to J. pinchotii, J. ashei, and J. monosperma populations and may be subject to juniper pollen from September through May. Conclusions: Considering the overlapping distributions of juniper trees and the overlapping temporal release of pollen, sensitive patients may benefit from avoiding hotspots.

  13. Ragweed (Ambrosia) pollen source inventory for Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karrer, G; Skjøth, C A; Šikoparija, B; Smith, M; Berger, U; Essl, F

    2015-08-01

    This study improves the spatial coverage of top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories for Europe by expanding the methodology to Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and the distribution of ragweed plants. The inventory combines annual ragweed pollen counts from 19 pollen-monitoring stations in Austria (2004-2013), 657 geographical observations of Ambrosia plants, a Digital Elevation Model (DEM), local knowledge of ragweed ecology and CORINE land cover information from the source area. The highest mean annual ragweed pollen concentrations were generally recorded in the East of Austria where the highest densities of possible growth habitats for Ambrosia were situated. Approximately 99% of all observations of Ambrosia populations were below 745m. The European infection level varies from 0.1% at Freistadt in Northern Austria to 12.8% at Rosalia in Eastern Austria. More top-down Ambrosia pollen source inventories are required for other parts of Europe. A method for constructing top-down pollen source inventories for invasive ragweed plants in Austria, a country that is challenging in terms of topography and ragweed distribution. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Influence of pollen nutrition on honey bee health: do pollen quality and diversity matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pasquale, Garance; Salignon, Marion; Le Conte, Yves; Belzunces, Luc P; Decourtye, Axel; Kretzschmar, André; Suchail, Séverine; Brunet, Jean-Luc; Alaux, Cédric

    2013-01-01

    Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen) necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens) and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet) on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level), and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification), phenoloxidase (immunity) and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism)). We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context) of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health.

  15. Influence of pollen nutrition on honey bee health: do pollen quality and diversity matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garance Di Pasquale

    Full Text Available Honey bee colonies are highly dependent upon the availability of floral resources from which they get the nutrients (notably pollen necessary to their development and survival. However, foraging areas are currently affected by the intensification of agriculture and landscape alteration. Bees are therefore confronted to disparities in time and space of floral resource abundance, type and diversity, which might provide inadequate nutrition and endanger colonies. The beneficial influence of pollen availability on bee health is well-established but whether quality and diversity of pollen diets can modify bee health remains largely unknown. We therefore tested the influence of pollen diet quality (different monofloral pollens and diversity (polyfloral pollen diet on the physiology of young nurse bees, which have a distinct nutritional physiology (e.g. hypopharyngeal gland development and vitellogenin level, and on the tolerance to the microsporidian parasite Nosemaceranae by measuring bee survival and the activity of different enzymes potentially involved in bee health and defense response (glutathione-S-transferase (detoxification, phenoloxidase (immunity and alkaline phosphatase (metabolism. We found that both nurse bee physiology and the tolerance to the parasite were affected by pollen quality. Pollen diet diversity had no effect on the nurse bee physiology and the survival of healthy bees. However, when parasitized, bees fed with the polyfloral blend lived longer than bees fed with monofloral pollens, excepted for the protein-richest monofloral pollen. Furthermore, the survival was positively correlated to alkaline phosphatase activity in healthy bees and to phenoloxydase activities in infected bees. Our results support the idea that both the quality and diversity (in a specific context of pollen can shape bee physiology and might help to better understand the influence of agriculture and land-use intensification on bee nutrition and health.

  16. Amyloid beta peptide immunotherapy in Alzheimer disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delrieu, J; Ousset, P J; Voisin, T; Vellas, B

    2014-12-01

    Recent advances in the understanding of Alzheimer's disease pathogenesis have led to the development of numerous compounds that might modify the disease process. Amyloid β peptide represents an important molecular target for intervention in Alzheimer's disease. The main purpose of this work is to review immunotherapy studies in relation to the Alzheimer's disease. Several types of amyloid β peptide immunotherapy for Alzheimer's disease are under investigation, active immunization and passive administration with monoclonal antibodies directed against amyloid β peptide. Although immunotherapy approaches resulted in clearance of amyloid plaques in patients with Alzheimer's disease, this clearance did not show significant cognitive effect for the moment. Currently, several amyloid β peptide immunotherapy approaches are under investigation but also against tau pathology. Results from amyloid-based immunotherapy studies in clinical trials indicate that intervention appears to be more effective in early stages of amyloid accumulation in particular solanezumab with a potential impact at mild Alzheimer's disease, highlighting the importance of diagnosing Alzheimer's disease as early as possible and undertaking clinical trials at this stage. In both phase III solanezumab and bapineuzumab trials, PET imaging revealed that about a quarter of patients lacked fibrillar amyloid pathology at baseline, suggesting that they did not have Alzheimer's disease in the first place. So a new third phase 3 clinical trial for solanezumab, called Expedition 3, in patients with mild Alzheimer's disease and evidence of amyloid burden has been started. Thus, currently, amyloid intervention is realized at early stage of the Alzheimer's disease in clinical trials, at prodromal Alzheimer's disease, or at asymptomatic subjects or at risk to develop Alzheimer's disease and or at asymptomatic subjects with autosomal dominant mutation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Flowering and the Pollen Fertility in Iranian Garlic Clones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Abbasifar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Garlic (Allium sativum L. cannot produce seed because it is a sterile plant. For studying bolting and determination of pollen fertility, 68 Iranian garlic clones were gathered from different parts of Iran and evaluated in Research Field of Horticultural Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Bu-Ali Sina University in 2010-2011 and 2011-2012. For determining the pollen fertility, some tests including specific RAPD marker, pollen germination, pollen viability detection using acetocarmine and in vitro culture of ovules and fruits were used. Results showed that 37 of Iranian garlic clones could produce scape and inflorescence. The percentage range of pollen stained with acetocarmine was from 0.5 up to 20 percent showing infertility of pollens. Lack of two markers (OPJ121300 and OPJ121700 and pollen tube growth proved the infertility of garlic clones pollen. Fruits and embryo sac were alive for more than two months, showing their potential for producing seeds following pollination with fertile pollens.

  18. Pollen core assemblages as indicator of Polynesian and European impact on the vegetation cover of Auckland Isthmus catchment, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahim, Ghada M. S.; Parker, Robin J.; Horrocks, Mark

    2013-10-01

    Tamaki Estuary is an arm of the Hauraki Gulf situated on the eastern side of central Auckland. Over the last 100 years, Tamaki catchment has evolved from a nearly rural landscape to an urbanised and industrialised area. Pollen, 14C and glass shards analyses, were carried out on three cores collected along the estuary with the aim to reconstruct the estuary's history over the last ˜8000 years and trace natural and anthropogenic effects recorded in the sediments. Glass shard analysis was used to establish key tephra time markers such as the peralkaline eruption of Mayor Island, ˜6000 years BP. During the pre-Polynesian period (since at least 8000 years BP), regional vegetation was podocarp/hardwood forest dominated by Dacrydium cupressinun, Prumnopits taxifolia, and Metrosideros. Major Polynesian settler impact (commencing ˜700 yr BP) was associated with forest clearance as indicated by a sharp decline in forest pollen types. This coincided with an increase in bracken (Pteridium esculentum) spores and grass pollen. Continuing landscape disturbance during European settlement (commencing after 1840 AD) was accompanied by the distinctive appearance of exotic pollen taxa such as Pinus.

  19. Basophil Sensitivity Decreases During the Updosing of SCIT in Subjects Allergic to Grass Pollen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Johannes Martin; Dahl, Ronald; Hoffmann, Hans Jürgen

    ).This corresponds to an approximately 14-fold reduction in basophil sensitivity. No significant changes were observed in the baseline, washed cells or control group. CONCLUSIONS: We show that the main mechanism leading to a reduction of basophil sensitivity is humoral. PII: S0091-6749(10)02749-1 doi:10.1016...

  20. De novo post-pollen mitosis II tobacco pollen tube transcriptome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hafidh, Said; Breznenová, Katarína; Honys, David

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 8 (2012), s. 918-921 ISSN 1559-2316 R&D Projects: GA ČR GPP501/11/P321; GA ČR GA522/09/0858 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : de novo pollen tube transcriptome * male gametophyte development * pollen tube growth Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  1. Storage and irradiation of Cucumis pollen and their influence on pollen vitality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oost, E.H.; Nijs, A.P.M. den

    1979-01-01

    In connection with an interspecific hybridization programme and a mentor pollen experiment in Cucumis, the optimal storage conditions and in vitro germination medium for both fresh and irradiated pollen of the cultivated cucumber and two wild African Cucumis species have been searched for. (Auth.)

  2. Pollen of Southeast Asian Alchornea (Euphorbiaceae), with an overview of the pollen fossil record

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulalacao, L.J.; Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    In order to evaluate pollen morphological descriptions of Alchornea in the literature, which are almost completely based on African and American species, the pollen of eight Southeast Asian species of Alchornea was investigated, using light and scanning electron microscopy. Very little variation

  3. Two-peaked dose curves for irradiated pollen growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrejchenko, S.V.; Grodzinskij, D.M.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of γ-radiation on growth activity of bicellular pollen of hybrid petunia has been investigated. Irradiation of pollen with doses of 5 to 70 Gy increases the pollen tube growth in an artificial culture medium. As the radiation dose increases the germination ability of pollen gradually decreases and the mean pollen tube length shortens, which is accompanied by the suppression of the generative cell division into spermia and inhibition of the unscheduled incorporation of labelled thymidine into DNA. With radiation doses of 1200 to 1700 Gy some pollen tubes grow intensively. It is suggested that the phenomenon observed lays the basis for the gametic transformation

  4. Clinical studies of a purified timothy pollen extract: desensitization therapy with a purified timothy pollen preparation compared to a crude timothy pollen extract. II. Results of the tests in vitro and their relation to symptoms and tests in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, S L; Berg, T; Johansson, S G; Lanner, A

    1982-01-01

    Perennial desensitization therapy was given during a period of 3.5 years to 40 children allergic to grass pollen allergens. 20 patients were treated with a crude and another 20 with a purified timothy pollen extract. 8 children served as untreated controls. The concentration of total and specific IgE in the treated groups covaried with those in the control group. Neither a suppression of the seasonal booster effect nor a suppression of IgE synthesis attributable to the treatment was found. The rise of timothy-specific "blocking' IgG antibodies was more pronounced in the group treated with the purified extract than in the group treated with the crude extract. A significant difference was found only after 3.5 years of treatment. The amplitude of rise of IgG antibodies correlated significantly with the effect of the treatment as judged by repeated conjunctival titration test. The results suggest that a good IgG response is an indication of successful therapy and that a better IgG response may be achieved with purified allergen extracts.

