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Sample records for grass based bio-oil

  1. Hydrotreatment of bio-oil over Ni-based catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Wang, Tiejun; Ma, Longlong; Zhang, Qi; Jiang, Ting

    2013-01-01

    Inexpensive non-sulfided Ni-based catalysts were evaluated for hydrotreatments using phenol as model compound. HZSM-5, a zeolite with different ratio of Si/Al and γ-Al(2)O(3) were impregnated with Ni(NO(3))(2) · 6H(2)O and calcined at 450 °C. Conversion rates and product distribution for treatment of phenol at 160-240 °C in the presence of catalysts with nickel loads of 6, 10, 14 and 17 wt.% were determined. Phenol conversion was highest (91.8%) at 240 °C in the presence of HZSM-5(Si/Al = 38) loaded with 10% Ni. When hydrotreatment was carried out with bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis of pine sawdust under the optimal conditions determined for phenol, the pH of bio-oil increased from 2.27 to 4.07, and the hydrogen content increased from 6.28 to 7.01 wt.%. The decrease in acidity is desirable for the use of upgraded bio-oil. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  2. Gasoline from biomass through refinery-friendly carbohydrate-based bio-oil produced by ketalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batalha, Nuno; da Silva, Alessandra V; de Souza, Matheus O; da Costa, Bruna M C; Gomes, Elisa S; Silva, Thiago C; Barros, Thalita G; Gonçalves, Maria L A; Caramão, Elina B; dos Santos, Luciana R M; Almeida, Marlon B B; de Souza, Rodrigo O M A; Lam, Yiu L; Carvalho, Nakédia M F; Miranda, Leandro S M; Pereira, Marcelo M

    2014-06-01

    The introduction of biomass-derived compounds as an alternative feed into the refinery structure that already exists can potentially converge energy uses with ecological sustainability. Herein, we present an approach to produce a bio-oil based on carbohydrate-derived isopropylidene ketals obtained by reaction with acetone under acidic conditions directly from second-generation biomass. The obtained bio-oil showed a greater chemical inertness and miscibility with gasoil than typical bio-oil from fast pyrolysis. Catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over zeolites (USY and Beta) yielded gasoline with a high octane number. Moreover, the co-processing of gasoil and bio-oil improved the gasoline yield and quality compared to pure gasoil and also reduced the amount of oxygenated compounds and coke compared with pure bio-oil, which demonstrates a synergistic effect. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Used to Fabricate Phenolic Based Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Yong; Hou, Xiaopeng; Wang, Wenliang; Chang, Jianmin

    2017-06-18

    In this study, bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was used as the raw material to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF) resin-a desirable resin for fabricating phenolic-based material. During the synthesis process, paraformaldehyde was used to achieve the requirement of high solid content and low viscosity. The properties of BPF resins were tested. Results indicated that BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20% had good performance on oxygen index and bending strength, indicating that adding bio-oil could modify the fire resistance and brittleness of PF resin. The thermal curing behavior and heat resistance of BPF resins were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Results showed that adding bio-oil had an impact on curing characteristics and thermal degradation process of PF resin, but the influence was insignificant when the addition was relatively low. The chemical structure and surface characteristics of BPF resins were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The analysis demonstrated that adding bio-oil in the amount of 20% was able to improve the crosslinking degree and form more hydrocarbon chains in PF resin.

  4. Synthesis and Characterization of Bio-Oil Phenol Formaldehyde Resin Used to Fabricate Phenolic Based Materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cui

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of renewable biomass was used as the raw material to synthesize bio-oil phenol formaldehyde (BPF resin—a desirable resin for fabricating phenolic-based material. During the synthesis process, paraformaldehyde was used to achieve the requirement of high solid content and low viscosity. The properties of BPF resins were tested. Results indicated that BPF resin with the bio-oil addition of 20% had good performance on oxygen index and bending strength, indicating that adding bio-oil could modify the fire resistance and brittleness of PF resin. The thermal curing behavior and heat resistance of BPF resins were investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA. Results showed that adding bio-oil had an impact on curing characteristics and thermal degradation process of PF resin, but the influence was insignificant when the addition was relatively low. The chemical structure and surface characteristics of BPF resins were determined by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The analysis demonstrated that adding bio-oil in the amount of 20% was able to improve the crosslinking degree and form more hydrocarbon chains in PF resin.

  5. Techno-economic performance analysis of bio-oil based Fischer-Tropsch and CHP synthesis platform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ng, Kok Siew; Sadhukhan, Jhuma

    2011-01-01

    The techno-economic potential of the UK poplar wood and imported oil palm empty fruit bunch derived bio-oil integrated gasification and Fischer-Tropsch (BOIG-FT) systems for the generation of transportation fuels and combined heat and power (CHP) was investigated. The bio-oil was represented in terms of main chemical constituents, i.e. acetic acid, acetol and guaiacol. The compositional model of bio-oil was validated based on its performance through a gasification process. Given the availability of large scale gasification and FT technologies and logistic constraints in transporting biomass in large quantities, distributed bio-oil generations using biomass pyrolysis and centralised bio-oil processing in BOIG-FT system are technically more feasible. Heat integration heuristics and composite curve analysis were employed for once-through and full conversion configurations, and for a range of economies of scale, 1 MW, 675 MW and 1350 MW LHV of bio-oil. The economic competitiveness increases with increasing scale. A cost of production of FT liquids of 78.7 Euro/MWh was obtained based on 80.12 Euro/MWh of electricity, 75 Euro/t of bio-oil and 116.3 million Euro/y of annualised capital cost. -- Highlights: → Biomass to liquid process and gas to liquid process synthesis. → Biorefinery economic analysis. → Pyrolysis oil to biofuel. → Gasification and Fischer-Tropsch. → Process integration, pinch analysis and energy efficiency.

  6. Hydrodeoxygenation of prairie cordgrass bio-oil over Ni based activated carbon synergistic catalysts combined with different metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Shouyun; Wei, Lin; Zhao, Xianhui; Kadis, Ethan; Cao, Yuhe; Julson, James; Gu, Zhengrong

    2016-06-25

    Bio-oil can be upgraded through hydrodeoxygenation (HDO). Low-cost and effective catalysts are crucial for the HDO process. In this study, four inexpensive combinations of Ni based activated carbon synergistic catalysts including Ni/AC, Ni-Fe/AC, Ni-Mo/AC and Ni-Cu/AC were evaluated for HDO of prairie cordgrass (PCG) bio-oil. The tests were carried out in the autoclave under mild operating conditions with 500psig of H2 pressure and 350°C temperature. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results show that all synergistic catalysts had significant improvements on the physicochemical properties (water content, pH, oxygen content, higher heating value and chemical compositions) of the upgraded PCG bio-oil. The higher heating value of the upgraded bio-oil (ranging from 29.65MJ/kg to 31.61MJ/kg) improved significantly in comparison with the raw bio-oil (11.33MJ/kg), while the oxygen content reduced to only 21.70-25.88% from 68.81% of the raw bio-oil. Compared to raw bio-oil (8.78% hydrocarbons and no alkyl-phenols), the Ni/AC catalysts produced the highest content of gasoline range hydrocarbons (C6-C12) at 32.63% in the upgraded bio-oil, while Ni-Mo/AC generated the upgraded bio-oil with the highest content of gasoline blending alkyl-phenols at 38.41%. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Process modeling and supply chain design for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qi

    As a potential substitute for petroleum-based fuel, second generation biofuels are playing an increasingly important role due to their economic, environmental, and social benefits. With the rapid development of biofuel industry, there has been an increasing literature on the techno-economic analysis and supply chain design for biofuel production based on a variety of production pathways. A recently proposed production pathway of advanced biofuel is to convert biomass to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, then gasify the bio-oil to syngas and upgrade the syngas to transportation fuels in centralized biorefinery. This thesis aims to investigate two types of assessments on this bio-oil gasification pathway: techno-economic analysis based on process modeling and literature data; supply chain design with a focus on optimal decisions for number of facilities to build, facility capacities and logistic decisions considering uncertainties. A detailed process modeling with corn stover as feedstock and liquid fuels as the final products is presented. Techno-economic analysis of the bio-oil gasification pathway is also discussed to assess the economic feasibility. Some preliminary results show a capital investment of 438 million dollar and minimum fuel selling price (MSP) of $5.6 per gallon of gasoline equivalent. The sensitivity analysis finds that MSP is most sensitive to internal rate of return (IRR), biomass feedstock cost, and fixed capital cost. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to solve the supply chain design problem considering uncertainties in biomass availability, technology advancement, and biofuel price. The first-stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants and the centralized biorefinery while the second-stage determines the biomass and biofuel flows. The numerical results and case study illustrate that considering uncertainties can be

  8. Nannochloropsis algae pyrolysis with ceria-based catalysts for production of high-quality bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysu, Tevfik; Sanna, Aimaro

    2015-10-01

    Pyrolysis of Nannochloropsis was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor with newly prepared ceria based catalysts. The effects of pyrolysis parameters such as temperature and catalysts on product yields were investigated. The amount of bio-char, bio-oil and gas products, as well as the compositions of the resulting bio-oils was determined. The results showed that both temperature and catalyst had significant effects on conversion of Nannochloropsis into solid, liquid and gas products. The highest bio-oil yield (23.28 wt%) and deoxygenation effect was obtained in the presence of Ni-Ce/Al2O3 as catalyst at 500°C. Ni-Ce/Al2O3 was able to retain 59% of the alga starting energy in the bio-oil, compared to only 41% in absence of catalyst. Lower content of acids and oxygen in the bio-oil, higher aliphatics (62%), combined with HHV show promise for production of high-quality bio-oil from Nannochloropsis via Ni-Ce/Al2O3 catalytic pyrolysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Bio-oil based biorefinery strategy for the production of succinic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Succinic acid is one of the key platform chemicals which can be produced via biotechnology process instead of petrochemical process. Biomass derived bio-oil have been investigated intensively as an alternative of diesel and gasoline fuels. Bio-oil could be fractionized into organic phase and aqueous phase parts. The organic phase bio-oil can be easily upgraded to transport fuel. The aqueous phase bio-oil (AP-bio-oil) is of low value. There is no report for its usage or upgrading via biological methods. In this paper, the use of AP-bio-oil for the production of succinic acid was investigated. Results The transgenic E. coli strain could grow in modified M9 medium containing 20 v/v% AP-bio-oil with an increase in OD from 0.25 to 1.09. And 0.38 g/L succinic acid was produced. With the presence of 4 g/L glucose in the medium, succinic acid concentration increased from 1.4 to 2.4 g/L by addition of 20 v/v% AP-bio-oil. When enzymatic hydrolysate of corn stover was used as carbon source, 10.3 g/L succinic acid was produced. The obtained succinic acid concentration increased to 11.5 g/L when 12.5 v/v% AP-bio-oil was added. However, it decreased to 8 g/L when 50 v/v% AP-bio-oil was added. GC-MS analysis revealed that some low molecular carbon compounds in the AP-bio-oil were utilized by E. coli. Conclusions The results indicate that AP-bio-oil can be used by E. coli for cell growth and succinic acid production. PMID:23657107

  10. Supply chain design under uncertainty for advanced biofuel production based on bio-oil gasification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Qi; Hu, Guiping

    2014-01-01

    An advanced biofuels supply chain is proposed to reduce biomass transportation costs and take advantage of the economics of scale for a gasification facility. In this supply chain, biomass is converted to bio-oil at widely distributed small-scale fast pyrolysis plants, and after bio-oil gasification, the syngas is upgraded to transportation fuels at a centralized biorefinery. A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to maximize biofuel producers' annual profit considering uncertainties in the supply chain for this pathway. The first stage makes the capital investment decisions including the locations and capacities of the decentralized fast pyrolysis plants as well as the centralized biorefinery, while the second stage determines the biomass and biofuels flows. A case study based on Iowa in the U.S. illustrates that it is economically feasible to meet desired demand using corn stover as the biomass feedstock. The results show that the locations of fast pyrolysis plants are sensitive to uncertainties while the capacity levels are insensitive. The stochastic model outperforms the deterministic model in the stochastic environment, especially when there is insufficient biomass. Also, farmers' participation can have a significant impact on the profitability and robustness of this supply chain. - Highlights: • Decentralized supply chain design for advanced biofuel production is considered. • A two-stage stochastic programming is formulated to consider uncertainties. • Farmers' participation has a significant impact on the biofuel supply chain design

  11. Bio-oil based biorefinery strategy for the production of succinic acid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Caixia; Thygesen, Anders; Liu, Yilan

    2013-01-01

    Background: Succinic acid is one of the key platform chemicals which can be produced via biotechnology process instead of petrochemical process. Biomass derived bio-oil have been investigated intensively as an alternative of diesel and gasoline fuels. Bio-oil could be fractionized into organic...

  12. Electron microscopy study of the deactivation of nickel based catalysts for bio oil hydrodeoxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gardini, Diego; Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Carvalho, Hudson W. P.

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is proposed as an efficient way to remove oxygen in bio-oil, improving its quality as a more sustainable alternative to conventional fuels in terms of CO2 neutrality and relative short production cycle [1]. Ni and Ni-MoS2 nanoparticles supported on ZrO2 show potential...... as high-pressure (100 bar) catalysts for purification of bio-oil by HDO. However, the catalysts deactivate in presence of sulfur, chlorine and potassium species, which are all naturally occurring in real bio-oil. The deactivation mechanisms of the Ni/ZrO2 have been investigated through scanning...... transmission electron microscopy (STEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Catalytic testing has been performed using guaiacol in 1-octanol acting as a model compound for bio-oil. Addition of sulphur (0.3 vol% octanethiol) in the feed...

  13. Comparative techno-economic analysis of biohydrogen production via bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Yanan; Brown, Tristan R.; Hu, Guiping; Brown, Robert C.

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates the economic feasibility of biohydrogen production via two bio-oil processing pathways: bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming. Both pathways employ fast pyrolysis to produce bio-oil from biomass stock. The two pathways are modeled using Aspen Plus ® for a 2000 t d −1 facility. Equipment sizing and cost calculations are based on Aspen Economic Evaluation® software. Biohydrogen production capacity at the facility is 147 t d −1 for the bio-oil gasification pathway and 160 t d −1 for the bio-oil reforming pathway. The biomass-to-fuel energy efficiencies are 47% and 84% for the bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming pathways, respectively. Total capital investment (TCI) is 435 million dollars for the bio-oil gasification pathway and is 333 million dollars for the bio-oil reforming pathway. Internal rates of return (IRR) are 8.4% and 18.6% for facilities employing the bio-oil gasification and bio-oil reforming pathways, respectively. Sensitivity analysis demonstrates that biohydrogen price, biohydrogen yield, fixed capital investment (FCI), bio-oil yield, and biomass cost have the greatest impacts on facility IRR. Monte-Carlo analysis shows that bio-oil reforming is more economically attractive than bio-oil gasification for biohydrogen production. -- Highlights: ► Biohydrogen production via bio-oil reforming has higher energy efficiency compared to gasification. ► Hydrogen price, fixed capital cost, and feedstock cost most strongly affect IRR. ► Lower risk investment is biohydrogen production via bio-oil reforming

  14. Production of phenolic-rich bio-oil from catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass using magnetic solid base catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhi-bo; Lu, Qiang; Ye, Xiao-ning; Li, Wen-tao; Hu, Bin; Dong, Chang-qing

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Phenolic-rich bio-oil was selectively produced from catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass using magnetic solid base catalyst. • The actual yield of twelve major phenolic compounds reached 43.9 mg/g. • The peak area% of all phenolics reached 68.5% at the catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 7. • The potassium phosphate/ferroferric oxide catalyst possessed promising recycling properties. - Abstract: A magnetic solid base catalyst (potassium phosphate/ferroferric oxide) was prepared and used for catalytic fast pyrolysis of poplar wood to selectively produce phenolic-rich bio-oil. Pyrolysis–gas chromatography/mass spectrometry experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of pyrolysis temperature and catalyst-to-biomass ratio on the product distribution. The actual yields of important pyrolytic products were quantitatively determined by the external standard method. Moreover, recycling experiments were performed to determine the re-utilization abilities of the catalyst. The results showed that the catalyst exhibited promising activity to selectively produce phenolic-rich bio-oil, due to its capability of promoting the decomposition of lignin to generate phenolic compounds and meanwhile inhibiting the devolatilization of holocellulose. The maximal phenolic yield was obtained at the pyrolysis temperature of 400 °C and catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 2. The concentration of the phenolic compounds increased monotonically along with the increasing of the catalyst-to-biomass ratio, with the peak area% value increasing from 28.1% in the non-catalytic process to as high as 68.5% at the catalyst-to-biomass ratio of 7. The maximal total actual yield of twelve quantified major phenolic compounds was 43.9 mg/g, compared with the value of 29.0 mg/g in the non-catalytic process. In addition, the catalyst could be easily recovered and possessed promising recycling properties.

  15. A GIS based national assessment of algal bio-oil production potential through flue gas and wastewater co-utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orfield, Nolan D.; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Love, Nancy G.

    2014-01-01

    The high theoretical productivity of microalgae makes it a promising energy crop, but economically viable large-scale production facilities have yet to emerge. Coupling algae cultivation ponds with flue gas emissions from power utilities to provide carbon dioxide and municipal wastewater to provide nutrients has been recommended as a solution. This flue gas and wastewater co-utilization (FWC) strategy not only reduces the upstream impacts and costs associated with providing inputs, but also provides a credit for wastewater treatment, a service currently required to reduce production costs to a viable level. This study provides the first national assessment of the potential for producing algal bio-oil in the United States using FWC. Spatial-temporal algae growth was simulated using solar radiation and temperature data to calculate the average annual algae yield for any location, which significantly impacts feasibility. The results of this model were integrated into a geospatial analysis which establishes the economically viable bio-oil production potential of FWC by accounting for the relative abundance of the input resources and their proximity. At most, 1.7 billion liters of bio-oil could be produced annually in a manner economically competitive with crude oil prices of $80 per barrel. The amount of nutrients in wastewater limits yields to 20.5 L of bio-oil per capita annually, and climatic constraints further reduce this potential by nearly 60%. Carbon dioxide constraints play a negligible role. Although the bio-oil production potential of FWC is relatively small, it does provide an opportunity to increase national biofuel output while providing a needed service. - Highlights: • Spatial-temporal algae growth was simulated using historical climate data. • A geospatial overlay analysis was used to assess national production potential. • Nutrient availability in wastewater is most limiting. • At most, 1.7 billion liters of algal biofuel per year could be

  16. Life-Cycle Assessment of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Production*

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Puettmann, Maureen E.; Penmetsa, Venkata Kanthi; Cooper, Jerome E.

    2012-07-01

    As part ofthe Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials' Phase I life-cycle assessments ofbiofuels, lifecycle inventory burdens from the production of bio-oil were developed and compared with measures for residual fuel oil. Bio-oil feedstock was produced using whole southern pine (Pinus taeda) trees, chipped, and converted into bio-oil by fast pyrolysis. Input parameters and mass and energy balances were derived with Aspen. Mass and energy balances were input to SimaPro to determine the environmental performance of bio-oil compared with residual fuel oil as a heating fuel. Equivalent functional units of 1 MJ were used for demonstrating environmental preference in impact categories, such as fossil fuel use and global warming potential. Results showed near carbon neutrality of the bio-oil. Substituting bio-oil for residual fuel oil, based on the relative carbon emissions of the two fuels, estimated a reduction in CO2 emissions by 0.075 kg CO2 per MJ of fuel combustion or a 70 percent reduction in emission over residual fuel oil. The bio-oil production life-cycle stage consumed 92 percent of the total cradle-to-grave energy requirements, while feedstock collection, preparation, and transportation consumed 4 percent each. This model provides a framework to better understand the major factors affecting greenhouse gas emissions related to bio-oil production and conversion to boiler fuel during fast pyrolysis.

  17. Green bio-oil extraction for oil crops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, H.; Nurfatirah, N.; Norfaezah, A.; Othman, H.

    2016-06-01

    The move towards a green bio-oil extraction technique is highlighted in this paper. The commonly practised organic solvent oil extraction technique could be replaced with a modified microwave extraction. Jatropha seeds (Jatropha curcas) were used to extract bio-oil. Clean samples were heated in an oven at 110 ° C for 24 hours to remove moisture content and ground to obtain particle size smaller than 500μm. Extraction was carried out at different extraction times 15 min, 30 min, 45 min, 60 min and 120 min to determine oil yield. The biooil yield obtained from microwave assisted extraction system at 90 minutes was 36% while that from soxhlet extraction for 6 hours was 42%. Bio-oil extracted using the microwave assisted extraction (MAE) system could enhance yield of bio-oil compared to soxhlet extraction. The MAE extraction system is rapid using only water as solvent which is a nonhazardous, environment-friendly technique compared to soxhlet extraction (SE) method using hexane as solvent. Thus, this is a green technique of bio-oil extraction using only water as extractant. Bio-oil extraction from the pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch (EFB), a biomass waste from oil palm crop, was enhanced using a biocatalyst derived from seashell waste. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while addition of seashell based biocatalyst was 44.6%. Oil yield for non-catalytic extraction was 43.8% while with addition of seashell-based biocatalyst was 44.6%. The pH of bio-oil increased from 3.5 to 4.3. The viscosity of bio-oil obtained by catalytic means increased from 20.5 to 37.8 cP. A rapid and environment friendly extraction technique is preferable to enhance bio-oil yield. The microwave assisted approach is a green, rapid and environmental friendly extraction technique for the production of bio-oil bearing crops.

  18. Pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading to renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    This study aims to upgrade woody biomass pyrolysis bio-oil into transportation fuels by catalytic hydrodeoxygenation : (HDO) using nanospring (NS) supported catalyst via the following research objectives: (1) develop nanospring-based : catalysts (nan...

  19. Bio-oil fractionation and condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert C; Jones, Samuel T; Pollard, Anthony

    2013-07-02

    A method of fractionating bio-oil vapors which involves providing bio-oil vapors comprising bio-oil constituents is described. The bio-oil vapors are cooled in a first stage which comprises a condenser having passages for the bio-oil separated by a heat conducting wall from passages for a coolant. The coolant in the condenser of the first stage is maintained at a substantially constant temperature, set at a temperature in the range of 75 to 100.degree. C., to condense a first liquid fraction of liquefied bio-oil constituents in the condenser of the first stage. The first liquid fraction of liquified bio-oil constituents from the condenser in the first stage is collected. Also described are steps for subsequently recovering further liquid fractions of liquefied bio-oil constituents. Particular compositions of bio-oil condensation products are also described.

  20. Past, Present, and Future Production of Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steele, Philip; Yu, Fei; Gajjela, Sanjeev

    2009-04-01

    Bio-oil is a liquid product produced by fast pyrol-ysis of biomass. The fast pyrolysis is performed by heating the biomass rapidly (2 sec) at temperatures ranging from 350 to 650 oC. The vapors produced by this rapid heating are then condensed to produce a dark brown water-based emulsion composed of frag-ments of the original hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin molecules contained in the biomass. Yields range from 60 to 75% based on the feedstock type and the pyrolysis reactor employed. The bio-oil pro-duced by this process has a number of negative prop-erties that are produced mainly by the high oxygen content (40 to 50%) contributed by that contained in water (25 to 30% of total mass) and oxygenated compounds. Each bio-oil contains hundreds of chemi-cal compounds. The chemical composition of bio-oil renders it a very recalcitrant chemical compound. To date, the difficulties in utilizing bio-oil have limited its commercial development to the production of liq-uid smoke as food flavoring. Practitioners have at-tempted to utilize raw bio-oil as a fuel; they have also applied many techniques to upgrade bio-oil to a fuel. Attempts to utilize raw bio-oil as a combustion engine fuel have resulted in engine or turbine dam-age; however, Stirling engines have been shown to successfully combust raw bio-oil without damage. Utilization of raw bio-oil as a boiler fuel has met with more success and an ASTM standard has recently been released describing bio-oil characteristics in relation to assigned fuel grades. However, commercialization has been slow to follow and no reports of distribution of these bio-oil boiler fuels have been reported. Co-feeding raw bio-oil with coal has been successfully performed but no current power generation facilities are following this practice. Upgrading of bio-oils to hydrocarbons via hydroprocessing is being performed by several organizations. Currently, limited catalyst life is the obstacle to commercialization of this tech-nology. Researchers

  1. Fungicidal values of bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions obtained from wood/bark fast pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Dinesh; Shi, Jenny; Nicholas, Darrel D; Pittman, Charles U; Steele, Philip H; Cooper, Jerome E

    2008-03-01

    Pine wood, pine bark, oak wood and oak bark were pyrolyzed in an auger reactor. A total of 16 bio-oils or pyrolytic oils were generated at different temperatures and residence times. Two additional pine bio-oils were produced at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory in a fluidized-bed reactor at different temperatures. All these bio-oils were fractionated to obtain lignin-rich fractions which consist mainly of phenols and neutrals. The pyrolytic lignin-rich fractions were obtained by liquid-liquid extraction. Whole bio-oils and their lignin-rich fractions were studied as potential environmentally benign wood preservatives to replace metal-based CCA and copper systems that have raised environmental concerns. Each bio-oil and several lignin-rich fractions were tested for antifungal properties. Soil block tests were conducted using one brown-rot fungus (Gloeophyllum trabeum) and one white-rot fungus (Trametes versicolor). The lignin-rich fractions showed greater fungal inhibition than whole bio-oils for a impregnation solution 10% concentration level. Water repellence tests were also performed to study wood wafer swelling behavior before and after bio-oil and lignin-rich fraction treatments. In this case, bio-oil fractions did not exhibit higher water repellency than whole bio-oils. Comparison of raw bio-oils in soil block tests, with unleached wafers, at 10% and 25% bio-oil impregnation solution concentration levels showed excellent wood preservation properties at the 25% level. The good performance of raw bio-oils at higher loading levels suggests that fractionation to generate lignin-rich fractions is unnecessary. At this more effective 25% loading level in general, the raw bio-oils performed similarly. Prevention of leaching is critically important for both raw bio-oils and their fractions to provide decay resistance. Initial tests of a polymerization chemical to prevent leaching showed some success.

  2. Solubility of hydrogen in bio-oil compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Touronen, Jouni; Uusi-Kyyny, Petri; Richon, Dominique; Alopaeus, Ville

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Solubility of Hydrogen was measured in bio-oil compounds in the at temperatures from 342 to 473 K and pressures up to 16 MPa. • Phase equilibrium data were acquired using a visualization enabled continuous flow synthetic apparatus. • The measured solubility is modeled with Peng-Robinson EoS. - Abstract: The knowledge of accurate hydrogen solubility values in bio-oil compounds is essential for the design and optimization of hydroprocesses relevant to biofuel industry. This work reports the solubility of hydrogen in three industrially relevant bio-oil compounds (allyl alcohol, furan, and eugenol) at temperatures from 342 to 473 K and pressures up to 16 MPa. Phase equilibrium data were acquired using a continuous flow synthetic method. The method is based on the visual observation of the bubble point using a high resolution camera. The measured solubility is modeled with Peng-Robinson EoS with classical van der Waals one fluid mixing rules.

  3. Determination of Carbonyl Functional Groups in Bio-oils by Potentiometric Titration: The Faix Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Stuart; Ferrell, Jack R

    2017-02-07

    Carbonyl compounds present in bio-oils are known to be responsible for bio-oil property changes upon storage and during upgrading. Specifically, carbonyls cause an increase in viscosity (often referred to as 'aging') during storage of bio-oils. As such, carbonyl content has previously been used as a method of tracking bio-oil aging and condensation reactions with less variability than viscosity measurements. Additionally, carbonyls are also responsible for coke formation in bio-oil upgrading processes. Given the importance of carbonyls in bio-oils, accurate analytical methods for their quantification are very important for the bio-oil community. Potentiometric titration methods based on carbonyl oximation have long been used for the determination of carbonyl content in pyrolysis bio-oils. Here, we present a modification of the traditional carbonyl oximation procedures that results in less reaction time, smaller sample size, higher precision, and more accurate carbonyl determinations. While traditional carbonyl oximation methods occur at room temperature, the Faix method presented here occurs at an elevated temperature of 80 °C.

  4. Mild Biomass Liquefaction Process for Economic Production of Stabilized Refinery-Ready Bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gangwal, Santosh [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Meng, Jiajia [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); McCabe, Kevin [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States); Larson, Eric [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Environmental Inst.; Mastro, Kelly [Southern Research, Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-04-25

    Southern Research (SR) in cooperation with U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO), investigated a biomass liquefaction process for economic production of stabilized refinery-ready bio-oil. The project was awarded by DOE under a Funding Opportunity Announcement (DE-FOA-0000686) for Bio-oil Stabilization and Commoditization that intended to evaluate the feasibility of using bio-oil as a potential feedstock in an existing petroleum refinery. SR investigated Topic Area 1 of the FOA at Technology Readiness Level 2-3 to develop thermochemical liquefaction technologies for producing a bio-oil feedstock from high-impact biomass that can be utilized within a petroleum refinery. Bio-oil obtained from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a green intermediate that can be further upgraded into a biofuel for blending in a petroleum refinery using a hydro-deoxygenation (HDO) route. Co-processing pyrolysis bio-oil in a petroleum refinery is an attractive approach to leverage the refinery’s existing capital. However, the petroleum industry is reluctant to accept pyrolysis bio-oil because of a lack of a standard definition for an acceptable bio-oil feedstock in existing refinery processes. Also per BETO’s multiyear program plan, fast pyrolysis-based bio-fuel is presently not cost competitive with petroleum-based transportation fuels. SR aims to develop and demonstrate a cost-effective low-severity thermal liquefaction and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) process to convert woody biomass to stabilized bio-oils that can be directly blended with hydrotreater input streams in a petroleum refinery for production of gasoline and/or diesel range hydrocarbons. The specific project objectives are to demonstrate the processes at laboratory scale, characterize the bio-oil product and develop a plan in partnership with a refinery company to move the technology towards commercialization.

  5. Bio-oil hydrodeoxygenation catalysts produced using strong electrostatic adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    We synthesized hydrothermally stable metal catalysts with controlled particle size and distribution, with the goal of determining which catalyst(s) can selectively catalyze the production of aromatics from bio-oil (from pyrolysis of biomass). Both precious and base transition metal catalysts (Ru, Pt...

  6. Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures | Bioenergy | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures Bio-Oil Analysis Laboratory Procedures NREL develops laboratory analytical procedures (LAPs) for the analysis of raw and upgraded pyrolysis bio-oils. These standard procedures have been validated and allow for reliable bio-oil analysis. Procedures Determination

  7. Scenedesmus-based treatment of nitrogen and phosphorus from effluent of anaerobic digester and bio-oil production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ga-Yeong; Yun, Yeo-Myeong; Shin, Hang-Sik; Kim, Hee-Sik; Han, Jong-In

    2015-11-01

    In this study, a microalgae-based technology was employed to treat wastewater and produce biodiesel at the same time. A local isolate Scenedesmus sp. was found to be a well suited species, particularly for an effluent from anaerobic digester (AD) containing low carbon but high nutrients (NH3-N=273mgL(-1), total P=58.75mgL(-1)). This algae-based treatment was quite effective: nutrient removal efficiencies were over 99.19% for nitrogen and 98.01% for phosphorus. Regarding the biodiesel production, FAME contents of Scenedesmus sp. were found to be relatively low (8.74% (w/w)), but overall FAME productivity was comparatively high (0.03gL(-1)d(-1)) due to its high biomass productivity (0.37gL(-1)d(-1)). FAMEs were satisfactory to the several standards for the biodiesel quality. The Scenedesmus-based technology may serve as a promising option for the treatment of nutrient-rich wastewater and especially so for the AD effluent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Preparation and Characterization of Epoxy Resin Cross-Linked with High Wood Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Substitution by Acetone Pretreatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The use of cost effective solvents may be necessary to store wood pyrolysis bio-oil in order to stabilize and control its viscosity, but this part of the production system has not been explored. Conversely, any rise in viscosity during storage, that would occur without a solvent, will add variance to the production system and render it cost ineffective. The purpose of this study was to modify bio-oil with a common solvent and then react the bio-oil with an epoxy for bonding of wood without any loss in properties. The acetone pretreatment of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture was found to improve the cross-linking potential and substitution rate based on its mechanical, chemical, and thermal properties. Specifically, the bio-oil was blended with epoxy resin at weight ratios ranging from 2:1 to 1:5 and were then cured. A higher bio-oil substitution rate was found to lower the shear bond strength of the bio-oil/epoxy resins. However, when an acetone pretreatment was used, it was possible to replace the bio-oil by as much as 50% while satisfying usage requirements. Extraction of the bio-oil/epoxy mixture with four different solvents demonstrated an improvement in cross-linking after acetone pretreatment. ATR-FTIR analysis confirmed that the polymer achieved a higher cross-linked structure. DSC and TGA curves showed improved thermal stability with the addition of the acetone pretreatment. UV-Vis characterization showed that some functional groups of the bio-oil to epoxy system were unreacted. Finally, when the resin mixture was utilized to bond wood, the acetone pretreatment coupled with precise tuning of the bio-oil:epoxy ratio was an effective method to control cross-linking while ensuring acceptable bond strength.

  9. Bio-oil production from cotton stalk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Jilu; Yi Weiming; Wang Nana

    2008-01-01

    Cotton stalk was fast pyrolyzed at temperatures between 480 deg. C and 530 deg. C in a fluidized bed, and the main product of bio-oil is obtained. The experimental result shows that the highest bio-oil yield of 55 wt% was obtained at 510 deg. C for cotton stalk. The chemical composition of the bio-oil acquired was analyzed by GC-MS, and its heat value, stability, miscibility and corrosion characteristics were determined. These results showed that the bio-oil obtained can be directly used as a fuel oil for combustion in a boiler or a furnace without any upgrading. Alternatively, the fuel can be refined to be used by vehicles. Furthermore, the energy performance of the pyrolysis process was analyzed. In the pyrolysis system used in our experiment, some improvements to former pyrolysis systems are done. Two screw feeders were used to prevent jamming the feeding system, and the condenser is equipped with some nozzles and a heat exchanger to cool quickly the cleaned hot gas into bio-oil

  10. Autothermal reforming of palm empty fruit bunch bio-oil: thermodynamic modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lifita N. Tande

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work focuses on thermodynamic analysis of the autothermal reforming of palm empty fruit bunch (PEFB bio-oil for the production of hydrogen and syngas. PEFB bio-oil composition was simulated using bio-oil surrogates generated from a mixture of acetic acid, phenol, levoglucosan, palmitic acid and furfural. A sensitivity analysis revealed that the hydrogen and syngas yields were not sensitive to actual bio-oil composition, but were determined by a good match of molar elemental composition between real bio-oil and surrogate mixture. The maximum hydrogen yield obtained under constant reaction enthalpy and pressure was about 12 wt% at S/C = 1 and increased to about 18 wt% at S/C = 4; both yields occurring at equivalence ratio Φ of 0.31. The possibility of generating syngas with varying H2 and CO content using autothermal reforming was analysed and application of this process to fuel cells and Fischer-Tropsch synthesis is discussed. Using a novel simple modelling methodology, reaction mechanisms were proposed which were able to account for equilibrium product distribution. It was evident that different combinations of reactions could be used to obtain the same equilibrium product concentrations. One proposed reaction mechanism, referred to as the ‘partial oxidation based mechanism’ involved the partial oxidation reaction of the bio-oil to produce hydrogen, with the extent of steam reforming and water gas shift reactions varying depending on the amount of oxygen used. Another proposed mechanism, referred to as the ‘complete oxidation based mechanism’ was represented by thermal decomposition of about 30% of bio-oil and hydrogen production obtained by decomposition, steam reforming, water gas shift and carbon gasification reactions. The importance of these mechanisms in assisting in the eventual choice of catalyst to be used in a real ATR of PEFB bio-oil process was discussed.

  11. Use of palm oil decanter cake as a new substrate for the production of bio-oil by vacuum pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dewayanto, Nugroho; Isha, Ruzinah; Nordin, Mohd Ridzuan

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Vacuum pyrolysis has been employed to produce bio-oil from palm oil waste. • Effect of the pyrolysis temperature was investigated in this study. • Bio-oil properties of cellulosic and oily based material were determined. • Bio-oil from decanter cake has potential to be used as fuel. - Abstract: The present study was carried out to investigate the potential of palm oil decanter cake (PDC) for bio-oil production at various temperatures by vacuum pyrolysis. PDC was first dried in oven at 105 °C for 24 h to remove moisture and ground to particle size of 0.85–2 mm. Pyrolysis experiments were carried out at 400, 450, 500, 550 and 600 °C, with heating rate of 15 °C/min. The highest yield of bio-oil (22.12 wt%) was obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C. The chemical characterization of bio-oil was studied using 1 H NMR, FTIR, CHNS analyzer and GC–MS. The other properties like pH, calorific value and thermal volatilization were also determined. The pH value recorded to be 6.38, which is found to be higher as compared to other bio-oils. The calorific value of PDC bio-oil found to be 36.79 MJ/kg, which is slightly lower than that of conventional liquid fuel such as gasoline and diesel fuel. However, the bio-oil obtained from PDC has better fuel characteristics than that of bio-oil derived from palm kernel shell (PKS)

  12. A comparison of pipeline versus truck transport of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pootakham, Thanyakarn; Kumar, Amit

    2010-01-01

    Biomass-based energy and fuels are receiving attention because they are considered carbon neutral; i.e. the amount of CO(2) released during combustion of this biomass is nearly the same as that taken up by the plants during their growth. Bio-oil is a dark viscous liquid consisting of hydrocarbons. These are produced by fast pyrolysis of biomass. "As-is" biomass material has a low energy density (MJ m(-3)), hence, the cost of transporting this energy is high. Bio-oil has a high energy density as compared to "as-is" biomass material, consequently it helps in reducing the cost of energy transport. This study compares the life cycle assessment of transportation of bio-oil by pipeline with that by truck. The scope of the work includes the transportation of bio-oil by truck or pipeline from a centralized plant (supplied with forest biomass) to an end-user. Two cases are studied for pipeline transport of bio-oil: the first case considers a coal-based electricity supply for pumping the bio-oil through a pipeline; the second case considers an electricity supply from a renewable resource. The two cases of pipeline transport are compared to two cases of truck transport (truck trailer and super B-train truck). The life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the pipeline transport of bio-oil for the two cases of electricity supply are 345 and 17 g of CO(2) m(-3) km(-1), respectively. Similar values for transport by trailer (capacity - 30 m(3)) and super B-train truck (capacity - 60 m(3)) are 89 and 60 g of CO(2) m(-3) km(-1), respectively. Energy input for bio-oil transport is 3.95 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by pipeline, 2.59 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by truck and 1.66 MJ m(-3) km(-1) by super B-train truck. The results show that GHG emissions in pipeline transport are largely dependent on the source of electricity (higher for coal-based electricity). Substituting 250 m(3) day(-1) of pipeline-transported bio-oil for coal-based electricity can mitigate about 5.1 million tonnes of CO(2) per year

  13. Catalytic steam reforming of bio-oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane, R.; Dahl, S.; Skjøth-Rasmussen, M.S.

    2012-01-01

    been obtained in both fluidized and fixed bed reactors, but the coke formation appears to be less significant in fluidized beds. The addition of O2 to the system can decrease the coke formation and provide autothermal conditions at the expense of a lower H2 and CO-yield.The SR of bio-oil is still...

  14. Pyrolysis of Jatropha curcas pressed cake for bio-oil production in a fixed-bed system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jourabchi, Seyed Amirmostafa; Gan, Suyin; Ng, Hoon Kiat

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The pyrolysis of Jatropha curcas waste in a fixed-bed rig was studied. • Yield, calorific value, water content and acidity of bio-oil were compared. • Empirical correlations for bio-oil yield and specifications were developed. • Optimisation of bio-oil production based on combined specifications was achieved. - Abstract: This study investigated the effects of pyrolysis parameters on the yield and quality of bio-oil from Jatropha curcas pressed cake. This biomass was pyrolysed in a fixed-bed reactor over a temperature range of 573.15 K to 1073.15 K and a nitrogen linear speed range of 7.8 × 10 −5 m/s to 6.7 × 10 −2 m/s. The heating rate and biomass grain size were 50 K/min and <2 mm, respectively. The bio-oils were tested for the gross calorific value, water content and acidity. The pyrolysis process was simulated using Thermo-Gravimetric Analysis (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) for mass and energy balances analyses. Empirical correlations between the bio-oil specifications and pyrolysis parameters were developed using linear and nonlinear multiple regression methods for process optimisation. At optimum pyrolysis conditions, above 50% of the waste is converted to bio-oil with less than 30% water content, a gross calorific value of 15.12 MJ/kg and a pH of 6.77

  15. Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of lignin: Effects of process and upgrading parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Liangliang; Zhang, Yaning; Liu, Shiyu; Zhou, Nan; Chen, Paul; Cheng, Yanling; Addy, Min; Lu, Qian; Omar, Muhammad Mubashar; Liu, Yuhuan; Wang, Yunpu; Dai, Leilei; Anderson, Erik; Peng, Peng; Lei, Hanwu; Ruan, Roger

    2017-10-01

    Effects of process parameters on the yield and chemical profile of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of lignin and the processes for lignin-derived bio-oil upgrading were reviewed. Various process parameters including pyrolysis temperature, reactor types, lignin characteristics, residence time, and feeding rate were discussed and the optimal parameter conditions for improved bio-oil yield and quality were concluded. In terms of lignin-derived bio-oil upgrading, three routes including pretreatment of lignin, catalytic upgrading, and co-pyrolysis of hydrogen-rich materials have been investigated. Zeolite cracking and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) treatment are two main methods for catalytic upgrading of lignin-derived bio-oil. Factors affecting zeolite activity and the main zeolite catalytic mechanisms for lignin conversion were analyzed. Noble metal-based catalysts and metal sulfide catalysts are normally used as the HDO catalysts and the conversion mechanisms associated with a series of reactions have been proposed. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Stabilization of Empty Fruit Bunch derived Bio-oil using Solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Loong Yiin

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this research was to select the ideal condition for accelerated aging of bio-oil and the consequences of additive in stabilizing the bio-oil. The bio-oil was produced from the catalytic pyrolysis of empty fruit bunch. The optimum reaction conditions applied to obtain the utmost bio-oil yield were 5 wt% of H-Y catalyst at reaction temperature of 500 °C and nitrogen flow rate of 100 ml/min. A 10 wt% of solvents including acetone, ethanol, and ethyl acetate were used to study the bio-oil’s stability. All the test samples were subjected to accelerated aging at temperature of 80 oC for 7 days. The properties of samples used as the indicator of aging were viscosity and water content. The effectiveness of solvents increased in the following order: acetone, ethyl acetate, and 95 vol% ethanol. Based on the result of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, it could impede the chain of polymerization by converting the active units in the oligomer chain to inactive units. The solvent reacted to form low molecular weight products which resulted in lower viscosity and lessen the water content in bio-oil. Addition of 95 vol% ethanol also inhibited phase separation.

  17. Upgrading of bio-oil via acid-catalyzed reactions in alcohols : a mini review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, X.; Gunawan, R.; Mourant, D.; Mahmudul Hasan, M.D.; Wu, L.; Song, Y.; Lievens, C.; Li, C.Z.

    2017-01-01

    Bio-oil is a condensable liquid produced from the pyrolysis of biomass, which can be upgraded to biofuels. Bio-oil is corrosive as it contains significant amounts of carboxylic acids, creating difficulties in handling of bio-oil and applications of bio-oil. Acid-treatment of bio-oil in alcohols is

  18. Bio-Oil Separation and Stabilization by Supercritical Fluid Fractionation. 2014 Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agblevor, Foster [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Petkovic, Lucia [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Bennion, Edward [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Quinn, Jason [Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (United States); Moses, John [CF Technologies, Hyde Park, MA (United States); Newby, Deborah [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Ginosar, Daniel [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this project is to use supercritical fluids to separate and fractionate algal-based bio-oils into stable products that can be subsequently upgraded to produce drop-in renewable fuels. To accomplish this objective, algae was grown and thermochemically converted to bio-oils using hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), pyrolysis, and catalytic pyrolysis. The bio-oils were separated into an extract and a raffinate using near-critical propane or carbon dioxide. The fractions were then subjected to thermal aging studies to determine if the extraction process had stabilized the products. It was found that the propane extract fraction was twice as stable as the parent catalytic pyrolysis bio-oils as measured by the change in viscosity after two weeks of accelerated aging at 80°C. Further, in-situ NMR aging studies found that the propane extract was chemically more stable than the parent bio-oil. Thus the milestone of stabilizing the product was met. A preliminary design of the extraction plant was prepared. The design was based on a depot scale plant processing 20,000,000 gallons per year of bio-oil. It was estimated that the capital costs for such a plant would be $8,700,000 with an operating cost of $3,500,000 per year. On a per gallon of product cost and a 10% annual rate of return, capital costs would represent $0.06 per gallon and operating costs would amount to $0.20 per gallon. Further, it was found that the energy required to run the process represented 6.2% of the energy available in the bio-oil, meeting the milestone of less than 20%. Life cycle analysis and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission analysis found that the energy for running the critical fluid separation process and the GHG emissions were minor compared to all the inputs to the overall well to pump system. For the well to pump system boundary, energetics in biofuel conversion are typically dominated by energy demands in the growth, dewater, and thermochemical process. Bio-oil stabilization by

  19. Hydraulic Systems with Tap Water versus Bio-oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry.......Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry....

  20. Steam Reforming of Bio-oil Model Compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn; Dahl, Søren

    The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst.......The steam reforming of bio-oil is a sustainable and renewable route to synthesis gas and hydrogen, where one of the main hurdles is carbon formation on the catalyst....

  1. Upgrading biomass pyrolysis bio-oil to renewable fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis is a process that can convert woody biomass to a crude bio-oil (pyrolysis oil). However, some of these compounds : contribute to bio-oil shelf life instability and difficulty in refining. Catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of the bio-o...

  2. Chemical and ecotoxicological properties of three bio-oils from pyrolysis of biomasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campisi, Tiziana; Samorì, Chiara; Torri, Cristian; Barbera, Giuseppe; Foschini, Anna; Kiwan, Alisar; Galletti, Paola; Tagliavini, Emilio; Pasteris, Andrea

    2016-10-01

    In view of the potential use of pyrolysis-based technologies, it is crucial to understand the environmental hazards of pyrolysis-derived products, in particular bio-oils. Here, three bio-oils were produced from fast pyrolysis of pine wood and intermediate pyrolysis of corn stalk and poultry litter. They were fully characterized by chemical analysis and tested for their biodegradability and their ecotoxicity on the crustacean Daphnia magna and the green alga Raphidocelis subcapitata. These tests were chosen as required by the European REACH regulation. These three bio-oils were biodegradable, with 40-60% of biodegradation after 28 days, and had EC50 values above 100mgL(-1) for the crustacean and above 10mgL(-1) for the alga, showing low toxicity to the aquatic life. The toxic unit approach was applied to verify whether the observed toxicity could be predicted from the data available for the substances detected in the bio-oils. The predicted values largely underestimated the experimental values. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Upgrading of Intermediate Bio-Oil Produced by Catalytic Pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdullah, Zia [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Chadwell, Brad [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Taha, Rachid [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Hindin, Barry [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States); Ralston, Kevin [Battelle Memorial Inst., Columbus, OH (United States)

    2015-06-30

    The objectives of this project were to (1) develop a process to upgrade catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (2) investigate new upgrading catalysts suited for upgrading catalytic pyrolysis bio-oil, (3) demonstrate upgrading system operation for more than 1,000 hours using a single catalyst charge, and (4) produce a final upgraded product that can be blended to 30 percent by weight with petroleum fuels or that is compatible with existing petroleum refining operations. This project has, to the best of our knowledge, for the first time enabled a commercially viable bio-oil hydrotreatment process to produce renewable blend stock for transportation fuels.

  4. Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandgren, Annamaria; Ekdahl, Emma; Sernhed, Kerstin; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assemble and disseminate knowledge about bio-oils and other bio fuels which are used for heat- and power generation or liquid bio fuels/oils that may become interesting in the future. One aim of this study was to give an updated picture of the Swedish market for bio-oils and to provide an overview of practical experience on the usage of bio-oils in the Swedish heat and power industry. In order to show a green profile, bio-oils can be used in the heat and power generation. However, not all bio-oils can be viewed as climate friendly. Some production of bio-oils may actually - if a lifecycle perspective is considered - lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, and there are also ethical issues that need to be considered. The data collection was carried out in three different fields. The objective of the first part was to create an overview of the Swedish market for liquid bio fuels/oils for heat and power production. The second part of the study aimed to clarify the issues surrounding environmental and ethical issues associated with the use of different bio-oils. A selection of oil crops for a closer study was made based on production volume (soybean, palm oil and rapeseed) and expected future potential (jatropha). This part of the study was based on a literature review. In the third part of the study technical and practical experiences from using bio-oils in heat and power production were studied. The interviews made with purchasing managers in the second part gave valuable information on which utilities would be the most interesting to interview for the study of technical and practical experiences, where interviews were carried out with persons familiar with the daily operation of the plant. The use of liquid bio fuels was about 4.3 % of total fuel use in Swedish district heating production in 2007 (1.2 % pine oil and 3.0 % other bio-oil). In other words, it is mainly bio-oils that have been used and not other types of liquid

  5. Bio-oils and other bio fuels used in heat- and power generation; Flytande biobraenslen foer el- och vaermeproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sandgren, Annamaria; Ekdahl, Emma; Sernhed, Kerstin; Lindstroem, Erica

    2010-05-15

    The purpose of this study was to assemble and disseminate knowledge about bio-oils and other bio fuels which are used for heat- and power generation or liquid bio fuels/oils that may become interesting in the future. One aim of this study was to give an updated picture of the Swedish market for bio-oils and to provide an overview of practical experience on the usage of bio-oils in the Swedish heat and power industry. In order to show a green profile, bio-oils can be used in the heat and power generation. However, not all bio-oils can be viewed as climate friendly. Some production of bio-oils may actually - if a lifecycle perspective is considered - lead to increased emissions of greenhouse gases, and there are also ethical issues that need to be considered. The data collection was carried out in three different fields. The objective of the first part was to create an overview of the Swedish market for liquid bio fuels/oils for heat and power production. The second part of the study aimed to clarify the issues surrounding environmental and ethical issues associated with the use of different bio-oils. A selection of oil crops for a closer study was made based on production volume (soybean, palm oil and rapeseed) and expected future potential (jatropha). This part of the study was based on a literature review. In the third part of the study technical and practical experiences from using bio-oils in heat and power production were studied. The interviews made with purchasing managers in the second part gave valuable information on which utilities would be the most interesting to interview for the study of technical and practical experiences, where interviews were carried out with persons familiar with the daily operation of the plant. The use of liquid bio fuels was about 4.3 % of total fuel use in Swedish district heating production in 2007 (1.2 % pine oil and 3.0 % other bio-oil). In other words, it is mainly bio-oils that have been used and not other types of liquid

  6. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu, E-mail: triace@163.com; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels.

  7. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Ji-Lu; Zhu, Ming-Qiang; Wu, Hai-tang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Swine carcasses can be converted to bio-oil by alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction. • It seems that the use of the bio-oil for heat or CHP is technically suitable. • Some valuable chemicals were found in the bio-oils. • The bio-oil and the solid residue constituted an energy efficiency of 93.63% for the feedstock. • The solid residue can be used as a soil amendment, to sequester C and for preparing activated carbon. - Abstract: It is imperative that swine carcasses are disposed of safely, practically and economically. Alkaline hydrothermal liquefaction of swine carcasses to bio-oil was performed. Firstly, the effects of temperature, reaction time and pH value on the yield of each liquefaction product were determined. Secondly, liquefaction products, including bio-oil and solid residue, were characterized. Finally, the energy recovery ratio (ERR), which was defined as the energy of the resultant products compared to the energy input of the material, was investigated. Our experiment shows that reaction time had certain influence on the yield of liquefaction products, but temperature and pH value had bigger influence on the yield of liquefaction products. Yields of 62.2 wt% bio-oil, having a high heating value of 32.35 MJ/kg and a viscosity of 305cp, and 22 wt% solid residue were realized at a liquefaction temperature of 250 °C, a reaction time of 60 min and a pH value of 9.0. The bio-oil contained up to hundreds of different chemical components that may be classified according to functional groups. Typical compound classes in the bio-oil were hydrocarbons, organic acids, esters, ketones and heterocyclics. The energy recovery ratio (ERR) reached 93.63%. The bio-oil is expected to contribute to fossil fuel replacement in stationary applications, including boilers and furnaces, and upgrading processes for the bio-oil may be used to obtain liquid transport fuels

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF BIO-OIL FROM PALM KERNEL SHELL PYROLYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ahmad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a fixed-bed reactor was studied in this paper. The objectives were to investigate the effect of pyrolysis temperature and particle size on the products yield and to characterize the bio-oil product. In order to get the optimum pyrolysis parameters on bio-oil yield, temperatures of 350, 400, 450, 500 and 550 °C and particle sizes of 212–300 µm, 300–600 µm, 600µm–1.18 mm and 1.18–2.36 mm under a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 were investigated. The maximum bio-oil yield was 38.40% at 450 °C with a heating rate of 50 °C min-1 and a nitrogen sweep gas flow rate of 50 ml min-1. The bio-oil products were analysed by Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy (FTIR and gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GCMS. The FTIR analysis showed that the bio-oil was dominated by oxygenated species. The phenol, phenol, 2-methoxy- and furfural that were identified by GCMS analysis are highly suitable for extraction from the bio-oil as value-added chemicals. The highly oxygenated oils need to be upgraded in order to be used in other applications such as transportation fuels.

  9. Elucidation of the thermal deterioration mechanism of bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Fang; Xu, Yu; Lu, Rui; Sheng, Guo-Ping; Yu, Han-Qing

    2011-09-14

    In this study, the rationale for exploring the thermal deterioration mechanism of the bio-oil pyrolyzed from rice husk is established. This is based on identification of the unstable intermediates in the thermal deterioration process. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was used to monitor such a thermal deterioration process of bio-oil samples in thermal treatment and/or during long-term storage at ambient temperatures of 20-30 °C. Terminal olefins, as a key intermediate, so-called "signature", were identified qualitatively by using FTIR spectroscopy. A band shift observed at 880 cm(-1), which was assigned to the C-H out-of-plane deformation vibration of terminal olefins, indicates the start-up of the bio-oil thermal deterioration. A two-step pathway was proposed to describe the thermal deterioration process of bio-oil. This study suggests that the status of bio-oil could be rapidly monitored by the FTIR method.

  10. Bio-Oil Separation and Stabilization by Near-Critical Propane Fractionation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginosar, Daniel M.; Petkovic, Lucia M.; Agblevor, Foster A.

    2016-08-01

    catalytic fast pyrolysis oil with near critical propane produced an oil extract that was physically and chemically different from and more stable than the original oil. The propane extract displayed lower viscosity and lower average molecular weight. The species present in the propane extract were likely the less polar that would be expected from using a non-polar solvent (propane). Carbonyl containing species in the extract were likely ketones and esters. The raffinate contained a higher amnount of OH bonded species along with the more polar more polar acids, amides, and alcohols. The higher concentration of nitrogen in the raffinate may confirm the presence of amides. Viscosity of the propane extract increased only half as much as that of the CFP bio-oil. Further, In situ NMR aging studies showed that the propane extract was more stable than the raw oil. In conclusion, propane extraction is a promising method to decrease the nitrogen content of bio-oils and to improve the stability of bio-oils obtained by the catalytic pyrolysis of algae based biomass.

  11. BioOil presents: Free-flowing alternative to traditional biomass energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McChesney, S.

    2003-12-01

    A new technology, called fast pyrolysis, is described. Fast pyrolysis is a process for converting biomass collected from agricultural and forest residues into an organic liquid fuel, called BioOil, that's easily transported, stored and handled. BioOil's principal virtue is that it can be used to generate carbon-neutral, cost-effective process heat and electricity; it also disposes of organic waste, and creates new jobs and industries. As an indication of interest in BioOil, two recent developments are cited as worthy of note: an award of $23 million for biomass research jointly by the USDA and the USDOE and a commitment of $30 million by the Government of Canada to support the development and demonstration of bio-based systems and technologies. (The Canadian investment is part of the $1 billion commitment toward implementation of the Climate Change Program for Canada). The fast pyrolysis process is carbon dioxide neutral, i.e. when biomass is converted into thermal energy, the carbon dioxide that is released is equal to the amount of carbon dioxide that went into growing the biomass. The process is particularly appealing to energy companies in areas with large forestry or agricultural potential. In Canada, DynaMotive Energy Systems Corporation is the most advanced in developing and commercializing environmentally friendly fuels produced from biomass; the company is also a world leader in fast pyrolysis technology. Ontario Power Generation is cooperating with DynaMotive on a project to produce BioOil from residue supplied by Erie Flooring and Wood Products. The 2.5 megawatt gas turbine that will combust the bio-oil and generate electricity will be supplied by the Magellan Aerospace Corporation. Beyond meeting the energy requirements of Erie Flooring and Wood Products, the project will also contribute about 1.5 megawatts of power to OPG's green energy portfolio in 2004. It is expected that the example of a commercial project of this scale, will serve

  12. VISCOSITY ANALYSIS OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH (EFB BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.S. Nazirah

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Empty fruit bunches (EFB are one of the solid wastes produced by the palm oil industry, which is increasing rapidly. The aim of this paper is to analyse the viscosity of empty fruit bunch (EFB bio-oil that can be extracted from all solid waste EFB as a sample, and a few processes were executed. The samples underwent two processes, which were pre-treatment and pyrolysis. The pre-treatment involved three processes, namely, cutting, shredding and sieving, which were necessary in order to prepare EFB into a particle size suitable for the reactor. After that, the samples were fed into the feedback reactor as feedstock for the pyrolysis process to produce bio-oil. Once the bio-oil was produced, its viscosity was tested using the Brookfield Viscometer in two conditions: before and after the chemical reaction. The bio-oil was treated by adding 10 ml and 20 ml of acetone respectively through the chemical reaction. The viscosity test was carried out at different temperatures, which were 25°C, 30°C, 35°C, 40°C, 45°C and 50°C respectively. The observed viscosity of the EFB bio-oil varied and was higher as the temperature decreased. In addition, the viscosity of the EFB bio-oil was higher when it reacted chemically with the acetone added. Therefore, the results showed that the chemical reaction with acetone has the potential to increase the viscosity of EFB bio-oil.

  13. Immediate catalytic upgrading of soybean shell bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertero, Melisa; Sedran, Ulises

    2016-01-01

    The pyrolysis of soybean shell and the immediate catalytic upgrading of the bio-oil over an equilibrium FCC catalyst was studied in order to define its potential as a source for fuels and chemicals. The experiments of pyrolysis and immediate catalytic upgrading were performed at 550 °C during 7 min with different catalysts to oil relationships in an integrated fixed bed pyrolysis-conversion reactor. The results were compared under the same conditions against those from pine sawdust, which is a biomass source commonly used for the production of bio-oil. In the pyrolysis the pine sawdust produced more liquids (61.4%wt.) than the soybean shell (54.7%wt.). When the catalyst was presented, the yield of hydrocarbons increased, particularly in the case of soybean shell, which was four time higher than in the pyrolysis. The bio-oil from soybean shell produced less coke (between 3.1 and 4.3%wt.) in its immediate catalytic upgrading than that from pine sawdust (between 5 and 5.8%wt.), due to its lower content of phenolic and other high molecular weight compounds (three and five times less, respectively). Moreover, soybean shell showed a higher selectivity to hydrocarbons in the gasoline range, with more olefins and less aromatic than pine sawdust. - Highlights: • Soybean shell is a possible source of fuels with benefits as compared to pine sawdust. • Bio-oils upgraded over FCC catalyst in an integrated pyrolysis-conversion reactor. • Pine sawdust bio-oil had more phenols than soybean shell bio-oil. • Soybean shell bio-oil produced more hydrocarbons in gasoline range and less coke.

  14. Catalytic Hydrogenation of Bio-Oil for Chemicals and Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.

    2006-02-14

    The scope of work includes optimizing processing conditions and demonstrating catalyst lifetime for catalyst formulations that are readily scaleable to commercial operations. We use a bench-scale, continuous-flow, packed-bed, catalytic, tubular reactor, which can be operated in the range of 100-400 mL/hr., from 50-400 C and up to 20MPa (see Figure 1). With this unit we produce upgraded bio-oil from whole bio-oil or useful bio-oil fractions, specifically pyrolytic lignin. The product oils are fractionated, for example by distillation, for recovery of chemical product streams. Other products from our tests have been used in further testing in petroleum refining technology at UOP and fractionation for product recovery in our own lab. Further scale-up of the technology is envisioned and we will carry out or support process design efforts with industrial partners, such as UOP.

  15. Upgrading of syngas hydrotreated fractionated oxidized bio-oil to transportation grade hydrocarbons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yan; Hassan, El Barbary; Guda, Vamshi; Wijayapala, Rangana; Steele, Philip H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrotreating of fractionated oxidized bio-oil with syngas was feasible. • Hydrocarbon properties were similar with all syngas H_2/CO molar ratios except viscosity. • Syngas with H_2/CO molar ratio of (4:6) produced the highest hydrocarbon yield. • The produced hydrocarbons were in the range of gasoline, jet fuel and diesel boiling points. - Abstract: Fast pyrolysis bio-oils have the potential to replace a part of transportation fuels obtained from fossil. Bio-oil can be successfully upgraded into stable hydrocarbons (gasoline, jet fuel and diesel) through a two-stage hydrodeoxygenation process. Consumption large amount of expensive hydrogen during this process is the major hurdle for commercialization of this technology. Applying syngas in the hydrotreating step can significantly reduce the cost of the whole process and make it competitive. In this study, four different models of syngas with different H_2 concentrations (H_2/CO molar ratios = 2:8, 4:6, 6:4 and 8:2) were used for the 1st-stage hydrotreating step of oxidized fractionated bio-oil (OFB). The 2nd-stage hydrocracking step was performed on the produced organic liquid products (OLPs) by using pure H_2 gas. The effect of syngas H_2 concentrations on the yields and properties of OLPs and the 2nd-stage hydrocarbons (HCs) was investigated. Physical and chemical properties of the 2nd-stage hydrocarbons were similar regardless syngas H_2 content, with the exception of the viscosity. Syngas with H_2/CO molar ratio of 4:6 gave significantly highest HCs yield (24.8 wt.%) based on the OFB. Simulated distillation analysis proved that all 2nd-stage hydrocarbons were mixture from a wide range boiling point fuels. These results also indicated that the successful 1st-stage syngas hydrotreating step was having the potential to produce different hydrocarbons.

  16. Effect of process parameters on hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm biomass for bio-oil production and its life cycle assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, Yi Herng; Yusup, Suzana; Quitain, Armando T.; Tan, Raymond R.; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Lam, Hon Loong; Uemura, Yoshimitsu

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Water is used as a clean solvent to liquefy palm biomass to bio-oil. • The optimum liquefaction condition of oil palm biomass is 390 °C and 25 MPa. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber is 120 min. • Optimum reaction time for liquefaction of palm kernel shell is 240 min. • From the life cycle assessment, a net 2.29 kg CO 2 equivalent is generated per kg of bio-oil produced. - Abstract: This paper presents the studies on the effect of three process parameters; temperature, pressure and reaction time on the subcritical and supercritical hydrothermal liquefaction of oil palm empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell. The effect of temperature (330–390 °C), pressure (25–35 MPa) and reaction time (30–240 min) on bio-oil yields were investigated using a Inconel batch reactor. The optimum liquefaction condition for empty fruit bunch, palm mesocarp fiber and palm kernel shell was at supercritical condition of water; 390 °C and 25 MPa. For the effect of reaction time, bio-oil from empty fruit bunch and palm mesocarp fiber attained maximum yields at 120 min, whereas bio-oil yield from palm kernel shell continued to increase at reaction time of 240 min. Lastly, a life cycle assessment based on a conceptual biomass hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production was constructed and presented

  17. Hydrothermal liquefaction of microalgae's for bio oil production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib; Reddy, Harvind; Deng, Shuguang

    process water for algae cultivation. GC-MS, elemental analyzer, calorimeter and nutrient analysis were used to analyze bio-crude, lipid-extracted algae and water samples produced in the hydrothermal liquefaction process. The highest bio-oil yield of 46% was obtained on Nannochloropsis salina at 310 °C...... and 107 bar. For Spirulina platensis algae sample, the highest bio-oil yield is 38% at 350 °C and 195 bar. Preliminary data also indicate that a lipid-extracted algae solid residue sample obtained in the hydrothermal liquefaction process contains a high level of proteins...

  18. Bio-oil production through pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB): Product distribution and bio-oil characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Zhiquan; Zheng, Yang; Yan, Feng; Xiao, Bo; Liu, Shiming

    2013-01-01

    Pyrolysis experiments of blue-green algae blooms (BGAB) were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor to determine the effects of pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate on pyrolysis product yields and bio-oil properties. The pyrolysis temperature, particle size and sweep gas flow rate were varied in the ranges of 300–700 °C, below 0.25–2.5 mm and 50–400 mL min −1 , respectively. The maximum oil yield of 54.97% was obtained at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C, particle size below 0.25 mm and sweep gas flow rate of 100 mL min −1 . The elemental analysis and calorific value of the oil were determined, and the chemical composition of the oil was investigated using gas chromatography–mass spectroscopy (GC–MS) technique. The analysis of bio-oil composition showed that bio-oil from BGAB could be a potential source of renewable fuel with a heating value of 31.9 MJ kg −1 . - Highlights: ► Bio-oil production from pyrolysis of blue-green algae blooms in fixed bed reactor. ► Effects of pyrolysis conditions on product distribution were investigated. ► The maximum bio-oil yield reached 54.97 wt %. ► The bio-oil has high heating value and may be suitable as renewable fuel. ► Pyrolysis of algal biomass beneficial for energy recovery, eutrophication control

  19. Studies on the effects of storage stability of bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum deoiled seed cake on the performance and emission characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Sakthivel; Kasimani, Ramesh

    2018-04-19

    The highly unbalanced nature of bio-oil composition poses a serious threat in terms of storage and utilization of bio-oil as a viable fuel in engines. So it becomes inevitable to study the variations in physicochemical properties of the bio-oil during storage to value its chemical instability, for designing stabilization methodologies. The present study aims to investigate the effects of storage stability of bio-oil extracted from pyrolyzing Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) deoiled seed cake on the engine operating characteristics. The bio-oil is produced in a fixed bed reactor at 500 °C under the constant heating rate of 30 °C/min. All the stability analysis methods involve an accelerated aging procedure based on standards established by ASTM (D5304 and E2009) and European standard (EN 14112). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to analytically characterize the unaged and aged bio-oil samples. The results clearly depict that stabilizing Calophyllum inophyllum bio-oil with 10% (w/w) methanol improved its stability than that of the unstabilized sample thereby reducing the aging rate of bio-oil to 0.04 and 0.13 cst/h for thermal and oxidative aging respectively. Engine testing of the bio-oil sample revealed that aged bio-oil samples deteriorated engine performance and increased emission levels at the exhaust. The oxidatively aged sample showed the lowest BTE (24.41%), the highest BSEC (20.14 MJ/kWh), CO (1.51%), HC (132 ppm), NOx (1098 ppm) and smoke opacity (34.8%).