  5. Transport logistics in pollen tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chebli, Youssef; Kroeger, Jens; Geitmann, Anja

    2013-07-01

    Cellular organelles move within the cellular volume and the effect of the resulting drag forces on the liquid causes bulk movement in the cytosol. The movement of both organelles and cytosol leads to an overall motion pattern called cytoplasmic streaming or cyclosis. This streaming enables the active and passive transport of molecules and organelles between cellular compartments. Furthermore, the fusion and budding of vesicles with and from the plasma membrane (exo/endocytosis) allow for transport of material between the inside and the outside of the cell. In the pollen tube, cytoplasmic streaming and exo/endocytosis are very active and fulfill several different functions. In this review, we focus on the logistics of intracellular motion and transport processes as well as their biophysical underpinnings. We discuss various modeling attempts that have been performed to understand both long-distance shuttling and short-distance targeting of organelles. We show how the combination of mechanical and mathematical modeling with cell biological approaches has contributed to our understanding of intracellular transport logistics.

  6. Sublingual immunotherapy for the treatment of allergies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-05-22

    May 22, 2016 ... and autumn when the level of outdoor allergens, i.e. pollen, is elevated ... Atopic dermatitis has an impact on health-related quality of life,. Abstract .... and SLIT consistently demonstrated benefit when compared to placebo ...

  7. Increase in pollen sensitization in Swedish adults and protective effect of keeping animals in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjerg, A; Ekerljung, L; Eriksson, J; Näslund, J; Sjölander, S; Rönmark, E; Dahl, Å; Holmberg, K; Wennergren, G; Torén, K; Borres, M P; Lötvall, J; Lundbäck, B

    2016-10-01

    To date, most studies of the 'allergy epidemic' have been based on self-reported data. There is still limited knowledge on time trends in allergic sensitization, especially among adults. To study allergic sensitization, its risk factors and time trends in prevalence. Within West Sweden Asthma Study (WSAS), a population-based sample of 788 adults (17-60 years) underwent skin prick tests (SPTs) for 11 aeroallergens 2009-2012. Specific IgE was analysed in 750 of the participants. Those aged 20-46 years (n = 379) were compared with the European Community Respiratory Health Survey sample aged 20-46 year from the same area (n = 591) in 1991-1992. Among those aged 20-46 years, the prevalence of positive SPT to pollen increased, timothy from 17.1% to 29.0% (P < 0.001) and birch from 15.6% to 23.7% (P = 0.002) between 1991-1992 and 2009-2012. Measurements of specific IgE confirmed these increases. Prevalence of sensitization to all other tested allergens was unchanged. In the full WSAS sample aged 17-60 years, any positive SPT was seen in 41.9%, and the dominating sensitizers were pollen (34.3%), animals (22.8%) and mites (12.6%). Pollen sensitization was strongly associated with rhinitis, whereas indoor allergens were more associated with asthma. Growing up with livestock or furred pets decreased the risk of sensitization, adjusted odds ratio 0.53 (0.28-0.995) and 0.68 (0.47-0.98), respectively. Pollen sensitization has increased in Swedish adults since the early 1990s, while the prevalence of sensitization to other allergens has remained unchanged. This is one plausible explanation for the increase in rhinitis 1990-2008 in Swedish adults, during which time the prevalence of asthma, which is more associated with perennial allergens, was stable. Contact with animals in childhood seems to reduce the risk of sensitization well into adulthood. One major factor contributing to the rise in pollen allergy is a significant increase in levels of birch and grass pollen over the past

  8. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasqualini, Stefania, E-mail: spas@unipg.it [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy); Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima [Department of Molecular Biology, CD Laboratory for Allergy Diagnosis and Therapy, University of Salzburg, Salzburg (Austria); D' Amato, Gennaro [Division of Respiratory and Allergic Diseases, ' A. Cardarelli' High Speciality Hospital, Naples (Italy); Ederli, Luisa [Department of Applied Biology, University of Perugia, Perugia (Italy)

    2011-10-15

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O{sub 3}) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O{sub 3} fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O{sub 3} fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O{sub 3}, determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O{sub 3} can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. - Highlights: > O{sub 3} reduces the viability of ragweed pollen. > ROS and allergens of ragweed pollen were not affected by O{sub 3} exposure. > O{sub 3} enhances the activity of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. > O{sub 3} increases ragweed pollen allergenicity through NAD(P)H-oxidase stimulation. - This study focuses on the effects of the atmospheric pollutant ozone on ROS content and NAD(P)H oxidase activity of ragweed pollen grains.

  9. Pollen Allergies in Humans and their Dogs, Cats and Horses: Differences and Similarities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Einhorn, Lukas; Herrmann, Ina; Thalhammer, Johann G; Panakova, Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Both humans and their most important domestic animals harbor IgE and a similar IgE receptor repertoire and expression pattern. The same cell types are also involved in the triggering or regulation of allergies, such as mast cells, eosinophils or T-regulatory cells. Translational clinical studies in domestic animals could therefore help cure animal allergies and at the same time gather knowledge relevant to human patients. Dogs, cats and horses may spontaneously and to different extents develop immediate type symptoms to pollen allergens. The skin, nasal and bronchial reactions, as well as chronic skin lesions due to pollen are in principle comparable to human patients. Pollen of various species most often causes allergic rhinitis in human patients, whereas in dogs it elicits predominantly eczematous lesions (canine atopic dermatitis), in horses recurrent airway obstruction or hives as well as pruritic dermatitis, and in cats bronchial asthma and so-called cutaneous reactive patterns (eosinophilic granuloma complex, head and neck pruritus, symmetric self-induced alopecia). In human allergy-specific IgE detection, skin tests or other allergen provocation tests should be completed. In contrast, in animals IgE and dermal tests are regarded as equally important and may even replace each other. However, for practical and economic reasons intradermal tests are most commonly performed in a specialized practice. As in humans, in dogs, cats and horses allergen immunotherapy leads to significant improvement of the clinical symptoms. The collected evidence suggests that canines, felines and equines, with their spontaneous allergies, are attractive model patients for translational studies.

  10. Immunotherapy: A breakthrough in cancer research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial Office

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The fast growing field of immunotherapy was one of the topics extensively discussed during the recently concluded ESMO Asia Congress 2016, held from December 16– 19th December at the Suntec Convention and Exhibition Centre in Singapore. Unlike drug-based chemotherapy, immunotherapy exploits the body’s own immune system to fight cancer and is increasingly touted as the future of cancer treatment. The concept of using the immune system as a disease-fighting tool was introduced by Dr. William Bradley Coley, the ‘Father of Cancer Immunotherapy’, in the 19th century based on his work that sought to stimulate a patient’s own immune system against bacterial infection. However, a persistent question remains since the advent of immunotherapy over a century ago – can the immune system accurately recognize malignant tumor and eliminate it effectively? The answer to this question remains hotly debated owing to the differing opinions and attitudes on the application of immunotherapy. Dr. Coley noticed that in a number of cases, patients with cancer went into spontaneous remission after developing erysipelas. In 1891, Dr. Coley injected streptococcal organisms (which cause erysipelas into a patient with inoperable cancer and observed remarkable tumor regression. Although he had treated almost 900 patients with bacterial preparations that eventually became known as “Coley’s toxins”, his treatment method was not widely accepted by the medical community possibly owing to the low cure rates and the severe fever caused by the bacteria. Some physicians also feared that the immune system might not have adapted well enough to recognize and eliminate malignant cells exclusively. As a consequence, most oncologists relied on another treatment that was rapidly gaining acceptance at that time, i.e. radiation. It was only after about a century later that the medical community observed a revived interest in immunotherapy. In 1976, a trial was conducted to

  11. Pollen and spore monitoring in the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buters, J T M; Antunes, C; Galveias, A; Bergmann, K C; Thibaudon, M; Galán, C; Schmidt-Weber, C; Oteros, J

    2018-01-01

    Ambient air quality monitoring is a governmental duty that is widely carried out in order to detect non-biological ("chemical") components in ambient air, such as particles of monitoring networks are publicly funded and air quality data are open to the public. The situation for biological particles that have detrimental effects on health, as is the case of pollen and fungal spores, is however very different. Most pollen and spore monitoring networks are not publicly funded and data are not freely available. The information regarding which biological particle is being monitored, where and by whom, is consequently often not known, even by aerobiologists themselves. This is a considerable problem, as local pollen data are an important tool for the prevention of allergic symptoms. The aim of this study was to review pollen monitoring stations throughout the world and to create an interactive visualization of their distribution. The method employed to collect information was based on: (a) a review of the recent and historical bibliography related to pollen and fungal spore monitoring, and (b) personal surveys of the managers of national and regional monitoring networks. The interactive application was developed using the R programming language. We have created an inventory of the active pollen and spore monitoring stations in the world. There are at least 879 active pollen monitoring stations in the world, most of which are in Europe (> 500). The prevalent monitoring method is based on the Hirst principle (> 600 stations). The inventory is visualised as an interactive and on-line map. It can be searched, its appearance can be adjusted to the users' needs and it is updated regularly, as new stations or changes to those that already exist can be submitted online. The map shows the current situation of pollen and spore monitoring and facilitates collaboration among those individuals who are interested in pollen and spore counts. It might also help to improve the

  12. Advances of Immunotherapy in Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing LIU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Small cell lung cancer (SCLC is complex heterogeneous due to unclear biological characteristics in terms of cell origin, pathogenesis and driver genes etc. Diagnosis and treatment of SCLC has been slowly improved and few breakthroughs have been discovered up to now. Therefore new strategies are urgently needed to improve the efficacy of SCLC treatment. Tumor immunotherapy has potential to restore and trigger the immune system to recognize and eliminate tumor cells, notably it has only minimal adverse impact on normal tissue. Cancer vaccine, adoptive immunotherapy, cytokines and checkpoint inhibitors have now been launched for clinical treatment of SCLC. Ipilimumab is the most promising medicine of immunotherapy. Immunotherapy is expected to bring new vision to the treatment of SCLC. And further researches are needed on such problems affecting efficacy of immunotherapy as the heterogeneity of SCLC, the uncertainty of target for immunotherapy, the immune tolerance, etc.

  13. Enhanced efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy by liposome-mediated delivery of allergen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aliu, Have; Rask, Carola; Brimnes, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Immunotherapy by sublingual administration of allergens provides high patient compliance and has emerged as an alternative to subcutaneous immunotherapy for the - treatment of IgE-associated allergic diseases. However, sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) can cause adverse events. Development...

  14. Pollen Characterization in Size Segregated Atmospheric Aerosol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolpakova, Anna; Hovorka, Jan; Klán, Miroslav

    2017-12-01

    The first stage of a High Volumetric Cascade Impactor - HiVol (BGI-900), used for sampling of aerosol particles larger than 10 micrometres in aerodynamic diameter, was tested for bioaerosol sampling. Low air flow-rate and low pressure-drop at the jets of the first stage and high air volume are advantageous parameters, which would favour the use of the first stage for bioaerosol sampling. The sampling went in urban, rural and background localities, Prague, Brezno and Laz respectively in the Czech Republic, in summer and autumn. Pollen was separated from the impaction substrate, polyurethane foam, into homogeneous deposit on Nylon filter. The homogeneity of the deposit varied within 4%. Representative portion of the deposit was analysed by a scanning electron microscopy - SEM. There were taken 485 SEM images from 12 samples in 3 localities. Pollen grains were identified in 295 SEM images and determined into 9 genus and 4 families. Median pollen grain concentrations/deformities were 9m-3/24%, 3m-3/18%, 8m-3/50% for Prague, Brezno and Láz localities respectively. The pollen grains of the Poaceae family were found with the highest frequency in all localities. Number of pollen increased with total aerosol mass in Prague locality only. There were also identified brochosomes, rather unique insect secretion products, in the samples from the Láz locality.

  15. Spatial variability in airborne pollen concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynor, G S; Ogden, E C; Hayes, J V

    1975-03-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the relationship between airborne pollen concentrations and distance. Simultaneous samples were taken in 171 tests with sets of eight rotoslide samplers spaced from one to 486 M. apart in straight lines. Use of all possible pairs gave 28 separation distances. Tests were conducted over a 2-year period in urban and rural locations distant from major pollen sources during both tree and ragweed pollen seasons. Samples were taken at a height of 1.5 M. during 5-to 20-minute periods. Tests were grouped by pollen type, location, year, and direction of the wind relative to the line. Data were analyzed to evaluate variability without regard to sampler spacing and variability as a function of separation distance. The mean, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, ratio of maximum to the mean, and ratio of minimum to the mean were calculated for each test, each group of tests, and all cases. The average coefficient of variation is 0.21, the maximum over the mean, 1.39 and the minimum over the mean, 0.69. No relationship was found with experimental conditions. Samples taken at the minimum separation distance had a mean difference of 18 per cent. Differences between pairs of samples increased with distance in 10 of 13 groups. These results suggest that airborne pollens are not always well mixed in the lower atmosphere and that a sample becomes less representative with increasing distance from the sampling location.

  16. Immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus Induced Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Burg, Sjoerd H

    2012-01-01

    Immunotherapy is the generic name for treatment modalities aiming to reinforce the immune system against diseases in which the immune system plays a role. The design of an optimal immunotherapeutic treatment against chronic viruses and associated diseases requires a detailed understanding of the interactions between the target virus and its host, in order to define the specific strategies that may have the best chance to deliver success at each stage of disease. Recently, a first series of successes was reported for the immunotherapy of Human Papilloma Virus (HPV)-induced premalignant diseases but there is definitely room for improvement. Here I discuss a number of topics that in my opinion require more study as the answers to these questions allows us to better understand the underlying mechanisms of disease and as such to tailor treatment. PMID:23341861

  17. Immunotherapy in the management of sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikora, Janusz Piotr

    2002-01-01

    This work presents the role of Gram-negative bacteria endotoxins, pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the complex and not fully explained pathogenesis of sepsis. The so-called "respiratory burst" of neutrophils and the antioxidant mechanisms of the host are also discussed. The work focuses on possible approaches to the management of sepsis connected with immunotherapy. Neutralization of endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) therapy with monoclonal antibodies or pentoxifylline (PTXF), as well as soluble recombinant cytokine agonists and antagonists used in clinical trials are taken into consideration. In addition, cytokine manipulation therapy, anti-adhesion techniques, glucocorticoides and antioxidant barrier interference are also described. So far there has been no immunotherapy of sepsis in children of proven clinical efficacy, which prompts an aggressive examination of the immune system aimed at affecting its function.

  18. Should we encourage allergen immunotherapy during pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, Jay

    2014-03-01

    Primary prevention of allergy is a laudable goal, but one that has unfortunately proven difficult to achieve. Many different strategies have been reported to date, but unequivocal supporting data for any single strategy does not exist. Any successful strategy must lead to immunomodulation and must be encountered very early on life, likely in utero. Reports of early bacterial and farm animal exposures lend supportive data to the concept of immune regulation via early fetal exposure, howeve attempts at clinical applications of this, such as probiotics has not been completely successful. One practical, clinical method for achieving a similar immune modulation to these exposures would be providing atopic women with allergy immunotherapy while pregnant (or perhaps even preconception). Allergy immunotherapy is associated with favorable immune modulation and some data suggest that these changes if produced in mother can influence the atopic status of offspring.

  19. RNA-Based Vaccines in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Megan A. McNamara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RNA vaccines traditionally consist of messenger RNA synthesized by in vitro transcription using a bacteriophage RNA polymerase and template DNA that encodes the antigen(s of interest. Once administered and internalized by host cells, the mRNA transcripts are translated directly in the cytoplasm and then the resulting antigens are presented to antigen presenting cells to stimulate an immune response. Alternatively, dendritic cells can be loaded with either tumor associated antigen mRNA or total tumor RNA and delivered to the host to elicit a specific immune response. In this review, we will explain why RNA vaccines represent an attractive platform for cancer immunotherapy, discuss modifications to RNA structure that have been developed to optimize mRNA vaccine stability and translational efficiency, and describe strategies for nonviral delivery of mRNA vaccines, highlighting key preclinical and clinical data related to cancer immunotherapy.

  20. Malignant mesothelioma clinical trial combines immunotherapy drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatwal, Monica S; Tanvetyanon, Tawee

    2018-04-01

    Immunotherapy by checkpoint inhibitor is effective for a number of solid tumors including malignant mesothelioma. Studies utilizing single-agent PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor for mesothelioma have reported tumor response rates in approximately 10-20% of patients treated. Given the success of combining these agents with CTLA-4 inhibitor in melanoma, there is a strong rationale to study it in mesothelioma. Recently results from clinical trials investigating this approach have been released. Though limited by small sample size, the studies conclusively demonstrated feasibility and suggested a modestly higher tumor response rate than one would expect from treatment with single-agent PD-1 or PD-L1 inhibitor. Nevertheless, toxicity was also increased. Immunotherapy-related deaths due to encephalitis, renal failure and hepatitis were observed. Further studies are warranted.

  1. Occupational Allergy to Peach (Prunus persica) Tree Pollen and Potential Cross-Reactivity between Rosaceae Family Pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Nannan; Yin, Jia; Mak, Philip; Wen, Liping

    2015-10-01

    Orchard workers in north China are highly exposed to orchard pollens, especially peach and other Rosaceae family pollens during pollination season. The aim of this study was to investigate whether occupational allergy to peach tree pollen as a member of Rosaceae family is IgE-mediated and to evaluate the cross-reactivity among Rosaceae family pollens. Allergen skin test and conjunctival challenge test were performed; enzyme linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA), inhibiting ELISA, western immunoblotting and inhibiting western immunoblotting were done with Rosaceae family orchard pollens, including peach, apricot, cherry, apple and pear tree pollens. Mass spectrometry was also performed to probe the main allergen component and cross-reactive protein. Sensitizations to peach pollen were found in both skin test and conjunctival challenge in the patients. Serum specific IgE to three pollens (peach, apricot and cherry) were detected through ELISA. When peach pollen used as solid phase, ELISA inhibition revealed other four kinds of pollens capable of inducing partial to strong inhibitions (45% to 87%), with the strongest inhibition belonging to apricot pollen (87%). Western blotting showed predominant IgE binding to a 20 KD protein among these pollens, which appeared to be a cross-reactive allergen component through western blotting inhibition. It was recognized as a protein homologous to glutathione s-transferase 16 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Peach and other Rosaceae family tree pollen may serve as a potential cause of IgE mediated occupational respiratory disease in orchard workers in north China.

  2. Splenectomy combined with gastrectomy and immunotherapy for advanced gastric cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, H; Orita, K

    1983-06-01

    We studied the effects of a splenectomy in combination with immunotherapy on the survival of patients who had undergone a total gastrectomy. It was found that a splenectomy was not effective against advanced gastric cancer at stage III, and that the spleen should be retained for immunotherapy. Splenectomy for gastric cancer at terminal stage IV, particularly in combination with immunotherapy, produced not only augmentation of cellular immunity, but also increased survival.

  3. Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-16-1-0260 TITLE: Lung Squamous Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Carla Kim... Cell Carcinoma Stem Cells as Immunotherapy Targets 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-16-1-0260 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the second most common type of lung cancer, and immunotherapy is a promising new

  4. CDK5 A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Parallel: No scientific or budgetary overlap 90091646 (PI: Drake) Title: Enhancing Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy through Epigenetic Reprogramming for...Enhancing Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy through Epigenetic Reprogramming for Optimal Activation of Specific Effector T-Cells Time commitment: 1.2 calendar...AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-15-1-0670 TITLE: CDK5-A Novel Role in Prostate Cancer Immunotherapy PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Dr. Barry Nelkin

  5. Combination of omalizumab and bee venom immunotherapy: does it work?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yılmaz, İnsu; Bahçecioğlu, Sakine Nazik; Türk, Murat

    2018-01-01

    Bee venom immunotherapy (b-VIT) can be combined with omalizumab therapy in order to suppress systemic reactions developing due to b-VIT itself. Omalizumab acts as a premedication and gains time for the immunotherapy to develop its immunomodulatory effects. However, the combination of omalizumab and b-VIT is not always effective enough. Herein we present a patient in whom successful immunotherapy cannot be achieved with combination of omalizumab to b-VIT.