  20. Upgrading low-boiling-fraction fast pyrolysis bio-oil using supercritical alcohol: Understanding alcohol participation, chemical composition, and energy efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Heuntae; Prajitno, Hermawan; Zeb, Hassan; Kim, Jaehoon

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Non-catalytic and non-hydrogen based bio-oil upgrading was conducted using scMeOH. • 16–40 wt% alcohols were consumed during the upgrading. • High bio-oil yield of 78.4 wt% and low TAN of 4.0 mg KOH/g were achieved. • Effect of supercritical alcohols, reaction times, temperature and bio-oil concentration was conducted. • scMeOH upgrading has good energy recovery (ER) and energy efficiency (EE) compared with scEtOH and scIPA. - Abstract: Herein, a supercritical methanol (scMeOH) route for efficient upgrading of the low-boiling fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oil containing a large amount of low-molecular-weight acids and water was investigated. The effects of various reaction parameters, including the temperature, concentration, and time, were explored. The yield of bio-oil and the energy efficiency of the scMeOH upgrading process were determined based on the amount of methanol that participated in the reaction during upgrading and fractionation of the upgraded heavy-fraction bio-oils (UHBOs) and upgraded light-fraction bio-oils (ULBOs). Upgrading at 400 °C with 9.1 wt% bio-oil for 30 min generated a high bio-oil yield of 78.4 wt% with a low total acid number (TAN) of 4.0 mg-KOH/g-oil and a higher heating value of 29.9 MJ kg −1 . The energy recovery (ER) was 94–131% and the energy efficiency (EE) was in the range of 79–109% depending on the calorific values of the ULBOs. Compared with upgrading in supercritical ethanol and supercritical isopropanol, less alcohol participation, a lower TAN, and higher ER and EE were achieved with scMeOH upgrading. Plausible pathways for bio-oil upgrading in supercritical alcohols based on detailed compositional analysis of the UHBO, ULBO, and gaseous products were discussed.

  1. Bio-oil from Flash Pyrolysis of Agricultural Residues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibrahim, Norazana

    This thesis describes the production of bio-oils from flash pyrolysis of agricultural residues, using a pyrolysis centrifugal reactor (PCR). By thermal degradation of agricultural residues in the PCR, a liquid oil, char and non-condensable gases are produced. The yield of each fraction...

  2. Combustion Characterization of Individual Bio-oil Droplets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Brian Brun; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2015-01-01

    Single droplet combustion characteristics has been investigated for bio-oil slurries, containing biomass residue, and compared to conventional fuels for pulverized burners, such as fuel oil (start up) and wood chips (solid biomass fuel). The investigated fuels ignition delays and pyrolysis behavior...

  3. Pyrolysis kinetics of spent lark mushroom substrate and characterization of bio-oil obtained from the substrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Haifeng; Cheng, Zhiqiang; Zhao, Tianqi; Liu, Mengzhu; Zhang, Mingyue; Li, Jianing; Hu, Meijuan; Zhang, Li; Li, Junfeng

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Pyrolysis behavior of spent lark mushroom substrate is investigated. • Significant pyrolysis stage occurs at the range of 232–382 °C. • Kinetics reveals the influence of heating rate on pyrolysis process. • The maximum bio-oil yield is found at 470 °C. • The characterization shows obtained oil can be utilized as a potential resource. - Abstract: In our work, thermal behavior and kinetic characteristics of spent lark mushroom substrate were evaluated to elaborate the thermal decomposition mechanisms and explore the influence of heating rate by using thermogravimetric analyzer and Coats–Redfern method. The study of pyrolysis temperature of raw material was also operated at the range of 410–530 °C, under the feeding rate 0.36 g/min, and the nitrogen flow 16 L/h. The results showed that the maximum bio-oil yield was obtained at 470 °C with the yield of 14.4 wt.%. The analysis of Fourier transform infrared spectrometer and gas chromatography coupled with mass selective detector indicated that the target liquid production was consisted of phenols, hydrocarbons and other components. Simultaneously, the low oxygen and high hydrogen content in bio-oil was also determined by elemental analysis. Based on the above-mentioned results, we demonstrated that the bio-oil obtained from the substrate had high utilization value as a potential energy resource

  4. Bio-Carbon Accounting for Bio-Oil Co-Processing: 14C and 13C/12C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mora, Claudia I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Li, Zhenghua [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Vance, Zachary [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-06-21

    This is a powerpoint presentation on bio-carbon accounting for bio-oil co-processing. Because of the overlapping range in the stable C isotope compositions of fossil oils and biooils from C3-type feedstocks, it is widely thought that stable isotopes are not useful to track renewable carbon during co-production. In contrast, our study demonstrates the utility of stable isotopes to: • capture a record of renewable carbon allocation between FCC products of co-processing • record changes in carbon apportionments due to changes in reactor or feed temperature Stable isotope trends as a function of percent bio-oil in the feed are more pronounced when the δ13C of the bio-oil endmember differs greatly from the VGO (i.e., it has a C4 biomass source–corn stover, switch grass, Miscanthus, sugarcane– versus a C3 biomass source– pine, wheat, rice, potato), but trends on the latter case are significant for endmember differences of just a few permil. The correlation between measured 14C and δ13C may be useful as an alternative to carbon accounting, but the relationship must first be established for different bio-oil sources.

  5. Results of the International Energy Agency Round Robin on Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, Douglas C.; Meier, Dietrich; Oasmaa, Anja; van de Beld, Bert; Bridgwater, Anthony V.; Marklund, Magnus

    2017-04-06

    An international round robin study of the production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil was undertaken. Fifteen institutions in six countries contributed. Three biomass samples were distributed to the laboratories for processing in fast pyrolysis reactors. Samples of the bio-oil produced were transported to a central analytical laboratory for analysis. The round robin was focused on validating the pyrolysis community understanding of production of fast pyrolysis bio-oil by providing a common feedstock for bio-oil preparation. The round robin included: •distribution of 3 feedstock samples from a common source to each participating laboratory; •preparation of fast pyrolysis bio-oil in each laboratory with the 3 feedstocks provided; •return of the 3 bio-oil products (minimum 500 ml) with operational description to a central analytical laboratory for bio-oil property determination. The analyses of interest were: density, viscosity, dissolved water, filterable solids, CHN, S, trace element analysis, ash, total acid number, pyrolytic lignin, and accelerated aging of bio-oil. In addition, an effort was made to compare the bio-oil components to the products of analytical pyrolysis through GC/MS analysis. The results showed that clear differences can occur in fast pyrolysis bio-oil properties by applying different reactor technologies or configurations. The comparison to analytical pyrolysis method suggested that Py-GC/MS could serve as a rapid screening method for bio-oil composition when produced in fluid-bed reactors. Furthermore, hot vapor filtration generally resulted in the most favorable bio-oil product, with respect to water, solids, viscosity, and total acid number. These results can be helpful in understanding the variation in bio-oil production methods and their effects on bio-oil product composition.

  6. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  7. Bio-oil fueled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A. [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 and 1997 pyrolysis oil made of wood will be tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  8. Bio-oil fuelled diesel power plant; Biooeljyllae toimiva dieselvoimala

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuorinen, A [Modigen Oy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The project mission is to develop a diesel power plant which is capable of using liquid bio-oils as the main fuel of the power plant. The applicable bio-oils are rape seed oils and pyrolysis oils. The project was started in 1994 by installing a 1.5 MW Vasa 4L32 engine in VTT Energy laboratory in Otaniemi. During 1995 the first tests with the rape seed oils were made. The tests show that the rape seed oil can be used in Vasa 32 engines without difficulties. In the second phase of the project during 1996 pyrolysis oil made of wood was tested. Finally a diesel power plant concept with integrated pyrolysis oil, electricity and heat production will be developed

  9. Plasma thermal conversion of bio-oil for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenadou, David; Lorcet, Helene; Peybernes, Jean; Catoire, Laurent; Osmont, Antoine; Gokalp, Iskender

    2012-01-01

    Numerous processes exist or are proposed for the energetic conversion of biomass. The use of thermal plasma is proposed in the frame of the GALACSY project for the conversion of bio-oil to hydrogen and carbon monoxide. For this purpose, an experimental apparatus has been built. The feasibility of this conversion at very high temperature, as encountered in thermal plasma, is examined both experimentally and numerically. This zero dimensional study tends to show that a high temperature (around 2500 K or above) is needed to ensure a high yield of hydrogen (about 50 mol%) and about 95 mol% of CO+H 2 . Predicted CO+H 2 yield and CO/H 2 ratio are consistent with measurements. It is also expected that the formation of particles and tars is hampered. Thermodynamic data of selected bio-oil components are provided in the CHEMKINNASA format. (authors)

  10. Catalytic hydrotreating of bio-oil derived from Chlorococcum sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subagyono, R. R. D. J. N.; Marshall, M.; Jackson, W. R.; Chaffee, A. L.

    2018-04-01

    Hydrotreating of bio-oil derived from Chlorococcum sp. in the absence of NiMo/Al-SBA-15 catalysts has been investigated. The silica alumina supports decreased product yields (DCM solubles and hydrocarbon gases) due to severe coking. Incorporation of NiMo increased the product yields to up to 65 wt.% and increased the proportion of products in the kerosene boiling point range (C12-C17).The superiority of the high acidity supports persisted after incorporation of NiMo.

  11. Production and detailed characterization of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of palm kernel shell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asadullah, Mohammad; Ab Rasid, Nurul Suhada; Kadir, Sharifah Aishah Syed A.; Azdarpour, Amin

    2013-01-01

    Bio-oil has been produced from palm kernel shell in a fluidized bed reactor. The process conditions were optimized and the detailed characteristics of bio-oil were carried out. The higher feeding rate and higher gas flow rate attributed to higher bio-oil yield. The maximum mass fraction of biomass (57%) converted to bio-oil at 550 °C when 2 L min −1 of gas and 10 g min −1 of biomass were fed. The bio-oil produced up to 500 °C existed in two distinct phases, while it formed one homogeneous phase when it was produced above 500 °C. The higher heating value of bio-oil produced at 550 °C was found to be 23.48 MJ kg −1 . As GC–MS data shows, the area ratio of phenol is the maximum among the area ratio of identified compounds in 550 °C bio-oil. The UV–Fluorescence absorption, which is the indication of aromatic content, is also the highest in 550 °C bio-oil. -- Highlights: • Maximum 56 wt% yield of bio-oil was obtained at 550 °C from palm kernel shell. • Two layer of bio-oil was observed up to 500 °C, while it was one layer above 500 °C. • Bio-oil from palm kernel shell provides more than 40% area ratio of phenol in GC–MS analysis. • The calorific value of palm kernel shell bio-oil is higher than other bio-oil

  12. Optimizing the conditions for the microwave-assisted direct liquefaction of Ulva prolifera for bio-oil production using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Junhai; Zhuang, Yingbin; Li, Yan; Chen, Limei; Guo, Jingxue; Li, Demao; Ye, Naihao

    2013-01-01

    Microwave-assisted direct liquefaction (MADL) of Ulva prolifera was performed in ethylene glycol (EG) using sulfuric acid (H 2 SO 4 ) as a catalyst. Response Surface Methodology (RSM) based on central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed to optimize the conditions of three independent variables (catalyst content, solvent-to-feedstock ratio and temperature) for the liquefaction yield. And the bio-oil was analyzed by elementary analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR) and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The maximum liquefaction yield was 93.17%, which was obtained under a microwave power of 600 W for 30 min at 165 °C with a solvent-to-feedstock ratio of 18.87:1 and 4.93% sulfuric acid. The bio-oil was mainly composed of phthalic acid esters, alkenes and a fatty acid methyl ester with a long chain from C 16 to C 20 . - Highlights: • Ulva prolifera was converted to bio-oil through microwave-assisted direct liquefaction. • Response surface methodology was used to optimize the liquefaction technology. • A maximum liquefaction rate of 93.17 wt% bio-oil was obtained. • The bio-oil was composed of carboxylic acids and esters

  13. Bio-oil Stabilization by Hydrogenation over Reduced Metal Catalysts at Low Temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Huamin; Lee, Suh-Jane; Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.

    2016-08-30

    Biomass fast pyrolysis integrated with bio-oil upgrading represents a very attractive approach for converting biomass to hydrocarbon transportation fuels. However, the thermal and chemical instability of bio-oils presents significant problems when they are being upgraded, and development of effective approaches for stabilizing bio-oils is critical to the success of the technology. Catalytic hydrogenation to remove reactive species in bio-oil has been considered as one of the most efficient ways to stabilize bio-oil. This paper provides a fundamental understanding of hydrogenation of actual bio-oils over a Ru/TiO2 catalyst under conditions relevant to practical bio-oil hydrotreating processes. Bio-oil feed stocks, bio-oils hydrogenated to different extents, and catalysts have been characterized to provide insights into the chemical and physical properties of these samples and to understand the correlation of the properties with the composition of the bio-oil and catalysts. The results indicated hydrogenation of various components of the bio-oil, including sugars, aldehydes, ketones, alkenes, aromatics, and carboxylic acids, over the Ru/TiO2 catalyst and 120 to 160oC. Hydrogenation of these species significantly changed the chemical and physical properties of the bio-oil and overall improved its thermal stability, especially by reducing the carbonyl content, which represented the content of the most reactive species (i.e., sugar, aldehydes, and ketones). The change of content of each component in response to increasing hydrogen additions suggests the following bio-oil hydrogenation reaction sequence: sugar conversion to sugar alcohols, followed by ketone and aldehyde conversion to alcohols, followed by alkene and aromatic hydrogenation, and then followed by carboxylic acid hydrogenation to alcohols. Hydrogenation of bio-oil samples with different sulfur contents or inorganic material contents suggested that sulfur poisoning of the reduced Ru metal catalysts was

  14. Nano-catalysts for upgrading bio-oil: Catalytic decarboxylation and hydrodeoxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Tran, Nga T. T.; Naqvi, Salman Raza; Nishiyama, Norikazu

    2017-09-01

    Bio-oil is a mixture of oxygenated chemicals produced by fast pyrolysis of lignocellulose, and has attracted much attention recently because the raw material is renewable. Primarily, bio-oil can be used as a replacement of heavy oil. But it is not highly recommended due to bio-oil's inferior properties: high acidity and short shelf life. Upgrading of bio-oil is therefore one of the important technologies nowadays, and is categorized into the two: (A) decrarboxylation/decarbonylation by solid acid catalysts and (B) hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) by metallic catalysts. In our research group, decarboxylation of bio-oil by zeolites and HDO of guaiacol (a model compound of bio-oil) have been investigated. In this paper, recent developments of these upgrading reactions in our research group will be introduced.

  15. Bio-oil production from fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust in a fluidized bed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heo, Hyeon Su; Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Young-Kwon; Ryu, Changkook; Suh, Dong Jin; Suh, Young-Woong; Yim, Jin-Heong; Kim, Seung-Soo

    2010-01-01

    The amount of waste furniture generated in Korea was over 2.4 million tons in the past 3 years, which can be used for renewable energy or fuel feedstock production. Fast pyrolysis is available for thermo-chemical conversion of the waste wood mostly into bio-oil. In this work, fast pyrolysis of waste furniture sawdust was investigated under various reaction conditions (pyrolysis temperature, particle size, feed rate and flow rate of fluidizing medium) in a fluidized-bed reactor. The optimal pyrolysis temperature for increased yields of bio-oil was 450 degrees C. Excessively smaller or larger feed size negatively affected the production of bio-oil. Higher flow and feeding rates were more effective for the production of bio-oil, but did not greatly affect the bio-oil yields within the tested ranges. The use of product gas as the fluidizing medium had a potential for increased bio-oil yields.

  16. Production of hydrogen, liquid fuels, and chemicals from catalytic processing of bio-oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, George W; Vispute, Tushar P; Routray, Kamalakanta

    2014-06-03

    Disclosed herein is a method of generating hydrogen from a bio-oil, comprising hydrogenating a water-soluble fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrogenation catalyst, and reforming the water-soluble fraction by aqueous-phase reforming in the presence of a reforming catalyst, wherein hydrogen is generated by the reforming, and the amount of hydrogen generated is greater than that consumed by the hydrogenating. The method can further comprise hydrocracking or hydrotreating a lignin fraction of the bio-oil with hydrogen in the presence of a hydrocracking catalyst wherein the lignin fraction of bio-oil is obtained as a water-insoluble fraction from aqueous extraction of bio-oil. The hydrogen used in the hydrogenating and in the hydrocracking or hydrotreating can be generated by reforming the water-soluble fraction of bio-oil.

  17. Upgrading the lubricity of bio-oil via homogeneous catalytic esterification under vacuum distillation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yufu; Zheng, Xiaojing; Peng, Yubin; Li, Bao; Hu, Xianguo; Yin, Yanguo

    2015-01-01

    In order to accelerate the application of bio-oil in the internal combustion engines, homogeneous catalytic esterification technology under vacuum distillation conditions was used to upgrade the crude bio-oil. The lubricities of the crude bio-oil (BO) and refined bio-oil with homogeneous catalytic esterification (RBO hce ) or refined bio-oil without catalyst but with distillation operation (RBO wc ) were evaluated by a high frequency reciprocating test rig according to the ASTM D 6079 standard. The basic physiochemical properties and components of the bio-oils were analyzed. The surface morphology, contents and chemical valence of active elements on the worn surfaces were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, respectively. The results show that RBO hce has better lubricities than those of BO, but RBO wc has worse lubricities than those of BO. The tribological mechanisms of the bio-oils are attributed to the combined actions of lubricating films and factors that will break the film. Compared with BO, plenty of phenols in RBO wc results in corrosion of the substrate and destroys the integrity of the lubricating films, which is responsible for its corrosive wear. However, more esters and alkanes in RBO hce contribute to forming a complete boundary lubricating film on the rubbed surfaces which result in its excellent antifriction and antiwear properties. - Highlights: • Refined bio-oil was prepared through homogeneous catalytic esterification technology. • Properties of the bio-oils before and after refining were assessed by HFRR. • Refined bio-oil showed better lubricities than crude bio-oil. • More esters and alkanes in refined bio-oil contributed to forming superior boundary lubrication

  18. Production of bio-oil from underutilized forest biomass using an auger reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    H. Ravindran; S. Thangalzhy-Gopakumar; S. Adhikari; O. Fasina; M. Tu; B. Via; E. Carter; S. Taylor

    2015-01-01

    Conversion of underutilized forest biomass to bio-oil could be a niche market for energy production. In this work, bio-oil was produced from underutilized forest biomass at selected temperatures between 425–500°C using an auger reactor. Physical properties of bio-oil, such as pH, density, heating value, ash, and water, were analyzed and compared with an ASTM standard...

  19. Enhancing biochar yield by co-pyrolysis of bio-oil with biomass: impacts of potassium hydroxide addition and air pretreatment prior to co-pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veksha, Andrei; Zaman, Waheed; Layzell, David B; Hill, Josephine M

    2014-11-01

    The influence of KOH addition and air pretreatment on co-pyrolysis (600 °C) of a mixture of bio-oil and biomass (aspen wood) was investigated with the goal of increasing biochar yield. The bio-oil was produced as a byproduct of the pyrolysis of biomass and recycled in subsequent runs. Co-pyrolysis of the biomass with the recycled bio-oil resulted in a 16% mass increase in produced biochar. The yields were further increased by either air pretreatment or KOH addition prior to co-pyrolysis. Air pretreatment at 220 °C for 3 h resulted in the highest mass increase (32%) compared to the base case of pyrolysis of biomass only. No synergistic benefit was observed by combining KOH addition with air pretreatment. In fact, KOH catalyzed reactions that increased the bed temperature resulting in carbon loss via formation of CO and CO2. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Hydropyrolysis of sugar cane bagasse: effect of sample configuration on bio-oil yields and structures from two bench-scale reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pindoria, R.V.; Chatzakis, I.N.; Lim, J.-Y.; Herod, A.A.; Dugwell, D.R.; Kandiyoti, R. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Chemical Technology

    1999-01-01

    A wire-mesh reactor has been used as base-case in the study of product yields and structures from the pyrolysis and hydropyrolysis of a sample of sugar cane bagasse in a fixed bed `hot-rod` reactor. Results from the two reactors have been compared to determine how best to assess bench-scale data which might be used for eventual process development. Experiments have been carried out at 600{degree}C at pressures up to 70 bar. Structural features of the bio-oils have been examined by size exclusion chromatography and FT-infrared spectroscopy. In both reactors the effect of increasing pressure was to reduce the bio-oil and total volatile yields: hydropyrolysis bio-oil yields were marginally higher than pyrolysis yields under equivalent operating conditions. The data indicate that about one-third of the original biomass may be converted to oil by direct pyrolysis. 33 refs., 10 figs.

  1. An overview of empty fruit bunch from oil palm as feedstock for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Siu Hua

    2014-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) from oil palm is one of the potential biomass to produce biofuels like bio-oil due to its abundant supply and favorable physicochemical characteristics. Confirming the assertion, this paper presents an overview of EFB as a feedstock for bio-oil production. The fundamental characteristics of EFB in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and chemical composition, as well as the recent advances in EFB conversion processes for bio-oil production like pyrolysis and solvolysis are outlined and discussed. A comparison of properties in terms of proximate analysis, ultimate analysis and fuel properties between the bio-oil from EFB and petroleum fuel oil is included. The major challenges and future prospects towards the utilization of EFB as a useful resource for bio-oil production are also addressed. - Highlights: • Palm EFB has high heating value and low greenhouse gas emissions during combustion. • Conversion of EFB to bio-oil is mainly by fast pyrolysis without and with catalyst. • Bio-oil from EFB is lower in heating value, heavier and more acidic than fuel oil. • The viscosity of bio-oil from EFB is between those of light and heavy fuel oils. • The flash and pour points of bio-oil from EFB are close to those of light fuel oil

  2. Bio-oils from biomass slow pyrolysis: a chemical and toxicological screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordella, Mauro; Torri, Cristian; Adamiano, Alessio; Fabbri, Daniele; Barontini, Federica; Cozzani, Valerio

    2012-09-15

    Bio-oils were produced from bench-scale slow-pyrolysis of three different biomass samples (corn stalks, poplar and switchgrass). Experimental protocols were developed and applied in order to screen their chemical composition. Several hazardous compounds were detected in the bio-oil samples analysed, including phenols, furans and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. A procedure was outlined and applied to the assessment of toxicological and carcinogenic hazards of the bio-oils. The following hazardous properties were considered: acute toxicity; ecotoxicity; chronic toxicity; carcinogenicity. Parameters related to these properties were quantified for each component identified in the bio-oils and overall values were estimated for the bio-oils. The hazard screening carried out for the three bio-oils considered suggested that: (i) hazards to human health could be associated with chronic exposures to the bio-oils; (ii) acute toxic effects on humans and eco-toxic effects on aquatic ecosystems could also be possible in the case of loss of containment; and (iii) bio-oils may present a marginal potential carcinogenicity. The approach outlined allows the collection of screening information on the potential hazards posed by the bio-oils. This can be particularly useful when limited time and analytical resources reduce the possibility to obtain detailed specific experimental data. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Thermogravimetric investigation on the degradation properties and combustion performance of bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Xueyong; Meng, Jiajia; Moore, Andrew M; Chang, Jianmin; Gou, Jinsheng; Park, Sunkyu

    2014-01-01

    The degradation properties and combustion performance of raw bio-oil, aged bio-oil, and bio-oil from torrefied wood were investigated through thermogravimetric analysis. A three-stage process was observed for the degradation of bio-oils, including devolatilization of the aqueous fraction and light compounds, transition of the heavy faction to solid, and combustion of carbonaceous residues. Pyrolysis kinetics parameters were calculated via the reaction order model and 3D-diffusion model, and combustion indexes were used to qualitatively evaluate the thermal profiles of tested bio-oils for comparison with commercial oils such as fuel oils. It was found that aged bio-oil was more thermally instable and produced more combustion-detrimental carbonaceous solid. Raw bio-oil and bio-oil from torrefied wood had comparable combustion performance to fuel oils. It was considered that bio-oil has a potential to be mixed with or totally replace the fuel oils in boilers. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Characterization of the lubricity of bio-oil/diesel fuel blends by high frequency reciprocating test rig

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yufu; Wang, Qiongjie; Hu, Xianguo; Li, Chuan; Zhu, Xifeng

    2010-01-01

    The diesel fuel was mixed with the rice husk bio-oil using some emulsifiers based on the theory of Hydrophile-Lipophile Balance (HLB). The lubricity of the bio-oil/diesel fuel blend was studied on a High Frequency Reciprocating Test Rig (HFRR) according to ASTM D 6079-2004. The microscopic topography and chemical composition on the worn surface were analyzed respectively using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). The profile and surface roughness of the rubbed trace were measured using a profilometer. The chemical group and composition were studied by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR). The results showed that the lubrication ability of the present fuel blend was better than that of the Chinese conventional diesel fuel (number zero). However, the anti-corrosion and anti-wear properties of the fuel blend were not satisfactory in comparison with those of conventional diesel fuel.

  5. Selective pyrolysis of paper mill sludge by using pretreatment processes to enhance the quality of bio-oil and biochar products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reckamp, Joseph M.; Garrido, Rene A.; Satrio, Justinus A.

    2014-01-01

    Paper mill sludge (PMS) is a residual biomass that is generated at paper mills in large quantities. Currently, PMS is commonly disposed in landfills, which causes environmental issues through chemical leaching and greenhouse gas production. In this research, we are exploring the potential of fast pyrolysis process for converting PMS into useful bio-oil and biochar products. We demonstrate that by subjecting PMS to a combination of acid hydrolysis and torrefaction pre-treatment processes it is possible to alter the physicochemical properties and composition of the feedstock material. Fast pyrolysis of pretreated PMS produced bio-oil with significantly higher selectivity to levoglucosenone and significantly reduced the amount of ketone, aldehyde, and organic acid components. Pretreatment of PMS with combined 4% mass fraction phosphoric acid hydrolysis and 220 °C torrefaction processed prior to fast pyrolysis resulted in a 17 times increase of relative selectivity towards levoglucosenone in bio-oil product along with a reduction of acids, ketones, and aldehydes combined from 21 % to 11 %. Biochar, produced in higher yield, has characteristics that potentially make the solid byproduct ideal for soil amendment agent or sorbent material. This work reveals a promising process system to convert PMS waste into useful bio-based products. More in-depth research is required to gather more data information for assessing the economic and sustainability aspects of the process. - Highlights: • Acid hydrolysis and torrefaction reduce bio-oil yield, but improve quality. • Dilute acid conditions provide optimal treatment for bio-oil quality and yield. • Pyrolysis of treated PMS produces high selectivity to levoglucosenone formation. • Treated PMS produces bio-oil with reduced acid, ketone, and aldehyde content. • Pyrolysis of treated PMS produces biochar with low volatile matter in high yield

  6. Catalytic Hydrotreatment of Light Distillates Obtained from Bio-Oil for Use in Oxygenated Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianwei Zheng

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil can be fractionated into three parts according to their boiling points. This research reported that light distillates could be converted into oxygenated liquid fuels through a two-stage hydrotreatment approach, using a Pd/C catalyst. The main goal of the first hydrotreatment stage was to stabilize the high active components, which contained carbon–carbon double bonds and aldehyde groups. The second hydrotreatment stage aimed to saturate the components with benzene rings and keto groups, resulting in saturated oxygenated compounds. The H/Ceff ratio was improved greatly after the two-stage hydrotreatment, increasing from 0.51 (in the reactant to 1.67 (in the final products. The high heating value of the final products was 31.63 MJ/kg. After the two-stage hydrotreatment, the main products were C5–C9 alcohols, which were tested via gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. The products could be blended with gasoline directly. Based on the experiments regarding the hydrogenated model compounds, a reaction schematic for the two-stage hydrotreatment was created. Moreover, the bio-oil hydrotreatment kinetics were investigated. The order of the hydrotreatment reaction was 2.0, and the apparent activation energy (Ea was 57.29 KJ/mol.

  7. Air Permitting Implications of a Biorefinery Producing Raw Bio-Oil in Comparison with Producing Gasoline and Diesel Blendstocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhatt, Arpit H [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Yi Min [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-01

    A biorefinery, considered a chemical process plant under the Clean Air Act permitting program, could be classified as a major or minor source based on the size of the facility and magnitude of regulated pollutants emitted. Our previous analysis indicates that a biorefinery using fast pyrolysis conversion process to produce finished gasoline and diesel blendstocks with a capacity of processing 2,000 dry metric tons of biomass per day would likely be classified as a major source because several regulated pollutants (such as particulate matter, sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide) are estimated to exceed the 100 tons per year (tpy) major source threshold, applicable to chemical process plants. Being subject to a major source classification could pose additional challenges associated with obtaining an air permit in a timely manner before the biorefinery can start its construction. Recent developments propose an alternative approach to utilize bio-oil produced via the fast pyrolysis conversion process by shipping it to an existing petroleum refinery, where the raw bio-oil can be blended with petroleum-based feedstocks (e.g., vacuum gas oil) to produce gasoline and diesel blendstocks with renewable content. Without having to hydro-treat raw bio-oil, a biorefinery is likely to reduce its potential-to-emit to below the 100 tpy major source threshold, and therefore expedite its permitting process. We compare the PTE estimates for the two biorefinery designs with and without hydrotreating of bio-oils and examine the air permitting implications on potential air permit classification and discuss the best available control technology requirements for the major source biorefinery utilizing hydrotreating operation. Our analysis is expected to provide useful information to new biofuel project developers to identify opportunities to overcome challenges associated with air permitting.

  8. Hydrodeoxygenation of oxidized distilled bio-oil for the production of gasoline fuel type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Yan; Guda, Vamshi Krishna; Hassan, El Barbary; Steele, Philip H.; Mitchell, Brian; Yu, Fei

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Oxidation had more influence on the yield of total hydrocarbons than distillation. • The highest total hydrocarbon yield was obtained from oxidized distilled bio-oil. • The 2nd-stage hydrocarbons were in the range of gasoline fuel boiling points. • The main products for upgrading of oxidized bio-oil were aliphatic hydrocarbons. • The main products for upgrading of non-oxidized bio-oil were aromatic hydrocarbons. - Abstract: Distilled and oxidized distilled bio-oils were subjected to 1st-stage mild hydrodeoxygenation and 2nd-stage full hydrodeoxygenation using nickel/silica–alumina catalyst as a means to enhance hydrocarbon yield. Raw bio-oil was treated for hydrodeoxygenation as a control to which to compare study treatments. Following two-stage hydrodeoxygenation, four types of hydrocarbons were mainly comprised of gasoline and had water contents, oxygen contents and total acid numbers of nearly zero and higher heating values of 44–45 MJ/kg. Total hydrocarbon yields for raw bio-oil, oxidized raw bio-oil, distilled bio-oil and oxidized distilled bio-oil were 11.6, 16.2, 12.9 and 20.5 wt.%, respectively. The results indicated that oxidation had the most influence on increasing the yield of gasoline fuel type followed by distillation. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry characterization showed that 66.0–76.6% of aliphatic hydrocarbons and 19.5–31.6% of aromatic hydrocarbons were the main products for oxidized bio-oils while 35.5–38.7% of aliphatic hydrocarbons and 58.2–63.1% of aromatic hydrocarbons were the main products for non-oxidized bio-oils. Both aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons are important components for liquid transportation fuels and chemical products.

  9. Stabilization of Bio-Oil Fractions for Insertion into Petroleum Refineries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Smith, Ryan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Wright, Mark [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States); Elliott, Douglas [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Resasco, Daniel [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States); Crossley, Steven [Univ. of Oklahoma, Norman, OK (United States)

    2014-09-28

    This project is part of a collaboration effort between Iowa State University (ISU), University of Oklahoma (OK) and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). The purpose of this project is to stabilize bio-oil fractions and improve their suitability for insertion into petroleum refineries. Bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass is a complex mixture of unstable organic compounds. These organic compounds react under standard room conditions resulting in increases in bio-oil viscosity and water content – both detrimental for bio-oil storage and transportation. This study employed fractionation and upgrading systems to improve the stability of bio-oil. The fractionation system consists of a series of condensers, and electrostatic precipitators designed to separate bio-oil into five fractions: soluble carbohydrates (SF1&2), clean phenolic oligomers (CPO) and middle fraction (SF3&4), light oxygenates (SF5). A two-stage upgrading process was designed to process bio-oil stage fractions into stable products that can be inserted into a refinery. In the upgrading system, heavy and middle bio-oil fractions were upgraded into stable oil via cracking and subsequent hydrodeoxygenation. The light oxygenate fraction was steam reformed to provide a portion of requisite hydrogen for hydroprocessing. Hydrotreating and hydrocracking employed hydrogen from natural gas, fuel gas and light oxygenates reforming. The finished products from this study consist of gasoline- and diesel-blend stock fuels.

  10. Catalytic upgrading of bio-oil produced from hydrothermal liquefaction of Nannochloropsis sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Rajdeep; Adhikari, Sushil; Mahadevan, Ravishankar; Hassan, El Barbary; Dempster, Thomas A

    2018-03-01

    Upgrading of bio-oil obtained from hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of algae is necessary for it to be used as a fuel. In this study, bio-oil obtained from HTL of Nannochloropsis sp. was upgraded using five different catalysts (Ni/C, ZSM-5, Ni/ZSM-5, Ru/C and Pt/C) at 300 °C and 350 °C. The upgraded bio-oil yields were higher at 300 °C; however, higher quality upgraded bio-oils were obtained at 350 °C. Ni/C gave the maximum upgraded bio-oil yield (61 wt%) at 350 °C. However, noble metal catalysts (Ru/C and Pt/C) gave the better upgraded bio-oils in terms of acidity, heating values, and nitrogen values. The higher heating value of the upgraded bio-oils ranged from 40 to 44 MJ/kg, and the nitrogen content decreased from 5.37 to 1.29 wt%. Most of the upgraded bio-oils (35-40 wt%) were in the diesel range. The major components present in the gaseous products were CH 4 , CO, CO 2 and lower alkanes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of bio-oil and bio-char production from algae by slow pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaiwong, K.; Kiatsiriroat, T.; Vorayos, N.; Thararax, C.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. A thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) was used to investigate the pyrolytic characteristics and essential components of algae. It was found that the temperature for the maximum degradation, 322 °C, is lower than that of other biomass. With our fixed-bed reactor, 125 g of dried Spirulina Sp. algae was fed under a nitrogen atmosphere until the temperature reached a set temperature between 450 and 600 °C. It was found that the suitable temperature to obtain bio-char and bio-oil were at approximately 500 and 550 °C respectively. The bio-oil components were identified by a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS). The saturated functional carbon of the bio-oil was in a range of heavy naphtha, kerosene and diesel oil. The energy consumption ratio (ECR) of bio-oil and bio-char was calculated, and the net energy output was positive. The ECR had an average value of 0.49. -- Highlights: •Bio-oil and bio-char fuel produced from Spirulina Sp. by slow pyrolysis. •Suitable temperature to obtained bio-oil and bio-char were at about 550 and 500 °C. •Saturated functional carbon of bio-oil was heavy naphtha, kerosene, diesel oil. •ECR had an average value of 0.49

  12. Study on Evaporation Characteristics of Bio-oil and its Compound Models

    OpenAIRE

    Tan Long; Ming Li; Yixin Chen; Xifeng Zhu

    2014-01-01

    In this study, bio-oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and the evaporation characteristics of bio-oil were studied at different heating rates (10, 20, and 30 °C/min) from 35 °C to 250 °C by a thermal analyzer (TG-DSC). The TG-DSC results of bio-oil showed that the heat requirement of bio-oil during the evaporation process ranged from 2.072103 to 2.299103 J/g, and the bio-oil activation energy ranged from 1.22×104 to 3.34×104 J/mol. Moreover, four models with fi...

  13. Bio-Oil Deployment in the Home Heating Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Mante, O. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Celebi, Y. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Huber, J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-07-01

    Distillate fuel oil is used in many stationary heating applications, predominantly in the Northeastern part of the United States. Total estimated non-transportation distillate use in 2014 was estimated to be 10.9 billion gallons. This study has focused on potentially displacing part of this petroleum use with biofuel derived from woody biomass. The fuel production route considered is pyrolysis which creates a liquid fuel high in oxygen, organic acids, and water. While this fuel can be used in stationary applications without significant further processing, to do so would require significant upgrades in current heating equipment. Alternatively this raw pyrolysis oil can be upgraded through catalytic hydrogenation to produce a bio-oil with near-negligible oxygen, water, and acidity. The focus of this work has been exploration of such upgraded fuels. The quality of upgraded fuels is affected by process conditions and there is a cost /quality tradeoff.

  14. Oxygen speciation in upgraded fast pyrolysis bio-oils by comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omais, Badaoui; Crepier, Julien; Charon, Nadège; Courtiade, Marion; Quignard, Alain; Thiébaut, Didier

    2013-04-21

    by standards injection at different concentrations) was created. A detailed molecular quantification by GC × GC-FID was therefore accessible after integration of the corrected normalized areas. This paper aims to present a detail level in terms of characterization of oxygenated compounds in upgraded bio-oils which to our knowledge has never been reached so far. It is based on an original column set selection and an extremely accurate quantification procedure.

  15. Properties of chicken manure pyrolysis bio-oil blended with diesel and its combustion characteristics in RCEM, Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunbong Lee

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil (bio-oil was produced from chicken manure in a pilot-scale pyrolysis facility. The raw bio-oil had a very high viscosity and sediments which made direct application to diesel engines difficult. The bio-oil was blended with diesel fuel with 25% and 75% volumetric ratio at the normal temperature, named as blend 25. A rapid compression and expansion machine was used for a combustion test under the experimental condition corresponding to the medium operation point of a light duty diesel engine using diesel fuel, and blend 25 for comparison. The injection related pressure signal and cylinder pressure signal were instantaneously picked up to analyze the combustion characteristics in addition to the measurement of NOx and smoke emissions. Blend 25 resulted in reduction of the smoke emission by 80% and improvements of the apparent combustion efficiency while the NOx emission increased by 40%. A discussion was done based on the analysis results of combustion.

  16. Catalytic cracking of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Dan; Wang, Lijun; Shahbazi, Abolghasem; Xiu, Shuangning; Zhang, Bo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-oil from glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure was cracked over zeolite. • 30-Min cracking on 5% catalyst at 400 °C yielded 46.1% bio-oil with 62.5% recovered energy. • 30-Min cracking on 5% catalyst at 400 °C removed 55.74% oxygen in the crude bio-oil. • The heating value and viscosity of the upgraded bio-oil were 41.4 MJ/kg and 3.6 cP. • Long chain acid methyl esters were cracked into alkanes, alkenes and short chain esters. - Abstract: The crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure which had large amount of long chain esters, was upgraded by thermal cracking over a modified zeolite catalyst. The effects of thermal cracking temperature (350–425 °C), reaction time (15–60 min) and catalyst loading (0–10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. The yield of upgraded bio-oil decreased with the increase of reaction temperature, reaction time and catalyst loading, but the viscosity, heating value and composition of the upgraded bio-oil became more desirable. Taking into the consideration both the yield and quality of the upgraded bio-oil, the optimal thermal cracking could be achieved over 5 wt% catalyst at 400 °C for 30 min. Under this condition, the yield of upgraded bio-oil was 46.14 wt% of the crude bio-oil, and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered. The oxygen content of the upgraded bio-oil was 15.04%, which was less than half of the original value of 33.98%. The viscosity of the upgraded bio-oil was 3.6 cP, compared with 188.9 cP for the crude bio-oil. The heating value of the upgraded bio-oil was 41.4 MJ/kg, compared with 30.54 MJ/kg for the crude bio-oil. Both the viscosity and heating value of the upgraded bio-oil were comparable to those of commercial diesel. The GC–MS analysis showed that the catalytic upgrading resulted in the increased cracking of long-chain acid methyl esters (such as hexadecanoic acid methyl ester

  17. Estimation and Comparison of Bio-Oil Components from Different Pyrolysis Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyu, Gaojin [Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Science and Technology of Ministry of Education, Qilu University of Technology, Jinan (China); State Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China); Wu, Shubin, E-mail: shubinwu@scut.edu.cn; Zhang, Hongdan [State Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2015-06-15

    In the case of development and utilization of bio-oils, a quantitative chemical characterization is necessary to evaluate its actual desired characteristics for downstream production. This paper describes an analytical approach for the determination of families of lightweight chemicals from bio-oils by using GC-MS techniques. And on this basis, new explorations in the field of influence factors, such as feedstocks, pyrolysis temperatures, and low-temperature pretreatment, on the composition and products yields of bio-oil were further investigated. Up to 40% (wt.%) of the bio-oil is successfully quantified by the current method. Chemical functionalities in the bio-oil correlate strongly with the original feedstocks because of their different chemical compositions and structure. Pyrolysis temperature plays a vital role in the yields of value-added compounds, both overall and individually. Higher temperature favored the generation of small aldehydes and acids, accompanied by a reduction of phenols. The optimal temperatures for maximum furans and ketones yields were 520 and 550°C, respectively. The low-temperature pretreatment of biomass has a good enrichment for the lightweight components of the bio-oils. In this case, much higher amounts of compounds, such as furans, ketones, and phenols were produced. Such a determination would contribute greatly to a deeper understanding of the chemical efficiency of the pyrolysis reaction and how the bio-oils could be more properly utilized.

  18. Study on Evaporation Characteristics of Bio-oil and its Compound Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Long

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, bio-oil was analyzed by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS, and the evaporation characteristics of bio-oil were studied at different heating rates (10, 20, and 30 °C/min from 35 °C to 250 °C by a thermal analyzer (TG-DSC. The TG-DSC results of bio-oil showed that the heat requirement of bio-oil during the evaporation process ranged from 2.072103 to 2.299103 J/g, and the bio-oil activation energy ranged from 1.22×104 to 3.34×104 J/mol. Moreover, four models with five compounds (methanol, water, ethanol, furfural, and phenol were established to study the bio-oil evaporation process. By comparing the TG-DSC results of bio-oil and its models at 30 °C/min, it was shown that the optimal model was model 2, which has the following chemical composition: methanol (27.10 wt.%, water (44.96 wt.%, ethanol (16.24 wt.%, furfural (4.40 wt.%, and phenol (7.30 wt.%. Model 2 exhibited a minimal relative error in dynamic parameters and characteristic curve parameters. The errors for activation energy of the TG, activation energy of the DSC, maximum endothermic rates, and the total of the heat absorption were 3.04%, 5.88%, 2.49%, and 1.06%, respectively.

  19. Phase separation of bio-oil produced by co-pyrolysis of corn cobs and polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supramono, D.; Julianto; Haqqyana; Setiadi, H.; Nasikin, M.

    2017-11-01

    In co-pyrolysis of biomass-plastics, bio-oil produced contains both oxygenated and non-oxygenated compounds. High oxygen composition is responsible for instability and low heating value of bio-oil and high acid content for corrosiveness. Aims of the present work are to evaluate possibilities of achieving phase separation between oxygenated and non-oxygenated compounds in bio-oil using a proposed stirred tank reactor and to achieve synergistic effects on bio-oil yield and non-oxygenated compound layer yield. Separation of bio-oil into two layers, i.e. that containing oxygenated compounds (polar phase) and non-oxygenated compounds (non-polar phase) is important to obtain pure non-polar phase ready for the next processing of hydrogenation and used directly as bio-fuel. There has been no research work on co-pyrolysis of biomass-plastic considering possibility of phase separation of bio-oil. The present work is proposing a stirred tank reactor for co-pyrolysis with nitrogen injection, which is capable of tailoring co-pyrolysis conditions leading to low viscosity and viscosity asymmetry, which induce phase separation between polar phase and non-polar phase. The proposed reactor is capable of generating synergistic effect on bio-oil and non-polar yields as the composition of PP in feed is more than 25% weight in which non-polar layers contain only alkanes, alkenes, cycloalkanes and cycloalkenes.

  20. Estimation and Comparison of Bio-Oil Components from Different Pyrolysis Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyu, Gaojin; Wu, Shubin; Zhang, Hongdan

    2015-01-01

    In the case of development and utilization of bio-oils, a quantitative chemical characterization is necessary to evaluate its actual desired characteristics for downstream production. This paper describes an analytical approach for the determination of families of lightweight chemicals from bio-oils by using GC-MS techniques. And on this basis, new explorations in the field of influence factors, such as feedstocks, pyrolysis temperatures, and low-temperature pretreatment, on the composition and products yields of bio-oil were further investigated. Up to 40% (wt.%) of the bio-oil is successfully quantified by the current method. Chemical functionalities in the bio-oil correlate strongly with the original feedstocks because of their different chemical compositions and structure. Pyrolysis temperature plays a vital role in the yields of value-added compounds, both overall and individually. Higher temperature favored the generation of small aldehydes and acids, accompanied by a reduction of phenols. The optimal temperatures for maximum furans and ketones yields were 520 and 550°C, respectively. The low-temperature pretreatment of biomass has a good enrichment for the lightweight components of the bio-oils. In this case, much higher amounts of compounds, such as furans, ketones, and phenols were produced. Such a determination would contribute greatly to a deeper understanding of the chemical efficiency of the pyrolysis reaction and how the bio-oils could be more properly utilized.

  1. Selective Production of Aromatic Aldehydes from Heavy Fraction of Bio-oil via Catalytic Oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Yan; Chang, Jie; Ouyang, Yong; Zheng, Xianwei

    2014-01-01

    High value-added aromatic aldehydes (e. g. vanillin and syringaldehyde) were produced from heavy fraction of bio-oil (HFBO) via catalytic oxidation. The concept is based on the use of metalloporphyin as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) as oxidant under alkaline condition. The biomimetic catalyst cobalt(II)-sulfonated tetraphenylporphyrin (Co(TPPS 4 )) was prepared and characterized. It exhibited relative high activity in the catalytic oxidation of HFBO. 4.57 wt % vanillin and 1.58 wt % syringaldehyde were obtained from catalytic oxidation of HFBO, compared to 2.6 wt % vanillin and 0.86 wt % syringaldehyde without Co(TPPS 4 ). Moreover, a possible mechanism of HFBO oxidation using Co(TPPS 4 )/H 2 O 2 was proposed by the research of model compounds. The results showed that this is a promising and environmentally friendly method for production of aromatic aldehydes from HFBO under Co(TPPS 4 )/H 2 O 2 system

  2. Screening of Catalysts for Hydrodeoxygenation of Phenol as Model Compound for Bio-oil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2013-01-01

    Four groups of catalysts have been tested for hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of phenol as a model compound of bio-oil, including: oxide catalysts, methanol synthesis catalysts, reduced noble metal catalysts, and reduced non-noble metal catalysts. In total 23 different catalysts were tested at 100 bar H2...... and 275 °C in a batch reactor. The experiments showed that none of the tested oxides and methanol synthesis catalysts had any significant activity for phenol HDO at the given conditions, which were linked to their inability to hydrogenate the phenol. HDO of phenol over reduced metal catalysts could...... on a carbon support, but more active than the carbon supported noble metal catalysts when supported on ZrO2. This observation indicates that the nickel based catalysts require a metal oxide as carrier on which the activation of the phenol for the hydrogenation can take place through heterolytic dissociation...

  3. Thermal cracking of Enteromorpha prolifera with solvents to bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Linhua; Hu, Mingming; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Daoxiang; Jiang, Cuiyu

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermal cracking of EP gave rise to a maximum bio-oil yield of 27.4 wt.% at 340 °C and 40 min. • The maximum liquid yield of EP/ethonal is 36.7 wt.% at 300 °C and 30 min. • The maximum liquid yield of EP/VGO is 90.5 wt.% at 300 °C and 30 min. • The HHV of bio-oil from thermal cracking of EP/VGO is 44.51 MJ/kg. • This process has the potential for industrial production of bio-oil from EP. - Abstract: Enteromorpha prolifera (EP) is a renewable energy source that was evaluated as a feedstock to produce bio-oil by thermal cracking. Harvesting EP for bio-oil production will also reduce the damage of green tide on ocean ecology. Effects of reaction temperature between 220 and 380 °C and reaction time between 20 and 80 min on the bio-oil yield and gas and solid thermal cracking products were investigated. Effects of solvents (i.e., ethanol and vacuum gas oil (VGO)) on the yields of bio-oil, gas and solid were also studied. EP, VGO and products from thermal cracking were analyzed by elemental analysis, gas chromatography–mass spectra and gas chromatography. Results indicate that thermal cracking of EP with VGO (EP/VGO) gave rise to the maximum bio-oil yield of 90.5% at 300 °C with a reaction time of 30 min. Higher heating values and elemental analysis demonstrate that this process has the potential for industrial production of bio-oil from EP

  4. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis; Biooeljyn tuotanto flash-pyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    The target of the R and D work is to study the production of bio-oils using Flash-pyrolysis technology and utilisation of the bio-oil in oil-fuelled boilers. The PDU-unit was installed at VTT Energy in Otaniemi in April 1996. The first test were carried out in June. In the whole project Vapo Oy is responsible for: acquiring the 20 kg/h PDU-device for development; follow up of the engine tests; the investment of 5 MW demonstration plant; to carry on the boiler and engine tests with Finnish bio-oils. (orig.)

  5. Hydrodeoxygenation of Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Over Ni Impregnated Mesoporous Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, In-Gu; Lee, Heejin; Kang, Bo Sung; Kim, Young-Min; Kim, Sang Chai; Jung, Sang-Chul; Ko, Chang Hyun; Park, Young-Kwon

    2018-02-01

    The catalytic hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of bio-oil over Ni-supported mesoporous materials was performed using a high pressure autoclave reactor. The actual pyrolysis oil of cork oak wood was used as a sample, and Ni/Al-SBA-15 and Ni/Al-MSU-F were used as catalysts. In addition, supercritical ethanol was added as solvent. Both Ni-supported mesoporous catalysts showed efficient HDO reaction ability. A higher heating value and pH of bio-oil were achieved by the HDO reaction over both catalysts and upgraded bio-oil had a lower viscosity. Compared to Ni/Al-MSU-F, Ni/Al- SBA-15 produced more upgraded bio-oil with a lower oxygen content and higher heating value via a catalytic HDO process.

  6. Study of hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil from the fast pyrolysis of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Su-ping, Z. [ECUST, Shanghai (China). Dept. of Chemical Engineering for Energy Resources

    2003-01-01

    The bio-oil obtained from the fast pyrolysis of biomass has a high oxygen content. Ketones and aldehydes, carboxylic acids and esters, aliphatic and aromatic alcohols, and ethers have been detected in significant quantities. Because of the reactivity of oxygenated groups, the main problems of the oil are instability. Therefore study of the deoxygenation of bio-oil is needed. In the present work the mechanism of hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of bio-oil in the presence of a cobalt molybdate catalyst was studied. Particularly, the effects of reaction time, temperature, and hydrogen pressure on the HDO activity were examined. On the experimental results, a kinetic model for HDO of bio-oil was proposed. (author)

  7. Pengaruh Jenis Bahan pada Proses Pirolisis Sampah Organik menjadi Bio-Oil sebagai Sumber Energi Terbarukan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Sigit Cahyono

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Sampah organik merupakan potensi sumber energi yang melimpah di Indonesia. Sampah organik berupa daun dan ranting kering bisa dikonversi menjadi bahan bakar berupa bio-oil melalui proses fast pirolisis. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh jenis bahan terhadap rendemen dan nilai kalor bio-oil yang dihasilkan dari proses pirolisis sampah organik. Bahan baku berupa daun dan ranting kering campuran tanaman angsana, mahoni dan mangga dengan komposisi daun bervariasi 0%, 50%, dan 100%, dipotong-potong dengan ukuran maksimal 10 cm. Kemudian bahan baku tersebut dipanaskan di dalam reaktor pirolisis pada suhu 500 C selama 1 jam. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa nilai kalor tertinggi (5175,35 J/g dan rendemen tertinggi (24,5% didapatkan pada bio-oil yang dihasilkan dari pirolisis ranting 100%. Kata kunci: Sampah Organik, Bio-oil, Pirolisis, Rendemen, Nilai Kalor

  8. Solubility of carbon monoxide in bio-oil compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qureshi, Muhammad Saad; Le Nedelec, Tom; Guerrero-Amaya, Hernando; Uusi-Kyyny, Petri; Richon, Dominique; Alopaeus, Ville

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • CO solubility was measured in four bio-oil compounds using static-analytic VLE equipment. • A comparison on the performance of different EoS (PC-SAFT, SRK and PR) was made. • Modelling of polar compounds with Polar PC-SAFT was tested. • Polar PC-SAFT is not needed for weakly polar compounds (μ < 1.0 D). - Abstract: The solubility of carbon monoxide is measured in four different bio-oil compounds (furan, diacetyl, 2-methylfuran, and trans-crotonaldehyde) at temperatures (273.15, 283.15, 298.15, and 323.15 K) and pressures up to 8 MPa using a static-analytical VLE measurement method. The equipment was validated by measuring the solubility of CO 2 in methanol at 298.15 K and pressures (P = 2.9–5.7 MPa). The results were compared with the abundantly available literature values. PC-SAFT, Polar PC-SAFT (PPC-SAFT), and Cubic (SRK, PR) EoS, part of commercial process simulator Aspen Plus V. 8.6, are used here for modelling purpose. The pure component parameters needed for PC-SAFT and PPC-SAFT EoS models, are regressed using the experimental liquid density and vapour pressure data of the pure components. It was observed that furan, 2-methylfuran and diacetyl, having weak dipole moments (μ < 1.0 D), could be modelled reasonably well without the addition of polar contribution using conventional PC-SAFT, while it is recommended to use PPC-SAFT for the description of a polar compound like trans-crotonaldehyde (μ ∼ 3.67 D). It was observed that SRK and PR EoS have similar predictive ability in comparison to PC-SAFT for a mixture of CO with weakly polar compounds in this study. A comparison between the performances of EoS models was made in two ways: first by setting the binary interaction parameter k ij to zero, and second by adjusting a temperature-dependent binary interaction parameter (k ij ). All the models perform with comparable accuracy with adjusted binary interaction parameters. However, due to the large differences between the chemical and

  9. Hydrothermal liquefaction of cellulose to bio-oil under acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yin, Sudong; Tan, Zhongchao

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) at acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► Bio-oil compositions varied with acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► Reaction mechanisms varied with acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. ► HTL should be classified to acidic, neutral and alkaline processes. -- Abstract: Hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of biomass to bio-oil under alkaline or neutral conditions has been widely reported in literature. However, there has been limited data available in literature on comparing HTL of biomass to bio-oil under acidic, neutral, and alkaline in terms of chemical compositions and yields by using the same reaction conditions and reactor. Using cellulose as a feedstock we conducted the comparative studies for pH = 3, 7 and 14 at temperatures of 275–320 °C with reaction residence times of 0–30 min. Results showed that the chemical compositions of the bio-oils were different for acidic, neutral and alkaline conditions. Under acidic and neutral conditions, the main composition of HTL bio-oil was 5-(Hydroxymethyl)furfural (HMF). Under alkaline conditions, the main compounds became C 2–5 carboxylic acids. For bio-oil yields, it was observed that high temperatures and long residence times had negative effects, regardless of the pH levels. However, the corresponding reaction mechanisms are different. Under acidic conditions, the decrease in the bio-oil yields was mainly caused by polymerization of 5-HMF to solids. Under neutral conditions, the bio-oil yields decreased because 5-HMF was converted to both solid and gaseous products. Under alkaline conditions, the bio-oil decomposed to gases through the formation of short chain acids and aldehydes. Therefore, although they were all referred to as HTL bio-oil in literature, they were formed by different reaction pathways and had different properties due to their different chemical compositions. Given these differences, different strategies are recommended in this study to

  10. Compatibility Assessment of Fuel System Infrastructure Plastics with Bio-oil and Diesel Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kass, Michael D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Janke, Christopher James [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Connatser, Raynella M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Lewis, Samuel Arthur [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Keiser, James R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Fuels, Engines and Emissions Research Center; Gaston, Katherine [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States). National Bioenergy Center

    2017-12-05

    We report that bio-oil derived via fast pyrolysis is being developed as a renewable fuel option for petroleum distillates. The compatibility of neat bio-oil with 18 plastic types was evaluated using neat diesel fuel as the baseline. The plastic materials included polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), polyoxymethylene (POM), POM copolymer, high density polyethylene (HDPE), polybutylene terephthalate (PBT), polypropylene (PP), polyethylene terephthalate glycol (PETG), polythiourea (PTU), four nylon grades, and four thermosetting resins. Specimens of each material were immersed in the test fuels for a period of 16 weeks to achieve full saturation. Except for PP and HDPE, the plastic materials underwent higher volume expansion in bio-oil than in the baseline diesel (which was negligible in most cases). This volume increase corresponds to the higher polarity of the bio-oil. PPS, PET, and PTFE were unaffected by bio-oil exposure, but modest swelling (between 2 and 5%) occurred for the two acetals (POM and POM copolymer), Nylon-12, PBT, PETG, and the four resin grades. More moderate swelling (8–15%) was noted for Nylon-6, Nylon-6/6, and Nylon-11, and excessive swell (>40%) occurred for PTU. The nonpolar nature of PP and HDPE matches that of diesel, leading to higher solubility (swell) in this fuel type. Finally, the relatively low volume expansion following exposure indicates that many of the existing infrastructure plastics (excluding PTU) should be suitable for use with bio-oil.

  11. Stabilization of Softwood-Derived Pyrolysis Oils for Continuous Bio-oil Hydroprocessing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olarte, Mariefel V.; Zacher, Alan H.; Padmaperuma, Asanga B.; Burton, Sarah D.; Job, Heather M.; Lemmon, Teresa L.; Swita, Marie S.; Rotness, Leslie J.; Neuenschwander, Gary N.; Frye, John G.; Elliott, Douglas C.

    2015-10-15

    The use of fast pyrolysis as a potential renewable liquid transportation fuel alternative to crude oil depends on successful catalytic upgrading to produce a refinery-ready product with oxygen content and qualities (i.e. specific functional group or compound content) that is compatible with the product’s proposed insertion point. Catalytic upgrading of bio-oil requires high temperature and pressure, while similar to crude oil hydrotreating, is not as straightforward for the thermally unstable pyrolysis oil. For years, a two-temperature zone, downflow trickle bed reactor was the state-of-the art for continuous operation. However, pressure excursion due to plug formation still occurred, typically at the high temperature transition zone, leading to a process shutdown within 140 h. Recently, a bio-oil pre-treatment process, together with a robust commercial catalyst, was found to be enabling the continuous operation of the two-zone hydroprocessing system. Here, we report the results on pre-treating bio-oil at 413 K and 8.4 MPa of flowing H2 (500 L H2/L bio-oil, 0.5 L bio-oil/L catalyst bed) and the attempts to characterize this oil product to understand the chemistry which enabled the long-term processing of bio-oil.

  12. Physical and Chemical Properties of Bio-Oils From Microwave Pyrolysis of Corn Stover

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fei; Deng, Shaobo; Chen, Paul; Liu, Yuhuan; Wan, Yiqin; Olson, Andrew; Kittelson, David; Ruan, Roger

    This study was aimed to understand the physical and chemical properties of pyrolytic bio-oils produced from microwave pyrolysis of corn stover regarding their potential use as gas turbine and home heating fuels. The ash content, solids content, pH, heating value, minerals, elemental ratio, moisture content, and viscosity of the bio-oils were determined. The water content was approx 15.2 wt%, solids content 0.22 wt%, alkali metal content 12 parts per million, dynamic viscosity 185 mPa·s at 40°C, and gross high heating value 17.5 MJ/kg for a typical bio-oil produced. Our aging tests showed that the viscosity and water content increased and phase separation occurred during the storage at different temperatures. Adding methanol and/or ethanol to the bio-oils reduced the viscosity and slowed down the increase in viscosity and water content during the storage. Blending of methanol or ethanol with the bio-oils may be a simple and cost-effective approach to making the pyrolytic bio-oils into a stable gas turbine or home heating fuels.

  13. Feasibility and comparative studies of thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake in different supercritical organic solvents for producing bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Hongmei; Zhai, Yunbo; Xu, Bibo; Xiang, Bobin; Zhu, Lu; Li, Ping; Liu, Xiaoting; Li, Caiting; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for producing bio-oil. • Type of solvent affected the yield and composition of bio-oil considerably. • Liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 °C was preferred for producing bio-oil. - Abstract: Thermochemical liquefaction of Camellia oleifera cake (COC) for producing bio-oil was conducted in supercritical methanol (SCML), ethanol (SCEL) and acetone (SCAL), respectively. GC–MS, elemental analysis and ICP-OES were used to characterize properties of bio-oil. Results showed that thermochemical liquefaction of COC was a prominent process for generating bio-oil. Increase of temperature was beneficial to the increase of bio-oil yield, and yield of bio-oil followed the sequence of SCAL > SCEL > SCML. In spite of the highest bio-oil yield, the lowest calorific value and highest contents of Zn, Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Mn, and Cr were found in bio-oil from SCAL. Though SCML has very similar bio-oil composition and calorific value with SCEL, higher bio-oil yield and lower contents of heavy metals could be obtained with SCEL, especially in bio-oil from SCEL at 300 °C. Moreover, the origin of ethanol could make the bio-oil product totally renewable. Therefore, liquefaction of COC in SCEL at 300 °C could have great potential in generating bio-oil

  14. Investigation on Electrostatical Breakup of Bio-Oil Droplets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Z. Wen

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In electrostatic atomization, the input electrical energy causes breaking up of the droplet surface by utilizing a mutual repulsion of net charges accumulating on that surface. In this work a number of key parameters controlling the bio-oil droplet breakup process are identified and these correlations among the droplet size distribution, specific charges of droplets and externally applied electrical voltages are quantified. Theoretical considerations of the bag or strip breakup mechanism of biodiesel droplets experiencing electrostatic potential are compared to experimental outcomes. The theoretical analysis suggests the droplet breakup process is governed by the Rayleigh instability condition, which reveals the effects of droplets size, specific charge, surface tension force, and droplet velocities. Experiments confirm that the average droplet diameters decrease with increasing specific charges and this decreasing tendency is non-monotonic due to the motion of satellite drops in the non-uniform electrical field. The measured specific charges are found to be smaller than the theoretical values. And the energy transformation from the electrical energy to surface energy, in addition to the energy loss, Taylor instability breakup, non-excess polarization and some system errors, accounts for this discrepancy. The electrostatic force is the dominant factor controlling the mechanism of biodiesel breakup in electrostatic atomization.

  15. Pyrolysis and kinetic analyses of a perennial grass (Saccharum ravannae L.) from north-east India: Optimization through response surface methodology and product characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saikia, Ruprekha; Baruah, Bhargav; Kalita, Dipankar; Pant, Kamal K; Gogoi, Nirmali; Kataki, Rupam

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to optimize the pyrolysis condition of an abundantly available and low cost perennial grass of north-east India Saccharum ravannae L. (S. ravannae) using response surface methodology based on central composite design. Kinetic study of the biomass was conducted at four different heating rates of 10, 20, 40 and 60 °C min -1 and results were interpreted by Friedman, Kissinger Akira Sunnose and Flynn-Wall-Ozawa methods. Average activation energy 151.45 kJ mol -1 was used for evaluation of reaction mechanism following Criado master plot. Maximum bio-oil yield of 38.1 wt% was obtained at pyrolysis temperature of 550 °C, heating rate of 20 °C min -1 and nitrogen flow rate of 226 mL min -1 . Study on bio-oil quality revealed higher content of hydrocarbon, antioxidant property, total phenolic content and metal chelating capacity. These opened up probable applications of S. ravannae bio-oil in different fields including fuel, food industry and biomedical domain. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Review of fuel oil quality and combustion of fast pyrolysis bio-oils from lignocellulosic biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, Jani; Oasmaa, Anja; Solantausta, Yrjö; Kytö, Matti; Chiaramonti, David

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Review of state-of-the-art fast pyrolysis oil combustion in burner applications. • Fast pyrolysis oil has been found to be suitable for industrial scale utilization. • Curves for NO x -emissions for air-assisted atomization burners are presented. • Quality control, combined with standards and specifications is recommended. - Abstract: Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are completely different from petroleum fuels and other bio-fuels available in the market, as regards both to their physical properties and chemical composition. When the unusual properties of these bio-oils are carefully taken into account in system and burner design, their combustion without a pilot flame or support fuel is possible on an industrial scale. The aim of the paper is to review the work done on combustion of fast pyrolysis bio-oils and highlight the latest and most important findings of its combustion from laboratory fundamentals to industrial scale. The main focus of the paper is on the bio-oil burner applications. In recent industrial scale bio-oil combustion tests, bio-oil has been found to be technically suitable for replacing heavy fuel oil in district heating. In addition, it has also been found out that limited possibilities for further lowering particulate emissions exist, since the majority of the particulates are typically incombustible matter. Curves for NO x -emissions of fast pyrolysis bio-oil combustion for air-assisted atomization burners are presented in the paper. Current burner designs are quite sensitive to the changes in the quality of the bio-oil, which may cause problems in ignition, flame detection and flame stabilization. Therefore, in order to be able to create reliable bio-oil combustion systems that operate at high efficiency, bio-oil grades should be standardized for combustion applications. Careful quality control, combined with standards and specifications, all the way from feedstock harvesting through production to end-use is recommended in

  17. EFFECT OF AQUEOUS PRETREATMENT ON PYROLYSIS CHARACTERISTICS OF NAPIER GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISAH YAKUB MOHAMMED

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Effect of non-catalytic aqueous pretretment on pyrolysis characteristics of Napier grass was investigated using thermogravimetric analyser. Increasing pretreatment severity (0.0-2.0 improved pyrolysis process. The residual mass at the end of pyrolysis for the pretreated sample was about 50% less compared to the untreated sample. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using order based model and both pretreated and untreated samples followed first order reaction. The activation energy of the pretreated samples was similar and higher than that of the raw sample which was attributed to faster rate of decomposition due removal of hetromaterials (ash, extractives and some hemicellulose in the pretreatment stage. Finally, this pretreatment method has demonstrated effectiveness for the removal of pyrolysis retardants and will improve the quantity and quality of bio-oil yield.

  18. PYROLYSIS OF ISOCHRYSIS MICROALGAE WITH METAL OXIDE CATALYSTS FOR BIO-OIL PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TEVFİK AYSU

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Pyrolysis of Isochrysis microalgae was carried out in a fixed-bed reactor without and with metal oxide catalysts (CeO2, TiO2, Al2O3 at the temperatures of 450, 500 and 550 oC with a constant heating rate of 40 oC/min. The pyrolysis conditions including catalyst and temperature were studied in terms of their effects on the yields of pyrolysis products and quality. The amount of bio-char, bio-oil and gas products was calculated. The composition of the produced bio-oils was determined by Elemental analysis (EA, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H NMR and Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC–MS techniques. As a result of the pyrolysis experiments, it is shown that there have been significant effects of both catalyst and temperature on the conversion of Isochrysis microalgae into solid, liquid (bio-oil and gas products. The highest bio-oil yield (24.30 % including aqueous phase was obtained in the presence of TiO2 (50% as catalyst at 500 °C. 98 different compounds were identified by GC-MS in bio-oils obtained at 500 oC. According to 1H NMR analysis, bio-oils contained ∼60-64 % aliphatic and ∼17-19 % aromatic structural units. EA showed that the bio-oils contained ∼66-69 % C and having 31-34 MJ/kg higher heating values.

  19. Characteristics of bio-oil from the pyrolysis of palm kernel shell in a newly developed two-stage pyrolyzer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Seung-Jin; Choi, Gyung-Goo; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2016-01-01

    Pyrolysis of palm kernel shell was performed using a two-stage pyrolyzer consisting of an auger reactor and a fluidized bed reactor within the auger reactor temperature range of ∼290–380 °C at the fluidized bed reactor temperature of ∼520 °C, and with a variable residence time of the feed material in the auger reactor. The highest bio-oil yield of the two-stage pyrolysis was ∼56 wt%. The bio-oil derived from the auger reactor contained degradation products of the hemicelluloses of PKS, such as acetic acid, and furfural, whereas the fluidized bed reactor produced a bio-oil with high concentrations of acetic acid and phenol. The auger reactor temperature and the residence time of PKS in the auger reactor had an influence on the acetic acid concentration in the bio-oil, while their changes did not induce an observable trend on the phenol concentration in the bio-oil derived from the fluidized bed reactor. The maximum concentrations of acetic acid and phenol in bio-oil were ∼78 and 12 wt% dry basis, respectively. As a result, it was possible for the two-stage pyrolyzer to separately produce two different bio-oils in one operation without any costly fractionation process of bio-oils. - Highlights: • The two-stage pyrolyzer is composed of an auger and a fluidized bed reactor. • The two-stage pyrolyzer produced two different bio-oils in a single operation. • The maximum bio-oil yield of the two-stage pyrolysis was ∼56 wt%. • The maximum concentration of acetic acid in bio-oil was ∼78 wt% dry basis. • The maximum concentration of phenol in bio-oil was ∼12 wt% dry basis.

  20. Combining ability of elephant grass based on nutritional characters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Quitete Ribeiro da Silva

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the work was to evaluate the effects of general combining ability (CGC of the parents and specific combining ability (CEC in the elephant grass hybrids by diallel analysis adapted to partial diallel crosses based on nutritional characters. Sixteen hybrids and eight parents in a randomized block design with three replications were evaluated. The study considered percentage of dry matter (%DM, ash (%ASH, crude protein (%CP and neutral detergent fiber (NDF. There were significant differences among genotypes for the traits evaluated, with a predominance of dominance gene effect. Based on CGC, the best parents were Taiwan A-144, Vruckwona Africana e Taiwan A-146. The best intersections based on CEC were Taiwan A-144 x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Taiwan A-146, Vruckwona Africana x Mercker S.E.A., Vruckwona Africana x Napier nº2 e Pusa Napier nº2 x Mercker Santa Rita.

  1. Towards evidence-based medicine in specific grass pollen immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calderon, M; Mösges, R; Hellmich, M; Demoly, P

    2010-04-01

    When initiating grass pollen immunotherapy for seasonal allergic rhinoconjunctivitis, specialist physicians in many European countries must choose between modalities of differing pharmaceutical and regulatory status. We applied an evidence-based medicine (EBM) approach to commercially available subcutaneous and sublingual Gramineae grass pollen immunotherapies (SCIT and SLIT) by evaluating study design, populations, pollen seasons, treatment doses and durations, efficacy, quality of life, safety and compliance. After searching MEDLINE, Embase and the Cochrane Library up until January 2009, we identified 33 randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials (including seven paediatric trials) with a total of 440 specific immunotherapy (SIT)-treated subjects in seven trials (0 paediatric) for SCIT with natural pollen extracts, 168 in three trials (0 paediatric) for SCIT with allergoids, 906 in 16 trials (five paediatric) for natural extract SLIT drops, 41 in two trials (one paediatric) for allergoid SLIT tablets and 1605 in five trials (two paediatric) for natural extract SLIT tablets. Trial design and quality varied significantly within and between SIT modalities. The multinational, rigorous trials of natural extract SLIT tablets correspond to a high level of evidence in adult and paediatric populations. The limited amount of published data on allergoids prevented us from judging the level of evidence for this modality.

  2. Understanding the Impacts of AFEX™ Pretreatment and Densification on the Fast Pyrolysis of Corn Stover, Prairie Cord Grass, and Switchgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundaram, Vijay; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Gent, Stephen

    2017-03-01

    Lignocellulosic feedstocks corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass were subjected to ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX™) pretreatment and densified using extrusion pelleting and ComPAKco densification technique. The effects of AFEX™ pretreatment and densification were studied on the fast pyrolysis product yields. Feedstocks were milled in a hammer mill using three different screen sizes (2, 4, and 8 mm) and were subjected to AFEX™ pretreatment. The untreated and AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks were moisture adjusted at three levels (5, 10, and 15 % wb) and were extruded using a lab-scale single screw extruder. The barrel temperature of the extruder was maintained at 75, 100, and 125 °C. Durability of the extruded pellets made from AFEX™-pretreated corn stover, prairie cord grass, and switchgrass varied from 94.5 to 99.2, 94.3 to 98.7, and 90.1 to 97.5 %, respectively. Results of the thermogravimetric analysis showed the decrease in the decomposition temperature of the all the feedstocks after AFEX™ pretreatment indicating the increase in thermal stability. Loose and densified feedstocks were subjected to fast pyrolysis in a lab-scale reactor, and the yields (bio-oil and bio-char) were measured. Bio-char obtained from the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks exhibited increased bulk and particle density compared to the untreated feedstocks. The properties of the bio-oil were statistically similar for the untreated, AFEX™-pretreated, and AFEX™-pretreated densified feedstocks. Based on the bio-char and bio-oil yields, the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks and the densified AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks (pellets and PAKs) exhibited similar behavior. Hence, it can be concluded that densifying the AFEX™-pretreated feedstocks could be a viable option in the biomass-processing depots to reduce the transportation costs and the logistical impediments without affecting the product yields.

  3. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunarno; Rochmadi,; Mulyono, Panut; Budiman, Arief

    2016-01-01

    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  4. Bio-Oil Hydrotreatment for Enhancing Solubility in Biodiesel and the Oxydation Stability of Resulting Blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Lucía; Stankovikj, Filip; Sánchez, José L; Gonzalo, Alberto; Arauzo, Jesús; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge for the pyrolytic conversion of lignocellulosic materials into crude bio-oil is the poor quality of the final product. Several strategies (addition of solvents, production of emulsions, and extraction with biodiesel) have been studied to improve its fuel properties. The extraction with biodiesel is an interesting solution because it allows direct utilization of some bio-oil fractions as fuels. However, fraction extracted with biodiesel is typically between 10 and 18 wt. %. In this paper we studied mild hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil to enhance its solubility in biodiesel. The study was conducted with BTG and Amaron oils hydrotreated at temperatures between 200 and 325°C in the presence of Ru/C catalyst. Hydrotreated oils generated three phases: top oil (light hydrocarbons), middle aqueous phase and bottom heavy oil phase. Each of the phases was characterized and the content of acetic acid, phenols, aromatic compounds, and linear alkane hydrocarbons quantified. The upgraded bio-oils were more soluble in biodiesel than the crude bio-oils, obtaining blends with up to 48 and 38 wt. % for the BTG and Amaron bio-oil, respectively. Some of the fuel properties of the resulting blends are also reported here.

  5. Catalytic cracking of the top phase fraction of bio-oil into upgraded liquid oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunarno [Chemical Engineering Department, Riau University, Kampus Binawidya KM 12,5 Pekanbaru 28293 (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Rochmadi,; Mulyono, Panut [Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia); Budiman, Arief, E-mail: abudiman@ugm.ac.id [Chemical Engineering Department, Gadjah Mada University, Jalan Grafika No. 2 Bulaksumur,Yogyakarta 55281(Indonesia); Center for Energy Studies, Gadjah Mada University, Sekip K1A, Yogyakarta 55281 (Indonesia)

    2016-06-03

    The energy consumption is increasing, while oil reserves as a primary energy resource are decreasing, so that is the reason seeking alternative energy source is inevitable. Biomass especially oil palm empty fruit bunches (EFB) which is abundant in Indonesia can be processed into bio-oil by pyrolysis process. The potential for direct substitution of bio-oil for petroleum may be limited due to the high viscosity, high oxygen content, low heating value, and corrosiveness. Consequently, upgrading of the bio-oil before use is inevitable to give a wider variety of applications of its liquid product. Furthermore, upgrading process to improve the quality of bio-oil by reduction of oxygenates involves process such as catalytic cracking. The objective of this research is to study the effect of operation temperature on yield and composition of upgraded liquid oil and to determine physical properties. Bio-oil derived from EFB was upgraded through catalytic cracking using series tubular reactor under atmospheric pressure on a silica-alumina catalyst. Results show that increasing temperature from 450 to 600 °C, resulting in decreasing of upgraded liquid oil (ULO) yield, decreasing viscosity and density of ULO, but increasing in calorimetric value of ULO. The increasing temperature of cracking also will increase the concentration of gasoline and kerosene in ULO.

  6. Effect of fast pyrolysis bio-oil from palm oil empty fruit bunch on bitumen properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poh, Chia Chin; Hassan, Norhidayah Abdul; Raman, Noor Azah Abdul; Shukry, Nurul Athma Mohd; Warid, Muhammad Naqiuddin Mohd; Satar, Mohd Khairul Idham Mohd; Ros Ismail, Che; Asmah Hassan, Sitti; Mashros, Nordiana

    2018-04-01

    Bitumen shortage has triggered the exploration of another alternative waste material that can be blended with conventional bitumen. This study presents the performance of pyrolysis bio-oil from palm oil empty fruit bunch (EFB) as an alternative binder in modified bitumen mixtures. The palm oil EFB was first pyrolyzed using auger pyrolyzer to extract the bio-oil. Conventional bitumen 80/100 penetration grade was used as a control sample and compared with samples that were modified with different percentages, i.e., 5% and 10%, of pyrolysis EFB bio-oil. The physical and rheological properties of the control and modified bitumen samples were investigated using penetration, softening point, viscosity and dynamic shear rheometer (DSR) tests. Results showed that the addition of EFB bio-oil softened the bitumen with high penetration and a reduction in softening point, penetration index, and viscosity. However, the DSR results showed a comparable rutting resistance between the bitumen samples containing EFB bio-oil and virgin bitumen with a failure temperature achieved greater than 64°C.

  7. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Lauer, M.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness

  8. Opportunities for biomass-derived 'bio-oil' in European heat and power markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brammer, J.G.; Bridgwater, A.V.

    2006-01-01

    Bio-oil (biomass fast pyrolysis) systems for heat, power or CHP production are nearing demonstration status. Their commercial attractiveness will depend on many factors, and will vary with the application, the scale, and importantly the location and its associated economic and logistical factors. The objective of this work, carried out as part of an EC-ALTENER project, was to evaluate the opportunities for bio-oil in the heat and power markets of Europe. Bio-oil applications were compared with conventional (fossil) alternatives for the same heat and power duty. The evaluation was carried out by a quantitative assessment of the economic competitiveness of standard applications in 14 European countries. Location-specific data were collected, and combined with technology-specific data obtained from earlier work. A competitiveness factor (c F ) was derived which represents the total annual cost of a conventional alternative relative to a bio-oil application. The results showed a wide variation across Europe. A total of six countries had at least one bio-oil application which was economically competitive. Heat-only applications were found to be the most economically competitive, followed by CHP applications, with electricity-only applications only very rarely competitive. For a given technology, the larger the scale, the better the competitiveness. (author)

  9. Evaluation of the production potential of bio-oil from Vietnamese biomass resources by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phan, Binh M.Q.; Duong, Long T.; Nguyen, Viet D.; Tran, Trong B.; Nguyen, My H.H.; Nguyen, Luong H.; Nguyen, Duc A.; Luu, Loc C.

    2014-01-01

    Agricultural activities in Vietnam generate about 62 million tonnes of biomass (rice straw, rice husk, bagasse, corn cob, corn stover, etc.) annually. In this work, four different types of biomass from Vietnam, namely rice straw, rice husk, factory bagasse, and corn cob, have been studied as potential raw materials to produce bio-oil by fast pyrolysis technology. Test runs were conducted in a fluidized-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C and residence time less than 2 s. Size and moisture content of the feed were less than 2 mm and 2%, respectively. It was found that yields of bio-oil as a liquid product obtained from pyrolysis of these feedstocks were more than 50% and that obtained from the bagasse was the highest. Bio-oil quality from Vietnamese biomass resources satisfies ASTM D7544-12 standard for pyrolysis liquid biofuels. These results showed the potential of using biomass in Vietnam to produce bio-oil which could be directly used as a combustion fuel or upgraded into transportation fuels and chemicals. - Highlights: • Four types of Vietnamese biomass were firstly analyzed in detail. • Optimal conditions for fast pyrolysis reaction for Vietnamese biomass types. • Bio-oil product adapted to the standard specification for pyrolysis liquid biofuel

  10. Bio-Oil Hydrotreatment for Enhancing Solubility in Biodiesel and the Oxydation Stability of Resulting Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucía Botella

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The major challenge for the pyrolytic conversion of lignocellulosic materials into crude bio-oil is the poor quality of the final product. Several strategies (addition of solvents, production of emulsions, and extraction with biodiesel have been studied to improve its fuel properties. The extraction with biodiesel is an interesting solution because it allows direct utilization of some bio-oil fractions as fuels. However, fraction extracted with biodiesel is typically between 10 and 18 wt. %. In this paper we studied mild hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil to enhance its solubility in biodiesel. The study was conducted with BTG and Amaron oils hydrotreated at temperatures between 200 and 325°C in the presence of Ru/C catalyst. Hydrotreated oils generated three phases: top oil (light hydrocarbons, middle aqueous phase and bottom heavy oil phase. Each of the phases was characterized and the content of acetic acid, phenols, aromatic compounds, and linear alkane hydrocarbons quantified. The upgraded bio-oils were more soluble in biodiesel than the crude bio-oils, obtaining blends with up to 48 and 38 wt. % for the BTG and Amaron bio-oil, respectively. Some of the fuel properties of the resulting blends are also reported here.

  11. Bio-oil Hydrotreatment for Enhancing Solubility in Biodiesel and the Oxydation Stability of Resulting Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Lucía; Stankovikj, Filip; Sánchez, José L.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Arauzo, Jesús; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-04-01

    The major challenge for the pyrolytic conversion of lignocellulosic materials into crude bio-oil is the poor quality of the final product. Several strategies (addition of solvents, production of emulsions, and extraction with biodiesel) have been studied to improve its fuel properties. The extraction with biodiesel is an interesting solution because it allows direct utilization of some bio-oil fractions as fuels. However, fraction extracted with biodiesel is typically between 10 and 18 wt. %. In this paper we studied mild hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil to enhance its solubility in biodiesel. The study was conducted with BTG and Amaron oils hydrotreated at temperatures between 200 and 325 °C in the presence of Ru/C catalyst. Hydrotreated oils generated three phases: top oil (light hydrocarbons), middle aqueous phase and bottom heavy oil phase. Each of the phases was characterized and the content of acetic acid, phenols, aromatic compounds and linear alkane hydrocarbons quantified. The upgraded bio-oils were more soluble in biodiesel than the crude bio-oils, obtaining blends with up to 48 and 38 wt. % for the BTG and Amaron bio-oil, respectively. Some of the fuel properties of the resulting blends are also reported here.

  12. Bio-Oil Hydrotreatment for Enhancing Solubility in Biodiesel and the Oxydation Stability of Resulting Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botella, Lucía; Stankovikj, Filip; Sánchez, José L.; Gonzalo, Alberto; Arauzo, Jesús; Garcia-Pérez, Manuel

    2018-01-01

    The major challenge for the pyrolytic conversion of lignocellulosic materials into crude bio-oil is the poor quality of the final product. Several strategies (addition of solvents, production of emulsions, and extraction with biodiesel) have been studied to improve its fuel properties. The extraction with biodiesel is an interesting solution because it allows direct utilization of some bio-oil fractions as fuels. However, fraction extracted with biodiesel is typically between 10 and 18 wt. %. In this paper we studied mild hydrotreatment of pyrolysis oil to enhance its solubility in biodiesel. The study was conducted with BTG and Amaron oils hydrotreated at temperatures between 200 and 325°C in the presence of Ru/C catalyst. Hydrotreated oils generated three phases: top oil (light hydrocarbons), middle aqueous phase and bottom heavy oil phase. Each of the phases was characterized and the content of acetic acid, phenols, aromatic compounds, and linear alkane hydrocarbons quantified. The upgraded bio-oils were more soluble in biodiesel than the crude bio-oils, obtaining blends with up to 48 and 38 wt. % for the BTG and Amaron bio-oil, respectively. Some of the fuel properties of the resulting blends are also reported here. PMID:29675406

  13. Bio-oil extraction of Jatropha curcas with ionic liquid co-solvent: Fate of biomass protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severa, Godwin; Edwards, Melisa; Cooney, Michael J

    2017-02-01

    The fate of oil-seed biomass protein has been tracked through all steps of a multi-phase extraction process using an ionic liquid based co-solvent system previously demonstrated to extract bio-oil and phorbol esters and to recover fermentable sugars from Jatropha oil seed. These analyses, however, did not address the fate of biomass protein. This work demonstrated that the majority of protein (∼86%) tracked with the biomass with the balance lost to co-solvent (∼12%) and methanol (∼2%) washes. A significant portion of the ionic liquid remained with the treated biomass and required aggressive methanol washes to recover. A system analysis showed a net-positive energy balance and thus the potential of this system to produce both bio-oil and protein-rich toxin-free biomass. While these results further support Jatropha as an oil seed crop, the additional costs of solvent recovery will need to be addressed if commercialization is to be realized. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of the cellulose, xylan and lignin constituents on biomass pyrolysis characteristics and bio-oil composition using the Simplex Lattice Mixture Design method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Yongsheng; Cai, Yixi; Li, Xiaohua; Jiao, Lihua; Xia, Jisheng; Deng, Xiuli

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simplex Lattice Mixture Design was firstly applied to study biomass pyrolysis process. • Interactions between the constituents had effects on the biomass pyrolysis behavior. • Biomass pyrolysis behavior can be predicted based on the ratios of three constituents. • Bio-oil composition was affected by the constituents and their pyrolysis products. - Abstract: In order to clarify the relationships between biomass pyrolysis mechanism and its main constituents. The effects of main constituents on biomass pyrolysis characteristics were firstly determined by thermo-gravimetric analysis based on the Simplex Lattice Mixture Design to investigate that whether the prediction of the pyrolysis behavior of a certain lignocellulosic biomass is possible when its main constituent contents are known. The results showed that there are constituent interactions in the pyrolysis process, which can be intuitively reflected through the change laws of kinetics parameters. The mathematical models for calculating kinetics values were established, and the models were proved to be valid for predicting lignocellulosic biomass pyrolysis behavior. In addition, the effects of biomass constituents on bio-oil compositions were explored by subsequent vacuum pyrolysis experiments. The xylan pyrolysis had a certain inhibitory effect on the pyrolysis of cellulose, and the pyrolysis products of lignin might promote the further decomposition of sugars from cellulose pyrolysis, while the interaction between xylan and lignin had a little effect on the bio-oil composition.

  15. A Systems Approach to Bio-Oil Stabilization - Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Robert C; Meyer, Terrence; Fox, Rodney; Submramaniam, Shankar; Shanks, Brent; Smith, Ryan G

    2011-12-23

    The objective of this project is to develop practical, cost effective methods for stabilizing biomass-derived fast pyrolysis oil for at least six months of storage under ambient conditions. The U.S. Department of Energy has targeted three strategies for stabilizing bio-oils: (1) reducing the oxygen content of the organic compounds comprising pyrolysis oil; (2) removal of carboxylic acid groups such that the total acid number (TAN) of the pyrolysis oil is dramatically reduced; and (3) reducing the charcoal content, which contains alkali metals known to catalyze reactions that increase the viscosity of bio-oil. Alkali and alkaline earth metals (AAEM), are known to catalyze decomposition reactions of biomass carbohydrates to produce light oxygenates that destabilize the resulting bio-oil. Methods envisioned to prevent the AAEM from reaction with the biomass carbohydrates include washing the AAEM out of the biomass with water or dilute acid or infusing an acid catalyst to passivate the AAEM. Infusion of acids into the feedstock to convert all of the AAEM to salts which are stable at pyrolysis temperatures proved to be a much more economically feasible process. Our results from pyrolyzing acid infused biomass showed increases in the yield of anhydrosugars by greater than 300% while greatly reducing the yield of light oxygenates that are known to destabilize bio-oil. Particulate matter can interfere with combustion or catalytic processing of either syngas or bio-oil. It also is thought to catalyze the polymerization of bio-oil, which increases the viscosity of bio-oil over time. High temperature bag houses, ceramic candle filters, and moving bed granular filters have been variously suggested for syngas cleaning at elevated temperatures. High temperature filtration of bio-oil vapors has also been suggested by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory although there remain technical challenges to this approach. The fast pyrolysis of biomass yields three main organic

  16. Application, Deactivation, and Regeneration of Heterogeneous Catalysts in Bio-Oil Upgrading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shouyun Cheng

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The massive consumption of fossil fuels and associated environmental issues are leading to an increased interest in alternative resources such as biofuels. The renewable biofuels can be upgraded from bio-oils that are derived from biomass pyrolysis. Catalytic cracking and hydrodeoxygenation (HDO are two of the most promising bio-oil upgrading processes for biofuel production. Heterogeneous catalysts are essential for upgrading bio-oil into hydrocarbon biofuel. Although advances have been achieved, the deactivation and regeneration of catalysts still remains a challenge. This review focuses on the current progress and challenges of heterogeneous catalyst application, deactivation, and regeneration. The technologies of catalysts deactivation, reduction, and regeneration for improving catalyst activity and stability are discussed. Some suggestions for future research including catalyst mechanism, catalyst development, process integration, and biomass modification for the production of hydrocarbon biofuels are provided.

  17. Method to upgrade bio-oils to fuel and bio-crude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H; Pittman, Jr., Charles U; Ingram, Jr., Leonard L; Gajjela, Sanjeev; Zhang, Zhijun; Bhattacharya, Priyanka

    2013-12-10

    This invention relates to a method and device to produce esterified, olefinated/esterified, or thermochemolytic reacted bio-oils as fuels. The olefinated/esterified product may be utilized as a biocrude for input to a refinery, either alone or in combination with petroleum crude oils. The bio-oil esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of alcohol and acid catalyst. The olefination/esterification reaction is catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to catalyze olefins added to previously etherified bio-oil; the olefins and alcohol may also be simultaneously combined and catalyzed by addition of resin acid or other heterogeneous catalyst to produce the olefinated/esterified product.

  18. Ultra-Low Carbon Emissions from Coal-Fired Power Plants through Bio-Oil Co-Firing and Biochar Sequestration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Qi; Mba Wright, Mark; Brown, Robert C

    2015-12-15

    This study investigates a novel strategy of reducing carbon emissions from coal-fired power plants through co-firing bio-oil and sequestering biochar in agricultural lands. The heavy end fraction of bio-oil recovered from corn stover fast pyrolysis is blended and co-fired with bituminous coal to form a bio-oil co-firing fuel (BCF). Life-cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions per kWh electricity produced vary from 1.02 to 0.26 kg CO2-eq among different cases, with BCF heavy end fractions ranging from 10% to 60%, which corresponds to a GHG emissions reduction of 2.9% to 74.9% compared with that from traditional bituminous coal power plants. We found a heavy end fraction between 34.8% and 37.3% is required to meet the Clean Power Plan's emission regulation for new coal-fired power plants. The minimum electricity selling prices are predicted to increase from 8.8 to 14.9 cents/kWh, with heavy end fractions ranging from 30% to 60%. A minimum carbon price of $67.4 ± 13 per metric ton of CO2-eq was estimated to make BCF power commercially viable for the base case. These results suggest that BCF co-firing is an attractive pathway for clean power generation in existing power plants with a potential for significant reductions in carbon emissions.

  19. Catalytic Steam Reforming of Bio-Oil to Hydrogen Rich Gas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus

    heating value and high content of oxygen, which makes it unsuited for direct utilization in engines. One prospective technology for upgrading of bio-oil is steam reforming (SR), which can be used to produce H2 for upgrading of bio-oil through hydrodeoxygenation or synthesis gas for processes like......-oil. There are two main pathways to minimize carbon deposition in steam reforming; either through optimization of catalyst formulation or through changes to the process parameters, like changes in temperature, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), or adding O2 or H2 to the feed. In this thesis both pathways have been...

  20. Production of higher quality bio-oils by in-line esterification of pyrolysis vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilten, Roger Norris; Das, Keshav; Kastner, James R; Bibens, Brian P

    2014-12-02

    The disclosure encompasses in-line reactive condensation processes via vapor phase esterification of bio-oil to decease reactive species concentration and water content in the oily phase of a two-phase oil, thereby increasing storage stability and heating value. Esterification of the bio-oil vapor occurs via the vapor phase contact and subsequent reaction of organic acids with ethanol during condensation results in the production of water and esters. The pyrolysis oil product can have an increased ester content and an increased stability when compared to a condensed pyrolysis oil product not treated with an atomized alcohol.

  1. Bio-oil production from dry sewage sludge by fast pyrolysis in an electrically-heated fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato O. Arazo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The optimization of bio-oil produced from sewage sludge using fast pyrolysis in a fluidized bed reactor was investigated. Effects of temperature, sludge particle size and vapor residence time on bio-oil properties, such as yield, high heating value (HHV and moisture content were evaluated through experimental and statistical analyses. Characterization of the pyrolysis products (bio-oil and biogas was also done. Optimum conditions produced a bio-oil product with an HHV that is nearly twice as much as lignocellulosic-derived bio-oil, and with properties comparable to heavy fuel oil. Contrary to generally acidic bio-oil, the sludge-derived bio-oil has almost neutral pH which could minimize the pipeline and engine corrosions. The Fourier Transform Infrared and gas-chromatography and mass spectrometry analyses of bio-oil showed a dominant presence of gasoline-like compounds. These results demonstrate that fast pyrolysis of sewage sludge from domestic wastewater treatment plant is a favorable technology to produce biofuels for various applications.

  2. A review of the chemical and physical mechanisms of the storage stability of fast pyrolysis bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diebold, J.P.

    1999-01-27

    Understanding the fundamental chemical and physical aging mechanisms is necessary to learn how to produce a bio-oil that is more stable during shipping and storage. This review provides a basis for this understanding and identifies possible future research paths to produce bio-oils with better storage stability.

  3. Coke formation during the hydrotreatment of bio-oil using NiMo and CoMo catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kadarwati, Sri; Hu, Xun; Gunawan, Richard; Westerhof, Roel; Gholizadeh, Mortaza; Hasan, M. D.Mahmudul; Li, Chun-Zhu

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the coke formation during the hydrotreatment of bio-oil at low temperature. The catalytic hydrotreatment of bio-oil produced from the pyrolysis of mallee wood was carried out using pre-sulphided NiMo and CoMo catalysts at a temperature range of 150–300 °C. Our results

  4. Electrochemical catalytic reforming of oxygenated-organic compounds: a highly efficient method for production of hydrogen from bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Lixia; Chen, Yaqiong; Song, Chongfu; Ye, Tongqi; Guo, Qingxiang; Zhu, Qingshi; Torimoto, Youshifumi; Li, Quanxin

    2008-11-07

    A novel approach to produce hydrogen from bio-oil was obtained with high carbon conversion (>90%) and hydrogen yield (>90%) at Tcatalytic reforming of oxygenated-organic compounds over 18%NiO/Al(2)O(3) reforming catalyst; thermal electrons play important promoting roles in the decomposition and reforming of the oxygenated-organic compounds in the bio-oil.

  5. Selective Production of Aromatic Aldehydes from Heavy Fraction of Bio-oil via Catalytic Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yan; Chang, Jie; Ouyang, Yong; Zheng, Xianwei [South China Univ. of Technology, Guangzhou (China)

    2014-06-15

    High value-added aromatic aldehydes (e. g. vanillin and syringaldehyde) were produced from heavy fraction of bio-oil (HFBO) via catalytic oxidation. The concept is based on the use of metalloporphyin as catalyst and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) as oxidant under alkaline condition. The biomimetic catalyst cobalt(II)-sulfonated tetraphenylporphyrin (Co(TPPS{sub 4})) was prepared and characterized. It exhibited relative high activity in the catalytic oxidation of HFBO. 4.57 wt % vanillin and 1.58 wt % syringaldehyde were obtained from catalytic oxidation of HFBO, compared to 2.6 wt % vanillin and 0.86 wt % syringaldehyde without Co(TPPS{sub 4}). Moreover, a possible mechanism of HFBO oxidation using Co(TPPS{sub 4})/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was proposed by the research of model compounds. The results showed that this is a promising and environmentally friendly method for production of aromatic aldehydes from HFBO under Co(TPPS{sub 4})/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} system.

  6. Improving the energy balance of grass-based anaerobic digestion through combined harvesting and pretreatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Egelund, H.

    2017-01-01

    on meadow and cultivated grass silages. The results showed that relatively high methane production can be achieved from meadow and cultivated grass harvested in different seasons. The findings indicated that the bioenergy production can be improved based on the selection of the appropriate harvesting...

  7. The feasibility of bio-oil production and application on the basis of the rotating cone technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gansekoele, E.; Wagenaar, B.M.

    2001-07-01

    The overall objective of the project on the title subject is to scale up the novel, rotating cone technology for flash pyrolysis of biomass and examine the related bio-energy system by application of bio-oil from several feedstocks in engines and combustion chambers. The specific objectives are: (1) To identify and characterize biomass feedstocks suitable for conversion to bio-oil by means of flash pyrolysis in a rotating cone reactor; (2) To scale-up the rotating cone reactor to a commercial size (200 kg biomass per hour); (3) To optimize the process with respect to quality and yield of the bio-oil in various test runs; (4) To produce bio-oil from various feedstocks in long lasting production runs; (5) To characterize the bio-oil and test it in properly adapted diesel engines and furnaces; and (6) To estimate the market potential for bio-oil and the economic feasibility of the technology. The objectives of the partners are: (1) to establish the most cost effective pre-treatment procedures to produce proper biomass feedstock for the pyrolysis process. In addition, 25 tons of pretreated biomass feedstock was prepared (CIEMAT, Spain); (2) design of the rotating cone pyrolysis plant at a biomass throughput of 200 kg/h, optimization of the pilot plant, and carrying out long duration runs (BTG, Netherlands); (3) development and construction of the flash pyrolysis pilot plant (KARA, Netherlands); and (4) investigation of the application of bio-oil in a combustion chamber, in a gas turbine and a diesel engine with respect to performance, efficiencies and emissions ( Rostock University, Germany). This report comprises the research results of all the partners for the whole chain: from biomass pre-treatment to bio-oil production and application. The different subjects are Biomass pre-treatment, Development of the 200 kg/h pyrolysis plant, Bio-oil application, and Economics and market potential of bio-oil application. refs

  8. The characteristics of palm oil plantation solid biomass wastes as raw material for bio oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanti, RN; Hambali, E.; Pari, G.; Suryani, A.

    2018-03-01

    Indonesia is the largest palm oil plantations estate in the world. It reached 11,30 million hectares in 2015 and increased up to 11,67 million hectares in 2016. The advancement of technology recent, the solid waste of palm oil plantation can be re-produced become bio oil through pyrolysis hydrothermal process and utilized for biofuel. The purpose of this research was to analyze the characteristics of feedstock of bio oil of solid waste of palm oil plantations estate. The feedstock used was derived from solid waste of palm oil plantations in Riau Province. Characteristic analysis of waste oil included chemical compound content (cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin), ultimate analysis (C, H, N, O, S) to know height heating value (HHV). The result of analysis of chemical content showed that solid waste of palm cellulose 31,33 – 66,36 %, hemicellulose 7,54 – 17,94 %, lignin 21,43 - 43,1. The HHV of hydrothermal pyrolysis feedstock was 15,18 kJ/gram - 19,57 kJ/gram. Generally, the solid waste of palm oil plantations estate containing lignocellulose can be utilized as bio oil through hydrothermal pyrolysis. The CG-MS analysis of bio oil indicated hydrocarbon contents such as pentadecane, octadecane, hexadecane and benzene.

  9. Characterization of Bio-Oil from Fast Pyrolysis of Palm Frond and Empty Fruit Bunch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solikhah, M. D.; Pratiwi, F. T.; Heryana, Y.; Wimada, A. R.; Karuana, F.; Raksodewanto, AA; Kismanto, A.

    2018-04-01

    As the world’s biggest producer of palm oil, 109 million tons of palm frond and 46 million tons of empty fruit bunch (EFB) were produced annually in Indonesia. These two kinds of palm biomass were still in low-application and could be potentially used as future energy resources such as biofuel. One of the promising methods to convert palm frond and EFB into biofuel, as a dense and easy to transport material, is fast pyrolysis. Before pyrolysis, biomass feedstock was characterized their component and elemental compositions, moisture content and higher heating value (HHV). Fast pyrolysis processes were conducted at a temperature of 350˚C using thermal oil heater as a heat carrier. The gas phase from pyrolysis was condensed and produced a dark color and water soluble liquid called bio-oil. As GC-MS data shows, the bio-oil from both feed stocks was dominated by acetic acid, furans, phenols, aldehydes, and ketones. The HHV was reported 12.19 and 26.49 MJ/kg, while water content was 41.91 and 11.54 wt% for bio-oil from palm frond and EFB, respectively. The high content of lignin in EFB effects to the low content of water, high content of phenolic compound, and high calorific value in the bio-oil from EFB.

  10. Technical bio-oils. Fundamentals - products - framework conditions; Technische Biooele. Grundlagen - Produkte - Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-27

    The Fachagentur Nachwachsende Rohstoffe e.V. (Guelzow-Pruezen, Federal Republic of Germany) and the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (Bonn, Federal Republic of Germany) report on technical bio-oils. The contribution under consideration consists of the following chapters: Fundamentals, technical properties, applications, environmental aspects, legal framework conditions, funding measures; market of biological lubricants, economic operation with biological lubricants.

  11. Catalytic Hydrodeoxygenation of Bio-oil Model Compounds over Pt/HY Catalyst

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Heejin; Kim, Hannah; Yu, Mi Jin; Ko, Chang Hyun; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Jae, Jungho; Park, Sung Hoon; Jung, Sang-Chul; Park, Young-Kwon

    2016-06-01

    The hydrodeoxygenation of a model compound of lignin-derived bio-oil, guaiacol, which can be obtained from the pyrolysis of biomass to bio-oil, has attracted considerable research attention because of its huge potential as a substitute for conventional fuels. In this study, platinum-loaded HY zeolites (Pt/HY) with different Si/Al molar ratios were used as catalysts for the hydrodeoxygenation of guaiacol, anisole, veratrole, and phenol to a range of hydrocarbons, such as cyclohexane. The cyclohexane (major product) yield increased with increasing number of acid sites. To produce bio-oil with the maximum level of cyclohexane and alkylated cyclohexanes, which would be suitable as a substitute for conventional transportation fuels, the Si/Al molar ratio should be optimized to balance the Pt particle-induced hydrogenation with acid site-induced methyl group transfer. The fuel properties of real bio-oil derived from the fast pyrolysis of cork oak was improved using the Pt/HY catalyst.

  12. Hydrodeoxygenation of fast-pyrolysis bio-oils from various feedstocks using carbon-supported catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    While much work has been accomplished in developing hydrodeoxygenation technologies for bio-oil upgrading, very little translation has occurred to other biomass feedstocks and feedstock processing technologies. In this paper, we sought to elucidate the relationships between the feedstock type and th...

  13. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon; Aika, Ken-ichi

    2004-01-01

    Steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate present in bio-oil over Pt/ZrO2 catalysts has been studied. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts are very active, completely converting acetic acid and give hydrogen yield close to thermodynamic equilibrium. The catalyst deactivated by formation of oligomers, which

  14. Sustainable hydrogen from bio-oil - Catalytic steam reforming of acetic acid as a model oxygenate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takanabe, Kazuhiro; Aika, Ken-ichi; Seshan, K.; Lefferts, Leon

    Studies were conducted with acetic acid (HAc) as model oxygenate for the design of active and stable catalysts for steam reforming of bio-oil. Pt/ZrO2 catalysts were prepared by wet impregnation technique. The Pt/ZrO2 catalysts showed high activities at initial time on stream, but lost its activity

  15. Steam reforming of bio-oil from coconut shell pyrolysis over Fe/olivine catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quan, Cui; Xu, Shaoping; Zhou, Congcong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Steam reforming of the actual bio-oil was investigated with Fe/olivine catalyst. • Most of phenols in bio-oil were converted into gas products. • A carbon conversion of 97.2% was obtained under optimized conditions. - Abstract: Catalytic steam reforming of coconut shell pyrolysis bio-oil over Fe/olivine catalyst was conducted in a fixed-bed quartz reactor. The effects of calcination temperature, iron loading, reaction temperature, steam to carbon ratio (S/C), bio-oil weight hourly space velocity (W b HSV) on gas composition and carbon conversion were investigated. The results indicate that Fe/olivine has good activity for steam reforming of bio-oil, the couple Fe 2+/3+ /Fe 2+ may be sufficiently efficient for C–C, C–O and C–H breaking. After steam reforming, most of the phenolics in pyrolysis oil are converted into light molecular compounds such as H 2 , CO, CO 2 , and CH 4 . The H 2 concentration and carbon conversion were enhanced by increasing reaction temperature from 750 to 800 °C and the S/C from 1.5 to 2, but decreased with increasing calcination temperature. In the W b HSV range of 0.5–0.6, the hydrogen concentration decreased obviously, whereas it decreased slightly by further increasing W b HSV. The highest hydrogen concentration of 47.6 vol% was obtained among the catalysts tested, and the best carbon conversion was 97.2% over 10% Fe/olivine catalyst under the reforming conditions of temperature = 800 °C, W b HSV = 0.5, S/C = 2.

  16. Speciation and environmental risk assessment of heavy metal in bio-oil from liquefaction/pyrolysis of sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xingzhong; Leng, Lijian; Huang, Huajun; Chen, Xiaohong; Wang, Hou; Xiao, Zhihua; Zhai, Yunbo; Chen, Hongmei; Zeng, Guangming

    2015-02-01

    Liquefaction bio-oil (LBO) produced with ethanol (or acetone) as the solvent and pyrolysis bio-oil (PBO) produced at 550°C (or 850°C) from sewage sludge (SS) were produced, and were characterized and evaluated in terms of their heavy metal (HM) composition. The total concentration, speciation and leaching characteristic of HMs (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, Cd, and Ni) in both LBO and PBO were investigated. The total concentration and exchangeable fraction of Zn and Ni in bio-oils were at surprisingly high levels. Quantitative risk assessment of HM in bio-oils was performed by the method of risk assessment code (RAC), potential ecological risk index (PERI) and geo-accumulation index (GAI). Ni in bio-oil produced by pyrolysis at 850°C (PBO850) and Zn in bio-oil by liquefaction at 360°C with ethanol as solvent (LBO-360E) were evaluated to possess very high risk to the environment according to RAC. Additionally, Cd in PBO850 and LBO-360E were evaluated by PERI to have very high risk and high risk, respectively, while Cd in all bio-oils was assessed moderately contaminated according to GAI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Beneficial synergistic effect on bio-oil production from co-liquefaction of sewage sludge and lignocellulosic biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Li, Jun; Yuan, Xingzhong; Li, Jingjing; Han, Pei; Hong, Yuchun; Wei, Feng; Zhou, Wenguang

    2018-03-01

    Co-liquefaction of municipal sewage sludge (MSS) and lignocellulosic biomass such as rice straw or wood sawdust at different mixing ratios and the characterization of the obtained bio-oil and bio-char were investigated. Synergistic effects were found during co-processing of MSS with biomass for production of bio-oil with higher yield and better fuel properties than those from individual feedstock. The co-liquefaction of MSS/rice straw (4/4, wt) increased the bio-oil yield from 22.74% (bio-oil yield from liquefaction of MSS individually) or 23.67% (rice straw) to 32.45%. Comparable increase on bio-oil yield was also observed for MSS/wood sawdust mixtures (2/6, wt). The bio-oils produced from MSS/biomass mixtures were mainly composed of esters and phenols with lower boiling points (degradation temperatures) than those from individual feedstock (identified with higher heavy bio-oil fractions). These synergistic effects were probably resulted from the interactions between the intermittent products of MSS and those of biomass during processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. GC-MS and FI-IR analysis of the bio-oil with addition of ethyl acetate during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le eZhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Different mass fractions (0%, 3%, 6%, 9%, 12%, and 15% of ethyl acetate were added to bio-oil for improving its storage stability during storage at 40℃ for 35d. For different bio-oils during storage, physical properties were characterized and chemical components were determined by GC-MS and FT-IR. The results of properties characterization showed that, addition of ethyl acetate could instantly lower bio-oil viscosity, water content, and dramatically decrease the rate of aging. pH value of bio-oil can be instantly improved by adding ethyl acetate. GC-MS results revealed that addition of various content of ethyl acetate into bio-oil and its storage at 40℃ for 35d could both lead to disappearance of previous compounds and generation of new compounds. FT-IR results showed that addition of various content of ethyl acetate into bio-oils and its storage at 40℃ for 35d could slightly change the wavenumbers of substantial functional groups in bio-oils.

  19. Effect of acid, steam explosion, and size reduction pretreatments on bio-oil production from sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hui; Srinivasan, Radhakrishnan; Yu, Fei; Steele, Philip; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian; Samala, Aditya

    2012-05-01

    Bio-oil produced from biomass by fast pyrolysis has the potential to be a valuable substitute for fossil fuels. In a recent work on pinewood, we found that pretreatment alters the structure and chemical composition of biomass, which influence fast pyrolysis. In this study, we evaluated dilute acid, steam explosion, and size reduction pretreatments on sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover feedstocks. Bio-oils were produced from untreated and pretreated feedstocks in an auger reactor at 450 °C. The bio-oil's physical properties of pH, water content, acid value, density, and viscosity were measured. The chemical characteristics of the bio-oils were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that bio-oil yield and composition were influenced by the pretreatment method and feedstock type. Bio-oil yields of 52, 33, and 35 wt% were obtained from medium-sized (0.68-1.532 mm) untreated sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover, respectively, which were higher than the yields from other sizes. Bio-oil yields of 56, 46, and 51 wt% were obtained from 1% H(2)SO(4)-treated medium-sized sweetgum, switchgrass, and corn stover, respectively, which were higher than the yields from untreated and steam explosion treatments.

  20. Combination of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotronic resonance mass spectrometry for the investigation of complex mixtures – Application to the petroleomic analysis of bio-oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertzog, Jasmine [LCP-A2MC, FR 2843 Institut Jean Barriol de Chimie et Physique Moléculaires et Biomoléculaires, FR 3624 Réseau National de Spectrométrie de Masse FT-ICR à très haut champ, Université de Lorraine, ICPM, 1 boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 03 (France); Carré, Vincent, E-mail: vincent.carre@univ-lorraine.fr [LCP-A2MC, FR 2843 Institut Jean Barriol de Chimie et Physique Moléculaires et Biomoléculaires, FR 3624 Réseau National de Spectrométrie de Masse FT-ICR à très haut champ, Université de Lorraine, ICPM, 1 boulevard Arago, 57078 Metz Cedex 03 (France); Le Brech, Yann [LRGP, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, ENSIC, 1, Rue Grandville, 54000 Nancy (France); Mackay, Colin Logan [SIRCAMS, School of Chemistry, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, EH9 3FJ, Scotland (United Kingdom); Dufour, Anthony [LRGP, CNRS, Université de Lorraine, ENSIC, 1, Rue Grandville, 54000 Nancy (France); Mašek, Ondřej [UK Biochar Research Center, School of Geosciences, University of Edinburgh, Kings Buildings, Edinburgh, EH9 3JN (United Kingdom); and others

    2017-05-29

    The comprehensive description of complex mixtures such as bio-oils is required to understand and improve the different processes involved during biological, environmental or industrial operation. In this context, we have to consider how different ionization sources can improve a non-targeted approach. Thus, the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) has been coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI), laser desorption ionization (LDI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) to characterize an oak pyrolysis bio-oil. Close to 90% of the all 4500 compound formulae has been attributed to C{sub x}H{sub y}O{sub z} with similar oxygen class compound distribution. Nevertheless, their relative abundance in respect with their double bound equivalent (DBE) value has evidenced significant differences depending on the ion source used. ESI has allowed compounds with low DBE but more oxygen atoms to be ionized. APPI has demonstrated the efficient ionization of less polar compounds (high DBE values and less oxygen atoms). The LDI behavior of bio-oils has been considered intermediate in terms of DBE and oxygen amounts but it has also been demonstrated that a significant part of the features are specifically detected by this ionization method. Thus, the complementarity of three different ionization sources has been successfully demonstrated for the exhaustive characterization by petroleomic approach of a complex mixture. - Highlights: • Non-targeted mass spectrometry by combining electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser/desorption ionization. • Exhaustive description of pyrolytic bio-oil components. • Distinction of sugaric derivatives, lignin derivatives and lipids contained in a woody-based pyrolytic bio-oil.

  1. Nutrient removal and energy production from aqueous phase of bio-oil generated via hydrothermal liquefaction of algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Saravanan R; Adhikari, Sushil; Shakya, Rajdeep

    2017-04-01

    Removal of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) as struvite from bio-oil aqueous phase generated via hydrothermal liquefaction of algae was evaluated in this study. Effect of process parameters such as pH, temperature and reaction time on struvite formation was studied. More than 99% of phosphorus and 40-100% ammonium nitrogen were removed under all experimental conditions. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed the formation of struvite, and the struvite recovered from bio-oil aqueous phase can be used as a slow-release fertilizer. Biogas production from struvite recovered bio-oil aqueous phase showed 3.5 times higher CH 4 yield (182±39mL/g COD) as compared to non-struvite recovered aqueous phase. The results from this study indicate that both struvite and methane can be produced from bio-oil aqueous phase. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali; Bramer, Eddy A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed

  3. A review of catalytic upgrading of bio-oil to engine fuels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Peter Mølgaard; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk; Jensen, Peter Arendt

    2011-01-01

    As the oil reserves are depleting the need of an alternative fuel source is becoming increasingly apparent. One prospective method for producing fuels in the future is conversion of biomass into bio-oil and then upgrading the bio-oil over a catalyst, this method is the focus of this review article...... are traditional hydrodesulphurization (HDS) catalysts, such as Co–MoS2/Al2O3, or metal catalysts, as for example Pd/C. However, catalyst lifetimes of much more than 200h have not been achieved with any current catalyst due to carbon deposition. Zeolite cracking is an alternative path, where zeolites, e.g. HZSM-5...... produce fuels of acceptable grade for the current infrastructure. HDO is evaluated as being a path to fuels in a grade and at a price equivalent to present fossil fuels, but several tasks still have to be addressed within this process. Catalyst development, understanding of the carbon forming mechanisms...

  4. Study on condensation of biomass pyrolysis gas by spray bio-oil droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Kun; Cheng, Wen-Long [University of Science and Technology of China (China)], email: wlcheng@ustc.edu.cn; Chen, Jing [Anhui Electric Power Design Institute (China); Shi, Wen-Jing [Anhui Heli Co., Ltd (China)

    2011-07-01

    This is a study of bio-oil generated by fast pyrolysis; a biomass feedstock is heated to pyrolyze at a rapid rate, the gas pyrolyzed is then condensed rapidly. The interesting result is a potential alternative fuel oil. An analysis was made of the effects of the initial pyrolysis gas temperatures, the initial bio-oil droplets temperatures and diameters, and the flow ratio of the gas and the liquid droplets on the heat and mass transfer between the gas and the liquid droplets. A few criterion equations were achieved with respect to the spray condenser. This paper established the gas-liquid phase equilibrium of an aqueous multi-composition system and the spray condensation model coupling heat and mass transfer. Model calculation and analysis showed that: spray condensation can effectively cool the high-temperature pyrolysis gas quickly; with gas liquid flowing, mass transfer rate reduces; and the relationship of gas and liquid flow ratio can achieve good accuracy.

  5. FAST PYROLYSIS – EFFECT OF WOOD DRYING ON THE YIELD AND PROPERTIES OF BIO-OIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriks Samulis

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available The composition and properties of the products of fast pyrolysis of hardwood, obtained in a two-chamber (drying and pyrolytic ablation type reactor in the temperature range 450-600ºС, were investigated. It has been found that, upon the additional drying of wood at 200ºС and subsequent pyrolysis, the quality of bio-oil is improved owing to the decrease in the amount of water and acids. It has been shown that the increase of the drying temperature to 240ºС decreases the yield of the main product. Optimum parameters of the drying conditions and the temperature of the pyrolysis of wood, at which the bio-oil yield exceeds 60% and its calorific value makes up 17-20 МJ/kg, have been determined.

  6. Attrition-free pyrolysis to produce bio-oil and char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauviel, Guillain; Guillain, Mauviel; Kies, Fairouz; Fairouz, Kies; René, Mar Sans; Mar, Sans Rene; Ferrer, Monique; Monique, Ferrer; Lédé, Jacques; Jacques, Lédé

    2009-12-01

    Experiments are performed on a laboratory scale setup where beech wood chips are heated by gas convection and walls radiation. This study shows that it is possible to obtain high bio-oil and char yields with relatively low external heat transfer coefficients. The main advantage of this convection/radiation heat transfer mode compared to solid-solid collisions, applied in fluidized bed or twin screw reactors, is the reduction of solid attrition (char and sand). Thus tricky gas-solid separation through hot cyclones and/or hot filters could be avoided or reduced. It should be possible to recover directly bio-oil with less char particles and char free of sand dust. These qualities would allow easier use of these bio-products in different applications.

  7. Production of gasoline fraction from bio-oil under atmospheric conditions by an integrated catalytic transformation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Zhaoxia; Bi, Peiyan; Jiang, Peiwen; Fan, Minghui; Deng, Shumei; Zhai, Qi; Li, Quanxin

    2015-01-01

    This work aimed to develop an integrated process for production of gasoline fraction bio-fuels from bio-oil under atmospheric conditions. This novel transformation process included the catalytic cracking of bio-oil to light olefins and the subsequent synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon bio-fuels from light olefins with two reactors in series. The yield of bio-fuel was up to 193.8 g/(kg bio-oil) along with a very low oxygen content, high RONs (research octane numbers), high LHVs (lower heating values) and low benzene content under the optimizing reaction conditions. Coke deposition seems to be the main cause of catalyst deactivation in view of the fact that the deactivated catalysts was almost recovered by on-line treating the used catalyst with oxygen. The integrated transformation potentially provides a useful way for the development of gasoline range hydrocarbon fuels using renewable lignocellulose biomass. - Graphical abstract: An integrated process for production of gasoline fraction bio-fuels from bio-oil through the catalytic cracking of bio-oil to light olefins followed by the synthesis of liquid hydrocarbon bio-fuels from light olefins in series. - Highlights: • A new route for production of gasoline-range bio-fuels from bio-oil was achieved. • The process was an integrated catalytic transformation at atmospheric pressure. • Bio-oil is converted into light olefins and then converted to biofuel in series. • C_6–C_1_0 bio-fuels derived from bio-oil had high RONs and LHVs.

  8. Production of bio-oil via hydrothermal liquefaction of birch sawdust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malins, Kristaps

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • NaOH has significant impact on hydrothermal liquefaction of birch sawdust. • High yield of bio-oil (54.1%) was obtained under developed optimal conditions. • Compounds in bio-oil have appropriate chemical structure for hydrocarbon synthesis. • The yield of marketable solid residue with potential for industrial application was 7.1%. • Solid residue has high calorific value (29.8 MJ/kg) and C content (74.6 wt.%). - Abstract: The effect of weight ratio of plywood manufacturing by-product birch sawdust (BS) to water (1/2–1/8), reaction temperature (200–340 °C), initial H 2 pressure (0–10 MPa), residence time (5–90 min), catalysts amount (0.25–7.0 wt.%) and type (FeSO 4 , ZnSO 4 , NiSO 4 , Raney-nickel, Ni65%/SiO 2 −Al 2 O 3 , Na 2 CO 3 and NaOH) on hydrothermal liquefaction of BS was investigated. High yield of bio-oil (54.1%) with calorific value (CV) 24.9 MJ/kg under developed optimal experimental conditions in the presence of NaOH (5 wt.%) utilizing weight ratio of BS to water 1/4, residence time 5 min, mixing speed 250 rpm at 300 °C without pressurized particular inert gas or H 2 atmosphere was achieved. Compounds in bio-oil analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) have suitable chemical structures for conversion into renewable hydrocarbons. Marketable solid residue (SR) with yield 7.1%, high CV (29.8 MJ/kg) and perspective characteristics for industrial application was obtained. Produced gas in process analyzed by gas chromatography-thermal conductivity detector (GC–TCD) contains 60.1 vol.% of CO 2 .

  9. Improving the energy balance of grass-based anaerobic digestion through harvesting optimization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsapekos, Panagiotis; Kougias, Panagiotis; Egelund, H.

    with a number of coarse barbs) to simultaneously mow and mechanically pretreat two different lignocellulosic substrates. Thus, ensiled meadow grass was initially examined at the first experimental set up. Regarding the second field test, an area sowed with regularly cultivated grass was harvested. In order......) protocol. The findings showed that methane production can efficiently be enhanced by mechanical pretreatment applied at the harvesting step. More specifically, the most effective treatment yielded more than 10% increase in the bioenergy production from both examined grass silages. Our study demonstrates...... that the appropriate harvester can improve the energy output by approximately 2.4 GJ/ha under optimal conditions and subsequently, the overall sustainability of grass-based AD....

  10. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2014-11-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed bed reactor at the downstream of the pyrolysis reactor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in an entrained flow pyrolysis reactor by feeding a premixed feedstock of the catalyst and biomass. Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 was very effective for de-oxygenation of the pyrolysis liquid and oxygen content of the bio-oil was decreased from 47.5 wt.% to 16.4 wt.%. An organic rich bio-oil was obtained with 5.8 wt.% water content and a higher heating value of 36.1 MJ/kg. Carboxylic acids were completely removed and the bio-oil had almost a neutral pH. This bio-oil of high calorific low, low water and oxygen content may be an attractive fuel precursor. In-situ catalytic upgrading of biomass pyrolysis vapor produced a very similar quality bio-oil compared to post treatment of pyrolysis vapors, and shows the possible application of Na2CO3/gamma-Al2O3 in a commercial type reactor system such as a fluidized bed reactor. (C) 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Bio-oil production of softwood and hardwood forest industry residues through fast and intermediate pyrolysis and its chromatographic characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torri, Isadora Dalla Vecchia; Paasikallio, Ville; Faccini, Candice Schmitt; Huff, Rafael; Caramão, Elina Bastos; Sacon, Vera; Oasmaa, Anja; Zini, Claudia Alcaraz

    2016-01-01

    Bio-oils were produced through intermediate (IP) and fast pyrolysis (FP), using Eucalyptus sp. (hardwood) and Picea abies (softwood), wood wastes produced in large scale in Pulp and Paper industries. Characterization of these bio-oils was made using GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOFMS. The use of GC×GC provided a broader characterization of bio-oils and it allowed tracing potential markers of hardwood bio-oil, such as dimethoxy-phenols, which might co-elute in 1D-GC. Catalytic FP increased the percentage of aromatic hydrocarbons in P. abies bio-oil, indicating its potential for fuel production. However, the presence of polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) draws attention to the need of a proper management of pyrolysis process in order to avoid the production of toxic compounds and also to the importance of GC×GC/TOFMS use to avoid co-elutions and consequent inaccuracies related to identification and quantification associated with GC/qMS. Ketones and phenols were the major bio-oil compounds and they might be applied to polymer production. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the antifungal effects of bio-oil prepared with lignocellulosic biomass using fast pyrolysis technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Jeong, Han Seob; Kim, Jae-Young; Han, Gyu Seong; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Joon Weon

    2012-10-01

    This study was performed to investigate the utility of bio-oil, produced via a fast pyrolysis process, as an antifungal agent against wood-rot fungi. Bio-oil solutions (25-100 wt.%) were prepared by diluting the bio-oil with EtOH. Wood block samples (yellow poplar and pitch pine) were treated with diluted bio-oil solutions and then subjected to a leaching process under hot water (70°C) for 72 h. After the wood block samples were thoroughly dried, they were subjected to a soil block test using Tyromyces palustris and Trametes versicolor. The antifungal effect of the 75% and 100% bio-oil solutions was the highest for both wood blocks. Scanning electron microscopy analysis indicated that some chemical components in the bio-oil solution could agglomerate together to form clusters in the inner part of the wood during the drying process, which could act as a wood preservative against fungal growth. According to GC/MS analysis, the components of the agglomerate were mainly phenolic compounds derived from lignin polymers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quantitative investigation of free radicals in bio-oil and their potential role in condensed-phase polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kwang Ho; Bai, Xianglan; Cady, Sarah; Gable, Preston; Brown, Robert C

    2015-03-01

    We report on the quantitative analysis of free radicals in bio-oils produced from pyrolysis of cellulose, organosolv lignin, and corn stover by EPR spectroscopy. Also, we investigated their potential role in condensed-phase polymerization. Bio-oils produced from lignin and cellulose show clear evidence of homolytic cleavage reactions during pyrolysis that produce free radicals. The concentration of free radicals in lignin bio-oil was 7.5×10(20)  spin g(-1), which was 375 and 138 times higher than free-radical concentrations in bio-oil from cellulose and corn stover. Pyrolytic lignin had the highest concentration in free radicals, which could be a combination of carbon-centered (benzyl radicals) and oxygen-centered (phenoxy radicals) organic species because they are delocalized in a π system. Free-radical concentrations did not change during accelerated aging tests despite increases in molecular weight of bio-oils, suggesting that free radicals in condensed bio-oils are stable. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki, E-mail: ebitani@jaist.ac.jp [School of Materials Science, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan); Miyazato, Akio [Nanotechnology Center, Japan Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 1-1 Asahidai, Nomi, Ishikawa 923-1292 (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H{sub 2}O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, {sup 13}C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously.

  15. Properties of bio-oil generated by a pyrolysis of forest cedar residuals with the movable Auger-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishimura, Shun; Ebitani, Kohki; Miyazato, Akio

    2016-01-01

    Our research project has developed the new movable reactor for bio-oil production in 2013 on the basis of Auger-type system. This package would be a great impact due to the concept of local production for local consumption in the hilly and mountainous area in not only Japan but also in the world. Herein, we would like to report the properties of the bio-oil generated by the developing Auger-type movable reactor. The synthesized bio-oil possessed C: 46.2 wt%, H: 6.5 wt%, N: wt%, S: <0.1 wt%, O: 46.8 wt% and H 2 O: 18.4 wt%, and served a good calorific value of 18.1 MJ/kg. The spectroscopic and mass analyses such as FT-IR, GC-MS, 13 C-NMR and FT-ICR MS supported that the bio-oil was composed by the fine mixtures of methoxy phenols and variety of alcohol or carboxylic acid functional groups. Thus, it is suggested that the bio-oil generated by the new movable Auger-type reactor has a significant potential as well as the existing bio-oil reported previously

  16. Bio-oil and bio-char production from biomass and their structural analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilic, Murat; Özsin, Gamzenur; Pütün, Ayşe E.; Pütün, Ersan

    2015-01-01

    Energy demand is increasing day by day because of the rapid developments in the population, industrialization and urbanisation. Since, fossil fuels will be at the verge of getting extinct, researches are mostly focused on the renewable sources, such as biomass, in recent years. This paper provides an environmentally friendly process to convert waste biomass samples to bio-oil and bio-char by pyrolysis. For this purpose, pyrolysis characteristics of pomegranate peels under inert atmosphere were studied by using both TGA to analysis decomposition behaviour and a batch reactor to investigate product yields and properties. The properties of bio-oil and bio-char were investigated by different analytical techniques such as GC-MS, FT-IR, SEM, He pycnometry and elemental analysis. As a consequence, it is possible to obtain bio-oil, which has similar properties like petroleum hydrocarbons, and to obtain bio-char, which can be further used as a solid fuel or a carbonaceous adsorbent material via pyrolysis process. (full text)

  17. Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth for production of bio-oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Bijoy; Singh, Rawel; Krishna, Bhavya B; Kumar, Jitendra; Bhaskar, Thallada

    2017-10-01

    Pyrolysis of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth were carried out in a fixed-bed reactor at different temperatures in the range of 300-450°C in the presence of nitrogen (inert atmosphere). The objective of this study is to understand the effect of compositional changes of various aquatic biomass samples on product distribution and nature of products during slow pyrolysis. The maximum liquid product yield of azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth (38.5, 43.4 and 24.6wt.% respectively) obtained at 400, 450 and 400°C. Detailed analysis of the bio-oil and bio-char was investigated using 1 H NMR, FT-IR, and XRD. The characterization of bio-oil showed a high percentage of aliphatic functional groups and presence of phenolic, ketones and nitrogen-containing group. The characterization results showed that the bio-oil obtained from azolla, sargassum tenerrimum and water hyacinth can be potentially valuable as a fuel and chemicals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preliminary studies of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of coconut fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Tarciana M; Bispo, Mozart D; Cardoso, Anne R T; Migliorini, Marcelo V; Schena, Tiago; de Campos, Maria Cecilia V; Machado, Maria Elisabete; López, Jorge A; Krause, Laiza C; Caramão, Elina B

    2013-07-17

    This work studied fast pyrolysis as a way to use the residual fiber obtained from the shells of coconut ( Cocos nucifera L. var. Dwarf, from Aracaju, northeastern Brazil). The bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis and the aqueous phase (formed during the pyrolysis) were characterized by GC/qMS and GC×GC/TOF-MS. Many oxygenated compounds such as phenols, aldehydes, and ketones were identified in the extracts obtained in both phases, with a high predominance of phenolic compounds, mainly alkylphenols. Eighty-one compounds were identified in the bio-oil and 42 in the aqueous phase using GC/qMS, and 95 and 68 in the same samples were identified by GC×GC/TOF-MS. The better performance of GC×GC/TOF-MS was due to the possibility of resolving some coeluted peaks in the one-dimension gas chromatography. Semiquantitative analysis of the samples verified that 59% of the area on the chromatogram of bio-oil is composed by phenols and 12% by aldehydes, mainly furfural. Using the same criterion, 77% of the organic compounds in the aqueous phase are phenols. Therefore, this preliminary assessment indicates that coconut fibers have the potential to be a cost-effective and promising alternative to obtain new products and minimize environmental impact.

  19. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Lima, Isabel M.; Laird, David A.; Hicks, Kevin B.

    2010-01-01

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are ∼20 MJ kg -1 , and densities >1.0 Mg m -3 ) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, ∼20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed 'farm scale' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields.