  6. Influence of gamma irradiation on pollen viability, germination ability ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-12-15

    Dec 15, 2009 ... minor cross-incompatibilities and physiological studies of incompatibility ... campanula shape of the flowers attractive for insect. (bees are ..... irradiation of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) pollen: Effect on pollen grain viability ...

  7. Pollen parameters estimates of genetic variability among newly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Pollen parameters estimates of genetic variability among newly selected Nigerian roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) genotypes. ... Estimates of some pollen parameters where used to assess the genetic diversity among ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  8. Effects of palm pollen on folliculogenesis process after treatment ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of palm pollen on folliculogenesis process after treatment with cyclophosphamide among rats. ... Background and purpose: Palm pollen is a good source of natural antioxidants and has a high level of health ... HOW TO USE AJOL.

  9. In vitro pollen quantity, viability and germination tests in quince

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-21

    Nov 21, 2011 ... rootstock pollens were collected in April from the unopened pink balloon-stage flowers on mature trees ..... their pollen characteristics to be used in cross breeding ... viability and germination levels for pistachio and terebinth in.

  10. Pollen morphology and variability of Tulipa hungarica Borb

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-10

    Jan 10, 2012 ... Pollen morphology of the endemic species Tulipa hungarica Borb was investigated with the goal of ... pollen size may balance the competitive advantages of .... (2009). Comparative analysis of microspore size variability in the.

  11. Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Glioblastoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Alissa A.; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Fadul, Camilo E.

    2012-01-01

    Glioblastoma, the most aggressive primary brain tumor, thrives in a microenvironment of relative immunosuppression within the relatively immune-privileged central nervous system. Despite treatments with surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy, prognosis remains poor. The recent success of immunotherapy in the treatment of other cancers has renewed interest in vaccine therapy for the treatment of gliomas. In this article, we outline various immunotherapeutic strategies, review recent clinical trials data, and discuss the future of vaccine therapy for glioblastoma. PMID:22290259

  12. MBCP - Approach - Immunotherapy | Center for Cancer Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Immunotherapy CCR investigators pioneered the use of the tuberculosis vaccine—Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG)—in the treatment of bladder cancer. In cases where the tumor burden is not too high and direct contact can be made with the urothelium surface of the bladder, BCG application appears to elicit an immune response that attacks the tumor as well as the attenuated virus.

  13. ATMPs for Cancer Immunotherapy: A Regulatory Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Maria Cristina

    2016-01-01

    This chapter discusses European regulatory requirements for development of advanced therapy medicinal products (ATMP) for cancer immunotherapy approaches, describing the framework for clinical trials and for marketing authorization.Regulatory critical issues and challenges for developing ATMP are also discussed, with focus on potency determination, long-term follow-up, comparability, and insertional mutagenesis issues. Some of the most critical features of GMP application to ATMP are also described.

  14. Differential skin test reactivity to pollens in pollen food allergy syndrome versus allergic rhinitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ta, Von; Scott, David R; Chin, William K; Wineinger, Nathan E; Kelso, John M; White, Andrew A

    2015-01-01

    Pollen food allergy syndrome (PFAS), also called oral allergy syndrome, is a form of food allergy in which uncooked foods cause allergic symptoms generally limited to the oral mucosa. It occurs in a subset of patients with pollen allergy, although not all patients have prominent rhinitis symptoms. PFAS is related to antigenic similarity between the pollen and food allergen. The size of skin test reactions in a group of subjects with pollen sensitivity with PFAS was compared with a group of subjects who were pollen sensitive and without PFAS. Self-reported rhinitis symptoms between the two groups were compared to identify if symptom severity differed. Twenty subjects with PFAS and 20 subjects with seasonal allergic rhinitis without PFAS were enrolled in the study. All the subjects underwent standard skin-prick testing to a panel of common allergens, including select fresh fruits and vegetables. The subjects completed a Mini Rhinoconjunctivitis Quality of Life Questionnaire as part of their clinical evaluation. The subjects with PFAS and those without PFAS were compared statistically. The subjects with PFAS had significantly larger-sized skin-prick test results specific to pollens (p PFAS reported milder nasal symptoms in relation to pollen skin test result size when compared with allergic rhinitis controls without PFAS. Our study outlined basic differences between two seemingly similar patient groups with a particularly striking discordance between skin test result sizes and rhinitis symptoms. This discordance should be explored further to increase mechanistic understanding of allergen cross-reactivity in PFAS.

  15. Immunotherapy with the storage mite lepidoglyphus destructor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armentia-Medina, A; Tapias, J A; Martín, J F; Ventas, P; Fernández, A

    1995-01-01

    We carried out a double-blind clinical trial of immunotherapy on 35 patients sensitized to the storage mite Lepidoglyphus destructor (Ld). Before and after 12 months of specific hyposensitization (Abelló Lab., Spain) we performed in vivo (skin tests with Ld, methacholine and challenge tests), and in vitro tests (specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and specific IgE, IgG, IgG1 and IgG4 to their major allergen Lep dI). We also monitored the efficacy and safety of the immunotherapy with clinical and analytical controls (symptoms and medication score, detection of immune complexes). After therapy we found a significant decrease in specific skin reactivity, dose of positive challenge tests, and hyperresponsiveness to methacholine. Sputum eosinophilia decreased. Specific IgE to Ld was increased and we also observed an increase in specific IgG1 and IgG4 to Ld and Lep DI. The placebo group showed no changes in these variables. There were no severe secondary reactions after treatment with the extract. Patients-self-evaluation was favourable and their labour absence decreased. No development of circulating immune complexes was associated with this immunotherapy.

  16. Local immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, Jean-Pierre; Novak, Natalija

    2011-12-01

    To summarize novel insights into the immunological mechanisms of sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT). Within the recent decades, several alternative noninvasive allergen application strategies have been investigated in allergen-specific immunotherapy (AIT), of which intra-oral allergen application to sublingual mucosa has been proven to be well tolerated and effective. To date, SLIT is widely accepted by most allergists as an alternative option to conventional subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT). Although detailed immunological mechanisms remain to be elucidated, much scientific effort has been made to shed some light on local and systemic immunological responses to SLIT in mice as well as humans. Only a few studies focused on the detailed mechanisms following allergen application to the oral mucosa as part of the sophisticated mucosal immunological network. Within this network, the pro-tolerogenic properties of local antigen-presenting cells (APCs) such as dendritic cells - which are able to enforce tolerogenic mechanisms and to induce T-cell immune responses - play a central role. Further on, basic research focused not only on the immune response in nasal and bronchial mucosa but also on the systemic T-cell immune response. Thus, much exiting data have been published providing a better understanding of immunological features of SLIT but far more investigations are necessary to uncover further exciting details on the key mechanisms of SLIT.

  17. Pollen-based biome reconstructions for Latin America at 0, 6000 and 18 000 radiocarbon years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchant, R.; Harrison, S.P.; Hooghiemstra, H.; Markgraf, Vera; Van Boxel, J. H.; Ager, T.; Almeida, L.; Anderson, R.; Baied, C.; Behling, H.; Berrio, J.C.; Burbridge, R.; Bjorck, S.; Byrne, R.; Bush, M.B.; Cleef, A.M.; Duivenvoorden, J.F.; Flenley, J.R.; De Oliveira, P.; Van Geel, B.; Graf, K.J.; Gosling, W.D.; Harbele, S.; Van Der Hammen, T.; Hansen, B.C.S.; Horn, S.P.; Islebe, G.A.; Kuhry, P.; Ledru, M.-P.; Mayle, F.E.; Leyden, B.W.; Lozano-Garcia, S.; Melief, A.B.M.; Moreno, P.; Moar, N.T.; Prieto, A.; Van Reenen, G. B.; Salgado-Labouriau, M. L.; Schasignbitz, F.; Schreve-Brinkman, E. J.; Wille, M.

    2009-01-01

    The biomisation method is used to reconstruct Latin American vegetation at 6000±500 and 18 000±1000 radiocarbon years before present (14C yr BP) from pollen data. Tests using modern pollen data from 381 samples derived from 287 locations broadly reproduce potential natural vegetation. The strong temperature gradient associated with the Andes is recorded by a transition from high altitude cool grass/shrubland and cool mixed forest to mid-altitude cool temperate rain forest, to tropical dry, seasonal and rain forest at low altitudes. Reconstructed biomes from a number of sites do not match the potential vegetation due to local factors such as human impact, methodological artefacts and mechanisms of pollen representivity of the parent vegetation. At 6000±500 14C yr BP 255 samples are analysed from 127 sites. Differences between the modern and the 6000±500 14C yr BP reconstruction are comparatively small. Patterns of change relative to the modern reconstruction are mainly to biomes characteristic of drier climate in the north of the region with a slight more mesic shift in the south. Cool temperate rain forest remains dominant in western South America. In northwestern South America a number of sites record transitions from tropical seasonal forest to tropical dry forest and tropical rain forest to tropical seasonal forest. Sites in Central America also show a change in biome assignment to more mesic vegetation, indicative of greater plant available moisture, e.g. on the Yucat??n peninsula sites record warm evergreen forest, replacing tropical dry forest and warm mixed forest presently recorded. At 18 000±1000 14C yr BP 61 samples from 34 sites record vegetation that reflects a generally cool and dry environment. Cool grass/shrubland prevalent in southeast Brazil, Amazonian sites record tropical dry forest, warm temperate rain forest and tropical seasonal forest. Southernmost South America is dominated by cool grass/shrubland, a single site retains cool temperate