  20. Bio-oil and bio-char production from corn cobs and stover by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mullen, Charles A.; Boateng, Akwasi A.; Goldberg, Neil M.; Hicks, Kevin B. [Eastern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 600 E. Mermaid Lane, Wyndmoor, PA 19038 (United States); Lima, Isabel M. [Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 1100 Robert E. Lee Blvd., New Orleans, LA 70124 (United States); Laird, David A. [National Soil Tilth Laboratory, U.S. Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture, 2110 University Blvd., Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Bio-oil and bio-char were produced from corn cobs and corn stover (stalks, leaves and husks) by fast pyrolysis using a pilot scale fluidized bed reactor. Yields of 60% (mass/mass) bio-oil (high heating values are {proportional_to}20 MJ kg{sup -1}, and densities >1.0 Mg m{sup -3}) were realized from both corn cobs and from corn stover. The high energy density of bio-oil, {proportional_to}20-32 times on a per unit volume basis over the raw corn residues, offers potentially significant savings in transportation costs particularly for a distributed ''farm scale'' bio-refinery system. Bio-char yield was 18.9% and 17.0% (mass/mass) from corn cobs and corn stover, respectively. Deploying the bio-char co-product, which contains most of the nutrient minerals from the corn residues, as well as a significant amount of carbon, to the land can enhance soil quality, sequester carbon, and alleviate environmental problems associated with removal of crop residues from fields. (author)

  1. Characterization and Catalytic Upgrading of Crude Bio-oil Produced by Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Swine Manure and Pyrolysis of Biomass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Dan

    The distillation curve of crude bio-oil from glycerol-assisted hydrothermal liquefaction of swine manure was measured using an advanced distillation apparatus. The crude bio-oil had much higher distillation temperatures than diesel and gasoline and was more distillable than the bio-oil produced by the traditional liquefaction of swine manure and the pyrolysis of corn stover. Each 10% volumetric fraction was analyzed from aspects of its chemical compositions, chemical and physical properties. The appearance of hydrocarbons in the distillates collected at the temperature of 410.9°C and above indicated that the thermal cracking at a temperature from 410°C to 500°C may be a proper approach to upgrade the crude bio-oil produced from the glycerol-assisted liquefaction of swine manure. The effects of thermal cracking conditions including reaction temperature (350-425°C), retention time (15-60 min) and catalyst loadings (0-10 wt%) on the yield and quality of the upgraded oil were analyzed. Under the optimum thermal cracking conditions at 400°C, a catalyst loading of 5% by mass and the reaction time of 30 min, the yield of bio-oil was 46.14% of the mass of the crude bio-oil and 62.5% of the energy stored in the crude bio-oil was recovered in the upgraded bio-oil. The upgraded bio-oil with a heating value of 41.4 MJ/kg and viscosity of 3.6 cP was comparable to commercial diesel. In upgrading crude bio-oil from fast pyrolysis, converting organic acids into neutral esters is significant and can be achieved by sulfonated activated carbon/bio-char developed from fermentation residues. Acitivated carbon and bio-char were sulfonated by concentrated sulfuric acid at 150°C for 18 h. Sulfonation helped activated carbon/bio-char develop acid functional groups. Sulfonated activated carbon with BET surface area of 349.8 m2/g, was effective in converting acetic acid. Acetic acid can be effectively esterified by sulfonated activated carbon (5 wt%) at 78°C for 60 min with the

  2. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talukder, Shyamal K.; Saha, Malay C.

    2017-01-01

    Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS) are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder. PMID:28798766

  3. Toward Genomics-Based Breeding in C3 Cool-Season Perennial Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyamal K. Talukder

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Most important food and feed crops in the world belong to the C3 grass family. The future of food security is highly reliant on achieving genetic gains of those grasses. Conventional breeding methods have already reached a plateau for improving major crops. Genomics tools and resources have opened an avenue to explore genome-wide variability and make use of the variation for enhancing genetic gains in breeding programs. Major C3 annual cereal breeding programs are well equipped with genomic tools; however, genomic research of C3 cool-season perennial grasses is lagging behind. In this review, we discuss the currently available genomics tools and approaches useful for C3 cool-season perennial grass breeding. Along with a general review, we emphasize the discussion focusing on forage grasses that were considered orphan and have little or no genetic information available. Transcriptome sequencing and genotype-by-sequencing technology for genome-wide marker detection using next-generation sequencing (NGS are very promising as genomics tools. Most C3 cool-season perennial grass members have no prior genetic information; thus NGS technology will enhance collinear study with other C3 model grasses like Brachypodium and rice. Transcriptomics data can be used for identification of functional genes and molecular markers, i.e., polymorphism markers and simple sequence repeats (SSRs. Genome-wide association study with NGS-based markers will facilitate marker identification for marker-assisted selection. With limited genetic information, genomic selection holds great promise to breeders for attaining maximum genetic gain of the cool-season C3 perennial grasses. Application of all these tools can ensure better genetic gains, reduce length of selection cycles, and facilitate cultivar development to meet the future demand for food and fodder.

  4. A consensus linkage map of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella based on microsatellites and SNPs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jiale

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella belongs to the family Cyprinidae which includes more than 2000 fish species. It is one of the most important freshwater food fish species in world aquaculture. A linkage map is an essential framework for mapping traits of interest and is often the first step towards understanding genome evolution. The aim of this study is to construct a first generation genetic map of grass carp using microsatellites and SNPs to generate a new resource for mapping QTL for economically important traits and to conduct a comparative mapping analysis to shed new insights into the evolution of fish genomes. Results We constructed a first generation linkage map of grass carp with a mapping panel containing two F1 families including 192 progenies. Sixteen SNPs in genes and 263 microsatellite markers were mapped to twenty-four linkage groups (LGs. The number of LGs was corresponding to the haploid chromosome number of grass carp. The sex-specific map was 1149.4 and 888.8 cM long in females and males respectively whereas the sex-averaged map spanned 1176.1 cM. The average resolution of the map was 4.2 cM/locus. BLAST searches of sequences of mapped markers of grass carp against the whole genome sequence of zebrafish revealed substantial macrosynteny relationship and extensive colinearity of markers between grass carp and zebrafish. Conclusions The linkage map of grass carp presented here is the first linkage map of a food fish species based on co-dominant markers in the family Cyprinidae. This map provides a valuable resource for mapping phenotypic variations and serves as a reference to approach comparative genomics and understand the evolution of fish genomes and could be complementary to grass carp genome sequencing project.

  5. Catalytic conversion of carboxylic acids in bio-oil for liquid hydrocarbons production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Shurong; Guo, Zuogang; Cai, Qinjie; Guo, Long

    2012-01-01

    Bio-oil must be upgraded to be suitable for use as a high-grade transport fuel. Crude bio-oil has a high content of carboxylic acids which can cause corrosion, and the high oxygen content of these acids also reduces the oil’s heating value. In this paper, acetic acid and propanoic acid were chosen as the model carboxylic acids in bio-oil. Their behavior in the production of liquid hydrocarbons during a catalytic conversion process was investigated in a micro-fixed bed reactor. The liquid organic phase from this catalytic conversion process mainly consisted of liquid hydrocarbons and phenol derivatives. Under the condition of low Liquid Hourly Space Velocity (LHSV), the liquid organic phase from acetic acid cracking had a selectivity of 22% for liquid hydrocarbons and a selectivity of 65% for phenol derivatives. The composition of the organic products changed considerably with the LHSV increasing to 3 h −1 . The selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons increased up to 52% while that for phenol derivatives decreased to 32%. Propanoic acid performed much better in producing liquid hydrocarbons than acetic acid. Its selectivity for liquid hydrocarbons was as high as 80% at LHSV = 3 h −1 . A mechanism for this catalytic conversion process was proposed according to the analysis of the components in the liquid organic phases. The pathways of the main compounds formation in the liquid organic phases were proposed, and the reason why liquid hydrocarbons were more effectively produced when using propanoic acid rather than acetic acid was also successfully explained. In addition, BET and SEM characterization were used to analyze the catalyst coke deposition. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: ► High content of carboxylic acids in bio-oil causes its corrosiveness. ► Acetic acid and propanoic acid are two dominant acids in bio-oil. ► Liquid hydrocarbons were produced by cracking of these two dominant acids. ► A mechanism model was proposed to explain

  6. Upgrading pyrolysis bio-oil through hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) using non-sulfided Fe-Co/SiO2 catalyst

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Shouyun; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Rabnawaz, Muhammad

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe-Co/SiO 2 catalyst with medium acidity was more effective for bio-oil upgrading. • Co-loading of Fe and Co on SiO 2 support improved catalyst performance. • Catalyst showing the best catalytic activity had a Fe/Co mole ratio of 1. • Biofuel produced by Fe-Co(1)/SiO 2 had the higher hydrocarbons content at 22.44%. • The mechanism of bio-oil HDO on Fe-Co/SiO 2 catalysts is proposed. - Abstract: Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is an effective route to upgrade bio-oil to hydrocarbon bio-oil, but the development of efficient catalysts for bio-oil HDO still remains a challenge. In this study, non-sulfided Fe-Co/SiO 2 catalysts were used to upgrade bio-oil using HDO. A series of Fe-Co/SiO 2 catalysts with different Fe/Co mole ratios were prepared, characterized and evaluated. The Fe and/or Co loading did not change SiO 2 crystalline structure. The Fe and/or Co metals increased the amount and strength of Fe-Co/SiO 2 catalyst acidity. Physicochemical properties of upgraded bio-oils produced using Fe-Co/SiO 2 catalysts such as water content, total acid number, viscosity and higher heating values improved in comparison to raw bio-oil. Bimetallic Fe-Co/SiO 2 catalysts resulted in better HDO performance than monometallic Fe/SiO 2 or Co/SiO 2 catalysts. This was due to the synergistic effect of Fe and Co occurring on the SiO 2 support. Fe-Co/SiO 2 catalyst having medium amount of acidity was more effective for bio-oil upgrading. The highest hydrocarbons content produced using Fe-Co(1)/SiO 2 catalyst was 22.44%. The mechanism of bio-oil HDO on Fe-Co/SiO 2 catalysts is proposed.

  7. Upgrading of bio-oil to boiler fuel by catalytic hydrotreatment and esterification in an efficient process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Xinghua; Chen, Lungang; Kong, Wei; Wang, Tiejun; Zhang, Qi; Long, Jinxing; Xu, Ying; Ma, Longlong

    2015-01-01

    Bio-oil can't be directly used as fuel due to its deteriorate properties. Here, an efficient catalytic upgrading process for the bio-oil, including esterification, hydrogenation, hydrodeoxygenation and depolymerization, is proposed with multifunctional catalyst Ni/SiO 2 –ZrO 2 and biomass-derived solvent ethanol. Results showed that esters, alcohols, phenolics, and cyclo-ketones were the main components in the upgraded bio-oil while aldehydes were removed completely via catalytic hydrogenation and acids were removed by catalytic esterification with supercritical ethanol. The pH value of upgraded bio-oil rose drastically from 2.38 to 5.24, and the high heating value increased to 24.4 MJ kg −1 . Comparison characterization on the upgraded and crude bio-oil using FT-IR, GPC (Gel permeation chromatography) and 13 C NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) demonstrated that lignin-derived oligomers contained in crude bio-oil were further depolymerized over Ni/SiO 2 –ZrO 2 catalyst. The improved properties suggest that the upgraded bio-oil is more suitable to be used as boiler fuel. Furthermore, the loss of carbon is negligible because formation of coke is suppressed during the upgrading process. - Highlights: • Acid can be converted via catalytic esterification in supercritical ethanol. • Aldehydes can be removed completely during the upgrading process. • Lignin-derived oligomers were further depolymerized during the upgrading process. • Formation of coke is effectively inhibited during the upgrading process

  8. Synthesis and tribological studies of nanoparticle additives for pyrolysis bio-oil formulated as a diesel fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yufu; Peng, Yubin; Zheng, Xiaojing; Dearn, Karl D.; Xu, Hongming; Hu, Xianguo

    2015-01-01

    The tribological behaviour of pyrolysis bio-oil with a synthesized nano-Lanthanum oxide (La 2 O 3 ) additive was evaluated using a point contact four ball tribometer under different frictional conditions. Results were compared against a micro (μ)-La 2 O 3 additive and an un-additised bio-oil as a control. The results show that nano-La 2 O 3 impregnated bio-oil had better tribological properties than the control groups. Under the operating loads, the optimum nanoparticle concentration within the bio-oil was investigated. At these levels, the combined action of adsorbed bio-oil films on the worn surfaces and the bearing effects of the nano-La 2 O 3 minimized friction and wear. The tribo-mechanisms were ascribed to adhesive wear as a result of lubrication starvation under high loads, and abrasive wear at high rotational speeds as a result of combined deformation and aggregation of the nano-La 2 O 3 particles. - Highlights: • The tribological properties of pyrolysis bio-oil with (μ & n) La 2 O 3 were assessed. • Nano-La 2 O 3 was synthesized with diameters of approximately 20–1000 nm. • Bio-oil w. 1% nano-La 2 O 3 was the optimum additive & concentration for tribological properties. • 1% nano-La 2 O 3 reduced corrosive wear with stable lubrication film for test conditions. • Wear mechanisms were predominately adhesive for higher loads and abrasive for higher speeds

  9. Hydrotreatment of bio-oil distillates produced from pyrolysis and hydrothermal liquefaction of duckweed: A comparison study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Tian, Ye; Zhang, Cai-Cai; Xu, Yu-Ping; Duan, Pei-Gao

    2018-09-15

    A comprehensive comparison of hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) to the pyrolysis of duckweed was conducted to determine the yields and components of the crude bio-oils and their distillates. The upgrading behaviors of the distillates were thoroughly investigated with the use of used engine oil as a solvent. With all other variables fixed, HTL produced crude bio-oil with a lower H/C ratio (1.28 ± 0.03) than pyrolysis did (1.45 ± 0.04). However, its distillates had a higher H/C ratio (1.60 ± 0.05) and total yield (66.1 ± 2.0 wt%) than pyrolysis (1.46 ± 0.04 and 47.2 ± 1.4 wt%, respectively). Phenolics and nitrogenous heterocycles constituted relatively major proportions of the two crude bio-oils and most of their distillates. Obvious differences in molecular composition between the two crude bio-oils and their distillates were ascribed to the distinct impacts of HTL and pyrolysis and were affected by the distillate temperature. Co-hydrotreating with used engine oil (UEO) provided the upgraded bio-oils much higher H/C ratios (~1.78 ± 0.05) and higher heating values (~45.5 ± 1.4 MJ·kg -1 ), as well as much lower contents of N, O and S compared to their initial distillates. Aromatics and alkanes constituted a large proportion in most of upgraded bio-oils. N removal from the pyrolysis distillates was easier than from the HTL distillates. Distinct differences in yields and molecular compositions for the upgraded bio-oils were also attributed to the different influences associated with the two conversion routes. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Bio-oil steam reforming, partial oxidation or oxidative steam reforming coupled with bio-oil dry reforming to eliminate CO{sub 2} emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Xun [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Graduate School of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Lu, Gongxuan [State Key Laboratory for Oxo Synthesis and Selective Oxidation, Lanzhou Institute of Chemical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanzhou 730000 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Biomass is carbon-neutral and utilization of biomass as hydrogen resource shows no impact on atmospheric CO{sub 2} level. Nevertheless, a significant amount of CO{sub 2} is always produced in biomass gasification processes. If the CO{sub 2} produced can further react with biomass, then the biomass gasification coupled with CO{sub 2} reforming of biomass will result in a net decrease of CO{sub 2} level in atmosphere and produce the chemical raw material, syngas. To achieve this concept, a ''Y'' type reactor is developed and applied in bio-oil steam reforming, partial oxidation, or oxidative steam reforming coupled with CO{sub 2} reforming of bio-oil to eliminate the emission of CO{sub 2}. The experimental results show that the reaction systems can efficiently suppress the emission of CO{sub 2} from various reforming processes. The different coupled reaction systems generate the syngas with different molar ratio of CO/H{sub 2}. In addition, coke deposition is encountered in the different reforming processes. Both catalysts and experimental parameters significantly affect the coke deposition. Ni/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst shows much higher resistivity toward coke deposition than Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst, while employing high reaction temperature is vital for elimination of coke deposition. Although the different coupled reaction systems show different characteristic in terms of product distribution and coke deposition, which all can serve as methods for storage of the carbon from fossil fuels or air. (author)

  11. Upgrading pyrolysis bio-oil to biofuel over bifunctional Co-Zn/HZSM-5 catalyst in supercritical methanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, Shouyun; Wei, Lin; Julson, James; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Kharel, Parashu Ram

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Integration of Co-Zn/HZSM-5 and supercritical methanol was used for bio-oil hydrodeoxygenation. • Co-Zn/HZSM-5 exhibited higher effectiveness than Co/HZSM-5 or Zn/HZSM-5. • 15%Co5%Zn/HZSM-5 produced biofuel with the highest hydrocarbons content at 35.33%. • Loading of Co and/or Zn did not change crystalline structure of HZSM-5. • Hydrogenation and esterification are main reactions in bio-oil hydrodeoxygenation. - Abstract: The role of catalyst is essential in processes of upgrading biomass pyrolysis bio-oil into hydrocarbon biofuel. While the majority of heterogeneous catalytic processes are conducted in the presence of gas (nearly ideal) or liquid phase, a growing number of processes are utilizing supercritical fluids (SCFs) as reaction media. Although hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) is proven a promising process for pyrolysis bio-oil upgrading to hydrocarbon biofuel, catalyst efficiency remains a challenge. Integrating heterogeneous catalysts with SCFs in a bio-oil HDO process was investigated in this study. Bifunctional Co-Zn/HZSM-5 catalysts were firstly used to upgrade bio-oil to biofuel in supercritical methanol. The loading of Co and Zn did not change HZSM-5 crystalline structure. Physicochemical properties of biofuel produced by Co and/or Zn loaded HZSM-5 catalysts such as water content, total acid number, viscosity and higher heating value improved. Bimetallic Co-Zn/HZSM-5 catalysts showed enhanced reactions of decarboxylation and decarbonylation that resulted in higher yields of CO and CO 2 . Bimetallic Co-Zn/HZSM-5 catalysts were more effective for bio-oil HDO than monometallic Co/HZSM-5 or Zn/HZSM-5 catalyst , which was attributed to the synergistic effect of Co and Zn on HZSM-5 support. Bimetallic Co-Zn/HZSM-5 catalysts increased biofuel yields and hydrocarbons contents in biofuels in comparison with monometallic Co/HZSM-5 and Zn/HZSM-5 catalysts. 5%Co15%Zn/HZSM-5 catalyst generated the highest biofuel yield at 22.13 wt.%, and 15%Co5

  12. Optimization and characterization studies on bio-oil production from palm shell by pyrolysis using response surface methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Wan Daud, W.M.A.; Sahu, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    In this work palm shell waste was pyrolyzed to produces bio-oil. The effects of several parameters on the pyrolysis efficiency were tested to identify the optimal bio-oil production conditions. The tested parameters include temperature, N 2 flow rate, feed-stock particle size, and reaction time. The experiments were conducted using a fix-bed reactor. The efficient response surface methodology (RSM), with a central composite design (CCD), were used for modeling and optimization the process parameters. The results showed that the second-order polynomial equation explains adequately the non-linear nature of the modeled response. An R 2 value of 0.9337 indicates a sufficient adjustment of the model with the experimental data. The optimal conditions found to be at the temperature of 500 o C, N 2 flow rate of 2 L/min, particle size of 2 mm and reaction time of 60 min and yield of bio-oil was approximately obtained 46.4 wt %. In addition, Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were used to characterize the gained bio-oil under the optimum condition. -- Highlights: → The RSM, with a CCD, was used for modeling and optimization for bio-oil synthesis. → The obtained model explains adequately the non-linear nature. → An R 2 value of 0.9337 ensures a sufficient adjustment of the model. → It explains the importance of the experimental factors, their interactions.

  13. Bio-oil production from hydrothermal liquefaction of Pteris vittata L.: Effects of operating temperatures and energy recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jinbo

    2018-06-14

    Hyper-accumulator biomass, Pteris vittata L., was hydrothermally converted into bio-oils via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) in sub-supercritical water. The distributions and characterizations of various products as well as energy recovery under different temperatures (250-390 °C) were investigated. The highest bio-oil yield of 16.88% was obtained at 350 °C with the hydrothermal conversion of 61.79%, where the bio-oil was dominated by alcohols, esters, phenols, ketones and acidic compounds. The higher heating values of bio-oil were in the range of 19.93-35.45 MJ/kg with a H/C ratio of 1.26-1.46, illustrating its high energy density and potential for use as an ideal liquid fuel. The main gaseous products were CO 2 , H 2 , CO, and CH 4 with the H 2 yield peaking at 22.94%. The total energy recovery from bio-oils and solid residues fell within the range of 37.72-45.10%, highlighting the potential of HTL to convert hyper-accumulator biomass into valuable fuels with high conversion efficiency. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Determination of volatile organic compounds in eucalyptus fast pyrolysis bio-oil by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosinski Lima, Nathalya; Romualdo Lopes, André; Gimenes Guerrero, Palimecio; Itsuo Yamamoto, Carlos; Augusto Hansel, Fabricio

    2018-01-01

    This paper reports a full evaporation (FE) headspace gas chromatographic (HS-GC) method for the determination of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in bio-oil (i.e. methanol, ethanol, acetone, acetic acid and furfural). The method uses a 4μL sample of bio-oil in a headspace vial (ca. 20mL). Complete evaporation of the compounds was achieved after seven minutes at 90°C. The method showed good precision and accuracy for methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetic acid. The recovery of furfural was low (74.3%). The results showed that the protocol can be applied for the determination of methanol, ethanol, acetone and acetic acid in bio-oil. Detection limits ranged from 0.13 to 0.16μg. Acetic acid was the dominant analyte in the heavy bio-oil and light bio-oil analysis (113. 3 and 85.1µgmg -1 , respectively), followed by methanol, ethanol, and acetone. The polymerisation of furfural was suspected as the cause of its poor quantification. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Biomass fast pyrolysis for bio-oil production in a fluidized bed reactor under hot flue atmosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Wang, Xiang; Bai, Xueyuan; Li, Zhihe; Zhang, Ying

    2015-10-01

    Fast pyrolysis experiments of corn stalk were performed to investigate the optimal pyrolysis conditions of temperature and bed material for maximum bio-oil production under flue gas atmosphere. Under the optimized pyrolysis conditions, furfural residue, xylose residue and kelp seaweed were pyrolyzed to examine their yield distributions of products, and the physical characteristics of bio-oil were studied. The best flow rate of the flue gas at selected temperature is obtained, and the pyrolysis temperature at 500 degrees C and dolomite as bed material could give a maximum bio-oil yield. The highest bio-oil yield of 43.3% (W/W) was achieved from corn stalk under the optimal conditions. Two main fractions were recovered from the stratified bio-oils: light oils and heavy oils. The physical properties of heavy oils from all feedstocks varied little. The calorific values of heavy oils were much higher than that of light oils. The pyrolysis gas could be used as a gaseous fuel due to a relatively high calorific value of 6.5-8.5 MJ/m3.

  16. Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils. Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Ford, David M.; Bhatia, Surita R.; Badger, Phillip C.

    2012-10-19

    This University of Massachusetts, Amherst project, "Fast Pyrolysis Oil Stabilization: An Integrated Catalytic and Membrane Approach for Improved Bio-oils" started on 1st February 2009 and finished on August 31st 2011. The project consisted following tasks: Task 1.0: Char Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The presence of char particles in the bio-oil causes problems in storage and end-use. Currently there is no well-established technology to remove char particles less than 10 micron in size. This study focused on the application of a liquid-phase microfiltration process to remove char particles from bio-oil down to slightly sub-micron levels. Tubular ceramic membranes of nominal pore sizes 0.5 and 0.8m were employed to carry out the microfiltration, which was conducted in the cross-flow mode at temperatures ranging from 38 to 45 C and at three different trans-membrane pressures varying from 1 to 3 bars. The results demonstrated the removal of the major quantity of char particles with a significant reduction in overall ash content of the bio-oil. The results clearly showed that the cake formation mechanism of fouling is predominant in this process. Task 2.0 Acid Removal by Membrane Separation Technology The feasibility of removing small organic acids from the aqueous fraction of fast pyrolysis bio-oils using nanofiltration (NF) and reverse osmosis (RO) membranes was studied. Experiments were carried out with a single solute solutions of acetic acid and glucose, binary solute solutions containing both acetic acid and glucose, and a model aqueous fraction of bio-oil (AFBO). Retention factors above 90% for glucose and below 0% for acetic acid were observed at feed pressures near 40 bar for single and binary solutions, so that their separation in the model AFBO was expected to be feasible. However, all of the membranes were irreversibly damaged when experiments were conducted with the model AFBO due to the presence of guaiacol in the feed solution. Experiments

  17. Development of a supercritical fluid chromatography method with ultraviolet and mass spectrometry detection for the characterization of biomass fast pyrolysis bio oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepier, Julien; Le Masle, Agnès; Charon, Nadège; Albrieux, Florian; Heinisch, Sabine

    2017-08-11

    The characterization of complex mixtures is a challenging issue for the development of innovative processes dedicated to biofuels and bio-products production. The huge number of compounds present in biomass fast pyrolysis oils combined with the large diversity of chemical functions represent a bottleneck as regards analytical technique development. For the extensive characterization of complex samples, supercritical fluid chromatography (SFC) can be alternative to usual separation techniques such as gas (GC) or liquid chromatography (LC). In this study, an approach is proposed to define the best conditions for the SFC separation of a fast pyrolysis bio-oil. This approach was based on SFC data obtained directly from the bio-oil itself instead of selecting model compounds as usually done. SFC conditions were optimized by using three specific, easy-to-use and quantitative criteria aiming at maximizing the separation power. Polar stationary phases (ethylpyridine bonded silica) associated to a mix of acetonitrile and water as polarity modifier provided the best results, with more than 120 peaks detected in SFC-UV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Catalytic cracking of bio-oil to organic liquid product (OLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hew, K L; Tamidi, A M; Yusup, S; Lee, K T; Ahmad, M M

    2010-11-01

    The main objective of this paper is to find the optimum operating condition to upgrade the EFB-derived pyrolysis oil (bio-oil) to liquid fuel, mainly gasoline using Taguchi Method. From the analysis that has been done, it is found that the optimum operating condition for heterogeneous catalytic cracking process is at 400 degrees C, 15min of reaction time using 30g of catalyst weight where operating at this condition produced the highest yield of gasoline fraction which is 91.67 wt.%. This observation proves that EFB-derived pyrolysis oil could be upgraded via heterogeneous catalytic cracking to produce gasoline.

  19. Hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil using different mesoporous supports of NiMo catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Nino; Simanungkalit, Sabar P.; Kristiani, Anis

    2017-11-01

    Biomass as a renewable and sustainable resources need to utilize in many applications, especially for energy application. One of its energy application is about converting biomass into bio-oil. High oxygen content in bio-oil needs to be upgraded through hydrodeoxygenation process before being used as transportation fuel. The development of heterogenenous catalysts become an important aspect in hydrodeoxygenation process, in particular the upgrading process of bio-oil. Several supporting mesoporous materials, such as TiO2, Al2O3 and MCM-41 have unique properties, both physical and chemical properties that can be utilized in various application, including catalyst. These heterogeneous catalysts were modified their catalytic properties by impregnation with some transition metal. The effect of various supporting material and transition metal impregnated were also studied. Their chemical and physical properties were characterized by X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Fluororesence, Fourier Transform Infra-Red, and Surface Area Analyzer. The result of characterizations showed that Ni-Mo/TiO2 is more crystalline than Ni-Mo/MCM-41 and Ni-Mo/Al2O3. In other hand, the specific surface area of Ni-Mo/TiO2 is lower than others. These heterogeneous catalysts were tested their catalytic activity in upgrading bio-oil. The liquid products produced were analyzed by using Elemental Analyzer. The result of catalytic activity tests showed catalysts resulted Ni-Mo/TiO2 exhibits best catalytic activity in hydrodeoxygenation process. The oxygen content decreased significantly from 41.61% to 26.22% by using Ni-Mo/TiO2. Compared with Ni-Mo/TiO2, Ni-Mo/MCM-41 and Ni-Mo/Al2O3 decrease lower to 33.22% % and 28.34%, respectively. Ni-Mo/TiO2 also resulted the highest Deoxygenation Degree (DOD) as of 55% compared with Ni-Mo/MCM-41 and Ni-Mo/Al2O3 as of 31.99 % and 47.99%, respectively.

  20. Utilization possibilites of waste products from fishing and hunting to biogas and bio-oil production in Uummannaq County

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsdottir, Ragnhildur; Jørgensen, Marianne Willemoes

    2008-01-01

    In spring 2007 a project was carried out at the Arctic Technology Centre in which research of various possibilities of utilizing waste products from fishing and hunting generated in Uummannaq County was performed. Numerous alternatives were identified in the project, which were weighed against...... the specific conditions that apply in Uummannaq County. The best alternatives were evaluated to be biogas production and utilization of fat from the fish waste to produce bio-oil. The results showed that with the price of energy in Greenland in 2009 of 3,71 DKR per kWh, the waste in Uummannaq County would...... amount to approximately 6 million DKR when using biogas production and 5,7 million DKR when using bio-oil. Compared with the energy used in Uummannaq County today, the biogas production would be able to supply 17 percent of the energy and bio-oil production would cover approximately 16 percent....

  1. Short term endurance results on a single cylinder diesel engine fueled with upgraded bio oil biodiesel emulsion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, R.; Murugan, S.

    2017-11-01

    This paper deliberates the endurance test outcomes obtained from a single cylinder, diesel engine fueled with an upgraded bio oil biodiesel emulsion. In this investigation a bio oil obtained by pyrolysis of woody biomass was upgraded with acid treatment. The resulted bio oil was emulsified with addition of biodiesel and suitable surfactant which is termed as ATJOE15. The main objective of the endurance test was to evaluate the wear characteristics of the engine components and lubrication oil properties, when the engine is fueled with the ATJOE15 emulsion. The photographic views taken before and after the end of 100 hrs endurance test, and visual inspection of the engine components, wear and carbon deposit results, are discussed in this paper.

  2. Influence of green grass-based diets on growth and reproductive performance in dairy heifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Habib, M. R.; Rashid, M. H.; Islam, M. A.

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to monitor the changes in growth, dry matter intake, and blood profiles (nutrition and reproductive hormones) of dairy heifers in response to green grass-based diets. Twelve crossbred heifers were equally divided into group 1: rice straw and concentrate; group 2: r...

  3. Study on the hydrodeoxygenative upgrading of crude bio-oil produced from woody biomass by fast pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Seung; Oh, Shinyoung; Kim, Jae-Young; Choi, In-Gyu; Choi, Joon Weon

    2014-01-01

    Crude bio-oil produced from fast pyrolysis of yellow poplar wood was subjected to HDO (hydrodeoxygenation) for the purpose of reducing water content as well as increasing heating value. HDO was performed in an autoclave reactor at three different reaction factors: temperature (250–370 °C), reaction time (40–120 min), and Pd/C catalyst loading (0–6 wt%) under hydrogen atmosphere. After completion of HDO, gas, char, and two immiscible liquid products (light oil and heavy oil) were obtained. Liquid products were less acidic and contained less water than crude bio-oil. Water content of heavy oil was ranged between 0.4 wt% and 1.9 wt%. Heating values of heavy oil were estimated between 28.7 and 37.4 MJ/kg, which was about twice higher than that of crude bio-oil. Elemental analysis revealed that heavy oil had a lower O/C ratio (0.17–0.36) than crude bio-oil (0.71). H/C ratio of heavy oil decreased from 1.50 to 1.32 with an increase of temperature from 250 °C to 350 °C, respectively. - Highlights: • Bio-oil was subjected to hydrodeoxygenation with Pd/C catalyst in supercritical ethanol. • Gas, char and two immiscible liquids (light/heavy oil) were obtained as final products. • Ethanol addition reduced the char formation during hydrodeoxygenation. • The heavy oil was characteristic to less acidic and less water content than bio-oil. • Higher heating value of the heavy oil was measured to 28.7–37.4 MJ/kg

  4. Temperature influence on the fast pyrolysis of manure samples: char, bio-oil and gases production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Lopez, Maria; Anastasakis, Kostas; De Jong, Wiebren; Valverde, Jose Luis; Sanchez-Silva, Luz

    2017-11-01

    Fast pyrolysis characterization of three dry manure samples was studied using a pyrolyzer. A heating rate of 600°C/s and a holding time of 10 s were selected to reproduce industrial conditions. The effect of the peak pyrolysis temperature (600, 800 and 1000°C) on the pyrolysis product yield and composition was evaluated. Char and bio-oil were gravimetrically quantified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to analyse the char structure. H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were measured by means of gas chromatography (GC). A decrease in the char yield and an increase of the gas yield were observed when temperature increased. From 800°C on, it was observed that the char yield of samples Dig R and SW were constant, which indicated that the primary devolatilization reactions stopped. This fact was also corroborated by GC analysis. The bio-oil yield slightly increased with temperature, showing a maximum of 20.7 and 27.8 wt.% for samples Pre and SW, respectively, whereas sample Dig R showed a maximum yield of 16.5 wt.% at 800°C. CO2 and CO were the main released gases whereas H2 and CH4 production increased with temperature. Finally, an increase of char porosity was observed with temperature.

  5. The role of phenols from bagasse vacuum pyrolysis bio-oil in cupper sulfured ore flotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. E. Brossard

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum pyrolysis bagasse bio-oil collected in a series of sequential fractions was analyzed for total percentage of phenols and levoglucosan components. It was established that the ratio total phenols- to-levoglucosan could be used as an indicator of the performance of alkaline solutions of bio-oil fractions (SABO when they are used as foaming agents to benefit flotation of sulfured cupper minerals. A high total phenol-to-levoglucosan ratio results in high percentages of Cu in cupper flotation concentrates, L Cu. A closer look at the role of individual phenols reveals that p-cresol is the main phenol, although not the only one, responsible for the observed behavior. Additionally it was noted that rather high doses of these foaming agents must be used to obtain desirable results in flotation processes. A production cost estimate allows consideration of SABO as an alternative to others commercial foaming agents, especially if an optimization study reduces doses of SABO.

  6. Influence of biomass pretreatment on upgrading of bio-oil: Comparison of dry and hydrothermal torrefaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiwei; Tu, Ren; Sun, Yan; Li, Zhiyu; Jiang, Enchen

    2018-08-01

    The dry and hydrothermal torrefacation of on Camellia Shell (CS) was carried on three different devices- batch autoclave, quartz tube, and auger reactor. The torrefied bio-char products were investigated via TGA, elemental analysis and industrial analysis. Moreover, the pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis properties of torrefied bio-char were investigated. The results showed torrefaction significantly influenced the content of hemicellulose in CS. And hydrothermal torrefaction via batch autoclave and dry torrefaction via auger reactors promoted the hemicellulose to strip from the CS. Quartz tube and auger reactor were beneficial for devolatilization and improving heat value of torrefied bio-char. The result showed that the main products were phenols and acids. And hydrothermal torrefaction pretreatment effectively reduced the acids content from 34.5% to 13.2% and enriched the content of phenols (from 27.23% to 60.05%) in bio-oil due to the decreasing of hemicellulos in torrefied bio-char. And the catalyst had slight influence on the bio-oil distribution. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Temperature influence on the fast pyrolysis of manure samples: char, bio-oil and gases production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernandez-Lopez Maria

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis characterization of three dry manure samples was studied using a pyrolyzer. A heating rate of 600°C/s and a holding time of 10 s were selected to reproduce industrial conditions. The effect of the peak pyrolysis temperature (600, 800 and 1000°C on the pyrolysis product yield and composition was evaluated. Char and bio-oil were gravimetrically quantified. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM was used to analyse the char structure. H2, CH4, CO and CO2 were measured by means of gas chromatography (GC. A decrease in the char yield and an increase of the gas yield were observed when temperature increased. From 800°C on, it was observed that the char yield of samples Dig R and SW were constant, which indicated that the primary devolatilization reactions stopped. This fact was also corroborated by GC analysis. The bio-oil yield slightly increased with temperature, showing a maximum of 20.7 and 27.8 wt.% for samples Pre and SW, respectively, whereas sample Dig R showed a maximum yield of 16.5 wt.% at 800°C. CO2 and CO were the main released gases whereas H2 and CH4 production increased with temperature. Finally, an increase of char porosity was observed with temperature.

  8. Recovery of Bio-Oil from Industrial Food Waste by Liquefied Dimethyl Ether for Biodiesel Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiyoshi Sakuragi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of new energy sources has become particularly important from the perspective of energy security and environmental protection. Therefore, the utilization of waste resources such as industrial food wastes (IFWs in energy production is expected. The central research institute of electric power industry (CRIEPI, Tokyo, Japan has recently developed an energy-saving oil-extraction technique involving the use of liquefied dimethyl ether (DME, which is an environmentally friendly solvent. In this study, three common IFWs (spent coffee grounds, soybean, and rapeseed cakes were evaluated with respect to oil yield for biodiesel fuel (BDF production by the DME extraction method. The coffee grounds were found to contain 16.8% bio-oil, whereas the soybean and rapeseed cakes contained only approximately 0.97% and 2.6% bio-oil, respectively. The recovered oils were qualitatively analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The properties of fatty acid methyl esters derived from coffee oil, such as kinematic viscosity, pour point, and higher heating value (HHV, were also determined. Coffee grounds had the highest oil content and could be used as biofuel. In addition, the robust oil extraction capability of DME indicates that it may be a favourable alternative to conventional oil extraction solvents.

  9. Production and characterization of bio-oil from catalytic biomass pyrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonakou Eleni V.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Biomass flash pyrolysis is a very promising thermochemical process for the production of bio-fuels and/or chemicals. However, large-scale applications are still under careful consideration, because of the high bio-liquid upgrading cost. In this paper the production of bio-liquids from biomass flash pyrolysis in a single stage catalytic process is being investigated using a novel once through fluid bed reactor. This biomass pyrolysis unit was constructed in Chemical Process Engineering Research Institute and comprises of a catalyst regenerator, a biomass-vibrating hopper, a fluidization reactor (that consists of an injector and a riser reactor, a product stripper along with a hot cyclone and a filter housing and finally a product condensation/recovery section. The unit can process up to 20 g/min. of biomass (50-800 mm and can circulate up to 300 g/min. of catalyst or inert material. The experiments performed in the pilot plant showed that the unit operates without problems and with satisfactory mass balances in a wide range of experimental conditions both in the absence and presence of catalyst. With the incorporation of an FCC catalyst in the pyrolysis, the physical properties of the bio-oil produced changed, while more stable bio-oil was produced. .

  10. Catalytic biorefining of plant biomass to non-pyrolytic lignin bio-oil and carbohydrates through hydrogen transfer reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrini, Paola; Rinaldi, Roberto

    2014-08-11

    Through catalytic hydrogen transfer reactions, a new biorefining method results in the isolation of depolymerized lignin--a non-pyrolytic lignin bio-oil--in addition to pulps that are amenable to enzymatic hydrolysis. Compared with organosolv lignin, the lignin bio-oil is highly susceptible to further hydrodeoxygenation under low-severity conditions and therefore establishes a unique platform for lignin valorization by heterogeneous catalysis. Overall, the potential of a catalytic biorefining method designed from the perspective of lignin utilization is reported. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Insecticidal activity of bio-oils and biochar as pyrolysis products and their combination with microbial agents against Agrotis ipsilon (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyrolysis technology for producing biochar and bio-oils can be used as a potential alternative to make biopesticides, which are urgently needed in integrated pest management (IPM). Insecticidal activity of three components of bio-oils: aqueous, organic and their mixture, was evaluated individually a...

  12. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A., E-mail: aidabenhassen@yahoo.fr [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Kraiem, T. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia); Naoui, S. [Centre de Recherche et de Technologies de l’Energie (CRTEn), Technopôle Borj-Cédria, B.P 95, 2050, Hammam Lif (Tunisia); Belayouni, H. [Département de Géologie, Université de Tunis, 2092, Tunis (Tunisia)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy.

  13. Characterization and Comparison of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-oils from Pinewood, Rapeseed Cake, and Wheat Straw Using 13C NMR and Comprehensive GC × GC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negahdar, Leila; Gonzalez-Quiroga, Arturo; Otyuskaya, Daria; Toraman, Hilal E.; Liu, Li; Jastrzebski, Johann T B H; Van Geem, Kevin M.; Marin, Guy B.; Thybaut, Joris W.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2016-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis bio-oils are feasible energy carriers and a potential source of chemicals. Detailed characterization of bio-oils is essential to further develop its potential use. In this study, quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (13C NMR) combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas

  14. Catalytic transfer hydrogenation for stabilization of bio-oil oxygenates: reduction of p-cresol and furfural over bimetallic Ni-Cu catalysts using isopropanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transfer hydrogenation and hydrodeoxygenation of model bio-oil compounds (p-cresol and furfural) and bio-oils derived from biomass via traditional pyrolysis and tail-gas reactive pyrolysis (TGRP) were conducted. Mild batch reaction conditions were employed, using isopropanol as a hydrogen donor over...

  15. Pyrolysis of waste animal fats in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben Hassen-Trabelsi, A.; Kraiem, T.; Naoui, S.; Belayouni, H.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Produced bio-fuels (bio-oil and bio-char) from some animal fatty wastes. • Investigated the effects of main parameters on pyrolysis products distribution. • Determined the suitable conditions for the production of the maximum of bio-oil. • Characterized bio-oils and bio-chars obtained from several animal fatty wastes. - Abstract: Several animal (lamb, poultry and swine) fatty wastes were pyrolyzed under nitrogen, in a laboratory scale fixed-bed reactor and the main products (liquid bio-oil, solid bio-char and syngas) were obtained. The purpose of this study is to produce and characterize bio-oil and bio-char obtained from pyrolysis of animal fatty wastes. The maximum production of bio-oil was achieved at a pyrolysis temperature of 500 °C and a heating rate of 5 °C/min. The chemical (GC–MS analyses) and spectroscopic analyses (FTIR analyses) of bio-oil showed that it is a complex mixture consisting of different classes of organic compounds, i.e., hydrocarbons (alkanes, alkenes, cyclic compounds…etc.), carboxylic acids, aldehydes, ketones, esters,…etc. According to fuel properties, produced bio-oils showed good properties, suitable for its use as an engine fuel or as a potential source for synthetic fuels and chemical feedstock. Obtained bio-chars had low carbon content and high ash content which make them unattractive for as renewable source energy

  16. Production of bio-oil with low contents of copper and chlorine by fast pyrolysis of alkaline copper quaternary-treated wood in a fluidized bed reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Won-Mo; Jung, Su-Hwa; Kim, Joo-Sik

    2014-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis of ACQ (alkaline copper quaternary)-treated wood was carried out in a bench-scale pyrolysis plant equipped with a fluidized bed reactor and char separation system. This study focused on the production of a bio-oil with low copper and chlorine contents, especially by adopting the fractional condensation of bio-oil using water condensers, an impact separator and an electrostatic precipitator. In addition, various analytical tools were applied to investigate the physicochemical properties of the pyrolysis products and the behavior of the preservative during pyrolysis. The bio-oil yield was maximized at 63.7 wt% at a pyrolysis temperature of 411 °C. Highly water-soluble holocellulose-derived components such as acetic acid and hydroxyacetone were mainly collected by the condensers, while lignin-derived components and levoglucosan were mainly observed in the oils collected by the impact separator and electrostatic precipitator. All the bio-oils produced in the experiments were almost free of copper and chlorine. Most copper in ACQ was transferred into the char. - Highlights: • ACQ(alkaline copper quaternary)-treated wood was successfully pyrolyzed in a bench-scale fluidized bed. • Bio-oils separately collected were different in their characteristics. • Bio-oils were free of didecyldimethylammonium chloride. • Bio oils were almost free of copper and chlorine. • The concentration of levoglucosan in a bio-oil was 24–31 wt%

  17. Bio-oil production via co-pyrolysis of almond shell as biomass and high density polyethylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Önal, Eylem; Uzun, Başak Burcu; Pütün, Ayşe Eren

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigate to see the effect of HDPE addition on thermal decomposition of lignocellulosic materials. • Increasing the proportion of HDPE in mixtures increases the oil yields. • After co-pyrolysis applied, obtained oil is more stable due to having lower oxygen content and higher heating value. • The addition of HDPE to aS has a positive effect on fuel properties of obtained oil. - Abstract: Biomass from almond shell (aS) was co-pyrolyzed with high density polyethylene (HDPE) polymer to investigate the synergistic effects on the product yields and compositions. The pyrolysis temperature was selected as 500 °C, based on results of TGA-DTG. Co-pyrolysis of HDPE-biomass mixtures were pyrolysed with various proportions such as 1:0, 1:1, 1:2, 2:1 and 0:1. The yield of liquids produced during co-pyrolysis enhanced 23%, as the weight ratio of HDPE in the mixture was doubled. Obtained bio-oils were analyzed with using column chromatography, 1 H NMR, GC/MS, and FT-IR. According to analyses results, produced liquids by co-pyrolysis had higher carbon (26% higher) and hydrogen contents (78% higher), lower oxygen content (%86 less) with a higher heating value (38% higher) than those of biomass oil

  18. A synteny-based draft genome sequence of the forage grass Lolium perenne

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrne, Stephen; Nagy, Istvan; Pfeifer, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    -family of the grass family (Poaceae). Transcriptome data was used to identify 28 455 gene models, and we utilized macro-co-linearity between perennial ryegrass and barley, and synteny within the grass family, to establish a synteny-based linear gene order. The gametophytic self-incompatibility mechanism enables...

  19. The scope for generating bio-oils with relatively low oxygen contents via hydropyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocha, J.D. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry; Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Dept. Fisica Aplicada; Luengo, C.A. [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Brazil). Dept. Fisica Aplicada; Snape, C.E. [Strathclyde Univ., Glasgow (United Kingdom). Dept. of Pure and Applied Chemistry

    1999-07-01

    The primary oils obtained in high yields from fast (fluidised-bed) pyrolysis of biomass generally have high oxygen contents (ca. 40% w/w). The scope for using pyrolysis under hydrogen pressure (hydropyrolysis), to give oils with much lower oxygen contents compared to normal pyrolysis has been investigated. Fixed-bed hydropyrolysis tests have been conducted on cellulose, sugar cane bagasse and eucalyptus wood using hydrogen pressures up to 10 MPa, with heating rates of 5 and 300{sup o}C min{sup -1}. A colloidal FeS catalyst was used in some tests (Fe loading of 5%, w/w) to increase overall conversions. Further, the attractive option of using a two-stage reactor in which the primary oil vapors are passed though a bed of hydrotreating catalyst is also described. Raising the hydrogen pressure from atmospheric to 10 MPa reduced the oxygen content of the primary oil by over 10% to below 20% w/w. The addition of a dispersed iron sulphide catalyst gave conversions close to 100% for all three biomass samples investigated at 10 MPa under conditions in the fixed-bed reactor where significant diffusional resistances existed and reduced the oxygen content of the bio-oil by a further 10%. Although NMR indicated that the oils became increasingly aromatic as more oxygen was removed, the increase in hydrogen pressure decreased the extent of overall aromatisation that occurs primarily due to the lower char yields obtained. In two-stage tests for cellulose, using a commercial sulphided Ni/Mo {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst at 400{sup o}C, increasing the hydrogen pressure from 2.5 to 10 MPa decreased the oxygen content of the oil by over 20% to 10% w/w. The H/C ratios were higher and O/C ratios smaller for the two-stage bio-oils compared to their single stage counterparts. However, the differences in the O/C ratios between the single and two-stage bio-oils increase with pressure. (author)

  20. Hydrothermal liquefaction of pinewood (Pinus ponderosa) for H2, biocrude and bio-oil generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tungal, Richa; Shende, Rajesh V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Ni(NO 3 ) 2 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , Co(NO 3 ) 2 and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 were investigated for HTL of pinewood. • Ni(NO 3 ) 2 showed higher selectivity for H 2 and biocrude generation. • O/C ratio of LBO, HBO and residue recovered was lower than O/C of the pinewood. • HHVs of LBO, HBO and residue were found to be higher than HHV of the pinewood. - Abstract: This study reports hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of pinewood at 200–275 °C for H 2 , biocrude and bio-oil production in presence of a nitrate salt catalyst: Ni(NO 3 ) 2 , Ca(NO 3 ) 2 , Co(NO 3 ) 2 and Fe(NO 3 ) 3 . Among these catalysts, Ni(NO 3 ) 2 showed higher selectivity towards H 2 and biocrude generation. To generate H 2 and biocrude, a slurry of pinewood was prepared with different biomass to solvent (B:S) ratios of 1:10, 1:30, and 1:75 and loaded in the SS316 PARR reactor and heated to different temperatures. While the reaction was in progress, gas samples were withdrawn and analyzed using GC equipped with Chrompack capillary column and thermal conductivity detector. The analysis of product gas revealed the presence of H 2 , CO 2 , CO and CH 4 . The liquid samples collected during the reaction were centrifuged to separate residue and analyzed using TOC analyzer, HPLC and GC–MS. Among different homogeneous catalysts used, Ni(NO 3 ) 2 yielded 12.26 mol% H 2 at 275 °C and a maximum biocrude of 55 wt% at 250 °C using 200 psi N 2 partial pressure. The biocrude was found to contain sugars, C 1 -C 3 carboxylic acids such as lactic, propionic, acetic and formic, HMF/furfural and other oxygenated compounds, which were thoroughly analyzed by GC–MS. Among different C 1 -C 3 acids, lactic acid was observed in the major amount of 83.92 wt% using B:S of 1:75 at 250 °C. The biocrude obtained was further processed to recover light bio-oil (LBO), heavy bio-oil (HBO) and residue which were found to have higher heating value (HHV) as compared with original pinewood

  1. Source and Biological Response of Biochar Organic Compounds Released into Water; Relationships with Bio-Oil Composition and Carbonization Degree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghidotti, Michele; Fabbri, Daniele; Mašek, Ondřej; Mackay, Colin Logan; Montalti, Marco; Hornung, Andreas

    2017-06-06

    Water-soluble organic compounds (WSOCs) were extracted from corn stalk biochar produced at increasing pyrolysis temperatures (350-650 °C) and from the corresponding vapors, collected as bio-oil. WSOCs were characterized by gas chromatography (semivolatile fraction), negative electron spray ionization high resolution mass spectrometry (hydrophilic fraction) and fluorescence spectroscopy. The pattern of semivolatile WSOCs in bio-oil was dominated by aromatic products from lignocellulose, while in biochar was featured by saturated carboxylic acids from hemi/cellulose and lipids with concentrations decreasing with decreasing H/C ratios. Hydrophilic species in poorly carbonized biochar resembled those in bio-oil, but the increasing charring intensity caused a marked reduction in the molecular complexity and degree of aromaticity. Differences in the fluorescence spectra were attributed to the predominance of fulvic acid-like structures in biochar and lignin-like moieties in bio-oil. The divergence between pyrolysis vapors and biochar in the distribution of WSOCs with increasing carbonization was explained by the hydrophobic carbonaceous matrix acting like a filter favoring the release into water of carboxylic and fulvic acid-like components. The formation of these structures was confirmed in biochar produced by pilot plant pyrolysis units. Biochar affected differently shoot and root length of cress seedlings in germination tests highlighting its complex role on plant growth.

  2. Structural analysis of Catliq® bio-oil produced by catalytic liquid conversion of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    Liq® process compared with combustion is that also wet material can be processed. In the process, the waste is transformed to bio-oil, combustible gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The raw material used in this study was DDGS (Dried Distilled Grain with Solubles), a residual product in 1st generation...

  3. High quality bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass over alumina-supported sodium carbonate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2014-01-01

    Performance of a novel alumina-supported sodium carbonate catalyst was studied to produce a valuable bio-oil from catalytic flash pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass. Post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was investigated in a catalyst fixed bed reactor at the downstream of the pyrolysis

  4. Influence of the Pyrolysis Temperature on Sewage Sludge Product Distribution, Bio-Oil, and Char Properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trinh, Ngoc Trung; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Dam-Johansen, Kim

    2013-01-01

    Fast pyrolysis may be used for sewage sludge treatment with the advantages of a significant reduction of solid waste volume and production of a bio-oil that can be used as fuel. A study of the influence of the reaction temperature on sewage sludge pyrolysis has been carried out using a pyrolysis...... of 392 g/mol, and metal concentrations lower than 0.14 wt % on a dry basis (db). Less optimal oil properties with respect to industrial applications were observed for oil samples obtained at 475 and 625 °C. Char properties of the 575 °C sample were an ash content of 81 wt % and a HHV of 6.1 MJ/kg db...

  5. Method of increasing anhydrosugars, pyroligneous fractions and esterified bio-oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Philip H; Yu, Fei; Li, Qi; Mitchell, Brian

    2014-12-30

    The device and method are provided to increase anhydrosugars yield during pyrolysis of biomass. This increase is achieved by injection of a liquid or gas into the vapor stream of any pyrolysis reactor prior to the reactor condensers. A second feature of our technology is the utilization of sonication, microwave excitation, or shear mixing of the biomass to increase the acid catalyst rate for demineralization or removal of hemicellulose prior to pyrolysis. The increased reactivity of these treatments reduces reaction time as well as the required amount of catalyst to less than half of that otherwise required. A fractional condensation system employed by our pyrolysis reactor is another feature of our technology. This system condenses bio-oil pyrolysis vapors to various desired fractions by differential temperature manipulation of individual condensers comprising a condenser chain.

  6. Recycling used palm oil and used engine oil to produce white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-abbas, Mustafa Hamid; Ibrahim, Wan Aini Wan; Sanagi, Mohd. Marsin

    2012-09-01

    Recycling waste materials produced in our daily life is considered as an additional resource of a wide range of materials and it conserves the environment. Used engine oil and used cooking oil are two oils disposed off in large quantities as a by-product of our daily life. This study aims at providing white bio oil, bio petroleum diesel and heavy fuel from the disposed oils. Toxic organic materials suspected to be present in the used engine oil were separated using vacuum column chromatography to reduce the time needed for the separation process and to avoid solvent usage. The compounds separated were detected by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and found to contain toxic aromatic carboxylic acids. Used cooking oils (thermally cracked from usage) were collected and separated by vacuum column chromatography. White bio oil produced was examined by GC-MS. The white bio oil consists of non-toxic hydrocarbons and is found to be a good alternative to white mineral oil which is significantly used in food industry, cosmetics and drugs with the risk of containing polycyclic aromatic compounds which are carcinogenic and toxic. Different portions of the used cooking oil and used engine were mixed to produce several blends for use as heavy oil fuels. White bio oil was used to produce bio petroleum diesel by blending it with petroleum diesel and kerosene. The bio petroleum diesel produced passed the PETRONAS flash point and viscosity specification test. The heat of combustion of the two blends of heavy fuel produced was measured and one of the blends was burned to demonstrate its burning ability. Higher heat of combustion was obtained from the blend containing greater proportion of used engine oil. This study has provided a successful recycled alternative for white bio oil, bio petroleum fuel and diesel which can be an energy source.

  7. Utilization of oil palm tree residues to produce bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Arami-Niya, Arash; Wan Daud, W.M.A.; Sahu, J.N.; Noor, I.M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • About 14.72% of the total landmass in Malaysia was used for oil palm plantations. • Oil palm tree residues were pyrolyzed to produce bio-oil and bio-char. • The process was performed at a temperature of 500 °C and reaction time of 60 min. • Characterization of the products was performed. - Abstract: Oil palm tree residues are a rich biomass resource in Malaysia, and it is therefore very important that they be utilized for more beneficial purposes, particularly in the context of the development of biofuels. This paper described the possibility of utilizing oil palm tree residues as biofuels by producing bio-oil and bio-char via pyrolysis. The process was performed in a fixed-bed reactor at a temperature of 500 °C, a nitrogen flow rate of 2 L/min and a reaction time of 60 min. The physical and chemical properties of the products, which are important for biofuel testing, were then characterized. The results showed that the yields of the bio-oil and bio-char obtained from different residues varied within the ranges of 16.58–43.50 wt% and 28.63–36.75 wt%, respectively. The variations in the yields resulted from differences in the relative amounts of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin, volatiles, fixed carbon, and ash in the samples. The energy density of the bio-char was found to be higher than that of the bio-oil. The highest energy density of the bio-char was obtained from a palm leaf sample (23.32 MJ/kg), while that of the bio-oil was obtained from a frond sample (15.41 MJ/kg)

  8. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M., E-mail: limdiaz@uprrp.edu; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V. [Department of Chemistry, University of Puerto Rico Río Piedras Campus, San Juan, PR (United States); Jena, Umakanta [Bioenergy Laboratory, Desert Research Institute, Reno, NV (United States); Das, K. C. [College of Engineering, University of Georgia, Athens, GA (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  9. The surface-active bio oil solution in sulfured copper mineral benefit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Brossard

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Surface-active bio-oil (SABO solutions, prepared from vacuum pyrolysis bio-oil with a phenol-to-levoglucosan mass ratio of 4.8, was compared to pine-oil (PO as foaming agent in the process of flotation of sulfured copper minerals. With the aid of 2³ factorial designs, regression models were obtained for % Cu in flotation concentrate (L Cu and % Cu recovery (R, as functions of foaming agent-to-Cu mineral, collector-to-Cu mineral mass ratio and liquid-to-solid ratio (v/w. Experimental designs composed of a saturated design in its first half and a fold over design in its second half allowed to study the influence of flotation conditions on L Cu and R when SABO was the foaming agent. The factors selected were: particle size; pulp pH; flotation time; initial Cu content in the mineral (mineral type; liquid-to-solid ratio and finally SABO-to-mineral and collector-to-mineral mass ratio. Within the chosen experimental region only pulp pH affected significantly both responses. It is shown that high pulp pH, in the presence of minerals rich in Cu content leads to a significant increase in L Cu and R. Although SABO to mineral mass ratio is high compared to PO, it is considered that an optimization study on pulp pH should reduce this difference making SABO an attractive alternative to PO and a way to widen the field of applications of pyrolysis products.

  10. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. Macroalgae Biomass: Selective Hydrothermal Liquefaction Process for Bio-Oil Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-Vázquez, Liz M.; Rojas-Pérez, Arnulfo; Fuentes-Caraballo, Mariela; Robles, Isis V.; Jena, Umakanta; Das, K. C.

    2015-01-01

    Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL), and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier transform infrared-attenuated total reflectance spectroscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5–21 MPa). Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46 to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4 ± 0.1 and 22.2 ± 0.1% (ash-free dry basis), respectively.

  11. Demineralization of Sargassum spp. macroalgae biomass: selective hydrothermal liquefaction process for bio-oil production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liz M Díaz-Vázquez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Algae biomasses are considered a viable option for the production of biofuel because of their high yields of oil produced per dry weight. Brown macroalgae Sargassum spp. are one of the most abundant species of algae in the shores of Puerto Rico. Its availability in large quantity presents a great opportunity for use as a source of renewable energy. However, high ash content of macroalgae affects the conversion processes and the quality of resulting fuel products. This research studied the effect of different demineralization treatments of Sargassum spp. biomass, subsequent hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL and bio-oil characterization. Demineralization constituted five different treatments: nanopure water, nitric acid, citric acid, sulfuric acid, and acetic acid. Performance of demineralization was evaluated by analyzing both demineralized biomass and HTL products by the following analyses: total carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, ash content, caloric content, metals analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared - Attenuated Total Reflectance (FTIR-ATR Spectroscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM, and GCMS analysis. HTL of Sargassum spp. before and after citric acid treatment, was performed in a 1.8 L batch reactor system at 350°C with a holding time of 60 min and high pressures (5-21 MPa. Demineralization treatment with nitric acid was found the most effective in reducing the ash content of the macroalgae biomass from 27.46% to 0.99% followed by citric acid treatment that could reduce the ash content to 7%. Citric acid did not show significant leaching of organic components such as carbohydrates and proteins, and represented a less toxic and hazardous option for demineralization. HTL of untreated and citric acid treated Sargassum spp. resulted in bio-oil yields of 18.4±0.1 % and 22.2±0.1 % (ash free dry basis, respectively.

  12. Effect of operating conditions on direct liquefaction of low-lipid microalgae in ethanol-water co-solvent for bio-oil production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ji, Changhao; He, Zhixia; Wang, Qian; Xu, Guisheng; Wang, Shuang; Xu, Zhixiang; Ji, Hengsong

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Low-lipid microalgae was selected as feedstock for DL in ethanol-water co-solvent. • Operating conditions had great influence on product yields and conversion rate. • Bio-oil could be obtained from all three main components. • Ethanol and water showed obviously synergistic effect during the DL of microalgae. • Bio-oil composition from DL of microalgae was different from lignocellulose biomass. - Abstract: In this work, the direct liquefaction (DL) of low-lipid microalgae Spirulina was investigated in a 50 ml autoclave reactor with ethanol and water as co-solvent. The objective of this research was carried out to examine the effect of operating conditions such as reaction temperature, reaction time, solvent/microalgae (S/M) ratio and ethanol-water co-solvent (EWCS) composition on product distribution and bio-oil characterization. The results revealed that the optimal operating conditions for bio-oil yield and conversion rate were reaction temperature of 300 °C, reaction time of 45 min, ethanol content of 50 vol.% and S/M ratio of 40/4 ml/g, which gave the bio-oil yield of 59.5% and conversion rate of 94.73%. Conversion rate in EWCS was significantly higher than that in pure water or ethanol, suggesting the synergistic effect between ethanol and water during microalgae DL. Distinct difference in composition and relative content of compound among bio-oils in different solvents were observed by GC–MS and FT-IR. Compared with hydrothermal liquefaction, the most abundant compounds in bio-oil from both EWCS and pure ethanol were esters. The presence of ethanol could enhance the bio-oil yield and improve bio-oil quality by promoting the formation of esters.

  13. The performance of a white clover-based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system. II. Animal production, economics and environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schils, R.L.M.; Boxem, T.; Jagtenberg, C.J.; Verboom, M.C.

    2000-01-01

    The performance of a white clover based dairy system in comparison with a grass/fertiliser-N system was studied during three years. Both systems had 59 cows, plus young stock, on an area of 40.6 ha for grass/clover and 34.4 ha for grass/fertiliser-N. During the grazing season, the cows in both

  14. Analysis of impact of temperature and saltwater on Nannochloropsis salina bio-oil production by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS

    KAUST Repository

    Sanguineti, Michael Mario; Hourani, Nadim; Witt, Matthí as; Sarathy, Mani; Thomsen, Laurenz A.; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-01-01

    Concentrated Nannochloropsis salina paste was reconstituted in distilled water and synthetic saltwater and processed at 250°C and 300°C via hydrothermal liquefaction. The resulting bio-oils yielded a diverse distribution of product classes

  15. Data set for extraction and transesterification of bio-oil from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown marine algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariram Venkatesan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the experimental data on the extraction and transesterification of bio-oil derived from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown macro marine algae. The samples were collected from Mandapam region, Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India. The bio-oil was extracted using Soxhlet technique with a lipid extraction efficiency of 24.4%. Single stage transesterification was adopted due to lower free fatty acid content. The yield of biodiesel was optimized by varying the process parameters. The obtained data showed the optimum process parameters as reaction time 90 min, reaction temperature 65 °C, catalyst concentration 0.50 g and 8:1 M ratio. Furthermore, the data pertaining to the physio-chemical properties of the derived algal biodiesel were also presented.

  16. Data set for extraction and transesterification of bio-oil from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown marine algae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesan, Hariram; Godwin, John J; Sivamani, Seralathan

    2017-10-01

    The article presents the experimental data on the extraction and transesterification of bio-oil derived from Stoechospermum marginatum, a brown macro marine algae. The samples were collected from Mandapam region, Gulf of Mannar, Tamil Nadu, India. The bio-oil was extracted using Soxhlet technique with a lipid extraction efficiency of 24.4%. Single stage transesterification was adopted due to lower free fatty acid content. The yield of biodiesel was optimized by varying the process parameters. The obtained data showed the optimum process parameters as reaction time 90 min, reaction temperature 65 °C, catalyst concentration 0.50 g and 8:1 M ratio. Furthermore, the data pertaining to the physio-chemical properties of the derived algal biodiesel were also presented.

  17. High selectivity and stability of Mg-doped Al-MCM-41 for in-situ catalytic upgrading fast pyrolysis bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnjanakom, Surachai; Suriya-umporn, Thanyamai; Bayu, Asep; Kongparakul, Suwadee; Samart, Chanatip; Fushimi, Chihiro; Abudula, Abuliti; Guan, Guoqing

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Mg-doped Al-MCM-41 was developed for in-situ catalytic upgrading of bio-oils. • Mg/Al-MCM-41 exhibited high selectivity to aromatic hydrocarbons. • The ratio of produced hydrocarbon reached up to 80% in upgraded bio-oil. • 1 wt.% Mg/Al-MCM-41 showed the highest catalytic activity. • Mg/Al-MCM-41 had stable reusability due to its coking inhabitation ability. - Abstract: In-situ catalytic upgrading of bio-oils derived from the fast pyrolysis of cellulose, lignin or sunflower stalk over Mg-doped Al-MCM-41 was investigated in details. It is found that Mg species with doping amounts ranged between 0.25 and 10 wt.% was well dispersed on Al-MCM-41, and that doping Mg on Al-MCM-41 effectively adjusted the acidity and basicity of the catalysts, resulting in significant improvement of bio-oil quality. Mg/Al-MCM-41 exhibited high selective conversion of bio-oils derived from cellulose, lignin or sunflower stalk to high value-added aromatic hydrocarbons via catalytic cracking, deoxygenation and aromatization. In the upgraded bio-oil, the relative total hydrocarbon amount reached up to approximately ≥80%, which consisted of aromatic hydrocarbon approximately 76% and aliphatic hydrocarbon approximately 4% for all feedstocks. The selectivity to the monocyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (MAHs) such as benzene, toluene and xylenes (BTXs) increased while the coke formed on the catalyst decreased with the increase in Mg doping amount. 1 wt.% Mg/Al-MCM-41 resulted in the highest relative total hydrocarbon amount in the upgraded bio-oil at lower catalytic deoxygenation temperature, and showed stable reusability for at least 5 cycles. It is expected that Mg/Al-MCM-41 can be widely applied for bio-oil upgrading in a practical process.

  18. Additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet for sheep fed ensiled king grass as a based-diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I-W Mathius

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to ascertain the effect of additional calcium carbonate into concentrate diet, on the performance of sheep fed ensiled king grass as a basal diet, a trial was conducted using 28 growing sheep ( average body weight 17 _+ 1 .4 kg. Based on body weight, the animals were grouped and randomized into four dietary treatments in block randomized design . Dietary treatments were (i chopped king grass + 400 g of concentrate, (ii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 0 % of calcium carbonate, (iii ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 5 % calcium carbonate and (iv ensiled king grass + 400 g concentrate + 10 % calcium carbonate . Results showed that offering 5 % of calcium carbonate into concentrate diet increased (P 0 .05 for all groups . No differences in the apparent digestibility of the nutrient components were observed, but crude protein decreased significantly (P < 0 .05 . A significant relationship ( P < 0 .01 was found between nitrogen intake (NI and nitrogen retention (NR, and the equation was NR = - 0.1848 + 0.3788 NI ( r = 0.9 . Based on data found that feeding only ensiled king grass as a single diet could not meet the maintenance requirement of energy and protein, therefore, additional energy and crude protein sources is needed .

  19. Comparative Studies of Oleaginous Fungal Strains (Mucor circinelloides and Trichoderma reesei) for Effective Wastewater Treatment and Bio-Oil Production

    OpenAIRE

    Bhanja, Anshuman; Minde, Gauri; Magdum, Sandip; Kalyanraman, V.

    2014-01-01

    Biological wastewater treatment typically requires the use of bacteria for degradation of carbonaceous and nitrogenous compounds present in wastewater. The high lipid containing biomass can be used to extract oil and the contents can be termed as bio-oil (or biodiesel or myco-diesel after transesterification). The separate experiments were conducted on actual wastewater samples with 5% v/v inoculum of Mucor circinelloides MTCC1297 and Trichoderma reesei NCIM992 strains. The observed reduction...

  20. Influence of polystyrene addition to cellulose on chemical structure and properties of bio-oil obtained during pyrolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rutkowski, Piotr; Kubacki, Andrzej

    2006-01-01

    The cellulose (C), polystyrene (PS) and cellulose/polystyrene (C-PS) mixtures (3:1, 1:1, 1:3 w/w) were subjected to a pyrolysis process to produce bio-oil. The pyrolytic oil yield was in the range of 45.5-94.8 wt% depending on the composition of the sample. Pyrolysis of polystyrene gives the highest oil yield, whereas for cellulose, the yield of liquid products was the lowest. The basic physicochemical properties of oils are strongly influenced by the original material and do not change additively. The polystyrene addition to cellulose clearly improves the quality of the bio-oil, resulting in decreases in acid number, pour point and density. The change of color is not so distinct. The FT-IR analysis of the oils showed that the oxygen functionalities and hydrocarbons contents highly depend on the composition of the cellulose/polystyrene mixture. The fractionation of bio-oils by column chromatography using hexane and benzene was followed by GC-MS analyses. Different classes of organic compounds were identified, i.e., carboxylic acids, phenols, aldehydes, ketones, esters, ethers and unsaturated linear and cyclic hydrocarbons. The proportion of hydrocarbons increases with a decrease of the cellulose/polystyrene ratio. The obtained results indicate that during pyrolysis, not only does decomposition of cellulose and polystyrene occur, but also, reactions between products from C and PS take place. That was proved by the presence of compounds identified only in the bio-oils obtained from C-PS compositions

  1. An approach for upgrading biomass and pyrolysis product quality using a combination of aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Cen, Kehui; Jing, Xichun; Gao, Jinghui; Li, Chen; Ma, Zhongqing

    2017-06-01

    Bio-oil undergoes phase separation because of poor stability. Practical application of aqueous phase bio-oil is challenging. In this study, a novel approach that combines aqueous phase bio-oil washing and torrefaction pretreatment was used to upgrade the biomass and pyrolysis product quality. The effects of individual and combined pretreatments on cotton stalk pyrolysis were studied using TG-FTIR and a fixed bed reactor. The results showed that the aqueous phase bio-oil washing pretreatment removed metals and resolved the two pyrolysis peaks in the DTG curve. Importantly, it increased the bio-oil yield and improved the pyrolysis product quality. For example, the water and acid content of bio-oil decreased significantly along with an increase in phenol formation, and the heating value of non-condensable gases improved, and these were more pronounced when combined with torrefaction pretreatment. Therefore, the combined pretreatment is a promising method, which would contribute to the development of polygeneration pyrolysis technology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Study on demetalization of sewage sludge by sequential extraction before liquefaction for the production of cleaner bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leng, Lijian; Yuan, Xingzhong; Shao, Jianguang; Huang, Huajun; Wang, Hou; Li, Hui; Chen, Xiaohong; Zeng, Guangming

    2016-01-01

    Demetalization of sewage sludge (SS) by sequential extraction before liquefaction was implemented to produce cleaner bio-char and bio-oil. Demetalization steps 1 and 2 did not cause much organic matter loss on SS, and thus the bio-oil and bio-char yields and the compositions of bio-oils were also not affected significantly. However, the demetalization procedures resulted in the production of cleaner bio-chars and bio-oils. The total concentrations and the acid soluble/exchangeable fraction (F1 fraction, the most toxic heavy metal fraction) of heavy metals (Cu, Cr, Pb, Zn, and Cd) in these products were significantly reduced and the environmental risks of these products were also relived considerably compared with those produced from raw SS, respectively. Additionally, these bio-oils had less heavy fractions. Demetalization processes with removal of F1 and F2 fractions of heavy metals would benefit the production of cleaner bio-char and bio-oil by liquefaction of heavy metal abundant biomass like SS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Pyrolysis of safflower (Charthamus tinctorius L.) seed press cake in a fixed-bed reactor: part 2. Structural characterization of pyrolysis bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sensöz, Sevgi; Angin, Dilek

    2008-09-01

    Biomass in the form of agricultural residues is becoming popular among new renewable energy sources, especially given its wide potential and abundant usage. Pyrolysis is the most important process among the thermal conversion processes of biomass. In this study, the various characteristics of bio-oils acquired under different pyrolysis conditions from safflower seed press cake (SPC) were identified. The elemental analyses and calorific values of the bio-oils were determined, and then the chemical compositions of the bio-oils were investigated using chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques such as column chromatography, (1)H NMR, FTIR and GC. The fuel properties of the bio-oil such as kinematic viscosity, flash point, density, water content and ASTM distillation were also determined. Chemical compositions of bio-oils showed that some quantities of hydrocarbons were present, while oxygenated and polar fractions dominated. The bio-oils obtained from safflower seed press cake were presented as an environmentally friendly feedstock candidate for biofuels and chemicals.

  4. Two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis of biomass for bio-oil production using microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhong, Zhaoping; Xie, Qinglong; Liu, Shiyu; Ruan, Roger

    2016-07-01

    A novel technology of two-step fast microwave-assisted pyrolysis (fMAP) of corn stover for bio-oil production was investigated in the presence of microwave absorbent (SiC) and HZSM-5 catalyst. Effects of fMAP temperature and catalyst-to-biomass ratio on bio-oil yield and chemical components were examined. The results showed that this technology, employing microwave, microwave absorbent and HZSM-5 catalyst, was effective and promising for biomass fast pyrolysis. The fMAP temperature of 500°C was considered the optimum condition for maximum yield and best quality of bio-oil. Besides, the bio-oil yield decreased linearly and the chemical components in bio-oil were improved sequentially with the increase of catalyst-to-biomass ratio from 1:100 to 1:20. The elemental compositions of bio-char were also determined. Additionally, compared to one-step fMAP process, two-step fMAP could promote the bio-oil quality with a smaller catalyst-to-biomass ratio. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. Effect of sodium carbonate catalyst weight on production of bio-oil via thermochemical liquefaction of corncobs in ethanol-water solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembodo, Bregas Siswahjono Tatag; Sulistyo, Hary; Sediawan, Wahyudi Budi; Fahrurrozi, Mohammad

    2018-02-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass has recently received serious attention as an energy source that can replace fossil fuels. Corncob is one of lignocellulosic biomass wastes, which can be further processed into bio-oil through thermochemical liquefaction process. Bio-oil is expected to be further processed into fuel oil. In this research the effect of Na2CO3 catalyst weight on the yield of bio-oil was investigated. The composition of bio-oil produced in this process was analyzed by GC-MS. Bio-oil formation rate were analyzed through mathematical model development. First model aasumed as an isothermal process, while second model was not. It is found that both models were able to provide a good approach to experimental data. The average reaction rate constants was obtained from isothermal model, while the activation energy level and collision factors were obtained from non-isothermal model. The reaction rate will increase by addition of Na2CO3 (0 - 0.5 g) as catalyst to 250 mL system solution, then the activation energy will decrease from 1964.265 joules/mole to 1029.994 joules/mole. The GC-MS analysis results showed that the bio-oil were contained of ester compounds, phenolic compounds, cyclic compunds, heterocyclic compounds, and poly-alcohols compounds.

  6. Influence of reaction conditions and the char separation system on the production of bio-oil from radiata pine sawdust by fast pyrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hyun Ju; Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Joo Sik [Faculty of Environmental Engineering, University of Seoul, 90 Jeonnong-Dong, Dondaemun-Gu, Seoul 130-743 (Korea)

    2008-08-15

    Radiata pine sawdust was pyrolyzed in a bubbling fluidized bed equipped with a char separation system. The influence of the reaction conditions on the production of bio-oil was investigated through the establishment of mass balance, and the examination of the products' chemical and physical characteristics. The optimal reaction temperature for the production of bio-oil was between 673 and 723 K, and the yield was above 50 wt.% of the product. An optimal feed size also existed. In a particle with a size that was less than 0.3 mm, the bio-oil yield decreased due to overheating, which led to gas formation. A higher flow rate and feeding rate were found to be more effective for the production of bio-oil, but did not significantly affect it. The main compounds of bio-oil were phenolics, including cresol, guaiacol, eugenol, benzendiol and their derivatives, ketones, and aldehydes. In addition, high-quality bio-oils, which contained less than 0.005 wt.% of solid, no ash and low concentrations of alkali and alkaline earth metals, were produced due to the char removal system. (author)

  7. Hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to alkanes using a highly dispersed Pd-Mo catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Haohong; Dong, Juncai; Gu, Xianrui; Peng, Yung-Kang; Chen, Wenxing; Issariyakul, Titipong; Myers, William K; Li, Meng-Jung; Yi, Ni; Kilpatrick, Alexander F R; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Xusheng; Ji, Shufang; Wang, Qian; Feng, Junting; Chen, Dongliang; Li, Yadong; Buffet, Jean-Charles; Liu, Haichao; Tsang, Shik Chi Edman; O'Hare, Dermot

    2017-09-19

    Bio-oil, produced by the destructive distillation of cheap and renewable lignocellulosic biomass, contains high energy density oligomers in the water-insoluble fraction that can be utilized for diesel and valuable fine chemicals productions. Here, we show an efficient hydrodeoxygenation catalyst that combines highly dispersed palladium and ultrafine molybdenum phosphate nanoparticles on silica. Using phenol as a model substrate this catalyst is 100% effective and 97.5% selective for hydrodeoxygenation to cyclohexane under mild conditions in a batch reaction; this catalyst also demonstrates regeneration ability in long-term continuous flow tests. Detailed investigations into the nature of the catalyst show that it combines hydrogenation activity of Pd and high density of both Brønsted and Lewis acid sites; we believe these are key features for efficient catalytic hydrodeoxygenation behavior. Using a wood and bark-derived feedstock, this catalyst performs hydrodeoxygenation of lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose-derived oligomers into liquid alkanes with high efficiency and yield.Bio-oil is a potential major source of renewable fuels and chemicals. Here, the authors report a palladium-molybdenum mixed catalyst for the selective hydrodeoxygenation of water-insoluble bio-oil to mixtures of alkanes with high carbon yield.

  8. Effect of acid catalysts and accelerated aging on the reaction of methanol with hydroxy-acetaldehyde in bio-oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhattacharya, P.

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Bio-oil is a promising alternative source of energy produced from fast pyrolysis of biomass. Increasing the viscosity of bio-oil during storage is a major problem that can be controlled by the addition of methanol or other alcohols. This paper reports the results of our investigation of the reactions of short chain alcohols with aldehydes and acids in bio-oil. The reaction of methanol with hydroxyacetaldehyde (HA to form the acetal was catalyzed by the addition of 7 x 10-4 M strong acids such as sulfuric, hydrochloric, p-toluene sulfonic acid, and methanesulfonic acid. HA formed 2,2-dimethoxyethanol (DME, and at 60 oC the equilibrium was reached in less than one hour. Smaller amounts of DME were formed in the absence of strong acid. HA, acetaldehyde, and propanal formed their corresponding acetals when reacted with methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol or 1-butanol. Esters of acetic acid and hydroxyacetic acid were observed from reactions with these same four alcohols. Other acetals and esters were observed by GC/MS analysis of the reaction products. The results from accelerated aging experiments at 90 oC suggest that the presence of methanol slows polymerization by formation of acetals and esters from low molecular weight aldehydes and organic acids.

  9. Bio-Oil Production from Fast Pyrolysis of Corn Wastes and Eucalyptus Wood in a Fluidized Bed Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Ebrahimi-Nik

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis is an attractive technology for biomass conversion, from which bio-oil is the preferred product with a great potential for use in industry and transport. Corn wastes (cob and stover and eucalyptus wood are widely being produced throughout the world. In this study, fast pyrolysis of these two materials were examined under the temperature of 500 °C; career gas flow rate of 660 l h-1; particle size of 1-2 mm; 80 and 110 g h-1 of feed rate. The experiments were carried out in a continuous fluidized bed reactor. Pyrolysis vapor was condensed in 3 cooling traps (15, 0 and -40 °C plus an electrostatic one. Eucalyptus wood was pyrolyised to 12.4, 61.4, and 26.2 percent of bio-char, bio-oil and gas, respectively while these figures were as 20.15, 49.9, and 29.95 for corn wastes. In all experiments, the bio-oil obtained from electrostatic trap was a dark brown and highly viscose liquid.

  10. Bio oil from pyrolysis of cashew nut shell-characterisation and related properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Piyali; Sreelatha, T.; Ganesh, Anuradda

    2004-01-01

    Biomass in the form of cashew nut shell represents a renewable and abundant source of energy in India. Cashew nut shell (CNS) was pyrolysed in a fixed bed pyrolysis reactor under vacuum. The CNS on heating upto 175 deg. C produced dark brown oil (oil CO1), which was extracted, and the CNS, after the removal of oil CO1, was pyrolysed under vacuum. The pyrolysis vapours were condensed to get a combustible oil fraction (oil CO2) as well as a noncombustible aqueous fraction. The detailed chemical compositional analysis of both the oils as well as aqueous fractions were carried out by various techniques like liquid column chromatography 1 HNMR, 13 CNMR, FTIR, GC-MS. The CNS oils (CO1 and CO2) were found to be a renewable natural resource of unsaturated phenols with long linear chains and marked absence of anacardic acid. Unlike other bio oils, the CNS oils have been found to be fairly stable. The oils were completely miscible in diesel and were found to have low corrosivity towards Copper and Stainless steel, and thus promise to be a potential fuel

  11. Biodiesel Derive Bio-oil of Hermetia illucens Pre-pupae Catalysed by Sulphonated Biochar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leong Siew Yoong

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the development of biochar catalyst from bamboo applied for biodiesel synthesis. A non-conventional biodiesel feedstock was used in the in-situ transesterification reaction. This non-conventional feedstock is obtained from an insect’s fly, the Hermetia illucens fly. Biochar derived from bamboo has been investigated as a promising catalyst for biodiesel synthesis. The biochar acid catalysts were prepared by sulphonation via impregnation with concentrated sulphuric acid. The prepared catalysts were investigated for their performance to catalyse in-situ transesterification via ultra-sonication of Hermetia illucens bio-oil. The effects of carbonisation time (1 hour and 2 hour and temperature (400°C, 500°C and 600°C as well as catalyst loading (5-20 wt% on oil basis on the transesterification yield were studied. Result showed that the highest yield of FAME obtained was 95.6% with catalyst loading of 15 wt% carbonized at 500°C for 2 hours. Sharp band of methyl ester functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra at 1735-1750cm-1. The composition of this methyl ester was further deduced using gas chromatography and the fatty acid was predominantly lauric acid.

  12. Biodiesel Derive Bio-oil of Hermetia illucens Pre-pupae Catalysed by Sulphonated Biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoong Leong, Siew; Chong, Soo Shin; Chin, Kah Seng

    2018-03-01

    This study investigates the development of biochar catalyst from bamboo applied for biodiesel synthesis. A non-conventional biodiesel feedstock was used in the in-situ transesterification reaction. This non-conventional feedstock is obtained from an insect's fly, the Hermetia illucens fly. Biochar derived from bamboo has been investigated as a promising catalyst for biodiesel synthesis. The biochar acid catalysts were prepared by sulphonation via impregnation with concentrated sulphuric acid. The prepared catalysts were investigated for their performance to catalyse in-situ transesterification via ultra-sonication of Hermetia illucens bio-oil. The effects of carbonisation time (1 hour and 2 hour) and temperature (400°C, 500°C and 600°C) as well as catalyst loading (5-20 wt% on oil basis) on the transesterification yield were studied. Result showed that the highest yield of FAME obtained was 95.6% with catalyst loading of 15 wt% carbonized at 500°C for 2 hours. Sharp band of methyl ester functional groups were observed in the FTIR spectra at 1735-1750cm-1. The composition of this methyl ester was further deduced using gas chromatography and the fatty acid was predominantly lauric acid.

  13. Application of Gamma Radiation on Bio-oil Produced from Pyrolysis of Soybean Cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichestapong, P.; Injarean, U.; Prapakornrattana, P.; Charoen, K.

    2014-01-01

    Soybean cake residue from soy milk making can be pyrolysed to produce pyrolysis liquid or bio-oil which has potency to be used as liquid fuel. Pyrolysis of soybean cake residue with the application of gamma irradiation was investigated in a batch reactor at 450°C for 1.5 hr under nitrogen flow 250 cc/min. Feed of soybean cake residue was exposed to gamma radiation at the doses of 200 to 1,000 kGy before pyrolysing. It was found that pyrolysis liquid yield increased significantly by 12.9 to 19.3 % at the irradiation doses of 400 kGy and higher. The increment was mainly due to the increasing of aqueous phase in the pyrolysis liquid. The heating value of organic phase in the pyrolysis liquid was 7,890 kcal/kg. The organic phase from the unexposed feed was also irradiated at 20-100 kGy. The viscosity of irradiated organic phase was found to increase with the increasing irradiation dose. Irradiated organic phase was distilled at temperatures 200 and 250°C. It was found that the first distilled fraction (<200°C) corresponding to gasoline fraction increased with the increasing irradiation dose while the second distilled fraction (200-250°C) corresponding to kerosene fraction seems to decrease. The composition of organic phase was also determined by GC-MS.

  14. One step hydrogenation–esterification of model compounds and bio-oil to alcohols and esters over Raney Ni catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Ying; Zhang, Limin; Chang, Jiamin; Zhang, Xinghua; Ma, Longlong; Wang, Tiejun; Zhang, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Fe–RN and Mo–RN showed excellent inhibition of alkylation and hydrogenation activity of phenol respectively. • The esterification activity of alcohols with acetic acid was followed as methanol > THFA > ethanediol. • After OHE of bio-oil, the total content of alcohols and esters reached to 87.27% in the product. - Abstract: Acids, aldehydes, ketones and phenols, which are the main components of bio-oil, have negative effects on the properties. In this paper, the mixture of acetic acid, furfural, hydroxyacetone, ethanediol, phenol and water were chosen as hybrid model compounds of bio-oil (MCB). To convert these compounds into stable and combustible oxygenated organics (alcohols and esters), one step hydrogenation–esterification (OHE) was carried out over Raney Ni catalyst (RN) and Mo, Sn, Fe, Cu modified Raney Ni catalysts (RNs) in the presence of methanol. 100% conversions of furfural and hydroxyacetone were achieved over RNs with high selectivity to desired products. The acetic acid conversion was only 35.1% with no methanol addition, while within 6 g/8 g methanol/MCB addition, the conversion of acetic acid increased to 81.1%. The esterification activity of alcohols was followed by methanol > tetrahydrofurfuryl alcohol (THFA), the hydrogenation product of furfural > ethanediol. Among the RNs, the addition of Fe catalyst restrained the aqueous-phase reforming of methanol and promoted the esterification of methanol and acetic acid. The Mo–RN showed the most favorable performance in the hydrogenation of phenol among the RNs. But the RN modified by both Fe and Mo did not give a good performance. After the OHE of light fraction of raw bio-oil over Mo–RN, there was no ketone & aldehyde detected and the contents of acids and phenols decreased from 49.04% and 7.35% to 8.21% and 3.84%. The conversion of acids could reach to 85.01% which was nearly to the conversion of acetic acid in MCB. The contents of alcohols and esters increased from 5

  15. Production of gaseous and liquid bio-fuels from the upgrading of lignocellulosic bio-oil in sub- and supercritical water: Effect of operating conditions on the process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remón, J.; Arcelus-Arrillaga, P.; García, L.; Arauzo, J.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bio-oil valorisation in sub-/supercritical water: a promising route for bio-fuels. • Effect of P, T, t, catalyst and water regime on bio-oil upgrading studied in depth. • Tailor-made route for H_2, CH_4 and liquid bio-fuel production in a single process. • Upgraded liquid with high proportions of C and H, higher HHV and less O content. - Abstract: This work analyses the influence of the temperature (310–450 °C), pressure (200–260 bar), catalyst/bio-oil mass ratio (0–0.25 g catalyst/g bio-oil), and reaction time (0–60 min) on the reforming in sub- and supercritical water of bio-oil obtained from the fast pyrolysis of pinewood. The upgrading experiments were carried out in a batch micro-bomb reactor employing a co-precipitated Ni–Co/Al–Mg catalyst. This reforming process turned out to be highly customisable for the valorisation of bio-oil for the production of either gaseous or liquid bio-fuels. Depending on the operating conditions and water regime (sub/supercritical), the yields to upgraded bio-oil (liquid), gas and solid varied as follows: 5–90%, 7–91% and 3–31%, respectively. The gas phase, having a LHV ranging from 2 to 17 MJ/m"3 STP, was made up of a mixture of H_2 (9–31 vol.%), CO_2 (41–84 vol.%), CO (1–22 vol.%) and CH_4 (1–45 vol.%). The greatest H_2 production from bio-oil (76% gas yield with a relative amount of H_2 of 30 vol.%) was achieved under supercritical conditions at a temperature of 339 °C, 200 bar of pressure and using a catalyst/bio-oil ratio of 0.2 g/g for 60 min. The amount of C, H and O (wt.%) in the upgraded bio-oil varied from 48 to 74, 4 to 9 and 13 to 48, respectively. This represents an increase of up to 37% and 171% in the proportions of C and H, respectively, as well as a decrease of up to 69% in the proportion of O. The HHV of the treated bio-oil shifted from 20 to 35 MJ/kg, which corresponds to an increase of up to 89% with respect to the HHV of the original bio-oil. With a

  16. Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BETTY MAULIYA BUSTAM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bustam BM (2010 Systematic studies of Australian stipoid grasses (Austrostipa based on micro-morphological and molecular characteristics. Biodiversitas 11: 9-14. This research is one of many studies on stipoid grasses organized by the International Stipeae Working Group (ISWG. This research tested the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996 and tested how informative the micro morphological characters used. Data were collected from herbarium specimens of 36 species (33 species of Austrostipa, two species of Hesperostipa and one species of Anemanthele at Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. Twenty eight micro morphological characters were used. The data were collected from both adaxial and abaxial surfaces of leaves, and from the lemma epidermis using a scanning electron microscope (SEM. ISWG provided the molecular data. Parsimony analysis and a distance method (Unweighteic Pair Group with Arithmatic Mean: UPGMA were used to analyze mico morphological and molecular data separately. Only UPGMA analysis was used to analyze the combined data. The results support the monophyly of Austrostipa. However, there is a little support for the subgeneric classification of Austrostipa proposed by Jacobs and Everett (1996, other than for the consistent recognition of Falcatae. The characters for comparisons between genera are too homoplasious at this level and do not contain enough information for analyses at subgeneric level, a problem apparently shared with the DNA sequences.

  17. Improving the energy balance of grass-based anaerobic digestion through combined harvesting and pretreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsapekos, P; Kougias, P G; Egelund, H; Larsen, U; Pedersen, J; Trénel, P; Angelidaki, I

    2017-08-01

    An important challenge that has to be addressed to achieve sustainable anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic substrates is the development of energy and cost efficient pretreatment methods. Technologies orientated to simultaneously harvest and mechanically pretreat the biomass at the field could meet these criteria as they can potentially reduce the energy losses. The objective of this study was to elucidate the effect of two full-scale harvesting machines to enhance the biogas production and subsequently, improve energy balance. The performances of Disc-mower and Excoriator were assessed on meadow and cultivated grass silages. The results showed that relatively high methane production can be achieved from meadow and cultivated grass harvested in different seasons. The findings indicated that the bioenergy production can be improved based on the selection of the appropriate harvesting technology. More specifically, Excoriator, which cuts and subsequently applies shearing forces on harvested biomass, enhanced the methane production up to 10% and the overall energy budget was improved proportionally to the driving speed increase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Study on Storm-Water Management of Grassed Swales and Permeable Pavement Based on SWMM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguang Xie

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Grassed swales and permeable pavement that have greater permeable underlying surface relative to hard-pressing surface can cooperate with the city pipe network on participating in urban storm flood regulation. This paper took Nanshan village in Jiangsu Province as an example, the storm-water management model (SWMM was used to conceptualize the study area reasonably, and the low-impact development (LID model and the traditional development model were established in the region. Based on the storm-intensity equation, the simulation scene employed the Chicago hydrograph model to synthesize different rainfall scenes with different rainfall repetition periods, and then contrasted the storm-flood-management effect of the two models under the condition of using LID facilities. The results showed that when the rainfall repetition period ranged from 0.33a to 10a (a refers to the rainfall repetition period, the reduction rate of total runoff in the research area that adopted LID ranged from 100% to 27.5%, while the reduction rate of peak flow ranged from 100% to 15.9%, and when the values of unit area were the same, the combined system (permeable pavement + grassed swales worked more efficiently than the sum of the individuals in the reduction of total runoff and peak flow throughout. This research can provide technical support and theoretical basis for urban LID design.

  19. GUI development for GRASS GIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Landa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses GUI development for GRASS GIS. Sophisticated native GUI for GRASS is one of the key points (besides the new 2D/3D raster library, vector architecture improvements, etc. for the future development of GRASS. In 2006 the GRASS development team decided to start working on the new generation of GUI instead of improving the current GUI based on Tcl/Tk.

  20. Application of 1D and 2D MFR reactor technology for the isolation of insecticidal and anti-microbial properties from pyrolysis bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Mohammad M; Scott, Ian M; Berruti, Franco; Briens, Cedric

    2016-12-01

    Valuable chemicals can be separated from agricultural residues by chemical or thermochemical processes. The application of pyrolysis has already been demonstrated as an efficient means to produce a liquid with a high concentration of desired product. The objective of this study was to apply an insect and microorganism bioassay-guided approach to separate and isolate pesticidal compounds from bio-oil produced through biomass pyrolysis. Tobacco leaf (Nicotianata bacum), tomato plant (Solanum lycopersicum), and spent coffee (Coffea arabica) grounds were pyrolyzed at 10°C/min from ambient to 565°C using the mechanically fluidized reactor (MFR). With one-dimensional (1D) MFR pyrolysis, the composition of the product vapors varied as the reactor temperature was raised allowing for the selection of the temperature range that corresponds to vapors with a high concentration of pesticidal properties. Further product separation was performed in a fractional condensation train, or 2D MFR pyrolysis, thus allowing for the separation of vapor components according to their condensation temperature. The 300-400°C tobacco and tomato bio-oil cuts from the 1D MFR showed the highest insecticidal and anti-microbial activity compared to the other bio-oil cuts. The 300-350 and 350-400°C bio-oil cuts produced by 2D MFR had the highest insecticidal activity when the bio-oil was collected from the 210°C condenser. The tobacco and tomato bio-oil had similar insecticidal activity (LC 50 of 2.1 and 2.2 mg/mL) when the bio-oil was collected in the 210°C condenser from the 300-350°C reactor temperature gases. The 2D MFR does concentrate the pesticidal products compared to the 1D MFR and thus can reduce the need for further separation steps such as solvent extraction.

  1. KINSHIP ANALYSIS OF GRASS JELLY IN REGENCY OF GIANYAR, TABANAN AND BADUNG BASED ON MORPHOLOGICAL AND ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eka Budi Mursa fitri

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Grass jelly is one of the plants that has considerable potential as medicine and drinks. This study was conducted to determine how kinship plant species Grass jelly from three districts. The Exploration of Grass jelly plants conducted in Gianyar, Tabanan and Badung, Bali province. Making preparations in the Structures Laboratory of Plant Development (SPT Faculty Udayana University and the Center of Veterinary (BBVet. This research was carried out from September 2015-January 2016. This research method using the technique of embedding and fresh slices, FAA fixative (formaldehyde: glacial acetic acid: alcohol 70% = 1: 1: 9, 1% safranin staining in 70% alcohol. For the analysis of kinship qualitative and quantitative data were suspended leaf anatomical characters to create table Taxonomy Operation Unit (OTU. The results are used OTU table into mini-tab program version 14.The result showed that four species of grass jelly plants are Cyclea barbata, Stephania japonica, Stephania capitata and Cocculus orbiculatus. Leaf form is like shields and ellipse. Kinship four types of plant grass jelly from three districts are very much based on morphological and anatomical characters (level 15.64% similarity.

  2. Performance of rotary kiln reactor for the elephant grass pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Conto, D; Silvestre, W P; Baldasso, C; Godinho, M

    2016-10-01

    The influence of process conditions (rotary speed/temperature) on the performance of a rotary kiln reactor for non-catalytic pyrolysis of a perennial grass (elephant grass) was investigated. The product yields, the production of non-condensable gases as well as the biochar properties were evaluated. The maximum H2 yield was close to that observed for catalytic pyrolysis processes, while the bio-oil yield was higher than reported for pyrolysis of other biomass in rotary kiln reactors. A H2/CO ratio suitable for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) was obtained. The biochars presented an alkaline pH (above 10) and interesting contents of nutrients, as well as low electrical conductivity, indicating a high potential as soil amendment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Selectively improving the bio-oil quality by catalytic fast pyrolysis of heavy-metal-polluted biomass: take copper (Cu) as an example.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wu-Jun; Tian, Ke; Jiang, Hong; Zhang, Xue-Song; Ding, Hong-Sheng; Yu, Han-Qing

    2012-07-17

    Heavy-metal-polluted biomass derived from phytoremediation or biosorption is widespread and difficult to be disposed of. In this work, simultaneous conversion of the waste woody biomass into bio-oil and recovery of Cu in a fast pyrolysis reactor were investigated. The results show that Cu can effectively catalyze the thermo-decomposition of biomass. Both the yield and high heating value (HHV) of the Cu-polluted fir sawdust biomass (Cu-FSD) derived bio-oil are significantly improved compared with those of the fir sawdust (FSD) derived bio-oil. The results of UV-vis and (1)H NMR spectra of bio-oil indicate pyrolytic lignin is further decomposed into small-molecular aromatic compounds by the catalysis of Cu, which is in agreement with the GC-MS results that the fractions of C7-C10 compounds in the bio-oil significantly increase. Inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses of the migration and transformation of Cu in the fast pyrolysis process show that more than 91% of the total Cu in the Cu-FSD is enriched in the char in the form of zerovalent Cu with a face-centered cubic crystalline phase. This study gives insight into catalytic fast pyrolysis of heavy metals, and demonstrates the technical feasibility of an eco-friendly process for disposal of heavy-metal-polluted biomass.

  4. Investigation of bio-oil produced by hydrothermal liquefaction of food waste using ultrahigh resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostyukevich, Yury; Vlaskin, Mikhail; Borisova, Ludmila; Zherebker, Alexander; Perminova, Irina; Kononikhin, Alexey; Popov, Igor; Nikolaev, Eugene

    2018-02-01

    Recent research has revealed that more than 1.3 billion tons of food is wasted globally every year. The disposal of such huge biomass has become a challenge. In the present paper, we report the production of the bio-oil by hydrothermal liquefaction of three classes of food waste: meat, cheese and fruits. The highest yield of the bio-oil was observed for meat (∼60%) and cheese (∼75%), while for fruits, it was considerably low (∼10%). The molecular composition of the obtained bio-oil was investigated using ultrahigh resolution Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance mass spectrometry and was found to be similar to that obtained from algae. Several thousand heteroatom compounds (N, N 2 , ON 2 , etc. classes) were reliably identified from each sample. It was found that bio-oils produced from meat and cheese have many compounds (∼90%) with common molecular formulas, while bio-oil produced from fruits differs considerably (∼30% of compounds are unique).

  5. A comparative study on the quality of bio-oil derived from green macroalga Enteromorpha clathrata over metal modified ZSM-5 catalysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuang; Cao, Bin; Liu, Xinlin; Xu, Lujiang; Hu, Yamin; Afonaa-Mensah, Stephen; Abomohra, Abd El-Fatah; He, Zhixia; Wang, Qian; Xu, Shannan

    2018-05-01

    The green macroalga Enteromorpha clathrata was pyrolyzed with or without catalysts at the temperature of 550 °C for producing high-quality bio-oil. The ZSM-5 and 1,2,3 mmol Mg-Ce/ZSM-5 catalysts were introduced to investigate the yields and components distribution of bio-oil. Increase of bio-oil production was obtained with the use of ZSM-5 and 1,2,3 mmol Mg-Ce/ZSM-5 catalysts. The 1 mmol Mg-Ce/ZSM-5 catalyst exhibited more promising property for promoting the relative content of C 5 -C 7 compounds, and decreasing the relative content of acids in bio-oil. The results suggested that E. clathrata had potential as pyrolysis feedstocks for producing the high-quality bio-oil with large amounts of C 5 -C 7 compounds and low relative content of acids when the 1 mmol Mg-Ce/ZSM-5 catalyst was used. Furthermore, the physicochemical properties of ZSM-5 and 1 mmol Mg-Ce/ZSM-5 catalysts were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and temperature-programmed desorption of ammonia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis and the combustion of it; Biooeljyn tuotanto flashpyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The target of the research is to study the production of bio-oils using flash-pyrolysis and utilization of the bio-oil in oil-fueled boilers. The PDU-device was ordered in December 1994. The device was tested in Canada in the beginning of March 1996. The device will be mounted in Otaniemi in the research unit of VTT Energy. The device will by equipped, if possible, with a hot-filtering device in order to improve the purity and the quality of the oil. The capacity of the PDU-device is 20 kg/h of dry biomass of about 10 wt-% DS-content, with particle size less than 6 mm. The actual tests will be made in autumn 1996. The investment costs of the PDU are about 2.5 million FIM. The Canadian funding of the project is about 50 %. It has been planned that within the research project of Vapo oy, about 50 - 100 tons of bio-oil will be acquired from Canada for the engine tests carried out by Wartsilae Diesel, and the project will be responsible for planning and operation of the PDU and the demonstration plants. About 50 tons of wood-oil was received from Canada in January 1996 for the engine tests, the results of which will be reported separately by Wartsilae Diesel. The present costs of the tasks are about 1.2 million FIM, but the main part of the costs will be formed in 1996-1997

  7. Production of bio-oil with flash pyrolysis and the combustion of it; Biooeljyn tuotanto flashpyrolyysillae ja sen poltto

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyroenen, T. [Vapo Oy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    The target of the research is to study the production of bio-oils using flash-pyrolysis and utilization of the bio-oil in oil-fueled boilers. The PDU-device was ordered in December 1994. The device was tested in Canada in the beginning of March 1996. The device will be mounted in Otaniemi in the research unit of VTT Energy. The device will by equipped, if possible, with a hot-filtering device in order to improve the purity and the quality of the oil. The capacity of the PDU-device is 20 kg/h of dry biomass of about 10 wt-% DS-content, with particle size less than 6 mm. The actual tests will be made in autumn 1996. The investment costs of the PDU are about 2.5 million FIM. The Canadian funding of the project is about 50 %. It has been planned that within the research project of Vapo oy, about 50 - 100 tons of bio-oil will be acquired from Canada for the engine tests carried out by Wartsilae Diesel, and the project will be responsible for planning and operation of the PDU and the demonstration plants. About 50 tons of wood-oil was received from Canada in January 1996 for the engine tests, the results of which will be reported separately by Wartsilae Diesel. The present costs of the tasks are about 1.2 million FIM, but the main part of the costs will be formed in 1996-1997

  8. Catalytic Upgrading of bio-oil using 1-octene and 1-butanol over sulfonic acid resin catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Zhijun; Wang, Qingwen; Tripathi, Prabhat; Pittman, Charles U.

    2011-02-04

    Raw bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of biomass must be refined before it can be used as a transporation fuel, a petroleum refinery feed or for many other fuel uses. Raw bio-oil was upgraded with the neat model olefin, 1-octene, and with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures over sulfonic acid resin catalysts frin 80 to 150 degrees celisus in order to simultaneously lower water content and acidity and to increase hydrophobicity and heating value. Phase separation and coke formation were key factors limiting the reaction rate during upgrading with neat 1-octene although octanols were formed by 1-octene hydration along with small amounts of octyl acetates and ethers. GC-MS analysis confirmed that olefin hydration, carboxylic acid esterification, acetal formation from aldehydes and ketones and O- and C-alkylations of phenolic compounds occurred simultaneously during upgrading with 1-octene/1-butanol mixtures. Addition of 1-butanol increased olefin conversion dramatically be reducing mass transfer restraints and serving as a cosolvent or emulsifying agent. It also reacted with carboxylic acids and aldehydes/ketones to form esters, and acetals, respectively, while also serving to stabilize bio-oil during heating. 1-Butanol addition also protected the catalysts, increasing catalyst lifetime and reducing or eliminationg coking. Upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, polyhydric alcohols and organic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rise from 2.5 to >3.0), removed the uppleasant ordor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content decreased from 37.2% to < 7.5% dramatically and calorific value increased from 12.6 MJ kg to about 30.0 MJ kg.

  9. Bubble point pressures of the selected model system for CatLiq® bio-oil process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Baig, Muhammad Noman

    2010-01-01

    . In this work, the bubble point pressures of a selected model mixture (CO2 + H2O + Ethanol + Acetic acid + Octanoic acid) were measured to investigate the phase boundaries of the CatLiq® process. The bubble points were measured in the JEFRI-DBR high pressure PVT phase behavior system. The experimental results......The CatLiq® process is a second generation catalytic liquefaction process for the production of bio-oil from WDGS (Wet Distillers Grains with Solubles) at subcritical conditions (280-350 oC and 225-250 bar) in the presence of a homogeneous alkaline and a heterogeneous Zirconia catalyst...

  10. Comparative Advantage of Maize- and Grass-Silage Based Feedstock for Biogas Production with Respect to Greenhouse Gas Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Meyer-Aurich

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyses the comparative advantage of using silage maize or grass as feedstock for anaerobic digestion to biogas from a greenhouse gas (GHG mitigation point of view, taking into account site-specific yield potentials, management options, and land-use change effects. GHG emissions due to the production of biogas were calculated using a life-cycle assessment approach for three different site conditions with specific yield potentials and adjusted management options. While for the use of silage maize, GHG emissions per energy unit were the same for different yield potentials, and the emissions varied substantially for different grassland systems. Without land-use change effects, silage maize-based biogas had lower GHG emissions per energy unit compared to grass-based biogas. Taking land-use change into account, results in a comparative advantage of biogas production from grass-based feedstock produced on arable land compared to silage maize-based feedstock. However, under current frame conditions, it is quite unrealistic that grass production systems would be established on arable land at larger scale.

  11. Mechanisms, safety and efficacy of a B cell epitope-based vaccine for immunotherapy of grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Zieglmayer

    2016-09-01

    Conclusion: The B cell epitope-based recombinant grass pollen allergy vaccine BM32 is well tolerated and few doses are sufficient to suppress immediate allergic reactions as well as allergen-specific T cell responses via a selective induction of allergen-specific IgG antibodies. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01445002.

  12. Production of alkyl-aromatics from light oxygenates over zeolite catalysts for bio-oil refining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoang, Trung Q.

    in aromatic yield. Further improvement of aromatization and catalyst lifetime was also found with ZnHZSM-5 wherein the Zn evidently modifies the acidity. These model compound results show that the optimized use of zeolites for production of alkyl aromatics from light oxygenates at mild conditions may be effective for bio-oil refining.

  13. Pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renny, Andrew; Santhosh, Viswanathan; Somkuwar, Nitin; Gokak, D T; Sharma, Pankaj; Bhargava, Sanjay

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to study the pyrolysis of de-oiled seed cake of Jatropha Curcas and catalytic steam reforming of pyrolytic bio-oil to hydrogen. As per literature, presence of heavy nitrogenous and oxygenated compounds leads to catalyst deactivation. Here, an attempt has been made to tune pyrolytic reactions to optimize the N and O content of the pyrolytic bio-oil. Bio-oil conversion and hydrogen yield decreased as reaction progressed, which attributes to temporary loss of catalytic activity by blockage of catalyst pores by carbon deposition. Further, retention of steam reforming activity after repetitive steam activation suggests long-term catalyst usage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Utilization possibilities of palm shell as a source of biomass energy in Malaysia by producing bio-oil in pyrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abnisa, Faisal; Daud, W.M.A. Wan; Husin, W.N.W.; Sahu, J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Agriculture residues such as palm shell are one of the biomass categories that can be utilized for conversion to bio-oil by using pyrolysis process. Palm shells were pyrolyzed in a fluidized-bed reactor at 400, 500, 600, 700 and 800 o C with N 2 as carrier gas at flow rate 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 L/min. The objective of the present work is to determine the effects of temperature, flow rate of N 2 , particle size and reaction time on the optimization of production of renewable bio-oil from palm shell. According to this study the maximum yield of bio-oil (47.3 wt%) can be obtained, working at the medium level for the operation temperature (500 o C) and 2 L/min of N 2 flow rate at 60 min reaction time. Temperature is the most important factor, having a significant positive effect on yield product of bio-oil. The oil was characterized by Fourier Transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. -- Highlights: → This study reports the results of experimental investing of conversion palm shell into bio-oil by using pyrolysis and to find the optimum condition to produce the highest yield of bio-oil. → Several parameters which have effect to the process such as temperature, N 2 flow rate, reaction time and particle size is will be investigated in this study. → The outcome of this result will be important for abatement and control of increasingly waste palm shell storage problems any energy source to the world.

  15. THE HISTORY OF RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT OF FAST PYROLYSIS PLANT FOR BIO-OIL PRODUCTION AT THE FACULTY OF AGRICULTURAL ENGINEERING OF UNICAMP / HISTÓRICO DA PESQUISA E DESENVOLVIMENTO DA PLANTA DE PIRÓLISE RÁPIDA PARA PRODUÇAO DE BIO-ÓLEO DA FACULDADE DE E

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LUIS A. B. CORTEZ

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is dedicated to describe the fast pyrolysis plant of biomass PPR-200 settled at UNICAMP School of Agricultural Engineering (FEAGRI. This fast pyrolysis plant, the first in Brazil to produce oil with fluidized bed reactor , began operating in 1998 with studies in a reactor for gasification, adapted to obtain bio-oil. Currently, PPR-200 operates with a 200 kg h-1 biomass capacity, and is used to conduct exploratory testing with various vegetable raw materials, such as sugar cane trash and bagasse, elephant grass, sawdust from wood, rice straw, coffee straw, orange bagasse, etc.. Around 15% of biomass is burnt to provide heat to the process. The remainder turns into the following products: bio-oil (20-40%, fine charcoal (20-30%, extract acid (10-15% and pyrolysis gas (15-35%. The pyrolysis gas is composed mainly by CH4, the H2, CO and CO2.Keywords: Biomass, bioenergy, reactor, fluidized bed.

  16. Characterization of bio-oil from induction-heating pyrolysis of food-processing sewage sludges using chromatographic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Wen-Tien; Lee, Mei-Kuei; Chang, Jeng-Hung; Su, Ting-Yi; Chang, Yuan-Ming

    2009-05-01

    In this study, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was used to analyze the pyrolytic bio-oils and gas fractions derived from the pyrolysis of industrial sewage sludges using induction-heating technique. The liquid products were obtained from the cryogenic condensation of the devolatilization fraction in a nitrogen atmosphere using a heating rate of 300 degrees C/min ranging from 25 to 500 degrees C. The analytical results showed that the pyrolysis bio-oils were very complex mixtures of organic compounds and contained a lot of nitrogenated and/or oxygenated compounds such as aliphatic hydrocarbons, phenols, pyridines, pyrroles, amines, ketones, and so on. These organic hydrocarbons containing nitrogen and/or oxygen should originate from the protein and nucleic acid textures of the microbial organisms present in the sewage sludge. The non-condensable devolatilization fractions were also composed of nitrogenated and oxygenated compounds, but contained small fractions of phenols, 1H-indoles, and fatty carboxylic acids. On the other hand, the compositions in the non-condensable gas products were principally carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide and methane analyzed by gas chromatography-thermal conductivity detector (GC-TCD).

  17. Co-production of bio-oil and propylene through the hydrothermal liquefaction of polyhydroxybutyrate producing cyanobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Jonathan; Bransgrove, Rachel; Beacham, Tracey A; Allen, Michael J; Meixner, Katharina; Drosg, Bernhard; Ting, Valeska P; Chuck, Christopher J

    2016-05-01

    A polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) producing cyanobacteria was converted through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) into propylene and a bio-oil suitable for advanced biofuel production. HTL of model compounds demonstrated that in contrast to proteins and carbohydrates, no synergistic effects were detected when converting PHB in the presence of algae. Subsequently, Synechocystis cf. salina, which had accumulated 7.5wt% PHB was converted via HTL (15% dry weight loading, 340°C). The reaction gave an overall propylene yield of 2.6%, higher than that obtained from the model compounds, in addition to a bio-oil with a low nitrogen content of 4.6%. No propylene was recovered from the alternative non-PHB producing cyanobacterial strains screened, suggesting that PHB is the source of propylene. PHB producing microorganisms could therefore be used as a feedstock for a biorefinery to produce polypropylene and advanced biofuels, with the level of propylene being proportional to the accumulated amount of PHB. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Treatment of aqueous phase of bio-oil by granular activated carbon and evaluation of biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Saravanan R; Adhikari, Sushil; Wang, Zhouhang; Shakya, Rajdeep

    2017-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction of wet biomass such as algae is a promising thermochemical process for the production of bio-oil. Bio-oil aqueous phase generated during liquefaction process is rich in complex organics and can be utilized for biogas production following its pre-treatment with granular activated carbon. In our study, use of 30% activated carbon resulted in higher chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction (53±0.3%) from aqueous phase. Higher CH 4 production (84±12mL/gCOD) was also observed in 30% carbon-treated aqueous phase fed cultures, whereas only 32±6mLCH 4 /gCOD was observed in control (non-carbon treated) cultures. The results from this study indicate that almost 67±0.3% initial COD of aqueous phase can be reduced using a combination of both carbon treatment and biogas production. This study shows that aqueous phase can be utilized for CH 4 production. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The potential of activated carbon derived from bio-char waste of bio-oil pyrolysis as adsorbent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkania Ariany

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Activated carbon from bio-char waste of bio oil pyrolysis of mixed sugarcane bagasse and Rambutan twigs was investigated. Bio-char as by-product of bio-oil pyrolysis has potential to be good adsorbed by activating process. Bio-chars waste was activated in fixed bed reactor inside furnace without presenting oxygen. Gas N2 and CO2 were employed to drive out oxygen from the reactor and as activator, respectively. One of the best activation treatments is achieved by performing activation in different temperature and time to produce standard activated carbon. The experiment was performed at different temperatures and activation time, i.e. 800, 850, and 900° C and 80 and 120 minutes, respectively, to determine the optimal operating condition. Activated carbon was characterized by analysis of moisture content, ash content pH, and methylene blue test. The results showed that optimum activation was at 850°C and 80 minute, where activated carbon produced indicated the best adsorption capacity. The ash content and pH had significant role in resulting good activated carbon.

  20. Quantification in mass units of group 1 grass allergens by a monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arilla, M C; Ibarrola, I; Eraso, E; Aguirre, M; Martínez, A; Asturias, J A

    2001-08-01

    Grass pollen extracts currently used for allergy diagnosis and immunotherapy are a complex mixture of proteins of which only a few have allergenic activity. Lol p 1 is one of the most important allergens in grass pollen extracts. To develop a two-site enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for the quantification of Lol p 1 and other group 1 allergens from grass species, and to assess its suitability for quantifying this group of allergens. Balb/c mice immunized with recombinant Lol p 1 were used for the production of monoclonal antibodies. Screening of hybridomas was performed by direct ELISA, and selected monoclonal antibodies were immobilized on ELISA plates and incubated with samples containing group 1 allergens. Bound allergens were detected by a combination of biotinylated Lol p 1-specific monoclonal antibody and peroxidase-streptavidin conjugate. The assay is based on three Lol p 1-specific monoclonal antibodies with different epitope specificities. The optimized ELISA measured Lol p 1 concentrations ranging from 125 to 1000 ng/mL and could quantify group 1 allergen from grass species belonging to the Pooidea subfamily. The assay does not depend on anti-sera production or availability of human sera and thus reactives can be produced in unlimited amounts. This sensitive and specific Lol p 1 assay will be helpful both for quantifying the group 1 allergen content of Pooideae pollen extracts intended for clinical use and for studying cross-reactivities among pollen extracts.

  1. Analysis of impact of temperature and saltwater on Nannochloropsis salina bio-oil production by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS

    KAUST Repository

    Sanguineti, Michael Mario

    2015-05-01

    Concentrated Nannochloropsis salina paste was reconstituted in distilled water and synthetic saltwater and processed at 250°C and 300°C via hydrothermal liquefaction. The resulting bio-oils yielded a diverse distribution of product classes, as analyzed by ultra high resolution APCI FT-ICR MS. The organic fractions were analyzed and both higher temperatures and distilled water significantly increase the number of total compounds present and the number of product classes. Major bio-oil products consisted of N1O1, hydrocarbon, and O2 classes, while O1, O4, S1, N1O2, and N2O2 classes represented the more significant minor classes. Both chlorine and sulfur containing compounds were detected in both distilled and saltwater reactions, while fewer numbers of chlorine and sulfur containing products were present in the organic fraction of the saltwater reactions. Further refinement to remove the chlorine and sulfur contents appears necessary with marine microalgal bio-oils produced via hydrothermal liquefaction. The higher heating value (MJ/kg) as calculated by the Boie equation of classes of interest in the bio-oil reveals a significant potential of algal hydrothermal liquefaction products as a sustainable and renewable fuel feedstock. © 2015.

  2. Homogeneous catalytic hydrogenation of bio-oil and related model aldehydes with RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, F.; Li, W.; Lu, Q.; Zhu, X. [Anhui Province Key Laboratory of Biomass Clean Energy, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei (China)

    2010-12-15

    A homogeneous RuCl{sub 2}(PPh{sub 3}){sub 3} catalyst was prepared for the hydrogenation of bio-oil to improve its stability and fuel quality. Experiments were first performed on three model aldehydes of acetaldehyde, furfural and vanillin selected to represent the linear aldehydes, oxygen heterocyclic aldehydes and aromatic aldehydes in bio-oil. The results demonstrated the high hydrogenation capability of this homogeneous catalyst under mild conditions (55-90 C, 1.3-3.3 MPa). The highest conversion of the three model aldehydes was over 90 %. Furfural and acetaldehyde were singly converted to furfuryl alcohol and ethanol after hydrogenation, while vanillin was mainly converted to vanillin alcohol, together with a small amount of 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol and 2-methoxyphenol. Further experiments were conducted on a bio-oil fraction extracted by ethyl acetate and on the whole bio-oil at 70 C and 3.3 MPa. Most of the aldehydes were transformed to the corresponding alcohols, and some ketones and compounds with C-C double bond were converted to more stable compounds. (Copyright copyright 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Valorization of algal waste via pyrolysis in a fixed-bed reactor: Production and characterization of bio-oil and bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboulkas, A; Hammani, H; El Achaby, M; Bilal, E; Barakat, A; El Harfi, K

    2017-11-01

    The aim of the present work is to develop processes for the production of bio-oil and bio-char from algae waste using the pyrolysis at controlled conditions. The pyrolysis was carried out at different temperatures 400-600°C and different heating rates 5-50°C/min. The algal waste, bio-oil and bio-char were successfully characterized using Elemental analysis, Chemical composition, TGA, FTIR, 1 H NMR, GC-MS and SEM. At a temperature of 500°C and a heating rate of 10°C/min, the maximum yield of bio-oil and bio-char was found to be 24.10 and 44.01wt%, respectively, which was found to be strongly influenced by the temperature variation, and weakly affected by the heating rate variation. Results show that the bio-oil cannot be used as bio-fuel, but can be used as a source of value-added chemicals. On the other hand, the bio-char is a promising candidate for solid fuel applications and for the production of carbon materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Pyrolysis of marine biomass to produce bio-oil and its upgrading using a novel multi-metal catalyst prepared from the spent car catalytic converter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabegh, Mahzad Yaghmaei; Norouzi, Omid; Jafarian, Sajedeh; Khosh, Akram Ghanbari; Tavasoli, Ahmad

    2018-02-01

    In order to reduce the economic and environmental consequences caused by spent car catalyst, we herein report for the first time a novel promising multi-metal catalyst prepared from spent car catalytic converters to upgrade the pyrolysis bio-oils. The physico-chemical properties of prepared catalyst were characterized by XRD, EDS, FESEM, and FT-IR analyses. The thermal stability of the multi-metal catalyst was studied with TGA. To investigate the activity of the catalyst, Conversion of Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) into bio-products was carried out via a fixed bed reactor with and without catalyst at the temperature of 500°C. Although the catalyst didn't catalyze the gasification reaction, bio-oil was upgraded over the catalyst. The main effect of the catalyst on the bio-oil components is deoxygenating of nitrogen compounds and promotion the ketonization reaction, which converts acid to ketone and declines the corrosive nature of bio-oil. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Solvent-free Hydrodeoxygenation of Bio-oil Model Compounds Cyclopentanone and Acetophenone over Flame-made Bimetallic Pt-Pd/ZrO2 Catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yijiao; Büchel, Robert; Huang, Jun; Krumeich, Frank; Pratsinis, Sotiris E.; Baiker, Alfons

    2013-01-01

    Bimetallic Pt-Pd/ZrO2 catalysts with different Pt/Pd atomic ratio and homogeneous dispersion of the metal nanoparticles were prepared in a single step by flame-spray pyrolysis. The catalysts show high activity and tuneable product selectivity for the solvent-free hydrodeoxygenation of the bio-oil model compounds cyclopentanone and acetophenone. PMID:22674738

  6. Catalytic Upgrading of Bio-Oil by Reacting with Olefins and Alcohols over Solid Acids: Reaction Paths via Model Compound Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Wang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Catalytic refining of bio-oil by reacting with olefin/alcohol over solid acids can convert bio-oil to oxygen-containing fuels. Reactivities of groups of compounds typically present in bio-oil with 1-octene (or 1-butanol were studied at 120 °C/3 h over Dowex50WX2, Amberlyst15, Amberlyst36, silica sulfuric acid (SSA and Cs2.5H0.5PW12O40 supported on K10 clay (Cs2.5/K10, 30 wt. %. These compounds include phenol, water, acetic acid, acetaldehyde, hydroxyacetone, d-glucose and 2-hydroxymethylfuran. Mechanisms for the overall conversions were proposed. Other olefins (1,7-octadiene, cyclohexene, and 2,4,4-trimethylpentene and alcohols (iso-butanol with different activities were also investigated. All the olefins and alcohols used were effective but produced varying product selectivities. A complex model bio-oil, synthesized by mixing all the above-stated model compounds, was refined under similar conditions to test the catalyst’s activity. SSA shows the highest hydrothermal stability. Cs2.5/K10 lost most of its activity. A global reaction pathway is outlined. Simultaneous and competing esterification, etherfication, acetal formation, hydration, isomerization and other equilibria were involved. Synergistic interactions among reactants and products were determined. Acid-catalyzed olefin hydration removed water and drove the esterification and acetal formation equilibria toward ester and acetal products.

  7. Enrichment of bio-oil after hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of microalgae C. vulgaris grown in wastewater: Bio-char and post HTL wastewater utilization studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arun, Jayaseelan; Varshini, Padmanabhan; Prithvinath, P Kamath; Priyadarshini, Venkataramani; Gopinath, Kannappan Panchamoorthy

    2018-08-01

    In this study, bio-oil was produced through hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) of C. vulgaris biomass cultivated in wastewater and was enriched into transportation fuels. Bio-oil yield was 29.37% wt at 300 °C, 60 min, at 15 g/200 mL biomass loading rate with 3% wt nano ZnO catalyst loading. Applying catalyst reduced oxygen and nitrogen content in bio-oil and increased its calorific value (19.6 ± 0.8 MJ/Kg). Bio-oil was enriched through liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) and higher yield was obtained at 30 °C for dichloromethane solvent (18.2% wt). Compounds of enriched oil were within the petro-diesel range (C 8 -C 21 ). Bio-char after HTL process was activated and used as adsorbent in wastewater treatment process to remove organic pollutants (COD, NO 3 , NH 3 and PO 4 ). Treated wastewater can be supplied as growth medium for microalgae cultivation in further experiments. Nearly 3-4 times the nanocatalyst can be reused in the HTL process. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Promotion of hydrogen-rich gas and phenolic-rich bio-oil production from green macroalgae Cladophora glomerata via pyrolysis over its bio-char.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norouzi, Omid; Jafarian, Sajedeh; Safari, Farid; Tavasoli, Ahmad; Nejati, Behnam

    2016-11-01

    Conversion of Cladophora glomerata (C. glomerata) as a Caspian Sea's green macroalgae into gaseous, liquid and solid products was carried out via pyrolysis at different temperatures to determine its potential for bio-oil and hydrogen-rich gas production for further industrial utilization. Non-catalytic tests were performed to determine the optimum condition for bio-oil production. The highest portion of bio-oil was retrieved at 500°C. The catalytic test was performed using the bio-char derived at 500°C as a catalyst. Effect of the addition of the algal bio-char on the composition of the bio-oil and also gaseous products was investigated. Pyrolysis derived bio-char was characterized by BET, FESEM and ICP method to show its surface area, porosity, and presence of inorganic metals on its surface, respectively. Phenols were increased from 8.5 to 20.76area% by the addition of bio-char. Moreover, the hydrogen concentration and hydrogen selectivity were also enhanced by the factors of 1.37, 1.59 respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predicting Dry Matter Composition of Clover Grass Leys Using Data Simulation and Camera-based Segmentation of Field Canopies into White Clover, Red Clover, Grass and Weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Søren; Dyrmann, Mads; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    species in the biomass. In our setup, we exploit the top-down canopy view of the clover grass ley to estimate the volumetric composition of the yield, and predict the composition of the dry matter of the forage. Using a deep learning approach, the canopy image is automatically pixel-wise segmented....... The biggest hindrance to training a fully convolutional deep neural network is the requirement of labeled data. Due to the complexity, the high number of leaves and high levels of occlusions in clover grass canopies, hand labeling the data requires roughly 20 hours of manual labor per image. The need...... for hundreds or thousands labeled training images renders this approach unfeasible. We have shown that implementation of image simulation of distinct clover grass fields can reduce the labeling task significantly. Investing less than 20 hours of labor, thousands of simulated images and corresponding labels can...

  10. Analysis of coke precursor on catalyst and study on regeneration of catalyst in upgrading of bio-oil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoya; Zheng, Yong; Zhang, Baohua; Chen, Jinyang

    2009-01-01

    Catalyst HZSM-5 was used in bio-oil catalytic cracking upgrading. The precursor of coke on the catalyst was analyzed by means of TGA, FTIR and C13 NMR. Precursors of coke deposited in the pore of the molecular sieve were mainly aromatic hydrocarbon with the boiling point range from 350 o C to 650 o C. Those on the outer surface of the pellet precursor were identified as saturated aliphatic hydrocarbons with the boiling point below 200 o C. The activity of HZSM-5 was studied after regeneration. In terms of yield of organic distillate and formation rate of coke, results showed that catalytic activity change moderately during the first three times of regeneration.

  11. Genetic and Quantitative Trait Locus Analysis for Bio-Oil Compounds after Fast Pyrolysis in Maize Cobs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brandon Jeffrey

    Full Text Available Fast pyrolysis has been identified as one of the biorenewable conversion platforms that could be a part of an alternative energy future, but it has not yet received the same attention as cellulosic ethanol in the analysis of genetic inheritance within potential feedstocks such as maize. Ten bio-oil compounds were measured via pyrolysis/gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py/GC-MS in maize cobs. 184 recombinant inbred lines (RILs of the intermated B73 x Mo17 (IBM Syn4 population were analyzed in two environments, using 1339 markers, for quantitative trait locus (QTL mapping. QTL mapping was performed using composite interval mapping with significance thresholds established by 1000 permutations at α = 0.05. 50 QTL were found in total across those ten traits with R2 values ranging from 1.7 to 5.8%, indicating a complex quantitative inheritance of these traits.

  12. A case study of the carbon footprint of milk from high-performing confinement and grass-based dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Capper, J L; Garnsworthy, P C; Grainger, C; Shalloo, L

    2014-03-01

    Life-cycle assessment (LCA) is the preferred methodology to assess carbon footprint per unit of milk. The objective of this case study was to apply an LCA method to compare carbon footprints of high-performance confinement and grass-based dairy farms. Physical performance data from research herds were used to quantify carbon footprints of a high-performance Irish grass-based dairy system and a top-performing United Kingdom (UK) confinement dairy system. For the US confinement dairy system, data from the top 5% of herds of a national database were used. Life-cycle assessment was applied using the same dairy farm greenhouse gas (GHG) model for all dairy systems. The model estimated all on- and off-farm GHG sources associated with dairy production until milk is sold from the farm in kilograms of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2-eq) and allocated emissions between milk and meat. The carbon footprint of milk was calculated by expressing GHG emissions attributed to milk per tonne of energy-corrected milk (ECM). The comparison showed that when GHG emissions were only attributed to milk, the carbon footprint of milk from the Irish grass-based system (837 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) was 5% lower than the UK confinement system (884 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM) and 7% lower than the US confinement system (898 kg of CO2-eq/t of ECM). However, without grassland carbon sequestration, the grass-based and confinement dairy systems had similar carbon footprints per tonne of ECM. Emission algorithms and allocation of GHG emissions between milk and meat also affected the relative difference and order of dairy system carbon footprints. For instance, depending on the method chosen to allocate emissions between milk and meat, the relative difference between the carbon footprints of grass-based and confinement dairy systems varied by 3 to 22%. This indicates that further harmonization of several aspects of the LCA methodology is required to compare carbon footprints of contrasting dairy systems. In

  13. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1995-01-01

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  14. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1996-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  15. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel; Energiarypsi - peltojen non-food vaihtoehtoja

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sipilae, K. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland). Energy Production Technologies

    1995-12-31

    The target of this project is to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agrofibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion

  16. Spray pyrolysis synthesis of γ-Al_2O_3 supported metal and metal phosphide catalysts and their activity in the hydrodeoxygenation of a bio-oil model compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, Hoang Vu; Im, Kyungmin; Go, Youngchae; Galiwango, Emmanuel; Kim, Seung-Soo; Kim, Jinsoo; Choi, Jae Hyung; Woo, Hee Chul

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Spherical γ-Al_2O_3 supported metal and metal phosphide catalysts were synthesized by spray pyrolysis method. • Hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of 2-furyl methyl ketone (FMK) was conducted using metal/metal phosphide catalysts. • FMK was converted into 2-allyl furan and methyl cyclohexane. • The highest FMK conversion of 83% was achieved over 10 wt% Ni/γ-Al_2O_3 catalysts at reaction temperature of 400 °C. - Abstract: In this study, spherical γ-Al_2O_3 supported metal and metal phosphide (Ni, Co, Ni_2P and CoP) catalysts were successfully prepared by combining sol-gel and spray pyrolysis methods. First boehmite sol was prepared based on the Yoldas process and then the corresponding metal salts were added to the sol at the desired concentration, followed by spray pyrolysis of the mixed solution. As the well-mixed solution was transformed to spherical γ-Al_2O_3 supported metal and metal phosphide catalysts during spray pyrolysis process, the metal species were uniformly distributed in the mesoporous γ-Al_2O_3 supports. The product catalysts were investigated under different conditions for hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil model compound, 2-furyl methyl ketone (FMK), which is the main component of the bio-oil product from pyrolysis of Saccharina japonica. Among the investigated catalysts, the 10 wt% Ni/γ-Al_2O_3 catalyst after calcination at 800 °C showed the highest FMK conversion of 83.02% at the reaction temperature of 400 °C. The gas and liquid products were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with TCD/FID detectors and GC–MS, respectively, to determine the product compositions.

  17. Grass genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetzen, Jeffrey L.; SanMiguel, Phillip; Chen, Mingsheng; Tikhonov, Alexander; Francki, Michael; Avramova, Zoya

    1998-01-01

    For the most part, studies of grass genome structure have been limited to the generation of whole-genome genetic maps or the fine structure and sequence analysis of single genes or gene clusters. We have investigated large contiguous segments of the genomes of maize, sorghum, and rice, primarily focusing on intergenic spaces. Our data indicate that much (>50%) of the maize genome is composed of interspersed repetitive DNAs, primarily nested retrotransposons that in...

  18. Testing efficacy of distance and tree-based methods for DNA barcoding of grasses (Poaceae tribe Poeae) in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birch, Joanne L; Walsh, Neville G; Cantrill, David J; Holmes, Gareth D; Murphy, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    In Australia, Poaceae tribe Poeae are represented by 19 genera and 99 species, including economically and environmentally important native and introduced pasture grasses [e.g. Poa (Tussock-grasses) and Lolium (Ryegrasses)]. We used this tribe, which are well characterised in regards to morphological diversity and evolutionary relationships, to test the efficacy of DNA barcoding methods. A reference library was generated that included 93.9% of species in Australia (408 individuals, [Formula: see text] = 3.7 individuals per species). Molecular data were generated for official plant barcoding markers (rbcL, matK) and the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. We investigated accuracy of specimen identifications using distance- (nearest neighbour, best-close match, and threshold identification) and tree-based (maximum likelihood, Bayesian inference) methods and applied species discovery methods (automatic barcode gap discovery, Poisson tree processes) based on molecular data to assess congruence with recognised species. Across all methods, success rate for specimen identification of genera was high (87.5-99.5%) and of species was low (25.6-44.6%). Distance- and tree-based methods were equally ineffective in providing accurate identifications for specimens to species rank (26.1-44.6% and 25.6-31.3%, respectively). The ITS marker achieved the highest success rate for specimen identification at both generic and species ranks across the majority of methods. For distance-based analyses the best-close match method provided the greatest accuracy for identification of individuals with a high percentage of "correct" (97.6%) and a low percentage of "incorrect" (0.3%) generic identifications, based on the ITS marker. For tribe Poeae, and likely for other grass lineages, sequence data in the standard DNA barcode markers are not variable enough for accurate identification of specimens to species rank. For recently diverged grass species similar challenges are

  19. Detailed characterization of bio-oil from pyrolysis of non-edible seed-cakes by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugumaran, Vatsala; Prakash, Shanti; Ramu, Emmandi; Arora, Ajay Kumar; Bansal, Veena; Kagdiyal, Vivekanand; Saxena, Deepak

    2017-07-15

    Bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis is highly complicated mixture with valued chemicals. In order to reduce the complexity for unambiguous characterization of components present in bio-oil, solvent extractions using different solvents with increasing polarity have been adopted. The fractions have been analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for identifying the functional groups and Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), for detailed characterization of components present in various fractions, thereby providing in-depth information at molecular level of various components in bio-oil. This paper reveals the potential of the analytical techniques in identification and brings out the similarities as well as differences in the components present in the bio-oil obtained from two non-edible oil seed-cakes, viz., Jatropha and Karanjia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Biofuel Production from Jatropha Bio-Oil Derived Fast Pyrolysis: Effect and Mechanism of CoMoS Supported on Al2O3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodseanglung, T.; Ratana, T.; Phongaksorn, M.; Tungkamani, S.