  18. The revised edition of korean calendar for allergenic pollens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Jae-Won; Lee, Ha-Baik; Kang, Im-Joo; Kim, Seong-Won; Park, Kang-Seo; Kook, Myung-Hee; Kim, Bong-Seong; Baek, Hey-Sung; Kim, Joo-Hwa; Kim, Ja-Kyung; Lee, Dong-Jin; Kim, Kyu-Rang; Choi, Young-Jin

    2012-01-01

    The old calendar of pollens did not reflect current pollen distribution and concentrations that can be influenced by changes of weather and environment of each region in South Korea. A new pollen calendar of allergenic pollens was made based on the data on pollen concentrations obtained in eight regions nationwide between 1997 and 2009. The distribution of pollen was assessed every day at 8 areas (Seoul, Guri, Busan, Daegu, Jeonju, Kwangju, Kangneung, and Jeju) for 12 years between July 1, 1997 and June 30, 2009. Pollens were collected by using Burkard 7-day sampler (Burkard Manufacturing Co Ltd, UK). Pollens which were stained with Calberla's fuchsin staining solution were identified and counted. Pine became the highest pollen in May, and the pollen concentrations of oak and birch also became high. Ragweed appeared in the middle of August and showed the highest pollen concentration in the middles of September. Japanese hop showed a high concentration between the middle of August and the end of September, and mugwort appeared in the middles of August and its concentration increased up until early September. In Kangneung, birch appeared earlier, pine showed a higher pollen concentration than in the other areas. In Daegu, Oriental thuja and alder produced a large concentration of pollens. Pine produced a large concentration of pollens between the middle of April and the end of May. Weeds showed higher concentrations in September and mugwort appeared earlier than ragweed. In Busan the time of flowering is relatively early, and alder and Oriental thuja appeared earliest among all areas. In Kwangju, Oriental thuja and hazelnut appeared in early February. Japanese cedar showed the highest pollen concentration in March in Jeju. In conclusion, update information on pollen calendar in South Korea should be provided for allergic patients through the website to manage and prevent the pollinosis.

  19. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  20. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  1. The clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osterballe, M.; Hansen, T.K.; Mørtz, Charlotte G

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have described cross-reactivity between fresh fruits, vegetables and pollen. However, no data demonstrates the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults with and without symptoms in the pollen...... season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to estimate the clinical relevance of sensitization to pollen-related fruits and vegetables in unselected pollen-sensitized adults and to examine the diagnostic value of skin-prick test (SPT), histamine release and specific IgE compared with the outcome...... of oral challenge. METHODS: In total, 936 unselected adults (female : male 479 : 457, median age 33.7 years) were examined for pollen sensitization and clinical cross-reactivity with pollen-related fruits and vegetables by questionnaire, SPT, histamine release, specific IgE and oral challenge. RESULTS...

  2. Pollen Dispersion Forecast At Regional Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangin, A.; Asthma Forecast System Team

    The forecast of the pollen concentration is generally based on an identification of sim- ilar coincidence of measured pollen at given points and meteorological data that is searched in an archive and which, with the help of experts, allows building a predicted value. This may be classified under the family of statistical approaches for forecast- ing. While palynologists make these methods more and more accurate with the help of innovative techniques of regression against empirical rules and/or evolving mathe- matical structures (e.g. neural networks), the spatial dispersion of the pollen is not or poorly considered, mainly because it requires a lot of means and technique that are not familiar to this scientific discipline. The research on pollen forecasts are presently mainly focused on the problematic of modeling the behavior of pollen trends and sea- sons at one location regardless of the topography, the locations of emitters, the relative strengths of emitter, in one word the Sspatial backgroundT. This research work was a & cedil;successful attempt to go a step further combining this SlocalT approach with a trans- & cedil;port/dispersion modeling allowing the access to mapping of concentration. The areas of interest that were selected for the demonstration of feasibility were 200x200km zones centered on Cordoba, Barcelona and Bologna and four pollen types were ex- amined, namely: Cupressaceae, Olea europaea, Poaceae and Parietaria. At the end of this three-year European project in December 2001, the system was fully deployed and validated. The multidisciplinary team will present the original methodologies that were derived for modeling the numerous aspects of this problem and also some con- clusions regarding potential extent to other areas and taxa.

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermentation Effects on Pollen: Archaeological Implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crystal A. Dozier

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Pollen is the reproductive agent of flowering plants; palynology is utilized by archaeologists because sporopollenin, a major component in the exine of pollen grains, is resistant to decay and morphologically distinctive. Wine, beer, and mead have been identified in the archaeological record by palynological assessment due to indicator species or due to a pollen profile similar to that recovered from honey, a common source of sugar in a variety of fermented beverages. While most palynologists have assumed that pollen grains are resistant to alcoholic fermentation, a recent study in food science implies that pollen is a yeast nutrient because pollen-enriched meads produce more alcohol. The experiment presented here explores the potential distortion of the pollen record through fermentation by brewing a traditional, pollen-rich mead with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this experiment, the pollen grains did not undergo any discernible morphological changes nor were distorted in the pollen profile. Any nutrition that the yeast garners from the pollen therefore leaves sporopollenin intact. These results support palynological research on residues of alcoholic beverages and confirms that the fermentation process does not distort the pollen profile of the original substance. The paper concludes with the potential and limits of palynological study to assess fermentation within the archaeological record.

  4. Pollen Biology of Ornamental Ginger (Hedychium spp. J. Koenig)

    Science.gov (United States)

    An improved in vitro pollen germination assay was developed to assess the viability of stored Hedychium pollen. The effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) (10, 15, and 20% w/v) on pollen germination and tube growth was evaluated for H. longicornutum and two commercial Hedychium cultivars, ‘Orange Brush...

  5. Pollen irradiation and possible gene transfer in Nicotiana species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1985-01-01

    , and Petunia parodii with irradiated pollen from N. alata and Petunia hybrida showed no evidence of gene transfer, nor did experiments with irradiated mentor pollen. This indicates that gene transfer with irradiated pollen between non-crossing species or between species giving sterile hybrids is probably...

  6. EAACI: A European Declaration on Immunotherapy. Designing the future of allergen specific immunotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calderon Moises A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Allergy today is a public health concern of pandemic proportions, affecting more than 150 million people in Europe alone. In view of epidemiological trends, the European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI predicts that within the next few decades, more than half of the European population may at some point in their lives experience some type of allergy. Not only do allergic patients suffer from a debilitating disease, with the potential for major impact on their quality of life, career progression, personal development and lifestyle choices, but they also constitute a significant burden on health economics and macroeconomics due to the days of lost productivity and underperformance. Given that allergy triggers, including urbanization, industrialization, pollution and climate change, are not expected to change in the foreseeable future, it is imperative that steps are taken to develop, strengthen and optimize preventive and treatment strategies. Allergen specific immunotherapy is the only currently available medical intervention that has the potential to affect the natural course of the disease. Years of basic science research, clinical trials, and systematic reviews and meta-analyses have convincingly shown that allergen specific immunotherapy can achieve substantial results for patients, improving the allergic individuals’ quality of life, reducing the long-term costs and burden of allergies, and changing the course of the disease. Allergen specific immunotherapy not only effectively alleviates allergy symptoms, but it has a long-term effect after conclusion of the treatment and can prevent the progression of allergic diseases. Unfortunately, allergen specific immunotherapy has not yet received adequate attention from European institutions, including research funding bodies, even though this could be a most rewarding field in terms of return on investments, translational value and European integration and, a field in

  7. Pollen lipidomics: lipid profiling exposes a notable diversity in 22 allergenic pollen and potential biomarkers of the allergic immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Elfatih H Bashir

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND/AIM: Pollen grains are the male gametophytes that deliver sperm cells to female gametophytes during sexual reproduction of higher plants. Pollen is a major source of aeroallergens and environmental antigens. The pollen coat harbors a plethora of lipids that are required for pollen hydration, germination, and penetration of the stigma by pollen tubes. In addition to proteins, pollen displays a wide array of lipids that interact with the human immune system. Prior searches for pollen allergens have focused on the identification of intracellular allergenic proteins, but have largely overlooked much of the extracellular pollen matrix, a region where the majority of lipid molecules reside. Lipid antigens have attracted attention for their potent immunoregulatory effects. By being in close proximity to allergenic proteins on the pollen surface when they interact with host cells, lipids could modify the antigenic properties of proteins. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed a comparative pollen lipid profiling of 22 commonly allergenic plant species by the use of gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy, followed by detailed data mining and statistical analysis. Three experiments compared pollen lipid profiles. We built a database library of the pollen lipids by matching acquired pollen-lipid mass spectra and retention times with the NIST/EPA/NIH mass-spectral library. We detected, identified, and relatively quantified more than 106 lipid molecular species including fatty acids, n-alkanes, fatty alcohols, and sterols. Pollen-derived lipids stimulation up-regulate cytokines expression of dendritic and natural killer T cells co-culture. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Here we report on a lipidomic analysis of pollen lipids that can serve as a database for identifying potential lipid antigens and/or novel candidate molecules involved in allergy. The database provides a resource that facilitates studies on the role of lipids in the

  8. Pollen calendar of the city of Salamanca (Spain). Aeropalynological analysis for 1981-1982 and 1991-1992.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Prieto, M; Lorente Toledano, F; Romo Cortina, A; Dávila González, I; Laffond Yges, E; Calvo Bullón, A

    1998-01-01

    We report a study on the contents of airborne pollen in the city of Salamanca (Spain) aimed at establishing a pollen calendar for the city for the yearly periods of maximum concentrations, relating these with quantifiable atmospheric variables over two two-year periods with an interval of 10 years between them: 1981-82 and 1991-92. The pollen was captured with Burkard spore-traps, based on Hirst's volumetric method. Determinations were made daily and were used to make preparations, previously stained with basic fuscin, for study under light microscopy at x 1,000 magnification. 946 preparations were analyzed, corresponding to the same number of days distributed over 150 weeks of the periods studied. The results afforded the identification of 48 different types of pollen grain: Grasses (Poaceae), Olea europea (olive), Quercus rotundifolia (Holm-oak), other Quercus spp. (Q. pyrenaica, Q. suber, Q. faginea, etc.), Cupressaceae (Cupressus sempervivens, C. arizonica, Juniperus communis etc.), Plantago (Plantago lanceolata, Plantago media, etc.), Pinaceae (Pinus communis, Abies alba, etc.), Rumex sp. (osier), Urtica dioica (nettle), Parietaria (Parietaria officinalis, P. judaica), Chenopodio-Amaranthaceae (Chenopodium sp., Amaranthus sp., Salsola kali, etc.), Artemisia vulgaris (Artemisia), other Compositae (Taraxacum officinalis, Hellianthus sp. etc.), Castanea sativa (Chestnut), Ligustrum sp. (privet), Betula sp. (birch), Alnus sp. (common alder), Fraxinus sp (ash), Populus sp. (poplar), Salix sp. (willow), Ulmus sp. (elm), Platanus sp. (plantain, plane), Carex sp. (sweet flag), Erica sp. (common heather), Leguminosae or Fabaceae:--Papillionaceae (Medicago sp.; Cercis sp., Robina sp.)--Cesalpinoideae Acacia sp. (Acacia),--Mimosoideae: Sophora japonica, Umbelliferae (Foeniculum sp., Cirsium sp., etc.), Centaurea sp., Cistus sp. (rock rose), Typha sp (bulrush), Mirtaceae (Myrtus communis), Juglans regia (Walnut), Galium verum, Filipendula sp. (spirea/drop wort), Rosaceae

  9. Inherent optical properties of pollen particles: a case study for the morning glory pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chao; Yin, Yan

    2016-01-25

    Biological aerosols, such as bacteria, fungal spores, and pollens, play an important role on various atmospheric processes, whereas their inherent optical property is one of the most uncertainties that limit our ability to assess their effects on weather and climate. A numerical model with core-shell structure, hexagonal grids and barbs is developed to represent one kind of realistic pollen particles, and their inherent optical properties are simulated using a pseudo-spectral time domain method. Both the hexagonal grids and barbs substantially affect the modeled pollen optical properties. Results based on the realistic particle model are compared with two equivalent spherical approximations, and the significant differences indicate the importance of considering pollen geometries for their optical properties.

  10. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  11. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  12. Thermogravimetric analysis of forest understory grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; John S. Kush; Sharon M. Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Forest understory grasses are of significance in the initiation, establishment and maintenance of fire, whether used as a management tool or when occurring as wildfire. The fundamental thermal properties of such grasses are critical to their behavior in fire situations and have been investigated in the current work by the application of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA...

  13. Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer consensus statement on immunotherapy for the treatment of bladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamat, Ashish M; Bellmunt, Joaquim; Galsky, Matthew D; Konety, Badrinath R; Lamm, Donald L; Langham, David; Lee, Cheryl T; Milowsky, Matthew I; O'Donnell, Michael A; O'Donnell, Peter H; Petrylak, Daniel P; Sharma, Padmanee; Skinner, Eila C; Sonpavde, Guru; Taylor, John A; Abraham, Prasanth; Rosenberg, Jonathan E

    2017-08-15

    The standard of care for most patients with non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is immunotherapy with intravesical Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG), which activates the immune system to recognize and destroy malignant cells and has demonstrated durable clinical benefit. Urologic best-practice guidelines and consensus reports have been developed and strengthened based on data on the timing, dose, and duration of therapy from randomized clinical trials, as well as by critical evaluation of criteria for progression. However, these reports have not penetrated the community, and many patients do not receive appropriate therapy. Additionally, several immune checkpoint inhibitors have recently been approved for treatment of metastatic disease. The approval of immune checkpoint blockade for patients with platinum-resistant or -ineligible metastatic bladder cancer has led to considerations of expanded use for both advanced and, potentially, localized disease. To address these issues and others surrounding the appropriate use of immunotherapy for the treatment of bladder cancer, the Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) convened a Task Force of experts, including physicians, patient advocates, and nurses, to address issues related to patient selection, toxicity management, clinical endpoints, as well as the combination and sequencing of therapies. Following the standard approach established by the Society for other cancers, a systematic literature review and analysis of data, combined with consensus voting was used to generate guidelines. Here, we provide a consensus statement for the use of immunotherapy in patients with bladder cancer, with plans to update these recommendations as the field progresses.

  14. Cotton transformation via pollen tube pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Zhang, Baohong; Wang, Qinglian

    2013-01-01

    Although many gene transfer methods have been employed for successfully obtaining transgenic cotton, the major constraint in cotton improvement is the limitation of genotype because the majority of transgenic methods require plant regeneration from a single transformed cell which is limited by cotton tissue culture. Comparing with other plant species, it is difficult to induce plant regeneration from cotton; currently, only a limited number of cotton cultivars can be cultured for obtaining regenerated plants. Thus, development of a simple and genotype-independent genetic transformation method is particularly important for cotton community. In this chapter, we present a simple, cost-efficient, and genotype-independent cotton transformation method-pollen tube pathway-mediated transformation. This method uses pollen tube pathway to deliver transgene into cotton embryo sacs and then insert foreign genes into cotton genome. There are three major steps for pollen tube pathway-mediated genetic transformation, which include injection of -foreign genes into pollen tube, integration of foreign genes into plant genome, and selection of transgenic plants.

  15. Pollen morphology of some European Rosaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reitsma, Tj.

    1966-01-01

    In this preliminary investigation attention was paid to pollen morphology of West-European species of the Rosaceae. Some new terms were used like fastigium, endocingulus etc. The terminology of Iversen and Troels-Smith has been followed in addition to improvements by Erdtman. A key is given to the

  16. Airborne pollen trends in the Iberian Peninsula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galán, C; Alcázar, P; Oteros, J; García-Mozo, H; Aira, M J; Belmonte, J; Diaz de la Guardia, C; Fernández-González, D; Gutierrez-Bustillo, M; Moreno-Grau, S; Pérez-Badía, R; Rodríguez-Rajo, J; Ruiz-Valenzuela, L; Tormo, R; Trigo, M M; Domínguez-Vilches, E

    2016-04-15

    Airborne pollen monitoring is an effective tool for studying the reproductive phenology of anemophilous plants, an important bioindicator of plant behavior. Recent decades have revealed a trend towards rising airborne pollen concentrations in Europe, attributing these trends to an increase in anthropogenic CO2 emissions and temperature. However, the lack of water availability in southern Europe may prompt a trend towards lower flowering intensity, especially in herbaceous plants. Here we show variations in flowering intensity by analyzing the Annual Pollen Index (API) of 12 anemophilous taxa across 12 locations in the Iberian Peninsula, over the last two decades, and detecting the influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO). Results revealed differences in the distribution and flowering intensity of anemophilous species. A negative correlation was observed between airborne pollen concentrations and winter averages of the NAO index. This study confirms that changes in rainfall in the Mediterranean region, attributed to climate change, have an important impact on the phenology of plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Timothy-specific IgG antibody levels vary with the pollen seasons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordvall, S L; Larsson, P H; Johansson, S G

    1986-11-01

    Serum samples were collected from eight grass pollen hypersensitive children during a 4-year period. The sera were assayed for contents of timothy-specific IgE antibodies by RAST. Timothy-specific IgG and IgA antibodies were quantified by a refined ELISA in which covalent binding of the antigen to the polystyrene solid phase had been performed. IgG antibodies were also assayed by a Sepharose-protein-A technique with radiolabelled timothy allergens as the antigen. It was possible to register clearcut seasonal variations with postseasonally boosted antibody levels not only of timothy-specific IgE but also of IgG antibody. Both IgG1 and IgG4 antibodies specific for timothy showed seasonal variations of a similar degree. It was not possible to register seasonal variations of the same magnitude of timothy-specific IgA antibodies.

  18. Ozone affects pollen viability and NAD(P)H oxidase release from Ambrosia artemisiifolia pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualini, Stefania; Tedeschini, Emma; Frenguelli, Giuseppe; Wopfner, Nicole; Ferreira, Fatima; D'Amato, Gennaro; Ederli, Luisa

    2011-10-01

    Air pollution is frequently proposed as a cause of the increased incidence of allergy in industrialised countries. We investigated the impact of ozone (O(3)) on reactive oxygen species (ROS) and allergen content of ragweed pollen (Ambrosia artemisiifolia). Pollen was exposed to acute O(3) fumigation, with analysis of pollen viability, ROS and nitric oxide (NO) content, activity of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD[P]H) oxidase, and expression of major allergens. There was decreased pollen viability after O(3) fumigation, which indicates damage to the pollen membrane system, although the ROS and NO contents were not changed or were only slightly induced, respectively. Ozone exposure induced a significant enhancement of the ROS-generating enzyme NAD(P)H oxidase. The expression of the allergen Amb a 1 was not affected by O(3), determined from the mRNA levels of the major allergens. We conclude that O(3) can increase ragweed pollen allergenicity through stimulation of ROS-generating NAD(P)H oxidase. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Awareness and understanding of cancer immunotherapy in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mellstedt, H.; Gaudernack, G.; Gerritsen, W.R.; Huber, C.; Melero, I.; Parmiani, G.; Scholl, S.; Thatcher, N.; Wagstaff, J.; Zielinski, C.

    2014-01-01

    The use of immunotherapy in the management of cancer is growing, and a range of new immunotherapeutic strategies is becoming available. It is important that people involved in the care of cancer understand how cancer immunotherapies differ from conventional chemotherapy and apply this knowledge to

  20. Issues in stinging insect allergy immunotherapy: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finegold, Ira

    2008-08-01

    The treatment of insect allergy by desensitization still continues to present with some unanswered questions. This review will focus mainly on articles that have dealt with these issues in the past 2 years. With the publication in 2007 of Allergen Immunotherapy: a practice parameter second update, many of the key issues were reviewed and summarized. Other recent studies deal with omalizumab pretreatment of patients with systemic mastocytosis and very severe allergic reactions to immunotherapy. It would appear that venom immunotherapy is somewhat unique compared to inhalant allergen immunotherapy in that premedication prior to rush protocols may not be necessary and that intervals of therapy may be longer than with allergen immunotherapy. The use of concomitant medications such as beta-blockers may be indicated in special situations. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors can be stopped temporarily before venom injections to prevent reactions. The issue of when to discontinue immunotherapy remains unsettled and should be individualized to patient requirements. The newest revision of the Immunotherapy Parameters provides much needed information concerning successful treatment with immunotherapy of Hymenoptera-sensitive patients.