    2018-03-01

    The aims of this research was to understand the CoMo/Al2O3 sulfide catalyst effect to remove oxygen-containing and nitrogen-containing molecules from Jatropha bio-oil derived fast pyrolysis converted to biofuels via hydrotreating process. The activity and selectivity of CoMo/γ-Al2O3 sulfided catalysts in hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) of Jatropha bio-oil derived fast pyrolysis was evaluated in a Parr batch reactor under 50 bar of H2 atmosphere for 2 h at 300 320 and 340 °C. It appeared that the CoMo/Al2O3 sulfide catalyst have high performance in activity for promoting the fatty acid, fatty ester, fatty amide and fatty nitrile compounds were converted to paraffin/olefin (Diesel range), this could be the CUS site on supported Al2O3 catalyst. The difference in selectivity products allowed us to propose a reaction scheme.

  1. Towards ideal NOx control technology for bio-oils and a gas multi-fuel boiler system using a plasma-chemical hybrid process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujishima, Hidekatsu; Takekoshi, Kenichi; Kuroki, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Atsushi; Otsuka, Keiichi; Okubo, Masaaki

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • A multi-fuel boiler system combined with NO x aftertreatment is developed. • NO x is removed from flue gas by a plasma-chemical hybrid process. • Waste bio-oils are utilized as renewable energy source and for CO 2 reduction. • Ultra low NO x emission less than 2 ppm is achieved. • The boiler system is applicable for industrial use. - Abstract: A super-clean boiler system comprising a multi-fuel boiler and a reactor for plasma-chemical hybrid NO x aftertreatment is developed, and its industrial applications are examined. The purpose of this research is to optimally reduce NO x emission and utilize waste bio-oil as a renewable energy source. First, NO oxidation using indirect plasma at elevated flue gas temperatures is investigated. It is clarified that more than 98% of NO is oxidized when the temperature of the flue gas is less than 130 °C. Three types of waste bio-oils (waste vegetable oil, rice bran oil, and fish oil) are burned in the boiler as fuels with a rotary-type burner for CO 2 reduction considering carbon neutrality. NO x in the flue gases of these bio-oils is effectively reduced by the indirect plasma-chemical hybrid treatment. Ultralow NO x emission less than 2 ppm is achieved for 450 min in the firing of city natural gas fuel. The boiler system can be successfully operated automatically according to unsteady steam demand and using an empirical equation for Na 2 SO 3 supply rate, and can be used in industries as an ideal NO x control technology

  2. Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography hyphenated to atmospheric pressure chemical ionization high resolution mass spectrometry for the characterization of fast pyrolysis bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepier, Julien; Le Masle, Agnès; Charon, Nadège; Albrieux, Florian; Duchene, Pascal; Heinisch, Sabine

    2018-06-01

    Extensive characterization of complex mixtures requires the combination of powerful analytical techniques. A Supercritical Fluid Chromatography (SFC) method was previously developed, for the specific case of fast pyrolysis bio oils, as an alternative to gas chromatography (GC and GC × GC) or liquid chromatography (LC and LC × LC), both separation methods being generally used prior to mass spectrometry (MS) for the characterization of such complex matrices. In this study we investigated the potential of SFC hyphenated to high resolution mass spectrometry (SFC-HRMS) for this characterization using Negative ion Atmospheric Pressure Chemical ionization ((-)APCI) for the ionization source. The interface between SFC and (-)APCI/HRMS was optimized from a mix of model compounds with the objective of maximizing the signal to noise ratio. The main studied parameters included both make-up flow-rate and make-up composition. A methodology for the treatment of APCI/HRMS data is proposed. This latter allowed for the identification of molecular formulae. Both SFC-APCI/HRMS method and data processing method were applied to a mixture of 36 model compounds, first analyzed alone and then spiked in a bio-oil. In both cases, 19 compounds could be detected. Among them 9 could be detected in a fast pyrolysis bio-oil by targeted analysis. The whole procedure was applied to the characterization of a bio-oil using helpful representations such as mass-plots, van Krevelen diagrams and heteroatom class distributions. Finally the results were compared with those obtained with a Fourier Transform ion-cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (FT-ICR/MS). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Molecular detection of genotype II grass carp reovirus based on nucleic acid sequence-based amplification combined with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NASBA-ELISA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weiwei; Yao, Wei; Wang, Yingying; Li, Yingying; Bermann, Sven M; Ren, Yan; Shi, Cunbin; Song, Xinjian; Huang, Qiwen; Zheng, Shuchen; Wang, Qing

    2017-05-01

    Grass carp reovirus (GCRV) is the causative agent of the grass carp hemorrhagic disease that has resulted in severe economic losses in the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) farming industry in China. Early diagnosis and vaccine administration are important priorities for GCRV control. In this study, a nucleic acid sequence-based amplification with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (NASBA-ELISA) was developed for to detect genotype II GCRV (GCRV- II). Primers specifically targeting viral RNA genome segment 6 were utilized for amplification in an isothermal digoxigenin-labeling NASBA process, resulting in DIG-labeled RNA amplicons. The amplicons were hybridized to specific biotinylated DNA probes and the products were detected colorimetrically using horseradish peroxidase and a microplate reader. The new method is able to detect GCRV at 14 copies/μL within 5h and had a diagnostic sensitivity and a specificity of 100% when GCRV-II and non-target virus were tested. This NASBA-ELISA was evaluated using a panel of clinical samples (n=103) to demonstrate that it is a rapid, effective and sensitive method for GCRV detection in grass carp aquaculture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Prescribed differences in exercise intensity based on the TCAR test over sandy ground and grass.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliano Fernandes da Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The intensity of training might be influenced by exercise mode and type of terrain. Thus, the objective of this study was a to compare the physiological indices determined in the TCAR test carried out on natural grass (NG and sandy ground (SG, and b to analyze heart rate (HR and blood lactate responses during constant exercise on SG and NG. Ten soccer players (15.11 ± 1.1 years, 168 ± 4.0 cm, 60 ± 4.0 kg were submitted to the TCAR test to determine peak velocity (PV and the intensity corresponding to 80.4% PV (V80.4 on NG and SG. The second evaluation consisted of two constant load tests (CLT (80.4% PV on NG and SG with a duration of 27 min. The paired Student t-test was used to compare the tests carried out on NG and SG. ANOVA (two-way, complemented by the Tukey test, was used to compare lactate concentrations [La] at 9, 18 and 27 min between the two types of terrain. A p value <0.05 was adopted. PV and V80.4 (15.3±1.0 and 12.3±0.6 km/h were significantly higher on grass than on sand (14.3±1.0 and 11.5±0.4 km/h. Lactate concentration during the CLT [LaV80.4] was significantly higher on sand (4.1±0.9 mmol/L than on grass (2.8±0.7 mmol/L. In the CLT, no significant difference in mean HR was observed between the two terrains, whereas there was a difference in [La]. In conclusion, the type of terrain interferes with indicators associated with aerobic power and capacity obtained by the TCAR test.

  5. Investigating C4 Grass Contributions to N-alkane Based Paleoclimate Reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doman, C. E.; Enders, S. K.; Chadwick, O.; Freeman, K. H.

    2014-12-01

    Plant wax n-alkanes are long-chain, saturated hydrocarbons contained within the protective waxy cuticle on leaves. These lipids are pervasive and persistent in soils and sediments and thus are ideal biomarkers of ancient terrestrial organic matter. In ecosystems dominated by C3 plants, the relationship between the carbon isotopic value of whole leaves and lipids is fairly well documented, but this relationship has not been fully investigated for plants that use C4 photosynthesis. In both cases, it is unclear if the isotopic relationships are sensitive to environmental conditions, or reflect inherited characteristics. This study used a natural climate gradient on the Kohala peninsula of Hawaii to investigate relationships between climate and the δ13C and δ2H values of n-alkanes in C3 and C4 plants. δ13C of C3 leaves and lipids decreased 5 ‰ from the driest to the wettest sites, consistent with published data. Carbon isotope values of C4 plants showed no relationship to moisture up to 1000 mm mean annual precipitation (MAP). Above this threshold, δ 13C values were around 10‰ more depleted, likely due to a combination of canopy effects and C4 grasses growing in an uncharacteristically wet and cold environment. In C3 plants, the fractionation between leaf and lipid carbon isotopes did not vary with MAP, which allows estimations of δ13C leaf to be made from alkanes preserved in ancient sediments. Along this transect, C3 plants produce around twice the quantity of n-alkanes as C4 grasses. C4 grasses produce longer carbon chains. As a result, n-alkanes in the geologic record will be biased towards C3 plants, but the presence of alkanes C33 and C35 indicate the contributions of C4 grasses. In both C3 and C4 plants, average chain length increased with mean annual precipitation, but the taxonomic differences in chain length were greater than environmental differences. Hydrogen isotopes of n-alkanes show no trends with MAP, but do show clear differences between plant

  6. From biomass to advanced bio-fuel by catalytic pyrolysis/hydro-processing: hydrodeoxygenation of bio-oil derived from biomass catalytic pyrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuxin; He, Tao; Liu, Kaituo; Wu, Jinhu; Fang, Yunming

    2012-03-01

    Compared hydrodeoxygenation experimental studies of both model compounds and real bio-oil derived from biomass fast pyrolysis and catalytic pyrolysis was carried out over two different supported Pt catalysts. For the model compounds, the deoxygenation degree of dibenzofuran was higher than that of cresol and guaiacol over both Pt/Al(2)O(3) and the newly developed Pt supported on mesoporous zeolite (Pt/MZ-5) catalyst, and the deoxygenation degree of cresol over Pt/MZ-5 was higher than that over Pt/Al(2)O(3). The results indicated that hydrodeoxygenation become much easier upon oxygen reduction. Similar to model compounds study, the hydrodeoxygenation of the real bio-oil derived from catalytic pyrolysis was much easier than that from fast pyrolysis over both Pt catalysts, and the Pt/MZ-5 again shows much higher deoxygenation ability than Pt/Al(2)O(3). Clearly synergy between catalytic pyrolysis and bio-oil hydro-processing was found in this paper and this finding will lead an advanced biofuel production pathway in the future. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Catalytic Conversion of Bio-Oil to Oxygen-Containing Fuels by Acid-Catalyzed Reaction with Olefins and Alcohols over Silica Sulfuric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Wang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Crude bio-oil from pine chip fast pyrolysis was upgraded with olefins (1-octene, cyclohexene, 1,7-octadiene, and 2,4,4-trimethylpentene plus 1-butanol (iso-butanol, t-butanol and ethanol at 120 °C using a silica sulfuric acid (SSA catalyst that possesses a good catalytic activity and stability. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR and proton nuclear magnetic resonance (1H-NMR analysis showed that upgrading sharply increased ester content and decreased the amounts of levoglucosan, phenols, polyhydric alcohols and carboxylic acids. Upgrading lowered acidity (pH value rose from 2.5 to >3.5, removed the unpleasant odor and increased hydrocarbon solubility. Water content dramatically decreased from 37.2% to about 7.0% and the heating value increased from 12.6 MJ·kg−1 to about 31.9 MJ·kg−1. This work has proved that bio-oil upgrading with a primary olefin plus 1-butanol is a feasible route where all the original heating value of the bio-oil plus the added olefin and alcohol are present in the resulting fuel.

  8. Physicochemical properties of bio-oil and biochar produced by fast pyrolysis of stored single-pass corn stover and cobs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Ajay; Darr, Matthew J; Dalluge, Dustin; Medic, Dorde; Webster, Keith; Brown, Robert C

    2012-12-01

    Short harvest window of corn (Zea mays) stover necessitates its storage before utilization; however, there is not enough work towards exploring the fast pyrolysis behavior of stored biomass. This study investigated the yields and the physicochemical properties (proximate and ultimate analyses, higher heating values and acidity) of the fast pyrolysis products obtained from single-pass stover and cobs stored either inside a metal building or anaerobically within plastic wraps. Biomass samples were pyrolyzed in a 183 cm long and 2.1cm inner diameter free-fall fast pyrolysis reactor. Yields of bio-oil, biochar and non-condensable gases from different biomass samples were in the ranges of 45-55, 25-37 and 11-17 wt.%, respectively, with the highest bio-oil yield from the ensiled single-pass stover. Bio-oils generated from ensiled single-pass cobs and ensiled single-pass stover were, respectively, the most and the least acidic with the modified acid numbers of 95.0 and 65.2 mg g(-1), respectively. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of corn stover and scum for bio-oil production with CaO and HZSM-5 as the catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Shiyu; Xie, Qinglong; Zhang, Bo; Cheng, Yanling; Liu, Yuhuan; Chen, Paul; Ruan, Roger

    2016-03-01

    This study investigated fast microwave-assisted catalytic co-pyrolysis of corn stover and scum for bio-oil production with CaO and HZSM-5 as the catalyst. Effects of reaction temperature, CaO/HZSM-5 ratio, and corn stover/scum ratio on co-pyrolysis product fractional yields and selectivity were investigated. Results showed that co-pyrolysis temperature was selected as 550°C, which provides the maximum bio-oil and aromatic yields. Mixed CaO and HZSM-5 catalyst with the weight ratio of 1:4 increased the aromatic yield to 35.77 wt.% of feedstock, which was 17% higher than that with HZSM-5 alone. Scum as the hydrogen donor, had a significant synergistic effect with corn stover to promote the production of bio-oil and aromatic hydrocarbons when the H/C(eff) value exceeded 1. The maximum yield of aromatic hydrocarbons (29.3 wt.%) were obtained when the optimal corn stover to scum ratio was 1:2. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Upgrading of bio-oil derived from tobacco using ferrierite, ZSM-5 and Co-Mo/Al2 O3 catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sawitree Mulika

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to investigate bio-oil yield of tobacco leave by pyrolysis at 450-550o C. The bio-oil was upgraded by ferrierite, ZSM-5, Al2 O3 , Co-Mo/Al2 O3 and Mo2 C catalysts. Pyrolysis was carried out in a semi-batch reactor with a space velocity of 1.7 h-1 under nitrogen atmosphere. The highest liquid yield of 47.1% was observed at 500o C with the high heating value of 36.3 MJ/kg oil (organic phase. Furthermore, char and gas yields were 36.7 and 16.2%, respectively. As a result, the high heating values of the bio-oils catalyzed at 500o C by ferrierite, ZSM-5, Al2 O3 , Mo2 C and Co-Mo/Al2 O3 were 22.5, 24.7, 26.1, 35.8 and 36.8 MJ/kg oil (organic phase, respectively.

  11. Effect of operating parameters on production of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of maize stalk in bubbling fluidized bed reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Najaf

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The yield and composition of pyrolysis products depend on the characteristics of feed stock and process operating parameters. Effect of particle size, reaction temperature and carrier gas flow rate on the yield of bio-oil from fast pyrolysis of Pakistani maize stalk was investigated. Pyrolysis experiments were performed at temperature range of 360-540°C, feed particle size of 1-2 mm and carrier gas fl ow rate of 7.0-13.0 m3/h (0.61.1 m/s superficial velocity. Bio-oil yield increased with the increase of temperature followed by a decreasing trend. The maximum yield of bio-oil obtained was 42 wt% at a temperature of 490°C with the particle size of around 1.0 mm and carrier gas flow rate of 11.0 m3/h (0.9 m/s superficial velocity. High temperatures resulted in the higher ratios of char and non-condensable gas.

  12. Hydrogen production by steam reforming of bio-oil aqueous fraction over Co-Fe/ZSM-5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mingqiang; Wang, Yishuang; Liang, Tian; Yang, Zhonglian

    2018-02-01

    A series of Co-Fe/ZSM-5 catalysts were prepared by impregnation method and their catalytic performance under steam reforming bio-oil aqueous fraction (SRBAF). The as-prepared catalysts were characterized by XRD, BET, and SEM. The characterization results revealed the Co-Fe alloy phase was formed in Co0.5Fe0.5/ZSM-5 catalyst, and this catalyst exhibited unique pore volume (0.28 cm3/g) and pore size (8.4 nm). The results of experiment demonstrated the addition of Fe species could significantly increase C conversion and H2 yield, and the formation of Co-Fe alloy effectively inhibited methanation reaction and improved water-gas shift (WGS) reaction. The highest H2 yield (81%) and C conversion (85%) was obtained at the following reaction conditions: 2.5 g of C0.5F0.5/Z catalyst, T = 700 °C, S/C = 10-14,.feed flow rate was 10.0 gbio-oil/h, N2 flow rate was 0.16 L/min.

  13. Epiphytic bryozoans on Neptune grass - a sample-based data set.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepoint, Gilles; Heughebaert, André; Michel, Loïc N

    2016-01-01

    The seagrass Posidonia oceanica L. Delile, commonly known as Neptune grass, is an endemic species of the Mediterranean Sea. It hosts a distinctive and diverse epiphytic community, dominated by various macroalgal and animal organisms. Mediterranean bryozoans have been extensively studied but quantitative data assessing temporal and spatial variability have rarely been documented. In Lepoint et al. (2014a, b) occurrence and abundance data of epiphytic bryozoan communities on leaves of Posidonia oceanica inhabiting Revellata Bay (Corsica, Mediterranean Sea) were reported and trophic ecology of Electra posidoniae Gautier assessed. Here, metadata information is provided on the data set discussed in Lepoint et al. (2014a) and published on the GBIF portal as a sampling-event data set: http://ipt.biodiversity.be/resource?r=ulg_bryozoa&v=1.0). The data set is enriched by data concerning species settled on Posidonia scales (dead petiole of Posidonia leaves, remaining after limb abscission).

  14. Analytical characterization of products obtained from slow pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum seed cake: study on performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with bio-oil blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamohan, Sakthivel; Kasimani, Ramesh

    2018-04-01

    This paper aims to analyse the characteristics and properties of the fractions obtained from slow pyrolysis of non-edible seed cake of Calophyllum inophyllum (CI). The gas, bio-oil and biochar obtained from the pyrolysis carried out at 500 °C in a fixed bed batch type reactor at a heating rate of 30 °C/min were characterized by various analytical techniques. Owing to the high volatile content of CI biomass (72.61%), it was selected as the raw material in this present investigation. GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of bio-oil showed the presence of higher amount of oxygenated compounds, phenol derivatives, esters, acid and furans. The physicochemical properties of the bio-oil were tested as per ASTM norms which imply that bio-oil is a highly viscous liquid with lower heating value as compared to that of diesel fuel. The chemical composition of evolved gas was analysed by using GC testing which revealed the presence of combustible components. The FT-IR characterization of biochar showed the presence of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons whereas the elevated amount of carbon in biochar indicates its potential to be used as solid fuel. The performance and emission characteristics of CI engine were assessed with different CI bio-oil blends and compared with baseline diesel fuel. The results showed that addition of bio-oil leads to decreased brake thermal efficiency and increased brake specific energy consumption. Meanwhile, increase in blend ratio reduces harmful pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and smoke in the exhaust. From the engine testing, it is suggested to employ 20% of CI bio-oil blends in CI engine to obtain better operation.

  15. Impregnation of bio-oil from small diameter pine into wood for moisture resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas J. Robinson; Brian K. Via; Oladiran Fasina; Sushil Adhikari; Emily Carter

    2011-01-01

    Wood pyrolysis oil consists of hundreds of complex compounds, many of which are phenolic-based and exhibit hydrophobic properties. Southern yellow pine was impregnated with a pyrolysis oil-based penetrant using both a high pressure and vacuum impregnation systems, with no significant differences in retention levels. Penetrant concentrations ranging from 5-50% pyrolysis...

  16. A Remote Sensing Based Forage Biomass Yield Inversion Model of Alpine-cold Meadow during Grass-withering Period in Sanjiangyuan Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, Weize; Jia, Haifeng; Liang, Shidong; Wang, Zheng; Liu, Shujie; Hao, Lizhuang; Chai, Shatuo

    2014-01-01

    Estimating forage biomass yield remotely from space is still challenging nowadays. Field experiments were conducted and ground measurements correlated to remote sensing data to estimate the forage biomass yield of Alpine-cold meadow grassland during the grass and grass-withering period in Sanjiangyuan area in Yushu county. Both Shapiro-Wilk and Kolmogorov-Smirnov two-tailed tests showed that the field training samples are normally distributed, the Spearman coefficient indicated that the parametric correlation analysis had significant differences. The optimal regression models were developed based on the Landsat Thematic Mapper Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (TM-NDVI) and the forage biomass field data during the grass and the grass-withering periods, respectively. Then an integration model was used to predict forage biomass yield of alpine-cold meadow in the grass-withering period. The model showed good prediction accuracy and reliability. It was found that this approach can not only estimate forage yield in large scale efficiently but also overcome the seasonal limitation of remote sensing inversion. This technique can provides valuable guidance to animal husbandry to resource more efficiently in winter

  17. Comparative evaluation of GHG emissions from the use of Miscanthus for bio-hydrocarbon production via fast pyrolysis and bio-oil upgrading

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shemfe, Mobolaji B.; Whittaker, Carly; Gu, Sai; Fidalgo, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • GHG emissions from the upgrading of pyrolysis-derived bio-oil is quantified.. • Soil organic carbon sequestration rate had a significant effect on GHG emission. • Increasing plant scale could improve the environmental performance of the system. • Nitrogen to the pyrolysis reactor had significant impact on GHG emissions. - Abstract: This study examines the GHG emissions associated with producing bio-hydrocarbons via fast pyrolysis of Miscanthus. The feedstock is then upgraded to bio-oil products via hydroprocessing and zeolite cracking. Inventory data for this study were obtained from current commercial cultivation practices of Miscanthus in the UK and state-of-the-art process models developed in Aspen Plus®. The system boundary considered spans from the cultivation of Miscanthus to conversion of the pyrolysis-derived bio-oil into bio-hydrocarbons up to the refinery gate. The Miscanthus cultivation subsystem considers three scenarios for soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration rates. These were assumed as follows: (i) excluding (SOC), (ii) low SOC and (iii) high (SOC) for best and worst cases. Overall, Miscanthus cultivation contributed moderate to negative values to GHG emissions, from analysis of excluding SOC to high SOC scenarios. Furthermore, the rate of SOC in the Miscanthus cultivation subsystem has significant effects on total GHG emissions. Where SOC is excluded, the fast pyrolysis subsystem shows the highest positive contribution to GHG emissions, while the credit for exported electricity was the main ‘negative’ GHG emission contributor for both upgrading pathways. Comparison between the bio-hydrocarbons produced from the two upgrading routes and fossil fuels indicates GHG emission savings between 68% and 87%. Sensitivity analysis reveals that bio-hydrocarbon yield and nitrogen gas feed to the fast pyrolysis reactor are the main parameters that influence the total GHG emissions for both pathways.

  18. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali; Bramer, Eddy A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2015-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two

  19. A simple model for super critical fluid extraction of bio oils from biomass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patel, Rajesh N.; Bandyopadhyay, Santanu; Ganesh, Anuradda

    2011-01-01

    A simple mathematical model to characterize the supercritical extraction process has been proposed in this paper. This model is primarily based on two mass transfer mechanisms: solubility and diffusion. The model assumes two districts mode of extraction: initial constant rate extraction that is controlled by solubility and falling rate extraction that is controlled by diffusivity. Effects of extraction parameters such as pressure and temperature on the extraction of oil have also been studied. The proposed model, when compared with existing models, shows better agreement with the experimental results. The proposed model developed has been applied for both high initial oil content material (cashew nut shells) and low initial oil content material (black pepper).

  20. Supply Chain Sustainability Analysis of Fast Pyrolysis and Hydrotreating Bio-Oil to Produce Hydrocarbon Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adom, Felix K. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Cai, Hao [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Dunn, Jennifer B. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Hartley, Damon [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Searcy, Erin [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tan, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Sue [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Snowden-Swan, Lesley [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The Department of Energy’s (DOE) Bioenergy Technology Office (BETO) aims at developing and deploying technologies to transform renewable biomass resources into commercially viable, high-performance biofuels, bioproducts and biopower through public and private partnerships (DOE, 2015). BETO and its national laboratory teams conduct in-depth techno-economic assessments (TEA) of technologies to produce biofuels. These assessments evaluate feedstock production, logistics of transporting the feedstock, and conversion of the feedstock to biofuel. There are two general types of TEAs. A design case is a TEA that outlines a target case for a particular biofuel pathway. It enables identification of data gaps and research and development needs, and provides goals and targets against which technology progress is assessed. On the other hand, a state of technology (SOT) analysis assesses progress within and across relevant technology areas based on actual experimental results relative to technical targets and cost goals from design cases, and includes technical, economic, and environmental criteria as available.

  1. Co-Processing of Jatropha-Derived Bio-Oil with Petroleum Distillates over Mesoporous CoMo and NiMo Sulfide Catalysts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Yuan Chen

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The co-processing of an unconventional type of Jatropha bio-oil with petroleum distillates over mesoporous alumina-supported CoMo and NiMo sulfide catalysts (denoted CoMo/γ-Al2O3 and NiMo/γ-Al2O3 was studied. Either a stainless-steel high-pressure batch-type reactor or an up-flow fixed-bed reaction system was used under severe reaction conditions (330–350 °C and 5–7 MPa, similar to the conditions of the conventional diesel hydrodesulfurization (HDS process. To understand the catalytic performance of the mesoporous sulfide catalysts for co-processing, we prepared two series of oil feedstocks. First, model diesel oils, consisting of hydrocarbons and model molecules with various heteroatoms (sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen were used for the study of the reaction mechanisms. Secondly, low-grade oil feedstocks, which were prepared by dissolving of an unconventional type of Jatropha bio-oil (ca. 10 wt % in the petroleum distillates, were used to study the practical application of the catalysts. Surface characterization by gas sorption, spectroscopy, and electron microscopy indicated that the CoMo/γ-Al2O3 sulfide catalyst, which has a larger number of acidic sites and coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUS on the mesoporous alumina framework, was associated with small Co-incorporated MoS2-like slabs with high stacking numbers and many active sites at the edges and corners. In contrast, the NiMo/γ-Al2O3 sulfide catalyst, which had a lower number of acidic sites and CUS on mesoporous alumina framework, was associated with large Ni-incorporated MoS2-like slabs with smaller stacking numbers, yielding more active sites at the brims and corresponding to high hydrogenation (HYD activity. Concerning the catalytic performance, the mesoporous CoMo/γ-Al2O3 sulfide catalyst with large CUS number was highly active for the conventional diesel HDS process; unfortunately, it was deactivated when oxygen- and nitrogen-containing model molecules or Jatropha bio-oil

  2. Integrated non-food concept of rape seed, reed canary grass and flax processing for fiber, fuel oil and solid fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sipilae, K.

    1998-01-01

    The target of the project was to investigate if rape seed based fuel oil and diesel fuel component, agrofiber and solid fuel from other annual crops could be produced effectively as an alternative to existing non-economical biodiesel-RME and ethanol production. Without heavy tax incentives the biodiesel and grain ethanol can not compete with conventional liquid fuels, the present EU fuel tax legislation will not permit any permanent tax incentives for commercial scale operations. Based on several studies by VTT the rape seed oil will be 30 % cheaper than RME and the utilization as a component 10-30 % blended to heating oil or diesel fuel might the most flexible solution. Neste Oy has carried out the combustion tests with 20 kW boiler and VTT the diesel engine tests with 20 % unprocessed rape seed oil mixtures, the oil was delivered by Mildola Oy. For the co-utilization of annual crops and straw, several laboratory scale combustion and flash pyrolysis tests have been carried out by VTT with straw, reed canary grass etc. In fluid bed combustion 10-30 % addition of rape seed straw and reed canary grass, which have high ash melting point, seems to be less problematic compared to other straw species, which are used for example in Denmark. In a flash pyrolysis process, the alkalies will remain in the char and a low alkali level bio oils can be produced. As a final step in order to reach the zero subsidy target, an extensive laboratory work is carried out to produce agro fibre from flax, reed canary grass and wheat straw. The laboratory results show that a good quality pulp can be produced to be mixed with conventional wood fibres, the quality of flax pulp is even better compared to conventional pulp. During the next months an overall economic calculations will be carried out in Finnish, Danish and Italian conditions as an EU-Apas project in order to see the competitiveness of such integrated concepts to conventional RME and reed canary grass combustion. (orig.)

  3. Continuous production of bio-oil by catalytic liquefaction from wet distiller’s grain with solubles (WDGS) from bio-ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toor, Saqib Sohail; Rosendahl, Lasse; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Glasius, Marianne; Rudolf, Andreas; Iversen, Steen Brummerstedt

    2012-01-01

    Bio-refinery concepts are currently receiving much attention due to the drive toward flexible, highly efficient systems for utilization of biomass for food, feed, fuel and bio-chemicals. One way of achieving this is through appropriate process integration, in this particular case combining enzymatic bio-ethanol production with catalytic liquefaction of the wet distillers grains with soluble, a byproduct from the bio-ethanol process. The catalytic liquefaction process is carried out at sub-critical conditions (280–370 °C and 25 MPa) in the presence of a homogeneous alkaline and a heterogeneous Zirconia catalyst, a process known as the Catliq ® process. In the current work, catalytic conversion of WDGS was performed in a continuous pilot plant with a maximum capacity of 30 dm 3 h −1 of wet biomass. In the process, WDGS was converted to bio-oil, gases and water-soluble organic compounds. The oil obtained was characterized using several analysis methods, among them elementary analysis and GC–MS. The study shows that WDGS can be converted to bio oil with high yields. The results also indicate that through the combination of bio-ethanol production and catalytic liquefaction, it is possible to significantly increase the liquid product yield and scope, opening up for a wider end use applicability. -- Highlights: ► Hydrothermal liquefaction of wet biomass. ► Product phase analysis: oil, acqeous, gas and mineral phase. ► Energy and mass balance evaluation.

  4. Sustainable hydrogen production from bio-oil model compounds (meta-xylene) and mixtures (1-butanol, meta-xylene and furfural).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bizkarra, K; Barrio, V L; Arias, P L; Cambra, J F

    2016-09-01

    In the present work m-xylene and an equimolecular mixture of m-xylene, 1-butanol and furfural, all of them bio-oil model compounds, were studied in steam reforming (SR) conditions. Three different nickel catalysts, which showed to be active in 1-butanol SR (Ni/Al2O3, Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 and Ni/La2O3-Al2O3), were tested and compared with thermodynamic equilibrium values. Tests were carried out at temperatures from 800 to 600°C at atmospheric pressure with a steam to carbon ratio (S/C) of 5.0. Despite the different bio-oils fed, the amount of moles going through the catalytic bed was kept constant in order to obtain comparable results. After their use, catalysts were characterized by different techniques and those values were correlated with the activity results. All catalysts were deactivated during the SR of the mixture, mainly by coking. The highest hydrogen yields were obtained with Ni/Al2O3 and Ni/CeO2-Al2O3 catalysts in the SR of m-xylene and SR of the mixture, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Catalytic pyrolysis of Tetraselmis and Isochrysis microalgae by nickel ceria based catalysts for hydrocarbon production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aysu, Tevfik; Abd Rahman, Nur Adilah; Sanna, Aimaro

    2016-01-01

    The catalytic pyrolysis of Tetraselmis sp. and Isochrysis sp. was carried out over ceria based catalysts in a fixed bed reactor. There was a clear effect of the catalysts on the product yields and quality, with the catalysts able to recover a large fraction of the starting microalgae energy (67–77%) in the bio-oils. Bio-oil yield was found to be higher in presence of Ni–Ce/Al_2O_3 and Ni–Ce/ZrO_2 (26 wt.%). The produced bio-oils had HHVs (higher heating values) of 34–35 MJ/kg and suffered strong deoxygenation, with O level decreased from 40–41% in the starting microalgae to 9–15%. Also, 15–20% N removal was obtained using the ceria based catalysts. The oxygen contents in the bio-oils were remarkably lower than those previously obtained using ZSM-5 (25%) and other species without catalyst (17–24%). "1H NMR and GC–MS analysis showed that the bio-oils were enriched in aliphatics and depleted in N-compounds and water using the ceria based catalysts. - Highlights: • Nickel-ceria based catalysts were evaluated for the in-situ conversion of Tetraselmis and Isochrysis microalgae. • Catalysts recovered 72–77% of the starting microalgae energy in bio-oils. • Bio-oils suffered strong deoxygenation, with O level decreased from 40–41% in the starting microalgae to 9–15%. • Bio-oils were enriched in aliphatics and depleted in N-compounds.

  6. Performance of Dairy Goats Fed Rhodes Grass Hay and Supplemented with Leucaena or Gliricidia-Based Concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ondiek, J.O.; Tuitoek, J.K.; Abdulrazak, S.A.

    1999-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to evaluate the performance of dairy goats supplemented with fodder based diets. Six lactating does of Saanen, Toggenburg and Saanen X Toggenburg breed types weighing 46 + or - 7.1 at late stage of lactation were allocated to three dietary treatments in a double 3*3 Latin square design to examine the value of leucaena and gliricidia forages as nitrogen sources in supplementing Rhodes grass hay. Three supplements: Leucaena-based (L), gliricidia-based (G) or commercial concentrate (C) were used. Voluntary feed intake, milk yield, milk composition and live weight changes were measured. Total dry matter intake (DMI) was significantly higher in group G than C (1385 vs 1331 g day -1 ). Hay DMI was higher in G (835 g d -1 than L or C (789, 782 g day -1 , respectively). Diets had no effect on milk yield, crude protein or butterfat content. Total solid was higher in L than C while that of G was intermediate (15.7, 14.7, 13.7%). Weight changes were least affected although resulted in positive gain (11 g day -1 ) while the others lost (-13,-19 g day -, for L and C respectively). In the digestibility trial 6 female goats weighing 22.3 kg (sd 1.1), were allocated to the three treatments in a completely randomised block design where each goat received a different supplement in each of two periods. Thee were no differences in nutrient digestibility except for DM, which was in C compared to the other treatments (615, 622, 720 g-kg for L, G and C, respectively). It si concluded that fodder based supplement compared well with the commercial concentrate in supporting milk yield and body weight gain of dairy goats. Therefore, locally available tree fodders can be incorporated in supplement diets and utilized without any detrimental effects to substitute the expensive concentrates to improve the performance of dairy goats

  7. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    KAUST Repository

    Imran, Ali

    2015-11-24

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post treatment of the pyrolysis vapors. The in-situ catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in an entrained flow reactor system using a premixed feedstock of Na2CO3 and biomass and post treatment of biomass pyrolysis vapor was conducted in a downstream fixed bed reactor of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3. Results have shown that both Na2CO3 and Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 can be used for the production of a high quality bio-oil from catalytic pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake. The catalytic bio-oil had very low oxygen content, water content as low as 1wt.%, a neutral pH, and a high calorific value upto 41.8MJ/kg. The bio-oil consisted of high value chemical compounds mainly hydrocarbons and undesired compounds in the bio-oil were either completely removed or considerably reduced. Increasing the triglycerides content (vegetable oil) in the wood enhanced the formation of hydrocarbons in the bio-oil. Post treatment of the pyrolysis vapor over a fixed bed of Na2CO3/γ-Al2O3 produced superior quality bio-oil compared to in-situ catalytic pyrolysis with Na2CO3. This high quality bio-oil may be used as a precursor in a fractionating process for the production of alternative fuels. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Energy metabolism and methane production in llamas, sheep and goats fed high- and low-quality grass-based diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette O.; Kiani, Ali; Tejada, Einstein

    2014-01-01

    goats and six Shropshire sheep, were used in a crossover design study. The experiment lasted for two periods of three weeks. Half of the animals were fed either high-quality grass hay (HP) or low-quality grass seed straw (LP) during each period. Animals were placed in metabolic cages during the last 5 d......, and gaseous exchange was measured by open-circuit indirect calorimetry for 22 h. Metabolisable energy for maintenance (MEm) and fasting energy expenditure (FEExp) were estimated by regression approach. Dry matter (DM) intake per kg0.75 was substantially reduced in llamas and sheep, but not in goats, on the LP...

  9. Urea and short-chain fatty acids metabolism in Holstein cows fed a low-nitrogen grass-based diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røjen, B A; Lund, P; Kristensen, N B

    2008-01-01

    Three ruminally cannulated and multicatheterised lactating dairy cows were used to investigate the effect of different supplement strategies to fresh clover grass on urea and short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) metabolism in a zero-grazing experiment with 24-h blood and ruminal samplings....

  10. Monoclonal antibody-based ELISA to quantify the major allergen of Cynodon dactylon (Bermuda grass) pollen, Cyn d 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffort, O; Calabozo, B; González, R; Carpizo, J A; Barber, D; Polo, F

    2004-12-01

    Pollen of Bermuda grass (Cynodon dactylon) is an important cause of pollinosis in many areas of the world. Most patients show sensitivity to the major allergen Cyn d 1, a glycoprotein composed of a number of isoforms with a molecular mass of 31-32 kDa. The aim of this work was to develop a monoclonal antibody (mAb)-based ELISA to quantify Cyn d 1, and to assess the correlation of the allergen content with the biological activity of C. dactylon pollen extracts. After fusion of myeloma cells with spleen cells from a BALB/c mouse immunized with C. dactylon pollen extract, Cyn d 1-specific mAbs secreting hybridomas were selected, and the antibodies characterized. One of them (4.4.1) was used as the capture antibody in an ELISA method for Cyn d 1 quantitation. An anti-Cyn d 1 rabbit serum was used as the second antibody. Cyn d 1 was purified by immunoaffinity chromatography with mAb 4.4.1, characterized, and used as the standard in the assay. The identity, purity and isoallergen composition of affinity-purified Cyn d 1 was confirmed by N-terminal amino acid sequencing, SDS-PAGE, Western blot and 2D electrophoresis. The Cyn d 1 ELISA is highly specific and sensitive, with a detection limit of 0.24 ng/ml and a linear range of 1.1-9.2 ng/ml. An excellent correlation was found when the content of Cyn d 1, measured in 16 different extracts, was compared with the allergenic activity of the same extracts determined by RAST inhibition. The results prove the usefulness of the Cyn d 1 ELISA for the standardization of C. dactylon-allergen products on the basis of major allergen content. 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  11. Bioenergy production from roadside grass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Ehimen, Ehiazesebhor Augustine; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the feasibility of utilising roadside vegetation for biogas production in Denmark. The potential biomass yield, methane yields, and the energy balances of using roadside grass for biogas production was investigated based on spatial analysis. The results show...

  12. Genome sequence analysis of the model grass Brachypodium distachyon: insights into grass genome evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulman, Al

    2009-08-09

    Three subfamilies of grasses, the Erhardtoideae (rice), the Panicoideae (maize, sorghum, sugar cane and millet), and the Pooideae (wheat, barley and cool season forage grasses) provide the basis of human nutrition and are poised to become major sources of renewable energy. Here we describe the complete genome sequence of the wild grass Brachypodium distachyon (Brachypodium), the first member of the Pooideae subfamily to be completely sequenced. Comparison of the Brachypodium, rice and sorghum genomes reveals a precise sequence- based history of genome evolution across a broad diversity of the grass family and identifies nested insertions of whole chromosomes into centromeric regions as a predominant mechanism driving chromosome evolution in the grasses. The relatively compact genome of Brachypodium is maintained by a balance of retroelement replication and loss. The complete genome sequence of Brachypodium, coupled to its exceptional promise as a model system for grass research, will support the development of new energy and food crops

  13. Steam reforming of cyclic model compounds of bio-oil over Ni-based catalysts: Product distribution and carbon formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trane-Restrup, Rasmus; Jensen, Anker Degn

    2015-01-01

    Steam reforming (SR) and oxidative steam reforming (OSR) of furfural, 2-methylfuran, and guaiacol have been investigated in the temperature range 400-800°C at a steam to carbon (S/C)-ratio of 5 and oxygen to carbon (O/C)-ratio of 0.2-1.4 over Ni/CeO2-K/MgAl2O4. Carbon oxides and H2 were the major...... products in the SR of 2-methylfuran and furfural, while the by-products were methane, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetone. Temperatures of 500°C or above were needed to minimize the formation of by-products in the SR of 2-methylfuran and furfural. Phenolics, like benzenediols and phenol, were produced in high...... yields in the SR of guaiacol and temperatures of 780°C were needed to totally convert guaiacol to carbon oxides and H2.Carbon deposition was observed in the SR of all three model compounds and was most severe for guaiacol followed by furfural and 2-methylfuran. The carbon deposition could be reduced...

  14. Effect of tropical browse leaves supplementation on rumen enzymes of sheep and goats fed Dichanthium annulatum grass-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sultan; Kundu, S S

    2010-08-01

    In a switch-over experiment, eight male animals, four each of sheep and goats of local breeds with mean body weight of 26. 8 +/- 2.0 and 30.0 +/- 2.1 kg, were fed Dichanthium annulatum (DA) grass and four browse species viz. Helictris isora, Securengia virosa, Leucaena leucocephala (LL) and Hardwickia binnata (HB) in four feeding trials to assess their supplementary effect on activity of rumen enzymes. The sheep and goats were offered DA grass with individual browse in 75:25 and 50:50 proportions, respectively, for more than 3 months during each feeding trial, and rumen liquor samples were collected twice at 0 and 4 h post feeding after 60 and 90 days of feeding. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (GOT), glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) enzymes were determined in the bacteria and protozoa fractions of rumen liquor, while cellulase enzyme activity was measured in mixed rumen liquor. LL and HB had the highest and lowest contents of CP, while fibre contents were lower in early than later browse leaves. Supplementation of browse leaves significantly (P goats on all DA grass-browse-supplemented diets except DA-HB (42.8 units/mg protein), where activity was significantly (P Goat exhibited higher activities of GOT and GPT than sheep in both bacteria and protozoa fraction of rumen liquor, while cellulase activity was similar between the animal species on the grass-browse leaves diets. Results indicate that browse leaves supplementation affect the enzyme activities of sheep and goats rumen, while the goats rumen liquor had higher activities of GOT, GPT and GDH enzyme than sheep.

  15. Development of SSR Markers Linked to Low Hydrocyanic Acid Content in Sorghum-Sudan Grass Hybrid Based on BSA Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao-Xia, Yu; Zhi-Hua, Liu; Zhuo, Yu; Yue, Shi; Xiao-Yu, Li

    2016-01-01

    Sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid containing high hydrocyanic acid content can cause hydrocyanic acid poisoning to the livestock and limit the popularization of this forage crop. Molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content can speed up the process of identification of genotypes with low hydrocyanic acid content. In the present study, 11 polymorphic SSR primers were screened and used for bulked segregant analysis and single marker analysis. Three SSR markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375 and Bnlg667960 associated with low hydrocyanic acid content were rapidly identified by BSA. In single marker analysis, six markers Xtxp7230, Xtxp7375, Bnlg667960, Xtxp67-11, Xtxp295-7 and Xtxp12-9 were linked to low hydrocyanic acid content, which explained the proportion of phenotypic variation from 7.6 % to 41.2 %. The markers identified by BSA were also verified by single marker analysis. The three SSR marker bands were then cloned and sequenced for sequence homology analysis in NCBI. It is the first report on the development of molecular markers associated with low hydrocyanic acid content in sorghum- Sudan grass hybrid. These markers will be useful for genetic improvement of low hydrocyanic acid sorghum-Sudan grass hybrid by marker-assisted breeding.

  16. Transcriptomic Identification of Drought-Related Genes and SSR Markers in Sudan Grass Based on RNA-Seq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongqun Zhu

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Sudan grass (Sorghum sudanense is an annual warm-season gramineous forage grass that is widely used as pasture, hay, and silage. However, drought stress severely impacts its yield, and there is limited information about the mechanisms of drought tolerance in Sudan grass. In this study, we used next-generation sequencing to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs in the Sudan grass variety Wulate No.1, and we developed simple sequence repeat (SSR markers associated with drought stress. From 852,543,826 raw reads, nearly 816,854,366 clean reads were identified and used for analysis. A total of 80,686 unigenes were obtained via de novo assembly of the clean reads including 45,065 unigenes (55.9% that were identified as coding sequences (CDSs. According to Gene Ontology analysis, 31,444 unigenes were annotated, 11,778 unigenes were identified to 25 categories in the clusters of orthologous groups of proteins (KOG classification, and 11,223 unigenes were assigned to 280 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG pathways. Additionally, there were 2,329 DEGs under a short-term of 25% polyethylene glycol (PEG treatment, while 5,101 DEGs were identified under the long-term of 25% PEG treatment. DEGs were enriched in pathways of carbon fixation in photosynthetic organisms and plant hormone signal transduction which played a leading role in short-term of drought stress. However, DEGs were mainly enriched in pathway of plant hormone signal transduction that played an important role under long-term of drought stress. To increase accuracy, we excluded all the DEGs of all controls, specifically, five DEGs that were associated with high PEG concentrations were found through RNA-Seq. All five genes were up-regulated under drought stress, but the functions of the genes remain unclear. In addition, we identified 17,548 SSRs obtained from 80,686 unigenes. The newly identified drought tolerance DEGs will contribute to transgenic breeding efforts, while

  17. Integrated pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics parameters-based dosing guidelines of enrofloxacin in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella to minimize selection of drug resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lijuan; Wang, Hao; Yang, Xianle; Lu, Liqun

    2013-06-25

    Antibiotic resistance has become a serious global problem and is steadily increasing worldwide in almost every bacterial species treated with antibiotics. In aquaculture, the therapeutic options for the treatment of A. hydrophila infection were only limited to several antibiotics, which contributed for the fast-speed emergence of drug tolerance. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to establish a medication regimen to prevent drug resistant bacteria. To determine a rational therapeutic guideline, integrated pharmacodynamics and pharmacokinetics parameters were based to predict dose and dosage interval of enrofloxacin in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella infected by a field-isolated A. hydrophila strain. The pathogenic A. hydrophila strain (AH10) in grass carp was identified and found to be sensitive to enrofloxacin. The mutant selection window (MSW) of enrofloxacin on isolate AH10 was determined to be 0.5-3 μg/mL based on the mutant prevention concentration (MPC) and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value. By using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) system, the Pharmacokinetic (PK) parameters of enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin in grass carp were monitored after a single oral gavage of 10, 20, 30 μg enrofloxacin per g body weight. Dosing of 30 μg/g resulted in serum maximum concentration (Cmax) of 7.151 μg/mL, and concentration in serum was above MPC till 24 h post the single dose. Once-daily dosing of 30 μg/g was determined to be the rational choice for controlling AH10 infection and preventing mutant selection in grass carp. Data of mean residue time (MRT) and body clearance (CLz) indicated that both enrofloxacin and its metabolite ciprofloxacin present similar eliminating rate and pattern in serum, muscle and liver. A withdraw time of more than 32 d was suggested based on the drug eliminating rate and pharmacokinetic model described by a polyexponential equation. Based on integrated PK/PD parameters (AUC/MIC, Cmax/MIC, and T

  18. The utilization of microbial inoculants based on irradiated compost in dryland remediation to increase the growth of king grass and maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TRD Larasati; N Mulyana; D Sudradjat

    2016-01-01

    This research was conducted to evaluate the capability of functional microbial inoculants to remediate drylands. The microbial inoculants used consist of hydrocarbon-degrading microbial inoculants and plant-growth-promoting microbial inoculants. Compost-based carrier was sterilized by a gamma irradiation dose of 25 kGy to prepare seed inoculants. The irradiated-compost-based hydrocarbon-degrading microbial inoculants and king grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.) were used to remediate oil-sludge-contaminated soil using in-situ composting for 60 days. The results showed that they could reduce THP (total petroleum hydrocarbons) by up to 82.23%. Plant-growth-promoting microbial inoculants were able to increase the dry weight of king grass from 47.39 to 100.66 g/plant, N uptake from 415.53 to 913.67 mg/plant, and P uptake from 76.52 to 178.33 mg/plant. Cow dung and irradiated-compost-based plant-growth-promoting microbial inoculants were able to increase the dry weight of maize (Zea mays L.) from 5.75 to 6.63 ton/ha (12.54%) and dry weight of grain potential from 5.30 to 7.15 ton/ha (35.03%). The results indicate that irradiated-compost-based microbial inoculants are suitable for remediating a dryland and therefore increase potential resources and improve the quality of the environment. (author)

  19. resistance of napier grass clones to napier grass stunt disease

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease. (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  20. Resistance of Napier grass clones to Napier grass Stunt Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach) is the major livestock fodder under intensive and semi-intensive systems in East Africa. However, the productivity of the grass is constrained by Napier grass Stunt Disease (NSD). The purpose of this study was to identify Napier grass clones with resistance to NSD.

  1. Combination of electrospray ionization, atmospheric pressure photoionization and laser desorption ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotronic resonance mass spectrometry for the investigation of complex mixtures - Application to the petroleomic analysis of bio-oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertzog, Jasmine; Carré, Vincent; Le Brech, Yann; Mackay, Colin Logan; Dufour, Anthony; Mašek, Ondřej; Aubriet, Frédéric

    2017-05-29

    The comprehensive description of complex mixtures such as bio-oils is required to understand and improve the different processes involved during biological, environmental or industrial operation. In this context, we have to consider how different ionization sources can improve a non-targeted approach. Thus, the Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS) has been coupled to electrospray ionization (ESI), laser desorption ionization (LDI) and atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) to characterize an oak pyrolysis bio-oil. Close to 90% of the all 4500 compound formulae has been attributed to C x H y O z with similar oxygen class compound distribution. Nevertheless, their relative abundance in respect with their double bound equivalent (DBE) value has evidenced significant differences depending on the ion source used. ESI has allowed compounds with low DBE but more oxygen atoms to be ionized. APPI has demonstrated the efficient ionization of less polar compounds (high DBE values and less oxygen atoms). The LDI behavior of bio-oils has been considered intermediate in terms of DBE and oxygen amounts but it has also been demonstrated that a significant part of the features are specifically detected by this ionization method. Thus, the complementarity of three different ionization sources has been successfully demonstrated for the exhaustive characterization by petroleomic approach of a complex mixture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seeds as energy feedstock and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation: current advanced molecular spectroscopic investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Peiqiang; Xin, Hangshu; Ban, Yajing; Zhang, Xuewei

    2014-05-07

    Recent advances in biofuel and bio-oil processing technology require huge supplies of energy feedstocks for processing. Very recently, new carinata seeds have been developed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bio-oil production. The processing results in a large amount of coproducts, which are carinata meal. To date, there is no systematic study on interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in carinata seed as energy feedstocks for biofuel and bioethanol processing and their processing coproducts (carinata meal). Molecular spectroscopy with synchrotron and globar sources is a rapid and noninvasive analytical technique and is able to investigate molecular structure conformation in relation to biopolymer functions and bioavailability. However, to date, these techniques are seldom used in biofuel and bioethanol processing in other research laboratories. This paper aims to provide research progress and updates with molecular spectroscopy on the energy feedstock (carinata seed) and coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bioethanol processing and show how to use these molecular techniques to study the interactive association between biopolymers and biofunctions in the energy feedstocks and their coproducts (carinata meal) from biofuel and bio-oil processing before and after biodegradation.

  3. Grass Rooting the System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlman, Janice E.

    1976-01-01

    Suggests a taxonomy of the grass roots movement and gives a general descriptive over view of the 60 groups studied with respect to origin, constituency, size, funding, issues, and ideology. (Author/AM)

  4. Characterization and pyrolysis of Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis: potential of bio-oil and chemical production by Py-GC/MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Hanna N; Calixto, Guilherme Q; Chagas, Bruna M E; Melo, Dulce M A; Resende, Fabio M; Melo, Marcus A F; Braga, Renata Martins

    2017-06-01

    Biofuels have been seen as potential sources to meet future energy demand as a renewable and sustainable energy source. Despite the fact that the production technology of first-generation biofuels is consolidated, these biofuels are produced from foods crops such as grains, sugar cane, and vegetable oils competing with food for crop use and agricultural land. In recent years, it was found that microalgae have the potential to provide a viable alternative to fossil fuels as source of biofuels without compromising food supplies or arable land. On this scenario, this paper aims to demonstrate the energetic potential to produce bio-oil and chemicals from microalgae Chlorella vulgaris and Arthrospira platensis. The potential of these biomasses was evaluated in terms of physical-chemical characterization, thermogravimetric analysis, and analytical pyrolysis interfaced with gas chromatograph (Py-GC/MS). The results show that C. vulgaris and A. platensis are biomasses with a high heating value (24.60 and 22.43 MJ/kg) and low ash content, showing a high percentage of volatile matter (72.49 and 79.42%). These characteristics confirm their energetic potential for conversion process through pyrolysis, whereby some important aromatic compounds such as toluene, styrene, and phenol were identified as pyrolysis products, which could turn these microalgae a potential for biofuels and bioproduct production through the pyrolysis.

  5. Comprehensive Characterization of Napier Grass as a Feedstock for Thermochemical Conversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isah Y. Mohammed

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Study on Napier grass leaf (NGL, stem (NGS and leaf and stem (NGT was carried out. Proximate, ultimate and structural analyses were evaluated. Functional groups and crystalline components in the biomass were examined. Pyrolysis study was conducted in a thermogravimetric analyzer under nitrogen atmosphere of 20 mL/min at constant heating rate of 10 K/min. The results reveal that Napier grass biomass has high volatile matter, higher heating value, high carbon content and lower ash, nitrogen and sulfur contents. Structural analysis shows that the biomass has considerable cellulose and lignin contents which are good candidates for good quality bio-oil production. From the pyrolysis study, degradation of extractives, hemicellulose, cellulose and lignin occurred at temperature around 478, 543, 600 and above 600 K, respectively. Kinetics of the process was evaluated using reaction order model. New equations that described the process were developed using the kinetic parameters and data compared with experimental data. The results of the models fit well to the experimental data. The proposed models may be a reliable means for describing thermal decomposition of lignocellulosic biomass under nitrogen atmosphere at constant heating rate.

  6. Evaluation of the effect of accounting method, IPCC v. LCA, on grass-based and confinement dairy systems' greenhouse gas emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, D; Shalloo, L; Patton, J; Buckley, F; Grainger, C; Wallace, M

    2012-09-01

    Life cycle assessment (LCA) and the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) guideline methodology, which are the principal greenhouse gas (GHG) quantification methods, were evaluated in this study using a dairy farm GHG model. The model was applied to estimate GHG emissions from two contrasting dairy systems: a seasonal calving pasture-based dairy farm and a total confinement dairy system. Data used to quantify emissions from these systems originated from a research study carried out over a 1-year period in Ireland. The genetic merit of cows modelled was similar for both systems. Total mixed ration was fed in the Confinement system, whereas grazed grass was mainly fed in the grass-based system. GHG emissions from these systems were quantified per unit of product and area. The results of both methods showed that the dairy system that emitted the lowest GHG emissions per unit area did not necessarily emit the lowest GHG emissions possible for a given level of product. Consequently, a recommendation from this study is that GHG emissions be evaluated per unit of product given the growing affluent human population and increasing demand for dairy products. The IPCC and LCA methods ranked dairy systems' GHG emissions differently. For instance, the IPCC method quantified that the Confinement system reduced GHG emissions per unit of product by 8% compared with the grass-based system, but the LCA approach calculated that the Confinement system increased emissions by 16% when off-farm emissions associated with primary dairy production were included. Thus, GHG emissions should be quantified using approaches that quantify the total GHG emissions associated with the production system, so as to determine whether the dairy system was causing emissions displacement. The IPCC and LCA methods were also used in this study to simulate, through a dairy farm GHG model, what effect management changes within both production systems have on GHG emissions. The findings suggest that

  7. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Duhoux

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non-target-site-based resistance to herbicides (NTSR in weeds. This raised the issue of a possible role of safeners on NTSR evolution in weeds. We investigated a possible effect of the respective field rates of the two broadly used safeners cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl on the sensitivity of the troublesome global weed Lolium sp. (rye-grass to the major herbicides inhibiting acetolactate-synthase (ALS pyroxsulam and iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron, respectively. Three Lolium sp. populations were studied in three series of experiments. The first experiment series compared the frequencies of plants surviving application of each herbicide alone or in association with its safener. Safener co-application caused a net increase ranging from 5.0 to 46.5% in the frequency of plants surviving the field rate of their associated herbicide. In a second series of experiments, safener effect was assessed on individual plant sensitivity using vegetative propagation. A reduction in sensitivity to pyroxsulam and to iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron was observed for 44.4 and 11.1% of the plants in co-treatment with cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl, respectively. A third series of experiments investigated safener effect on the expression level of 19 Lolium sp. NTSR marker genes. Safeners showed an enhancing effect on the expression level of 10 genes. Overall, we demonstrated that cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl both reduced the sensitivity of Lolium sp. to their

  8. Herbicide Safeners Decrease Sensitivity to Herbicides Inhibiting Acetolactate-Synthase and Likely Activate Non-Target-Site-Based Resistance Pathways in the Major Grass Weed Lolium sp. (Rye-Grass).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhoux, Arnaud; Pernin, Fanny; Desserre, Diane; Délye, Christophe

    2017-01-01

    Herbicides are currently pivotal to control weeds and sustain food security. Herbicides must efficiently kill weeds while being as harmless as possible for crops, even crops taxonomically close to weeds. To increase their selectivity toward crops, some herbicides are sprayed in association with safeners that are bioactive compounds exacerbating herbicide-degrading pathways reputedly specifically in crops. However, exacerbated herbicide metabolism is also a key mechanism underlying evolved non-target-site-based resistance to herbicides (NTSR) in weeds. This raised the issue of a possible role of safeners on NTSR evolution in weeds. We investigated a possible effect of the respective field rates of the two broadly used safeners cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl on the sensitivity of the troublesome global weed Lolium sp. (rye-grass) to the major herbicides inhibiting acetolactate-synthase (ALS) pyroxsulam and iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron, respectively. Three Lolium sp. populations were studied in three series of experiments. The first experiment series compared the frequencies of plants surviving application of each herbicide alone or in association with its safener. Safener co-application caused a net increase ranging from 5.0 to 46.5% in the frequency of plants surviving the field rate of their associated herbicide. In a second series of experiments, safener effect was assessed on individual plant sensitivity using vegetative propagation. A reduction in sensitivity to pyroxsulam and to iodosulfuron + mesosulfuron was observed for 44.4 and 11.1% of the plants in co-treatment with cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl, respectively. A third series of experiments investigated safener effect on the expression level of 19 Lolium sp. NTSR marker genes. Safeners showed an enhancing effect on the expression level of 10 genes. Overall, we demonstrated that cloquintocet-mexyl and mefenpyr-diethyl both reduced the sensitivity of Lolium sp. to their associated ALS

  9. The relationship between genetic merit for yield and live weight, condition score, and energy balance of spring calving Holstein Friesian dairy cows on grass based systems of milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buckley, F.; Dillon, P.; Rath, M.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to estimate the effects of genetic merit for milk yield on energy balance, DM intake (DMI), and fertility for cows managed on three different grass-based feeding systems and to estimate possible interactions between genetic merit and feeding system. Individual

  10. Modelling nutrient concentration to determine the environmental factors influencing grass quality

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudeni-Tlhone, N

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses the spatial and the least squares (Analysis of Covariance-ANCOVA) regression methods to evaluate the important environmental factors in estimating quality grass for grazing (based on the nitrogen (N) content in grass...

  11. Remote sensing of St. Augustine Decline (SAD) disease. [spectral reflectance of healthy and diseased grass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odle, W. C.

    1976-01-01

    Laboratory and field spectral reflectance measurements of healthy and infected St. Augustine grass were made using several different instruments. Spectral differences between healthy and infected grass occured in the visible and near infrared regions. Multiband and color infrared photographs were taken of healthy and diseased turf from ground-based platforms and low altitude aircraft. Qualitative (density slicing) and quantitative (transmission densitometry) analyses revealed distinct tonal differences between healthy and St. Augustine disease (SAD) infected grass. Similar experiments are described for determining if healthy and diseased grass can be distinguished from waterstressed grass and grass deficient in either nitrogen or iron.

  12. Prediction of manure nitrogen and organic matter excretion for young Holstein cattle fed on grass silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, H P; Yan, T; McDowell, D A

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of sex (steers vs. heifers) of young Holstein cattle on N and OM excretion in feces and urine and to use these data to develop prediction models for N and OM excretion. Data used were derived from a study with 20 autumn-born Holstein cattle (10 steers and 10 heifers) with N and OM intake and output measured at age of 6, 12, 18, and 22 mo, respectively. The cattle were offered a typical diet used on U.K. commercial farms containing a single grass silage mixed with concentrates. In each period, the cattle were housed as a single group in cubicle accommodation for the first 20 d, individually in metabolism units for the next 3 d, and then in calorimeter chambers for the final 5 d with feed intake, feces, and urine excretion measured during the final 4 d. Within each period, sex had no effect (P > 0.05) on N or OM intake or excretion or N utilization efficiency, with exceptions of steers having a greater intake of N (P = 0.036) and OM (P = 0.018) at age of 18 mo and a lower ratio of fecal N:N intake (P = 0.023) at age of 6 mo. A range of regression relationships (P 0.05) on accumulated N or OM intake or N or OM excretion in feces and urine or retained N and OM during the first or second year of life. On average for the 2 sexes at first and second year of age, the accumulated N excretions in feces were 11.4 and 21.1 kg and in urine 11.6 and 30.6 kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for accumulated OM excretions were respectively 241.5, 565.7, 30.3 and 81.5 kg. A number of equations were developed to predict accumulated N and OM excretion in feces and urine (kg) using BW (kg; P r(2) = 0.95 to 0.97). The accurate prediction of N and OM excretion in feces and urine is essential for reducing N pollution to ground and surface water and calculating methane and nitrous oxide emissions from manure management of dairy and beef production systems. These data can add novel information to the scientific

  13. Conceptual model for reinforced grass on inner dike slopes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; ComCoast

    2005-01-01

    A desk study has been carried out in order to develop a conceptual model for the erosion of inner dike slopes with reinforced grass cover. Based on the results the following can be concluded: The presence of a geosynthetic in a grass slope can be taken into account in the EPM method by increasing

  14. EBIPM | Finding the Tools to Manage Invasive Annual Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    management decisions for a given landscape based on ecological principles. Take a look at our video " Grass Management How much could prevention save you? Guidelines to Implement EBIPM Weed Prevention Areas Grass Facts/ID The EBIPM Model Crooked River Weed Management Area Guide Tools for Educators EBIPM High

  15. 浅谈图书馆基础竞合层策略%On the Strategy of Grass-Root Competition and Cooperation Based on the Library

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕春晖

    2011-01-01

    The competition is based on the library cooperation within competition.This grass-roots cooperation and competition exists in every business process within the work areas.Modern Library's management should change their ideas,based on reality,the development of the strategic objectives for their own development,in order to improve their market competitiveness. This paper analyzes the level of the library-based competition and cooperation of several key strategies.%图书馆竞争的基础是内部的合作竞争。这种基层合作与竞争存在于内部的每一个业务流程、工作环节。现代图书馆的管理应该转变观念,立足实际,制定适合自身发展的战略目标,才能提高自身的市场竞争力。本文分析了图书馆基础竞争合作层面的几个主要策略。

  16. Optimizing Radiometric Processing and Feature Extraction of Drone Based Hyperspectral Frame Format Imagery for Estimation of Yield Quantity and Quality of a Grass Sward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Näsi, R.; Viljanen, N.; Oliveira, R.; Kaivosoja, J.; Niemeläinen, O.; Hakala, T.; Markelin, L.; Nezami, S.; Suomalainen, J.; Honkavaara, E.

    2018-04-01

    Light-weight 2D format hyperspectral imagers operable from unmanned aerial vehicles (UAV) have become common in various remote sensing tasks in recent years. Using these technologies, the area of interest is covered by multiple overlapping hypercubes, in other words multiview hyperspectral photogrammetric imagery, and each object point appears in many, even tens of individual hypercubes. The common practice is to calculate hyperspectral orthomosaics utilizing only the most nadir areas of the images. However, the redundancy of the data gives potential for much more versatile and thorough feature extraction. We investigated various options of extracting spectral features in the grass sward quantity evaluation task. In addition to the various sets of spectral features, we used photogrammetry-based ultra-high density point clouds to extract features describing the canopy 3D structure. Machine learning technique based on the Random Forest algorithm was used to estimate the fresh biomass. Results showed high accuracies for all investigated features sets. The estimation results using multiview data provided approximately 10 % better results than the most nadir orthophotos. The utilization of the photogrammetric 3D features improved estimation accuracy by approximately 40 % compared to approaches where only spectral features were applied. The best estimation RMSE of 239 kg/ha (6.0 %) was obtained with multiview anisotropy corrected data set and the 3D features.

  17. MACRO NUTRIENTS UPTAKE OF FORAGE GRASSES AT DIFFERENT SALINITY STRESSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Kusmiyati

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The high concentration of sodium chloride (NaCl in saline soils has negative effects on the growth ofmost plants. The experiment was designed to evaluate macro nutrient uptake (Nitrogen, Phosphorus andPotassium of forage grasses at different NaCl concentrations in growth media. The experiment wasconducted in a greenhouse at Forage Crops Laboratory of Animal Agriculture Faculty, Diponegoro University.Split plot design was used to arrange the experiment. The main plot was forage grasses (Elephant grass(Pennisetum purpureum and King grass (Pennisetum hybrida. The sub plot was NaCl concentrationin growth media (0, 150, and 300 mM. The nitrogen (N, phosphorus (P and potassium (K uptake in shootand root of plant were measured. The result indicated increasing NaCl concentration in growth mediasignificantly decreased the N, P and K uptake in root and shoot of the elephant grass and king grass. Thepercentage reduction percentage of N, P and K uptake at 150 mM and 300 mM were high in elephant grassand king grass. It can be concluded that based on nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake, elephantgrass and king grass are not tolerant to strong and very strong saline soil.