  1. Clinical experience of integrative cancer immunotherapy with GcMAF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Toshio; Kuchiike, Daisuke; Kubo, Kentaro; Mette, Martin; Uto, Yoshihiro; Hori, Hitoshi; Sakamoto, Norihiro

    2013-07-01

    Immunotherapy has become an attractive new strategy in the treatment of cancer. The laboratory and clinical study of cancer immunotherapy is rapidly advancing. However, in the clinical setting, the results of cancer immunotherapy are mixed. We therefore contend that cancer immunotherapy should be customized to each patient individually based on their immune status and propose an integrative immunotherapy approach with second-generation group-specific component macrophage activating factor (GcMAF)-containing human serum. The standard protocol of our integrative cancer immunotherapy is as follows: i) 0.5 ml GcMAF-containing human serum is administered intramuscularly or subcutaneously once or twice per week for the duration of cancer therapy until all cancer cells are eradicated; ii) hyper T/natural killer (NK) cell therapy is given once per week for six weeks; iii) high-dose vitamin C is administered intravenously twice per week; iv) alpha lipoic acid (600 mg) is administered orally daily; v) vitamin D3 (5,000-10,000 IU) is administered orally daily. By March 2013, Saisei Mirai have treated over 345 patients with GcMAF. Among them we here present the cases of three patients for whom our integrative immunotherapy was remarkably effective. The results of our integrative immunotherapy seem hopeful. We also plan to conduct a comparative clinical study.>

  2. Forensic Pollen Evidence from Clothes by the Tape Adhesive Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Liang Wu

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Collection and identification of pollen is becoming important in forensic applications. Many criminal cases have been reported to link suspects to the crime scene by analysis of pollen. Several methods have been used in the pollen collection and analysis, but they are expensive and tedious. Therefore, it is important to develop a simple method to collect pollen grains from clothes. We tried to recover pollen from clothing surface by using the sticky tapes method. The tape adhesive method has been widely used for sample collection for various purposes, but the efficiency of recovery of invisible pollen from clothes has rarely been reported. Therefore, to test the efficiency of the tape adhesive method in recovering pollen from clothes is important. The first author wore clothes that were made from textile S made by the mixture of cotton 60% and polyester fiber 40% to collect pollen from 26 different areas mostly in the northern part of Taiwan and then used cellophane tape D (Sirchie Finger Print Lab., Inc-No. 131LT4 to recover them from different body parts. Twenty-six pollen taxa were detected in different parts of clothes depending upon what kind of plant the first author stayed near. From the results, we concluded that the tape adhesive method is suitable in recovering pollen from clothes. We have suggested that the tape adhesive method could be part of methods for collecting pollen from clothes of suspects. It is simpler, faster and less expensive than other methods.

  3. Pollen Processing Behavior of Heliconius Butterflies: A Derived Grooming Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hikl, Anna-Laetitia; Krenn, Harald W.

    2011-01-01

    Pollen feeding behaviors Heliconius and Laparus (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae) represent a key innovation that has shaped other life history traits of these neotropical butterflies. Although all flower visiting Lepidoptera regularly come in contact with pollen, only Heliconius and Laparus butterflies actively collect pollen with the proboscis and subsequently take up nutrients from the pollen grains. This study focused on the behavior of pollen processing and compared the movement patterns with proboscis grooming behavior in various nymphalid butterflies using video analysis. The proboscis movements of pollen processing behavior consisted of a lengthy series of repeated coiling and uncoiling movements in a loosely coiled proboscis position combined with up and down movements and the release of saliva. The proboscis-grooming behavior was triggered by contamination of the proboscis in both pollen feeding and non-pollen feeding nymphalid butterflies. Proboscis grooming movements included interrupted series of coiling and uncoiling movements, characteristic sideways movements, proboscis lifting, and occasionally full extension of the proboscis. Discharge of saliva was more pronounced in pollen feeding species than in non-pollen feeding butterfly species. We conclude that the pollen processing behavior of Heliconius and Laparus is a modified proboscis grooming behavior that originally served to clean the proboscis after contamination with particles. PMID:22208893

  4. Ultrastructure of Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunal pollen grains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alwadie, H.M.

    2002-01-01

    Light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy were used to study the morphology and ultrastructure of Withania Somnifera (L.) Dunall pollen grains. Light microscopic examination revealed that the pollen grains are tri- or tetrazonocoplate grains, approximately as long as broad, measuring 29-um. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed that surface sculpturing of the pollen is scarbate-granulate. Ultrathin sections as examined by transmission electron microscope showed that the pollen contained numerous starch grains, lipid droplets, endoplasmic reticulum and vesicles of dictyosomes. Two layers of the pollen wall were also distinguished, the outer wall (exine) divided into ektexine and endexine as well as the inner layer (intine). The nutritive values of Withania pollen are discussed. The importance of studying the ultrastructure of pollen grains as a new tool in palynology is also discussed. (author)

  5. Monitoring, modelling and forecasting of the pollen season

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheifinger, Helfried; Belmonte, Jordina; Buters, Jeroen

    2013-01-01

    The section about monitoring covers the development of phenological networks, remote sensing of the season cycle of the vegetation, the emergence of the science of aerobiology and, more specifically, aeropalynology, pollen sampling instruments, pollen counting techniques, applications of aeropaly......The section about monitoring covers the development of phenological networks, remote sensing of the season cycle of the vegetation, the emergence of the science of aerobiology and, more specifically, aeropalynology, pollen sampling instruments, pollen counting techniques, applications...... of aeropalynology in agriculture and the European Pollen Information System. Three data sources are directly related with aeropalynology: phenological observations, pollen counts and remote sensing of the vegetation activity. The main future challenge is the assimilation of these data streams into numerical pollen...

  6. The effect of irradiation on date palm pollen grains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, M M; Alajaily, F R [The National Academy for Scientific Research Tripoli (Libyan Arab Jamahiriya)

    1995-10-01

    The evaluation of male date palm is very important in date palm culture, it is very well known that the source of pollen has its influence on fruit set, physical and chemical characters of the fruits. Date pollen was collected from previously studied male date palm trees. The pollen was subjected to the following irradiation treatments: 0,5, 10, 20, 40, 80 krad. The irradiated pollen was treated with acetocarmine and its viability was studied under the light microscope. No differences were observed between the treated pollen and the control. The pollen was germinated on agar, sucrose and boric acid media in an incubator at 27 degree C for hours. Germination count under the light microscope indicated that there were no significant differences between 5, 10, 20 krad treatments and the control, but the high doses reduced the germination percentage. The irradiated pollen used to pollinate date palm trees and the effect of metaxynia was studied. 3 tabs.

  7. Aerobiology of Juniperus Pollen in Oklahoma, Texas, and New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levetin, Estelle; Bunderson, Landon; VandeWater, Pete; Luvall, Jeff

    2014-01-01

    Pollen from members of the Cupressaceae are major aeroallergens in many parts of the world. In the south central and southwest United States, Juniperus pollen is the most important member of this family with J. ashei (JA) responsible for severe winter allergy symptoms in Texas and Oklahoma. In New Mexico, pollen from J. monosperma (JM) and other Juniperus species are important contributors to spring allergies, while J. pinchotii (JP) pollinates in the fall affecting sensitive individuals in west Texas, southwest Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico. Throughout this region, JA, JM, and JP occur in dense woodland populations. Generally monitoring for airborne allergens is conducted in urban areas, although the source for tree pollen may be forested areas distant from the sampling sites. Improved pollen forecasts require a better understanding of pollen production at the source. The current study was undertaken to examine the aerobiology of several Juniperus species at their source areas for the development of new pollen forecasting initiatives.

  8. Exceptional preservation of Miocene pollen: plasmolysis captured in salt?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durska, W.

    2016-07-01

    Exceptionally well-preserved Miocene pollen from the Bochnia salt mine of southern Poland is reported herein. The halite deposits within the salt mine belonging to Late Badenian (Miocene) marine evaporites originated in the Paratethys. Rounded and angular structures are present inside pollen grains. On the basis of the similarity with plasmolyzed pollen grains of modern plants, these structures are considered to represent cytoplasms plasmolyzed in the condensed brine prior to fossilization. Two forms of plasmolyzed cytoplasms (concave and convex) can be observed in modern pollen. Both are distinguished in the investigated fossil material. In porate and colporate grains the shape of the plasmolyzed cellular content is concave while in inaperturate it is convex. The plasmolysis form depends on the type of apertures and pollen shape. The percentage of pollen with fossilized cytoplasms within individual taxa is a valuable environmental indicator, as it depends on the proximity of the pollen-producing plant assemblages to the depositional setting. (Author)

  9. The current status of immunotherapy in peritoneal carcinomatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ströhlein, Michael Alfred; Heiss, Markus Maria; Jauch, Karl-Walter

    2016-10-01

    Peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) is a cancer disease with an urgent need for effective treatment. Conventional chemotherapy failed to show acceptable results. Cytoreductive surgery and hyperthermic chemoperfusion (HIPEC) are only beneficial in few patients with resectable peritoneal metastasis. Immunotherapy could be attractive against PC, as all requirements for immunotherapy are available in the peritoneal cavity. This review analyzes the present literature for immunotherapy of PC. Advances from immune stimulators, radionucleotide-conjugated- and bispecific antibodies to future developments like adoptive engineered T-cells with chimeric receptors are discussed. The clinical development of catumaxomab, which was the first intraperitoneal immunotherapy to be approved for clinical treatment, is discussed. The requirements for future developments are illustrated. Expert commentary: Immunotherapy of peritoneal carcinomatosis is manageable, showing striking cancer cell killing. Improved profiles of adverse events by therapy-induced cytokine release, enhanced specific killing and optimal treatment schedules within multimodal treatment will be key factors.

  10. Drought, pollen and nectar availability, and pollination success.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waser, Nickolas M; Price, Mary V

    2016-06-01

    Pollination success of animal-pollinated flowers depends on rate of pollinator visits and on pollen deposition per visit, both of which should vary with the pollen and nectar "neighborhoods" of a plant, i.e., with pollen and nectar availability in nearby plants. One determinant of these neighborhoods is per-flower production of pollen and nectar, which is likely to respond to environmental influences. In this study, we explored environmental effects on pollen and nectar production and on pollination success in order to follow up a surprising result from a previous study: flowers of Ipomopsis aggregata received less pollen in years of high visitation by their hummingbird pollinators. A new analysis of the earlier data indicated that high bird visitation corresponded to drought years. We hypothesized that drought might contribute to the enigmatic prior result if it decreases both nectar and pollen production: in dry years, low nectar availability could cause hummingbirds to visit flowers at a higher rate, and low pollen availability could cause them to deposit less pollen per visit. A greenhouse experiment demonstrated that drought does reduce both pollen and nectar production by I. aggregata flowers. This result was corroborated across 6 yr of variable precipitation and soil moisture in four unmanipulated field populations. In addition, experimental removal of pollen from flowers reduced the pollen received by nearby flowers. We conclude that there is much to learn about how abiotic and biotic environmental drivers jointly affect pollen and nectar production and availability, and how this contributes to pollen and nectar neighborhoods and thus influences pollination success.

  11. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thakur, Archana; Vaishampayan, Ulka; Lum, Lawrence G.

    2013-01-01

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies

  12. Immunotherapy and Immune Evasion in Prostate Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thakur, Archana, E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org; Vaishampayan, Ulka [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Lum, Lawrence G., E-mail: thakur@karmanos.org [Department of Oncology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Medicine, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States); Department of Immunology and Microbiology, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48201 (United States)

    2013-05-24

    Metastatic prostate cancer remains to this day a terminal disease. Prostatectomy and radiotherapy are effective for organ-confined diseases, but treatment for locally advanced and metastatic cancer remains challenging. Although advanced prostate cancers treated with androgen deprivation therapy achieves debulking of disease, responses are transient with subsequent development of castration-resistant and metastatic disease. Since prostate cancer is typically a slowly progressing disease, use of immune-based therapies offers an advantage to target advanced tumors and to induce antitumor immunity. This review will discuss the clinical merits of various vaccines and immunotherapies in castrate resistant prostate cancer and challenges to this evolving field of immune-based therapies.

  13. Natural Killer T Cells in Cancer Immunotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nair, Shiny; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.

    2017-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells are specialized CD1d-restricted T cells that recognize lipid antigens. Following stimulation, NKT cells lead to downstream activation of both innate and adaptive immune cells in the tumor microenvironment. This has impelled the development of NKT cell-targeted immunotherapies for treating cancer. In this review, we provide a brief overview of the stimulatory and regulatory functions of NKT cells in tumor immunity as well as highlight preclinical and clinical studies based on NKT cells. Finally, we discuss future perspectives to better harness the potential of NKT cells for cancer therapy. PMID:29018445

  14. Ordinary Differential Equation Models for Adoptive Immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talkington, Anne; Dantoin, Claudia; Durrett, Rick

    2018-05-01

    Modified T cells that have been engineered to recognize the CD19 surface marker have recently been shown to be very successful at treating acute lymphocytic leukemias. Here, we explore four previous approaches that have used ordinary differential equations to model this type of therapy, compare their properties, and modify the models to address their deficiencies. Although the four models treat the workings of the immune system in slightly different ways, they all predict that adoptive immunotherapy can be successful to move a patient from the large tumor fixed point to an equilibrium with little or no tumor.

  15. Immunotherapy with GD2 specific monoclonal antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, N.K.V.; Medof, E.M.; Munn, D.

    1988-01-01

    Targeted immunotherapy focuses anti-tumor activity of antibodies and effector cells, which are actively developed by the host or adoptively transferred, onto tumor cells and into tumor sites. Such tumor selective therapy can be more specific and efficient. The value of such an approach is evident in the classical interaction of antibodies. This paper reports that the ganglioside G D2 is an ideal antigen for specific tumor targeting because of its relative lack of heterogeneity among human neuroblastoma, its high density on tumor cells, its lack of antigen modulation upon binding to antibody, and its restricted distribution in normal tissues

  16. Cellular immunotherapy for soft tissue sarcomas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, Steven Eric; Fishman, Mayer; Conley, Anthony P.; Gabrilovich, Dmitry; Antonia, Scott; Chiappori, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Soft tissue sarcomas are rare neoplasms, with approximately 9,000 new cases in the United States every year. Unfortunately, there is little progress in the treatment of metastatic soft tissue sarcomas in the past two decades beyond the standard approaches of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation. Immunotherapy is a modality complementary to conventional therapy,. It is appealing because functional anti-tumor activity could affect both local-regional and systemic disease and act over a prolonged period of time. In this report, we review immunotherapeutic investigative strategies being developed, including several tumor vaccine, antigen vaccine, and dendritic cell vaccine strategies. PMID:22401634

  17. Allergen immunotherapy for insect venom allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dhami, S; Zaman, H; Varga, E-M

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The European Academy of Allergy and Clinical Immunology (EAACI) is in the process of developing the EAACI Guidelines on Allergen Immunotherapy (AIT) for the management of insect venom allergy. To inform this process, we sought to assess the effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and safety...... of AIT in the management of insect venom allergy. METHODS: We undertook a systematic review, which involved searching 15 international biomedical databases for published and unpublished evidence. Studies were independently screened and critically appraised using established instruments. Data were...

  18. Pollen sources in the Bojanów forest complex identified on honeybee pollen load by microscopic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ernest Stawiarz

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine sources of pollen for the honeybee in the Bojanów forest complex, Nowa Dęba Forest District (southeastern Poland. Sampling of pollen loads from bees extended from the beginning of May until the end of September 2016 and was carried out at 7-day intervals using pollen traps mounted at the entrance of beehives. A total of 73 pollen load samples were collected from the study area. Fifty-nine taxa from 31 plant families were identified in the analyzed material. From 4 to 21 taxa (average 9.5 were recorded in one sample. The pollen of Brassicaceae (“others”, Taraxacum type, Solidago type, and Rumex had the highest frequency in the pollen loads examined. Apart from these four taxa, pollen grains of Rubus type, Poaceae (“others”, Calluna, Fagopyrum, Trifolium repens s. l., Phacelia, Aster type, Melampyrum, Quercus, Cornus, and Veronica were recorded in the dominant pollen group. The forest habitat taxa that provided pollen rewards to honeybees in the Bojanów forest complex were the following: Rubus, Calluna, Prunus, Tilia, Frangula alnus, Pinus, Quercus, Cornus, Robinia pseudoacacia, Salix, and Vaccinium. Apart from forest vegetation, the species from meadows and wastelands adjacent to this forest complex, represented by Taraxacum, Rumex, Plantago, Poaceae, Trifolium repens, and Solidago, proved to be an important source of pollen. The study indicates that forest communities are a valuable source of pollen for pollinating insects from early spring through to late fall.

  19. Role of macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF in pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuka Nagata

    Full Text Available Pollen is a clinically important airborne allergen and one of the major causes of allergic conjunctivitis. A subpopulation of patients with atopic dermatitis (AD are also known to have exacerbated skin eruptions on the face, especially around the eyelids, after contact with pollen. This pollen-induced skin reaction is now known as pollen dermatitis. Macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF is a pluripotent cytokine that plays an essential role in allergic inflammation. Recent findings suggest that MIF is involved in several allergic disorders, including AD. In this study, MIF knockout (KO, MIF transgenic (Tg and WT littermate mice were immunized with ragweed (RW pollen or Japanese cedar (JC pollen and challenged via eye drops. We observed that the numbers of conjunctiva- and eyelid-infiltrating eosinophils were significantly increased in RW and JC pollen-sensitized MIF Tg compared with WT mice or MIF KO mice. The mRNA expression levels of eotaxin, interleukin (IL-5 and IL-13 were increased in pollen-sensitized eyelid skin sites of MIF Tg mice. An in vitro analysis revealed that high eotaxin expression was induced in dermal fibroblasts by MIF combined with stimulation of IL-4 or IL-13. This eotaxin expression was inhibited by the treatment with CD74 siRNA in fibroblasts. These findings indicate that MIF can induce eosinophil accumulation in the conjunctiva and eyelid dermis exposed to pollen. Therefore, targeted inhibition of MIF might result as a new option to control pollen-induced allergic conjunctivitis and pollen dermatitis.

  20. ROPES reveals past land cover and pollen productivity estimates from single pollen records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theuerkauf, Martin; Couwenberg, John

    2018-04-01

    Quantitative reconstructions of past vegetation cover commonly require pollen productivity estimates (PPEs). PPEs are calibrated in extensive and rather cumbersome surface-sample studies, and are so far only available for selected regions. Moreover, it may be questioned whether present-day pollen-landcover relationships are valid for palaeo-situations. We here introduce the ROPES approach that simultaneously derives PPEs and mean plant abundances from single pollen records. ROPES requires pollen counts and pollen accumulation rates (PARs, grains cm-2 year-1). Pollen counts are used to reconstruct plant abundances following the REVEALS approach. The principle of ROPES is that changes in plant abundance are linearly represented in observed PAR values. For example, if the PAR of pine doubles, so should the REVEALS reconstructed abundance of pine. Consequently, if a REVEALS reconstruction is ‘correct’ (i.e. ‘correct’ PPEs are used) the ratio ‘PAR over REVEALS’ is constant for each taxon along all samples of a record. With incorrect PPEs, the ratio will instead vary. ROPES starts from random (likely incorrect) PPEs, but then adjusts them using an optimization algorithm with the aim to minimize variation in the ‘PAR over REVEALS’ ratio across the record. ROPES thus simultaneously calculates mean plant abundances and PPEs. We illustrate the approach with test applications on nine synthetic pollen records. The results show that good performance of ROPES requires data sets with high underlying variation, many samples and low noise in the PAR data. ROPES can deliver first landcover reconstructions in regions for which PPEs are not yet available. The PPEs provided by ROPES may then allow for further REVEALS-based reconstructions. Similarly, ROPES can provide insight in pollen productivity during distinct periods of the past such as the Lateglacial. We see a potential to study spatial and temporal variation in pollen productivity for example in relation to site