  18. Reed Canary Grass Project. Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and a system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and bio fuel powder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Rolf (ed.) (and others)

    2004-07-01

    The Reed canary grass project has been performed by 13 partners 8 countries; Sweden, Finland, Germany, Denmark, England, Wales, Scotland and Ireland. The aim of the project has been to evaluate if new breeding lines of reed canary grass suits in different European agricultural areas and to evaluate if the new delayed harvesting method originally developed in Sweden can be used all over the northern parts of Europe. The other part of the project deals with developing a system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. The scientific objectives are to develop the C3 plant reed canary grass to an economically and environmentally competitive industrial crop for combined production of high quality chemical pulp and bioenergy fuel powder. Main results obtained in the project can be summarised as follows: The screening trials with new breeding lines of reed canary grass have shown a large potential for getting higher yields and better quality in new industrial varieties of reed canary grass. The best breeding lines tested gave at average a yield 20 % higher than now existing forage varieties which all economic calculations are based on. The results show that the delayed harvesting method gives important quality improvements and can be used except in areas with maritime climate. The research on chemical pulping and paper making have been successfully developed in the project and the obtained results in laboratory and pilot scale made it also possible to increase the ambitions in the project and include research on mill scale in cooperation with industry. This gave also possibilities to develop technologies needed for the whole chain from production fields to long distance handling and transport technology of intermediate processed raw materials. Different cooking processes have been developed for reed canary grass and a new cooking method the soda-oxygen process has given extremely high pulp yields if combined with intermediate processed raw material

  19. Meadow-grass gall midge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Monrad

    The area with meadow-grass (Poa pratensis, L.) grown for seed production in Den-mark is a significant proportion of the entire seed production. The meadow-grass gall midge (Mayetiola schoberi, Barnes 1958) is of considerable economic importance since powerful attacks can reduce the yield...

  20. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture and magnesium intake on some blood and urine minerals and acid-base balance of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Friesian cows were randomly assigned to one of four prepartum diets in a 2 x 2 factorially designed experiment to determine the effect of anionic salts contained in a concentrate mixture and magnesium (Mg intake on some blood and urine minerals in cows fed a grass silage based diet. Four diets provided either 16 g or 33 g total dietary Mg/day, and had either a low or high cation-anion difference. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB of the diets, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-], was +31 mEq/kg dry matter (DM in the low DCAB group and +340 mEq/kg DM in the high DCAB group. DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (1.0 kg DM and concentrate mixture (1.5 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. Cows fed the low DCAB diet had a lower urinary pH (P

  1. Molecular diversity and population structure of the forage grass Hemarthria compressa (Poaceae) in south China based on SRAP markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, L-K; Zhang, X-Q; Xie, W-G; Zhang, J; Cheng, L; Yan, H D

    2012-08-16

    Hemarthria compressa is one of the most important and widely utilized forage crops in south China, owing to its high forage yield and capability of adaptation to hot and humid conditions. We examined the population structure and genetic variation within and among 12 populations of H. compressa in south China using sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP) markers. High genetic diversity was found in these samples [percentage polymorphic bands (PPB) = 82.21%, Shannon's diversity index (I) = 0.352]. However, there was relatively low level of genetic diversity at the population level (PPB = 29.17%, I = 0.155). A high degree of genetic differentiation among populations was detected based on other measures and molecular markers (Nei's genetic diversity analysis: G(ST) = 54.19%; AMOVA analysis: F(ST) = 53.35%). The SRAP markers were found to be more efficient than ISSR markers for evaluating population diversity. Based on these findings, we propose changes in sampling strategies for appraising and utilizing the genetic resources of this species.

  2. Development of SSR Markers Based on Transcriptome Sequencing and Association Analysis with Drought Tolerance in Perennial Grass Miscanthus from China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gang Nie

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought has become a critical environmental stress affecting on plant in temperate area. As one of the promising bio-energy crops to sustainable biomass production, the genus Miscanthus has been widely studied around the world. However, the most widely used hybrid cultivar among this genus, Miscanthus × giganteus is proved poor drought tolerance compared to some parental species. Here we mainly focused on Miscanthus sinensis, which is one of the progenitors of M. × giganteus providing a comparable yield and well abiotic stress tolerance in some places. The main objectives were to characterize the physiological and photosynthetic respond to drought stress and to develop simple sequence repeats (SSRs markers associated with drought tolerance by transcriptome sequencing within an originally collection of 44 Miscanthus genotypes from southwest China. Significant phenotypic differences were observed among genotypes, and the average of leaf relative water content (RWC were severely affected by drought stress decreasing from 88.27 to 43.21%, which could well contribute to separating the drought resistant and drought sensitive genotype of Miscanthus. Furthermore, a total of 16,566 gene-associated SSRs markers were identified based on Illumina RNA sequencing under drought conditions, and 93 of them were randomly selected to validate. In total, 70 (75.3% SSRs were successfully amplified and the generated loci from 30 polymorphic SSRs were used to estimate the genetic differentiation and population structure. Finally, two optimum subgroups of the population were determined by structure analysis and based on association analysis, seven significant associations were identified including two markers with leaf RWC and five markers with photosynthetic traits. With the rich sequencing resources annotation, such associations would serve an efficient tool for Miscanthus drought response mechanism study and facilitate genetic improvement of drought resistant for

  3. Extending juvenility in grasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaeppler, Shawn; de Leon Gatti, Natalia; Foerster, Jillian

    2017-04-11

    The present invention relates to compositions and methods for modulating the juvenile to adult developmental growth transition in plants, such as grasses (e.g. maize). In particular, the invention provides methods for enhancing agronomic properties in plants by modulating expression of GRMZM2G362718, GRMZM2G096016, or homologs thereof. Modulation of expression of one or more additional genes which affect juvenile to adult developmental growth transition such as Glossy15 or Cg1, in conjunction with such modulation of expression is also contemplated. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of GRMZM2G362718 and/or GRMZM2G096016 are also contemplated, as are transgenic plants and products produced there from, that demonstrate altered, such as extended juvenile growth, and display associated phenotypes such as enhanced yield, improved digestibility, and increased disease resistance. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved forage or feed crops or in biofuel production.

  4. The design and development of GRASS file reservation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Qiulan; Zhu Suijiang; Cheng Yaodong; Chen Gang

    2010-01-01

    GFRS (GRASS File Reservation System) is designed to improve the file access performance of GRASS (Grid-enabled Advanced Storage System) which is a Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system developed at Computing Center, Institute of High Energy Physics. GRASS can provide massive storage management and data migration, but the data migration policy is simply based factors such as pool water level, the intervals for migration and so on, so it is short of precise control over files. As for that, we design GFRS to implement user-based file reservation which is to reserve and keep the required files on disks for High Energy physicists. CFRS can improve file access speed for users by avoiding migrating frequently accessed files to tapes. In this paper we first give a brief introduction of GRASS system and then detailed architecture and implementation of GFRS. Experiments results from GFRS have shown good performance and a simple analysis is made based on it. (authors)

  5. Operando Spectroscopy of the Gas-Phase Aldol Condensation of Propanal over Solid Base Catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hernández-giménez, Ana M.; Ruiz-martínez, Javier; Puértolas, Begoña; Pérez-ramírez, Javier; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.

    2017-01-01

    The gas-phase aldol condensation of propanal, taken as model for the aldehyde components in bio-oils, has been studied with a combined operando set-up allowing to perform FT-IR & UV–Vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) with on-line mass spectrometry (MS). The selected solid base catalysts, a

  6. Catalytic flash pyrolysis of oil-impregnated-wood and jatropha cake using sodium based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali Imran, A.; Bramer, Eduard A.; Seshan, Kulathuiyer; Brem, Gerrit

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of wood with impregnated vegetable oil was investigated and compared with catalytic pyrolysis of jatropha cake making use of sodium based catalysts to produce a high quality bio-oil. The catalytic pyrolysis was carried out in two modes: in-situ catalytic pyrolysis and post

  7. DESIGN OF GRASS BRIQUETTE MACHINE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    E-mail addresses: 1 mike.ajieh@gmail.com, 2 dracigboanugo@yahoo.com, ... machine design was considered for processing biomass of grass origin. The machine operations include pulverization, compaction and extrusion of the briquettes.

  8. Breeding for Grass Seed Yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boelt, Birte; Studer, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    Seed yield is a trait of major interest for many fodder and amenity grass species and has received increasing attention since seed multiplication is economically relevant for novel grass cultivars to compete in the commercial market. Although seed yield is a complex trait and affected...... by agricultural practices as well as environmental factors, traits related to seed production reveal considerable genetic variation, prerequisite for improvement by direct or indirect selection. This chapter first reports on the biological and physiological basics of the grass reproduction system, then highlights...... important aspects and components affecting the seed yield potential and the agronomic and environmental aspects affecting the utilization and realization of the seed yield potential. Finally, it discusses the potential of plant breeding to sustainably improve total seed yield in fodder and amenity grasses....

  9. Grass and weed killer poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/002838.htm Grass and weed killer poisoning To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Many weed killers contain dangerous chemicals that are harmful if ...

  10. Exploiting differential vegetation phenology for satellite-based mapping of semiarid grass vegetation in the southwestern United States and northern Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dye, Dennis G.; Middleton, Barry R.; Vogel, John M.; Wu, Zhuoting; Velasco, Miguel G.

    2016-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a methodology for subpixel discrimination and large-area mapping of the perennial warm-season (C4) grass component of vegetation cover in mixed-composition landscapes of the southwestern United States and northern Mexico. We describe the methodology within a general, conceptual framework that we identify as the differential vegetation phenology (DVP) paradigm. We introduce a DVP index, the Normalized Difference Phenometric Index (NDPI) that provides vegetation type-specific information at the subpixel scale by exploiting differential patterns of vegetation phenology detectable in time-series spectral vegetation index (VI) data from multispectral land imagers. We used modified soil-adjusted vegetation index (MSAVI2) data from Landsat to develop the NDPI, and MSAVI2 data from MODIS to compare its performance relative to one alternate DVP metric (difference of spring average MSAVI2 and summer maximum MSAVI2), and two simple, conventional VI metrics (summer average MSAVI2, summer maximum MSAVI2). The NDPI in a scaled form (NDPIs) performed best in predicting variation in perennial C4 grass cover as estimated from landscape photographs at 92 sites (R2 = 0.76, p landscapes of the Southwest, and potentially for monitoring of its response to drought, climate change, grazing and other factors, including land management. With appropriate adjustments, the method could potentially be used for subpixel discrimination and mapping of grass or other vegetation types in other regions where the vegetation components of the landscape exhibit contrasting seasonal patterns of phenology.

  11. High green fodder yielding new grass varieties

    OpenAIRE

    C. Babu, K. Iyanar and A. Kalamani

    2014-01-01

    Two high biomass yielding forage grass varieties one each in Cumbu Napier hybrid and Guinea grass have been evolved at the Department of Forage Crops, Centre for Plant Breeding and Genetics, Tamil Nadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore and identified for release at national (All India) level as Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 and Guinea grass CO (GG) 3 during 2012 and 2013 respectively. Cumbu Napier hybrid grass CO (BN) 5 secured first rank at all national level with reference to green ...

  12. Gasoline, diesel, and ethanol biofuels from grasses and plants

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, Ram B; Demirbas, Ayhan

    2010-01-01

    ...-generation biofuels obtained from nonfood biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switchgrass, corn stover, waste wood, and municipal solid wastes. Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, biocrude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the...

  13. Nowcasting daily minimum air and grass temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific and accurate prediction of daily minimum air and grass temperatures, made available online several hours before their occurrence, would be of significant benefit to several economic sectors and for planning human activities. Site-specific and reasonably accurate nowcasts of daily minimum temperature several hours before its occurrence, using measured sub-hourly temperatures hours earlier in the morning as model inputs, was investigated. Various temperature models were tested for their ability to accurately nowcast daily minimum temperatures 2 or 4 h before sunrise. Temperature datasets used for the model nowcasts included sub-hourly grass and grass-surface (infrared) temperatures from one location in South Africa and air temperature from four subtropical sites varying in altitude (USA and South Africa) and from one site in central sub-Saharan Africa. Nowcast models used employed either exponential or square root functions to describe the rate of nighttime temperature decrease but inverted so as to determine the minimum temperature. The models were also applied in near real-time using an open web-based system to display the nowcasts. Extrapolation algorithms for the site-specific nowcasts were also implemented in a datalogger in an innovative and mathematically consistent manner. Comparison of model 1 (exponential) nowcasts vs measured daily minima air temperatures yielded root mean square errors (RMSEs) <1 °C for the 2-h ahead nowcasts. Model 2 (also exponential), for which a constant model coefficient ( b = 2.2) was used, was usually slightly less accurate but still with RMSEs <1 °C. Use of model 3 (square root) yielded increased RMSEs for the 2-h ahead comparisons between nowcasted and measured daily minima air temperature, increasing to 1.4 °C for some sites. For all sites for all models, the comparisons for the 4-h ahead air temperature nowcasts generally yielded increased RMSEs, <2.1 °C. Comparisons for all model nowcasts of the daily grass

  14. Effect of a commercial anion dietary supplement on acid-base balance, urine volume, and urinary ion excretion in male goats fed oat or grass hay diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stratton-Phelps, Meri; House, John K

    2004-10-01

    To determine whether feeding a commercial anionic dietary supplement as a urinary acidifier to male goats may be useful for management of urolithiasis. 8 adult sexually intact male Toggenburg, Saanen, and Nubian goats. Goats were randomly assigned by age-, breed-, and weight-matched pairs to an oat or grass hay diet that was fed for 12 days. On days 13 to 14 (early sample collection time before supplementation), measurements were made of blood and urine sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chloride, phosphorus, and sulfur concentrations; blood and urine pH; urine production; and water consumption. During the next 28 days, the anionic dietary supplement was added to the oat and grass hay diets to achieve a dietary cation-anion difference of 0 mEq/100g of dry matter. Blood and urine samples were analyzed during dietary supplementation on days 12 to 13 (middle sample collection time) and 27 to 28 (late sample collection time). Blood bicarbonate, pH, and urine pH of goats fed grass hay and goats fed oat hay were significantly decreased during the middle and late sample collection times, compared with the early sample collection time. Water consumption and urine production in all goats increased significantly during the late sample collection time, compared with the early sample collection time. The anionic dietary supplement used in our study increases urine volume, alters urine ion concentrations, and is an efficacious urinary acidifier in goats. Goats treated with prolonged anionic dietary supplementation should be monitored for secondary osteoporosis from chronic urinary calcium loss.

  15. Enteric methane production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating Holstein-Friesian cows fed grass silage- or corn silage-based diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Gastelen, S; Antunes-Fernandes, E C; Hettinga, K A; Klop, G; Alferink, S J J; Hendriks, W H; Dijkstra, J

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of replacing grass silage (GS) with corn silage (CS) in dairy cow diets on enteric methane (CH4) production, rumen volatile fatty acid concentrations, and milk fatty acid (FA) composition. A completely randomized block design experiment was conducted with 32 multiparous lactating Holstein-Friesian cows. Four dietary treatments were used, all having a roughage-to-concentrate ratio of 80:20 based on dry matter (DM). The roughage consisted of either 100% GS, 67% GS and 33% CS, 33% GS and 67% CS, or 100% CS (all DM basis). Feed intake was restricted (95% of ad libitum DM intake) to avoid confounding effects of DM intake on CH4 production. Nutrient intake, apparent digestibility, milk production and composition, nitrogen (N) and energy balance, and CH4 production were measured during a 5-d period in climate respiration chambers after adaptation to the diet for 12 d. Increasing CS proportion linearly decreased neutral detergent fiber and crude protein intake and linearly increased starch intake. Milk production and milk fat content (on average 23.4 kg/d and 4.68%, respectively) were not affected by increasing CS inclusion, whereas milk protein content increased quadratically. Rumen variables were unaffected by increasing CS inclusion, except the molar proportion of butyrate, which increased linearly. Methane production (expressed as grams per day, grams per kilogram of fat- and protein-corrected milk, and as a percent of gross energy intake) decreased quadratically with increasing CS inclusion, and decreased linearly when expressed as grams of CH4 per kilogram of DM intake. In comparison with 100% GS, CH4 production was 11 and 8% reduced for the 100% CS diet when expressed per unit of DM intake and per unit fat- and protein-corrected milk, respectively. Nitrogen efficiency increased linearly with increased inclusion of CS. The concentration of trans C18:1 FA, C18:1 cis-12, and total CLA increased quadratically, and

  16. Digestibility of Buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris)-based diets supplemented with four levels of Gliricidia sepium hay in hair sheep lambs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avilés-Nieto, Jonathan N.; Valle-Cerdán, José L.; Castrejón-Pineda, Francisco

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effect of supplementing increasing levels of Gliricidia sepium hay (GS) with different levels of inclusion of Buffel grass (BG) hay on digestibility by hair sheep lambs (2.5 to 3.5 months of age). Eight male lambs were used in a replicated 4 × 4...... were not affected by treatments. The intake of crude protein (CP), organic matter (OM), and gross energy was higher (P lambs fed with T4 diet than control. NDF and ADF digestibilities were higher (P

  17. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  18. Sources of N2O in organic grass-clover pastures

    OpenAIRE

    Ambus, P.

    2002-01-01

    Organic farming practises, and in particular dairy production systems based on grass-clover pastures are becoming increasingly abundant within Danish agriculture. Grass-clover pastures may provide a mitigation option to reduce grassland nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions (Velthof et al. 1998). The objectives of this work was to examine the relationship between N2O emissions and transformations of inorganic N in organically managed grass-clover pastures of different ages. Results from the projec...

  19. Comparative growth analysis of cool- and warm-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belesky, D.P.; Fedders, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Using both cool-season (C3) and warm-season (C4) species is a viable means of optimizing herbage productivity over varying climatic conditions in temperate environments. Despite well-documented differences in water, N, and radiation use, no consistent evidence demonstrates productivity differences among C3 and C4 perennial grass species under identical management. A field study was conducted to determine relative growth rates (RGR), nitrogen productivity (NP), and mean radiation productivity (RP) (dry matter production as a function of incident radiation) of cool- and warm-season grasses managed identically. Results were used to identify management practices thd could lead to optimal productivity in combinations or mixtures of cool- and warm-season grasses. Dry matter yields of warm-season grasses equaled or surpassed those of cool-season grasses, despite a 40% shorter growth interval. Certain cool- and warm-season grasses appear to be suitable for use in mixtures, based on distribution of herbage production; however, actual compatibility may be altered by defoliation management. Relative growth rates varied among years and were about 40% lower for canopies clipped to a 10-cm residue height each time 20-cm of growth accumulated compared with other treatments. The RGR of warm-season grasses was twice that of cool-season grasses Nitrogen productivity (g DM g-1 N d -1) and mean radiation productivity (g DM MJ-1) for warm-season grasses was also more than twice that of cool-season grasses. Radiation productivity of cool-season grasses was dependent on N, while this was not always the case for warm-season grasses. The superior production capability of certain warm-season compared with cool-season grasses in a cool-temperate environment can be sustained under a range of defoliation treatments and demonstrates suitability for use in frequently defoliated situations

  20. Prepartum concentrate supplementation of a diet based on medium-quality grass silage: Effects on performance, health, fertility, metabolic function, and immune function of low body condition score cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Welsh, M D; Barley, J; Meade, K G; Ferris, C P

    2016-09-01

    When cows with a "higher" body condition score (BCS) are oversupplied with energy during the dry period, postpartum energy balance is normally reduced, which can have a detrimental effect on immune competence and increase the infectious disease risk. However, within grassland-based systems higher yielding cows frequently have a low BCS at drying off. The effects on performance, health, and metabolic and immune functions of providing additional energy to cows with low BCS during the dry period is less certain. To address this uncertainty, 53 multiparous Holstein-Friesian cows (mean BCS of 2.5; 1-5 scale) were allocated to 1 of 2 treatments at dry-off: silage only or silage plus concentrates. Cows on the silage-only treatment were offered ad libitum access to medium-quality grass silage. Cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment were offered ad libitum access to a mixed ration comprising the same grass silage plus concentrates [in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], which provided a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day. Postpartum, cows were offered a common mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (in a 40:60 DM ratio) for a 70-d period. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased DM intake, tended to increase energy balance, and increased body weight (BW) and BCS gain prepartum. Offering concentrates during the dry period increased BW and BCS loss postpartum and tended to increase milk fat percentage and serum nonesterified fatty acid concentration, but it did not affect postpartum DM intake, energy balance, and milk yield. Although the percentage of phagocytosis-positive neutrophils did not differ, neutrophils from cows on the silage-plus-concentrate treatment had higher phagocytic fluorescence intensity at 1 and 2 wk postpartum and higher phagocytic index at 1 wk postpartum. Serum haptoglobin concentrations and IFN-γ production by pokeweed mitogen stimulated whole blood culture were unaffected by treatment, although haptoglobin

  1. GRASS GIS: The first Open Source Temporal GIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebbert, Sören; Leppelt, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS is a full featured, general purpose Open Source geographic information system (GIS) with raster, 3D raster and vector processing support[1]. Recently, time was introduced as a new dimension that transformed GRASS GIS into the first Open Source temporal GIS with comprehensive spatio-temporal analysis, processing and visualization capabilities[2]. New spatio-temporal data types were introduced in GRASS GIS version 7, to manage raster, 3D raster and vector time series. These new data types are called space time datasets. They are designed to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped raster, 3D raster and vector map layers of any size. Time stamps can be defined as time intervals or time instances in Gregorian calendar time or relative time. Space time datasets are simplifying the processing and analysis of large time series in GRASS GIS, since these new data types are used as input and output parameter in temporal modules. The handling of space time datasets is therefore equal to the handling of raster, 3D raster and vector map layers in GRASS GIS. A new dedicated Python library, the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, was designed to implement the spatio-temporal data types and their management. The framework provides the functionality to efficiently handle hundreds of thousands of time stamped map layers and their spatio-temporal topological relations. The framework supports reasoning based on the temporal granularity of space time datasets as well as their temporal topology. It was designed in conjunction with the PyGRASS [3] library to support parallel processing of large datasets, that has a long tradition in GRASS GIS [4,5]. We will present a subset of more than 40 temporal modules that were implemented based on the GRASS GIS Temporal Framework, PyGRASS and the GRASS GIS Python scripting library. These modules provide a comprehensive temporal GIS tool set. The functionality range from space time dataset and time stamped map layer management

  2. Upgrated fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oravainen, H. [VTT Energy, Jyvaeskylae (Finland)

    1997-12-01

    Results described in this presentation are from a large EU-project - Development of a new crop production system based on delayed harvesting and system for its combined processing to chemical pulp and biofuel powder. This is a project to develop the use of Reed Canary Grass (Phalaris Arundinaceae) both for pulp industry and energy production. The main contractor of the project is Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), task coordinators are United Milling Systems A/S from Denmark, and Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy from Finland In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project

  3. Prospects for Hybrid Breeding in Bioenergy Grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aguirre, Andrea Arias; Studer, Bruno; Frei, Ursula

    2012-01-01

    , we address crucial topics to implement hybrid breeding, such as the availability and development of heterotic groups, as well as biological mechanisms for hybridization control such as self-incompatibility (SI) and male sterility (MS). Finally, we present potential hybrid breeding schemes based on SI...... of different hybrid breeding schemes to optimally exploit heterosis for biomass yield in perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and switchgrass (Panicum virgatum), two perennial model grass species for bioenergy production. Starting with a careful evaluation of current population and synthetic breeding methods...

  4. Determination of 90Sr in grass and soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajo, S.; Keil, R.

    1994-10-01

    A radiochemical method for the determination of 90 Sr in non-contaminated grass and soil is presented. The method is based on the leaching of 90 Sr from the mineralized samples followed by liquid-liquid extraction of 90 Y, its short lived daughter, by tributylphosphate and precipitation of Y-oxalate, which is counted in a low-level proportional counter. Based on dried samples of 30 g of soil and 100 g of grass the limit of detection is about 0.1 Bq/kg for both materials. (author) figs., tabs., 43 refs

  5. Acute toxic effects of endosulfan sulfate on three life stages of grass shrimp, Palaemonetes pugio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, Peter B; Chung, Katy W; Venturella, John J; Shaddrick, Brian; Fulton, Michael H

    2010-01-01

    In this study, the toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, the primary degradation product of the insecticide endosulfan, was determined in three life stages of the grass shrimp (Palaemonetes pugio). After 96 h exposure to endosulfan sulfate, the grass shrimp adult LC50 was 0.86 microg/L (95% CI 0.56-1.31), the grass shrimp larvae LC50 was 1.64 microg/L (95% CI 1.09-2.47) and the grass shrimp embryo LC50 was 45.85 microg/L (95% CI 23.72-88.61 microg/L). This was compared to the previously published grass shrimp 96-h LC50s for endosulfan. The toxicity of the two compounds was similar for the grass shrimp life stages with adults more sensitive than larvae and embryos. The presence of sediment in 24h endosulfan sulfate-exposures raised LC50s for both adult and larval grass shrimp but not significantly. The USEPA expected environmental concentrations (EEC) for total endosulfan and endosulfan sulfate and the calculations of risk quotients (RQ) based on the more sensitive adult grass shrimp 96-h LC50 clearly show that environmental concentrations equal to acute EECs would prove detrimental to grass shrimp or other similarly sensitive aquatic organisms. These results indicate that given the persistence and toxicity of endosulfan sulfate, future risk assessments should consider the toxicity potential of the parent compound as well as this degradation product.

  6. Dose-response relationship of a new Timothy grass pollen allergoid in comparison with a 6-grass pollen allergoid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfaar, O; Hohlfeld, J M; Al-Kadah, B; Hauswald, B; Homey, B; Hunzelmann, N; Schliemann, S; Velling, P; Worm, M; Klimek, L

    2017-11-01

    Subcutaneous allergen immunotherapy with grass pollen allergoids has been proven to be effective and safe in the treatment of patients with allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. Based on the extensive cross-reactivity among Pooideae species, it has been suggested that grass pollen extracts could be prepared from a single species, rather than from a multiple species mixture. To find the optimal dose of a Phleum pratense (P. pratense) allergoid preparation and compare its efficacy and safety to a 6-grass pollen allergoid preparation. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled study (EudraCT: 2011-000674-58), three doses of P. pratense allergoid (1800 therapeutic units (TU), standard-dose 6000 TU and 18 000 TU) were compared with placebo and the marketed 6-grass pollen allergoid (6000 TU). In a pre-seasonal dosing regimen, 102 patients were randomized to five treatment groups and received nine subcutaneous injections. The primary efficacy endpoint was the change in weal size (late-phase reaction [LPR]) in response to the intracutaneous testing (ICT) before and after treatment, comparing the active allergoids to placebo. Secondary outcomes were the change in Total Nasal Symptom Score (TNSS) assessed in the allergen exposure chamber (AEC), the changes in P. pratense-serum-specific IgG 4 and the incidence of adverse events (AEs). All three doses of the P. pratense and the 6-grass pollen allergoid preparations were significantly superior to placebo for the primary outcome, whereas there were no significant differences in the change in TNSS. Compared to the standard-dose, the high-dose of P. pratense did not produce any additional significant benefit, but showed a slight increase in AEs. Yet this increase in AEs was lower than for the 6-grass pollen preparation. The standard-dose of the new P. pratense allergoid was comparable to the marketed 6-grass pollen preparation at equal dose for the parameters measured. © 2017 The Authors. Clinical & Experimental Allergy Published by John

  7. Reversing land degradation through grasses: a systematic meta-analysis in the Indian tropics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandal, Debashis; Srivastava, Pankaj; Giri, Nishita; Kaushal, Rajesh; Cerda, Artemi; Meherul Alam, Nurnabi

    2017-02-01

    Although intensive agriculture is necessary to sustain the world's growing population, accelerated soil erosion contributes to a decrease in the environmental health of ecosystems at local, regional and global scales. Reversing the process of land degradation using vegetative measures is of utmost importance in such ecosystems. The present study critically analyzes the effect of grasses in reversing the process of land degradation using a systematic review. The collected information was segregated under three different land use and land management situations. Meta-analysis was applied to test the hypothesis that the use of grasses reduces runoff and soil erosion. The effect of grasses was deduced for grass strip and in combination with physical structures. Similarly, the effects of grasses were analyzed in degraded pasture lands. The overall result of the meta-analysis showed that infiltration capacity increased approximately 2-fold after planting grasses across the slopes in agricultural fields. Grazing land management through a cut-and-carry system increased conservation efficiencies by 42 and 63 % with respect to reduction in runoff and erosion, respectively. Considering the comprehensive performance index (CPI), it has been observed that hybrid Napier (Pennisetum purpureum) and sambuta (Saccharum munja) grass seem to posses the most desirable attributes as an effective grass barrier for the western Himalayas and Eastern Ghats, while natural grass (Dichanthium annulatum) and broom grass (Thysanolaena maxima) are found to be most promising grass species for the Konkan region of the Western Ghats and the northeastern Himalayan region, respectively. In addition to these benefits, it was also observed that soil carbon loss can be reduced by 83 % with the use of grasses. Overall, efficacy for erosion control of various grasses was more than 60 %; hence, their selection should be based on the production potential of these grasses under given edaphic and agro

  8. Early inflorescence development in the grasses (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth A. Kellogg

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The shoot apical meristem of grasses produces the primary branches of the inflorescence, controlling inflorescence architecture and hence seed production. Whereas leaves are produced in a distichous pattern, with the primordia separated from each other by an angle of 180o, inflorescence branches are produced in a spiral in most species. The morphology and developmental genetics of the shift in phyllotaxis have been studied extensively in maize and rice. However, in wheat, Brachypodium, and oats, all in the grass subfamily Pooideae, the change in phyllotaxis does not occur; primary inflorescence branches are produced distichously. It is unknown whether the distichous inflorescence originated at the base of Pooideae, or whether it appeared several times independently. In this study, we show that Brachyelytrum, the genus sister to all other Pooideae has spiral phyllotaxis in the inflorescence, but that in the remaining 3000+ species of Pooideae, the phyllotaxis is two-ranked. These two-ranked inflorescences are not perfectly symmetrical, and have a clear front and back; this developmental axis has never been described in the literature and it is unclear what establishes its polarity. Strictly distichous inflorescences appear somewhat later in the evolution of the subfamily. Two-ranked inflorescences also appear in a few grass outgroups and sporadically elsewhere in the family, but unlike in Pooideae do not generally correlate with a major radiation of species. After production of branches, the inflorescence meristem may be converted to a spikelet meristem or may simply abort; this developmental decision appears to be independent of the branching pattern.

  9. Genetic diversity and population structure analysis of the tropical pasture grass Brachiaria humidicola based on microsatellites, cytogenetics, morphological traits, and geographical origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jungmann, L; Vigna, B B Z; Boldrini, K R; Sousa, A C B; do Valle, C B; Resende, R M S; Pagliarini, M S; Zucchi, M I; de Souza, A P

    2010-09-01

    Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweick. is a warm-season grass commonly used as forage in the tropics. Accessions of this species were collected in eastern Africa and massively introduced into South America in the 1980s. Several of these accessions form a germplasm collection at the Brazilian Agricultural Research Corporation. However, apomixis, ploidy, and limited knowledge of the genetic basis of this germplasm collection have constrained breeding activities. The objectives of this work were to identify genetic variability in the Brazilian B. humidicola germplasm collection using microsatellite markers and to compare the results with information on the following: (1) collection sites of the accessions; (2) reproductive mode and ploidy levels; and (3) genetic diversity revealed by morphological traits. The evaluated germplasm population is highly structured into four major groups. The sole sexual accession did not group with any of the clusters. Genetic dissimilarities did not correlate with either geographic distances or genetic distances inferred from morphological descriptors. Additionally, the genetic structure identified in this collection did not correspond to differences in ploidy level. Alleles exclusive to either sexual or apomictic accessions were identified, suggesting that further evaluation of the association of these loci with apospory should be carried out.

  10. Climate change and the invasion of California by grasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandel, Brody Steven; Dangremond, Emily

    2012-01-01

    Over the next century, changes in the global climate are expected to have major consequences for plant communities, possibly including the exacerbation of species invasions. We evaluated this possibility in the grass flora of California, which is economically and ecologically important and heavily...... invaded. We used a novel, trait-based approach involving two components: identifying differences in trait composition between native and exotic components of the grass flora and evaluating contemporary trait–climate relationships across the state. The combination of trait–climate relationships and trait...

  11. Potential of Cogon Grass as an Oil Sorbent

    OpenAIRE

    Wiloso, Edi Iswanto; Barlianti, Vera; Anggraini, Irni Fitria; Hendarsyah, Hendris

    2012-01-01

    Experiments on the potential of Cogon grass (lmperata cylindrica), a weed harmful to other plants, for use as a low-cost and biodegradable oil sorbent were carried out under various spill conditions. Flowers of Cogon grass adsorbed much larger amount of high-viscosity lubricating oil (57.9 g-oil/g-sorbent) than that adsorbed by Peat Sorb (7.7 g-oil/g-sorbent), a commercial oilsorbent based on peat. However, the flowers adsorbed only 27.9 g of low-viscosity crude oillgsorbent. In an oil-water ...

  12. Using SPIRAL (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis) to estimate C 3- and C 4-grass abundance in the paleorecord

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, David M.; Hu, Feng Sheng; Scholes, Daniel R.; Joshi, Neeraj; Pearson, Ann

    2008-05-01

    C 3 and C 4 grasses differ greatly in their responses to environmental controls and influences on biogeochemical processes (e.g. water, carbon, and nutrient cycling). Difficulties in distinguishing between these two functional groups of grasses have hindered paleoecological studies of grass-dominated ecosystems. Stable carbon isotopic analysis of individual grains of grass pollen using a spooling-wire microcombustion device interfaced with an isotope-ratio mass spectrometer holds promise for improving C 3 and C 4 grass reconstructions. This technique, SPIRAL (Single Pollen Isotope Ratio AnaLysis), has only been evaluated using pollen of known C 3 and C 4 grasses. To test the ability of SPIRAL to reproduce the abundance of C 3 and C 4 grasses on the landscape, we measured δ13C values of > 1500 individual grains of grass pollen isolated from the surface sediments of ten lakes in areas that span a large gradient of C 3- and C 4-grass abundance, as determined from vegetation surveys. Results indicate a strong positive correlation between the δ13C-based estimates of % C 4-grass pollen and the abundance of C 4 grasses on the landscape. The % C 4-grass pollen slightly underestimates the actual abundance of C 4 grasses at sites with high proportions of C 4 grasses, which can be corrected using regression analysis. Comparison of the % C 4-grass pollen with C/N and δ13C measurements of bulk organic matter illustrates the distinct advantages of grass-pollen δ13C as a proxy for distinguishing C 3 and C 4 shifts within the grass family. Thus SPIRAL promises to advance our understanding of grassland ecology and evolution.

  13. Estimating the energy requirements and CO{sub 2} emissions from production of the perennial grasses miscanthus, switchgrass and reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bullard, M.; Metcalfe, P.

    2001-07-01

    The perennial grasses miscanthus, reed canary and swithchgrass have attractions as energy crops in the United Kingdom: all have low demand for fertilizer and pesticide, and are harvested annually. Research on energy ratios and carbon ratios of the grasses is reported. A Microsoft Excel-based model was developed (from an ADAS database) and the input calculations and assumptions are explained. The study demonstrated the attractions of theses grasses as a source of fuel. The results agreed with those from a model developed for the SRC.

  14. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yusof, Alias Mohamad; Jagir Singh, Jasbir Kaur

    1987-09-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding.

  15. Determination of trace element contents in grass samples for cattle feeding using NAA techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alias Mohamad Yusof; Jasbir Kaur Jagir Singh

    1987-01-01

    An investigation on trace elements contents in six types of grass samples used for cattle feeding have been carried out using NAA techniques. The grass samples, Mardi Digit, African Star, Signal, Guinea, Setaria and Setaria Splendida were found to contain at least 19 trace elements in varying concentrations. The results were compared to the figures obtained from available sources to ascertain the status as to whether the grass samples studied would satisfy the minimum requirements of trace elements present in grass for cattle feeding or otherwise. Preference made on the suitability of the grass samples for cattle feeding was based on the availability and abundance of the trace elements, taking into account factors such as the degree of toxicity, inadequate amounts and contamination due to the presence of other trace elements not essential for cattle feeding. (author)

  16. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Abstract We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution. PMID:27226761

  17. Checklist of Serengeti Ecosystem Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Emma Victoria; Elia Ntandu, John; Ficinski, Paweł; Vorontsova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    We present the first taxonomic checklist of the Poaceae species of the Serengeti, Tanzania. A review of the literature and herbarium specimens recorded 200 species of grasses, in line with similar studies in other parts of East Africa. The checklist is supported by a total of 939 herbarium collections. Full georeferenced collection data is made available alongside a summary checklist in pdf format. More than a quarter of the species are known from a single collection highlighting the need for further research, especially concerning the rare species and their distribution.

  18. Dairy cow responses to graded levels of rapeseed and soya bean expeller supplementation on a red clover/grass silage-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, M; Kuoppala, K; Ahvenjärvi, S; Vanhatalo, A

    2015-12-01

    The effects of rapeseed and soya bean expeller (SBE) supplementation on digestion and milk production responses in dairy cows were investigated in an incomplete Latin square design using five cows and four 3-week periods. The experimental diets consisted of five concentrate treatments fed at a rate of 9 kg/day: a mixture of barley and oats, which was replaced with rapeseed or SBE at two levels (CP concentration (g/kg dry matter (DM)) of 130 for the control concentrate and 180 and 230 for the two protein supplemented levels). A mixture of grass and red clover silage (1:1) was fed ad libitum and it had a CP concentration of 157 g/kg DM. Supply of nutrients to the lower tract was measured using the omasal canal sampling technique, and total digestion from total faecal collection. Protein supplementation increased omasal canal amino acid (AA) flows and plasma concentrations of AA, and was also reflected as increased milk production. However, N use efficiency (NUE) decreased with increased protein supplementation. Rapeseed expeller (RSE) tended to increase silage DM intake and elicited higher milk production responses compared with SBE and also resulted in a higher NUE. The differences between the protein supplements in nitrogen metabolism were relatively small, for example, there were no differences in the efficiency of microbial protein synthesis or omasal canal flows of nitrogenous components between them, but plasma methionine concentration was lower for soya bean-fed cows at the high CP level in particular. The lower milk protein production responses to SBE than to RSE supplementation were at least partly caused by increased silage DM and by the lower methionine supply, which may further have been amplified by the use of red clover in the basal diet. Although feed intake, diet digestion, AA supply and milk production were all consistently improved by protein supplementation, there was a simultaneous decrease in NUE. In the current study, the milk protein production

  19. Botanical Composition, Grass Production, and Carrying Capacity of Pasture in Timor Tengah Selatan District

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. E. Se’u

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the botanical composition, grass production, carrying capacity, and potential production of nutrients in pasture located in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency. The experiment was conducted from February to July 2013, using field survey method. The botanical composition, grass production and carrying capacity on real condition were analyzed descriptively, while the grass production and carrying capacity based of cutting arrangement were analyzed by using randomized block factorial design with 3 altitude locations (Sub District of Mollo Utara with altitude of 1007 m above sea level; Sub District of Noebeba, 500 m ASL, and Sub District of Amanuban Selatan, 65 m ASL x 2 cutting intervals (1 and 2 month and 5 replications. The results showed that the grass type dominated the pasture in the Sub District of Mollo Utara, while legum type was more dominant in the pasture in the Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. The potential production of dry matter grass in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency based on real condition was 150 to 390 kg/ha/yr, this could accommodate 0.24 to 0.63 AU/ha/yr. The arrangement of cutting interval by 1 month in Mollo Utara and 2 months in Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan could increase (P<0.05 grass production and carrying capacity. The potential productions of grass nutrients were higher in Sub District of Mollo Utara, while potential production of grass dry matter was higher in Sub Districts of Noebeba and Amanuban Selatan. It was concluded that grass dry matter potential production and carrying capacity in Timor Tengah Selatan Regency were low. The arrangement of cutting interval could increase grass dry matter potential production, carrying capacity, nutrition production, and quality of nutrition.

  20. Avaliação de biocombustível derivado do bio-óleo obtido por pirólise rápida de biomassa lignocelulósica como aditivo para gasolina Evaluation of biofuel derived from lignocellulosic biomass fast pyrolysis bio-oil for use as gasoline addictive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Luisa Barbosa Guedes

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A biofuel was prepared from acid aqueous fraction (pH = 2 of bio-oil produced by fast pyrolysis (Bioware Technology of lignocellulosic biomass (sugar cane residue and tested in blends (2, 5, 10 e 20% v/v with gasoline type C (common marketed in Brazil. The specification tests made in the Refinery President Getúlio Vargas (PETROBRAS showed increasing in the octane number (MON and antiknock index (AKI with reduction in the residue generation during the combustion. The physicochemical characteristics of the biofuel were similar that combustible alcohol allowing its use as gasoline additive.

  1. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. [Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States)

    1992-07-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  2. Enhancing GRASS data communication with videographic technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, R.G. (Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)); Gerdes, D.; Youngs, D. (Army Construction Engineering Research Lab., Champaign, IL (United States))

    1992-01-01

    Research at Argonne National Laboratory and the US Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratory has shown that computer videographic technology can be used to assist visualization and communication of GIS-generated geographic information. Videographic tools can be used to make results of GRASS analyses clear to decision-makers and to public interest groups, as well as to help GRASS users visualize geographic data more easily. Useful videographic visualization tools include graphic overlay of GRASS layers onto panchromatic images, allowing landscape features to be associated with GIS classifications; draping of GIS layers onto terrain models to create shaded relief maps; and incorporation of photographic imagery into GIS graphics. Useful videographic communications capabilities include convenient, direct interface to video formats, allowing incorporation of live video into GRASS graphics and output of GRASS graphics to video; convenient output of high-quality slides and prints; and enhanced labeling and editing of GRASS images. Conversion of GRASS imagery to standard videographic file formats also facilitates incorporation of GRASS images into other software programs, such as database and work-processing packages.

  3. Thermogravimetric analysis of forest understory grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elder; John S. Kush; Sharon M. Hermann

    2011-01-01

    Forest understory grasses are of significance in the initiation, establishment and maintenance of fire, whether used as a management tool or when occurring as wildfire. The fundamental thermal properties of such grasses are critical to their behavior in fire situations and have been investigated in the current work by the application of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA...

  4. SQ grass sublingual allergy immunotherapy tablet for disease-modifying treatment of grass pollen allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Ronald; Roberts, Graham; de Blic, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Allergy immunotherapy is a treatment option for allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). It is unique compared with pharmacotherapy in that it modifies the immunologic pathways that elicit an allergic response. The SQ Timothy grass sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) tablet is approved in North...... America and throughout Europe for the treatment of adults and children (≥5 years old) with grass pollen-induced ARC. OBJECTIVE: The clinical evidence for the use of SQ grass SLIT-tablet as a disease-modifying treatment for grass pollen ARC is discussed in this review. METHODS: The review included...... the suitability of SQ grass SLIT-tablet for patients with clinically relevant symptoms to multiple Pooideae grass species, single-season efficacy, safety, adherence, coseasonal initiation, and cost-effectiveness. The data from the long-term SQ grass SLIT-tablet clinical trial that evaluated a clinical effect 2...

  5. Analyzing rasters, vectors and time series using new Python interfaces in GRASS GIS 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Vaclav; Petrasova, Anna; Chemin, Yann; Zambelli, Pietro; Landa, Martin; Gebbert, Sören; Neteler, Markus; Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    GRASS GIS 7 is a free and open source GIS software developed and used by many scientists (Neteler et al., 2012). While some users of GRASS GIS prefer its graphical user interface, significant part of the scientific community takes advantage of various scripting and programing interfaces offered by GRASS GIS to develop new models and algorithms. Here we will present different interfaces added to GRASS GIS 7 and available in Python, a popular programming language and environment in geosciences. These Python interfaces are designed to satisfy the needs of scientists and programmers under various circumstances. PyGRASS (Zambelli et al., 2013) is a new object-oriented interface to GRASS GIS modules and libraries. The GRASS GIS libraries are implemented in C to ensure maximum performance and the PyGRASS interface provides an intuitive, pythonic access to their functionality. GRASS GIS Python scripting library is another way of accessing GRASS GIS modules. It combines the simplicity of Bash and the efficiency of the Python syntax. When full access to all low-level and advanced functions and structures from GRASS GIS library is required, Python programmers can use an interface based on the Python ctypes package. Ctypes interface provides complete, direct access to all functionality as it would be available to C programmers. GRASS GIS provides specialized Python library for managing and analyzing spatio-temporal data (Gebbert and Pebesma, 2014). The temporal library introduces space time datasets representing time series of raster, 3D raster or vector maps and allows users to combine various spatio-temporal operations including queries, aggregation, sampling or the analysis of spatio-temporal topology. We will also discuss the advantages of implementing scientific algorithm as a GRASS GIS module and we will show how to write such module in Python. To facilitate the development of the module, GRASS GIS provides a Python library for testing (Petras and Gebbert, 2014) which

  6. Atlantis FLEX (BAY 22010 H – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis FLEX (Mesosulfuron-methyl; Propoxycarbazone-sodium; Mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides, ryegrass (Lolium spec., brome grass (Bromus spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L, annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis FLEX can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis FLEX. It will be shown, that Atlantis FLEX generates a good to excellent efficacy against grass-weeds.

  7. Grass leaves as potential hominin dietary resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paine, Oliver C C; Koppa, Abigale; Henry, Amanda G; Leichliter, Jennifer N; Codron, Daryl; Codron, Jacqueline; Lambert, Joanna E; Sponheimer, Matt

    2018-04-01

    Discussions about early hominin diets have generally excluded grass leaves as a staple food resource, despite their ubiquity in most early hominin habitats. In particular, stable carbon isotope studies have shown a prevalent C 4 component in the diets of most taxa, and grass leaves are the single most abundant C 4 resource in African savannas. Grass leaves are typically portrayed as having little nutritional value (e.g., low in protein and high in fiber) for hominins lacking specialized digestive systems. It has also been argued that they present mechanical challenges (i.e., high toughness) for hominins with bunodont dentition. Here, we compare the nutritional and mechanical properties of grass leaves with the plants growing alongside them in African savanna habitats. We also compare grass leaves to the leaves consumed by other hominoids and demonstrate that many, though by no means all, compare favorably with the nutritional and mechanical properties of known primate foods. Our data reveal that grass leaves exhibit tremendous variation and suggest that future reconstructions of hominin dietary ecology take a more nuanced approach when considering grass leaves as a potential hominin dietary resource. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  9. Overlap in nitrogen sources and redistribution of nitrogen between trees and grasses in a semi-arid savanna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshini, K V R; Prins, Herbert H T; de Bie, Steven; Heitkönig, Ignas M A; Woodborne, Stephan; Gort, Gerrit; Kirkman, Kevin; Fry, Brian; de Kroon, Hans

    2014-04-01

    A key question in savanna ecology is how trees and grasses coexist under N limitation. We used N stable isotopes and N content to study N source partitioning across seasons from trees and associated grasses in a semi-arid savanna. We also used (15)N tracer additions to investigate possible redistribution of N by trees to grasses. Foliar stable N isotope ratio (δ(15)N) values were consistent with trees and grasses using mycorrhiza-supplied N in all seasons except in the wet season when they switched to microbially fixed N. The dependence of trees and grasses on mineralized soil N seemed highly unlikely based on seasonal variation in mineralization rates in the Kruger Park region. Remarkably, foliar δ(15)N values were similar for all three tree species differing in the potential for N fixation through nodulation. The tracer experiment showed that N was redistributed by trees to understory grasses in all seasons. Our results suggest that the redistribution of N from trees to grasses and uptake of N was independent of water redistribution. Although there is overlap of N sources between trees and grasses, dependence on biological sources of N coupled with redistribution of subsoil N by trees may contribute to the coexistence of trees and grasses in semi-arid savannas.

  10. Grass Biomethane for Agriculture and Energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korres, N.E.; Thamsiriroj, T.; Smith, B.

    2011-01-01

    have advanced the role of grassland as a renewable source of energy in grass biomethane production with various environmental and socio-economic benefits. It is underlined that the essential question whether the gaseous biofuel meets the EU sustainability criteria of 60% greenhouse gas emission savings...... by 2020 can be met since savings up to 89.4% under various scenarios can be achieved. Grass biomethane production compared to other liquid biofuels either when these are produced by indigenous of imported feedstocks is very promising. Grass biomethane, given the mature and well known technology...

  11. Grass survey of the Itremo Massif records endemic central highland ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty species are endemic to the central highlands, and a further 1 4 species are restricted to Madagascar. Five ecological groups of grasses were identified in the Itremo Massif: shade species in gallery forests, open wet area species, fire grasses, anthropogenic disturbance associated grasses and rock-dwelling grasses.

  12. Terpenes in lamb fat to trace animal grass feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Priolo

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Several efforts have been done in the last years to trace grass feeding directly in the herbivore products and different methods, based on carotenoid pigments (Priolo et al., 2002; Prache et al., 2003 have been proposed. Some volatile compounds, such as 2,3-octanedione or 3-methylindole (skatole have been indicated as excellent indicators of pasture diets (Young et al., 1997...

  13. Pampas Grass - Orange Co. [ds351

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — This dataset provides the known distribution of pampas grass (Cortaderia selloana) in southern Orange County. The surveys were conducted from May to June, 2007 and...

  14. Tree-grass interactions in savannas

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Savannas occur where trees and grasses interact to create a biome that is neither grassland nor forest. Woody and gramineous plants interact by many mechanisms, some negative (competition) and some positive (facilitation). The strength and sign...

  15. POTENTIALS OF AGRICULTURAL WASTE AND GRASSES IN ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Shima

    Potentials of some agricultural waste and grasses were investigated. ... to education, printing, publishing and ... technical form, paper is an aqueous deposit ..... Period of. Soaking. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight. Overnight.

  16. Grasses for energy production: hydrological guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, R.L.

    2003-07-01

    This report provides hydrological guidelines for growers, land and water resource managers, environmental groups and other parties interested in utilising grasses for energy production. The aim of the report is to help interested parties decide if a location is suitable for planting energy grasses by considering whether potential hydrological impacts will have an adverse effect on crop productivity and yield. The guidelines consider: the water use of energy grasses compared with other crops; the factors governing water use; the water requirements for a productive crop; and the likely impacts on the availability and quantity of water. The report points out that there are still gaps in our knowledge of the processes controlling the water use and growth of energy grasses and notes that, in some situations, there will be considerable uncertainty in predictions of water use and the magnitude of the associated hydrological impacts.

  17. Imaging spectroscopy for characterisation of grass swards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, A.G.T.

    2003-01-01

    Keywords: Imaging spectroscopy, imaging spectrometry, remote sensing, reflection, reflectance, grass sward, white clover, recognition, characterisation, ground cover, growth monitoring, stress detection, heterogeneity quantification

    The potential of imaging spectroscopy as a tool for

  18. Karl Konrad Grass jumalainimeste uurijana / Alar Laats

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Laats, Alar

    2006-01-01

    Karl Konrad Grass oli 19. sajandil Dorpati keiserliku ülikooli usuteaduskonna Uue Testamendi õppejõud, kes tegeles hobi korras idakristluse (vene sektid) uurimisega. Tema peateoseks on uurimus "Die russischen Sekten". Ettekanne konverentsil 15.-16. aprill 2005. a.

  19. Comparison of chamber and eddy covariance-based CO2 and CH4 emission estimates in a heterogeneous grass ecosystem on peat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schrier-Uijl, A.P.; Berendse, F.; Veenendaal, E.M.; Kroon, P.S.; Hensen, A.; Leffelaar, P.A.

    2010-08-01

    Fluxes of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) estimated by empirical models based on small-scale chamber measurements were compared to large-scale eddy covariance (EC) measurements for CH4 and to a combination of EC measurements and EC-based models for CO2. The experimental area was a flat peat meadow in the Netherlands with heterogeneous source strengths for both greenhouse gases. Two scenarios were used to assess the importance of stratifying the landscape into landscape elements before up-scaling the fluxes measured by chambers to landscape scale: one took the main landscape elements into account (field, ditch edge ditch), the other took only the field into account. Non-linear regression models were used to up-scale the chamber measurements to field emission estimates. EC CO2 respiration consisted of measured night time EC fluxes and modeled day time fluxes using the Arrhenius model. EC CH4 flux estimate was based on daily averages and the remaining data gaps were filled by linear interpolation. The EC and chamber-based estimates agreed well when the three landscape elements were taken into account with 16.5% and 13.0% difference for CO2 respiration and CH4, respectively. However, both methods differed 31.0% and 55.1% for CO2 respiration and CH4 when only field emissions were taken into account when up-scaling chamber measurements to landscape scale. This emphasizes the importance of stratifying the landscape into landscape elements. The conclusion is that small-scale chamber measurements can be used to estimate fluxes of CO2 and CH4 at landscape scale if fluxes are scaled by different landscape elements.

  20. Genetic compatibility determines endophyte-grass combinations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kari Saikkonen

    Full Text Available Even highly mutually beneficial microbial-plant interactions, such as mycorrhizal- and rhizobial-plant exchanges, involve selfishness, cheating and power-struggles between the partners, which depending on prevailing selective pressures, lead to a continuum of interactions from antagonistic to mutualistic. Using manipulated grass-endophyte combinations in a five year common garden experiment, we show that grass genotypes and genetic mismatches constrain genetic combinations between the vertically (via host seeds transmitted endophytes and the out-crossing host, thereby reducing infections in established grass populations. Infections were lost in both grass tillers and seedlings in F(1 and F(2 generations, respectively. Experimental plants were collected as seeds from two different environments, i.e., meadows and nearby riverbanks. Endophyte-related benefits to the host included an increased number of inflorescences, but only in meadow plants and not until the last growing season of the experiment. Our results illustrate the importance of genetic host specificity and trans-generational maternal effects on the genetic structure of a host population, which act as destabilizing forces in endophyte-grass symbioses. We propose that (1 genetic mismatches may act as a buffering mechanism against highly competitive endophyte-grass genotype combinations threatening the biodiversity of grassland communities and (2 these mismatches should be acknowledged, particularly in breeding programmes aimed at harnessing systemic and heritable endophytes to improve the agriculturally valuable characteristics of cultivars.

  1. Treatment with grass allergen peptides improves symptoms of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Anne K; Frankish, Charles W; O'Hehir, Robyn E; Armstrong, Kristen; Steacy, Lisa; Larché, Mark; Hafner, Roderick P

    2017-08-01

    Synthetic peptide immunoregulatory epitopes are a new class of immunotherapy to treat allergic rhinoconjunctivitis (ARC). Grass allergen peptides, comprising 7 synthetic T-cell epitopes derived from Cyn d 1, Lol p 5, Dac g 5, Hol l 5, and Phl p 5, is investigated for treatment of grass pollen-induced ARC. We sought to evaluate the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intradermally administered grass allergen peptides. A multicenter, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated 3 regimens of grass allergen peptides versus placebo in patients with grass pollen-induced allergy (18-65 years). After a 4-day baseline challenge to rye grass in the environmental exposure unit (EEU), subjects were randomized to receive grass allergen peptides at 6 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x6Q2W), grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 4-week intervals for a total of 4 doses (4x12Q4W), or grass allergen peptides at 12 nmol at 2-week intervals for a total of 8 doses (8x12Q2W) or placebo and treated before the grass pollen season. The primary efficacy end point was change from baseline in total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score across days 2 to 4 of a 4-day posttreatment challenge (PTC) in the EEU after the grass pollen season. Secondary efficacy end points and safety were also assessed. Two hundred eighty-two subjects were randomized. Significantly greater improvement (reduction of total rhinoconjunctivitis symptom score from baseline to PTC) occurred across days 2 to 4 with grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (-5.4 vs -3.8, respectively; P = .0346). Greater improvement at PTC also occurred for grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W versus placebo (P = .0403) in patients with more symptomatic ARC. No safety signals were detected. Grass allergen peptide 8x6Q2W significantly improved ARC symptoms after rye grass allergen challenge in an EEU with an acceptable safety profile. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology

  2. Stable Isotope Mapping of Alaskan Grasses and Marijuana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booth, A. L.; Wooller, M. J.

    2008-12-01

    The spatial variation of isotope signatures in organic material is a useful forensic tool, particularly when applied to the task of tracking the production and distribution of plant-derived illicit drugs. In order to identify the likely grow-locations of drugs such as marijuana from unknown locations (i.e., confiscated during trafficking), base isotope maps are needed that include measurements of plants from known grow-locations. This task is logistically challenging in remote, large regions such as Alaska. We are therefore investigating the potential of supplementing our base (marijuana) isotope maps with data derived from other plants from known locations and with greater spatial coverage in Alaska. These currently include >150 samples of modern C3 grasses (Poaceae) as well as marijuana samples (n = 18) from known grow-locations across the state. We conducted oxygen, carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analyses of marijuana and grasses (Poaceae). Poaceae samples were obtained from the University of Alaska Fairbanks (UAF) Museum of the North herbarium collection, originally collected by field botanists from around Alaska. Results indicate that the oxygen isotopic composition of these grasses range from 10‰ to 30‰, and broadly mirror the spatial pattern of water isotopes in Alaska. Our marijuana samples were confiscated around the state of Alaska and supplied to us by the UAF Police Department. δ13C, δ15N and δ18O values exhibit geographic patterns similar to the modern grasses, but carbon and nitrogen isotopes of some marijuana plants appear to be influenced by additional factors related to indoor growing conditions (supplementary CO2 sources and the application of organic fertilizer). As well as providing a potential forensic resource, our Poaceae isotope maps could serve additional value by providing resources for studying ecosystem nutrient cycling, for tracing natural ecological processes (i.e., animal migration and food web dynamics) and providing

  3. A molecular identification system for grasses: a novel technology for forensic botany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, J; Peakall, R; Gilmore, S R; Robertson, J

    2005-09-10

    Our present inability to rapidly, accurately and cost-effectively identify trace botanical evidence remains the major impediment to the routine application of forensic botany. Grasses are amongst the most likely plant species encountered as forensic trace evidence and have the potential to provide links between crime scenes and individuals or other vital crime scene information. We are designing a molecular DNA-based identification system for grasses consisting of several PCR assays that, like a traditional morphological taxonomic key, provide criteria that progressively identify an unknown grass sample to a given taxonomic rank. In a prior study of DNA sequences across 20 phylogenetically representative grass species, we identified a series of potentially informative indels in the grass mitochondrial genome. In this study we designed and tested five PCR assays spanning these indels and assessed the feasibility of these assays to aid identification of unknown grass samples. We confirmed that for our control set of 20 samples, on which the design of the PCR assays was based, the five primer combinations produced the expected results. Using these PCR assays in a 'blind test', we were able to identify 25 unknown grass samples with some restrictions. Species belonging to genera represented in our control set were all correctly identified to genus with one exception. Similarly, genera belonging to tribes in the control set were correctly identified to the tribal level. Finally, for those samples for which neither the tribal or genus specific PCR assays were designed, we could confidently exclude these samples from belonging to certain tribes and genera. The results confirmed the utility of the PCR assays and the feasibility of developing a robust full-scale usable grass identification system for forensic purposes.

  4. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper: targeted use of genome resources for comparative grass genomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben; Mayer, Klaus F X; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Byrne, Stephen; Frei, Ursula; Studer, Bruno

    2013-02-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species.

  5. Can algae-based technologies be an affordable green process for biofuel production and wastewater remediation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vo Hoang Nhat, P; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Chang, S W; Nguyen, D D; Nguyen, P D; Bui, X T; Zhang, X B; Guo, J B

    2018-05-01

    Algae is a well-known organism that its characteristic is prominent for biofuel production and wastewater remediation. This critical review aims to present the applicability of algae with in-depth discussion regarding three key aspects: (i) characterization of algae for its applications; (ii) the technical approaches and their strengths and drawbacks; and (iii) future perspectives of algae-based technologies. The process optimization and combinations with other chemical and biological processes have generated efficiency, in which bio-oil yield is up to 41.1%. Through life cycle assessment, algae bio-energy achieves high energy return than fossil fuel. Thus, the algae-based technologies can reasonably be considered as green approaches. Although selling price of algae bio-oil is still high (about $2 L -1 ) compared to fossil fuel's price of $1 L -1 , it is expected that the algae bio-oil's price will become acceptable in the next coming decades and potentially dominate 75% of the market. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Scientific appraisal of the Irish grass-based milk production system as a sustainable source of premium quality milk and dairy products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Brien B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The Irish dairy industry is critically important to the economy and general well-being of a large section of the Irish population. Its quality, sustainability and maintenance are the key for a vibrant rural society in the future. Two important elements for the future of this industry include (a the quality, marketing and sale of dairy products on the export market and (b sustainability from the perspectives of people, planet and profit. This paper provides a short review of current scientific evidence in relation to a number of topics, each of which is important in maintaining and developing dairy product quality and the sustainability of the Irish dairy industry. The topics addressed in the paper are as follows: the parameters of milk composition; milk processing; hygiene quality and safety; farm management practices and the regulations that govern such practices; animal health and welfare; environmental impacts; economic implications for farm families and rural communities; and the overall future sustainability of the family-based dairy farm structure.

  7. Nutritional value of cabbage and kikuyu grass as food for grass carp ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    and digestibility coefficients were obtained for the protein, fibre, ash and fat contents of both ... Cabbage is a superior feed compared to grass for raising grass carp and a suitable low-cost alternative ... Materials and Methods ... from jumping out and was fitted with an air lift under- .... In: Aquatic weeds in South East Asia.

  8. Gene Expression Profiling of Grass Carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus and Crisp Grass Carp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ermeng Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idellus is one of the most important freshwater fish that is native to China, and crisp grass carp is a kind of high value-added fishes which have higher muscle firmness. To investigate biological functions and possible signal transduction pathways that address muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp, microarray analysis of 14,900 transcripts was performed. Compared with grass carp, 127 genes were upregulated and 114 genes were downregulated in crisp grass carp. Gene ontology (GO analysis revealed 30 GOs of differentially expressed genes in crisp grass carp. And strong correlation with muscle firmness increase of crisp grass carp was found for these genes from differentiation of muscle fibers and deposition of ECM, and also glycolysis/gluconeogenesis pathway and calcium metabolism may contribute to muscle firmness increase. In addition, a number of genes with unknown functions may be related to muscle firmness, and these genes are still further explored. Overall, these results had been demonstrated to play important roles in clarifying the molecular mechanism of muscle firmness increase in crisp grass carp.

  9. Different techniques to study rumen fermentation characteristics of maturing grass and grass silage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Soliman, I.A.; Visser, de H.; Vuuren, van A.M.

    1999-01-01

    Grass samples were harvested during the 1993 growing season after a precut on April 27, 1993 and were stored frozen or left to ensile in 30-L buckets. Effects on chemical composition and fermentation kinetics of the maturation of the grass and of ensiling were investigated. Chemical composition and

  10. Analysis of the soil food web structure under grass and grass clover

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eekeren, van N.J.M.; Smeding, F.W.; Vries, de F.T.; Bloem, J.

    2006-01-01

    The below ground biodiversity of soil organisms plays an important role in the functioning of the the soil ecosystem, and consequently the above ground plant production. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of grass or grass-clover in combination with fertilisation on the soil

  11. Post-ruminal digestibility of crude protein from grass and grass silages in cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cone, J.W.; Gelder, van A.H.; Mathijssen-Kamman, A.A.; Hindle, V.A.

    2006-01-01

    Grass samples were grown on a clay or sandy soil, fertilised with 150 or 300 kg N/ha per year, and harvested on different days during two consecutive growing seasons. The grass samples were stored frozen or ensiled after wilting to approximately 250 or 450 g DM/kg. The recoveries of crude protein

  12. Microbial protein synthesis, digestion and lactation responses of cows to grass or grass-red clover silage diet supplemented with barley or oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. VANHATALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to evaluate effects of silage type (grass-red clover vs. pure grass and grain supplement (oats vs. barley on rumen fermentation, post-ruminal nutrient flows, diet digestion and milk production. Four primiparous Finnish Ayrshire cows fitted with cannulae in the rumen and duodenum were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment with four 28-d experimental periods and 2 × 2 factorial arrangements of treatments. Using red clover-containing (40% silage rather than pure grass silage had minor effects on rumen fermentation or diet digestion but increased non-ammonia nitrogen (N flow in terms of increased flows of microbial and dietary N entering to the small intestine. This was reflected as a reduced ruminal N degradability on grass-red clover diets. Furthermore, grass-red clover diets in comparison to grass silage diets increased milk lactose concentration and yields of milk, protein and lactose. Feeding oats in replacement for barley had minor effects on rumen fermentation or post-ruminal non-ammonia N flows but reduced digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre in the diet. Using oats rather than barley increased yields of milk and lactose but reduced milk protein concentration. Oats also increased proportions of C18:0 and C18:1 in milk fat and reduced those of C10:0 to C16:0. It is concluded that inclusion of red clover and replacement of barley with oats in grass silage based diets have beneficial effects in dairy cow production.;

  13. Efficacy and safety of 5-grass pollen sublingual immunotherapy tablets in patients with different clinical profiles of allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malling, Hans-Jørgen; Montagut, A; Melac, M

    2009-01-01

    pollen sublingual tablets of 100 IR (index of reactivity), 300 IR or 500 IR, or placebo starting 4 months before the pollen season. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this complementary analysis was to determine whether 300 IR 5-grass pollen SLIT-tablets is effective in different subtypes of patients who are allergic......BACKGROUND: The optimal dose of grass pollen tablets for sublingual immunotherapy (SLIT) in allergic rhinoconjunctivitis patients was previously established in a multinational, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study in 628 adults. Patients were randomized to receive once-daily 5-grass...... to grass pollen. METHODS: Different subgroups could be identified regarding comorbidities (with or without asthma during the grass-pollen season), sensitization (mono/polysensitization) and symptom severity. An additional exploratory analysis was performed within four subgroups based on pre...

  14. Preventive and Therapeutic Role of Functional Ingredients of Barley Grass for Chronic Diseases in Human Beings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yawen Zeng

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Barley grass powder is the best functional food that provides nutrition and eliminates toxins from cells in human beings; however, its functional ingredients have played an important role as health benefit. In order to better cognize the preventive and therapeutic role of barley grass for chronic diseases, we carried out the systematic strategies for functional ingredients of barley grass, based on the comprehensive databases, especially the PubMed, Baidu, ISI Web of Science, and CNKI, between 2008 and 2017. Barley grass is rich in functional ingredients, such as gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, flavonoids, saponarin, lutonarin, superoxide dismutase (SOD, K, Ca, Se, tryptophan, chlorophyll, vitamins (A, B1, C, and E, dietary fiber, polysaccharide, alkaloid, metallothioneins, and polyphenols. Barley grass promotes sleep; has antidiabetic effect; regulates blood pressure; enhances immunity; protects liver; has anti-acne/detoxifying and antidepressant effects; improves gastrointestinal function; has anticancer, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, hypolipidemic, and antigout effects; reduces hyperuricemia; prevents hypoxia, cardiovascular diseases, fatigue, and constipation; alleviates atopic dermatitis; is a calcium supplement; improves cognition; and so on. These results support that barley grass may be one of the best functional foods for preventive chronic diseases and the best raw material of modern diet structure in promoting the development of large health industry and further reveal that GABA, flavonoids, SOD, K-Ca, vitamins, and tryptophan mechanism of barley grass have preventive and therapeutic role for chronic diseases. This paper can be used as a scientific evidence for developing functional foods and novel drugs for barley grass for preventive chronic diseases.

  15. Cultivation of Pleurotus sajor-caju on banana stalk and Bahia grass based substrates Cultivo de Pleurotus sajor-caju em substratos a base de grama batatais e engaço de bananeira

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Félix G de Siqueira

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Banana stalks and Bahia grass were utilized as basic starting materials for the production of the mushroom Pleurotus sajor-caju. Banana stalks were combined with other waste or supplement products (wheat bran, coast-cross hay, bean straw and cotton textile mill to obtain different nitrogen concentrations. Since Bahia grass is relatively rich in protein, it was combined with other substrates (banana stalk, coast-cross hay and bean straw to maintain a substrate nitrogen concentration of about 1.5%. Banana stalks and Bahia grass were both more efficient in the production of the mushroom P. sajor-caju when utilized without the addition of other substrates, with biological efficiencies of 74.4% and 74.12%, respectively. When combined with other substrates or grasses, there was a drop in biological efficiency, independent of the concentration of nitrogen. Furthermore, the addition of protein-rich waste to banana stalks resulted in a decrease or absence of fructification, which indicates that high concentrations of nitrogen in the cultivation substrate may hinder the cultivation of this mushroom. On the other hand, results reveal that the ideal concentration of nitrogen may depend on other physicochemical factors and these factors may determine the success in cultivating P. sajor-caju. Therefore, we conclude that P. sajor-caju may be cultivated on banana stalk and Bahia grass as pure substrates, not being necessary their supplementation or combine them with another substrates.O engaço de bananeira e a grama batatais foram utilizados como matérias-primas básicas para a produção do substrato de cultivo do cogumelo Pleurotus sajor-caju. O engaço de bananeira foi combinado com outros resíduos (farelo de trigo, capim "Coast-cross", palha de feijão e resíduo de lixadeira de algodão, com o objetivo de se obter substratos com diferentes concentrações de nitrogênio. Como a grama batatais é relativamente rica em proteína, a mesma foi combinada com

  16. Sox genes in grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella with their implications for genome duplication and evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tong Jingou

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Sox gene family is found in a broad range of animal taxa and encodes important gene regulatory proteins involved in a variety of developmental processes. We have obtained clones representing the HMG boxes of twelve Sox genes from grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella, one of the four major domestic carps in China. The cloned Sox genes belong to group B1, B2 and C. Our analyses show that whereas the human genome contains a single copy of Sox4, Sox11 and Sox14, each of these genes has two co-orthologs in grass carp, and the duplication of Sox4 and Sox11 occurred before the divergence of grass carp and zebrafish, which support the "fish-specific whole-genome duplication" theory. An estimation for the origin of grass carp based on the molecular clock using Sox1, Sox3 and Sox11 genes as markers indicates that grass carp (subfamily Leuciscinae and zebrafish (subfamily Danioninae diverged approximately 60 million years ago. The potential uses of Sox genes as markers in revealing the evolutionary history of grass carp are discussed.

  17. The uptake of uranium from soil to vetiver grass (vetiver zizanioides (L.) nash)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luu Viet Hung; Bui Duy Cam; Dang Duc Nhan

    2012-01-01

    Uranium uptake of vetiver grass (Vetiveria zizanioides (L.) Nash) from Eutric Fluvisols (AK), Albic Acrisols (LP), Dystric Fluvisols (TT) and Ferralic Acrisols (TC) in northern Vietnam is assessed. The soils were mixed with aqueous solution of uranyl nitrate to make soils be contaminated with uranium at 0, 50, 100, 250 mg per kg before planting the grass. The efficiency of uranium uptake by the grass was assessed based on the soil-to-plant transfer factor (TF U , kg kg -1 ). It was found that the TF U values are dependent upon the soil properties. CEC facilitates the uptake and the increase soil pH could reduce the uptake and translocation of uranium in the plant. Organic matter content as well as ferrous and potassium inhibit the uranium uptake of the grass. It was revealed that the lower fertile soil the higher uranium uptake. The grass could tolerate to the high extent (up to 77%) of uranium in soils and could survive and grow well without fertilization. The translocation of uranium in root for all the soil types studies almost higher than that in its shoot. It seem that vetiver grass potentially be use for the purpose of phytoremediation of soils contaminated with uranium. (author)

  18. A model for backscattering characteristics of tall prairie grass canopies at microwave frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakhtiari, S.; Zoughi, R.

    1991-01-01

    We have developed a discrete microwave scattering model, describing the radar backscattering coefficient from two treatments (burned and unburned) of tall prairie grass canopies at VV (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals are vertically oriented) and HH (electric field vector of the transmitted and received signals and horizontally oriented) polarizations, based on the physical, biophysical, and geometrical characteristics of such canopies. Grass blades are modeled as thin and finite dielectric ellipsoids with arbitrary orientations. Scattering by an individual grass blade is formulated using a generalization of the Rayleigh—Gans approximation with a quasistatic solution for the expansion of the interior field. By associating, with each grass blade, various appropriate distribution functions, the relative orientation, location, height, cross section, and permittivity of each grass blade is taken into account. This makes for a more realistic overall description of the canopy. Kirchhoff's surface scattering is used to model the backscatter from the soil surface. An incoherent summation of the effect of grass blades and soil surface is adopted to obtain the total canopy backscattering coefficient, taking into account the attenuation experienced by the signal as it travels through the canopy. The results of this model are given for 1.5, 5, and 10 GHz (L-, C-, and X-band). Although for the shorter wavelengths (X-band) the Rayleigh—Gans criteria is not totally satisfied, nevertheless, the limited available measured X-band data compare relatively well with the results of this model both quantitatively and qualitatively. (author)

  19. Role of carbohydrate metabolism in grass tetany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, J.K.; Madsen, F.C.; Lentz, D.E.; Hansard, S.L.

    1977-01-01

    Clinical hypomagnesemia is confined primarily to beef cattle in the United States but also occurs in dairy cattle in other countries, probably due to different management practices. During periods when grass tetany is likely, early vegetative temperate zone grasses are usually low in total readily available carbohydrates and magnesium but high in potassium and nitrogen. The tetany syndrome may include hypoglycemia and ketosis, suggesting an imbalance in intermediary energy metabolism. Many enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism, including those which hydrolyze and transfer phosphate groups, are activated by Mg. Thus, by inference, Mg is required for normal glucose utilization, fat, protein, nucleic acid and coenzyme synthesis, muscle contraction, methyl group transfer, and sulfate, acetate, and formate activation. Numerous clinical and experimental studies suggest an intimate relationship between metabolism of Mg and that of carbohydrate, glucagon, and insulin. The objective is to review this literature and suggest ways in which these relationships might contribute to a chain of events leading to grass tetany.

  20. Controlling grass weeds on hard surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rask, Anne Merete; Kristoffersen, Palle; Andreasen, Christian

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted on a specially designed hard surface to study the impact of time interval between flaming treatments on the regrowth and flower production of two grass weeds. The goal of this experiment was to optimize the control of annual bluegrass and perennial ryegrass, both species...... that are very difficult to control without herbicides. Aboveground biomass from 72 plants per treatment was harvested and dry weights were recorded at regular intervals to investigate how the plants responded to flaming. Regrowth of the grasses was measured by harvesting aboveground biomass 2 wk after......, as they did not increase the reduction of aboveground biomass compared with the 7-d treatment interval. Knowledge on the regrowth of grass weeds after flaming treatments provided by this study can help improve recommendations given to road keepers and park managers for management on these weeds. Nomenclature...

  1. Biogas and Methane Yield from Rye Grass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomáš Vítěz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogas production in the Czech Republic has expanded substantially, including marginal regions for maize cultivation. Therefore, there are increasingly sought materials that could partially replace maize silage, as a basic feedstock, while secure both biogas production and its quality.Two samples of rye grass (Lolium multiflorum var. westerwoldicum silage with different solids content 21% and 15% were measured for biogas and methane yield. Rye grass silage with solid content of 15% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.431 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.249 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter. Rye grass silage with solid content 21% reached an average specific biogas yield 0.654 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter and an average specific methane yield 0.399 m3·kg−1 of organic dry matter.

  2. Rehabilitation experiment by phytoremediation using lawn grass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-08-01

    Measures against environmental contamination by radioactive materials originated from the Fukushima Nuclear Accident (May, 2011), are being conducted in Fukushima and surrounding prefectures. Regarding to the measures, a phytoremediation experiment with several types of lawn grasses in a field scale have been carried out. Lawn grasses are generally characterized by shallow rhizosphere, high density and root mat formation. Decontamination effectiveness of radioactive cesium by plant uptake and by sod removing was investigated. As a result, the range of decontamination factors by plant uptake was below than 1% because of low transfer rate form soil to plant. On the other hand, maximum decontamination factor by sod removing reached about 100%. Decontamination activities with various methods will be implemented according to the national decontamination policy and related plans in each municipality. The phytoremediation method with lawn grass would be applicable in limited circumstances. (author)

  3. Budget impact analysis of two immunotherapy products for treatment of grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rønborg SM

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Steen M Rønborg,1 Ulrik G Svendsen,2 Jesper S Micheelsen,3 Lars Ytte,4 Jakob N Andreasen,5 Lars Ehlers61The Pulmonology and Allergy Clinic of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, 2Bispebjerg Hospital, Copenhagen, 3Private ENT practice, Aalborg, 4General Practice Aalborg, 5ALK, Hørsholm, 6Aalborg University, Aalborg, DenmarkBackground: Grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis constitutes a large burden for society. Up to 20% of European and United States (US populations suffer from respiratory allergies, including grass pollen-induced allergic rhinoconjunctivitis. The majority of patients are treated with symptomatic medications; however, a large proportion remains uncontrolled despite use of such treatments. Specific immunotherapy is the only treatment documented to target the underlying cause of the disease, leading to a sustained effect after completion of treatment. The aim of this study was to compare the economic consequences of treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with either a grass allergy immunotherapy tablet (AIT or subcutaneous immunotherapy (SCIT.Methods: A budget impact analysis was applied comparing SQ-standardized grass AIT (Grazax®; Phleum pratense, 75,000 SQ-T/2,800 BAU; ALK, Denmark with SCIT (Alutard®; P. pratense, 100,000 SQ-U/mL; ALK, Denmark. Budget impact analysis included health care utilization measured in physical units based on systematic literature reviews, guidelines, and expert opinions, as well as valuation in unit costs based on drug tariffs, physician fees, and wage statistics. Budget impact analysis was conducted from a Danish health care perspective.Results: Treating patients suffering from allergic rhinoconjunctivitis with grass AIT instead of grass SCIT resulted in a total reduction in treatment costs of €1291 per patient during a treatment course. This cost saving implies that approximately 40% more patients could be treated with grass AIT per year without influencing the cost of

  4. Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in important pasture grasses: I. Morphological and geographical variation. ... Seven species are important pasture grasses throughout the western Transvaal, Orange Free State, northern Cape and Natal. ... Language: English.

  5. Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of some macromineral concentration of a grass/ legume sward in ... Bulletin of Animal Health and Production in Africa ... The study aimed to determine the concentration of some macromineral elements in the grass/legume pasture ...

  6. Modelling of excess noise attnuation by grass and forest | Onuu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , guinea grass (panicum maximum) and forest which comprises iroko (milicia ezcelea) and white afara (terminalia superba) trees in the ratio of 2:1 approximately. Excess noise attenuation spectra have been plotted for the grass and forest for ...

  7. Notes on Alien Bromus Grasses in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Jer Jung

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Bromus carinatus Hook. & Arn., Bromus hordeaceus L., Bromus pubescens Muhl. ex Willd. and Bromus secalinus L. were recently found at middle elevations of southern and central Taiwan, respectively. We present taxonomic treatments, distribution map, and line-drawings of these introduced alien brome grasses.

  8. Notes on the nomenclature of some grasses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henrard, J.Th.

    1941-01-01

    In a former article 1) many new combinations and critical observations were published on various grasses all over the world. New investigations in critical genera together with the study of the existing literature made it necessary to accept various other arrangements in this important family. The

  9. Grass Pollen Pollution from Biofuels Farming

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ratajová, A.; Tříska, Jan; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Kolář, L.; Kužel, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 26, č. 4 (2013), s. 199-203 ISSN 2151-321X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : grass pollen pollution * biofuels farming * temperate climate * PK-fertilization * N-fertilization * phenolic Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 0.556, year: 2013

  10. Germination of Themeda triandra (Kangaroo grass) as affected by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low rainfall in range areas restricts germination, growth and development of majority of range grasses. However, germination and establishment potential of forage grasses vary and depends on environmental conditions. Themeda triandra is an excellent known grass to grow under different environmental conditions.

  11. Convex relationships in ecosystems containing mixtures of trees and grass

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Scholes, RJ

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between grass production and the quantity of trees in mixed tree-grass ecosystems (savannas) is convex for all or most of its range. In other words, the grass production declines more steeply per unit increase in tree quantity...

  12. Names of Southern African grasses: Name changes and additional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The main reasons for changes in botanical names are briefly reviewed, with examples from the lists. At this time, about 1040 grass species and subspecific taxa are recognized in the subcontinent. Keywords: botanical research; botanical research institute; botany; grass; grasses; identification; name change; nomenclature; ...

  13. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V P

    1996-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  14. Upgraded fuel from reed canary grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiskanen, V.P.

    1995-12-31

    The feasibility of RCG for commercial utilization depends primarily on its applicability for pulp production and its use in energy production will be based on the residue that will be available after extracting the pulp fraction of the RCG. Roughly 20 ..30% of the material will be available for energy production purposes. However, the percentage may be higher/lower depending on the quality standards of the pulp fiber material. The harvesting period has a significant effect on the fuel characteristics of RCG. For instance the contents of N, S, Cl, K are clearly lower if the RCG is harvested in the spring (delayed) instead of summer/autumn. These elements affect significantly overall emission formation and ash behaviour and its melting temperature. The combustion related research in this project has been focused on the spring-harvested RCG. The project aims to evaluate the feasibility of delayed harvested RCG for energy production. In order to reach this goal, the following combustion methods will be tested and studied: combustion of pelletized RCG; gasification; combustion of pulverized RCG. In addition, pelletizing, reactivity and NO conversion of pulverized RCG will be studied. The research described here is a part of `Reed Canary Grass` project (in AIR programme). The contractors of the project are Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (coordinator), United Milling Systems from Denmark, Jaakko Poeyry Oy and VTT Energy. In addition, there are partners from several countries participating in the project. The project has been divided in five tasks, VTT Energy being responsible for combustion related task `Upgraded fuel` that includes the research topics discussed in this paper

  15. Molecular Physiology of Root System Architecture in Model Grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hixson, K.; Ahkami, A. H.; Anderton, C.; Veličković, D.; Myers, G. L.; Chrisler, W.; Lindenmaier, R.; Fang, Y.; Yabusaki, S.; Rosnow, J. J.; Farris, Y.; Khan, N. E.; Bernstein, H. C.; Jansson, C.

    2017-12-01

    Unraveling the molecular and physiological mechanisms involved in responses of Root System Architecture (RSA) to abiotic stresses and shifts in microbiome structure is critical to understand and engineer plant-microbe-soil interactions in the rhizosphere. In this study, accessions of Brachypodium distachyon Bd21 (C3 model grass) and Setaria viridis A10.1 (C4 model grass) were grown in phytotron chambers under current and elevated CO2 levels. Detailed growth stage-based phenotypic analysis revealed different above- and below-ground morphological and physiological responses in C3 and C4 grasses to enhanced CO2 levels. Based on our preliminary results and by screening values of total biomass, water use efficiency, root to shoot ratio, RSA parameters and net assimilation rates, we postulated a three-phase physiological mechanism, i.e. RootPlus, BiomassPlus and YieldPlus phases, for grass growth under elevated CO2 conditions. Moreover, this comprehensive set of morphological and process-based observations are currently in use to develop, test, and calibrate biophysical whole-plant models and in particular to simulate leaf-level photosynthesis at various developmental stages of C3 and C4 using the model BioCro. To further link the observed phenotypic traits at the organismal level to tissue and molecular levels, and to spatially resolve the origin and fate of key metabolites involved in primary carbohydrate metabolism in different root sections, we complement root phenotypic observations with spatial metabolomics data using mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) methods. Focusing on plant-microbe interactions in the rhizosphere, six bacterial strains with plant growth promoting features are currently in use in both gel-based and soil systems to screen root growth and development in Brachypodium. Using confocal microscopy, GFP-tagged bacterial systems are utilized to study the initiation of different root types of RSA, including primary root (PR), coleoptile node axile root (CNR

  16. Dichotomy in the NRT gene families of dicots and grass species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Plett

    Full Text Available A large proportion of the nitrate (NO(3(- acquired by plants from soil is actively transported via members of the NRT families of NO(3(- transporters. In Arabidopsis, the NRT1 family has eight functionally characterised members and predominantly comprises low-affinity transporters; the NRT2 family contains seven members which appear to be high-affinity transporters; and there are two NRT3 (NAR2 family members which are known to participate in high-affinity transport. A modified reciprocal best hit (RBH approach was used to identify putative orthologues of the Arabidopsis NRT genes in the four fully sequenced grass genomes (maize, rice, sorghum, Brachypodium. We also included the poplar genome in our analysis to establish whether differences between Arabidopsis and the grasses may be generally applicable to monocots and dicots. Our analysis reveals fundamental differences between Arabidopsis and the grass species in the gene number and family structure of all three families of NRT transporters. All grass species possessed additional NRT1.1 orthologues and appear to lack NRT1.6/NRT1.7 orthologues. There is significant separation in the NRT2 phylogenetic tree between NRT2 genes from dicots and grass species. This indicates that determination of function of NRT2 genes in grass species will not be possible in cereals based simply on sequence homology to functionally characterised Arabidopsis NRT2 genes and that proper functional analysis will be required. Arabidopsis has a unique NRT3.2 gene which may be a fusion of the NRT3.1 and NRT3.2 genes present in all other species examined here. This work provides a framework for future analysis of NO(3(- transporters and NO(3(- transport in grass crop species.

  17. Estimating grass and grass silage degradation characteristics by in situ and in vitro gas production methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danijel Karolyi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermentation characteristics of grass and grass silage at different maturities were studied using in situ and in vitro gas production methods. In situ data determined difference between grass and silage. Degradable fraction decreased as grass matured while the undegradable fraction increased. Rate of degradation (kd was slower for silage than fresh grass. Gas production method (GP data showed that fermentation of degradable fraction was different between stage of maturity in both grass and silage. Other data did not show any difference with the exception for the rate of GP of soluble and undegradable fraction. The in situ degradation characteristics were estimated from GP characteristics. The degradable and undegradable fractions could be estimated by multiple relationships. Using the three-phases model for gas production kd and fermentable organic matter could be estimated from the same parameters. The only in situ parameter that could not be estimated with GP parameters was the soluble fraction. The GP method and the three phases model provided to be an alternative to the in situ method for animal feed evaluations.

  18. Grass pollen immunotherapy induces highly cross-reactive IgG antibodies to group V allergen from different grass species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ree, R.; Brewczyński, P. Z.; Tan, K. Y.; Mulder-Willems, H. J.; Widjaja, P.; Stapel, S. O.; Aalberse, R. C.; Kroon, A. M.

    1995-01-01

    Sera from two groups of patients receiving grass pollen immunotherapy were tested on IgG reactivity with group V allergen from six different grass species. One group of patients was treated with a mixture of 10 grass species, and the other with a mixture of five. Only Lolium perenne, Dactylis

  19. Study on the Method of Grass Yield Model in the Source Region of Three Rivers with Multivariate Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    You, Haoyan; Luo, Chengfeng; Liu, Zhengjun; Wang, Jiao

    2014-01-01

    This paper uses remote sensing and GIS technology to analyse the Source Region of Three Rivers (SRTR) to establish a grass yield estimation model during 2010 with remote sensing data, meteorological data, grassland type data and ground measured data. Analysis of the correlation between ground measured data, vegetation index based HJ-1A/B satellite data, meteorological data and grassland type data were used to establish the grass yield model. The grass yield model was studied by several statistical methods, such as multiple linear regression and Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR). The model's precision was validated. Finally, the best model to estimate the grass yield of Maduo County in SRTR was contrasted with the TM degraded grassland interpretation image of Maduo County from 2009. The result shows that: (1) Comparing with the multiple linear regression model, the GWR model gave a much better fitting result with the quality of fit increasing significantly from less than 0.3 to more than 0.8; (2) The most sensitive factors affecting the grass yield in SRTR were precipitation from May to August and drought index from May to August. From calculation of the five vegetation indices, MSAVI fitted the best; (3) The Maduo County grass yield estimated by the optimal model was consistent with the TM degraded grassland interpretation image, the spatial distribution of grass yield in Maduo County for 2010 showed a ''high south and low north'' pattern

  20. A grass molecular identification system for forensic botany: a critical evaluation of the strengths and limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Jodie; Gilmore, Simon R; Robertson, James; Peakall, Rod

    2009-11-01

    Plant material is frequently encountered in criminal investigations but often overlooked as potential evidence. We designed a DNA-based molecular identification system for 100 Australian grasses that consisted of a series of polymerase chain reaction assays that enabled the progressive identification of grasses to different taxonomic levels. The identification system was based on DNA sequence variation at four chloroplast and two mitochondrial loci. Seventeen informative indels and 68 single-nucleotide polymorphisms were utilized as molecular markers for subfamily to species-level identification. To identify an unknown sample to subfamily level required a minimum of four markers or nine markers for species identification. The accuracy of the system was confirmed by blind tests. We have demonstrated "proof of concept" of a molecular identification system for trace botanical samples. Our evaluation suggests that the adoption of a system that combines this approach with DNA sequencing could assist the morphological identification of grasses found as forensic evidence.

  1. UAVs and Machine Learning Revolutionising Invasive Grass and Vegetation Surveys in Remote Arid Lands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Sandino

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of invasive grasses and vegetation in remote areas is challenging, costly, and on the ground sometimes dangerous. Satellite and manned aircraft surveys can assist but their use may be limited due to the ground sampling resolution or cloud cover. Straightforward and accurate surveillance methods are needed to quantify rates of grass invasion, offer appropriate vegetation tracking reports, and apply optimal control methods. This paper presents a pipeline process to detect and generate a pixel-wise segmentation of invasive grasses, using buffel grass (Cenchrus ciliaris and spinifex (Triodia sp. as examples. The process integrates unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs also commonly known as drones, high-resolution red, green, blue colour model (RGB cameras, and a data processing approach based on machine learning algorithms. The methods are illustrated with data acquired in Cape Range National Park, Western Australia (WA, Australia, orthorectified in Agisoft Photoscan Pro, and processed in Python programming language, scikit-learn, and eXtreme Gradient Boosting (XGBoost libraries. In total, 342,626 samples were extracted from the obtained data set and labelled into six classes. Segmentation results provided an individual detection rate of 97% for buffel grass and 96% for spinifex, with a global multiclass pixel-wise detection rate of 97%. Obtained results were robust against illumination changes, object rotation, occlusion, background cluttering, and floral density variation.

  2. Dynamics of forage accumulation in Elephant grass subjected to rotational grazing intensities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braulio Maia de Lana Sousa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available We assessed the accumulation dynamics of forage and its components in Elephant grass cv. Napier (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. that were subjected to three post-grazing height treatments (30, 50, and 70 cm from February through May 2009 (experiment one and December 2009 through May 2010 (experiment two. In experiment one, the grazing events started when the light interception by the canopy reached 95%. The same was adopted for experiment two, except for the first grazing event, which was based on the height of the apical meristems of basal tillers. The experimental design for both experiments was a randomized complete block with three replications. The pastures that were managed at a post-grazing height of 30 cm exhibited lower rates of leaf and stem growth, total growth and forage accumulation than those that were managed at 50 or 70 cm, indicating that post-grazing height affects Elephant grass. The pastures that were managed at 50 cm exhibited relatively stable accumulation rates and less stem accumulation. Pastures managed at 70 cm of pos-grazing height presented more leaf and stem accumulation. Most apical meristems of Elephant grass should be removed in the first grazing when they reach the post-grazing target height of 50 cm. The elevation in the residual post-grazing height, especially in the summer, raises the regrowth vigor in the Elephant grass cv. Napier pasture. The post-grazing height of 30 cm reduces the growth of the Elephant grass cv. Napier.

  3. 156 Economic Evaluation of Grass Tablets for Immunotherapy (oralair) Compared to Placebo in Adults and Children in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Cicchetti, Amerigo; Ruggeri, Matteo; Fiocchi, Alessandro; Bonini, Sergio; Puccinelli, Paola; Passalacqua, Giovanni; Frati, Franco

    2012-01-01

    Background Specific immunotherapy is based on the regular administration over time of a maintenance dose of allergen extracts to allergic patients in order to modify the immune response, thus achieving a decrease in symptoms/drug intake and an improvement in quality of life, possibly on the long-term. Grass pollen tablet, Oralair (Stallergenes, Antony Cedex, France), were developed and registered for rhinoconjunctivitis allergy induced by grass pollen. There is sufficient evidence for the cli...

  4. BUFFEL GRASS MORPHOAGRONOMIC CHARACTERIZATION FROM Cenchrus GERMPLASM ACTIVE BANK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LEILA REGINA GOMES PASSOS BRUNO

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available his study aimed to characterize buffel grass accessions of the Cenchrus Germplasm Active Bank (CGAB from Embrapa Semi - Arid in a morphoagronomic way, checking the descriptors variability and efficiency in accessions on two consecutive cuts. Twenty - five accessions and five buffel grass cultivars were used in randomized complete block design with three replications. Evaluations were conducted after two consecutive cuts, each evaluation performed 90 days after each cut. Characterization was based on 15 quantitative and qualitative morphoagronomic descriptors. Quantitative descriptors were subjected to individual and joint univariate analysis of variance, followed by the Scott - Knott’s test at 5% significance. Yet qualitative descriptors were submitted to descriptive analysis. Both quantitative and qualitative descriptors were grouped based on the Gower algorithm for divergence analysis. A dendrogram and calculations of the characters relative importance for divergence were established. Genotype and cutting effects were significant for almost all descriptors in the joint analysis. This result indicates a genetic variability between genotypes and, regarding the cut, it indicates mainly differences in growth rate of each genotype in each cutting season. Genotypes were separated into three groups, which showed good genotype variation. The number of tillers per clump, followed by number of inflorescence and color of seeds, were the most relevant characters in genotype separation.

  5. Nitrogênio e saturação por bases no desempenho do capim-pojuca (Paspalum atratum Swalen cv. Pojuca cultivado em vasos Nitrogen and base saturation in the performance of pojuca grass (Paspalum atratum Swalen cv. Pojuca grown in pots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Wyllie Elyas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento e a produção de MS do capim-Pojuca cultivado em Gleissolo háplico. O experimento foi conduzido em casa-de-vegetação do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da UFLA, Lavras MG. A semeadura foi realizada em vasos plásticos, sem furos, com capacidade para 4 dm³ de solo cada. Os tratamentos consistiram de quatro doses de N (0, 100, 200 e 400 mg/dm³ e quatro níveis de saturação por bases do solo (40, 50, 60 e 80%. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em um delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com quatro repetições. Foram efetuados três cortes da forragem a cerca de 4 cm de altura do solo. Antes da realização do primeiro corte, foram avaliadas as taxas de surgimento de perfilhos (TSP, de alongamento de perfilhos (TAlP e de aparecimento de folhas (TApF do capim-Pojuca. Também foram avaliadas a densidade de perfilhos (DP e a produção de matéria seca (MS, nos três cortes. As TSP e TAlP responderam de maneira significativa ao aumento das doses de N, enquanto a TApF foi indiferente ao suprimento de N. A adubação nitrogenada proporcionou aumentos na DP e na produção de MS da gramínea nos três cortes efetuados. Não foi observada resposta significativa das variáveis estudadas ao aumento dos níveis de saturação por bases do solo. Conclui-se que a aplicação de 200 mg/dm³ de N é indispensável para um bom crescimento e boa produção de MS do capim-Pojuca, sendo desnecessário elevar o nível de saturação por bases do solo acima de 40% em Gleissolo háplico.This work aimed to evaluate the growth and dry matter production of Pojuca grass grown in haplic Gleysol. The experiment was carried out in greenhouse of the Soil Science Department of the Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG, Brazil. The sowing of seeds was performed in plastic pots without holes, with a capacity of 4 dm³ each of soil. The treatments consisted of four doses of N (0, 100, 200 and 400 mg/dm³ and four

  6. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper – Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pfeiffer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben

    2013-01-01

    (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold......Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass...... to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous...

  7. The energy balance of utilising meadow grass in Danish biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Ane Katharina Paarup; Raju, Chitra Sangaraju; Kucheryavskiy, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    of meadow areas, different relevant geo-datasets, spatial analyses, and various statistical analyses. The results show that values for the energy return on energy invested (EROEI) ranging from 1.7 to 3.3 can be obtained when utilising meadow grasses in local biogas production. The total national net energy......This paper presents a study of the energy balance of utilising nature conservation biomass from meadow habitats in Danish biogas production. Utilisation of nature conservation grass in biogas production in Denmark represents an interesting perspective for enhancing nature conservation of the open...... grassland habitats, while introducing an alternative to the use of intensively cultivated energy crops as co-substrates in manure based biogas plants. The energy balance of utilising nature conservation grass was investigated by using: data collected from previous investigations on the productivity...

  8. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesseling, Anne-Maria; Demetrowitsch, Tobias J.; Schwarz, Karin; Ober, Dietrich

    2017-01-01

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae). In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid. PMID:29250094

  9. Variability of Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Occurrence in Species of the Grass Subfamily Pooideae (Poaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Maria Wesseling

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs are a class of secondary metabolites found in various unrelated angiosperm lineages including cool-season grasses (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. Thesinine conjugates, saturated forms of PA that are regarded as non-toxic, have been described to occur in the two grass species Lolium perenne and Festuca arundinacea (Poaceae, subfamily Pooideae. In a wider screen, we tested various species of the Pooideae lineage, grown under controlled conditions, for their ability to produce thesinine conjugates or related structures. Using an LC-MS based targeted metabolomics approach we were able to show that PA biosynthesis in grasses is limited to a group of very closely related Pooideae species that produce a limited diversity of PA structures. High variability in PA levels was observed even between individuals of the same species. These individual accumulation patterns are discussed with respect to a possible function and evolution of this type of alkaloid.

  10. Lead-210 and polonium-210 in grass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, C R

    1960-07-16

    It appears that an important contribution to the observed ..cap alpha..-activity of grass may be provided by a process of natural fall-out in which lead-210 resulting from decay of atmospheric radon, together with a fraction of the equilibrium amount of its descendant polonium-210 are deposited by rainfall directly on to foliage. Metabolic uptake of part of this activity by sheep is indicated by the presence in the kidney of polonium-210. 6 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  11. Atlantis Star – a new herbicide in cereals with efficacy against grasses and dicots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kerlen, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Atlantis Star (mesosulfuron-methyl; iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium; thiencarbazone-methyl; mefenpyr-diethyl is a new cereal herbicide to control blackgrass (Alopecurus myosuroides; sensitive and high infestation, brome grass (Bromus spec., ryegrass (Lolium spec., wild oat (Avena fatua, loose silky-bentgrass (Apera spica-venti L., annual meadow-grass (Poa annua L. and dicot weeds. Atlantis Star can be used in winter wheat, winter triticale, winter rye, winter durum wheat and spelt. The publication is based on efficacy trials from two years of spring application with Atlantis Star.

  12. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distanchyon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eRancour

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as a livestock nutritive energy source and a potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass Brachypodium distanchyon has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agriculturally important temperate forage grasses based on phylogenetic relationships. To physically corroborate genetic predictions, we determined the chemical composition profiles of organ-specific cell walls throughout the development of two common diploid accessions of Brachypodium distanchyon, Bd21-3 and Bd21. Chemical analysis was performed on cell walls isolated from distinct organs (i.e. leaves, sheaths, stems and roots at three developmental stages of 1 12-day seedling, 2 vegetative-to-reproductive transition, and 3 mature seed-fill. In addition, we have included cell wall analysis of embryonic callus used for genetic transformations. Composition of cell walls based on components lignin, hydroxycinnamates, uronosyls, neutral sugars, and protein suggests that Brachypodium distanchyon is similar chemically to agriculturally important forage grasses. There were modest compositional differences in hydroxycinnamate profiles between accessions Bd21-3 and Bd21. In addition, when compared to agronomical important C3 grasses, more mature Brachypodium stem cell walls have a relative increase in glucose of 48% and a decrease in lignin of 36%. Though differences exists between Brachypodium and agronomical important C3 grasses, Brachypodium distanchyon should be still a useful model system for genetic manipulation of cell wall composition to determine the impact upon functional characteristics such as rumen digestibility or energy conversion efficiency for bioenergy production.

  13. Cell wall composition throughout development for the model grass Brachypodium distachyon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rancour, David M.; Marita, Jane M.; Hatfield, Ronald D.

    2012-01-01

    Temperate perennial grasses are important worldwide as a livestock nutritive energy source and a potential feedstock for lignocellulosic biofuel production. The annual temperate grass Brachypodium distachyon has been championed as a useful model system to facilitate biological research in agriculturally important temperate forage grasses based on phylogenetic relationships. To physically corroborate genetic predictions, we determined the chemical composition profiles of organ-specific cell walls throughout the development of two common diploid accessions of Brachypodium distachyon, Bd21-3 and Bd21. Chemical analysis was performed on cell walls isolated from distinct organs (i.e., leaves, sheaths, stems, and roots) at three developmental stages of (1) 12-day seedling, (2) vegetative-to-reproductive transition, and (3) mature seed fill. In addition, we have included cell wall analysis of embryonic callus used for genetic transformations. Composition of cell walls based on components lignin, hydroxycinnamates, uronosyls, neutral sugars, and protein suggests that Brachypodium distachyon is similar chemically to agriculturally important forage grasses. There were modest compositional differences in hydroxycinnamate profiles between accessions Bd21-3 and Bd21. In addition, when compared to agronomical important C3 grasses, more mature Brachypodium stem cell walls have a relative increase in glucose of 48% and a decrease in lignin of 36%. Though differences exist between Brachypodium and agronomical important C3 grasses, Brachypodium distachyon should be still a useful model system for genetic manipulation of cell wall composition to determine the impact upon functional characteristics such as rumen digestibility or energy conversion efficiency for bioenergy production. PMID:23227028

  14. GRASS-SST, Fission Products Gas Release and Fuel Swelling in Steady-State and Transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zawadzki, S.

    2001-01-01

    1 - Description of program or function: GRASS-SST is a comprehensive, mechanistic model for the prediction of fission-gas behaviour in UO 2 -base fuels during steady-state and transient conditions. GRASS-SST treats fission-gas release and fuel swelling on an equal basis and simultaneously treats all major mechanisms that influence fission-gas behaviour. Models are included for intra- and inter-granular fission-gas bubble behaviour as well as a mechanistic description of the role of grain-edge inter-linked porosity on fission-gas release and swelling. GRASS-SST calculations include the effects of gas production from fissioning uranium atoms, bubble nucleation, a realistic equation of state for xenon, lattice bubble diffusivities based on experimental observations, bubble migration, bubble coalescence, re-solution, temperature and temperature gradients, inter-linked porosity, and fission-gas interaction with structural defects (dislocations and grain boundaries) on both the distribution of fission-gas within the fuel and on the amount of fission-gas released from the fuel. GRASS-SST includes the effects of the degree of nonequilibrium in the UO 2 lattice on fission-gas bubble mobility and bubble coalescence and also accounts for the observed formation of grain-surface channels. GRASS-SST also includes mechanistic models for grain-growth/grain boundary sweeping and for the behaviour of fission gas during liquefaction/dissolution and fuel melting conditions. 2 - Method of solution: A system of coupled equations for the evolution of the fission-gas bubble-size distributions in the lattice, on dislocations, on grain faces, and grain edges is derived based on the GRASS-SST models. Given a set of operating conditions, GRASS-SST calculates the bubble radii for the size classes of bubbles under consideration using a realistic equation of state for xenon as well as a generalised capillary relation. 3 - Restrictions on the complexity of the problem: Maxima of : 1 axial section

  15. Globes from global data: Charting international research networks with the GRASS GIS r.out.polycones add-on module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löwe, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Many Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) tools have been created for the various application fields within geoscience. While FOSS allows re-implementation of functionalities in new environments by access to the original codebase, the easiest approach to build new software solutions for new problems is the combination or merging of existing software tools. Such mash-ups are implemented by embedding and encapsulating FOSS tools within each another, effectively focusing the use of the embedded software to the specific role it needs to perform in the given scenario, while ignoring all its other capabilities. GRASS GIS is a powerful and established FOSS GIS for raster, vector and volume data processing while the Generic Mapping Tools (GMT) are a suite of powerful Open Source mapping tools, which exceed the mapping capabilities of GRASS GIS. This poster reports on the new GRASS GIS add-on module r.out.polycones. It enables users to utilize non-continuous projections for map production within the GRASS production environment. This is implemented on the software level by encapsulating a subset of GMT mapping capabilities into a GRASS GIS (Version 6.x) add-on module. The module was developed at the German National Library of Science and Technology (TIB) to provide custom global maps of scientific collaboration networks, such as the DataCite consortium, the registration agency for Digital Object Identifiers (DOI) for research data. The GRASS GIS add-on module can be used for global mapping of raster data into a variety of non continuous sinosoidal projections, allowing the creation of printable biangles (gores) to be used for globe making. Due to the well structured modular nature of GRASS modules, technical follow-up work will focus on API-level Python-based integration in GRASS 7 [1]. Based on this, GMT based mapping capabilities in GRASS will be extended beyond non-continuous sinosoidal maps and advanced from raster-layers to content GRASS display monitors. References

  16. The Perennial Ryegrass GenomeZipper: Targeted Use of Genome Resources for Comparative Grass Genomics1[C][W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfeifer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Asp, Torben; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Lübberstedt, Thomas; Byrne, Stephen; Frei, Ursula; Studer, Bruno

    2013-01-01

    Whole-genome sequences established for model and major crop species constitute a key resource for advanced genomic research. For outbreeding forage and turf grass species like ryegrasses (Lolium spp.), such resources have yet to be developed. Here, we present a model of the perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) genome on the basis of conserved synteny to barley (Hordeum vulgare) and the model grass genome Brachypodium (Brachypodium distachyon) as well as rice (Oryza sativa) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). A transcriptome-based genetic linkage map of perennial ryegrass served as a scaffold to establish the chromosomal arrangement of syntenic genes from model grass species. This scaffold revealed a high degree of synteny and macrocollinearity and was then utilized to anchor a collection of perennial ryegrass genes in silico to their predicted genome positions. This resulted in the unambiguous assignment of 3,315 out of 8,876 previously unmapped genes to the respective chromosomes. In total, the GenomeZipper incorporates 4,035 conserved grass gene loci, which were used for the first genome-wide sequence divergence analysis between perennial ryegrass, barley, Brachypodium, rice, and sorghum. The perennial ryegrass GenomeZipper is an ordered, information-rich genome scaffold, facilitating map-based cloning and genome assembly in perennial ryegrass and closely related Poaceae species. It also represents a milestone in describing synteny between perennial ryegrass and fully sequenced model grass genomes, thereby increasing our understanding of genome organization and evolution in the most important temperate forage and turf grass species. PMID:23184232

  17. Study of Feasibility Integrated Agroindustry Development Unit Black Grass Jelly Powder (Mesona palustris in Province of East Java

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irvan Adhin Cholilie

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential of black grass jelly plant in Indonesia is very prospective. These plants grow in areas such as Malang East Java, Pacitan, Magetan and Ponorogo. In 2010 the production of dried black grass jelly of 568 tons with a total productivity of 8.6 tons / year.  Location selection of the plant with a score weighting method produces the highest value of 4,16 for the city of Surabaya, so the establishment of the plant will be held in Surabaya. Therefore, it is necessary the application of a suitable drying models for this factory that is tunnel dryer based on the results of research and with the highest value is 4,281. To ensure the availability of black grass jelly dried leaves as raw materials of black grass jelly powder it is necessary to establish a partnership between farmers and companies. The partnership pattern that works best for black grass jelly powder factory is a partnership “inti plasma”. It is based on research with the results of the assessment and weighting by using pairwise comparison and rating scale, the value of the highest weight in the “inti plasma” partnership with a value of 4,893. By implementing this partnership will allow the factory to obtain raw materials easily and is more economical and can always be available throughout the year for partnering with farmers.    Keywords: black grass jelly powder, drying method, financial feasibility analysis, partnership patterns

  18. Novel application of ALMANAC: Modelling a functional group, exotic warm-season perennial grasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Introduced perennial C4 grasses such buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare [(L.) Link]) and old world bluestems (OWB), including genera such as Bothriochloa Kuntze, Capillipedium Stapf, and Dichanthium Willemet have the potential to dominate landscapes. A process-based model that realistically simulates ...

  19. Estimation of extractable protein in botanical fractions of legume and grass species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Jørgensen, Uffe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    With a globally strong interest in bio-based products such as fuels and chemicals, a feasible source of protein for the industry with positive economic impacts could be from leaves. However, more knowledge is needed on how to improve the content of extractable protein. Grasses and legumes have a ...

  20. Diet Switching by Mammalian Herbivores in Response to Exotic Grass Invasion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Bremm

    Full Text Available Invasion by exotic grasses is a severe threat to the integrity of grassland ecosystems all over the world. Because grasslands are typically grazed by livestock and wildlife, the invasion is a community process modulated by herbivory. We hypothesized that the invasion of native South American grasslands by Eragrostis plana Nees, an exotic tussock-forming grass from Africa, could be deterred by grazing if grazers switched dietary preferences and included the invasive grass as a large proportion of their diets. Bos taurus (heifers and Ovis aries (ewes grazed plots with varying degrees of invasion by E. plana in a replicated manipulative experiment. Animal positions and species grazed were observed every minute in 45-min grazing session. Proportion of bites and steps in and out of E. plana tussocks were measured and used to calculate several indices of selectivity. Both heifers and ewes exhibited increasing probability of grazing E. plana as the proportion of area covered by tussocks increased, but they behaved differently. In agreement with expectations based on the allometry of dietary preferences and morphology, ewes consumed a low proportion of E. plana, except in areas that had more than 90% E. plana cover. Heifers consumed proportionally more E. plana than ewes. Contrary to our hypothesis, herbivores did not exhibit dietary switching towards the invasive grass. Moreover, they exhibited avoidance of the invasive grass and preference for short-statured native species, both of which should tend to enhance invasion. Unless invasive plants are highly palatable to livestock, the effect of grazing to deter the invasion is limited, due to the inherent avoidance of the invasive grass by the main grazers in the ecosystem, particularly sheep.

  1. Interspecific associations and community structure: A local survey and analysis in a grass community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WenJun Zhang

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Interspecific associations in the plant community may help to understand the self-organizing assembly and succession of the community. In present study, Pearson correlation, net correlation, Spearman rank correlation, and point correlation were used to detect the interspecific (inter-family associations of grass species (families using the sampling data collected in a grass community of Zhuhai, China. We found that most associations between grass species (families were positive associations. The competition/interference/niche separation between grass species (families was not significant. A lot of pairs of grass species and families with statistically significant interspecific (inter-family associations based on four correlation measures were discovered. Cluster trees for grass species/families were obtained by using cluster analysis. Relationship among positive/negative associations, interspecific relationship and community succession/stability/robustness was discussed. I held that species with significant positive or negative associations are generally keystone species in the community. Although both negative and positive associations occur in the community succession, the adaptation and selection will finally result in the successful coexistence of the species with significant positive associations in the climax community. As the advance of community succession, the significant positive associations increase and maximize in climax community, and the significant negative associations increase to a maximum and then decline into climax community. Dominance of significant positive associations in the climax community means the relative stablility and equilibrium of the community. No significant associations usually account for the majority of possible interspecific associations at each phase of community succession. They guarantee the robustness of community. They are candidates of keystone species. Lose of some existing keystone species might be

  2. The importance of cross-reactivity in grass pollen allergy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksić Ivana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the data obtained from in vivo and in vitro testing in Serbia, a significant number of patients have allergic symptoms caused by grass pollen. We examined the protein composition of grass pollens (Dactylis glomerata, Lolium perenne and Phleum pratense and cross-reactivity in patients allergic to grass pollen from our region. The grass pollen allergen extract was characterized by SDS-PAGE, while cross-reactivity of single grass pollens was revealed by immunoblot analysis. A high degree of cross-reactivity was demonstrated for all three single pollens in the sera of allergic patients compared to the grass pollen extract mixture. Confirmation of the existence of cross-reactivity between different antigenic sources facilitates the use of monovalent vaccines, which are easier to standardize and at the same time prevent further sensitization of patients and reduces adverse reactions. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172049 i br. 172024

  3. Evaluating grasses as a long-term energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, D.G.; Riche, A.B.

    2001-07-01

    The work reported here is part of an ongoing project that aims to evaluate the yields of three perennial rhizomatous grasses and determine their suitability as bio-energy crops. The work began in 1993, and the grasses have been monitored continuously since that time. This report covers the period 1999/2000, and includes: the performance of plots of the energy grasses Miscanthus grass, switchgrass and reed canary grass seven years after they were planted; assessment of the yield of 15 genotypes of Miscanthus planted in 1997; monitoring all the species throughout the growing period for the presence of pests, weeds and diseases; measurement of the amount of nitrate leached from below Miscanthus grass; investigating the occurrence of lodging in switchgrass. (Author)

  4. Disaggregating tree and grass phenology in tropical savannas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang

    Savannas are mixed tree-grass systems and as one of the world's largest biomes represent an important component of the Earth system affecting water and energy balances, carbon sequestration and biodiversity as well as supporting large human populations. Savanna vegetation structure and its distribution, however, may change because of major anthropogenic disturbances from climate change, wildfire, agriculture, and livestock production. The overstory and understory may have different water use strategies, different nutrient requirements and have different responses to fire and climate variation. The accurate measurement of the spatial distribution and structure of the overstory and understory are essential for understanding the savanna ecosystem. This project developed a workflow for separating the dynamics of the overstory and understory fractional cover in savannas at the continental scale (Australia, South America, and Africa). Previous studies have successfully separated the phenology of Australian savanna vegetation into persistent and seasonal greenness using time series decomposition, and into fractions of photosynthetic vegetation (PV), non-photosynthetic vegetation (NPV) and bare soil (BS) using linear unmixing. This study combined these methods to separate the understory and overstory signal in both the green and senescent phenological stages using remotely sensed imagery from the MODIS (MODerate resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) sensor. The methods and parameters were adjusted based on the vegetation variation. The workflow was first tested at the Australian site. Here the PV estimates for overstory and understory showed best performance, however NPV estimates exhibited spatial variation in validation relationships. At the South American site (Cerrado), an additional method based on frequency unmixing was developed to separate green vegetation components with similar phenology. When the decomposition and frequency methods were compared, the frequency

  5. Is the Grass Always Greener? Comparing the Environmental Impact of Conventional, Natural and Grass-Fed Beef Production Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith L. Capper

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study compared the environmental impact of conventional, natural and grass-fed beef production systems. A deterministic model based on the metabolism and nutrient requirements of the beef population was used to quantify resource inputs and waste outputs per 1.0 × 109 kg of hot carcass weight beef in conventional (CON, natural (NAT and grass-fed (GFD production systems. Production systems were modeled using characteristic management practices, population dynamics and production data from U.S. beef production systems. Increased productivity (slaughter weight and growth rate in the CON system reduced the cattle population size required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the NAT or GFD system. The CON system required 56.3% of the animals, 24.8% of the water, 55.3% of the land and 71.4% of the fossil fuel energy required to produce 1.0 × 109 kg of beef compared to the GFD system. The carbon footprint per 1.0 × 109 kg of beef was lowest in the CON system (15,989 × 103 t, intermediate in the NAT system (18,772 × 103 t and highest in the GFD system (26,785 × 103 t. The challenge to the U.S beef industry is to communicate differences in system environmental impacts to facilitate informed dietary choice.

  6. Herbage intake, methane emissions and animal performance of steers grazing dwarf elephant grass v. dwarf elephant grass and peanut pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, E A; Almeida, E X; Raupp, G T; Miguel, M F; de Liz, D M; Carvalho, P C F; Bayer, C; Ribeiro-Filho, H M N

    2016-10-01

    Management strategies for increasing ruminant legume consumption and mitigating methane emissions from tropical livestock production systems require further study. The aim of this work was to evaluate the herbage intake, animal performance and enteric methane emissions of cattle grazing dwarf elephant grass (DEG) (Pennisetum purpureum cv. BRS Kurumi) alone or DEG with peanut (Arachis pintoi cv. Amarillo). The experimental treatments were the following: DEG pastures receiving nitrogen fertilization (150 kg N/ha as ammonium nitrate) and DEG intercropped with peanut plus an adjacent area of peanut that was accessible to grazing animals for 5 h/day (from 0700 to 1200 h). The animals grazing legume pastures showed greater average daily gain and herbage intake, and shorter morning and total grazing times. Daily methane emissions were greater from the animals grazing legume pastures, whereas methane emissions per unit of herbage intake did not differ between treatments. Allowing animals access to an exclusive area of legumes in a tropical grass-pasture-based system can improve animal performance without increasing methane production per kg of dry matter intake.

  7. Determining the regional potential for a grass biomethane industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyth, Beatrice M.; Smyth, Henry; Murphy, Jerry D.

    2011-01-01

    Research highlights: → We identified assessment criteria for determining the regional potential for grass biomethane. → Grass biomethane is distributed via the natural gas grid. → The criteria include: land use; grass yields; gas grid coverage; availability of co-substrates. → The county with the highest potential can fuel 50% of cars or supply 130% of domestic gas consumption. - Abstract: Grass biogas/biomethane has been put forward as a renewable energy solution and it has been shown to perform well in terms of energy balance, greenhouse gas emissions and policy constraints. Biofuel and energy crop solutions are country-specific and grass biomethane has strong potential in countries with temperate climates and a high proportion of grassland, such as Ireland. For a grass biomethane industry to develop in a country, suitable regions (i.e. those with the highest potential) must be identified. In this paper, factors specifically related to the assessment of the potential of a grass biogas/biomethane industry are identified and analysed. The potential for grass biogas and grass biomethane is determined on a county-by-county basis using multi-criteria decision analysis. Values are assigned to each county and ratings and weightings applied to determine the overall county potential. The potential for grass biomethane with co-digestion of slaughter waste (belly grass) is also determined. The county with the highest potential (Limerick) is analysed in detail and is shown to have ready potential for production of gaseous biofuel to meet either 50% of the vehicle fleet or 130% of the domestic natural gas demand, through 25 facilities at a scale of ca. 30 kt yr -1 of feedstock. The assessment factors developed in this paper can be used in other resource studies into grass biomethane or other energy crops.

  8. Investigation of Desso GrassMaster® as application in hydraulic engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeg, van der P.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.; Roex, E.; Mommer, L.

    2015-01-01

    Dessa GrassMaster® is a reinforced grass system which is applied successfully on sports fields and enables to use a sports field more intensively than a normal grass field. In this report the possibility of an application of Dessa GrassMaster®in hydraulic conditions, with a focus on grass dikes, is

  9. Natural lactic acid bacteria population of tropical grasses and their fermentation factor analysis of silage prepared with cellulase and inoculant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khota, Waroon; Pholsen, Suradej; Higgs, David; Cai, Yimin

    2016-12-01

    Natural lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations in tropical grasses and their fermentation characteristics on silage prepared with cellulase enzyme and LAB inoculants were studied. A commercial inoculant Lactobacillus plantarum Chikuso 1 (CH), a local selected strain Lactobacillus casei TH14 (TH14), and 2 cellulases, Acremonium cellulase (AC) and Maicelase (MC; Meiji Seika Pharma Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan), were used as additives to silage preparation with fresh and wilted (6 h) Guinea grass and Napier grass. Silage was prepared using a laboratory-scale fermentation system. Treatments were CH, TH14, AC at 0.01% fresh matter, AC 0.1%, MC 0.01%, MC 0.1%, CH+AC 0.01%, CH+AC 0.1%, CH+MC 0.01%, CH+MC 0.1%, TH14+AC 0.1%, TH14+AC 0.01%, TH14+MC 0.1%, and TH14+MC 0.01%. Microorganism counts of Guinea grass and Napier grass before ensiling were 10 2 LAB and 10 6 aerobic bacteria; these increased during wilting. Based on morphological and biochemical characteristics, and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis, natural strains from both grasses were identified as L. plantarum, L. casei, Lactobacillus acidipiscis, Leuconostoc pseudomesenteroides, Leuconostoc garlicum, Weissella confusa, and Lactococcus lactis. Lactobacillus plantarum and L. casei are the dominant species and could grow at lower pH and produce more lactic acid than the other isolates. Crude protein and neutral detergent fiber were 5.8 and 83.7% of dry matter (DM) for Guinea grass, and 7.5 and 77.1% of DM for Napier grass. Guinea grass had a low level of water-soluble carbohydrates (0.39% of DM). Guinea grass silage treated with cellulase had a lower pH and higher lactic acid content than control and LAB treatments. The 0.1% AC and MC treatments had the best result for fermentation quality. All high water-soluble carbohydrate (2.38% DM) Napier grass silages showed good fermentation quality. Compared with control and LAB-inoculated silage, the cellulase-treated silages had significantly higher crude protein content and

  10. ANATOMIC STRUCTURE OF CAMPANULA ROTUNDIFOLIA L. GRASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Bubenchikova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article present results of the study for a anatomic structure of Campanula rotundifolia grass from Campanulaceae family. Despite its dispersion and application in folk medicine, there are no data about its anatomic structure, therefore to estimate the indices of authenticity and quality of raw materials it is necessary to develop microdiagnostical features in the first place, which could help introducing of thisplant in a medical practice. The purpose of this work is to study anatomical structureof Campanula rotundifolia grass to determine its diagnostic features. Methods. Thestudy for anatomic structure was carried out in accordance with the requirements of State Pharmacopoeia, edition XIII. Micromed laboratory microscope with digital adjutage was used to create microphotoes, Photoshop CC was used for their processing. Result. We have established that stalk epidermis is prosenchymal, slightly winding with straight of splayed end cells. After study for the epidermis cells we established that upper epidermis cells had straight walls and are slightly winding. The cells of lower epidermishave more winding walls with prolong wrinkled cuticule. Presence of simple one-cell, thin wall, rough papillose hair on leaf and stalk epidermis. Cells of epidermis in fauces of corolla are prosenchymal, with winding walls, straight or winding walls in a cup. Papillary excrescences can be found along the cup edges. Stomatal apparatus is anomocytic. Conclusion. As the result of the study we have carried out the research for Campanula rotundifolia grass anatomic structure, and determined microdiagnostic features for determination of raw materials authenticity, which included presence of simple, one-cell, thin-walled, rough papillose hair on both epidermises of a leaf, along the veins, leaf edge, and stalk epidermis, as well as the presence of epidermis cells with papillary excrescences along the edges of leaves and cups. Intercellular canals are situatedalong the

  11. Environmental Assessment for the Proposed Construction of a Gas Station, Car-Care Center, Shoppette and Class Six, and Taco John’s Restaurant at Keesler Air Force Base, Biloxi, Harrison County, Mississippi

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    Groundcover on base consists primarily of Bermuda grass ( Cynodon dactylon), centipede grass (Eremochloa ophiluroides), and St. Augustine grass...notification to allow adequate lime fori eview. COASTAL PROGRAM COMPLIANCE (Coastal ari • activities only) : ( ) The activity has been reviewed and

  12. Grass-on-grass competition along a catenal gradient in mesic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three aboveground treatments (full light competition, no light competition and clipping to simulate grazing), and two belowground treatments (full belowground competition and belowground competition excluded by a root tube), were used. On all soil depths the three grass species differed in mean mass, with E. racemosa ...

  13. Phylogenetic analysis of the expansion of the MATH-BTB gene family in the grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juranić, Martina; Dresselhaus, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    MATH-BTB proteins are known to act as substrate-specific adaptors of cullin3 (CUL3)-based ubiquitin E3 ligases to target protein for ubiquitination. In a previous study we reported the presence of 31 MATH-BTB genes in the maize genome and determined the regulatory role of the MATH-BTB protein MAB1 during meiosis to mitosis transition. In contrast to maize, there are only 6 homologous genes in the model plant Arabidopsis, while this family has largely expanded in grasses. Here, we report a phylogenetic analysis of the MATH-BTB gene family in 9 land plant species including various mosses, eudicots, and grasses. We extend a previous classification of the plant MATH-BTB family and additionally arrange the expanded group into 5 grass-specific clades. Synteny studies indicate that expansion occurred to a large extent due to local gene duplications. Expression studies of 3 closely related MATH-BTB genes in maize (MAB1-3) indicate highly specific expression pattern. In summary, this work provides a solid base for further studies comparing genetic and functional information of the MATH-BTB family especially in the grasses.

  14. Fatty acid profile in vertical strata of elephant grass subjected to intermittent stocking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KAMILA M. DIAS

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The milk and meat from animals with a pasture-based diet have higher proportions of CLA and C18:3 and lower omega-6:omega-3 ratios than products from animals with diets based on corn silage and concentrate. However, most of the published studies have evaluated fatty acid profiles in temperate climate grasses and the literature with tropical grasses is scarce. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological and fatty acid compositions in the vertical strata of elephant grass (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. swards subjected to grazing heights (90 or 120 cm pre-grazing heights and levels of defoliation (50% or 70% removal of the initial pre-grazing height. There were no interactions among pre-grazing height, the level of defoliation and grazing stratum. However, higher proportion of C18:3 (58% and 63% was found in the 90-cm swards and in the half upper stratum. A higher proportion of C18:3 was associated with a higher leaf proportion and crude protein content. Thus, the upper stratum of sward or a grazing management scheme (e.g. first-last stocking resulting in a higher proportion of leaves and crude protein both provide higher proportions of C18:3 to animals grazing in elephant grass swards.

  15. From pasture grass to cattle milk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, Susumu

    1979-01-01

    Iodine-131 is one of the important fission products since it is selectively accumulated in the thyroid gland of man. The transfer of this isotope from contaminated grass to cows' milk is therefore of particular importance since milk is a major constituent of the diet especially for infants. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the transfer rate of this isotope from grass to milk of lactuating cows and its distribution in milk. It is said that the orally administered iodide is rapidly absorbed through the rumen wall and excreted mainly to urine. The absorbed iodine is accumulated highly in the thyroid gland and the considerable amount is secreted to milk. Garner et al. showed that about 5% of a dose of 131 I was found in the milk within 7 days. The extremes were 1.43 to 16.4%. Present author obtained that 18 - 30% of the dosed 131 I was secreted into milk within 7 days, indicating somewhat higher transfer rate than that of Garner et al. It was reported that more than 90% of 131 I was found in milk serum in the ionic form. The countermeasures for diminishing 131 I in milk were also presented. (author)

  16. Genetic modification of wetland grasses for phytoremediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czako, M.; Liang Dali; Marton, L. [Dept. of Biological Sciences, Univ. of South Carolina, Columbia, SC (United States); Feng Xianzhong; He Yuke [National Lab. of Plant Molecular Genetics, Shanghai Inst. of Plant Physiology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai, SH (China)

    2005-04-01

    Wetland grasses and grass-like monocots are very important natural remediators of pollutants. Their genetic improvement is an important task because introduction of key transgenes can dramatically improve their remediation potential. Tissue culture is prerequisite for genetic manipulation, and methods are reported here for in vitro culture and micropropagation of a number of wetland plants of various ecological requirements such as salt marsh, brackish water, riverbanks, and various zones of lakes and ponds, and bogs. The monocots represent numerous genera in various families such as Poaceae, Cyperaceae, Juncaceae, and Typhaceae. The reported species are in various stages of micropropagation and Arundo donax is scaled for mass propagation for selecting elite lines for pytoremediation. Transfer of key genes for mercury phytoremediation into the salt marsh cordgrass (Spartina alterniflora) is also reported here. All but one transgenic lines contained both the organomercurial lyase (merB) and mercuric reductase (merA) sequences showing that co-introduction into Spartina of two genes from separate Agrobacterium strains is possible. (orig.)

  17. Factors influencing seed germination in Cerrado grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Marta Kolb

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies address the ecology of herbs of Cerrado grasslands, which are ecosystems where the long dry season, high temperatures, insolation, fire and invasive grasses greatly influencing germination and the establishment of plants. We assessed germination of 13 species of Poaceae from Cerrado grasslands under nursery conditions or in germination chambers, the latter with i recently collected seeds and seeds after six months storage, ii under constant and alternating temperatures, and iii in the presence and absence of light. Germinability, mean germination time (MGT and required light were quantified to elucidate factors involved in successful germination. Germinability was low for most grasses, probably because of low seed viability. For most species, germinability and MGT were not altered by seed storage. Germination percentages were higher at alternating temperatures and in the presence of light, factors that are more similar to natural environmental situations compared with constant temperature or the absence of light. Our findings indicate that alternating temperatures and light incidence are key factors for germination of species of Poaceae. The maintenance of these environmental factors, which are crucial for the conservation of Cerrado grasslands, depends on appropriate management interventions, such as fire management and the control of biological invasion.

  18. Elephant grass clones for silage production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rerisson José Cipriano dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ensiling warm-season grasses often requires wilting due to their high moisture content, and the presence of low-soluble sugars in these grasses usually demands the use of additives during the ensiling process. This study evaluated the bromatological composition of the fodder and silage from five Pennisetum sp. clones (IPA HV 241, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.114, IPA/UFRPE Taiwan A-146 2.37, Elephant B, and Mott. The contents of 20 Polyvinyl chloride (PVC silos, which were opened after 90 days of storage, were used for the bromatological analysis and the evaluation of the pH, nitrogen, ammonia, buffer capacity, soluble carbohydrates, and fermentation coefficients. The effluent losses, gases and dry matter recovery were also calculated. Although differences were observed among the clones (p < 0.05 for the concentrations of dry matter, insoluble nitrogen in acid detergents, insoluble nitrogen in neutral detergents, soluble carbohydrates, fermentation coefficients, and in vitro digestibility in the forage before ensiling, no differences were observed for most of these variables after ensiling. All of the clones were efficient in the fermentation process. The IPA/UFRPE TAIWAN A-146 2.37 clone, however, presented a higher dry matter concentration and the best fermentation coefficient, resulting in a better silage quality, compared to the other clones.

  19. Germination sensitivities to water potential among co-existing C3 and C4 grasses of cool semi-arid prairie grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollard, F P O; Naeth, M A

    2015-03-01

    An untested theory states that C4 grass seeds could germinate under lower water potentials (Ψ) than C3 grass seeds. We used hydrotime modelling to study seed water relations of C4 and C3 Canadian prairie grasses to address Ψ divergent sensitivities and germination strategies along a risk-spreading continuum of responses to limited water. C4 grasses were Bouteloua gracilis, Calamovilfa longifolia and Schizachyrium scoparium; C3 grasses were Bromus carinatus, Elymus trachycaulus, Festuca hallii and Koeleria macrantha. Hydrotime parameters were obtained after incubation of non-dormant seeds under different Ψ PEG 6000 solutions. A t-test between C3 and C4 grasses did not find statistical differences in population mean base Ψ (Ψb (50)). We found idiosyncratic responses of C4 grasses along the risk-spreading continuum. B. gracilis showed a risk-taker strategy of a species able to quickly germinate in a dry soil due to its low Ψb (50) and hydrotime (θH ). The high Ψb (50) of S. scoparium indicates it follows the risk-averse strategy so it can only germinate in wet soils. C. longifolia showed an intermediate strategy: the lowest Ψb (50) yet the highest θH . K. macrantha, a C3 grass which thrives in dry habitats, had the highest Ψb (50), suggesting a risk-averse strategy for a C3 species. Other C3 species showed intermediate germination patterns in response to Ψ relative to C4 species. Our results indicate that grasses display germination sensitivities to Ψ across the risk-spreading continuum of responses. Thus seed water relations may be poor predictors to explain differential recruitment and distribution of C3 and C4 grasses in the Canadian prairies. © 2014 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  20. Perennial Grass Bioenergy Cropping on Wet Marginal Land

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Das, Srabani; Teuffer, Karin; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Walter, Michael F.; Walter, M.T.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.; Richards, Brian K.

    2018-01-01

    The control of soil moisture, vegetation type, and prior land use on soil health parameters of perennial grass cropping systems on marginal lands is not well known. A fallow wetness-prone marginal site in New York (USA) was converted to perennial grass bioenergy feedstock production. Quadruplicate